Science.gov

Sample records for adjustable-speed motor drive

  1. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives - Motor Tip Sheet #13

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Alternating current electric motors rotate at a nearly constant speed that is determined by motor design and line frequency. Energy savings of 50% or more may be available when fixed speed systems are modified to allow the motor speed to match variable load requirements of a centrifugal fan or pump.

  2. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-03-23

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced. 12 figs.

  3. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced.

  4. Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency - Motor Tip Sheet #11

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    An adjustable speed drive (ASD) is a device that controls the rotational speed of motor-driven equipment. Variable frequency drives (VFDs), the most common type of ASDs, efficiently meet varying process requirements by adjusting the frequency and voltage of the power supplied to an AC motor to enable it to operate over a wide speed range. External sensors monitor flow, liquid levels, or pressure and then transmit a signal to a controller that adjusts the frequency and speed to match process requirements.

  5. Adjustable Speed Drive Study, Part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Alan K.; Oregon State University. Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

    1989-08-01

    Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The dc motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Adjustable Speed Drive Study, Part 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Alan K.; Oregon State University. Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

    1989-08-01

    Advances in speed control for motors in recent years, notably those in power electronics, have widened the range of application for several adjustable speed drive (ASD) types to include the smaller horsepower sizes. The DC motor drive, formerly in almost universal use for speed control, is being challenged by the high efficiency induction motor/pulse width modulation (PWM) drive; and for special small horsepower size applications, by the permanent magnet motor/PWM inverter drive or by the switched reluctance motor drive. The main characteristics of the several ASD types suitable for small horsepower size applications are discussed, as well as their unwanted side effects: poor power factor, harmonic distortion of the supply, acoustic noise, and electromagnetic interference. A procedure is recommended for determining which, if any, ASD to use.

  7. Adjustable speed drives: Applications and R&D needs

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanovic, V.R.

    1995-09-01

    The largest opportunity for the growth of adjustable speed drives (ASDs) during the next 5-6 years is in pump, fan and compressor (PFC) applications where a constant, fixed speed operation is converted to adjustable speed in order to realize energy savings. Inverter supplied induction motors are and will continue to be predominately used in these applications. Over the long term (10-15 years), the greatest ASD growth is expected in large volume consumer applications: first in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs) and in residential heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC). Both induction and a variety of AC Permanent Magnet motors are expected to be the dominant technology in this new field. The traditional ASD applications in industries which require adjustable speed (such as machine tools, robotics, steel rolling, extruders, paper mill finishing lines, etc.) offer a relatively limited potential for above average ASD growth since most of these applications have already converted to electronic speed control. As a result, ASD growth in this sector will essentially track the growth of the corresponding industries. If realized, both short and long term ASD growth opportunities will result in significant advancements of ASD technology, which will then substantially affect all other, more fragmented, ASD applications. In fact, any single large volume ASD application will serve as a catalyst for improving ASD characteristics in all other ASD applications with the same voltage rating. ASD cost and reliability (defined in the context of application compatibility) are the two most important factors which will determine whether the ASD growth opportunities are realized. Conversely, any technological improvement which carries a cost increase will be restricted to niche applications, at best. Consequently, future R & D efforts should be directed to secure reduction in ASD cost and improvement in ASD reliability. A specific action plan is outlined in this report.

  8. Adjustable Speed Drive Project for Teaching a Servo Systems Course Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Resendiz, J.; Herrera-Ruiz, G.; Rivas-Araiza, E. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an adjustable speed drive for a three-phase motor, which has been implemented as a design for a servo system laboratory course in an engineering curriculum. The platform is controlled and analyzed in a LabVIEW environment and run on a PC. Theory is introduced in order to show the sensorless algorithms. These are computed by…

  9. Fifteen Years of Operation at NASA's National Transonic Facility with the World's Largest Adjustable Speed Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, George H.; Bhatia, Ram; Krattiger, Hansueli; Mylius, Justus; Schafer, D.

    2012-01-01

    In September 1995, a project was initiated to replace the existing drive line at NASA's most unique transonic wind tunnel, the National Transonic Facility (NTF), with a single 101 MW synchronous motor driven by a Load Commutated Inverter (LCI). This Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) system also included a custom four-winding transformer, harmonic filter, exciter, switch gear, control system, and feeder cable. The complete system requirements and design details have previously been presented and published [1], as well as the commissioning and acceptance test results [2]. The NTF was returned to service in December 1997 with the new drive system powering the fan. Today, this installation still represents the world s largest horizontal single motor/drive combination. This paper describes some significant events that occurred with the drive system during the first 15 years of service. These noteworthy issues are analyzed and root causes presented. Improvements that have substantially increased the long term viability of the system are given.

  10. PV Array Driven Adjustable Speed Drive for a Lunar Base Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domijan, Alexander, Jr.; Buchh, Tariq Aslam

    1995-01-01

    A study of various aspects of Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD) is presented. A summary of the relative merits of different ASD systems presently in vogue is discussed. The advantages of using microcomputer based ASDs is now widely understood and accepted. Of the three most popular drive systems, namely the Induction Motor Drive, Switched Reluctance Motor Drive and Brushless DC Motor Drive, any one may be chosen. The choice would depend on the nature of the application and its requirements. The suitability of the above mentioned drive systems for a photovoltaic array driven ASD for an aerospace application are discussed. The discussion is based on the experience of the authors, various researchers and industry. In chapter 2 a PV array power supply scheme has been proposed, this scheme will have an enhanced reliability in addition to the other known advantages of the case where a stand alone PV array is feeding the heat pump. In chapter 3 the results of computer simulation of PV array driven induction motor drive system have been included. A discussion on these preliminary simulation results have also been included in this chapter. Chapter 4 includes a brief discussion on various control techniques for three phase induction motors. A discussion on different power devices and their various performance characteristics is given in Chapter 5.

  11. Analysis, design, and control of a novel optically commutated adjustable-speed motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Wyatt S.; Risch, Ivan; Zhang, Yuandao; Garverick, Steven; Inerfield, Michael

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes the analysis, design and control of a novel, single-phase motor with a unique behavior resulting from the use of rotating power electronics mounted to the motor armature. Coils on the armature are selectively shorted by power MOSFET's which rotate with the armature, and torque is produced by interaction between currents induced in the shorted coils and the magnetic field produced by a stationary field coil. Control is limited to the timing of which armature coils are to be shorted as a function of armature speed and angle, it is possible to modulate torque production and obtain torque or speed control using only single-phase ac power and without the use of brushes or permanent magnets. An electro-mechanical model for this type of motor is presented and validated with respect to experimentation. The results show promise for achieving low- cost, adjustable-speed drives using this novel method of rotating electronics, optical communications, and computed commutation.

  12. Nature and measurements of torque ripple of permanent-magnet adjustable-speed motors

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Scoggins, B.P.; Scudiere, M.B.; Marlino, L.D.; Adams, D.J.; Pillay, P.

    1995-08-01

    Torque ripple of permanent-magnet motors can be classified into four types depending on the nature of their origin. The four types are pulsating torque, fluctuating torque, reluctance cogging torque, and inertia and mechanical system torque. Pulsating torques are inherently produced by the trapezoidal back-emf`s and trapezoidal currents used in certain permanent-magnet adjustable-speed motors. The torque ripples caused by pulsating torques may be reduced by purposely produced fluctuating counter torques. Air-gap torque measurements are conducted on a sample motor. Experimental results agree with theoretical expectations.

  13. Passive wide spectrum harmonic filter for adjustable speed drives in oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Jaafari, Khaled Ali

    Non-linear loads such as variable speed drives constitute the bulky load of oil and gas industry power systems. They are widely used in driving induction and permanent magnet motors for variable speed applications. That is because variable speed drives provide high static and dynamic performance. Moreover, they are known of their high energy efficiency and high motion quality, and high starting torque. However, these non-linear loads are main sources of current and voltage harmonics and lower the quality of electric power system. In fact, it is the six-pulse and twelve-pulse diode and thyristor rectifiers that spoil the AC power line with the dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th). They provide DC voltage to the inverter of the variable speed drives. Typical problems that arise from these harmonics are Harmonic resonances', harmonic losses, interference with electronic equipment, and line voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus, it is necessary to find efficient, reliable, and economical harmonic filters. The passive filters have definite advantage over active filters in terms of components count, cost and reliability. Reliability and maintenance is a serious issue in drilling rigs which are located in offshore and onshore with extreme operating conditions. Passive filters are tuned to eliminate a certain frequency and therefore there is a need to equip the system with more than one passive filter to eliminate all unwanted frequencies. An alternative solution is Wide Spectrum Harmonic passive filter. The wide spectrum harmonic filters are becoming increasingly popular in these applications and found to overcome some of the limitations of conventional tuned passive filter. The most important feature of wide spectrum harmonic passive filters is that only one capacitor is required to filter a wide range of harmonics. Wide spectrum filter is essentially a low-pass filter for the harmonic at fundamental frequency. It can also be considered as a

  14. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1990-01-01

    Developing magnetostrictive direct drive research motors to power robot joints is discussed. These type motors are expected to produce extraordinary torque density, to be able to perform microradian incremental steps and to be self-braking and safe with the power off. Several types of motor designs have been attempted using magnetostrictive materials. One of the candidate approaches (the magnetostrictive roller drive) is described. The method in which the design will function is described as is the reason why this approach is inherently superior to the other approaches. Following this, the design will be modelled and its expected performance predicted. This particular candidate design is currently undergoing detailed engineering with prototype construction and testing scheduled for mid 1991.

  15. Advanced Motor Drives Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsani, M.; Tchamdjou, A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of advanced motor drive systems as a replacement for the hydrazine fueled APU units. The replacement technology must meet several requirements which are particular to the space applications and the Orbiter in general. Some of these requirements are high efficiency, small size, high power density. In the first part of the study several motors are compared, based on their characteristics and in light of the Orbiter requirements. The best candidate, the brushless DC is chosen because of its particularly good performance with regards to efficiency. Several power electronics drive technologies including the conventional three-phase hard switched and several soft-switched inverters are then presented. In the last part of the study, a soft-switched inverter is analyzed and compared to its conventional hard-switched counterpart. Optimal efficiency is a basic requirement for space applications and the soft-switched technology represents an unavoidable trend for the future.

  16. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

  17. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  18. Direct drive field actuator motors

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1998-01-01

    A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  19. Magnetostrictive direct drive motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented.

  20. Converter fed sub sea motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Raad, R.O.; Henriksen, T.; Raphael, H.

    1995-12-31

    A sub sea adjustable speed motor fed via a long cable in range of several tenths of kilometers between the cable and the motor are analyzed by simulations. Due to resonance one critical frequency range occurs where significant generation of harmonics from the inverter should be avoided. A voltage source inverter is more feasible than a current source inverter since it is easier to modify the output waveform in order to avoid resonance problems. The resistive voltage drop in the long cable reduces the air gap torque of the motor particular at low frequencies. This causes a problem for the start-up of the motor due to stiction torque. A start-up strategy is envisaged which is a compromise between voltage boost, inverter current and transformer core dimensions. In normal operation mode the inverter voltage is proportional to the frequency. An open speed loop is used which keeps the system stable for potential load variations.

  1. A Transformerless Motor Drive with a Five-Level Diode-Clamped PWM Inverter for Fan/Blower Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Kazunori; Hatti, Natchpong; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper describes a 6.6-kV adjustable-speed motor drive for use in fans, blowers, and pumps without a transformer. The power-conversion system consists of a diode rectifier, a five-level diode-clamped PWM inverter, and a voltage-balancing circuit. A 200-V 5.5-kW downscale model is developed, constructed, and tested. The five-level PWM inverter and the voltage-balancing circuit are studied in detail. Experimental results obtained from testing the 200-V downscale model confirm the viability and effectiveness of the 6.6-kV adjustable-speed motor drive, indicating that the dc mean voltages of the four split dc capacitors are well balanced under all the given operating conditions.

  2. Frequency modulation drive for a piezoelectric motor

    DOEpatents

    Mittas, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    A piezoelectric motor has peak performance at a specific frequency f.sub.1 that may vary over a range of frequencies. A drive system is disclosed for operating such a motor at peak performance without feedback. The drive system consists of the motor and an ac source connected to power the motor, the ac source repeatedly generating a frequency over a range from f.sub.1 -.DELTA.x to f.sub.1 +.DELTA.y.

  3. Novel method for driving the ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoung woo; Dong, Shuxiang; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Uchino, Kenji; Park, Tae gone

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports a novel driving method for an annular plate-type ultrasonic motor. Instead of the direct current/alternating current (DC/AC) converter type driver using conventional electromagnetic transformer, a compact disc-type piezoelectric transformer is used to obtain high voltage output for driving the ultrasonic motor. The piezoelectric transformer is operated in the radial vibration mode at resonance frequency close to the resonance frequency of the ultrasonic motor. Later, it was found that the piezoelectric transformer could drive the ultrasonic motor, even if their resonance frequencies are not exactly the same by incorporating the matching network in the circuit. The maximum speed of the ultrasonic motor obtained by using this driving method is over 300 rpm. It is believed that the results of this study will have impact on the integration and miniaturization of the ultrasonic motor and its driving circuit.

  4. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  5. Direct-drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1995-07-11

    A high-torque, low speed, positive-drive field actuator motor is disclosed including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 37 figs.

  6. Direct-drive field actuator motors

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1995-01-01

    A high-torque, low speed, positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  7. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M.; Sereshteh, Ahmad

    1988-01-01

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

  8. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  9. Magnetostrictive Roller-Drive Stepping Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed motor based on magnetostrictive effect provides stepped angular motion with angular increments of order of 100 microradians. Driven to repeat stepping cycle rapidly enough to achieve maximum speed of about 20 rpm, provides torque an order of magnitude greater than electric motors, and brakes itself when power turned off. Magnetostrictive rods in electromagnet coils push against drive plate, causing it to rotate slightly. This slight rotation jams conical rollers between cam surfaces on outer drive ring and split drum, so rollers transmit rotation to drum. Suitable for precise, high-torque, fail-safe-braking, direct drive of robot joint, without bulk and weight of additional brake mechanism and gear train.

  10. A Transformerless Hybrid Active Filter Capable of Complying with Harmonic Guidelines for Medium-Voltage Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Ryota; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents a transformerless hybrid active filter that is integrated into medium-voltage adjustable-speed motor drives for fans, pumps, and compressors without regenerative braking. The authors have designed and constructed a three-phase experimental system rated at 400V and 15kW, which is a downscaled model from a feasible 6.6-kV 1-MW motor drive system. This system consists of the hybrid filter connecting a passive filter tuned to the 7th harmonic filter in series with an active filter that is based on a three-level diode-clamped PWM converter, as well as an adjustable-speed motor drive in which a diode rectifier is used as the front end. The hybrid filter is installed on the ac side of the diode rectifier with no line-frequency transformer. The downscaled system has been exclusively tested so as to confirm the overall compensating performance of the hybrid filter and the filtering performance of a switching-ripple filter for mitigating switching-ripple voltages produced by the active filter. Experimental results verify that the hybrid filter achieves harmonic compensation of the source current in all the operating regions from no-load to the rated-load conditions, and that the switching-ripple filter reduces the switching-ripple voltages as expected.

  11. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Driving of motor vehicles. 398.4 Section 398.4... WORKERS § 398.4 Driving of motor vehicles. (a) Compliance required. Every motor carrier shall comply with... concerned with the management, maintenance, operation, or driving of motor vehicles, shall comply with...

  12. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Driving of motor vehicles. 398.4 Section 398.4... WORKERS § 398.4 Driving of motor vehicles. (a) Compliance required. Every motor carrier shall comply with... concerned with the management, maintenance, operation, or driving of motor vehicles, shall comply with...

  13. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Driving of motor vehicles. 398.4 Section 398.4... WORKERS § 398.4 Driving of motor vehicles. (a) Compliance required. Every motor carrier shall comply with... concerned with the management, maintenance, operation, or driving of motor vehicles, shall comply with...

  14. MAIN DRIVE MOTOR FOR BLISS #43 HOT ROLL. THIS WESTINGHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN DRIVE MOTOR FOR BLISS #43 HOT ROLL. THIS WESTINGHOUSE UNIT HAS SINCE BEEN REPLACED BY A 5000 HP TOSHIBA MOTOR. REHEAT FURNACES ARE SHOWN BEHIND MILL MOTOR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  15. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  16. When Should Inverter-Duty Motors Be Specified? - Motor Tip Sheet #14

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Electronic adjustable speed drives (ASDs) used to be marketed as “usable with any standard motor.” However, premature failures of motor insulation systems began to occur with the introduction of fast-switching pulse-width modulated (PWM) drives.

  17. Simple motor drive system operates heavy hinged door

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitkin, R. G.

    1966-01-01

    Motor drive system remotely operates heavy steel radiation shielding doors. The drive consists of a standard motor reducer unit which is mounted on the door. This reducer drives a sprocket which is linked by chain to a fixed sprocket of the same size on the door jamb.

  18. Power-Conserving Stepping-Motor Drive Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, Frank J.; Howard, David E.

    1994-01-01

    Two improved drive circuits for sinusoidally commutated stepping motor include feedback loops reducing unnecessary consumption of power by reducing drive-current amplitude, I, when motor operates under light load. Basic design strategy attempts to supply only little more current than minimum needed to overcome friction in lightly loaded condition. In this sinusoidally commutated two-phase stepping motor, magnetic field generated by drive currents in phase-A and phase-B stator windings urges rotor toward commanded angle x.

  19. Generating apparatus with an adjustable speed change mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneyuki, K.

    1987-03-17

    A generating apparatus is described comprising: a charging generator having a rotating input shaft; a rotating input body adapted to be connected to a motor so as to be rotated thereby, the rotating input body comprising a cylindrical body surrounding the input shaft; an adjustable speed change mechanism comprising a planetary cone reduction gear housed within the rotating input body and operatively associated with the rotating input body and the input shaft of the charging generator so as to transmit rotational force from the rotating input body to the input shaft. The planetary cone reduction gear comprises: a cone support ring mounted on the input shaft and adapted to rotate with respect thereto, a plurality of planetary cones having stems which are rotatably mounted on the cone support ring, the axis of each of the planetary cones being disposed such that a line which is parallel to the input shaft can be drawn from the vertex of each cone to its base along its top surface, a stationary guide ring which surrounds the input shaft and frictionally engages the peripheral surfaces of the stems of the planetary cones, a speed change ring surrounding the input shaft and having an inner surface frictionally engaging the top surfaces of the planetary cones. The speed change ring is supported by the rotating input body so as to rotate together with the input body and adapted to move in the axial direction of the input body with respect thereto.

  20. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driving of motor vehicles. 398.4 Section 398.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF...

  1. 49 CFR 398.4 - Driving of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Driving of motor vehicles. 398.4 Section 398.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF...

  2. Stepper motor drive for on load tapchanger in electric locomotive

    SciTech Connect

    Aruna Kumar, G.V.D.; Kumar, S.; Mishra, P.; Wadhonkar, N.K.

    1995-12-31

    Indian Railways have a fleet of 2,200 electrical locomotives running on 25 KV ac traction. An on-load tap changer is used to select voltage for speed control of dc traction motor. A four stroke reciprocating type air motor is used presently to drive the tap changer (GR). Complex gear and camshaft mechanism is used to move tap changer and to generate various logic signals for safe loco operation. The annual failure rate for tap changer and its drive is of the order of 20%. A microprocessor controlled stepper motor drive has been designed and constructed to drive the on-load tap changer. A current controlled chopper is used to drive the motor and control logic has been generated through an optimum hardware and software combination. The assembly has been tested on a prototype tap changer in the laboratory.

  3. Role of voluntary drive in encoding an elementary motor memory.

    PubMed

    Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Sawaki, Lumy; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2005-02-01

    Motor training consisting of repetitive thumb movements results in encoding of motor memories in the primary motor cortex. It is not known if proprioceptive input originating in the training movements is sufficient to produce this effect. In this study, we compared the ability of training consisting of voluntary (active) and passively-elicited (passive) movements to induce this form of plasticity. Active training led to successful encoding accompanied by characteristic changes in corticomotor excitability, while passive training did not. These results support a pivotal role for voluntary motor drive in coding motor memories in the primary motor cortex.

  4. Corps of Engineers considers adjustable-speed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers and the Bonneville Power Administration recently commissioned a study to assess the various aspects of adjustable-speed generation (also called variable-speed generation). Electronic Power Conditioning Inc., of Corvallis, Oregon, studied the cost, efficiency, and other operating implications of installing the necessary hardware to enable adjustable-speed generation at four Corps hydroelectric plants on the lower Snake River (Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental, Little Goose, and Lower Granite). Results of the study indicate that, while costly, five adjustable-speed options could be installed and operated on a practical basis. The Corps initiated the study to determine the cost for adding adjustable-speed generation at the four projects to improve fish survival. The Northwest Power Planning Council currently is considering proposals to modify operating procedures for hydroelectric projects on the Columbia River and its tributaries, including seasonal adjustments of pool levels behind dams to flush fish through the river system more rapidly. However, dropping pool levels significantly below normal levels may cause a loss in generating efficiency and a corresponding increase in fish mortality. Adjustable-speed generation is seen as a method for solving both problems

  5. Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui Jia

    2013-02-12

    The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.

  6. Slewing drive motor house on left; view south base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Slewing drive motor house on left; view south - base casting on right with structural details above portal level. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, 350-Ton Hammerhead Crane, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. BLOWER MOTOR & DRIVE WHEEL. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLOWER MOTOR & DRIVE WHEEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  8. 2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  9. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor using motor drives

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G; Zhang, Pinjia

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for determining the stator winding resistance of AC motors is provided. The system includes an AC motor drive having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor, a pulse width modulation (PWM) converter having switches therein to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor, and a control system connected to the PWM converter. The control system generates a command signal to cause the PWM converter to control an output of the AC motor drive corresponding to an input to the AC motor, selectively generates a modified command signal to cause the PWM converter to inject a DC signal into the output of the AC motor drive, and determines a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the DC signal of at least one of the voltage and current.

  10. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  11. Alternating-Current Motor Drive for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Rippel, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    New electric drive controls speed of a polyphase as motor by varying frequency of inverter output. Closed-loop current-sensing circuit automatically adjusts frequency of voltage-controlled oscillator that controls inverter frequency, to limit starting and accelerating surges. Efficient inverter and ac motor would give electric vehicles extra miles per battery charge.

  12. Forelimb training drives transient map reorganization in ipsilateral motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, David T; Schmid, Ariel N; Danaphongse, Tanya T; Flanagan, Kate E; Morrison, Robert A; Kilgard, Michael P; Rennaker, Robert L; Hays, Seth A

    2016-10-15

    Skilled motor training results in reorganization of contralateral motor cortex movement representations. The ipsilateral motor cortex is believed to play a role in skilled motor control, but little is known about how training influences reorganization of ipsilateral motor representations of the trained limb. To determine whether training results in reorganization of ipsilateral motor cortex maps, rats were trained to perform the isometric pull task, an automated motor task that requires skilled forelimb use. After either 3 or 6 months of training, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed to document motor representations of the trained forelimb in the hemisphere ipsilateral to that limb. Motor training for 3 months resulted in a robust expansion of right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex, demonstrating that skilled motor training drives map plasticity ipsilateral to the trained limb. After 6 months of training, the right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex was significantly smaller than the representation observed in rats trained for 3 months and similar to untrained controls, consistent with a normalization of motor cortex maps. Forelimb map area was not correlated with performance on the trained task, suggesting that task performance is maintained despite normalization of cortical maps. This study provides new insights into how the ipsilateral cortex changes in response to skilled learning and may inform rehabilitative strategies to enhance cortical plasticity to support recovery after brain injury.

  13. A rotary motor drives Flavobacterium gliding.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Abhishek; Lele, Pushkar P; Berg, Howard C

    2015-02-02

    Cells of Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a rod-shaped bacterium devoid of pili or flagella, glide over glass at speeds of 2-4 μm/s [1]. Gliding is powered by a protonmotive force [2], but the machinery required for this motion is not known. Usually, cells move along straight paths, but sometimes they exhibit a reciprocal motion, attach near one pole and flip end over end, or rotate. This behavior is similar to that of a Cytophaga species described earlier [3]. Development of genetic tools for F. johnsoniae led to discovery of proteins involved in gliding [4]. These include the surface adhesin SprB that forms filaments about 160 nm long by 6 nm in diameter, which, when labeled with a fluorescent antibody [2] or a latex bead [5], are seen to move longitudinally down the length of a cell, occasionally shifting positions to the right or the left. Evidently, interaction of these filaments with a surface produces gliding. To learn more about the gliding motor, we sheared cells to reduce the number and size of SprB filaments and tethered cells to glass by adding anti-SprB antibody. Cells spun about fixed points, mostly counterclockwise, rotating at speeds of 1 Hz or more. The torques required to sustain such speeds were large, comparable to those generated by the flagellar rotary motor. However, we found that a gliding motor runs at constant speed rather than at constant torque. Now, there are three rotary motors powered by protonmotive force: the bacterial flagellar motor, the Fo ATP synthase, and the gliding motor.

  14. Sequential control by speed drive for ac motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader

    2012-11-01

    The speed drive for ac motor is widely used in the industrial field to allow direct control for the speed and torque without any feedback from the motor shaft. By using the ABB ACS800 speed drive unit, the speed and torque can be controlled using sequential control method. Sequential control is one of the application control method provided in the ABB ACS800 Drive, where a set of events or action performed in a particular order one after the other to control the speed and torque of the ac motor. It was claimed that sequential control method is using the preset seven constant speeds being provided in ABB ACS800 drive to control the speed and torque in a continuous and sequential manner. The characteristics and features of controlling the speed and torque using sequential control method can be investigated by observing the graphs and curves plotted which are obtained from the practical result. Sequential control can run either in the Direct Torque Control (DTC) or Scalar motor control mode. By using sequential control method, the ABB ACS800 drive can be programmed to run the motor automatically according to the time setting of the seven preset constant speeds. Besides, the intention of this project is to generate a new form of the experimental set up.

  15. Three-phase multilevel solar inverter for motor drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhasagare, Mayuresh P.

    This thesis deals with three phase inverters and the different control strategies that can be associated with an inverter being used together. The first part of this thesis discusses the present research in the fields of PV panels, motor drive systems and three phase inverters along with their control. This control includes various strategies like MPPT, Volts-Hertz and modulation index compensation. Incorporating these techniques together is the goal of this thesis. A new topology for operating an open end motor drive system has also been discusses, where a boost converter and a flyback converter have been used in cascade to run a three phase motor. The main advantage of this is increasing the number of levels and improving the quality of the output voltage, not to mention a few other benefits of having the proposed circuit. A new algorithm has also been designed for starting and stopping the motor, which controls the current drawn from the power source during starting.

  16. Evaluation of Driver Stress Using Motor-vehicle Driving Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Mitsuo; Wakasugi, Junichi; Ikegami, Tatsuya; Nanba, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    This paper proposes a method for evaluating driver stress using a motor-vehicle driving simulator and a biomarker as an index of stress. Software has been developed, which can deliberately control driving tasks, in addition to analyzing driving information, such as frequency of the use of accelerator and/or brakes and the degree of deviation from the driving course. Sympathetic nervous activity was noninvasively evaluated using a hand-held monitor of salivary amylase activity, which chemically measured a biomarker every few minutes. Using healthy 20 female adults, the appropriateness of the proposed method was evaluated in vivo. The experimental results showed that the driving stress might be caused to the drivers in only 20 minutes by adding more severe driving tasks than normally experienced by the subjects without endangering them. Furthermore, the result indicate that frequent measurements of sympathetic nervous activity were possible without putting the subjects under restraint by using salivary amylase activity as the index.

  17. Personal Computer Based Controller For Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, X.; Krishnan, R.; Adkar, S.; Chandramouli, G.

    1987-10-01

    Th9, switched reluctance motor (SRM) has recently gained considerable attention in the variable speed drive market. Two important factors that have contributed to this are, the simplicity of construction and the possibility of developing low cost con-trollers with minimum number of switching devices in the drive circuits. This is mainly due to the state-of-art of the present digital circuits technology and the low cost of switching devices. The control of this motor drive is under research. Optimized performance of the SRM motor drive is very dependent on the integration of the controller, converter and the motor. This research on system integration involves considerable changes in the control algorithms and their implementation. A Personal computer (PC) based controller is very appropriate for this purpose. Accordingly, the present paper is concerned with the design of a PC based controller for a SRM. The PC allows for real-time microprocessor control with the possibility of on-line system parameter modifications. Software reconfiguration of this controller is easier than a hardware based controller. User friendliness is a natural consequence of such a system. Considering the low cost of PCs, this controller will offer an excellent cost-effective means of studying the control strategies for the SRM drive intop greater detail than in the past.

  18. Optimization of Motor/Gear Drive System for Electric RPV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    dc motor for propulsion in an RPV application. The electric propulsion system would include a brushless dc motor , electronic controller, and gear reducer that is optimally sized for the cruise condition of an RPV. Performance tests were to be conducted to measure developed power, while driving a propeller loaded at the cruise condition, and to test for the adequacy of heat rejection from the motor in the RPV configuration. The system was to be packaged for minimum size and weight. A complete electric propulsion system consisting of a brushless dc

  19. 8. POWERHOUSE, LOWER LEVEL, LEFT, GOVERNOR DRIVE MOTOR WITH BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. POWERHOUSE, LOWER LEVEL, LEFT, GOVERNOR DRIVE MOTOR WITH BELT ON RIGHT, HYDRAULIC PUMP WITH RESERVOIR TANK, STEAM HEAT PIPES ON BACK WALL LOOKING NORTHEAST - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  20. BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING TO REDUCTION GEAR SHAFTING. FERREL SPEED REDUCER IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST. NOTE TWO DIAGONAL LINES: TORQUE CONVERTER CABLE (IN PIECE OF WHITE GUTTER), THROTTLE CABLE (IN LOWER STEEL TUBING). - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  1. An Impulse Electric Motor for Driving Recording Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, W F

    1923-01-01

    The chief purpose in undertaking the development of this synchronous motor was the creation of a very small, compact power source, capable of driving the film drums of the recording aircraft instruments designed by the staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  2. 16. LOOKING WEST AT THE MOTOR DRIVE ASSEMBLY FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. LOOKING WEST AT THE MOTOR DRIVE ASSEMBLY FOR THE BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 53. Drive shaft, motors, eddie currents, brakes, and differential gears ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Drive shaft, motors, eddie currents, brakes, and differential gears in south machinery room (interior of both machinery rooms is identical). Facing east. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Variable-frequency synchronous motor drives for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, B.J.; Musaba, L.; Gosden, D.F.

    1996-07-01

    The performance capability envelope of a variable-frequency, permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive with field weakening is dependent upon the product of maximum current and direct-axis inductance. To obtain a performance characteristic suitable for a typical electric vehicle drive, in which short-term increase of current is applied, it is necessary to design an optimum value of direct-axis inductance. The paper presents an analysis of a hybrid motor design which uses a two-part rotor construction comprising a surface-magnet part and an axially laminated reluctance part. This arrangement combines the properties of all other types of synchronous motor and offers a greater choice of design variables. It is shown that the desired form of performance may be achieved when the high-inductance axis of the reluctance part is arranged to lead the magnet axis by 90{degree} (elec.).

  5. Variable-frequency synchronous motor drives for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, B.J.; Musaba, L.; Gosden, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    The performance capability envelope of a variable-frequency, permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive with field weakening is dependent upon the product of maximum current and direct-axis inductance. To obtain a performance characteristic suitable for a typical electric vehicle drive, in which short-term increase of current is applied, it is necessary to design an optimum value of direct-axis inductance. The paper presents an analysis of a hybrid motor design which uses a two-part rotor construction comprising a surface-magnet part and an axially-laminated reluctance part. This arrangement combines the properties of all other types of synchronous motor and offers a greater choice of design variables. It is shown that the desired form of performance may be achieved when the high-inductance axis of the reluctance part is arranged to lead the magnet axis by 90{degree} (elec.).

  6. Scalar control on speed drive for ac motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of ABB ACS800 variable speed drive operating under Scalar Control mode, and eventually develop a set of experimental procedures for undergraduate laboratory purposes. Scalar Control is the most widespread form of ac drive, for its low cost and simplicity especially implemented in the open loop mode. Scalar control is achieved by controlling the stator voltage and frequency, thus maintaining the motor's air-gap flux at a constant value. To illustrate the control method, the ac drive is configured according to the wiring diagram in the firmware manual that the drive control location can be both local and external. The drive is selected to operate under Factory application macro, whereby either ordinary speed control applications or constant speeds applications may be used. Under ordinary speed control, frequency reference signals are provided to the drive through the analogue input AI1. The drive will operate at the given frequency reference value throughout the operation regardless of any changes in the load. The torque speed curve moves along the speed axis with no changes to the shape as the supply frequencies changes. On the other hand, the drive allows three preset constant speed through digital inputs DI5 and DI6. The drive operate at a constant speed value over a time period, and only switch from one constant speed to another constant speed by triggering the two input switches. Scalar control is most suitable for applications not required high precision, such as blowers, fans and pumps.

  7. Special Panel Session: Driving Critical Initiatives in Motor Speech

    PubMed Central

    Weismer, Gary; Barlow, Steven; Smith, Anne; Caviness, John

    2008-01-01

    The following report is a summary of the Special Panel Session, entitled, “Driving Critical Initiatives in Motor Speech,” that was conducted at the Conference on Motor Speech, March 2008, in Monterey California. Don Finan (Program Chair for Speech Motor Control) and Julie Liss (Program Chair for Motor Speech Disorders) invited four distinguished scientists (Drs. Gary Weismer, Steven Barlow, Anne Smith, and John Caviness) to share, briefly, their opinions and views on selected topics. This was followed by an hour-long general discussion session with conference attendees. This report contains an introductory statement followed by the panel members' own summaries of the opinions and ideas expressed in their talks. We then summarize the major topics that were considered during the discussion session. This summary reflects the biases and opinions of the participants, and is meant to serve as a thought-piece for the readership of JMSLP, rather than as a scientific report. PMID:19421339

  8. Fault tolerant vector control of induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odnokopylov, G.; Bragin, A.

    2014-10-01

    For electric composed of technical objects hazardous industries, such as nuclear, military, chemical, etc. an urgent task is to increase their resiliency and survivability. The construction principle of vector control system fault-tolerant asynchronous electric. Displaying recovery efficiency three-phase induction motor drive in emergency mode using two-phase vector control system. The process of formation of a simulation model of the asynchronous electric unbalance in emergency mode. When modeling used coordinate transformation, providing emergency operation electric unbalance work. The results of modeling transient phase loss motor stator. During a power failure phase induction motor cannot save circular rotating field in the air gap of the motor and ensure the restoration of its efficiency at rated torque and speed.

  9. Automatic inoculating apparatus. [includes movable carraige, drive motor, and swabbing motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An automatic inoculating apparatus for agar trays is described and using a simple inoculating element, such as a cotton swab or inoculating loop. The apparatus includes a movable carriage for supporting the tray to be inoculated, a drive motor for moving the tray along a trackway, and a swabbing motor for automatically swabbing the tray during the movement. An actuator motor controls lowering of the inoculating element onto the tray and lifting of the inoculating element. An electrical control system, including limit microswitches, enables automatic control of the actuator motor and return of the carriage to the initial position after inoculating is completed.

  10. Inductance and Active Phase Vector Based Torque Control for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalpathi, Ramani Raman

    The Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) drive technology has developed significantly over the last few years. The simplicity in both motor design and power converter requirement along with the availability of high frequency, high power semiconductor switches have made SRMs compete with conventional adjustable speed drive technologies. The subject of winding current control in switched reluctance machines has always been associated with the shaft position information. The use of inductance for direct commutation control is the central subject of this dissertation. In contrast to the conventional methods based on position commutation, new methods of control based on inductance commutation are presented. The object of a commutation algorithm is to switch the currents in the phase coils, in order to provide continuous energy conversion with maximum torque output for a given unit of input current. Since torque production in a SRM is based on the concept of variable reluctance, it makes more sense to observe the instantaneous phase inductance or reluctance instead of estimating the rotor position. The inductance sensors observe the machine parameters and provide sufficient information on the electrical characteristics of the coils. This control strategy avoids the inductance to position transformation blocks conventionally used in SRM control systems. In a typical SRM, the phase coils have a nonlinear behavior of inductance due to effects of current saturation. Also the parameters of one phase coil differ from those of the other due to manufacturing tolerances or due to bearing wear. In such cases, the algorithms written during the stage of manufacturing may not be valid after parameter changes. Optimizing torque production in the event of phase asymmetry and saturation is developed in this research. Indirect sensors connected to the active phase coil of the SRM are based on sensing the flux level in the active coil. New commutation algorithms based on flux sensing concepts

  11. Testing a Low-Influence Spindle Drive Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L; Wulff, T; Sedgewick, J

    2003-11-05

    Precision spindles used for diamond turning and other applications requiring low error motion generally require a drive system that ideally applies a pure torque to the rotating spindle. Frequently a frameless motor, that is, one without its own bearings, is directly coupled to the spindle to make a compact and simple system having high resonant frequencies. Although in addition to delivering drive torque, asymmetries in the motor cause it to generate disturbance loads (forces and moments) which influence the spindle error motion of the directly coupled system. This paper describes the tests and results for a particular frameless, brushless DC motor that was originally developed for military and space applications requiring very low torque ripple. Because the construction of the motor should also lead to very low disturbance loads, it was selected for use on a new diamond turning and grinding machine under developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The level of influence for this motor-spindle combination is expected to be of order one nanometer for radial and axial error motion.

  12. Improving Motor and Drive System Performance – A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-01

    This sourcebook outlines opportunities to improve motor and drive systems performance. The sourcebook is divided into four main sections: (1) Motor and Drive System Basics: Summarizes important terms, relationships, and system design considerations relating to motor and drive systems. (2) Performance Opportunity Road Map: Details the key components of well-functioning motor and drive systems and opportunities for energy performance opportunities. (3) Motor System Economics: Offers recommendations on how to propose improvement projects based on corporate priorities, efficiency gains, and financial payback periods. (4) Where to Find Help: Provides a directory of organizations associated with motors and drives, as well as resources for additional information, tools, software, videos, and training opportunities.

  13. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Direct Drive Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E.; Kim, Y. T.; Akbaradeh-T., M. -R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a state feedback adaptive control method for position and velocity control of a direct drive motor. The proposed control scheme allows for integrating heuristic knowledge with mathematical knowledge of a system. It performs well even when mathematical model of the system is poorly understood. The controller consists of an adaptive fuzzy controller and a supervisory controller. The supervisory controller requires only knowledge of the upper bound and lower bound of the system parameters. The fuzzy controller is based on fuzzy basis functions and states of the system. The adaptation law is derived based on the Lyapunov function which ensures that the state of the system asymptotically approaches zero. The proposed controller is applied to a direct drive motor with payload and parameter uncertainty, and the effectiveness is verified by simulation results.

  14. High Temperature Silicon Carbide (SiC) Traction Motor Drive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    the battery bus. The motor drive contains an EMI filter to block switching noise from being transmitted to the input supply lines. Bus capacitance...suitable. Ceramic capacitors are known to be capable of withstanding greater temperatures and voltages than electrolytic or film capacitors, but are not...as power dense or as high in capacitance for their size. Capacitors manufactured by AVX utilizing X7R ceramic material in large “DIP” style packages

  15. Transmission for a four-wheel drive motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes a transmission system for a four-wheel drive motor vehicle having a transmission disposed in a transmission case. The transmission has an output shaft rotatably supported in the transmission case, an end portion of the output shaft extends out of the transmission case and constituting an extended portion of the output shaft, and a transfer device is disposed in a transfer case for transmitting the output of the transmission to auxiliary drive wheels of the vehicle through an auxiliary drive shaft. The transfer device comprises a transfer drive gear secured to the extended portion of the output shaft of the transmission and a transfer driven gear mounted on the auxiliary drive shaft and engaged with the transfer drive gear. The improvement in the system described here is wherein the transfer case has a wall forming a hole, a bearing having an outer ring and an inner ring, the outer ring being disposed in the hole and secured to the wall of the transfer case, and the inner ring being mounted on the extended portion of the output shaft on a side of the transfer drive gear facing away from the transmission case, a nut engageable with the extended portion of the output shaft, the extended portion of the output shaft being inserted into the outer ring with the inner ring being secured to the extended portion of the output shaft by the nut engaged on the extended portion of the output shaft. This is done so that the extended portion of the output shaft is rotatably supported by the bearing at the side of the transfer drive gear facing away from the transmission case.

  16. Variable-reluctance motor drives for electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, J. H.; Vallese, F. J.

    1985-05-01

    A methodology is presented for the design of a variable reluctance motor drive having high specific torque, power output and efficiency. Models are developed that describe the magnetic terminal relations of the VRM. These models are based on a flux-tube analysis that is motivated by numerically obtained finite-difference magnetic simulations. The result is a model for the flux-linkage/phase-current characteristic of the VRM. Intrinsic to this model is the estimation of maximum and minimum inductance as well the incremental inductance during bulk saturation. Also fundamental is the behavior of the flux linkage during local pole-tip saturation and due to bulk core saturation. The drive-oriented treatment of modelling and design uncovered important design interactions between the VRM, its inverter, and its excitation. The experimental 3.8-kW drive operated as expected, verifying the models and the design optimizations developed for VRM drives. These experimental results were projected to the 60-kW level, indicating that a 60-kW drive could be constructed with a VRM having a mass of approximately 65 kg, and an efficiency in excess of 95% at and below peak power output.

  17. Same phase drive-type ultrasonic motors using two degenerate bending vibration modes of a disk.

    PubMed

    Takano, T; Tomikawa, Y; Kusakabe, C

    1992-01-01

    Same-phase drive-type ultrasonic motors, using two degenerate bending vibration modes of a disk, are presented. The distinctive feature of the motor is in using the standing wave modes. The motor is not driven by two input signals with different phases, but by input signals with the same phase. Therefore, only one amplifier is sufficient to drive the motor. The experimental results have proved that the motor can yield stable operational characteristics at low speed and high torque.

  18. A Microprocessor Control Scheme For Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, A. R.; Krishnan, R.; Adkar, S.

    1987-10-01

    A microprocessor control scheme for a switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive is discussed. A SRM is inherently a variable speed machine since it requires a converter even for constant speed running. Starting with a conceptual development, a particular hardware scheme is discussed for controller implementation. Hardware-software tradeoffs incorporated in the design are discussed. Some results of an actual system are evaluated. It is shown that a microprocessor controller has many advantages over conventional controllers. The controller design uses rotor position and speed feedbacks. Self-starting is incorporated into the design. Use of off-the-shelf components makes the controller simple, reliable, and economical.

  19. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: "Just Hang Up and Drive".

    PubMed

    Kahn, Christopher A; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-12-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as "distracted driving." The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article "Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011" highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  20. Commercial Motor Vehicle Driving Performance: An Examination of Attentional Resources and Control Using a Driving Simulator.

    PubMed

    McManus, Benjamin; Heaton, Karen; Stavrinos, Despina

    2017-04-03

    Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers often multitask when driving to increase travel efficiency and to increase alertness. Secondary tasks have been shown to impact CMV driving differentially, and attentional resources have been posited as a key factor. However, underlying mechanisms of secondary task engagement on attention and task performance have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is unknown if attentional control moderates these differential effects of secondary tasks and task performance. The current study aimed to examine decrements in driving performance from a resource-control theory by determining the specific relation between attentional resources and attentional control. To achieve this goal, 2 objectives were determined. Objective 1 considered the differential impact of secondary tasks on attentional resources in CMV driving performance. Objective 2 investigated individual differences in attentional control in the sample of CMV drivers. Fifty CMV drivers (Mage = 39.8 years, SD = 8.36) completed the 10-min psychomotor vigilance task providing measures of attentional control and also drove in a CMV driving simulator 4 times while presented with 1 of 4 secondary tasks. Findings linked secondary tasks to attentional resources, which, consequently affected CMV driving performance. The mediating effect of attentional resources significantly differed among varying levels of attentional control. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Two alternating motor programs drive navigation in Drosophila larva.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Subhaneil; Shen, Konlin; Klein, Mason; Tang, Anji; Kane, Elizabeth; Gershow, Marc; Garrity, Paul; Samuel, Aravinthan D T

    2011-01-01

    When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva pauses and sweeps its head from side to side until it picks a new direction for forward movement. Here, we characterized the motor programs that underlie the initiation, execution, and completion of reorientation maneuvers by measuring body segment dynamics of freely moving larvae with fluorescent muscle fibers as they were exposed to temporal changes in temperature. We find that reorientation maneuvers are characterized by highly stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns of segment dynamics. Reorientation maneuvers are initiated with head sweeping movement driven by asymmetric contraction of a portion of anterior body segments. The larva attains a new direction for forward movement after head sweeping movement by using peristalsis waves that gradually push posterior body segments out of alignment with the tail (i.e., the previous direction of forward movement) into alignment with the head. Thus, reorientation maneuvers during thermotaxis are carried out by two alternating motor programs: (1) peristalsis for driving forward movement and (2) asymmetric contraction of anterior body segments for driving head sweeping movement.

  2. Static otolithic drive alters presynaptic inhibition in soleus motor pool.

    PubMed

    Fox, Apollonia; Koceja, David

    2017-02-01

    The vestibular system has both direct and indirect connections to the soleus motor pool via the vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts. The exact nature of how this vestibular information is integrated within the spinal cord is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify whether changes in static otolithic drive altered the amount of presynaptic inhibition in the soleus H-reflex pathway. Changes in static otolithic drive were investigated in sixteen healthy participants using a tilt table. Two presynaptic pathways (common peroneal and femoral) to the soleus H-reflex were tested in three weight conditions (supine, non-weight bearing, and weight bearing). The dependent variable was the peak-to-peak amplitude of the soleus H-reflex. Inhibition to the soleus motor pool through the common peroneal nerve pathway differed significantly during weight conditions and tilt. During tilt and non-weight bearing there was greater inhibition of the soleus H-reflex compared to supine, however, this effect was reversed during tilt and weight bearing. Facilitation from the femoral nerve pathway was reduced by tilt compared to supine, but this reduction was unaffected by weight condition. This supports a role of the vestibular system as providing complex, task-dependent presynaptic input to motoneurons in the lower limbs.

  3. Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide – A Handbook for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert A. McCoy and John G. Douglass

    2014-02-01

    This handbook informs new motor purchase decisions by identifying energy and cost savings that can come from replacing motors with premium efficiency units. The handbook provides an overview of current motor use in the industrial sector, including the development of motor efficiency standards, currently available and emerging advanced efficiency motor technologies, and guidance on how to evaluate motor efficiency opportunities. It also several tips on getting the most out of industrial motors, such as how to avoid adverse motor interactions with electronic adjustable speed drives and how to ensure efficiency gains are not lost to undervoltage operation or excessive voltage unbalance.

  4. Steady State Performance Analysis of Hydrostatic Transmission System using Two Motor Summation Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, K.; Kumar, N.; Kumar, R.

    2013-10-01

    Hydrostatic transmission (HST) system used in heavy earth moving machineries (HEMMs) has high power density, wide range of speed control and good overall efficiency. Hydrostatically coupled two motor summation drive is an alternative power transmission system, compared to existing closed-loop HST system with low speed high torque motor, used in HEMM. Such drive arrangement has made the possibility to design the transmission system, used in heavy vehicles, in an efficient way to cover wide range of torque-speed demand. This article studies the concept of two motor summation drive and its steady state performance. Experiments have been carried out to analyze the performance of such system. The characteristics of single and two motor drive systems are compared at different load-torque and speed levels. It is concluded that two motor hydrostatic drive systems is more effective at high load-torque and low speed compared to single motor drive system.

  5. FreedomCAR Advanced Traction Drive Motor Development Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Ley, Josh; Lutz, Jon

    2006-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is to design and develop an advanced traction motor that will meet the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) 2010 goals and the traction motor technical targets. The motor specifications are given in Section 1.3. Other goals of the program include providing a cost study to ensure the motor can be developed within the cost targets needed for the automotive industry. The program has focused on using materials that are both high performance and low costs such that the performance can be met and cost targets are achieved. In addition, the motor technologies and machine design features must be compatible with high volume manufacturing and able to provide high reliability, efficiency, and ruggedness while simultaneously reducing weight and volume. Weight and volume reduction will become a major factor in reducing cost, material cost being the most significant part of manufacturing cost at high volume. Many motor technology categories have been considered in the past and present for traction drive applications, including: brushed direct current (DC), PM (PM) brushless dc (BLDC), alternating current (AC) induction, switched reluctance and synchronous reluctance machines. Of these machine technologies, PM BLDC has consistently demonstrated an advantage in terms of power density and efficiency. As rare earth magnet cost has declined, total cost may also be reduced over the other technologies. Of the many different configurations of PM BLDC machines, those which incorporate power production utilizing both magnetic torque as well as reluctance torque appear to have the most promise for traction applications. There are many different PM BLDC machine configurations which employ both of these torque producing mechanisms; however, most would fall into one of two categories--some use weaker magnets and rely more heavily on reluctance torque (reluctance-dominant PM machines), others use strong PMs and supplement with reluctance torque

  6. Efficient alternatives for electric drives

    SciTech Connect

    Comnes, G.A.; Barnes, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    This analysis of industrial electric motors describes the current motor stock, its energy use and operating characteristics, and innovations that could change current use patterns. It provides calculations characterizing the economic attractiveness of several existing and potential options. One attractive option given particular attention is the adjustable-speed drive which can replace throttles or valves for many pumping operations. A major conclusion is that, throughout industry, options that are both energy-saving and economically attractive appear to penetrate markets more slowly than would be socially optimal. The final section examines characteristics of industry that may contribute to slow market penetration. 29 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Neural and Fuzzy Adaptive Control of Induction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Bensalem, Y.; Sbita, L.; Abdelkrim, M. N.

    2008-06-12

    This paper proposes an adaptive neural network speed control scheme for an induction motor (IM) drive. The proposed scheme consists of an adaptive neural network identifier (ANNI) and an adaptive neural network controller (ANNC). For learning the quoted neural networks, a back propagation algorithm was used to automatically adjust the weights of the ANNI and ANNC in order to minimize the performance functions. Here, the ANNI can quickly estimate the plant parameters and the ANNC is used to provide on-line identification of the command and to produce a control force, such that the motor speed can accurately track the reference command. By combining artificial neural network techniques with fuzzy logic concept, a neural and fuzzy adaptive control scheme is developed. Fuzzy logic was used for the adaptation of the neural controller to improve the robustness of the generated command. The developed method is robust to load torque disturbance and the speed target variations when it ensures precise trajectory tracking with the prescribed dynamics. The algorithm was verified by simulation and the results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the IM designed controller.

  8. Subthreshold activation of the superior colliculus drives saccade motor learning.

    PubMed

    Soetedjo, Robijanto; Fuchs, Albert F; Kojima, Yoshiko

    2009-12-02

    How the brain learns and maintains accurate precision movements is currently unknown. At times throughout life, rapid gaze shifts (saccades) become inaccurate, but the brain makes gradual adjustments so they again stop on target. Previously, we showed that complex spikes (CSs) in Purkinje cells of the oculomotor cerebellum report the direction and amplitude by which saccades are in error. Anatomical studies indicate that this error signal could originate in the superior colliculus (SC). Here, we deliver subthreshold electrical stimulation of the SC after the saccade lands to signal an apparent error. The size of saccades in the same direction as the simulated error gradually increase; those in the opposite direction decrease. The electrically adapted saccades endure after stimulation is discontinued, exhibit an adaptation field, can undergo changes in direction, and depend on error timing. These electrically induced adaptations were virtually identical with those produced by the visually induced adaptations that we report here for comparable visual errors in the same monkeys. Therefore, our experiments reveal that an additional role for the SC in the generation of saccades is to provide a vector error signal that drives dysmetric saccades to adapt. Moreover, the characteristics of the electrically induced adaptation reflect those of error-related CS activity in the oculomotor cerebellum, suggesting that CS activity serves as the learning signal. We speculate that CS activity may serve as the error signal that drives other kinds of motor learning as well.

  9. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, Charles E.; Boothe, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements.

  10. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, C.E.; Boothe, R.W.

    1994-02-15

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements. 6 figures.

  11. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, Charles E.; Boothe, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements.

  12. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, C.E.; Boothe, R.W.

    1996-01-23

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements. 6 figs.

  13. Steady State Analysis Of The Variable Speed Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materu, P.; Krishnan, R.; Farzanehfard, H.

    1987-10-01

    The switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive has recently received attention mainly because of its simple motor construction and unidirectional converter requirement. The principle of operation of the motor drive demands that the motor and converter be treated as one unit. Little has been done to develop a complete analysis of this motor-converter combination 1'2. This paper presents an approach to the steady state analysis of the SRM drive including the effects of stator winding resistance, input filter dynamics and snubber circuits which are often neglected. The analysis yields phase current waveforms providing guidelines to the optimal design of the converter and motor. A novel single-switch-per phase converter developed by one of the authors is used. The approach can be used for any other motor-converter combination.

  14. Application of drive circuit based on L298N in direct current motor speed control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Liuliu; Wang, Fang; Han, Sen; Li, Yuchen; Sun, Hao; Lu, Qingjie; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Quanzhao

    2016-10-01

    In the experiment of researching the nanometer laser interferometer, our design of laser interferometer circuit system is up to the wireless communication technique of the 802.15.4 IEEE standard, and we use the RF TI provided by Basic to receive the data on speed control system software. The system's hardware is connected with control module and the DC motor. However, in the experiment, we found that single chip microcomputer control module is very difficult to drive the DC motor directly. The reason is that the DC motor's starting and braking current is larger than the causing current of the single chip microcomputer control module. In order to solve this problem, we add a driving module that control board can transmit PWM wave signal through I/O port to drive the DC motor, the driving circuit board can come true the function of the DC motor's positive and reversal rotation and speed adjustment. In many various driving module, the L298N module's integrated level is higher compared with other driver module. The L298N model is easy to control, it not only can control the DC motor, but also achieve motor speed control by modulating PWM wave that the control panel output. It also has the over-current protection function, when the motor lock, the L298N model can protect circuit and motor. So we use the driver module based on L298N to drive the DC motor. It is concluded that the L298N driver circuit module plays a very important role in the process of driving the DC motor in the DC motor speed control system.

  15. Motor Drive Technologies for the Power-by-Wire (PBW) Program: Options, Trends and Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    Power-By-Wire (PBW) is a program involving the replacement of hydraulic and pneumatic systems currently used in aircraft with an all-electric secondary power system. One of the largest loads of the all-electric secondary power system will be the motor loads which include pumps, compressors and Electrical Actuators (EA's). Issues of improved reliability, reduced maintenance and efficiency, among other advantages, are the motivation for replacing the existing aircraft actuators with electrical actuators. An EA system contains four major components. These are the motor, the power electronic converters, the actuator and the control system, including the sensors. This paper is a comparative literature review in motor drive technologies, with a focus on the trends and tradeoffs involved in the selection of a particular motor drive technology. The reported research comprises three motor drive technologies. These are the induction motor (IM), the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) and the switched reluctance motor (SRM). Each of the three drives has the potential for application in the PBW program. Many issues remain to be investigated and compared between the three motor drives, using actual mechanical loads expected in the PBW program.

  16. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  17. Molecular motors robustly drive active gels to a critically connected state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, José; Sheinman, Michael; Sharma, Abhinav; Mackintosh, Fred C.; Koenderink, Gijsje H.

    2013-09-01

    Living systems naturally exhibit internal driving: active, molecular processes drive non-equilibrium phenomena such as metabolism or migration. Active gels constitute a fascinating class of internally driven matter, in which molecular motors exert localized stresses inside polymer networks. There is evidence that network crosslinking is required to allow motors to induce macroscopic contraction. Yet a quantitative understanding of how network connectivity enables contraction is lacking. Here we show experimentally that myosin motors contract crosslinked actin polymer networks to clusters with a scale-free size distribution. This critical behaviour occurs over an unexpectedly broad range of crosslink concentrations. To understand this robustness, we developed a quantitative model of contractile networks that takes into account network restructuring: motors reduce connectivity by forcing crosslinks to unbind. Paradoxically, to coordinate global contractions, motor activity should be low. Otherwise, motors drive initially well-connected networks to a critical state where ruptures form across the entire network.

  18. Principle and experimental verification of novel dual driving face rotary ultrasonic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Hu, Junhui; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2013-09-01

    Existing rotary ultrasonic motors operating in extreme environments cannot meet the requirements of good environmental adaptability and compact structure at same time, and existing ultrasonic motors with Langevin transducers show better environmental adaptability, but size of these motors are usually big due to the radial arrangement of the Langevin transducers. A novel dual driving face rotary ultrasonic motor is proposed, and its working principle is experimentally verified. The working principle of the novel ultrasonic motor is firstly proposed. The 5th in-plane flexural vibration travelling wave, excited by the Langevin transducers around the stator ring, is used to drive the rotors. Then the finite element method is used in the determination of dimensions of the prototype motor, and the confirmation of its working principle. After that, a laser Doppler vibrometer system is used for measuring the resonance frequency and vibration amplitude of the stator. At last, output characteristics of the prototype motor are measured, environmental adaptability is tested and performance for driving a metal ball is also investigated. At room temperature and 200 V(zero to peak) driving voltage, the motor’s no-load speed is 80 r/min, the stalling torque is 0.35 N·m and the maximum output power is 0.85 W. The response time of this motor is 0.96 ms at the room temperature, and it decreases or increases little in cold environment. A metal ball driven by the motor can rotate at 210 r/min with the driving voltage 300 V(zero to peak). Results indicate that the prototype motor has a large output torque and good environmental adaptability. A rotary ultrasonic motor owning compact structure and good environmental adaptability is proposed, and lays the foundations of ultrasonic motors’ applications in extreme environments.

  19. Advanced simulation model for IPM motor drive with considering phase voltage and stator inductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Myung; Park, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Ju

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes an advanced simulation model of driving system for Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) BrushLess Direct Current (BLDC) motors driven by 120-degree conduction method (two-phase conduction method, TPCM) that is widely used for sensorless control of BLDC motors. BLDC motors can be classified as SPM (Surface mounted Permanent Magnet) and IPM motors. Simulation model of driving system with SPM motors is simple due to the constant stator inductance regardless of the rotor position. Simulation models of SPM motor driving system have been proposed in many researches. On the other hand, simulation models for IPM driving system by graphic-based simulation tool such as Matlab/Simulink have not been proposed. Simulation study about driving system of IPMs with TPCM is complex because stator inductances of IPM vary with the rotor position, as permanent magnets are embedded in the rotor. To develop sensorless scheme or improve control performance, development of control algorithm through simulation study is essential, and the simulation model that accurately reflects the characteristic of IPM is required. Therefore, this paper presents the advanced simulation model of IPM driving system, which takes into account the unique characteristic of IPM due to the position-dependent inductances. The validity of the proposed simulation model is validated by comparison to experimental and simulation results using IPM with TPCM control scheme.

  20. Research of subdivision driving technology for brushless DC motors in optical fiber positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Yi; Gu, Yonggang; Zhu, Ye; Zhai, Chao

    2016-07-01

    In fiber spectroscopic telescopes, optical fiber positioning units are used to position thousands of fibers on the focal plane quickly and precisely. Stepper motors are used in existing units, however, it has some inherent deficiencies, such as serious heating and low efficiency. In this work, the universally adopted subdivision driving technology for stepper motors is transplanted to brushless DC motors. It keeps the advantages of stepper motors such as high positioning accuracy and resolution, while overcomes the disadvantages mentioned above. Thus, this research mainly focuses on develop a novel subdivision driving technology for brushless DC motor. By the proving of experiments of online debug and subdivision speed and position, the proposed brushless DC motor subdivision technology can achieve the expected functions.

  1. 29. INDUCTION MOTOR (6600 VOLTS, 5750 H.P.) DRIVES THE 21INCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INDUCTION MOTOR (6600 VOLTS, 5750 H.P.) DRIVES THE 21-INCH AND 18-INCH BILLET MILLS. MOTOR WAS MANUFACTURED BY THE GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM DRIVE END. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250-HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM DRIVE END. MOTOR BADGE PLATE READS 263 AMP, 400 VOLT, FRAME 6274-D #4940649, 250 HORSEPOWER, TYPE TSR, 3 PHASE, 60 CYCLE, SPEED 300 RPM. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  3. FUZZY-LOGIC-BASED CONTROLLERS FOR EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATION OF INVERTER-FED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a fuzzy-logic-based energy optimizing controller to improve the efficiency of induction motor/drives operating at various load (torque) and speed conditions. Improvement of induction motor efficiency is important not only from the considerations of energy sav...

  4. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOTOR DRIVES: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study (part 1) of fuzzy logic motor control (FLMC). The study included: 1) reviews of existing applications of fuzzy logic, of motor operation, and of motor control; 2) a description of motor control schemes that can utilize FLMC; 3) selection of a m...

  5. Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoft, R. G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G. Q.; Erickson, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research performed at the University of Missouri-Columbia to devise and design a lower cost inverter induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles is described. A two phase inverter motor system is recommended. The new design is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and a cost advantage for a high production vehicle, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches, and a somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three phase bridge inverter motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two phase inverter motor drive are that it is larger and more expensive than a three phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency.

  6. Piezoelectric Linear Motors for Driving Head Element of CD-ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuki, Akira; Aoyagi, Manabu; Tomikawa, Yoshiro; Takano, Takehiro

    1994-09-01

    This paper deals with piezoelectric linear motors for driving an optical pickup element of CD-ROM. These linear motors have such merits in that they can be made thin because of their simple construction, and they are suitable for precise positioning owing to their operation principle of using ultrasonic vibrations of essentially very small displacements. We can expect that the input power of these motors will be economized due to their self-position-retention function. Therefore, in order to achieve such linear motors, we have already reported some piezoelectric linear motors of the self-moving type. On the other hand, in this paper, the authors investigated some stationary piezoelectric linear motors which could easily be constructed in a flat shape. Compared with the self-moving piezoelectric linear motors reported previously, the stationary piezoelectric linear motors have the merit that they easily generate a uniform pressing force. In this paper, the structure, operation principles, and characteristics of such stationary linear motors are described, and moreover, a method to lower the driving voltage of these linear motors is reported.

  7. Spurious-Mode Control of Same-Phase Drive-Type Ultrasonic Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Manabu; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Tomikawa, Yoshiro; Takano, Takehiro

    2002-05-01

    A same-phase drive-type ultrasonic motor requires a single power source for its operation. In particular, self-oscillation driving is useful for driving a small ultrasonic motor. This type of ultrasonic motor has a spurious mode close to the operation frequency on its stator vibrator. The spurious vibration mode affects the oscillation frequency of a self-oscillation drive circuit. Hence the spurious vibration mode should be restrained or moved away from the neighborhood of the operation frequency. In this paper, we report that an inductor connected at an electrical control terminal provided on standby electrodes for the reverse rotation operation controls only the spurious vibration mode. The effect of an inductor connected at the control terminal was clarified by the simulation of an equivalent circuit and some experiments.

  8. Indirect rotor position sensing in real time for brushless permanent magnet motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Ertugrul, N.; Acarnley, P.P.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a modern solution to real-time rotor position estimation of brushless permanent magnet (PM) motor drives. The position estimation scheme, based on flux linkage and line-current estimation, is implemented in real time by using the abc reference frame, and it is tested dynamically. The position estimation model of the test motor, development of hardware, and basic operation of the digital signal processor (DSP) are discussed. The overall position estimation strategy is accomplished with a fast DSP (TMS320C30). The method is a shaft position sensorless method that is applicable to a wide range of excitation types in brushless PM motors without any restriction on the motor model and the current excitation. Both rectangular and sinewave-excited brushless PM motor drives are examined, and the results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method with dynamic loads in closed estimated position loop.

  9. A microcontroller-based sensorless brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive for areomodelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Long-han; Liu, Tao; Li, Rui; Wu, Fan

    2007-12-01

    A novel approach to back-EMF detection of sensorless brushless DC motor drive systems was proposed. Theoretical analysis of back-EMF sensing is presented, and indicates the back-EMF signal can be extracted for each floating phase whether the PWM is on or off time. As a result, the proposed method rejects the high frequency switching noise and no filtering. Moreover, it provides a highly accurate zero crossing point. This proposed sensing scheme is implemented into a microcontroller for a sensorless BLDC motor. The microcontroller has been successfully applied to the aeromodelling motor. The applied results verify the theoretical analysis and demonstrate that the microcontroller provide a good motor performance.

  10. Electric Motor Thermal Management for Electric Traction Drives (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of material thermal properties and convective heat transfer coefficients. In this work, the thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. Also, convective heat transfer coefficients of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets were measured to better understand the heat transfer of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients.

  11. The effective neural drive to muscles is the common synaptic input to motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Dario; Negro, Francesco; Dideriksen, Jakob Lund

    2014-01-01

    We analysed the transformation of synaptic input to the pool of motor neurons into the neural drive to the muscle. The aim was to explain the relations between common oscillatory signals sent to motor neurons and the effective component of the neural signal sent to muscles as output of the spinal cord circuitries. The approach is based on theoretical derivations, computer simulations, and experiments. It is shown theoretically that for frequencies smaller than the average discharge rates of the motor neurons, the pool of motor neurons determines a pure amplification of the frequency components common to all motor neurons, so that the common input is transmitted almost undistorted and the non-common components are strongly attenuated. The effective neural drive to the muscle thus mirrors the common synaptic input to motor neurons. The simulations with three models of motor neuron confirmed the theoretical results by showing that the coherence function between common input components and the neural drive to the muscle tends to 1 when increasing the number of active motor neurons. This result, which was relatively insensitive to the type of model used, was also supported experimentally by observing that, in the low-pass signal bandwidth, the peak in coherence between groups of motor units of the abductor digiti minimi muscle of five healthy subjects tended to 1 when increasing the number of motor units. These results have implications for our understanding of the neural control of muscles as well as for methods used for estimating the strength of common input to populations of motor neurons. PMID:24860172

  12. Driving characteristics of a hexadecagon-shaped ultrasonic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Seong-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ha; Park, Tae-Gone; Park, Jong-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    A novel hexadecagon-shaped ultrasonic motor is proposed. The stator is easy to fabricate because of its simple structure. The stator of the hexadecagon ultrasonic motor is composed of an elastic ring and ceramics. The elastic ring has sixteen sides and angles. The eight ceramics are attached on the outer surfaces of the eight sides of the ring. When rotor of the cylindrical shaft is inserted inside the ring stator, the central lines of the sixteen sides of the stator hold the shaft with slight pressures. This slight pressure is the preload of the motor and it can be controlled by the radius and the thickness of the ring. When two AC voltages that have a 90-degree phase difference are applied to the eight ceramics, elliptical displacements of the inner surface of the ring are obtained. These elliptical displacements of the inner surface rotate the shaft rotor through friction. The proposed hexadecagon ultrasonic motor was designed and analyzed by using a finite element analysis (ATILA), depending on the number of piezoelectric ceramics and hexadecagon modes. As a result, the stator was optimally designed by defining the output displacement characteristics, which depend on changes in the chosen parameters.

  13. Improved linear ultrasonic motor performance with square-wave based driving-tip trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Adam Y.; Mills, James K.; Benhabib, Beno

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes the application of a non-sinusoidal periodic excitation voltage to induce a near-square-wave driving tip trajectory in linear ultrasonic motors (LUSMs). A square-wave-based trajectory can deliver superior frictional force to the moving stage in the forward stroke of the driving tip motion and reduced frictional force during the return stroke. This would reduce lost power in the periodic driving tip motion, thereby, increasing the output force and power of the LUSM. An implementation procedure is suggested to achieve the near-square-wave driving tip trajectory. The proposed approach is illustrated through realistic finite-element-based simulations using a bimodal LUSM configuration.

  14. Design of high precision motor driving system for circular scanning ultrasonic endoscopic imaging equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Haoran; Bai, Baoping; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Yanan; Wang, Yi; Yu, Daoyin

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a motor driving system for circular scanning ultrasonic endoscopic imaging equipment. It was designed to guarantee the motor rotating at a relatively constant speed in load fluctuation conditions, which result from the bending and twisting of the flexible shaft which connects the probe to the motor. A hardware feedback circuit based on Frequency-To-Voltage Converter LM331 and Step-Down Voltage Regulator LM2576-ADJ was designed to ensure steady rotation of motor in load fluctuation conditions, and a D/A module offered by MCU was used to regulate the real-time rotary speed. The feedback response cycle is about 20 μs according to theoretical analysis. Experimental results show that the maximum error is +/-1 r/min under the normal running environment (300 ~1500 r/min) and load fluctuation conditions, which means the average instability is reduced to 0.11% as compared with that of the motor drive simply based on MCU which is 0.94%. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the motor driving system has high accuracy, fast response, excellent reliability and good versatility and portability, and can precisely guarantee the smooth movement of load-changing PMW (Pulse Width Modulation) motor, so as to ensure the imaging quality, and can effectively improve the efficiency and accuracy of the diagnosis.

  15. Radial-Gap Permanent Magnet Motor and Drive Research FY 2004

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, J.W.

    2005-02-11

    The objective of this task was to study permanent magnet (PM) radial-gap traction drive systems that could meet the U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR Program's 2010 goals to expose weaknesses or identify strengths. Initially, the approach was to compare attributes such as physical deformations during operation, performance (torque, power, efficiency versus speed), material requirements (strength), material costs, manufacturability, weight, power density, specific power, reliability, and drivability for specific motors. Three motors selected were the commercially available 60-kW radial-gap surface-mounted PM motor manufactured by UQM Technologies, Inc.; a hypothetical PM motor with rotor-supported magnets similar to the Honda MCF-21; and Delphi's automotive electric machine drive motor, whose rotor is a ferromagnetic cylinder, held at one end by a shaft that supports the magnets on its inner surface. Potential problems have appeared related to PM motors, such as (1) high no-load spin losses and high operational power losses, probably from eddy current losses in the rotor; (2) the undemonstrated dual mode inverter control (DMIC) for driving a brushless dc motor (BDCM) (UQM and Delphi motors); (3) uncertainty about the potential for reducing current with DMIC; and (4) uncertainty about the relation between material requirements and maximum rotor speed. Therefore, the approach was changed to study in detail three of the comparison attributes: drivability, performance, and material requirements. Drivability and related problems were examined by demonstrating that DMIC may be used to drive an 18-pole 30-kW PM motor to 6000 rpm, where the maximum electrical frequency is 900 Hz. An available axial-gap test motor with 18 poles was used because its control is identical to that of a radial gap PM motor. Performance was analytically examined, which led to a derivation showing that DMIC controls a PM motor so that the motor uses minimum current to produce any power

  16. 220000-r/min, 2-kW PM Motor Drive for Turbocharger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Toshihiko; Takata, Yosuke; Yamashita, Yukio; Komatsu, Yoshimi; Ibaraki, Seiichi

    This paper describes an ultra high-speed permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive, which is embedded in a turbocharger of an internal-combustion engine. The electrical drive makes it possible to enhance output power of the turbocharger in a motoring mode and to retrieve combustion energy from exhaust gas in a regenerating mode. Computer simulations and experimental tests are conducted to examine various operation characteristics of a prototype. The experimental data demonstrate 220000-r/min operation at 2.2-kW inverter output power, which agree with the simulation results well and prove feasibility of the proposed system.

  17. Sensorless sliding mode observer for a five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor drive.

    PubMed

    Hosseyni, Anissa; Trabelsi, Ramzi; Mimouni, Med Faouzi; Iqbal, Atif; Alammari, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    This paper deals with the sensorless vector controlled five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive based on a sliding mode observer (SMO). The observer is designed considering the back electromotive force (EMF) of five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor. The SMO structure and design are illustrated. Stability of the proposed observer is demonstrated using Lyapunov stability criteria. The proposed strategy is asymptotically stable in the context of Lyapunov theory. Simulated results on a five-phase PMSM drive are displayed to validate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  18. Integrated Cooling System for Induction Motor Traction Drives, CARAT Program Phase Two Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, Charles E.

    2002-12-03

    This Program is directed toward improvements in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle traction systems, and in particular, the development of a low cost, highly efficient, compact traction motor-controller system targeted for high volume automotive use. Because of the complex inter-relationships between the motor and the controller, the combination of motor and controller must be considered as a system in the design and evaluation of overall cost and performance. The induction motor is ideally suited for use as a traction motor because of its basic ruggedness, low cost, and high efficiency. As one can see in Figure 1.1, the induction motor traction drive has been continually evolving through a succession of programs spanning the past fifteen years. VPT marketed an induction motor-based traction drive system, the EV2000, which proved to be a reliable, high performance system that was used in a wide range of vehicles. The EV2000 drives evolved from the Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) and has been used in vehicles ranging in size from 3,000 lb. autos and utility vans, to 32,000 lb. city transit buses. Vehicles powered by the EV2000 induction motor powertrain have accumulated over 2 million miles of service. The EV2000 induction motor system represents 1993 state-of-the-art technology, and evolved from earlier induction motor programs that drove induction motor speeds up to 15,000 rpm to reduce the motor size and cost. It was recognized that the improvements in power density and motor cost sought in the PNGV program could only be achieved through increases in motor speed. Esson’s Rule for motor power clearly states that the power obtainable from a given motor design is the product of motor speed and volume. In order to meet the CARAT Program objectives, the maximum speed goal of the induction motor designed in this Program was increased from 15,000 rpm to 20,000 rpm while maintaining the efficiency and durability demonstrated by lower speed designs done in

  19. Sensorless Sinusoidal Drives for Fan and Pump Motors by V/f Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Mitsuyuki; Ohnishi, Tokuo

    This paper proposes sensorless sinusoidal driving methods of permanent magnet synchronous motors for fans and pumps by V/f control. The proposed methods are simple methods that control the motor peak current constant by voltage or frequency control, and are characterized by DC link current detection using a single shunt resistor at carrier wave signal bottom timing. As a result of the dumping factor from square torque load characteristics of fan and pump motors, it is possible to control stable starting and stable steady state by V/f control. In general, pressure losses as a result of the fluid pass of fan and pump systems are nearly constant; therefore, the flow rate and motor torque are determined by revolutions. Accordingly, high efficiency driving is possible by setting corresponding currents to q-axis currents (torque currents) at target revolutions. Because of the simple current detection and motor control methods, the proposed methods are optimum for fan and pump motor driving systems of home appliances.

  20. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, P.F.; Bryan, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques; yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. In this paper, we describe the design, development, testing and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k {times} 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50%. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards. 8 refs.

  1. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, P.F.; Bryan, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques; yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. In this paper, we describe the design, development, testing and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k {times} 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50%. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards. 8 refs.

  2. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, P. F.; Bryan, J. R.

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques, yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. We describe the design, development, testing, and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k x 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76 percent to below 5 percent for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5 percent if only the upper 90 percent of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50 percent. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards.

  3. A Drive Method of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Torque Angle Estimation without Position Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takuro; Takahashi, Hisashi

    In some motor applications, it is very difficult to attach a position sensor to the motor in housing. One of the examples of such applications is the dental handpiece-motor. In those designs, it is necessary to drive highly efficiency at low speed and variable load condition without a position sensor. We developed a method to control a motor high-efficient and smoothly at low speed without a position sensor. In this paper, the method in which permanent magnet synchronous motor is controlled smoothly and high-efficient by using torque angle control in synchronized operation is shown. The usefulness is confirmed by experimental results. In conclusion, the proposed sensor-less control method has been achieved to be very efficiently and smoothly.

  4. Ultrasonic micro-motor with multilayer piezoelectric ceramic and chamfered driving tips.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanqiang; Yuan, Songmei; Chu, Xiangcheng; Gao, Shuning; Zhong, Zuojin; Zhu, Cong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an oblate-type ultrasonic micro-motor with multilayer piezoelectric ceramic and chamfered driving tips was proposed and experimentally researched. The micro-motor works based on the standing-wave principle and has a higher rotary speed than the traditional standing-wave one in principle, reaching a rotary speed of 2100 r/min in this study at the voltage of 20 Vp-p. When the micro-motor rotates, single phase alternating current is required, namely, V=Asinωt, and exchanging the signal wire and ground wire will not change the rotary direction of the motor, which reinforces the safety and the compaction of this motor. The ratio of the maximum displacement value of the speed feeding direction and the preload direction is approximately 4, showing a characteristic of high speed and low ability to load.

  5. Ultrasonic micro-motor with multilayer piezoelectric ceramic and chamfered driving tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanqiang; Yuan, Songmei; Chu, Xiangcheng; Gao, Shuning; Zhong, Zuojin; Zhu, Cong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an oblate-type ultrasonic micro-motor with multilayer piezoelectric ceramic and chamfered driving tips was proposed and experimentally researched. The micro-motor works based on the standing-wave principle and has a higher rotary speed than the traditional standing-wave one in principle, reaching a rotary speed of 2100 r/min in this study at the voltage of 20 Vp-p. When the micro-motor rotates, single phase alternating current is required, namely, V = A sin (" separators=" ω t ) , and exchanging the signal wire and ground wire will not change the rotary direction of the motor, which reinforces the safety and the compaction of this motor. The ratio of the maximum displacement value of the speed feeding direction and the preload direction is approximately 4, showing a characteristic of high speed and low ability to load.

  6. An AC motor drive with power factor control for low cost applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellar, Maria Dias

    2000-10-01

    The front-end rectifier followed by a pulse-width modulated voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI) has been a well-established power converter configuration for many industrial drives. The increasing costs on the utility usage, due to power quality regulations, and the need to improve the VA capacity of systems, e.g. off-shore drilling rigs, have increased the interest in the development of power electronic equipment with power factor control capability. Electrical motors consume a large amount of the available electrical energy, and this energy tends to increase due to the massive emerging applications of electrical motor drives in appliances and in industrial processes. Therefore, the improvement of the power factor of these low power drive systems, usually in the range from fractional horse-power (hp) to 1 hp, is of particular interest. For these power ratings, the system configuration usually comprises a single-phase to three-phase type of converter with additional circuitry for power factor control (PFC). However, this approach has an impact on the system cost and packaging. In this work, a new concept of integrating motor and power factor controls by using a single-phase to three-phase DSP based six-switch converter topology is presented. Unlike other configurations using extra switch(es) and/or extra boost inductor, in this circuit the boost action, for input current shaping, is done by the motor leakage inductances. The power factor control and inverter operation are performed by applying two modulating signals to the SPWM control logic of the converter. In this dissertation, the converter operation and a proposed control strategy will be explained. Simulation and experimental results for a DSP based induction motor drive will be provided as proof of concept. The feasibility and potential of this configuration for ac motor drive applications will be established. The impact of this scheme on the machine operation will also be discussed.

  7. An Improved Power Quality BIBRED Converter-Based VSI-Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Bist, Vashist

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an IHQRR (integrated high-quality rectifier regulator) BIBRED (boost integrated buck rectifier energy storage DC-DC) converter-based VSI (voltage source inverter)-fed BLDC (brushless DC) motor drive. The speed control of BLDC motor is achieved by controlling the DC link voltage of the VSI using a single voltage sensor. This allows VSI to operate in fundamental frequency switching mode for electronic commutation of BLDC motor which reduces the switching losses due to high-frequency switching used in conventional approach of PWM (pulse width modulation)-based VSI-fed BLDC motor drive. A BIBRED converter is operated in a dual-DCM (discontinuous conduction mode) thus using a voltage follower approach for PFC (power factor correction) and DC link voltage control. The performance of the proposed drive is evaluated for improved power quality over a wide range of speed control and supply voltage variation for demonstrating the behavior of proposed drive. The power quality indices thus obtained are within the recommended limits by international PQ (power quality) standards such as IEC 61000-3-2.

  8. Electronically controlled motor drive system has ultra-high reliability and long lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veillette, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    Direct drive electromechanical system is composed of brushless dc torque motor, offset-tooth magnetic sensor that derives position and rate information directly from output shaft, and rotary power transformer that transfers electrical power from external source to proper load. System has high servo loop stiffness and minimum power consumption.

  9. Study of Advantages of PM Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for HEVs

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, Pedro J; Hsu, John S; Adams, Donald J

    2007-11-01

    The gains in efficiency and reduction in battery costs that can be achieved by changing the effective number of stator turns in an electric motor are demonstrated by simulating the performance of an electric vehicle on a set of eight standard driving cycles.

  10. Plasticity in the human speech motor system drives changes in speech perception.

    PubMed

    Lametti, Daniel R; Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Neufeld, Emily; Shiller, Douglas M; Ostry, David J

    2014-07-30

    Recent studies of human speech motor learning suggest that learning is accompanied by changes in auditory perception. But what drives the perceptual change? Is it a consequence of changes in the motor system? Or is it a result of sensory inflow during learning? Here, subjects participated in a speech motor-learning task involving adaptation to altered auditory feedback and they were subsequently tested for perceptual change. In two separate experiments, involving two different auditory perceptual continua, we show that changes in the speech motor system that accompany learning drive changes in auditory speech perception. Specifically, we obtained changes in speech perception when adaptation to altered auditory feedback led to speech production that fell into the phonetic range of the speech perceptual tests. However, a similar change in perception was not observed when the auditory feedback that subjects' received during learning fell into the phonetic range of the perceptual tests. This indicates that the central motor outflow associated with vocal sensorimotor adaptation drives changes to the perceptual classification of speech sounds.

  11. Speed Sensorless Induction Motor Drives for Electrical Actuators: Schemes, Trends and Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

    1997-01-01

    For a decade, induction motor drive-based electrical actuators have been under investigation as potential replacement for the conventional hydraulic and pneumatic actuators in aircraft. Advantages of electric actuator include lower weight and size, reduced maintenance and operating costs, improved safety due to the elimination of hazardous fluids and high pressure hydraulic and pneumatic actuators, and increased efficiency. Recently, the emphasis of research on induction motor drives has been on sensorless vector control which eliminates flux and speed sensors mounted on the motor. Also, the development of effective speed and flux estimators has allowed good rotor flux-oriented (RFO) performance at all speeds except those close to zero. Sensorless control has improved the motor performance, compared to the Volts/Hertz (or constant flux) controls. This report evaluates documented schemes for speed sensorless drives, and discusses the trends and tradeoffs involved in selecting a particular scheme. These schemes combine the attributes of the direct and indirect field-oriented control (FOC) or use model adaptive reference systems (MRAS) with a speed-dependent current model for flux estimation which tracks the voltage model-based flux estimator. Many factors are important in comparing the effectiveness of a speed sensorless scheme. Among them are the wide speed range capability, motor parameter insensitivity and noise reduction. Although a number of schemes have been proposed for solving the speed estimation, zero-speed FOC with robustness against parameter variations still remains an area of research for speed sensorless control.

  12. On-Line Tracking Controller for Brushless DC Motor Drives Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    A real-time control architecture is developed for time-varying nonlinear brushless dc motors operating in a high performance drives environment. The developed control architecture possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control. The dynamics of the motor are modeled on-line and controlled using an artificial neural network, as the system runs. The control architecture combines the experience and dependability of adaptive tracking systems with potential and promise of the neural computing technology. The sensitivity of real-time controller to parametric changes that occur during training is investigated. Such changes are usually manifested by rapid changes in the load of the brushless motor drives. This sudden change in the external load is simulated for the sigmoidal and sinusoidal reference tracks. The ability of the neuro-controller to maintain reasonable tracking accuracy in the presence of external noise is also verified for a number of desired reference trajectories.

  13. Stability analysis of the rotor of ultrasonic motor driving fluid directly.

    PubMed

    Changliang, Xia; Mengli, Wang

    2005-06-01

    The stability of the rotor of ultrasonic motor driving fluid directly is a key to its applications and control. This paper introduced the acoustic streaming and acoustic viscous stress near the boundary layer. Following this, the effect of acoustic viscous force on the stability of the rotor of ultrasonic motor driving fluid directly was presented in detail. The result showed that this system can be equivalent to a mass-spring and the spring constant can be used to weigh the stability of the rotor. By this model and relevant experiments, factors that affect the stability of the rotor such as the driving frequency, the rotor's weight and radius, the saturated acoustic streaming velocity, the mode number of stator vibration, the fluid's height and type are investigated and useful guidelines for design and application are obtained.

  14. Changing pattern in the basal ganglia: motor switching under reduced dopaminergic drive

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Vincenzo G.; Rigoli, Francesco; Stenner, Max-Philipp; Zaehle, Tino; Hirth, Frank; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Action selection in the basal ganglia is often described within the framework of a standard model, associating low dopaminergic drive with motor suppression. Whilst powerful, this model does not explain several clinical and experimental data, including varying therapeutic efficacy across movement disorders. We tested the predictions of this model in patients with Parkinson’s disease, on and off subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS), focussing on adaptive sensory-motor responses to a changing environment and maintenance of an action until it is no longer suitable. Surprisingly, we observed prolonged perseverance under on-stimulation, and high inter-individual variability in terms of the motor selections performed when comparing the two conditions. To account for these data, we revised the standard model exploring its space of parameters and associated motor functions and found that, depending on effective connectivity between external and internal parts of the globus pallidus and saliency of the sensory input, a low dopaminergic drive can result in increased, dysfunctional, motor switching, besides motor suppression. This new framework provides insight into the biophysical mechanisms underlying DBS, allowing a description in terms of alteration of the signal-to-baseline ratio in the indirect pathway, which better account of known electrophysiological data in comparison with the standard model. PMID:27004463

  15. A rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with four driving feet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

    2013-04-01

    To make full use of the vibrational energy of a longitudinal transducer, a rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor with four driving feet is proposed in this paper. This new motor consists of four longitudinal vibration transducers which are arranged in a rectangle and form an enclosed construction. Lead zirconate titanate ceramics are embedded into the middle of the transducer and fastened by a wedge-caulking mechanism. Each transducer includes an exponentially shaped horn located on each end. The horns of the vertical transducers intersect at the base of the horizontal transducers' horns; the tip ends of the horizontal transducers' horns are used as the driving feet. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical movements at the tip ends of the horns. The working principle of the proposed motor is analyzed. The resonance frequencies of two working modes are tuned to be close to each other by adjusting the structural parameters. Transient analysis is developed to gain the vibration characteristics of the motor. A prototype motor is fabricated and measured. The vibration test results verify the feasibility of the proposed design. Typical output of the prototype is a no-load speed of 928 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 60 N at a voltage of 200 Vrms.

  16. Variable-Speed Induction Motor Drives for Aircraft Environmental Control Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Hansen, I. G.; Schreiner, K. E.; Roth, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    New, more-efficient designs for aircraft jet engines are not capable of supplying the large quantities of bleed air necessary to provide pressurization and air conditioning for the environmental control systems (ECS) of the next generation of large passenger aircraft. System analysis and engineering have determined that electrically-driven ECS can help to maintain the improved fuel efficiencies; and electronic controllers and induction motors are now being developed in a NASA/NPD SBIR Program to drive both types of ECS compressors. Previous variable-speed induction motor/controller system developments and publications have primarily focused on field-oriented control, with large transient reserve power, for maximum acceleration and optimum response in actuator and robotics systems. The application area addressed herein is characterized by slowly-changing inputs and outputs, small reserve power capability for acceleration, and optimization for maximum efficiency. This paper therefore focuses on the differences between this case and the optimum response case, and shows the development of this new motor/controller approach. It starts with the creation of a new set of controller requirements. In response to those requirements, new control algorithms are being developed and implemented in an embedded computer, which is integrated into the motor controller closed loop. Buffered logic outputs are used to drive the power switches in a resonant-technology, power processor/motor-controller, at switching/resonant frequencies high enough to support efficient high-frequency induction motor operation at speeds up to 50,000-RPA

  17. Development of an ultrasonic linear motor with ultra-positioning capability and four driving feet.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cong; Chu, Xiangcheng; Yuan, Songmei; Zhong, Zuojin; Zhao, Yanqiang; Gao, Shuning

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a novel linear piezoelectric motor which is suitable for rapid ultra-precision positioning. The finite element analysis (FEA) was applied for optimal design and further analysis, then experiments were conducted to investigate its performance. By changing the input signal, the proposed motor was found capable of working in the fast driving mode as well as in the precision positioning mode. When working in the fast driving mode, the motor acts as an ultrasonic motor with maximum no-load speed up to 181.2mm/s and maximum thrust of 1.7N at 200Vp-p. Also, when working in precision positioning mode, the motor can be regarded as a flexible hinge piezoelectric actuator with arbitrary motion in the range of 8μm. The measurable minimum output displacement was found to be 0.08μm, but theoretically, can be even smaller. More importantly, the motor can be quickly and accurately positioned in a large stroke.

  18. Optimal efficiency vector control of induction motor drive system for drum washing machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Cheol; Yu, Jae Sung; Jang, Bong An; Won, Chung Yuen

    2005-12-01

    In home appliances, electric energy is optimally controlled by using power electronics technology, creating a comfortable environment in terms of energy saving, low sound generation, and reduced time consumption. Usually simplicity and robustness make the three phase induction motor attractive for use in domestic appliance, including washing machines. Two main types of domestic washing machine have evolved. We focus on efficiency of the front loading machine favored in Europe, which has a horizontal drum axis. This paper presents the control algorithm for optimal efficiency drives of an induction motor for drum washing machine. This system uses a simple model of the induction motor that include equations of the iron losses. The proposed optimal efficiency control algorithm calculates commands of the reference torque and flux currents for the flux oriented control of the induction motor. The proposed algorithm is verified through digital simulation.

  19. Simplified Evaluation Method of Drive Characteristics for Computer-Aided Design of Switched Reluctance Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Yoshiaki; Fubuki, Shingo; Kosaka, Takashi; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    Since Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM) have simple and rugged construction, they are suitable for low-cost variable speed drives in many industrial applications. However, it is rather difficult to design the motor and to predict the drive performance because of high magnetic non-linearity of the motors. Although FEM is useful for the SRM design, one of disadvantages is a long computation time. This paper proposes a simplified and fast evaluation method of the drive characteristics of SRM whose dimensions are given. The proposed method is composed of an analytical expression of magnetizing curvebased modeling approach and a simple non-linear magnetic analysis. At first, the comparative studies using 12/8 SRM show that the calculated current waveform and stiffness characteristic of the proposed modeling approach are in good agreement with those of experiment. Secondly, it is shown that the proposed magnetic analysis provides accurate and extremely fast magnetizing curves computation for the given motor dimensions compared to 3D-FEM. From the standpoints of analytical accuracy and the required computation time, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through the comparisons with 3D-FEM using two SRMs with different specifications.

  20. Standard series of direct-current motors for regulated electric drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholewicki, I.; Lubina, M.; Kozhevnikov, V. A.; Kochnev, A. V.; Skoda, K.; Voleskiy, E.

    1984-11-01

    A standard series of d.c. motors for electric drives with speed and torque regulation has been developed. Thyristor-type converters for machine tools with digital program control are also being developed. Meeting future goals requires modification of the motor frame from the conventional round to a nearly square one, a larger ratio of armature stack length to diameter, better cooling, and insulation of a higher temperature class. In addition, it is necessary to laminate the housing partially or completely and to include a compensating winding. The basic motor configuration is 1 M 1001, according to Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA) Standard 246-78, with at least IP 23S protection and 1C 06 or 1C 05 cooling (shaft height from 112 mm up) and 1C 01 cooling (Shaft height or up to 250 mm). The series will be designed for a reference speed of 1500 rpm with not more than 15% armature current fluctuation, with speeds of 300-3000 rpm depending on voltage and motor size and torque regulation 1:200 (externally cooled motors) or 1;5, 1:10, 1:30 (self-cooled motors). Prototype motors with 132 mm and 355 mm shaft heights have already passed all tests.

  1. Dynamic neural networks based on-line identification and control of high performance motor drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed; Kotaru, Raj

    1995-01-01

    In the automated and high-tech industries of the future, there wil be a need for high performance motor drives both in the low-power range and in the high-power range. To meet very straight demands of tracking and regulation in the two quadrants of operation, advanced control technologies are of a considerable interest and need to be developed. In response a dynamics learning control architecture is developed with simultaneous on-line identification and control. the feature of the proposed approach, to efficiently combine the dual task of system identification (learning) and adaptive control of nonlinear motor drives into a single operation is presented. This approach, therefore, not only adapts to uncertainties of the dynamic parameters of the motor drives but also learns about their inherent nonlinearities. In fact, most of the neural networks based adaptive control approaches in use have an identification phase entirely separate from the control phase. Because these approaches separate the identification and control modes, it is not possible to cope with dynamic changes in a controlled process. Extensive simulation studies have been conducted and good performance was observed. The robustness characteristics of neuro-controllers to perform efficiently in a noisy environment is also demonstrated. With this initial success, the principal investigator believes that the proposed approach with the suggested neural structure can be used successfully for the control of high performance motor drives. Two identification and control topologies based on the model reference adaptive control technique are used in this present analysis. No prior knowledge of load dynamics is assumed in either topology while the second topology also assumes no knowledge of the motor parameters.

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 242 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Vehicle Driving Record Data C Appendix C to Part 242 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Vehicle Driving Record Data The purpose of this appendix is to outline the procedures available to... provisions require that railroads consider the motor vehicle driving record of each person prior to...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 242 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Vehicle Driving Record Data C Appendix C to Part 242 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Vehicle Driving Record Data The purpose of this appendix is to outline the procedures available to... provisions require that railroads consider the motor vehicle driving record of each person prior to...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 242 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Vehicle Driving Record Data C Appendix C to Part 242 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Vehicle Driving Record Data The purpose of this appendix is to outline the procedures available to... provisions require that railroads consider the motor vehicle driving record of each person prior to...

  5. Low cost optical tweezers systems using double coil driving stepping motor to controlling sample stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laowattanatham, N.; Cheamanunkul, N.; Plaipichit, S.; Buranasiri, P.; Nuansri, R.

    2013-06-01

    In this research, the low cost optical tweezers systems using X-Y stage has been developed by using 5-phase stepping motor. By using sequential double coil driving, we can obtain the driving torque larger than using the single coil driving. The moving scale is fine resolution at 0.2 micrometer. The overall systems based on microcontroller PIC18F458 and joystick controller with LabView® graphical user interface (GUI). The mechanical damping has been included in the system for decreasing the vibrational noise. By using this method, our optical tweezers system is cheaper than the other commercial system that has been used the piezoelectric driving, and still has the same efficiency.

  6. Power-Quality Improvement in PFC Bridgeless SEPIC-Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Bist, Vashist

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a design of a power factor correction (PFC)-based brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive. The speed control of BLDC motor is achieved by controlling the DC link voltage of the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDC motor using a single voltage sensor. A front-end bridgeless single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) is used for DC link voltage control and PFC operation. A bridgeless SEPIC is designed to operate in discontinuous inductor current mode (DICM) thus utilizing a simple control scheme of voltage follower. An electronic commutation of BLDC motor is used for VSI to operate in a low-frequency operation for reduced switching losses in the VSI. Moreover, a bridgeless topology offers less conduction losses due to absence of diode bridge rectifier for further increasing the efficiency. The proposed BLDC motor drive is designed to operate over a wide range of speed control with an improved power-quality at the AC mains under the recommended international power-quality standards such as IEC 61000-3-2.

  7. Performance analysis of photovoltaic-powered water-pumping systems using switched reluctance motor drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwally, Hamid M. B.; Anis, Wagdy R.

    A photovoltaic-powered (PV) pumping system that uses a switched reluctance motor (SRM) is investigated. The motor is supplied by a d.c. voltage through a switching circuit. The drive circuit is much simpler than the normal d.c./a.c. inverter that is required to supply the induction motor. The efficiency of the SRM is considerably higher than that of equivalent d.c. or induction motors. In addition, because of the simple construction, the SRM is cheaper. By virtue of these advantages of the SRM, the proposed system has higher efficiency and lower cost compared with other systems. A design example is studied in detail to explore the advantages of PV pumping systems based on this new drive. It is found that the operating efficiency of the motor is about 85% during most of its working time. The matching efficiency between the PV array and the proposed system approaches 95%. The major part of the losses takes place in the pump and the riser pipes; this loss represents one-third of the total available energy.

  8. A Novel MagPipe Pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.R.; Montgomery, D.B.; Roderick, L.

    2009-11-15

    A novel capsule pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives, called Magplane MagPipe, is under development with the intention to replace trucks and railways for hauling materials from the mine to the rail head, power plant, or processing plant with reduced operating cost and energy consumption. The initial demonstration of a MagPipe line in Inner Mongolia will be a 500-m-long double-pipe coal transport system with the design transportation capacity of 3 Mega-Mg per year. The pipeline consists of 6-m-long plastic pipe modules with an I-beam suspension system inside the pipe to carry sets of five coupled capsules. The pipe will also contain noncontinuous motor winding modules spaced at 50-m intervals. A set of Halbach-arrayed permanent magnets on the bottom of the capsules interact with the linear motor windings to provide propulsion. The motor is driven by variable frequency drives outside the pipe to control the speed. This paper briefly describes the overall MagPipe pipeline transportation system, including the preliminary conclusions of the linear synchronous motor analysis.

  9. Design considerations of electromagnetic force in a direct drive permanent magnet brushless motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. S.; Tsai, M. C.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, a numerical study of electromagnetic force associated with the width of stator teeth, width of rotor back iron, and slot opening for a ten-pole nine-slot direct drive permanent magnet brushless motor is presented. The study calculates the amplitude of the electromagnetic force on the rotating rotor by using the finite-element method. The results show that the amplitude of electromagnetic force, which may cause the noise and vibration of motors, changes with the variation of these above mentioned three factors. The relationship between the considerations of output torque and the minimization of noise and vibration is also established in this paper.

  10. Driving with pets as a risk factor for motor vehicle collisions among older drivers.

    PubMed

    Blunck, Hallie; Owsley, Cynthia; MacLennan, Paul A; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-09-01

    Increasing rates of distraction-related motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) continue to raise concerns regarding driving safety. This study sought to evaluate a novel driving-related distraction, driving with a pet, as a risk factor for MVCs among older, community dwelling adults. Two thousand licensed drivers aged 70 and older were identified, of whom 691 reported pet ownership. Comparing pet owners who did and did not drive with their pets, neither overall MVC rates (rate ratio [RR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.26) nor at-fault MVC rates (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.57-1.24) were elevated. However, those who reported always driving with a pet in the vehicle had an elevated MVC rate (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.10-3.25), as compared to those who did not drive with a pet. The MVC rate was not increased for those reporting only sometimes or rarely driving with a pet in the vehicle. The current study demonstrates an increased risk of MVC involvement in those older drivers who always take a pet with them when they drive a vehicle. When confronted with an increased cognitive or physical workload while driving, elderly drivers in prior studies have exhibited slower cognitive performance and delayed response times in comparison to younger age groups. Further study of pet-related distracted driving behaviors among older drivers as well as younger populations with respect to driver safety and performance is warranted to appropriately inform the need for policy regulation on this issue.

  11. Installation considerations for IGBT AC drives

    SciTech Connect

    Skibinski, G.L.

    1997-06-01

    In the last four years, Adjustable Speed ac Drive (ASD) manufacturers have migrated from Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) semiconductors to Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) as the preferred Output switching device. The advantage of IGBTs over BJTs is that device rise and fall time switching capability is 5 - 10 times faster, resulting in lower device switching loss and a more efficient drive. However, for a similar motor cable length as the BJT drive, the faster output voltage risetime of the IGBT drive may increase the dielectric voltage stress on the motor and cable due to a phenomenon called reflected wave. Faster output dv/dt transitions of IGBT drives also increase the possibility for phenomenon such as increased Common Mode (CM) electrical noise, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) problems and increased capacitive cable charging current problems. Also, recent experience suggests any Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) drive with a steep fronted output voltage wave form may increase motor shaft voltage and lead to a bearing current phenomenon known as fluting. This paper provides a basic understanding of these issues, as well as solutions, to insure a successful drive system installation.

  12. A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H

    2014-01-01

    Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02951.001 PMID:25139955

  13. Direct-Drive Motor System with Particle-Type ER Fluid Damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyanagi, Ken'ichi; Furusho, Junji

    In most of robotic systems in industrial applications, vibratory problems occur at high-speed motion, because of elasticity of drive systems like reduction gear units and mechanical structures. Also friction and backlash in the drive systems cause serious problems. On the other hand, since direct-drive (DD) motor systems do not use reduction gears, those are effective for high-speed and high-precision control. In DD motor systems, however, low damping ratio, or large time delays of computers and amplifiers causes another type of problem at precise positioning phase. In this study, a particle type ER fluid damper was introduced to a DD motor system to compensate damping ratio mechanically. Because controlling viscosity of ER damper according to status of motion did not disturb advantage of the DD system that can move fast, the performance of the DD system was improved. The effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed experimentally. The method of our study can contribute to expansion of usability of ER fluid dampers on industrial applications not limited to DD systems.

  14. A New High Speed Induction Motor Drive based on Field Orientation and Hysteresis Current Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogbuka, Cosmas; Nwosu, Cajethan; Agu, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new high speed induction motor drive based on the core advantage of field orientation control (FOC) and hysteresis current comparison (HCC). A complete closed loop speed-controlled induction motor drive system is developed consisting of an outer speed and an inner HCC algorithm which are optimised to obtain fast and stable speed response with effective current and torque tracking, both during transient and steady states. The developed model, being speed-controlled, was examined with step and ramp speed references and excellent performances obtained under full load stress. A speed response comparison of the model with the standard AC3 (Field-Oriented Control Induction Motor Drive) of MATLAB Simpower systems shows that the model achieved a rise time of 0.0762 seconds compared to 0.2930 seconds achieved by the AC3. Also, a settle time of 0.0775 seconds was obtained with the developed model while that of the AC3 model is 0.2986 seconds confirming, therefore, the superiority of the developed model over the AC3 model which, hitherto, served as a reference standard.

  15. Novel Observer Scheme of Fuzzy-MRAS Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekroun, S.; Zerikat, M.; Mechernene, A.; Benharir, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach Fuzzy-MRAS conception for robust accurate tracking of induction motor drive operating in a high-performance drives environment. Of the different methods for sensorless control of induction motor drive the model reference adaptive system (MRAS) finds lot of attention due to its good performance. The analysis of the sensorless vector control system using MRAS is presented and the resistance parameters variations and speed observer using new Fuzzy Self-Tuning adaptive IP Controller is proposed. In fact, fuzzy logic is reminiscent of human thinking processes and natural language enabling decisions to be made based on vague information. The present approach helps to achieve a good dynamic response, disturbance rejection and low to plant parameter variations of the induction motor. In order to verify the performances of the proposed observer and control algorithms and to test behaviour of the controlled system, numerical simulation is achieved. Simulation results are presented and discussed to shown the validity and the performance of the proposed observer.

  16. A ring-type multi-DOF ultrasonic motor with four feet driving consistently.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shengjun; Xiong, Huaiyin; Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao

    2017-04-01

    A new type of multiple-degree-of-freedom (multi-DOF) ultrasonic motor was developed aiming at high output torque and compact structure. To reach this purpose, a ring type composite stator was proposed with four driving feet uniformly arranged in the inner circumference of the ring stator. The stator employs two orthogonal axial bending modes and a radial bending mode, by exciting two of them simultaneously, to generate elliptic trajectories on driving feet tips and to push sphere rotor around x, y and z axis respectively. Based on the deduced criteria, a specific combination of the A(0,5) axial bending modes and R(0,2) radial bending mode were chosen to realize that the rotating directions of the elliptical driving trajectories on four feet tips can push the sphere rotor to spin in the same direction consistently, thus the efficiency and output performance will be improved by decreasing the slip between feet and rotor. FEM was used to design the motor including selecting key parameters to tune the resonant frequencies by sensitivity analysis, and a prototype was fabricated and tested. The experiment results showed that the maximum output torque of the motor is 0.118Nm and the maximum speed is 55r/min.

  17. SDRE control strategy applied to a nonlinear robotic including drive motor

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Jeferson J. de E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Tusset, Angelo M. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Janzen, Frederic C. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Piccirillo, Vinicius E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Nascimento, Claudinor B. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br; Balthazar, José M.; Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da Fonseca

    2014-12-10

    A robotic control design considering all the inherent nonlinearities of the robot-engine configuration is developed. The interactions between the robot and joint motor drive mechanism are considered. The proposed control combines two strategies, one feedforward control in order to maintain the system in the desired coordinate, and feedback control system to take the system into a desired coordinate. The feedback control is obtained using State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE). For link positioning two cases are considered. Case I: For control positioning, it is only used motor voltage; Case II: For control positioning, it is used both motor voltage and torque between the links. Simulation results, including parametric uncertainties in control shows the feasibility of the proposed control for the considered system.

  18. Design of direct drive robot using indigenously developed d.c. torque motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athani, Vithal V.

    The range of high-performance torque motors, which were indigenously developed for use in multistage satellite launch vehicles, is described. The main features that set dc torque motors apart from dc servomotors are: high peak torque, power, and current over short periods of operation, low speed of operation, obviating the need for gearing, high torque/inertia and torque/weight ratios, and high figure of merit = torque/sq rt watt ratio. The dc torque motors are eminently suited to high-performance applications requiring high torque at low speed of operation, such as aircraft and missile control surface actuation, control of multistage satellite launch vehicles, certain computer peripherals like magnetic tape transports and hard disk drives, and robotics, CNC systems, and machine tool control.

  19. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-01-01

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed. PMID:27973431

  20. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-12-12

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed.

  1. Single-Phase Drive Linear Ultrasonic Motor with Perpendicular Electrode Vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih-Wei Hsiao,; Mi-Ching Tsai,

    2010-02-01

    Unlike most ultrasonic motor designs, in this study, we employ a pair of perpendicular electrodes to energize a piezoelectric vibrator, in which the angle between the direction of polarization and the electric field is purposely set at neither 0 nor 90° so that both the longitudinal and shear effects of the vibrator can be generated simultaneously by a single-phase voltage source. Such a vibrator can generate oblique line trajectories on the contact surface to push a slider for movement, while its moving direction can be easily controlled by switching the excitation sequence of the pair of perpendicular electrodes. In this study, the finite element analysis method was first employed to simulate the oscillatory behavior of the vibrator and then simulation results were verified by single-point, noncontact measurement on the surface of the vibrator. The newly designed linear ultrasonic motor, which can offer identical performance in both forward and backward motions, can maintain its attractive characteristics of simple structure, quiet operation, and single-phase drive. A prototype of the single-phase drive linear ultrasonic motor was fabricated to confirm the feasibility of the proposed vibrator design. The illustrated bidirectional linear ultrasonic motor is shown to be capable of generating a sliding velocity of 84.2 mm/s and a sliding force of 1.79 N.

  2. Fuzzy Logic Controlled Solar Module for Driving Three- Phase Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Sooi Tat, Chan; Ajisman

    2016-02-01

    Renewable energy produced by solar module gives advantages for generated three- phase induction motor in remote area. But, solar module's ou tput is uncertain and complex. Fuzzy logic controller is one of controllers that can handle non-linear system and maximum power of solar module. Fuzzy logic controller used for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique to control Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) for switching power electronics circuit. DC-DC boost converter used to boost up photovoltaic voltage to desired output and supply voltage source inverter which controlled by three-phase PWM generated by microcontroller. IGBT switched Voltage source inverter (VSI) produced alternating current (AC) voltage from direct current (DC) source to control speed of three-phase induction motor from boost converter output. Results showed that, the output power of solar module is optimized and controlled by using fuzzy logic controller. Besides that, the three-phase induction motor can be drive and control using VSI switching by the PWM signal generated by the fuzzy logic controller. This concluded that the non-linear system can be controlled and used in driving three-phase induction motor.

  3. Four quadrant control of induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1991-01-01

    Induction motors are the nation's workhorse, being the motor of choice in most applications due to their simple rugged construction. It has been estimated that 14 to 27 percent of the country's total electricity use could be saved with adjustable speed drives. Until now, induction motors have not been suited well for variable speed or servo-drives, due to the inherent complexity, size, and inefficiency of their variable speed controls. Work at NASA Lewis Research Center on field oriented control of induction motors using pulse population modulation method holds the promise for the desired drive electronics. The system allows for a variable voltage to frequency ratio which enables the user to operate the motor at maximum efficiency, while having independent control of both the speed and torque of an induction motor in all four quadrants of the speed torque map. Multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of machine. The pulse population technique, results to date, and projections for implementation of this existing new motor control technology are discussed.

  4. Sleepiness, driving, and motor vehicle accidents: A questionnaire-based survey.

    PubMed

    Zwahlen, Daniel; Jackowski, Christian; Pfäffli, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    In Switzerland, the prevalence of an excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in drivers undergoing a driving capacity assessment is currently not known. In this study, private and professional drivers were evaluated by means of a paper-based questionnaire, including Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Berlin Questionnaire, and additional questions to sleepiness-related accidents, near-miss accidents, health issues, and demographic data. Of the 435 distributed questionnaires, 128 completed were returned. The response rate was 29%. The mean age of the investigated drivers was 42.5 years (20-85 years). According to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, 9% of the participants are likely to suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness. An equal percentage has a high risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome based on the Berlin Questionnaire. 16% admitted an involuntary nodding off while driving a motor vehicle. This subset of the participants scored statistically significant higher on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (p = 0.036). 8% of the participants already suffered an accident because of being sleepy while driving. An equal number experienced a sleepiness-related near-miss accident on the road. The study shows that a medical workup of excessive daytime sleepiness is highly recommended in each driver undergoing a driving capacity assessment. Routine application of easily available and time-saving assessment tools such as the Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire could prevent accidents in a simple way. The applicability of the Berlin Questionnaire to screen suspected fatal sleepiness-related motor vehicle accidents is discussed.

  5. Sensor-less pseudo-sinusoidal drive for a permanent-magnet brushless ac motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li-Hsiang; Chern, Tzuen-Lih; Pan, Ping-Lung; Huang, Tsung-Mou; Tsay, Der-Min; Kuang, Jao-Hwa

    2012-04-01

    The precise rotor-position information is required for a permanent-magnet brushless ac motor (BLACM) drive. In the conventional sinusoidal drive method, either an encoder or a resolver is usually employed. For position sensor-less vector control schemes, the rotor flux estimation and torque components are obtained by complicated coordinate transformations. These computational intensive methods are susceptible to current distortions and parameter variations. To simplify the method complexity, this work presents a sensor-less pseudo-sinusoidal drive scheme with speed control for a three-phase BLACM. Based on the sinusoidal drive scheme, a floating period of each phase current is inserted for back electromotive force detection. The zero-crossing point is determined directly by the proposed scheme, and the rotor magnetic position and rotor speed can be estimated simultaneously. Several experiments for various active angle periods are undertaken. Furthermore, a current feedback control is included to minimize and compensate the torque fluctuation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a competitive performance compared with the conventional drive manners for BLACM. The proposed scheme is straightforward, bringing the benefits of sensor-less drive and negating the need for coordinate transformations in the operating process.

  6. Modeling and controller performance assessment for a switched reluctance motor drive based on setpoint relay.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, L L N; Coelho, A A R; Almeida, O M; Campos, J C T

    2009-04-01

    This paper considers the implementation of a current control method for switched reluctance motors (SRMs) and presents a novel approach to the accurate on-line modeling of an SRM drive. A simple autotuning technique for the SRM drives using a PWM controller is considered. Furthermore, conventional PI control and Internal Model Control (IMC) are considered to validate this method and present corresponding robust control analysis for the process. The control structures are comparatively analyzed using standard robustness measures for stability and performance. The proposed PWM controller is simulated and a hardware prototype is then implemented using digital signal processor control to evaluate the method using a 12/8, three-phase SRM. The experimental results of the SRM drive model validates the performance of the current loop.

  7. Fractional-Slot Surface Mounted PM Motors with Concentrated Windings for HEV Traction Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.M.

    2005-10-24

    High-power density and efficiency resulting from elimination of rotor windings and reduced magnetic-flux losses have made the rare earth permanent magnet (PM) motor a leading candidate for the Department of Energy's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVTs) traction drive motor. These traction drives are generally powered by radial-gap motors, having the magnets on or embedded in a rotating cylinder separated from the inside surface of a slotted cylindrical stator by an annular gap. The two main types of radial-gap PM rotors are those with magnets mounted on the surface of a supporting back iron, called PM surface mounted (PMSM) motors, and those with magnets mounted in slots in the rotor, called interior PM (IPM) motors. Most early PM motor research was on the PMSM motor, which was thought to have an inherently low stator inductance. A low stator inductance can lead to currents dangerously exceeding rated current as the back-emf across the inductance increases with speed; consequently, part of the attempted solution has been to increase the stator inductance to reduce the rate of current rise. Although analysis suggested that there should be no problem designing sufficiently high stator inductance into PMSMs, attempts to do so were often not successful and a motor design was sought that would have a higher intrinsic inductance. Commercial research at Toyota has focused on IPM motors because they can achieve a high-saliency ratio, which helps them operate over a high constant power speed ratio (CPSR), but they are more difficult to fabricate. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) position has been to continue research on brushless direct current (dc) motors (BDCMs) because of ease of fabrication and increased power output. Recently there has been a revival of interest in a fractional-slot PMSMs [15] made with concentrated windings because they possess three important features. First, they can increase the motor's inductance sufficiently to reduce

  8. Universal Parameter Measurement and Sensorless Vector Control of Induction and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shu; Ara, Takahiro

    Recently, induction motors (IMs) and permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) have been used in various industrial drive systems. The features of the hardware device used for controlling the adjustable-speed drive in these motors are almost identical. Despite this, different techniques are generally used for parameter measurement and speed-sensorless control of these motors. If the same technique can be used for parameter measurement and sensorless control, a highly versatile adjustable-speed-drive system can be realized. In this paper, the authors describe a new universal sensorless control technique for both IMs and PMSMs (including salient pole and nonsalient pole machines). A mathematical model applicable for IMs and PMSMs is discussed. Using this model, the authors derive the proposed universal sensorless vector control algorithm on the basis of estimation of the stator flux linkage vector. All the electrical motor parameters are determined by a unified test procedure. The proposed method is implemented on three test machines. The actual driving test results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  9. A Motor Drive Electronics Assembly for Mars Curiosity Rover: An Example of Assembly Qualification for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, Elizabeth; Chen, Yuan; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Tudryn Weber, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the technology development and infusion of the motor drive electronics assembly, along with the technology qualification and space qualification, is described and detailed. The process is an example of the qualification methodology for extreme environmen

  10. Single Phase Drive Ultrasonic Motor Using LiNbO3 Rectangular Vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Hideki; Shibata, Kyousuke; Aoyagi, Manabu; Takano, Takehiro; Tomikawa, Yoshiro; Hirose, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    A miniature thin-plate ultrasonic motor fabricated from LiNbO3 was studied. To obtain a single phase drive motor, we used a coupling mode which combined a longitudinal and flexural in-plane vibrations. In our previous study, the coupling modes were achieved in a parallelogram vibrator by the effect of additional external mass. Instead of deforming the outer shape, this study uses an internal coupling effect resulting from the crystal anisotropy. We confirmed that a rectangular plate vibrator made of X-rotated Y-cut LiNbO3 with additional y‧-axis rotation has coupling modes and can operate as the stator of a single phase motor. In this paper, we describe the design of the vibrator with finite element method analysis and the experimental results from the ultrasonic motor using a LiNbO3 rectangular plate 10 mm in length. The motor with a rotor shaft 1 mm in diameter demonstrated the following characteristics: a speed of 1000 rpm and torque of 25 µN m in counter-clockwise (CCW) revolution, and of 5000 rpm and 12 µN m in clockwise (CW) revolution. We obtained the reverse rotation experimentally; however, the different characteristics between CW and CCW operation, which are obstacle to practical use, are subjects for future study.

  11. Motor Circuit-Specific Burst Patterns Drive Different Muscle and Behavior Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Florian; White, Rachel S.; Stein, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In the isolated CNS, different modulatory inputs can enable one motor network to generate multiple output patterns. Thus far, however, few studies have established whether different modulatory inputs also enable a defined network to drive distinct muscle and movement patterns in vivo, much as they enable these distinctions in behavioral studies. This possibility is not a foregone conclusion, because additional influences present in vivo (e.g., sensory feedback, hormonal modulation) could alter the motor patterns. Additionally, rhythmic neuronal activity can be transformed into sustained muscle contractions, particularly in systems with slow muscle dynamics, as in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric system used here. We assessed whether two different versions of the biphasic (protraction, retraction) gastric mill (chewing) rhythm, triggered in the isolated stomatogastric system by the modulatory ventral cardiac neurons (VCNs) and postoesophageal commissure (POC) neurons, drive different muscle and movement patterns. One distinction between these rhythms is that the lateral gastric (LG) protractor motor neuron generates tonic bursts during the VCN rhythm, whereas its POC-rhythm bursts are divided into fast, rhythmic burstlets. Intracellular muscle fiber recordings and tension measurements show that the LG-innervated muscles retain the distinct VCN-LG and POC-LG neuron burst structures. Moreover, endoscope video recordings in vivo, during VCN-triggered and POC-triggered chewing, show that the lateral teeth protraction movements exhibit the same, distinct protraction patterns generated by LG in the isolated nervous system. Thus, the multifunctional nature of an identified motor network in the isolated CNS can be preserved in vivo, where it drives different muscle activity and movement patterns. PMID:23864688

  12. Competition with Primary Sensory Afferents Drives Remodeling of Corticospinal Axons in Mature Spinal Motor Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-Qiu; Zaaimi, Boubker

    2016-01-01

    Injury to the mature motor system drives significant spontaneous axonal sprouting instead of axon regeneration. Knowing the circuit-level determinants of axonal sprouting is important for repairing motor circuits after injury to achieve functional rehabilitation. Competitive interactions are known to shape corticospinal tract axon outgrowth and withdrawal during development. Whether and how competition contributes to reorganization of mature spinal motor circuits is unclear. To study this question, we examined plastic changes in corticospinal axons in response to two complementary proprioceptive afferent manipulations: (1) enhancing proprioceptive afferents activity by electrical stimulation; or (2) diminishing their input by dorsal rootlet rhizotomy. Experiments were conducted in adult rats. Electrical stimulation produced proprioceptive afferent sprouting that was accompanied by significant corticospinal axon withdrawal and a decrease in corticospinal connections on cholinergic interneurons in the medial intermediate zone and C boutons on motoneurons. In contrast, dorsal rootlet rhizotomy led to a significant increase in corticospinal connections, including those on cholinergic interneurons; C bouton density increased correspondingly. Motor cortex-evoked muscle potentials showed parallel changes to those of corticospinal axons, suggesting that reciprocal corticospinal axon changes are functional. Using the two complementary models, we showed that competitive interactions between proprioceptive and corticospinal axons are an important determinant in the organization of mature corticospinal axons and spinal motor circuits. The activity- and synaptic space-dependent properties of the competition enables prediction of the remodeling of spared corticospinal connection and spinal motor circuits after injury and informs the target-specific control of corticospinal connections to promote functional recovery. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuroplasticity is limited in maturity

  13. Variable-reluctance motor drives for electric vehicle propulsion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, J.H.; Vallese, F.J.

    1985-05-01

    A methodology is presented for the design of a variable reluctance motor drive having high specific torque, power output and efficiency. Models are developed that describe the magnetic terminal relations of the VRM. These models are based on a flux-tube analysis that is motivated by numerically obtained finite-difference magnetic simulations. The result is a model for the flux-linkage/phase-current characteristic of the VRM. Intrinsic to this model is the estimation of maximum and minimum inductance as well the incremental inductance during bulk saturation. Also fundamental is the behavior of the flux linkage during local pole-tip saturation and due to bulk core saturation. This model agrees favorably with data available in the literature as well as experimental results presented in this thesis. The drive-oriented treatment of modelling and design uncovered important design interactions between the VRM, its inverter, and its excitation. The experimental 3.8-kW drive operated as expected, verifying the models and the design optimizations developed for VRM drives. These experimental results were projected to the 60-kW level, indicating that a 60-kW drive could be constructed with a VRM having a mass of approximately 65 kg, and an efficiency in excess of 95% at and below peak power output. The corresponding inverter was designed with only three high-power switches so as to reduce its cost.

  14. Previous Driving Experience, but Not Vision, Is Associated With Motor Vehicle Collision Rate in Bioptic Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Bradley E.; Flom, Roanne E.; Bullimore, Mark A.; Raasch, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bioptic telescopic spectacles (BTS) consist of a small telescope (or telescopes) mounted high in a pair of spectacle lenses. More than 40 states allow for some form of bioptic driving licensure for people with decreased central vision. The purpose of this study was to determine significant associations among previous driving experience, vision, and motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) for bioptic drivers in Ohio. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of patients who received a vision examination and subsequently obtained bioptic licensure. We obtained driving records from the Ohio Bureau of Motor Vehicles in order to determine MVC involvement. Relationships among vision measures, age, sex, previous experience, and MVCs were investigated using time-to-event analysis and the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results We identified 237 bioptic drivers (65% male). Age at initial exam ranged from 16 to 81 years, and mean visual acuity was approximately 20/120. The number of MVCs per driver ranged from 0 to 11, with 124 (52%) drivers having had at least one MVC. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were not significant predictors of MVC. Drivers without previous driving experience were significantly more likely to have been involved in an MVC (P < 0.001), and this association remained significant after adjusting for age and sex (P = 0.01). The rate of MVC per year decreased steadily over a 10-year period for drivers without previous experience. Conclusions Previous nonbioptic driving experience, but not visual acuity or contrast sensitivity, was associated with yearly MVC rate in bioptic drivers. PMID:26436885

  15. Elastic contact conditions to optimize friction drive of surface acoustic wave motor.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi Kurosawa, M; Takahashi, M; Higuchi, T

    1998-01-01

    The optimum pressing force, namely the preload, for a slider to obtain superior operation conditions in a surface acoustic wave motor have been examined. We used steel balls as sliders. The preload was controlled using a permanent magnet. The steel balls were 0.5, 1, and 2 mm diameter, with the differences in diameter making it possible to change contact conditions, such as the contact pressure, contact area, and deformation of the stator and the slider. The stator transducer was lithium niobate, 128 degrees rotated, y-cut x-propagation substrate. The driving frequency of the Rayleigh wave was about 10 MHz. Hence, the particle vibration amplitude at the surface is as small as 10 nm. For superior friction drive conditions, a high contact pressure was required. For example, in the case of the 1 mm diameter steel ball at the sinusoidal driving voltage of 180 V(peak), the slider speed was 43 cm/sec, the thrust output force was 1 mN, and the acceleration was 23 times as large as the gravitational acceleration at a contact pressure of 390 MPa. From the Hertz theory of contact stress, the contact area radius was only 3 microm. The estimation of the friction drive performance was carried out from the transient traveling distance of the slider in a 3 msec burst drive. As a result, the deformation of the stator and the slider by the preload should be half of the vibration amplitude. This condition was independent of the ball diameter and the vibration amplitude. The output thrust per square millimeter was 50 N, and the maximum speed was 0.7 m/sec. From these results, we conclude that it is possible for the surface acoustic wave motor to have a large output force, high speed, quick response, long traveling distance, and a thin micro linear actuator.

  16. “Disturbance-Observers in the D-Module” for Sensorless Drive of Synchronous Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Shinji

    This paper proposes two new “disturbance-observers in the D-module" for sensorless drive of synchronous motors including permanent-magnet synchronous motors and synchronous reluctance motors. The disturbance filter for the observers can estimate speed-varying rotor-phase (in other words, rotor-position) with zero phase-lag. It is constructed by means of “the filter in the D-module", which has the following desired characteristics for variable sensorless drive: 1) it makes distinction between positive and negative frequencies of two-phase signals; 2) it can allow to process the signals based on frequency polarities; 3) it can also change dynamically its center frequency of band-pass filtering according to rotor speed estimates; 4) its passband and transition can be designed independently; and 5) it can be easily realized. The new disturbance-observers also have a generality such that they contain the recently proposed disturbance-observer as a special case.

  17. MRAS state estimator for speed sensorless ISFOC induction motor drives with Luenberger load torque estimation.

    PubMed

    Zorgani, Youssef Agrebi; Koubaa, Yassine; Boussak, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method for estimating the load torque of a sensorless indirect stator flux oriented controlled (ISFOC) induction motor drive based on the model reference adaptive system (MRAS) scheme. As a matter of fact, this method is meant to inter-connect a speed estimator with the load torque observer. For this purpose, a MRAS has been applied to estimate the rotor speed with tuned load torque in order to obtain a high performance ISFOC induction motor drive. The reference and adjustable models, developed in the stationary stator reference frame, are used in the MRAS scheme in an attempt to estimate the speed of the measured terminal voltages and currents. The load torque is estimated by means of a Luenberger observer defined throughout the mechanical equation. Every observer state matrix depends on the mechanical characteristics of the machine taking into account the vicious friction coefficient and inertia moment. Accordingly, some simulation results are presented to validate the proposed method and to highlight the influence of the variation of the inertia moment and the friction coefficient on the speed and the estimated load torque. The experimental results, concerning to the sensorless speed with a load torque estimation, are elaborated in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The complete sensorless ISFOC with load torque estimation is successfully implemented in real time using a digital signal processor board DSpace DS1104 for a laboratory 3 kW induction motor.

  18. DC Motor Drive for Small Autonomous Robots with Educational and Research Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krklješ, Damir; Babković, Kalman; Nagy, László; Borovac, Branislav; Nikolić, Milan

    Many student robot competitions have been established during the last decade. One of them, and the most popular in Europe, is the European competition EUROBOT. The basic aim of this competition is to promote the robotics among young people, mostly students and high school pupils. The additional outcome of the competition is the development of faculty curriculums that are based on this competition. Such curriculum has been developed at the Faculty of Technical Science in Novi Sad. The curriculum duration is two semesters. During the first semester the theoretical basis is presented to the students. During the second semester the students, divided into teams of three to five students, develop the robots which will take part in the incoming EUROBOT competition. Since the time for the robot development is short, the basic electronic kit is provided for the students. The basic parts of the kit are two DC motor drives dedicated to the robot locomotion. The drives will also be used in the research concerning the multi segment robot foot. This paper presents the DC motor drive and its features. The experimental results concerning speed and position regulations and also the current limiting is presented too.

  19. Training the Motor Aspects of Pre-Driving Skills of Young Adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Johnell; Kellett, Julie; Seeanner, Julia; Jenkins, Casey; Buchanan, Caroline; Kinsman, Anne; Kelly, Desmond; Pierce, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of using a driving simulator to address the motor aspects of pre-driving skills with young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A group of neurotypical control participants and ten participants with ASD completed 18 interactive steering and pedal exercises with the goal to achieve…

  20. A cortical motor nucleus drives the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus in singing birds

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jesse H.

    2012-01-01

    The pallido-recipient thalamus transmits information from the basal ganglia (BG) to the cortex and plays a critical role motor initiation and learning. Thalamic activity is strongly inhibited by pallidal inputs from the BG, but the role of non-pallidal inputs, such as excitatory inputs from cortex, is unclear. We have recorded simultaneously from presynaptic pallidal axon terminals and postsynaptic thalamocortical neurons in a BG-recipient thalamic nucleus necessary for vocal variability and learning in zebra finches. We found that song-locked rate modulations in the thalamus could not be explained by pallidal inputs alone, and persisted following pallidal lesion. Instead, thalamic activity was likely driven by inputs from a motor ‘cortical’ nucleus also necessary for singing. These findings suggest a role for cortical inputs to the pallido-recipient thalamus in driving premotor signals important for exploratory behavior and learning. PMID:22327474

  1. Fuzzy logic controller for the electric motor driving the astronomical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Hussein F.; Attia, Abdel-Fattah A.; Badr, Mohammed A.; Osman, Anas M.; Gamaleldin, Abdul A.

    1998-05-01

    The paper presents an application of fuzzy logic controller to regulate the DC motor driver system of astronomical telescope. The mathematical model of such a telescope is highly nonlinear coupled equations. However, the accuracy requirement in telescope system exceed those of other industrial plants. Fuzzy logic controller provides means to deal with nonlinear functions. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was designed to enhance the performance of a two-link model of astronomical telescope. The proposed FLC utilizes the position deviation for the desired value, and its rate of change to regulate the armature voltage of the DC motor drive of each link. The final action of FLC is equivalent to PD controller with a variable gain by using an expert look- up table. This work presents the derivation of the mathematical model of 14 inch Celestron telescope and computer simulation of its motion. The FLC contains two groups of fuzzy sets.

  2. Fuzzy efficiency optimization of AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Yashvant; Sousa, Gilberto; Turner, Wayne; Spiegel, Ron; Chappell, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the early states of work to implement a fuzzy logic controller to optimize the efficiency of AC induction motor/adjustable speed drive (ASD) systems running at less than optimal speed and torque conditions. In this paper, the process by which the membership functions of the controller were tuned is discussed and a controller which operates on frequency as well as voltage is proposed. The membership functions for this dual-variable controller are sketched. Additional topics include an approach for fuzzy logic to motor current control which can be used with vector-controlled drives. Incorporation of a fuzzy controller as an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) microchip is planned.

  3. Conducted EMI Modeling and Mitigation for Power Converters and Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J.

    2012-05-01

    The increasing use of power electronics in aircraft power systems to enable new, more-electric aircraft (MEA) functions has also led to increasing EMI emission. EMI filters may account for more than 50% of the overall volume and weight of high-power converters such as variable-speed motor drives. The traditional approach to mitigating EMI requires functional prototypes and EMI measurements before filter design can start. Such an empirical, EMI-last approach results in designs that are suboptimal at best and is a major cause for schedule delay and disruption. This paper reviews recent research on EMI modeling and system solutions to EMI, empha- sizing conducted emission of three-phase converters and variable-speed drives that dominate system EMI filtering requirements. The goal is to enable a concurrent-EMI design approach and to develop optimal system solutions that minimize the overall volume and size.

  4. Driving through the Great Recession: Why does motor vehicle fatality decrease when the economy slows down?

    PubMed Central

    He, Monica M.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between short-term macroeconomic growth and temporary mortality increases remains strongest for motor vehicle (MV) crashes. In this paper, I investigate the mechanisms that explain falling MV fatality rates during the recent Great Recession. Using U.S. state-level panel data from 2003–2013, I first estimate the relationship between unemployment and MV fatality rate and then decompose it into risk and exposure factors for different types of MV crashes. Results reveal a significant 2.9 percent decrease in MV fatality rate for each percentage point increase in unemployment rate. This relationship is almost entirely explained by changes in the risk of driving rather than exposure to the amount of driving and is particularly robust for crashes involving large commercial trucks, multiple vehicles, and speeding cars. These findings provide evidence suggesting traffic patterns directly related to economic activity lead to higher risk of MV fatality rates when the economy improves. PMID:26967529

  5. An Improved Power Quality Based Sheppard-Taylor Converter Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Bist, Vashist

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the design and analysis of a power factor correction based Sheppard-Taylor converter fed brushless dc motor (BLDCM) drive. The speed of the BLDCM is controlled by adjusting the dc link voltage of the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDCM. Moreover, a low frequency switching of the VSI is used for electronically commutating the BLDCM for reduced switching losses. The Sheppard-Taylor converter is designed to operate in continuous conduction mode to achieve an improved power quality at the ac mains for a wide range of speed control and supply voltage variation. The BLDCM drive is designed and its performance is simulated in a MATLAB/Simulink environment to achieve the power quality indices within the limits of the international power quality standard IEC-61000-3-2.

  6. One central oscillatory drive is compatible with experimental motor unit behaviour in essential and Parkinsonian tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dideriksen, Jakob L.; Gallego, Juan A.; Holobar, Ales; Rocon, Eduardo; Pons, Jose L.; Farina, Dario

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Pathological tremors are symptomatic to several neurological disorders that are difficult to differentiate and the way by which central oscillatory networks entrain tremorogenic contractions is unknown. We considered the alternative hypotheses that tremor arises from one oscillator (at the tremor frequency) or, as suggested by recent findings from the superimposition of two separate inputs (at the tremor frequency and twice that frequency). Approach. Assuming one central oscillatory network we estimated analytically the relative amplitude of the harmonics of the tremor frequency in the motor neuron output for different temporal behaviors of the oscillator. Next, we analyzed the bias in the relative harmonics amplitude introduced by superimposing oscillations at twice the tremor frequency. These findings were validated using experimental measurements of wrist angular velocity and surface electromyography (EMG) from 22 patients (11 essential tremor, 11 Parkinson’s disease). The ensemble motor unit action potential trains identified from the EMG represented the neural drive to the muscles. Main results. The analytical results showed that the relative power of the tremor harmonics in the analytical models of the neural drive was determined by the variability and duration of the tremor bursts and the presence of the second oscillator biased this power towards higher values. The experimental findings accurately matched the analytical model assuming one oscillator, indicating a negligible functional role of secondary oscillatory inputs. Furthermore, a significant difference in the relative power of harmonics in the neural drive was found across the patient groups, suggesting a diagnostic value of this measure (classification accuracy: 86%). This diagnostic power decreased substantially when estimated from limb acceleration or the EMG. Signficance. The results indicate that the neural drive in pathological tremor is compatible with one central network

  7. Stable adaptive PI control for permanent magnet synchronous motor drive based on improved JITL technique.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shiqi; Tang, Xiaoqi; Song, Bao; Lu, Shaowu; Ye, Bosheng

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a stable adaptive PI control strategy based on the improved just-in-time learning (IJITL) technique is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive. Firstly, the traditional JITL technique is improved. The new IJITL technique has less computational burden and is more suitable for online identification of the PMSM drive system which is highly real-time compared to traditional JITL. In this way, the PMSM drive system is identified by IJITL technique, which provides information to an adaptive PI controller. Secondly, the adaptive PI controller is designed in discrete time domain which is composed of a PI controller and a supervisory controller. The PI controller is capable of automatically online tuning the control gains based on the gradient descent method and the supervisory controller is developed to eliminate the effect of the approximation error introduced by the PI controller upon the system stability in the Lyapunov sense. Finally, experimental results on the PMSM drive system show accurate identification and favorable tracking performance.

  8. Fuel-Cell-Powered Electric Motor Drive Analyzed for a Large Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Choi, Benjamin B.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its high efficiency, fuel cell technology may be used to launch a new generation of more-electric aeropropulsion and power systems for future aircraft. Electric-motor-driven airplanes using fuel-cell powerplants would be beneficial to the environment because of fuel savings, low noise, and zero carbon-dioxide emissions. In spite of the fuel cell s efficiency benefit, to produce the same shaft drive power, a fuel cell- powered electric-drive system must be definitely heavier than a turbine-drive system. However, the fuel-cell system s overall efficiency from fuel-to-shaft power is higher than for a turbine-drive system. This means that the fuel consumption rate could be lower than for a conventional system. For heavier, fuel-laden planes for longer flights, we might achieve substantial fuel savings. In the airplane industry, in fact, an efficiency gain of even a few percentage points can make a major economic difference in operating costs.

  9. Improving Energy Efficiency in Pharmaceutical ManufacturingOperations -- Part I: Motors, Drives and Compressed Air Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chien; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet,Eric

    2006-04-01

    In Part I of this two-part series, we focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in the U.S. spend nearly $1 billion each year for the fuel and electricity they need to keep their facilities running (Figure 1, below). That total that can increase dramatically when fuel supplies tighten and oil prices rise, as they did last year. Improving energy efficiency should be a strategic goal for any plant manager or manufacturing professional working in the drug industry today. Not only can energy efficiency reduce overall manufacturing costs, it usually reduces environmental emissions, establishing a strong foundation for a corporate greenhouse-gas-management program. For most pharmaceutical manufacturing plants, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is typically the largest consumer of energy, as shown in Table 1 below. This two-part series will examine energy use within pharmaceutical facilities, summarize best practices and examine potential savings and return on investment. In this first article, we will focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Part 2, to be published in May, will focus on overall HVAC systems, building management and boilers.

  10. Exercise and Training to Optimize Functional Motor Performance in Stroke: Driving Neural Reorganization?

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Roberta B.

    2001-01-01

    Neurorehabilitation is increasingly taking account of scientific findings. Research areas directing stroke rehabilitation are neurophysiology; adaptability to use and activity; biomechanics; skill learning; and exercise science (task, context specificity). Understanding impairments and adaptations enables a reappraisal of interventions—for example,changes in motor control resulting from impairments (decreased descending inputs, reduced motor unit synchronization), secondary soft tissue changes (muscle length and stiffness changes) are adaptations to lesion and disuse. Changes in interventions include increasing emphasis on active exercise and task-specific training, active and passive methods of preserving muscle extensibility. Training has the potential to drive brain reorganization and to optimize functional performance. Research drives the development of training programs, and therapists are relying less on one-to-one, hands-on service delivery, making use of circuit training and group exercise and of technological advances (interactive computerized systems, treadmills) which increase time spent in active practice, Emphasis is on skill training, stressing cognitive engagement and practice, aiming to increase strength, control, skill, endurance, fitness, and social readjustment. Rehabilitation services remain slow to make the changes necessary to upgrade environments, attitudes, and rehabilitation methodologies to those shown to be more scientifically rational and for which there is evidence of effectiveness. PMID:11530883

  11. Predicting Motor Vehicle Collisions in a Driving Simulator in Young Adults Using the Useful Field of View Assessment

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Benjamin; Cox, Molly K.; Vance, David E.; Stavrinos, Despina

    2015-01-01

    Objective Being involved in motor vehicle collisions is the leading cause of death in 1 to 34 year olds, and risk is particularly high in young adults. The Useful Field of View (UFOV) task, a cognitive measure of processing speed, divided attention, and selective attention, has been shown to be predictive of motor vehicle collisions in older adults, but its use as a predictor of driving performance in a young adult population has not been investigated. The present study examined whether UFOV was a predictive measure of motor vehicle collisions in a driving simulator in a young adult population. Method The 3-subtest version of UFOV (lower scores measured in milliseconds indicate better performance) was administered to 60 college students. Participants also completed an 11-mile simulated drive to provide driving performance metrics. Results Findings suggested that subtests 1 and 2 suffered from a ceiling effect. UFOV subtest 3 significantly predicted collisions in the simulated drive. Each 30 milliseconds slower on the subtest was associated with nearly a 10% increase in the risk of a simulated collision. Post-hoc analyses revealed a small partially mediating effect of subtest 3 on the relationship between driving experience and collisions. Conclusion The selective attention component of UFOV subtest 3 may be a predictive measure of crash involvement in a young adult population. Improvements in selective attention may be the underlying mechanism in how driving experience improves driving performance. PMID:25794266

  12. Single-Phase Drive Ultrasonic Linear Motor Using a Linked Twin Square Plate Vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Keiji; Tamura, Hideki; Masuda, Kentaro; Takano, Takehiro

    2013-07-01

    A novel linear motion ultrasonic motor, which uses a single resonance mode driven by a single phase and has the same motor characteristics for operation in reverse directions, is developed. An in-plane breathing mode in the square plate is strongly driven by the transverse effect of a piezoelectric ceramic. A stator resonator consists of twin square plates linked by V-shaped beams. Only one side of the square plate can be excited by the resonance of the breathing mode, when the other passive side plate is electrically opened so that the effective elasticities and the resonant frequencies between both plates are different; as a result, the friction edge of the resonator vibrates in a slant locus to move a load slider. The reverse operation is easily obtained by switching the driving side of the square plates. We designed the stator resonator by FEM analysis and fabricated a prototype for our experiment. The prototype motor showed good characteristics, for example, a moving slider velocity of 100 mm/s, a thrust force of 3.5 N, and an efficiency of 30% when the preload was 10 N, the input effective voltage was 5 V, and the input power was 1.2 W.

  13. Increased motor drive and sleep loss in mice lacking Kv3-type potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, F; Marks, G; Heintz, N; Joho, R H

    2004-04-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channels Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 are widely expressed in the brain, including areas implicated in the control of motor activity and in areas thought to regulate arousal states. Although Kv3.1 and Kv3.3-single mutants show some physiological changes, previous studies revealed relatively subtle behavioral alterations suggesting that Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 channel subunits may be encoded by a pair of redundant genes. In agreement with this hypothesis, Kv3.1/Kv3.3-deficient mice display a 'strong' mutant phenotype that includes motor dysfunction (ataxia, myoclonus, tremor) and hyperactivity when exposed to a novel environment. In this paper we report that Kv3.1/Kv3.3-deficient mice are also constitutively hyperactive. Compared to wildtype mice, double mutants display 'restlessness' that is particularly prominent during the light period, when mice are normally at rest, characterized by more than a doubling of ambulatory and stereotypic activity, and accompanied by a 40% sleep reduction. When we reinvestigated both single mutants, we observed constitutive increases of ambulatory and stereotypic activity in conjunction with sleep loss in Kv3.1-single mutants but not in Kv3.3-single mutants. These findings indicate that the absence of Kv3.1-channel subunits is primarily responsible for the increased motor drive and the reduction in sleep time.

  14. Adaptive control schemes for improving dynamic performance of efficiency-optimized induction motor drives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Navneet; Raj Chelliah, Thanga; Srivastava, S P

    2015-07-01

    Model Based Control (MBC) is one of the energy optimal controllers used in vector-controlled Induction Motor (IM) for controlling the excitation of motor in accordance with torque and speed. MBC offers energy conservation especially at part-load operation, but it creates ripples in torque and speed during load transition, leading to poor dynamic performance of the drive. This study investigates the opportunity for improving dynamic performance of a three-phase IM operating with MBC and proposes three control schemes: (i) MBC with a low pass filter (ii) torque producing current (iqs) injection in the output of speed controller (iii) Variable Structure Speed Controller (VSSC). The pre and post operation of MBC during load transition is also analyzed. The dynamic performance of a 1-hp, three-phase squirrel-cage IM with mine-hoist load diagram is tested. Test results are provided for the conventional field-oriented (constant flux) control and MBC (adjustable excitation) with proposed schemes. The effectiveness of proposed schemes is also illustrated for parametric variations. The test results and subsequent analysis confer that the motor dynamics improves significantly with all three proposed schemes in terms of overshoot/undershoot peak amplitude of torque and DC link power in addition to energy saving during load transitions.

  15. Fault diagnosis of motor drives using stator current signal analysis based on dynamic time warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, D.; Wang, T.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Electrical motor stator current signals have been widely used to monitor the condition of induction machines and their downstream mechanical equipment. The key technique used for current signal analysis is based on Fourier transform (FT) to extract weak fault sideband components from signals predominated with supply frequency component and its higher order harmonics. However, the FT based method has limitations such as spectral leakage and aliasing, leading to significant errors in estimating the sideband components. Therefore, this paper presents the use of dynamic time warping (DTW) to process the motor current signals for detecting and quantifying common faults in a downstream two-stage reciprocating compressor. DTW is a time domain based method and its algorithm is simple and easy to be embedded into real-time devices. In this study DTW is used to suppress the supply frequency component and highlight the sideband components based on the introduction of a reference signal which has the same frequency component as that of the supply power. Moreover, a sliding window is designed to process the raw signal using DTW frame by frame for effective calculation. Based on the proposed method, the stator current signals measured from the compressor induced with different common faults and under different loads are analysed for fault diagnosis. Results show that DTW based on residual signal analysis through the introduction of a reference signal allows the supply components to be suppressed well so that the fault related sideband components are highlighted for obtaining accurate fault detection and diagnosis results. In particular, the root mean square (RMS) values of the residual signal can indicate the differences between the healthy case and different faults under varying discharge pressures. It provides an effective and easy approach to the analysis of motor current signals for better fault diagnosis of the downstream mechanical equipment of motor drives in the time

  16. Neuro-fuzzy speed control of traveling-wave type ultrasonic motor drive using frequency and phase modulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tien-Chi; Yu, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Chun-Jung; Tsai, Mi-Ching

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) control system for a traveling-wave ultrasonic motor (TWUSM) driven by a dual mode modulation non-resonant driving circuit. First, the motor configuration and the proposed driving circuit of a TWUSM are introduced. To drive a TWUSM effectively, a novel driving circuit, that simultaneously employs both the driving frequency and phase modulation control scheme, is proposed to provide two-phase balance voltage for a TWUSM. Since the dynamic characteristics and motor parameters of the TWUSM are highly nonlinear and time-varying, a FNN control system is therefore investigated to achieve high-precision speed control. The proposed FNN control system incorporates neuro-fuzzy control and the driving frequency and phase modulation to solve the problem of nonlinearities and variations. The proposed control system is digitally implemented by a low-cost digital signal processor based microcontroller, hence reducing the system hardware size and cost. The effectiveness of the proposed driving circuit and control system is verified with hardware experiments under the occurrence of uncertainties. In addition, the advantages of the proposed control scheme are indicated in comparison with a conventional proportional-integral control system.

  17. Development of Permanent Magnet Reluctance Motor Suitable for Variable-Speed Drive for Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Kazuto; Takahashi, Norio; Shimomura, Eiji; Arata, Masanobu; Nakazawa, Yousuke; Tajima, Toshinobu

    Regarding environmental and energy issues, increasing importance has been placed on energy saving in various systems. To save energy, it would be desirable if the total efficiency of various types of equipment were increased.Recently, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and an electric vehicle (EV) have been developed. The use of new technologies will eventually lead to the realization of the new- generation vehicle with high efficiency. One new technology is the variable-speed drive over a wide range of speeds. The motor driving systems of the EV or the HEV must operate in the variable-speed range of up to 1:5. This has created the need for a high-efficiency motor that is capable of operation over a wide speed range. In this paper, we describe the concept of a novel permanent magnet reluctance motor (PRM) and discuss its characteristics. We developed the PRM, which has the capability of operating over a wide speed range with high efficiency. The PRM has a rotor with a salient pole, which generates magnetic anisotropy. In addition, the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor core counter the q-axis flux by the armature reaction. Then, the power density and the power factor increase. The PRM produces reluctance torque and torque by permanent magnet (PM) flux. The reluctance torque is 1 to 2 times larger than the PM torque. When the PRM operates over a constant-power speed range, the field component of the current will be regulated to maintain a constant voltage. The output power of the developed PRM is 8 to 250kW. It is clarified that the PRM operates at a wide variable-speed range (1:5) with high efficiency (92-97%). It is concluded that the PRM has high performance over a wide constant-power speed range. In addition, the PRM is constructed using a small PM, so that we can solve the problem of cost. Thus, the PRM is a superior machine that is suited for variable-speed drive applications.

  18. An analysis of driving and working hour on commercial motor vehicle driver safety using naturalistic data collection.

    PubMed

    Soccolich, Susan A; Blanco, Myra; Hanowski, Richard J; Olson, Rebecca L; Morgan, Justin F; Guo, Feng; Wu, Shih-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Current hours-of-service (HOS) regulations prescribe limits to commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers' operating hours. By using naturalistic-data-collection, researchers were able to assess activities performed in the 14-h workday and the relationship between safety-critical events (SCEs) and driving hours, work hours, and breaks. The data used in the analyses were collected in the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study and included 97 drivers and about 735,000 miles of continuous driving data. An assessment of the drivers' workday determined that, on average, drivers spent 66% of their shift driving, 23% in non-driving work, and 11% resting. Analyses evaluating the relationship between driving hours (i.e., driving only) and SCE risk found a time-on-task effect across hours, with no significant difference in safety outcomes between 11th driving hour and driving hours 8, 9 or 10. Analyses on work hours (i.e., driving in addition to non-driving work) found that risk of being involved in an SCE generally increased as work hours increased. This suggests that time-on-task effects may not be related to driving hours alone, but implies an interaction between driving hours and work hours: if a driver begins the day with several hours of non-driving work, followed by driving that goes deep into the 14-h workday, SCE risk was found to increase. Breaks from driving were found to be beneficial in reducing SCEs (during 1-h window after a break) and were effective in counteracting the negative effects of time-on-task.

  19. Variable frequency drive applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    Laloudakis, D.J.

    1991-10-01

    Traditionally, fans and pumps have been designed to be capable of handling the maximum demand of the system in which they are installed. However, quite often the actual demand can vary and it can be much lower than the original design capacity. These situations have been corrected in the past through additions of outlet dampers to fans or throttling valves to pumps. While these can be effective and simple controls they severely affect the efficiency of the system. Variable frequency (speed) is the most efficient means of capacity control. The most cost effective method of achieving variable speed capacity control is using AC adjustable frequency drives. AC adjustable frequency controls convert any fixed speed AC motor into an adjustable speed device. Adjusting the speed of a motor, by controlling the frequency of the AC power to that motor, reduces its horsepower requirements. According to pump and fan laws, capacity is proportional to speed while horsepower is proportional to the cube of the speed. Therefore, by reducing the speed of an AC motor by 20 percent the horsepower requirement is reduced by nearly 50 percent. Reduced speed through variable frequency control allows for flexibility of meeting changing weather and comfort requirements without operating costly equipment at full capacity.

  20. High-Density EMI Filter Design for DC-Fed Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Rixin; Maillet, Yoann; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Fei; Burgos, Rolando; Boroyevich, Dushan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents strategies to reduce both differential-mode (DM) and common-mode (CM) noise using a passive filter in a dc-fed motor drive. The paper concentrates on the type of grounding and the components to optimize filter size and performance. Grounding schemes, material comparison between ferrite and nanocrystalline cores, and a new integrated filter structure are presented. The integrated structure maximizes the core window area and increases the leakage inductance by integrating both CM and DM inductances onto one core. Small-signal and large-signal experiments validate the structure, showing it to have reduced filter size and good filtering performance when compared with standard filters at both low and high frequencies.

  1. Linear motor drive system for continuous-path closed-loop position control of an object

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, William E.

    1980-01-01

    A precision numerical controlled servo-positioning system is provided for continuous closed-loop position control of a machine slide or platform driven by a linear-induction motor. The system utilizes filtered velocity feedback to provide system stability required to operate with a system gain of 100 inches/minute/0.001 inch of following error. The filtered velocity feedback signal is derived from the position output signals of a laser interferometer utilized to monitor the movement of the slide. Air-bearing slides mounted to a stable support are utilized to minimize friction and small irregularities in the slideway which would tend to introduce positioning errors. A microprocessor is programmed to read command and feedback information and converts this information into the system following error signal. This error signal is summed with the negative filtered velocity feedback signal at the input of a servo amplifier whose output serves as the drive power signal to the linear motor position control coil.

  2. Reactions driving conformational movements (molecular motors) in gels: conformational and structural chemical kinetics.

    PubMed

    Otero, Toribio F

    2017-01-18

    In this perspective the empirical kinetics of conducting polymers exchanging anions and solvent during electrochemical reactions to get dense reactive gels is reviewed. The reaction drives conformational movements of the chains (molecular motors), exchange of ions and solvent with the electrolyte and structural (relaxation, swelling, shrinking and compaction) gel changes. Reaction-driven structural changes are identified and quantified from electrochemical responses. The empirical reaction activation energy (Ea), the reaction coefficient (k) and the reaction orders (α and β) change as a function of the conformational energy variation during the reaction. This conformational energy becomes an empirical magnitude. Ea, k, α and β include and provide quantitative conformational and structural information. The chemical kinetics becomes structural chemical kinetics (SCK) for reactions driving conformational movements of the reactants. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation model describes empirical results and some results from the literature for biochemical reactions. In parallel the development of an emerging technological world of soft, wet, multifunctional and biomimetic tools and anthropomorphic robots driven by reactions of the constitutive material, as in biological organs, can be now envisaged being theoretically supported by the kinetic model.

  3. Tire-road friction coefficient estimation based on the resonance frequency of in-wheel motor drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Bian, Mingyuan; Luo, Yugong; Qin, Zhaobo; Li, Keqiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a resonance frequency-based tire-road friction coefficient (TRFC) estimation method is proposed by considering the dynamics performance of the in-wheel motor drive system under small slip ratio conditions. A frequency response function (FRF) is deduced for the drive system that is composed of a dynamic tire model and a simplified motor model. A linear relationship between the squared system resonance frequency and the TFRC is described with the FRF. Furthermore, the resonance frequency is identified by the Auto-Regressive eXogenous model using the information of the motor torque and the wheel speed, and the TRFC is estimated thereafter by a recursive least squares filter with the identified resonance frequency. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through simulations and experimental tests on different road surfaces.

  4. Study of the Advantages of Internal Permanent Magnet Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-11-30

    This report describes research performed on the viability of changing the effectively active number of turns in the stator windings of an internal permanent magnet (IPM) electric motor to strengthen or weaken the magnetic fields in order to optimize the motor's performance at specific operating speeds and loads. Analytical and simulation studies have been complemented with research on switching mechanisms to accomplish the task. The simulation studies conducted examine the power and energy demands on a vehicle following a series of standard driving cycles and the impact on the efficiency and battery size of an electrically propelled vehicle when it uses an IPM motor with turn-switching capabilities. Both full driving cycle electric propulsion and propulsion limited starting from zero to a set speed have been investigated.

  5. Sensorless Sinusoidal Wave Drive for Control of Power Factor of PM Motor by Detection of Inverter Bus Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Motoshi; Kameyama, Hiroyuki; Ikeboh, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Shigeo

    Permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) with a sinusoidal back EMF are widely used in domestic appliances for reduction of acoustic noises and energy consumption. PMSMs are generally controlled with a sinusoidal waveform current. Typically, PMSMs are controlled by vector-controlled sinusoidal drives, which require powerful computational resources. Hence, simpler sinusoidal wave drives such as V/f drives, which control the phase difference between the voltage and the current (power factor of PM Motor) have been proposed for controlling PMSMs. This paper presents a new method that does not require current sensors but can be used to estimate the phase difference by sampling the voltage of the shunt register, which is used to detect the over current supplied to the inverter. This method enables detection of current and accurate estimation and appropriate control of the phase difference. Using this method, we could control the phase difference and achieve high efficiency, cost reduction, and high reliability.

  6. Self-harm and risk of motor vehicle crashes among young drivers: findings from the DRIVE Study

    PubMed Central

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L.C.; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Glozier, Nick; Patton, George C.; Lam, Lawrence T.; Boufous, Soufiane; Senserrick, Teresa; Williamson, Ann; Stevenson, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Background Some motor vehicle crashes, particularly single-vehicle crashes, may result from intentional self-harm. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the risk that intentional self-harm poses for motor vehicle crashes among young drivers. Methods We prospectively linked survey data from newly licensed drivers aged 17–24 years to data on licensing attempts and police-reported motor vehicle crashes during the follow-up period. We investigated the role of recent engagement in self-harm on the risk of a crash. We took into account potential confounders, including number of hours of driving per week, psychological symptoms and substance abuse. Results We included 18 871 drivers who participated in the DRIVE Study for whom data on self-harm and motor vehicle crashes were available. The mean follow-up was 2 years. Overall, 1495 drivers had 1 or more crashes during the follow-up period. A total of 871 drivers (4.6%) reported that they had engaged in self-harm in the year before the survey. These drivers were at significantly increased risk of a motor vehicle crash compared with drivers who reported no self-harm (relative risk [RR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.76). The risk remained significant, even after adjustment for age, sex, average hours of driving per week, previous crash, psychological distress, duration of sleep, risky driving behaviour, substance use, remoteness of residence and socio-economic status (RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.09–1.72). Most of the drivers who reported self-harm and had a subsequent crash were involved in a multiple-vehicle crash (84.1% [74/88]). Interpretation Engagement in self-harm behaviour was an independent risk factor for subsequent motor vehicle crash among young drivers, with most crashes involving multiple vehicles. PMID:19917659

  7. Driving with pets and motor vehicle collision involvement among older drivers: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; Levitan, Emily B.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving is a major cause of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement. Pets have been identified as potential distraction to drivers, particularly in the front. This type of distraction could be worse for those with impairment in the cognitive aspects of visual processing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between driving with pets and rates of motor vehicle collision involvementin a cohort of older drivers. Methods A three-year prospective was conducted in a population-based sample of 2000 licensed drivers aged 70 years and older. At the baseline visit, a trained interviewer asked participants about pet ownership, whether they drive with pets, how frequently, and where the pet sits in the vehicle. Motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement during the three-year study period was obtained from the Alabama Department of Public Safety. At-fault status was determined by the police officer who arrived on the scene. Participants were followed until the earliest of death, driving cessation, or end of the study period. Poisson regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted rate ratios (RR) examining the association between pet ownership, presence of a pet in a vehicle, frequency of driving with a pet, and location of the pet inside with vehicle with any and at-fault MVC involvement. We examined whether the associations differed by higher order visual processing impairment status, as measured by Useful Field Of View, Trails B, and Motor-free Visual Perception Test. Results Rates of crash involvement were similar for older adults who have ever driven with a pet compared to those who never drove with their pet (RR=1.15, 95% CI 0.76-1.75). Drivers who reported always or sometimes driving with their pet had higherMVC rates compared topet owners who never drive with a pet, but this association was not statistically significant (RR=1.39, 95% CI 0.86-2.24). In terms of location, those reporting having a pet frequently ride in the

  8. Hyperthermia impairs short-term memory and peripheral motor drive transmission.

    PubMed

    Racinais, S; Gaoua, N; Grantham, J

    2008-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (i) the effect of passive hyperthermia on motor drive and cognitive function, and (ii) whether head cooling can limit the hyperthermia-induced alterations. Sixteen subjects were randomly exposed for 2 h to three different conditions: control (Con, 20 degrees C), hot (Hot, 50 degrees C) and hot head cool (HHC--where cold packs were applied to the head under Hot conditions). Three cognitive tests measuring attention and two measuring memory were performed. Neuromuscular testing included electrically evoked muscle action potentials (M-waves) and reflex waves (H-reflex) at rest and during brief (4-5 s) and sustained (120 s) maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the plantar flexors. All the tests were performed in the environmental room. During brief MVC, torque was significantly lower in both Hot and HHC as compared to Con (P < 0.05). The decrease in muscle activation was significant in Hot (P < 0.05) but not in HBC (P = 0.07). This was accompanied by peripheral failures in the transmission of the neural drive at both spinal (significant decrements in H-reflexes and V-waves, P < 0.05) and neuromuscular junction (significant decrements in M-waves, P < 0.05) levels. During sustained MVC, muscle activation was further depressed (P < 0.05) without any concomitant failures in M-waves, suggesting neural activation adjustments occurring probably at the supraspinal level. Cerebral perturbations were confirmed by significant decrements in both memory tests in Hot as compared with Con (P < 0.05) but not in simple tests (attention tests) that were not affected by hyperthermia. The decrement in memory capacity suggested the existence of frontal lobe activity impairments. Thus, HHC preserved memory capacity but not the visual memory.

  9. Driving and braking control of PM synchronous motor based on low-resolution hall sensor for battery electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Lu, Dongbin; Fang, Chuan; Ma, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Resolvers are normally employed for rotor positioning in motors for electric vehicles, but resolvers are expensive and vulnerable to vibrations. Hall sensors have the advantages of low cost and high reliability, but the positioning accuracy is low. Motors with Hall sensors are typically controlled by six-step commutation algorithm, which brings high torque ripple. This paper studies the high-performance driving and braking control of the in-wheel permanent magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM) based on low-resolution Hall sensors. Field oriented control (FOC) based on Hall-effect sensors is developed to reduce the torque ripple. The positioning accuracy of the Hall sensors is improved by interpolation between two consecutive Hall signals using the estimated motor speed. The position error from the misalignment of the Hall sensors is compensated by the precise calibration of Hall transition timing. The braking control algorithms based on six-step commutation and FOC are studied. Two variants of the six-step commutation braking control, namely, half-bridge commutation and full-bridge commutation, are discussed and compared, which shows that the full-bridge commutation could better explore the potential of the back electro-motive forces (EMF), thus can deliver higher efficiency and smaller current ripple. The FOC braking is analyzed with the phasor diagrams. At a given motor speed, the motor turns from the regenerative braking mode into the plug braking mode if the braking torque exceeds a certain limit, which is proportional to the motor speed. Tests in the dynamometer show that a smooth control could be realized by FOC driving control and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by FOC braking control, compared to six-step commutation braking control. Therefore, FOC braking is selected as the braking control algorithm for electric vehicles. The proposed research ensures a good motor control performance while maintaining low cost and high

  10. Inverter Output Filter Effect on PWM Motor Drives of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in the research and development of high speed flywheel systems for small satellite energy storage and attitude control applications. One research and development area has been the minimization of the switching noise produced by the pulsed width modulated (PWM) inverter that drives the flywheel permanent magnet motor/generator (PM M/G). This noise can interfere with the flywheel M/G hardware and the system avionics hampering the full speed performance of the flywheel system. One way to attenuate the inverter switching noise is by placing an AC filter at the three phase output terminals of the inverter with the filter neutral point connected to the DC link (DC bus) midpoint capacitors. The main benefit of using an AC filter in this fashion is the significant reduction of the inverter s high dv/dt switching and its harmonics components. Additionally, common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) voltages caused by the inverter s high dv/dt switching are also reduced. Several topologies of AC filters have been implemented and compared. One AC filter topology consists of a two-stage R-L-C low pass filter. The other topology consists of the same two-stage R-L-C low pass filter with a series connected trap filter (an inductor and capacitor connected in parallel). This paper presents the analysis, design and experimental results of these AC filter topologies and the comparison between the no filter case and conventional AC filter.

  11. Effects of anisotropy on the performance characteristics of an axially laminated anisotropic-rotor synchronous reluctance motor drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Isaac, F.N.; Arkadan, A.A.; Russell, A.A.; El-Antably, A.

    1998-09-01

    In the last few years, increased attention has been paid to the performance characterization and evaluation of the performance of synchronous reluctance machines. Extensive research has concentrated on different rotor structures in order to achieve high performance variable speed drives for applications such as electric vehicles. The effects of accounting for anisotropy on the performance characteristics of Axially Laminated Anisotropic (ALA) rotor Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) drive systems are studied. These effects are evaluated from the simulations of a computer aided model. The model is based on the use of an iterative approach which indirectly couples a two dimensional (2D) nonlinear finite element (FE) model, which accounts for anisotropy, to a state space model describing the SynRM drive system. The simulation results are also validated by comparison to test data of a prototype ALA rotor SynRM drive system.

  12. Brief Rewarming Blunts Hypothermia-Induced Alterations in Sensation, Motor Drive and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Brazaitis, Marius; Paulauskas, Henrikas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Budde, Henning; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Eimantas, Nerijus

    2016-01-01

    hypothermia-induced alterations in neural drive transmission (4.3 ± 0.5 vs. 3.4 ± 0.8 mV H-reflex and 4.9 ± 0.2 vs. 4.4 ± 0.4 mV V-wave, P < 0.05), which increased central fatigue during a 2-min maximum load (P < 0.05). Furthermore, only in brief warm water rewarming cerebral alterations were restored to the control level and it was indicated by shortened reaction times (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Brief rewarming in warm water rather than the same duration rewarming in thermoneutral environment blunted the hypothermia-induced alterations for sensation, motor drive, and cognition, despite the fact that rectal and deep muscle temperature remained lowered. PMID:27990123

  13. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  14. Design and analysis of new fault-tolerant permanent magnet motors for four-wheel-driving electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guohai; Gong, Wensheng; Chen, Qian; Jian, Linni; Shen, Yue; Zhao, Wenxiang

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a novel in-wheel permanent-magnet (PM) motor for four-wheel-driving electrical vehicles is proposed. It adopts an outer-rotor topology, which can help generate a large drive torque, in order to achieve prominent dynamic performance of the vehicle. Moreover, by adopting single-layer concentrated-windings, fault-tolerant teeth, and the optimal combination of slot and pole numbers, the proposed motor inherently offers negligible electromagnetic coupling between different phase windings, hence, it possesses a fault-tolerant characteristic. Meanwhile, the phase back electromotive force waveforms can be designed to be sinusoidal by employing PMs with a trapezoidal shape, eccentric armature teeth, and unequal tooth widths. The electromagnetic performance is comprehensively investigated and the optimal design is conducted by using the finite-element method.

  15. A Motor Drive Electronics Assembly for Mars Curiosity Rover: An Example of Assembly Qualification for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, Elizabeth; Chen, Yuan; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Weber, Carissa Tudryn; Hunter, Don J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the technology development and infusion of a motor drive electronics assembly for Mars Curiosity Rover under space extreme environments. The technology evaluation and qualification as well as space qualification of the assembly are detailed and summarized. Because of the uncertainty of the technologies operating under the extreme space environments and that a high level reliability was required for this assembly application, both component and assembly board level qualifications were performed.

  16. MINIMAL HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY IS ASSOCIATED WITH MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES: THE REALITY BEYOND THE DRIVING TEST

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Saeian, Kia; Schubert, Christine M; Hafeezullah, Muhammad; Franco, Jose; Varma, Rajiv R; Gibson, Douglas P; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Stravitz, R Todd; Heuman, Douglas M; Sterling, Richard K; Shiffman, Mitchell; Topaz, Allyne; Boyett, Sherry; Bell, Debulon; Sanyal, Arun J

    2009-01-01

    Patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) have impaired driving skills, but association of MHE with motor vehicle crashes is unclear. Standard psychometric tests (SPT) or inhibitory control test (ICT) can be used to diagnose MHE. The aim was to determine the association of MHE with crashes and traffic violations over the preceding year and on 1-year follow-up. Cirrhotics were diagnosed with MHE by ICT (MHEICT) and SPT (MHESPT). Self and department-of-transportation (DOT)-reports were used to determine crashes and violations over the preceding year. Agreement between self and DOT-reports was analyzed. Patients then underwent 1 year follow-up for crash/violation occurrence. Crashes in those with/without MHEICT and MHESPT were compared. 167 cirrhotics had DOT-reports, of which 120 also had self-reports. A significantly higher proportion of MHEICT cirrhotics experienced crashes in the preceding year compared to those without MHE by self-report (17% vs. 0%, p=0.0004) and DOT-reports (17% vs. 3%, p=0.004, relative risk:5.77). SPT did not differentiate between those with/without crashes. A significantly higher proportion of patients with crashes had MHEICT compared to MHESPT, both self-reported (100% vs. 50%, p=0.03) and DOT-reported (89% vs. 44%, p=0.01). There was excellent agreement between self and DOT-reports for crashes and violations (Kappa 0.90 and 0.80). 109 patients were followed prospectively. MHEICT patients had a significantly higher future crashes/violations compared to those without (22% vs. 7%, p=0.03) but MHESPT did not. MHEICT (Odds ratio:4.51) and prior year crash/violation (Odds ratio:2.96) were significantly associated with future crash/violation occurrence. PMID:19670416

  17. Sensored Field Oriented Control of a Robust Induction Motor Drive Using a Novel Boundary Layer Fuzzy Controller

    PubMed Central

    Saghafinia, Ali; Ping, Hew Wooi; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Physical sensors have a key role in implementation of real-time vector control for an induction motor (IM) drive. This paper presents a novel boundary layer fuzzy controller (NBLFC) based on the boundary layer approach for speed control of an indirect field-oriented control (IFOC) of an induction motor (IM) drive using physical sensors. The boundary layer approach leads to a trade-off between control performances and chattering elimination. For the NBLFC, a fuzzy system is used to adjust the boundary layer thickness to improve the tracking performance and eliminate the chattering problem under small uncertainties. Also, to eliminate the chattering under the possibility of large uncertainties, the integral filter is proposed inside the variable boundary layer. In addition, the stability of the system is analyzed through the Lyapunov stability theorem. The proposed NBLFC based IM drive is implemented in real-time using digital signal processor (DSP) board TI TMS320F28335. The experimental and simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed NBLFC based IM drive at different operating conditions.

  18. Direct Torque Control with Full Order Stator Flux Observer for Dual-Three Phase Induction Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Francesco; Bojoi, Radu; Tenconi, Alberto; Profumo, Francesco

    A Direct Torque Control (DTC) strategy for dual-three phase induction motor drives is discussed in this paper. The induction machine has two sets of stator three-phase windings spatially shifted by 30 electrical degrees with isolated neutral points. The proposed control strategy is based on Proportional Integral (PI) regulators implemented in the stator flux synchronous reference frame. To improve the flux estimation, an Adaptive Stator Flux Observer (ASFO) has been used. Doing so, besides a better flux estimation in contrast to open-loop flux estimators, it is possible to use the observed currents to compensate the inverter non-linear behavior (such as dead-time effects), improving the drive performance at low speed. This is particularly important for low voltage/high current applications, as the drive considered in this paper. The advantages of the discussed control strategy are: constant inverter switching frequency, good transient and steady-state performance and less distorted machine currents in contrast to DTC schemes with variable switching frequency. Experimental results are presented for a 10kW dual three-phase induction motor drive prototype.

  19. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: “Just Hang Up and Drive”

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Christopher A.; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as “distracted driving.” The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article “Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011” highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15–19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family. PMID:26759649

  20. Halbach array DC motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.; Post, R.F.

    1998-01-06

    A new configuration of DC motor/generator is based on a Halbach array of permanent magnets. This motor does not use ferrous materials so that the only losses are winding losses and losses due to bearings and windage. An ``inside-out`` design is used as compared to a conventional motor/generator design. The rotating portion, i.e., the rotor, is on the outside of the machine. The stationary portion, i.e., the stator, is formed by the inside of the machine. The rotor contains an array of permanent magnets that provide a uniform field. The windings of the motor are placed in or on the stator. The stator windings are then ``switched`` or ``commutated`` to provide a DC motor/generator much the same as in a conventional DC motor. The commutation can be performed by mechanical means using brushes or by electronic means using switching circuits. The invention is useful in electric vehicles and adjustable speed DC drives. 17 figs.

  1. Halbach array DC motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.; Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    A new configuration of DC motor/generator is based on a Halbach array of permanent magnets. This motor does not use ferrous materials so that the only losses are winding losses and losses due to bearings and windage. An "inside-out" design is used as compared to a conventional motor/generator design. The rotating portion, i.e., the rotor, is on the outside of the machine. The stationary portion, i.e., the stator, is formed by the inside of the machine. The rotor contains an array of permanent magnets that provide a uniform field. The windings of the motor are placed in or on the stator. The stator windings are then "switched" or "commutated" to provide a DC motor/generator much the same as in a conventional DC motor. The commutation can be performed by mechanical means using brushes or by electronic means using switching circuits. The invention is useful in electric vehicles and adjustable speed DC drives.

  2. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    SciTech Connect

    Fezzler, Raymond

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  3. Mutant TDP-43 within motor neurons drives disease onset but not progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ditsworth, Dara; Maldonado, Marcus; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Sun, Shuying; Seelman, Amanda; Drenner, Kevin; Arnold, Eveline; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Pizzo, Donald; Ravits, John; Cleveland, Don W; Da Cruz, Sandrine

    2017-03-29

    Mutations in TDP-43 cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal paralytic disease characterized by degeneration and premature death of motor neurons. The contribution of mutant TDP-43-mediated damage within motor neurons was evaluated using mice expressing a conditional allele of an ALS-causing TDP-43 mutant (Q331K) whose broad expression throughout the central nervous system mimics endogenous TDP-43. TDP-43(Q331K) mice develop age- and mutant-dependent motor deficits from degeneration and death of motor neurons. Cre-recombinase-mediated excision of the TDP-43(Q331K) gene from motor neurons is shown to delay onset of motor symptoms and appearance of TDP-43-mediated aberrant nuclear morphology, and abrogate subsequent death of motor neurons. However, reduction of mutant TDP-43 selectively in motor neurons did not prevent age-dependent degeneration of axons and neuromuscular junction loss, nor did it attenuate astrogliosis or microgliosis. Thus, disease mechanism is non-cell autonomous with mutant TDP-43 expressed in motor neurons determining disease onset but progression defined by mutant acting within other cell types.

  4. Amplitude modulation drive to rectangular-plate linear ultrasonic motors with vibrators dimensions 8 mm x 2.16 mm X 1 mm.

    PubMed

    Ming, Yang; Hanson, Ben; Levesley, Martin C; Walker, Peter G; Watterson, Kevin G

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, to exploit the contribution from not only the stators but also from other parts of miniature ultrasonic motors, an amplitude modulation drive is proposed to drive a miniature linear ultrasonic motor consisting of two rectangular piezoelectric ceramic plates. Using finite-element software, the first longitudinal and second lateral-bending frequencies of the vibrator are shown to be very close when its dimensions are 8 mm x 2.16 mm x 1 mm. So one single frequency power should be able to drive the motor. However, in practice the motor is found to be hard to move with a single frequency power because of its small vibration amplitudes and big frequency difference between its longitudinal and bending resonance, which is induced by the boundary condition variation. To drive the motor effectively, an amplitude modulation drive is used by superimposing two signals with nearly the same frequencies, around the resonant frequency of the vibrators of the linear motor. When the amplitude modulation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the vibrator's surroundings, experimental results show that the linear motor can move back and forward with a maximum thrust force (over 0.016 N) and a maximum velocity (over 50 mm/s).

  5. Experimental method to reveal the effect of rotor magnet size and air gap on artificial heart driving motor torque and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Qian, K X; Yuan, H Y; Ru, W M; Zeng, P

    2002-01-01

    To investigate experimentally the effect of rotor magnet design on artificial heart driving motor performance, seven rotors with different magnet lengths or thicknesses, as well as different peripheral angles, were manufactured and tested in the same motor stator with different rotating speeds. The input power (voltage and current) and output torque were measured and the motor efficiency was computed. The results demonstrated that the reduction of rotor magnet size and the enlargement of the air gap between the rotor magnets and the stator coil core have no significant effect on motor efficiency, but will reduce the torque value on which the motor achieves the highest efficiency; it could be remedied however by increasing the rotating speed, because the torque at the high efficiency point will increase along with the rotating speed. These results may provide a basis for developing small rotor magnets, large air gap and high efficiency motors for driving an artificial heart pump.

  6. An enhanced Z-source inverter topology-based permanent magnet brushless DC motor drive speed control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geno Peter, P.; Rajaram, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, an enhanced Z-source inverter (ZSI) is introduced for controlling the speed of permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) drive. It is the extension of the conventional ZSI and the elements used in the circuit are the same as those of the conventional ZSI, except that the position of Inverter Bridge and diode would be exchanged from the classical circuit diagram. This exchanged circuit avoids the startup path of the inrush current and hence reduces the inrush current and improves the motor efficiency. Different modes of enhanced ZSI are studied with PMBLDCM. The voltage polarity of Z-source capacitors in the proposed circuit is the same as that of the input voltage polarity. Furthermore, to get the same voltage boost, the capacitor voltage stress is reduced to a significant extent. The speed control capability of the proposed brushless DC motor drive is compared with that of the conventional ZSI. The proposed ZSI is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink working platform and the output performance is evaluated. Also, the performance of voltage ratio is analysed both by simulation and mathematical models. All these analyses are known to express the innovative features of the proposed system.

  7. Relationship Between Motor Vehicle Collisions and Results of Perimetry, Useful Field of View, and Driving Simulation in Drivers With Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tatham, Andrew J.; Boer, Erwin R.; Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Rosen, Peter N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between Motor Vehicle Collisions (MVCs) in drivers with glaucoma and standard automated perimetry (SAP), Useful Field of View (UFOV), and driving simulator assessment of divided attention. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 153 drivers from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. All subjects had SAP and divided attention was assessed using UFOV and driving simulation using low-, medium-, and high-contrast peripheral stimuli presented during curve negotiation and car following tasks. Self-reported history of MVCs and average mileage driven were recorded. Results: Eighteen of 153 subjects (11.8%) reported a MVC. There was no difference in visual acuity but the MVC group was older, drove fewer miles, and had worse binocular SAP sensitivity, contrast sensitivity, and ability to divide attention (UFOV and driving simulation). Low contrast driving simulator tasks were the best discriminators of MVC (AUC 0.80 for curve negotiation versus 0.69 for binocular SAP and 0.59 for UFOV). Adjusting for confounding factors, longer reaction times to driving simulator divided attention tasks provided additional value compared with SAP and UFOV, with a 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in reaction time (approximately 0.75 s) associated with almost two-fold increased odds of MVC. Conclusions: Reaction times to low contrast divided attention tasks during driving simulation were significantly associated with history of MVC, performing better than conventional perimetric tests and UFOV. Translational Relevance: The association between conventional tests of visual function and MVCs in drivers with glaucoma is weak, however, tests of divided attention, particularly using driving simulation, may improve risk assessment. PMID:26046007

  8. A New Modulation Strategy for Unbalanced Two Phase Induction Motor Drives Using a Three-Leg Voltage Source Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinthusonthishat, S.; Kinnares, V.

    This paper proposes a new modulation scheme providing unbalanced output terminal voltages of a standard three-leg voltage source inverter (VSI) for unsymmetrical type two-phase induction motors. This strategy allows a control method of the output voltages with typically constant V/Hz for a main winding and with voltage boost to compensate magnitude of current for an auxiliary winding. Harmonic voltage characteristics and the motor performance are investigated under a wide range of operating conditions. Practical verification is presented to confirm correctness and capabilities of the proposed technique. All results are compared to those of a conventional two-leg half bridge topology. The results show that the simulation results well agree with the experimental ones, and also the proposed scheme is superior to the conventional drive.

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Control Actuation System with Fuzzy-PID Logic Controlled Brushless Motor Drives for Missiles Glider Applications.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Murali; Arulmozhiyal, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    A control actuation system has been used extensively in automotive, aerospace, and defense applications. The major challenges in modeling control actuation system are rise time, maximum peak to peak overshoot, and response to nonlinear system with percentage error. This paper addresses the challenges in modeling and real time implementation of control actuation system for missiles glider applications. As an alternative fuzzy-PID controller is proposed in BLDC motor drive followed by linkage mechanism to actuate fins in missiles and gliders. The proposed system will realize better rise time and less overshoot while operating in extreme nonlinear dynamic system conditions. A mathematical model of BLDC motor is derived in state space form. The complete control actuation system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment and verified by performing simulation studies. A real time prototype of the control actuation is developed with dSPACE-1104 hardware controller and a detailed analysis is carried out to confirm the viability of the proposed system.

  10. Induction Motor Drive System Based on Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liying; Zhang, Yongli; Yao, Qingmei

    It is difficult to establish an exact mathematical model for the induction motor and the robustness is poor of the vector control system using PI regulator. This paper adopts the linear active disturbance rejection controller (LADRC) to control inductor motor. LADRC doesn't need the exact mathematical model of motor and it can not only estimate but also compensate the general disturbance that includes the coupling items in model of motor and parameters perturbations by linear extended state observer (LESO), so the rotor flux and torque fully decouple. As a result, the performance is improved. To prove the above control scheme, the proposed control system has been simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK, and the comparison was made with PID. Simulation results show that LADRC' has better performance and robustness than PID.

  11. Properties of the Driving Behavior Survey among individuals with motor vehicle accident-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Joshua D; Baker, Aaron S; Litwack, Scott D; Sloan, Denise M; Beck, J Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Data suggest anxious drivers may engage in problematic behaviors that place themselves and others at increased risk of negative traffic events. Three domains of problematic behavior--exaggerated safety/caution, performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive behaviors--previously were identified during development of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), a novel measure of anxiety-related behavior. Extending this research, the current study examined the psychometric properties of DBS scores among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to motor vehicle trauma (N=40). Internal consistencies and 12-week test-retest reliabilities for DBS scales ranged from good to excellent. Comparison of scores to normative student data indicated dose-response relationships for safety/caution and performance deficit subscales, with increased frequency of anxious behavior occurring within the PTSD sample. Associations with standard clinical measures provide additional evidence for anxiety-related driving behavior as a unique marker of functional impairment, distinct from both avoidance and disorder-specific symptoms.

  12. Rotor reference frame models of a multiloop 2-phase motor drive in brushless DC and microstepping modes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes non-linear models of a 2-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor drive in brushless DC and microstepping modes. The models account for everything from the main power bus up to and including the mechanical load and velocity feedback loop. In particular, the models include the power electronics for each phase complete with their internal feedback loops. Classical state space averaged power electronics models are transformed to the rotor reference frame along with the usual electromechanical variables. Since SPICE linearizes the rotor reference frame model about shaft velocity, instead of shaft angle, frequency domain methods apply. The frequency domain analysis detects unstable interactions between torque angle and deliberate feedback within the drives. Time domain simulations using stator reference frame models confirm the results. All models are SPICE-compatible but were developed on Cadence`s Analog Workbench.

  13. Motor-induced visual motion: hand movements driving visual motion perception.

    PubMed

    Keetels, Mirjam; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J

    2014-09-01

    Visual perception can be changed by co-occurring input from other sensory modalities. Here, we explored how self-generated finger movements (left-right or up-down key presses) affect visual motion perception. In Experiment 1, motion perception of a blinking bar was shifted in the direction of co-occurring hand motor movements, indicative of motor-induced visual motion (MIVM). In Experiment 2, moving and static blinking bars were combined with either directional moving or stationary hand motor movements. Results showed that the directional component in the hand movement was crucial for MIVM as stationary motor movements even declined visual motion perception. In Experiment 3, the role of response bias was excluded in a two-alternative forced-choice task that ruled out the effect of response strategies. All three experiments demonstrated that alternating key presses (either horizontally or vertically aligned) induce illusory visual motion and that stationary motor movements (without a vertical or horizontal direction) induce the opposite effect, namely a decline in visual motion (more static) perception.

  14. Time-dependent changes in motor cortical excitability by electrical stimulation combined with voluntary drive.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Saito, Kei; Higashi, Toshio

    2014-04-16

    Prolonged changes in primary motor cortex excitability in response to combined neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and voluntary contraction with motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were investigated by transcranial magnetic stimulation and recorded by mechanomyography. Participants included 22 healthy individuals. NMES was applied to the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) by voluntary ECR contraction with 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of wrist extension. MEPs were recorded from the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and ECR at rest with NMES, at 20% MVC with NMES (combined), and at 20% MVC alone. Significant conditional effects were revealed in ECR and FCR. In the combined condition, MEPs showed gradual enhancement, and those in FCR were more inhibited than those in the control condition. Voluntary contraction with NMES increased primary motor cortex excitability in the agonist muscle, whereas the antagonist muscle might affect reciprocal modulation in the combined condition.

  15. Implementation of a sliding-mode-based position sensorless drive for high-speed micro permanent-magnet synchronous motors.

    PubMed

    Chi, Wen-Chun; Cheng, Ming-Yang

    2014-03-01

    Due to issues such as limited space, it is difficult if it is not impossible to employ a position sensor in the drive control of high-speed micro PMSMs. In order to alleviate this problem, this paper analyzes and implements a simple and robust position sensorless field-oriented control method of high-speed micro PMSMs based on the sliding-mode observer. In particular, the angular position and velocity of the rotor of the high-speed micro PMSM are estimated using the sliding-mode observer. This observer is able to accurately estimate rotor position in the low speed region and guarantee fast convergence of the observer in the high speed region. The proposed position sensorless control method is suitable for electric dental handpiece motor drives where a wide speed range operation is essential. The proposed sensorless FOC method is implemented using a cost-effective 16-bit microcontroller and tested in a prototype electric dental handpiece motor. Several experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. The Driving Visual Field and a History of Motor Vehicle Collision Involvement in Older Drivers: A Population-Based Examination

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Wood, Joanne; Owsley, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We designed a visual field test focused on the field utilized while driving to examine associations between field impairment and motor vehicle collision involvement in 2000 drivers aged 70 years or older. Methods. The “driving visual field test” involved measuring light sensitivity for 20 targets in each eye, extending 15° superiorly, 30° inferiorly, 60° temporally, and 30° nasally. The target locations were selected on the basis that they fell within the field region utilized when viewing through the windshield of a vehicle or viewing the dashboard while driving. Monocular fields were combined into a binocular field based on the more sensitive point from each eye. Severe impairment in the overall field or a region was defined as average sensitivity in the lowest quartile of sensitivity. At-fault collision involvement for 5 years prior to enrollment was obtained from state records. Poisson regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted rate ratios (RRs) examining the association between field impairment and at-fault collision involvement. Results. Drivers with severe binocular field impairment in the overall driving visual field had a 40% increased rate of at-fault collision involvement (RR, 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.83). Impairment in the lower and left fields was associated with elevated collision rates (RR, 1.40; 95% CI: 1.07–1.82 and RR, 1.49; 95% CI: 1.15–1.92, respectively), whereas impairment in the upper and right field regions was not. Conclusions. Results suggest that older drivers with severe impairment in the lower or left region of the driving visual field are more likely to have a history of at-fault collision involvement. PMID:25395488

  17. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient.

  18. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    PubMed Central

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient. PMID:27321713

  19. When eyes drive hand: Influence of non-biological motion on visuo-motor coupling.

    PubMed

    Thoret, Etienne; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Bringoux, Lionel; Ystad, Sølvi; Kronland-Martinet, Richard

    2016-01-26

    Many studies stressed that the human movement execution but also the perception of motion are constrained by specific kinematics. For instance, it has been shown that the visuo-manual tracking of a spotlight was optimal when the spotlight motion complies with biological rules such as the so-called 1/3 power law, establishing the co-variation between the velocity and the trajectory curvature of the movement. The visual or kinesthetic perception of a geometry induced by motion has also been shown to be constrained by such biological rules. In the present study, we investigated whether the geometry induced by the visuo-motor coupling of biological movements was also constrained by the 1/3 power law under visual open loop control, i.e. without visual feedback of arm displacement. We showed that when someone was asked to synchronize a drawing movement with a visual spotlight following a circular shape, the geometry of the reproduced shape was fooled by visual kinematics that did not respect the 1/3 power law. In particular, elliptical shapes were reproduced when the circle is trailed with a kinematics corresponding to an ellipse. Moreover, the distortions observed here were larger than in the perceptual tasks stressing the role of motor attractors in such a visuo-motor coupling. Finally, by investigating the direct influence of visual kinematics on the motor reproduction, our result conciliates previous knowledge on sensorimotor coupling of biological motions with external stimuli and gives evidence to the amodal encoding of biological motion.

  20. A Medium-Voltage Motor Drive with a Modular Multilevel PWM Inverter Part I. Experimental Verification by a 400-V, 15-kW Downscaled Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazutoshi; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents a medium-voltage motor drive with a three-phase modular multilevel PWM inverter and focuses on its control method and operating performance. This motor drive is particularly suitable for fans, blowers, pumps, and compressors, in which the load torque is proportional to the square of the rotating speed. Particular attention is paid to the dc-capacitor voltage fluctuation of each chopper-cell because it may affect the voltage rating of the power switching devices used. This paper describes the theoretical equations related to the amount of the voltage fluctuation. A downscaled model rated at 400V and 15kW is designed and built to confirm the validity and effectiveness of the nine-level (17-level in line-to-line) PWM inverter that is intended for use in medium-voltage motor drives to achieve energy savings.

  1. Nesprins anchor kinesin-1 motors to the nucleus to drive nuclear distribution in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Meredith H; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2015-01-01

    During skeletal muscle development, nuclei move dynamically through myotubes in a microtubule-dependent manner, driven by the microtubule motor protein kinesin-1. Loss of kinesin-1 leads to improperly positioned nuclei in culture and in vivo. Two models have been proposed to explain how kinesin-1 functions to move nuclei in myotubes. In the cargo model, kinesin-1 acts directly from the surface of the nucleus, whereas in an alternative model, kinesin-1 moves nuclei indirectly by sliding anti-parallel microtubules. Here, we test the hypothesis that an ensemble of Kif5B motors acts from the nuclear envelope to distribute nuclei throughout the length of syncytial myotubes. First, using an inducible dimerization system, we show that controlled recruitment of truncated, constitutively active kinesin-1 motors to the nuclear envelope is sufficient to prevent the nuclear aggregation resulting from depletion of endogenous kinesin-1. Second, we identify a conserved kinesin light chain (KLC)-binding motif in the nuclear envelope proteins nesprin-1 and nesprin-2, and show that recruitment of the motor complex to the nucleus via this LEWD motif is essential for nuclear distribution. Together, our findings demonstrate that the nucleus is a kinesin-1 cargo in myotubes and that nesprins function as nuclear cargo adaptors. The importance of achieving and maintaining proper nuclear position is not restricted to muscle fibers, suggesting that the nesprin-dependent recruitment of kinesin-1 to the nuclear envelope through the interaction of a conserved LEWD motif with kinesin light chain might be a general mechanism for cell-type-specific nuclear positioning during development.

  2. Microtubule minus end motors kinesin-14 and dynein drive nuclear congression in parallel pathways

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Kathleen; Minnes, Refael; Fraisier, Vincent; Paoletti, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) and associated motors play a central role in nuclear migration, which is crucial for diverse biological functions including cell division, polarity, and sexual reproduction. In this paper, we report a dual mechanism underlying nuclear congression during fission yeast karyogamy upon mating of haploid cells. Using microfluidic chambers for long-term imaging, we captured the precise timing of nuclear congression and identified two minus end–directed motors operating in parallel in this process. Kinesin-14 Klp2 associated with MTs may cross-link and slide antiparallel MTs emanating from the two nuclei, whereas dynein accumulating at spindle pole bodies (SPBs) may pull MTs nucleated from the opposite SPB. Klp2-dependent nuclear congression proceeds at constant speed, whereas dynein accumulation results in an increase of nuclear velocity over time. Surprisingly, the light intermediate chain Dli1, but not dynactin, is required for this previously unknown function of dynein. We conclude that efficient nuclear congression depends on the cooperation of two minus end–directed motors. PMID:25869666

  3. Quaternary dynamics of the SecA motor drive translocase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Karamanou, Spyridoula; Sardis, Marios Frantzeskos; Schärer, Martin Alexander; Capitani, Guido; Economou, Anastassios

    2013-12-12

    Most secretory preproteins exit bacterial cells through the protein translocase, comprising the SecYEG channel and the dimeric peripheral ATPase motor SecA. Energetic coupling to work remains elusive. We now demonstrate that translocation is driven by unusually dynamic quaternary changes in SecA. The dimer occupies several successive states with distinct protomer arrangements. SecA docks on SecYEG as a dimer and becomes functionally asymmetric. Docking occurs via only one protomer. The second protomer allosterically regulates downstream steps. Binding of one preprotein signal peptide to the SecYEG-docked SecA protomer elongates the SecA dimer and triggers the translocase holoenzyme to obtain a lower activation energy conformation. ATP hydrolysis monomerizes the triggered SecA dimer, causing mature chain trapping and processive translocation. This is a unique example of one protein exploiting quaternary dynamics to become a substrate receptor, a "loading clamp," and a "processive motor." This mechanism has widespread implications on protein translocases, chaperones, and motors.

  4. Microtubule minus end motors kinesin-14 and dynein drive nuclear congression in parallel pathways.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Kathleen; Minnes, Refael; Fraisier, Vincent; Paoletti, Anne; Tran, Phong T

    2015-04-13

    Microtubules (MTs) and associated motors play a central role in nuclear migration, which is crucial for diverse biological functions including cell division, polarity, and sexual reproduction. In this paper, we report a dual mechanism underlying nuclear congression during fission yeast karyogamy upon mating of haploid cells. Using microfluidic chambers for long-term imaging, we captured the precise timing of nuclear congression and identified two minus end-directed motors operating in parallel in this process. Kinesin-14 Klp2 associated with MTs may cross-link and slide antiparallel MTs emanating from the two nuclei, whereas dynein accumulating at spindle pole bodies (SPBs) may pull MTs nucleated from the opposite SPB. Klp2-dependent nuclear congression proceeds at constant speed, whereas dynein accumulation results in an increase of nuclear velocity over time. Surprisingly, the light intermediate chain Dli1, but not dynactin, is required for this previously unknown function of dynein. We conclude that efficient nuclear congression depends on the cooperation of two minus end-directed motors.

  5. Implementation of a MFAC based position sensorless drive for high speed BLDC motors with nonideal back EMF.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Ning, Xin; Li, Wenzhuo

    2017-03-01

    In order to improve the reliability and reduce power consumption of the high speed BLDC motor system, this paper presents a model free adaptive control (MFAC) based position sensorless drive with only a dc-link current sensor. The initial commutation points are obtained by detecting the phase of EMF zero-crossing point and then delaying 30 electrical degrees. According to the commutation error caused by the low pass filter (LPF) and other factors, the relationship between commutation error angle and dc-link current is analyzed, a corresponding MFAC based control method is proposed, and the commutation error can be corrected by the controller in real time. Both the simulation and experimental results show that the proposed correction method can achieve ideal commutation effect within the entire operating speed range.

  6. Optimal Design of Rotary-Type Voice Coil Motor Using Multisegmented Magnet Array for Small Form Factor Optical Disk Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaehwa; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2007-05-01

    For a small form factor optical disk drive (SFFODD), a high-performance actuator satisfying the requirements for small size, high speed, and low-power consumption simultaneously is required. In this paper, we propose a rotary-type voice coil motor (VCM) using a multisegmented magnet array (MSMA) for the SFFODD. The VCM is designed to move the entire system including miniaturized optical components, which are necessary in reading and writing data. To increase the actuating force of the VCM, the MSMA, a novel magnetic circuit, is adopted because it can provide a higher flux density than a conventional magnet array in the rotary-type VCM. To obtain the best performance from the VCM in the limit of actuator size, design optimization is performed. The manufactured actuator with optimally designed parameters is described and the potential performance of track seeking is evaluated and presented.

  7. Note: Single-polarity high-voltage amplifier to drive coarse-approach slip-stick piezoelectric motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belussi, Cristian H.; Gómez Berisso, Mariano; Fasano, Yanina

    2013-05-01

    Scanning probe microscopies typically rely on coarse-approach slip-stick piezoelectric motors that work by exciting piezoelectric stacks with sawtooth signals of hundreds of V and some kHz. For this application, we introduce a single-polarity high-voltage amplifier based on discrete MOSFET-technology components with improved output current desirable for low-temperature actuation. The amplifier has an output signal of 600 V, 100 mA output current, noise level below 2 μV/sqrt{Hz}, 4 kHz high-voltage bandwidth, 2 V/μs slew-rate, and rise and fall times of 80 μs (when loaded with 30 nF). The circuit was successfully applied to drive a home-made scanning tunnelling microscope.

  8. Measurement of rotary pump flow and pressure by computation of driving motor power and speed.

    PubMed

    Qian, K X; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y; Feng, Z G; Li, L

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of pump flow and pressure by ventricular assist is an important process, but difficult to achieve. On one hand, the pump flow and pressure are indicators of pump performance and the physiologic status of the receptor, meanwhile providing a control basis of the blood pump itself. On the other hand, the direct measurement forces the receptor to connect with a flow meter and a manometer, and the sensors of these meters may cause haematological problems and increase the danger of infection. A novel method for measuring flow rate and pressure of rotary pump has been developed recently. First the pump performs at several rotating speeds, and at each speed the flow rate, pump head and the motor power (voltage x current) are recorded and shown in diagrams, thus obtaining P (motor power)-Q (pump volume) curves as well as P-H (pump head) curves. Secondly, the P, n (rotating speed) values are loaded into the input layer of a 3-layer BP (back propagation) neural network and the Q and H values into the output layer, to convert P-Q and P-H relations into Q = f (P,n) and H = g (P, n) functions. Thirdly, these functions are stored by computer to establish a database as an archive of this pump. Finally, the pump flow and pressure can be computed from motor power and speed during animal experiments or clinical trials. This new method was used in the authors' impeller pump. The results demonstrated that the error for pump head was less than 2% and that for pump flow was under 5%, so its accuracy is better than that of non-invasive measuring methods.

  9. Experimental muscle pain increases variability of neural drive to muscle and decreases motor unit coherence in tremor frequency band

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Utku Ş.; Negro, Francesco; Falla, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    It has been observed that muscle pain influences force variability and low-frequency (<3 Hz) oscillations in the neural drive to muscle. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of experimental muscle pain on the neural control of muscle force at higher frequency bands, associated with afferent feedback (alpha band, 5–13 Hz) and with descending cortical input (beta band, 15–30 Hz). Single-motor unit activity was recorded, in two separate experimental sessions, from the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles with intramuscular wire electrodes, during isometric abductions of the fifth finger at 10% of maximal force [maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)] and ankle dorsiflexions at 25% MVC. The contractions were repeated under three conditions: no pain (baseline) and after intramuscular injection of isotonic (0.9%, control) and hypertonic (5.8%, painful) saline. The results showed an increase of the relative power of both the force signal and the neural drive at the tremor frequency band (alpha, 5–13 Hz) between the baseline and hypertonic (painful) conditions for both muscles (P < 0.05) but no effect on the beta band. Additionally, the strength of motor unit coherence was lower (P < 0.05) in the hypertonic condition in the alpha band for both muscles and in the beta band for the ADM. These results indicate that experimental muscle pain increases the amplitude of the tremor oscillations because of an increased variability of the neural control (common synaptic input) in the tremor band. Moreover, the concomitant decrease in coherence suggests an increase in independent input in the tremor band due to pain. PMID:26019314

  10. "Fan-Tip-Drive" High-Power-Density, Permanent Magnet Electric Motor and Test Rig Designed for a Nonpolluting Aircraft Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.

    2004-01-01

    A scaled blade-tip-drive test rig was designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig is a scaled version of a direct-current brushless motor that would be located in the shroud of a thrust fan. This geometry is very attractive since the allowable speed of the armature is approximately the speed of the blade tips (Mach 1 or 1100 ft/s). The magnetic pressure generated in the motor acts over a large area and, thus, produces a large force or torque. This large force multiplied by the large velocity results in a high-power-density motor.

  11. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jason; Yu, Wensong; Sun, Pengwei; Leslie, Scott; Prusia, Duane; Arnet, Beat; Smith, Chris; Cogan, Art

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  12. Temperature and Light Control of Three phase Induction Motor Speed Drive by PIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader

    2010-06-01

    PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1640 originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division. The name PIC initially referred to "Peripheral Interface Controller". PICs are popular with the developers and the hobbyists due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, free development tools, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. In modern days, PIC microcontrollers are used in the industrial world to control many types of equipment, ranging from consumer to specialized devices. They have replaced older types of controllers, including microprocessors. Also, there is a growing need for off-line support of a computer's main processor. The demand is going to grow with more equipment uses more intelligence. In the engineering field for instance, PIC has brought a very positive impact in designing an automation control system and controlling industrial machineries. Accordingly, this paper shows the change in the motor speed by the use of PIC in accordance to the light and level of temperature. The project focuses on programming the PIC by embedded software that detects the temperature and light signals and send it to 3 phase induction motor of 240 volt. A theoretical analysis and the practical approach in achieving this work goal have proved that PIC plays an important role in the field of electronics control.

  13. Modeling and Simulation of Control Actuation System with Fuzzy-PID Logic Controlled Brushless Motor Drives for Missiles Glider Applications

    PubMed Central

    Muniraj, Murali; Arulmozhiyal, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    A control actuation system has been used extensively in automotive, aerospace, and defense applications. The major challenges in modeling control actuation system are rise time, maximum peak to peak overshoot, and response to nonlinear system with percentage error. This paper addresses the challenges in modeling and real time implementation of control actuation system for missiles glider applications. As an alternative fuzzy-PID controller is proposed in BLDC motor drive followed by linkage mechanism to actuate fins in missiles and gliders. The proposed system will realize better rise time and less overshoot while operating in extreme nonlinear dynamic system conditions. A mathematical model of BLDC motor is derived in state space form. The complete control actuation system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment and verified by performing simulation studies. A real time prototype of the control actuation is developed with dSPACE-1104 hardware controller and a detailed analysis is carried out to confirm the viability of the proposed system. PMID:26613102

  14. Onset of a Declining Trend in Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Drunk-driving in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Shinji; Katanoda, Kota; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Background In Japan, introduction of severe drunk-driving penalties and a lower blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit in June 2002 was followed by a substantial reduction in fatal alcohol-related crashes. However, previous research suggests that this reduction started before the legal amendments. The causes of the decrease have not been studied in detail. Methods Monthly police data on fatal road traffic crashes from January 1995 to August 2006 were analyzed using a joinpoint regression model to identify change-points in the trends of the proportion of drunk-driving among drivers primarily responsible for fatal crashes. We analyzed the data by BAC level (≥0.5 or <0.5 mg/ml), then conducted analyses stratified by vehicle type (car or motorcycle) and age group (<45 or ≥45 years) only for the proportion of those with a BAC of 0.5 mg/ml or higher. Results Among all drivers, the proportion of those with a BAC of 0.5 mg/ml or higher and those with a BAC greater than 0 but less than 0.5 mg/ml showed a change-point from increase to decrease in February 2000 and in May 2002, respectively. The proportion of those with a BAC of 0.5 mg/ml or higher showed a change-point from increase to decrease in October 1999 among car drivers and in April 2000 among drivers younger than 45 years. There was no change-point among motorcyclists. A change-point from no trend to a decrease in January 2002 was observed among those 45 years or older. Conclusions The change-point identified around the end of 1999 to the start of 2000 suggests that a high-profile fatal crash in November 1999, which drew media attention and provoked public debate, triggered subsequent changes in drunk-driving behavior. PMID:23604061

  15. Some aspects of bucket wheel excavators driving using PWM converter - asynchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Marcu Marius; Daniela, Orban Maria

    Static converters are very important element in controlled drive systems. The development of the power semiconductor elements has revolutionized the field of electric power control and has permitted the improvement and the diversification of the electric energy converter. Loads with highly distorted current waveforms also have a very poor power factor; because of this, they use excessive power system capacity and could be a cause of overloading. The power supply from the Oltenia open pit coal mine machinery consists of electrical cables from 20/6 kV transformer station rigged with 4 or 6 MVA transformers counting 188 pieces, providing 1263,3 MVA rated capacity.

  16. By land or by sea: a modified C-start motor pattern drives the terrestrial tail-flip.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Benjamin M; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A

    2016-06-15

    Aquatic C-start escape responses in teleost fishes are driven by a well-studied network of reticulospinal neurons that produce a motor pattern of simultaneous contraction of axial muscle on the side of the body opposite the threatening stimulus, bending the fish into the characteristic C shape, followed by a traveling wave of muscle contraction on the contralateral side that moves the fish away from the threat. Superficially, the kinematics of the terrestrial tail-flip resemble the C-start, with the anterior body rolling up and over the tail into a tight C shape, followed by straightening as the fish launches off of the caudal peduncle into ballistic flight. We asked whether similar motor control is used for both behaviors in the amphibious mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus Fine-wire bipolar electrodes were percutaneously inserted into repeatable paired axial locations in five individual fish. Electromyograms synchronized with high-speed video were made of aquatic C-starts, immediately followed by terrestrial tail-flips. Tail-flips took longer to complete than aquatic escapes; correspondingly, muscles were activated for longer durations on land. In the tail-flip, activity was seen in contralateral posterior axial muscle for an extended period of time during the formation of the C shape, likely to press the caudal peduncle against the ground in preparation for launch. Tail-flips thus appear to be produced by modification of the motor pattern driving the aquatic C-start, with differences consistent with the additional requirement of overcoming gravity.

  17. Sensorless FOC Performance Improved with On-Line Speed and Rotor Resistance Estimator Based on an Artificial Neural Network for an Induction Motor Drive.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Villalobos, Jose M; Rodriguez-Resendiz, Juvenal; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A; Martínez-Hernández, Moisés A

    2015-06-29

    Three-phase induction motor drive requires high accuracy in high performance processes in industrial applications. Field oriented control, which is one of the most employed control schemes for induction motors, bases its function on the electrical parameter estimation coming from the motor. These parameters make an electrical machine driver work improperly, since these electrical parameter values change at low speeds, temperature changes, and especially with load and duty changes. The focus of this paper is the real-time and on-line electrical parameters with a CMAC-ADALINE block added in the standard FOC scheme to improve the IM driver performance and endure the driver and the induction motor lifetime. Two kinds of neural network structures are used; one to estimate rotor speed and the other one to estimate rotor resistance of an induction motor.

  18. Sensorless FOC Performance Improved with On-Line Speed and Rotor Resistance Estimator Based on an Artificial Neural Network for an Induction Motor Drive

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Villalobos, Jose M.; Rodriguez-Resendiz, Juvenal; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A.; Martínez-Hernández, Moisés A.

    2015-01-01

    Three-phase induction motor drive requires high accuracy in high performance processes in industrial applications. Field oriented control, which is one of the most employed control schemes for induction motors, bases its function on the electrical parameter estimation coming from the motor. These parameters make an electrical machine driver work improperly, since these electrical parameter values change at low speeds, temperature changes, and especially with load and duty changes. The focus of this paper is the real-time and on-line electrical parameters with a CMAC-ADALINE block added in the standard FOC scheme to improve the IM driver performance and endure the driver and the induction motor lifetime. Two kinds of neural network structures are used; one to estimate rotor speed and the other one to estimate rotor resistance of an induction motor. PMID:26131677

  19. An Adaptive Supervisory Sliding Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller for Sensorless Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shun-Yuan; Tseng, Chwan-Lu; Lin, Shou-Chuang; Chiu, Chun-Jung; Chou, Jen-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC) in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM) drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes—the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC—were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE) was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes. PMID:25815450

  20. Experimental Performance Evaluation of a High Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and Drive for a Flywheel Application at Different Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagorny, Aleksandr S.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Kankam, M. David

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental performance characterization study of a high speed, permanent magnet motor/generator (M/G) and drive applied to a flywheel module. Unlike the conventional electric machine the flywheel M/G is not a separated unit; its stator and rotor are integrated into a flywheel assembly. The M/G rotor is mounted on a flywheel rotor, which is magnetically levitated and sealed within a vacuum chamber during the operation. Thus, it is not possible to test the M/G using direct load measurements with a dynamometer and torque transducer. Accordingly, a new in-situ testing method had to be developed. The paper describes a new flywheel M/G and drive performance evaluation technique, which allows the estimation of the losses, efficiency and power quality of the flywheel high speed permanent magnet M/G, while working in vacuum, over wide frequency and torque ranges. This method does not require any hardware modification nor any special addition to the test rig. This new measurement technique is useful for high-speed applications, when applying an external load is technically difficult.

  1. Properties of the Driving Behavior Survey Among Individuals with Motor Vehicle Accident-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Baker, Aaron S.; Litwack, Scott D.; Sloan, Denise M.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Data suggest anxious drivers may engage in problematic behaviors that place themselves and others at increased risk of negative traffic events. Three domains of problematic behavior – exaggerated safety/caution, performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive behaviors – previously were identified during development of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), a novel measure of anxiety-related behavior. Extending this research, the current study examined the psychometric properties of DBS scores among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to motor vehicle trauma (N = 40). Internal consistencies and 12-week test-retest reliabilities for DBS scales ranged from good to excellent. Comparison of scores to normative student data indicated dose-response relationships for safety/caution and performance deficit subscales, with increased frequency of anxious behavior occurring within the PTSD sample. Associations with standard clinical measures provide additional evidence for anxiety-related driving behavior as a unique marker of functional impairment, distinct from both avoidance and disorder-specific symptoms. PMID:24325891

  2. Efficiency consideration of DC link soft-switching inverters for motor drive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W.; McKeever, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    This paper critically evaluates efficiency of soft switching inverters including an actively clamped resonant dc link inverter and a clamped-mode resonant pole inverter. An analytical approach to evaluating efficiency of the clamped-mode soft switching inverter has been developed. The evaluation results are compared with that of the standard pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverter. A 50-kW induction motor is used as the variable load, and the inverter efficiency is evaluated under different speed and torque conditions. The clamped-mode soft-switching inverter, although eliminating the switching loss, shows poor efficiency over the entire load range. Under low load conditions, the efficiency profile is even worse. The actively clamped resonant dc link inverter shows highest efficiency over the entire speed and torque range. However, its energy saving over the standard PWM inverter is marginal under full load or high speed conditions.

  3. Current harmonics elimination control method for six-phase PM synchronous motor drives.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lei; Chen, Ming-liang; Shen, Jian-qing; Xiao, Fei

    2015-11-01

    To reduce the undesired 5th and 7th stator harmonic current in the six-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), an improved vector control algorithm was proposed based on vector space decomposition (VSD) transformation method, which can control the fundamental and harmonic subspace separately. To improve the traditional VSD technology, a novel synchronous rotating coordinate transformation matrix was presented in this paper, and only using the traditional PI controller in d-q subspace can meet the non-static difference adjustment, the controller parameter design method is given by employing internal model principle. Moreover, the current PI controller parallel with resonant controller is employed in x-y subspace to realize the specific 5th and 7th harmonic component compensation. In addition, a new six-phase SVPWM algorithm based on VSD transformation theory is also proposed. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of current decoupling vector controller.

  4. Power semiconductor controlled drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Gopal K.

    This book presents power semiconductor controlled drives employing dc motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors. The dynamics of motor and load systems are covered. Open-loop and closed-loop drives are considered, and thyristor, power transistor, and GTO converters are discussed. In-depth coverage is given to ac drives, particularly those fed by voltage and current source inverters and cycloconverters. Full coverage is given to brushless and commutatorless dc drives, including load-commuted synchronous motor drives. Rectifier-controlled dc drives are presented in detail.

  5. Analysis on the multi-dimensional spectrum of the thrust force for the linear motor feed drive system in machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaojun; Lu, Dun; Ma, Chengfang; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Wanhua

    2017-01-01

    The motor thrust force has lots of harmonic components due to the nonlinearity of drive circuit and motor itself in the linear motor feed drive system. What is more, in the motion process, these thrust force harmonics may vary with the position, velocity, acceleration and load, which affects the displacement fluctuation of the feed drive system. Therefore, in this paper, on the basis of the thrust force spectrum obtained by the Maxwell equation and the electromagnetic energy method, the multi-dimensional variation of each thrust harmonic is analyzed under different motion parameters. Then the model of the servo system is established oriented to the dynamic precision. The influence of the variation of the thrust force spectrum on the displacement fluctuation is discussed. At last the experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical analysis above. It can be found that the thrust harmonics show multi-dimensional spectrum characteristics under different motion parameters and loads, which should be considered to choose the motion parameters and optimize the servo control parameters in the high-speed and high-precision machine tools equipped with the linear motor feed drive system.

  6. Gravitational search algorithm based tuning of a PI speed controller for an induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Ali, Jamal; Hannan, M. A.; Mohamed, Azah

    2016-03-01

    Proportional-integral (PI)-controller is very useful for controlling speed and mechanical load variables for the three-phase induction motor (TIM) operation. However, the conventional PI-controller has a very exhaustive trial and error procedure for obtaining it is parameters. In this paper, PI speed controller has been improved in it is design technique to suite TIM by utilizing a gravitational search algorithm (GSA) optimization technique. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the speed response has been used as an objective function. An optimal GSA based PI speed controller (GSA-PI) objective function is also employed to tune and minimize the MAE for developing the performance of the TIM in terms of changes speed and mechanical load. This experiment use space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique to create pulse width modulation for switching devices for three phase bridge inverter. Results obtained from the GSA-PI speed controller are compared with those obtained through particle swarm optimization (PSO) to validate the developed controller. Then it has been proved that the robustness of the GSA-PI speed controller is far better than that of the1 PSO controller in all tested cases in terms of damping capability and transient response under different mechanical loads and speeds.

  7. Necroptosis drives motor neuron death in models of both sporadic and familial ALS

    PubMed Central

    Re, Diane B.; Verche, Virginia Le; Yu, Changhao; Amoroso, Mackenzie W.; Politi, Kristin A.; Phani, Sudarshan; Ikiz, Burcin; Hoffmann, Lucas; Koolen, Martijn; Nagata, Tetsuya; Papadimitriou, Dimitra; Nagy, Peter; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Kariya, Shingo; Wichterle, Hynek; Henderson, Christopher E.; Przedborski, Serge

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Most cases of neurodegenerative disease are sporadic, hindering the use of genetic mouse models to analyze disease mechanisms. Focusing on the motor neuron (MN) disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) we therefore devised a fully humanized co-culture model composed of human adult primary sporadic ALS (sALS) astrocytes and human embryonic stem cell-derived MNs. The model reproduces the cardinal features of human ALS: sALS astrocytes, but not those from control patients, trigger selective death of MNs. The mechanisms underlying this non-cell-autonomous toxicity were investigated in both astrocytes and MNs. Although causal in familial ALS (fALS), SOD1 does not contribute to the toxicity of sALS astrocytes. Death of MNs triggered by either sALS or fALS astrocytes occurs through necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis involving receptor-interacting protein 1 and the mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein. The necroptotic pathway therefore constitutes a novel potential therapeutic target for this incurable disease. PMID:24508385

  8. Power switch and baffle assembly having unidirectional drive motor for a refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Linstromberg, W.J.; Janke, D.E.

    1988-03-22

    In a refrigerator having a cabinet defining a frozen food compartment and a fresh food compartment separated from each other by a divider wall, a through opening formed in the wall to enable cold air from the frozen food compartment to flow into the fresh food compartment; a baffle selectively closing the opening; a compressor; an evaporator fan for circulating chilled air within the frozen food compartment and through the opening into the fresh food compartment; temperature sensor means for measuring the temperatures of the fresh food and frozen food compartments and control means responsive to the temperatures sensor means for producing command signals indicative of the need to cool the compartments; a system for controlling the baffle, compressor and evaporator fan to maintain predetermined frozen food and fresh food compartment temperatures is described comprising: a cam having first and second control surfaces; first electrical switch means operated by movement of the first control surface to apply electricity from an external electrical power source selectively to the compressor and the defrost heater; means for coupling the cam to the baffle; motor means responsive to the command signals for moving the cam; and second electrical switch means operated by movement of the second control surface to apply feedback signals to the control means to indicate the position of the cam.

  9. Do emotions or gender drive our actions? A study of motor distractibility.

    PubMed

    Ambron, Elisabetta; Rumiati, Raffaella I; Foroni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    People's interaction with the social environment depends on the ability to attend social cues with human faces being a key vehicle of this information. This study explores whether directing the attention to gender or emotion of a face interferes with ongoing actions. In two experiments, participants reached for one of two possible targets by relying on one of two features of a face, namely, emotion (Experiment 1) or gender (Experiment 2) of a non-target stimulus (a task-relevant distractor). Participants' reaching movements deviated toward the task-relevant distractor in both experiments. However, when attending to the gender of the face the distractor effect was modulated by both gender (task-relevant feature) and emotion (task-irrelevant feature), with the largest movement deviation being observed toward angry male faces. Endogenous allocation of attention toward faces elicits a competing motor response to the ongoing action and the emotional content of the face contributes to this process at a more automatic and implicit level.

  10. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets. The selection of the

  11. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets

  12. Acute Axonal Degeneration Drives Development of Cognitive, Motor, and Visual Deficits after Blast-Mediated Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Voorhees, Jaymie R.; Genova, Rachel M.; Britt, Jeremiah K.; McDaniel, Latisha; Harper, Matthew M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Axonal degeneration is a prominent feature of many forms of neurodegeneration, and also an early event in blast-mediated traumatic brain injury (TBI), the signature injury of soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan. It is not known, however, whether this axonal degeneration is what drives development of subsequent neurologic deficits after the injury. The Wallerian degeneration slow strain (WldS) of mice is resistant to some forms of axonal degeneration because of a triplicated fusion gene encoding the first 70 amino acids of Ufd2a, a ubiquitin-chain assembly factor, that is linked to the complete coding sequence of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMAT1). Here, we demonstrate that resistance of WldS mice to axonal degeneration after blast-mediated TBI is associated with preserved function in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory, cerebellar-dependent motor balance, and retinal and optic nerve–dependent visual function. Thus, early axonal degeneration is likely a critical driver of subsequent neurobehavioral complications of blast-mediated TBI. Future therapeutic strategies targeted specifically at mitigating axonal degeneration may provide a uniquely beneficial approach to treating patients suffering from the effects of blast-mediated TBI. PMID:27822499

  13. Acute Axonal Degeneration Drives Development of Cognitive, Motor, and Visual Deficits after Blast-Mediated Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Terry C; Voorhees, Jaymie R; Genova, Rachel M; Davis, Kevin C; Madison, Ashley M; Britt, Jeremiah K; Cintrón-Pérez, Coral J; McDaniel, Latisha; Harper, Matthew M; Pieper, Andrew A

    2016-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is a prominent feature of many forms of neurodegeneration, and also an early event in blast-mediated traumatic brain injury (TBI), the signature injury of soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan. It is not known, however, whether this axonal degeneration is what drives development of subsequent neurologic deficits after the injury. The Wallerian degeneration slow strain (WldS) of mice is resistant to some forms of axonal degeneration because of a triplicated fusion gene encoding the first 70 amino acids of Ufd2a, a ubiquitin-chain assembly factor, that is linked to the complete coding sequence of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMAT1). Here, we demonstrate that resistance of WldS mice to axonal degeneration after blast-mediated TBI is associated with preserved function in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory, cerebellar-dependent motor balance, and retinal and optic nerve-dependent visual function. Thus, early axonal degeneration is likely a critical driver of subsequent neurobehavioral complications of blast-mediated TBI. Future therapeutic strategies targeted specifically at mitigating axonal degeneration may provide a uniquely beneficial approach to treating patients suffering from the effects of blast-mediated TBI.

  14. An Induction Motor Drive System Based on the Back-To-Back Connection of Two Five-Level Diode-Clamped PWM Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yosuke; Natchpong, Hatti; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper discusses a 6.6-kV transformerless motor drive system based on the back-to-back connection of two five-level diode-clamped PWM converters. In addition, this paper designs, constructs and experimentally tests a down-scaled model rated at 200V and 5.5kW. This system consist of the two five-level converters, a common dc-link, and voltage-balancing circuits using two bi-directional buck-boost choppers. Experimental results obtained from the down-scaled model verify the validity of the system design, giving promise of the viability of the 6.6-kV transformerless motor drive system.

  15. Motor activity in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo: synaptic drive and firing pattern of single motoneurons.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, M J

    1989-03-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying embryonic motility were investigated using intracellular recording from motoneurons and electrotonic recording from muscle nerves during motor activity generated by an isolated spinal cord preparation of 12- to 15-d-old chick embryos. DC-coupled recordings from sartorius (a flexor) and femorotibialis (an extensor) muscle nerves revealed that both sets of motoneurons were depolarized at the same time in each cycle even when the motoneurons fired out of phase. Sartorius motoneurons fired briefly on the rising phase of the depolarization and then stopped firing before discharging a second burst of spikes as the depolarization decayed. By contrast, femorotibialis motoneurons fired at the peak of their depolarization, which was coincident with the interruption in sartorius activity. Intracellular recordings from antidromically identified motoneurons confirmed that flexor and extensor motoneurons were depolarized at the same time during each cycle of activity. The discharge of femorotibialis motoneurons, and others presumed to be extensors, followed changes in membrane potential so that maximal firing occurred during peak depolarization. The relationship between discharge and membrane potential was different in sartorius motoneurons (and in others presumed to be flexors) because they fired briefly on the rising phase of the depolarization and then stopped firing during peak depolarization. In some of these cells firing resumed as the membrane potential decayed back to rest. Intracellular injection of depolarizing current into sartorius motoneurons during motor activity reversed the direction of the membrane potential change from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing during the pause in sartorius discharge. In addition, the discharge evoked by the depolarizing current was blocked during the reversed part of the synaptic potential revealing its inhibitory nature. The occurrence of the IPSP was accompanied by a large reduction in motoneuronal

  16. Exploring the use of computer games and virtual reality in exposure therapy for fear of driving following a motor vehicle accident.

    PubMed

    Walshe, David G; Lewis, Elizabeth J; Kim, Sun I; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2003-06-01

    Specific phobia, situational type-driving, induced by accident (accident phobia) occurs in 18-38% of those involved in a vehicular accident of sufficient severity to warrant referral to the emergency departments of a general hospital. The objective is to investigate, in an open study, the effectiveness of the combined use of computer generated environments involving driving games (game reality [GR]) and a virtual reality (VR) driving environment in exposure therapy for the treatment of driving phobia following a motor vehicle accident (MVA) program. Fourteen subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for Simple Phobia/Accident Phobia and were referred from the emergency department of a general hospital were exposed to a Virtual Driving Environment (Hanyang University Driving Phobia Environment) and computer driving games (London Racer/Midtown Madness/Rally Championship). Patients who experienced "immersion" (i.e., a sense of presence with heightened anxiety) in one of the driving simulations (defined as an increase in SUD ratings of 3 and/or an increase of heart rate > 15 BPM in a 1-h trial session of computer simulation driving) were exposed to a cognitive behavioral program of up to 12 1-h sessions involving graded driving simulation tasks with self-monitoring, physiological feedback, diaphragmatic breathing and cognitive reappraisal. Subjects were assessed at the beginning and end of therapy with measurements of: physiological responsivity (heart rate), subjective ratings of distress (SUD), rating scales for severity of fear of driving (FDI), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CAPS) and depression (HAM-D) and achievement of target behaviors. Of all patients 7/14 (50%) became immersed in the driving environments. This immersed group (n = 7) completed the exposure program. Pre- and post-treatment comparisons showed significant post treatment reductions on all measures SUDS (p = 0.008), FDI (p = 0.008), CAPS (p = 0.008), HR (p = 0.008), CAPS (p = 0.008), HAM-D (p = 0

  17. Design and experience with the WS/HS assembly movement using labview VIS, national instrument motion controllers, and compumotor electronic drive units and motors

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L. A.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Gruchalla, M.; Martinez, D. G.; O'Hara, J. F.; Shurter, R. B.; Stettler, M. W.; Valdiviez, R.; Barr, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), designed and built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program and provides a platform for measuring high-power proton beam-halo formation. The technique used for measuring the beam halo employs nine combination Wire Scanner and Halo Scraper (WS/HS) devices. This paper will focus on the experience gained in the use of National Instrument (NI) LabVIEW VIs and motion controllers, and Compumotor electronic drive units and motors. The base configuration couples a Compumotor motor driven by a Parker-Hannifin Gemini GT Drive unit. The drive unit is controlled by a NI PXI-7344 controller card, which in turn is controlled by a PC running custom built NI LabVIEW VIs. The function of the control VI's is to interpret instructions from the main control system, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), and carry out the corresponding motion commands. The main control VI has to run all nineteen WS/HS motor axes used in the accelerator. A basic discussion of the main accelerator control system, EPICs which is hosted on a VXI platform, and its interface with the PC based LabVIEW motion control software will be included.

  18. DESIGN AND EXPERIENCE WITH THE WS/HS ASSEMBLY MOVEMENT USING LABVIEW VIS, NATIONAL INSTRUMENT MOTION CONTROLLERS, AND COMPUMOTOR ELECTRONIC DRIVE UNITS AND MOTORS

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. BARR; L.A. DAY; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), designed and built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program and provides a platform for measuring high-power proton beam-halo formation. The technique used for measuring the beam halo employs nine combination Wire Scanner and Halo Scraper (WS/HS) devices. This paper will focus on the experience gained in the use of National Instrument (NI) LabVIEW VIs and motion controllers, and Compumotor electronic drive units and motors. The base configuration couples a Compumotor motor driven by a Parker-Hannifin Gemini GT Drive unit. The drive unit is controlled by a NI PXI-7344 controller card, which in turn is controlled by a PC running custom built NI LabVIEW VIs. The function of the control VI's is to interpret instructions from the main control system, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), and carry out the corresponding motion commands. The main control VI has to run all nineteen WS/HS motor axes used in the accelerator. A basic discussion of the main accelerator control system, EPICs which is hosted on a VXI platform, and its interface with the PC based LabVIEW motion control software will be included.

  19. Development of a highly efficient hard disk drive spindle motor with a passive magnetic thrust bearing and a hydrodynamic journal bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, G. H.; Park, J. S.

    2005-05-01

    This article presents a highly efficient hard disk drive (HDD) spindle motor with a passive magnetic thrust bearing and a hydrodynamic journal bearing. It eliminates the mechanical friction loss of a thrust bearing which is around 14% of total power consumption of a 3.5 in. HDD spindle motor, by replacing a conventional hydrodynamic thrust bearing with a passive magnetic thrust bearing. The passive magnetic thrust bearing using permanent magnets is inherently unstable in radial direction. However, the radial hydrodynamic force of the hydrodynamic journal bearing counterbalances the radial magnetic force of magnetic thrust bearing to achieve the stability as the motor spins up. Numerical analysis is performed to verify feasibility of the proposed system.

  20. General Methodologies for Improving Motor Drive Precision in Order to Utilize It as an Embedded Application Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secrest, Caleb W.

    The objectives of this research are to reliably, and non-invasively, extract high quality spatial information from a limited-stroke multi-stage gear train driven by an AC machine using only the sensors necessary for normal AC machine control. In this work, the spatial information will be used to estimate the state of wear of each axis in the gear train. To extract this information, cascaded observer structures are utilized to estimate the load disturbances acting on the AC machine, and then to estimate the spatial errors which produce those disturbances. Further signal processing techniques are then utilized to observe the spatial error information in the spatial domain where the information is most relevant and to extract the systematic spatial errors that reoccur over many operating cycles. In prior art, the intrinsic spatial properties of the AC machine and position sensor feedback limited the quality of the spatial error information that could be extracted using motor drive-based estimation. Furthermore, the limited-stroke of the multi-stage gear train limits the separation of spatial content between the axes of the gear train and limits the extraction of the systematic spatial errors that reoccur over many operating cycles. In this work, methods are developed to reduce and separate machine and sensor contributions to the spatial error information being extracted, and general system design methodologies are investigated to improve the quality of spatial error information that can be extracted within the limited-stroke motion constraints of the multi-stage gear train.

  1. Naturalistic field study of the restart break in US commercial motor vehicle drivers: Truck driving, sleep, and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Amy R; Mollicone, Daniel J; Kan, Kevin; Bartels, Rachel; Satterfield, Brieann C; Riedy, Samantha M; Unice, Aaron; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2016-08-01

    Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers in the US may start a new duty cycle after taking a 34-h restart break. A restart break provides an opportunity for sleep recuperation to help prevent the build-up of fatigue across duty cycles. However, the effectiveness of a restart break may depend on its timing, and on how many nighttime opportunities for sleep it contains. For daytime drivers, a 34-h restart break automatically includes two nighttime periods. For nighttime drivers, who are arguably at increased risk of fatigue, a 34-h restart break contains only one nighttime period. To what extent this is relevant for fatigue depends in part on whether nighttime drivers revert back to a nighttime-oriented sleep schedule during the restart break. We conducted a naturalistic field study with 106 CMV drivers working their normal schedules and performing their normal duties. These drivers were studied during two duty cycles and during the intervening restart break. They provided a total of 1260days of data and drove a total of 414,937 miles during the study. Their duty logs were used to identify the periods when they were on duty and when they were driving and to determine their duty cycles and restart breaks. Sleep/wake patterns were measured continuously by means of wrist actigraphy. Fatigue was assessed three times per day by means of a brief psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) and a subjective sleepiness scale. Data from a truck-based lane tracking and data acquisition system were used to compute lane deviation (variability in lateral lane position). Statistical analyses focused on 24-h patterns of duty, driving, sleep, PVT-B performance, subjective sleepiness, and lane deviation. Duty cycles preceded by a restart break containing only one nighttime period (defined as 01:00-05:00) were compared with duty cycles preceded by a restart break containing more than one nighttime period. During duty cycles preceded by a restart break with only one nighttime period, drivers

  2. Control algorithm for the inverter fed induction motor drive with DC current feedback loop based on principles of the vector control

    SciTech Connect

    Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.

  3. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  4. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  5. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Magnetic Field Computations and Performance Simulation of Brushless DC Motor Drives with Skewed Permanent Magnet Mounts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamadi, Mohd A. Wahed

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional finite element (3D-FE) method for the computation of global distributions of 30 magnetic fields in electric machines containing permanent magnets is presented. The formulation of this 3D-FE method is based on a coupled magnetic vector potential - magnetic scalar potential (CMVP-MSP) approach. In this CMVP-MSP method, the modeling and formulations of permanent magnet volumes, suited to first and second order MVP 3D-FE environments as well as first order MSP 3D-FE environment, are developed in this dissertation. The development of the necessary 3D-FE grids and algorithms for the application of the CMVP -MSP method to an example brushless dc motor, whose field is three dimensional due to the skewed permanent magnet mounts on its rotor, is also given here. It should be mentioned that the entire volume of the case-study machine from one end to another is considered in the global magnetic field computations. A complete set of results of application of the CMVP-MSP method to the computation of the global 3D field distributions and associated motor parameters under no-load and load conditions are presented in this dissertation. In addition, a complete simulation of the dynamic performance of the motor drive system using the parameters obtained from the 3D-FE field solutions are presented for no-load and various other load conditions. All the above mentioned results are experimentally verified by corresponding oscillograms obtained in the laboratory. These results are also compared with results obtained from motor parameters based on various 2D-FE approaches, showing that for certain types of skewed permanent magnet mounts, 3D-FE based parameters can make significant qualitative and quantitative improvements in motor-drive simulation results.

  6. Reduction of Common-Mode Conducted Noise Emissions in PWM Inverter-fed AC Motor Drive Systems using Optimized Passive EMI Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jettanasen, C.; Ngaopitakkul, A.

    2010-10-01

    Conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by PWM inverter-fed induction motor drive systems, which are currently widely used in many industrial and/or avionic applications, causes severe parasitic current problems, especially at high frequencies (HF). These restrict power electronic drive's evolution. In order to reduce or minimize these EMI problems, several techniques can be applied. In this paper, insertion of an optimized passive EMI filter is proposed. This filter is optimized by taking into account real impedances of each part of a considered AC motor drive system contrarily to commercial EMI filters designed by considering internal impedance of disturbance source and load, equal to 50Ω. Employing the latter EMI filter would make EMI minimization less effective. The proposed EMI filter optimization is mainly dedicated to minimize common mode (CM) currents due to its most dominant effects in this kind of system. The efficiency of the proposed optimization method using two-port network approach is deduced by comparing the minimized CM current spectra to an applied normative level (ex. DO-160D in aeronautics).

  7. Phase II CRADA ORNL99-0568 Report : Developing Transmission-Less Inverter Drive Systems for Axial-Gap Permanent magnet Accessory and Traction Motors and Generators

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, J.W.

    2001-08-06

    Researchers of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNLs) Power Electronics and Electric Machine Research Center (PEEMRC) collaborated with Visual Computing Systems (VCS) to develop an electric axial-gap permanent magnet (PM) motor controlled by a self-sensing inverter for driving vehicle accessories such as power steering, air conditioning, and brakes. VCS designed an 8 kW motor based on their Segmented Electromagnetic Array (SEMA) technology. ORNL designed a 10 kW inverter to fit within the volume of a housing, which had been integrated with the motor. This modular design was pursued so that multiple modules could be used for higher power applications. ORNL built the first inverter under the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) ORNL 98-0514 and drove a refurbished Delta motor with no load during the Merit Review at ORNL on Monday, May 17, 1999. Inverter circuitry and instructions for assembling the inverters were sent to VCS. A report was prepared and delivered during the Future Car Congress in April 2000, at Arlington, Virginia. Collaboration continued under CRADA ORNL 99-0568 as VCS designed and built a SEMA motor with a dual coil platter to be the traction motor for an electric truck. VCS and ORNL assembled two 45 kW inverters. Each inverter drove one coil, which was designed to deliver 15 kW continuous power and 45 kW peak power for 90 s. The vehicle was road tested as part of the Future Truck Competition. A report was prepared and delivered during the PCIM in October 2000, at Boston, Massachusetts.

  8. Operating Characteristics of a Same-Phase Drive-Type Ultrasonic Motor Using a Flexural Disk Vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Takehiro; Tomikawa, Yoshiro; Kusakabe, Chiharu

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we describe an ultrasonic motor using a flexural disk vibrating in two degeneration modes driven by a same-phase input signal. Its operating characteristics depend considerably on the pressing force between the stator and the rotor. We report some experimental studies of this effect. Measurements of the vibration mode showed that the change in the rotational direction of the motor was caused by a shift in the vibration axis of the mode synthesized from two degeneration modes. It is also shown that the motor's operating characteristics can be adjusted via an electrical element connected to the control terminal.

  9. Driving Simulator Performance in Novice Drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Executive Functions and Basic Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Stephany M.; Cox, Daniel J.; Kofler, Michael J.; Moncrief, Matthew A.; Johnson, Ronald J.; Lambert, Ann E.; Cain, Sarah A.; Reeve, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate poorer driving performance than their peers and are less likely to obtain a driver's license. This study aims to examine the relationship between driving performance and executive functioning for novice drivers, with and without ASD, using a driving…

  10. Motorized mobility scooters – The use of training/intervention and technology for improving driving skills in aging adults - A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Bunting, Matthew; Howe, Carol; Mohler, Jane; Sprinkle, Jonathan; Najafi, Bijan

    2014-01-01

    Background Motorized mobility scooters (MMS) have become the most acceptable powered assistive device for those with impaired mobility, who have sufficient upper body strength and dexterity, and postural stability. Although several benefits have been attributed to MMS usage, there are likewise risks of use, including injuries and even deaths. Objective The aim of the current review was to summarize results from clinical studies regarding the enhancement of MMS driver safety with a primary focus on improving driving skills/performance using clinical approaches. We addressed three main objectives: 1) to identify and summarize any available evidence (strong, moderate, or weak evidence based on the quality of studies) regarding improved driving skills/performance following training/intervention; 2) to identify types of driving skills/performance that might be improved by training/intervention; and 3) to identify the use of technology in improving MMS performance or training procedure. Methods Articles were searched for in the following medical and engineering electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, EI Compendix, IEEE Explore, and REHABDATA. Inclusion criteria included: aging adults or those with ambulatory problems; intervention or targeted training; and clinical trial. Outcomes included: MMS skills/performance. Results Six articles met the inclusion criteria and are analyzed in this review. Four of the six articles contained training approaches for MMS drivers including skill trainings using real MMS inside and outside (i.e., in community) and in a 3D virtual environment. The other two studies contain infrastructural assessments (i.e., the minimum space required for safe maneuverability of MMS users) and additional mobility assistance tools to improve maneuverability and to enhance driving performance. Conclusions Results from the current review showed improved driving skills/performance by training

  11. Hydraulic drive system prevents backlash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acord, J. D.

    1965-01-01

    Hydraulic drive system uses a second drive motor operating at reduced torque. This exerts a relative braking action which eliminates the normal gear train backlash that is intolerable when driving certain heavy loads.

  12. Torque Ripple Suppression Control Based on the Periodic Disturbance Observer with a Complex Vector Representation for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadano, Yugo; Akiyama, Takao; Nomura, Masakatsu; Ishida, Muneaki

    This paper introduces a method for torque ripple suppression control involving the use of the periodic disturbance observer. By using the Fourier transform (or rotating coordinate transform and a low-pass filter), the torque ripple component, which is synchronized with the motor rotation, can easily be obtained owing to its periodic variations. With the new control method, a suppression control system synchronized with the torque ripple frequency can be built. Further, by using the system identification technique, the model system from compensating current value to torque detection value can be expressed as a speed-adjustable one-dimension complex vector in rotating coordinates. This method is suitable for an adjustable-speed drive, and the control parameters and reference model can be adjusted automatically. The most important feature of this method is its excellent performance for mechanical resonance suppression caused by torque ripple. This paper presents analysis and experimental results that validate the method.

  13. AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation and Synaptic Colocalization on Motor Neurons Drive Maladaptive Plasticity below Complete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Ellen D.; Irvine, Karen-Amanda; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clinical spinal cord injury (SCI) is accompanied by comorbid peripheral injury in 47% of patients. Human and animal modeling data have shown that painful peripheral injuries undermine long-term recovery of locomotion through unknown mechanisms. Peripheral nociceptive stimuli induce maladaptive synaptic plasticity in dorsal horn sensory systems through AMPA receptor (AMPAR) phosphorylation and trafficking to synapses. Here we test whether ventral horn motor neurons in rats demonstrate similar experience-dependent maladaptive plasticity below a complete SCI in vivo. Quantitative biochemistry demonstrated that intermittent nociceptive stimulation (INS) rapidly and selectively increases AMPAR subunit GluA1 serine 831 phosphorylation and localization to synapses in the injured spinal cord, while reducing synaptic GluA2. These changes predict motor dysfunction in the absence of cell death signaling, suggesting an opportunity for therapeutic reversal. Automated confocal time-course analysis of lumbar ventral horn motor neurons confirmed a time-dependent increase in synaptic GluA1 with concurrent decrease in synaptic GluA2. Optical fractionation of neuronal plasma membranes revealed GluA2 removal from extrasynaptic sites on motor neurons early after INS followed by removal from synapses 2 h later. As GluA2-lacking AMPARs are canonical calcium-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs), their stimulus- and time-dependent insertion provides a therapeutic target for limiting calcium-dependent dynamic maladaptive plasticity after SCI. Confirming this, a selective CP-AMPAR antagonist protected against INS-induced maladaptive spinal plasticity, restoring adaptive motor responses on a sensorimotor spinal training task. These findings highlight the critical involvement of AMPARs in experience-dependent spinal cord plasticity after injury and provide a pharmacologically targetable synaptic mechanism by which early postinjury experience shapes motor plasticity. PMID:26668821

  14. AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation and Synaptic Colocalization on Motor Neurons Drive Maladaptive Plasticity below Complete Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Huie, J Russell; Stuck, Ellen D; Lee, Kuan H; Irvine, Karen-Amanda; Beattie, Michael S; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Grau, James W; Ferguson, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical spinal cord injury (SCI) is accompanied by comorbid peripheral injury in 47% of patients. Human and animal modeling data have shown that painful peripheral injuries undermine long-term recovery of locomotion through unknown mechanisms. Peripheral nociceptive stimuli induce maladaptive synaptic plasticity in dorsal horn sensory systems through AMPA receptor (AMPAR) phosphorylation and trafficking to synapses. Here we test whether ventral horn motor neurons in rats demonstrate similar experience-dependent maladaptive plasticity below a complete SCI in vivo. Quantitative biochemistry demonstrated that intermittent nociceptive stimulation (INS) rapidly and selectively increases AMPAR subunit GluA1 serine 831 phosphorylation and localization to synapses in the injured spinal cord, while reducing synaptic GluA2. These changes predict motor dysfunction in the absence of cell death signaling, suggesting an opportunity for therapeutic reversal. Automated confocal time-course analysis of lumbar ventral horn motor neurons confirmed a time-dependent increase in synaptic GluA1 with concurrent decrease in synaptic GluA2. Optical fractionation of neuronal plasma membranes revealed GluA2 removal from extrasynaptic sites on motor neurons early after INS followed by removal from synapses 2 h later. As GluA2-lacking AMPARs are canonical calcium-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs), their stimulus- and time-dependent insertion provides a therapeutic target for limiting calcium-dependent dynamic maladaptive plasticity after SCI. Confirming this, a selective CP-AMPAR antagonist protected against INS-induced maladaptive spinal plasticity, restoring adaptive motor responses on a sensorimotor spinal training task. These findings highlight the critical involvement of AMPARs in experience-dependent spinal cord plasticity after injury and provide a pharmacologically targetable synaptic mechanism by which early postinjury experience shapes motor plasticity.

  15. Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: A life history trade-off

    PubMed Central

    Berghänel, Andreas; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The developmental costs and benefits of early locomotor play are a puzzling topic in biology, psychology, and health sciences. Evolutionary theory predicts that energy-intensive behavior such as play can only evolve if there are considerable benefits. Prominent theories propose that locomotor play is (i) low cost, using surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance, and (ii) beneficial because it trains motor skills. However, both theories are largely untested. Studying wild Assamese macaques, we combined behavioral observations of locomotor play and motor skill acquisition with quantitative measures of natural food availability and individual growth rates measured noninvasively via photogrammetry. Our results show that investments in locomotor play were indeed beneficial by accelerating motor skill acquisition but carried sizable costs in terms of reduced growth. Even under moderate natural energy restriction, investment in locomotor play accounted for up to 50% of variance in growth, which strongly contradicts the current theory that locomotor play only uses surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance. Male immatures played more, acquired motor skills faster, and grew less than female immatures, leading to persisting size differences until the age of female maturity. Hence, depending on skill requirements, investment in play can take ontogenetic priority over physical development unconstrained by costs of play with consequences for life history, which strongly highlights the ontogenetic and evolutionary importance of play. PMID:26601237

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 240 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... has been issued multiple licenses, it may require more than a single request. The National Driver... to address the problem that occurs when chronic traffic law violators, after losing their license in... person's motor vehicle driver's license and, under the provisions of a 1982 change to the statute,...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 240 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... has been issued multiple licenses, it may require more than a single request. The National Driver... to address the problem that occurs when chronic traffic law violators, after losing their license in... person's motor vehicle driver's license and, under the provisions of a 1982 change to the statute,...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 240 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... has been issued multiple licenses, it may require more than a single request. The National Driver... to address the problem that occurs when chronic traffic law violators, after losing their license in... person's motor vehicle driver's license and, under the provisions of a 1982 change to the statute,...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 240 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... has been issued multiple licenses, it may require more than a single request. The National Driver... to address the problem that occurs when chronic traffic law violators, after losing their license in... person's motor vehicle driver's license and, under the provisions of a 1982 change to the statute,...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 240 - Procedures for Obtaining and Evaluating Motor Vehicle Driving Record Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... has been issued multiple licenses, it may require more than a single request. The National Driver... to address the problem that occurs when chronic traffic law violators, after losing their license in... person's motor vehicle driver's license and, under the provisions of a 1982 change to the statute,...

  1. Hybrid Pwm Switching Strategy for a Three-Level Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive with Open-End Windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, S.; Ramachandrasekhar, K.

    2010-06-01

    A dual two-level inverter fed induction motor with open-end windings is capable of generating a three-level output voltage. Several, sine-triangle and space vector pulse width modulation (PWM) switching strategies are presented for the dual-inverter scheme either using space-vector or carrier-based implementation. In this paper, a hybrid PWM switching strategy for the dual-inverter scheme is proposed employing sine-triangle PWM (SPWM) and space vector PWM (SVPWM) for the individual inverters. SPWM is theoretically analyzed and space vector based implementation of SPWM is presented using a simple offset-time concept. This is exploited to implement the hybrid PWM switching strategy for the dual two-level inverter. The implementation of the hybrid PWM switching strategy proposed in this paper do not require any look-up tables, the switching is totally automatic obviating the time-consuming task of sector identification. The implementation of the hybrid PWM scheme requires only the three instantaneous phase reference voltages corresponding to the reference space vector. The third harmonic component in the voltage appearing across the motor phase windings in the induction motor is significantly reduced (by 50%) with the use of the proposed hybrid PWM scheme as compared to the use of the PWM scheme presented earlier. Also, the percentage weighted total harmonic distortion (%WTHD) of the output voltage is significantly reduced in the entire range of speed of the induction motor driven by the dual-inverter scheme.

  2. Drive Motor Improved for 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel/9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    An operational change made recently in the drive motor system for the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT)/9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) complex resulted in dramatic power savings and expanded operating range. The 8x6 SWT/9x15 LSWT complex offers a unique combination of wind tunnel conditions for both high- and low-speed testing. Prior to the work discussed in this article, the 8- by 6-ft test section offered airflows ranging from Mach 0.36 to 2.0. Subsonic testing was done in the 9-ft high, 15-ft wide test area in the return leg of the facility. The air speed in this test section can range from 0 to 175 mph (Mach 0.23). In the past, we varied the air speed by using a combination of the compressor speed and the position of the tunnel flow-control doors. When very slow speeds were required in the 9x15 LSWT, these large tunnel flow control doors might be very nearly full open, bleeding off large quantities of air, even with the drive system operating at its previous minimum speed of about 510 rpm. Power drawn during this mode of operation varied between 15 and 18 MW/hr, but clearly much of this power was not being used to provide air that would be used for testing in the test section. The air exiting these large doors represented wasted power. Early this year, the facility's tunnel drive system was run on one motor instead of three to see if lower drive speeds could be achieved that would, in turn, result in large power savings because unnecessary air would not be blown out of the flow-control doors unnecessarily. In addition, if the drive could be run slower, then slower speeds would also be possible in the 8x6 SWT test section as an added benefit. Results of the first tests performed early last year showed that in fact the drive, when operating on only one motor, actually reached a steady-state speed of only 337 rpm and drew an amazingly small 6 MW/hr of electrical power. During daytime operation of the drive, this meant that it would be

  3. An assessment of driving fitness in patients with visual impairment to understand the elevated risk of motor vehicle accidents

    PubMed Central

    Kunimatsu-Sanuki, Shiho; Iwase, Aiko; Araie, Makoto; Aoki, Yuki; Hara, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Toru; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Itoh, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the driving fitness of patients with glaucoma by identifying specific areas and degrees of visual field impairment that threaten safe driving. Design Case–control study. Setting, and participants This prospective study included 36 patients with advanced glaucoma, defined as Humphrey field analyzer (HFA; 24-2 SITA standard program) measurements of mean deviation in both eyes of worse than −12 dB, and 36 age-matched and driving exposure time-matched normal subjects. All participants underwent testing in a novel driving simulator (DS) system. Participants were recruited between September 2010 and January 2012. Main outcome measures The number of collisions with simulated hazards and braking response time in 14 DS scenarios was recorded. Monocular HFA 24-2 test results from both eyes were merged to calculate the binocular integrated visual field (IVF). The position of the IVF subfields in which the collision-involved patients had lower sensitivity than the collision-uninvolved patients was compared with the track of the hazard. The cut-off value to predict an elevated risk of collisions was determined, as were its sensitivity and specificity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Results Patients with advanced glaucoma were involved in a significantly higher number of collisions in the DS than the age-matched and driving exposure time-matched normal subjects (119 vs 40, respectively, p<0.0001), especially in four specific DS scenarios. In these four scenarios, IVF sensitivity was significantly lower in the collision-involved patients than in the collision-uninvolved patients in subfields on or near the track of the simulated hazard (p<0.05). The subfields with the largest AUROC curve had values ranging from 0.72 to 0.91 and were located in the paracentral visual field just below the horizontal. Conclusions Our novel DS system effectively assessed visual impairment, showing that simulators may have future

  4. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor drives corticospinal motor neuron differentiation through the Ctip2/Satb2 transcriptional regulation axis

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Alonso, Javier; Aguado, Tania; Wu, Chia-Shan; Palazuelos, Javier; Hofmann, Clementine; Garcez, Patricia; Guillemot, Francois; Lu, Hui-Chen; Lutz, Beat; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The generation and specification of pyramidal neuron subpopulations during development relies on a complex network of transcription factors. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor is the major molecular target of endocannabinoids and marijuana active compounds. This receptor has been shown to influence neural progenitor proliferation and axonal growth, but its involvement in neuronal differentiation and the functional impact in the adulthood caused by altering its signaling during brain development are not known. Here we show that the CB1 receptor, by preventing Satb2-mediated repression, increased Ctip2 promoter activity and Ctip2+ neuron generation. Unbalanced neurogenic fate determination found in complete CB1−/− mice and in glutamatergic neuron-specific Nex-CB1−/− mice induced overt alterations in corticospinal motor neuron generation and subcerebral connectivity, thereby resulting in an impairment of skilled motor function in adult mice. Likewise, genetic deletion of CB1 receptors in Thy1-YFP-H mice elicited alterations in corticospinal tract development. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the CB1 receptor contributes to the generation of deep-layer cortical neurons, by coupling endocannabinoid signals from the neurogenic niche to the intrinsic proneurogenic Ctip2/Satb2 axis, thus influencing appropriate subcerebral projection neuron specification and corticospinal motor function in the adulthood. PMID:23175820

  5. The CB(1) cannabinoid receptor drives corticospinal motor neuron differentiation through the Ctip2/Satb2 transcriptional regulation axis.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Alonso, Javier; Aguado, Tania; Wu, Chia-Shan; Palazuelos, Javier; Hofmann, Clementine; Garcez, Patricia; Guillemot, François; Lu, Hui-Chen; Lutz, Beat; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2012-11-21

    The generation and specification of pyramidal neuron subpopulations during development relies on a complex network of transcription factors. The CB(1) cannabinoid receptor is the major molecular target of endocannabinoids and marijuana active compounds. This receptor has been shown to influence neural progenitor proliferation and axonal growth, but its involvement in neuronal differentiation and the functional impact in the adulthood caused by altering its signaling during brain development are not known. Here we show that the CB(1) receptor, by preventing Satb2 (special AT-rich binding protein 2)-mediated repression, increased Ctip2 (COUP-TF interacting protein 2) promoter activity, and Ctip2-positive neuron generation. Unbalanced neurogenic fate determination found in complete CB(1)(-/-) mice and in glutamatergic neuron-specific Nex-CB(1)(-/-) mice induced overt alterations in corticospinal motor neuron generation and subcerebral connectivity, thereby resulting in an impairment of skilled motor function in adult mice. Likewise, genetic deletion of CB(1) receptors in Thy1-YFP-H mice elicited alterations in corticospinal tract development. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the CB(1) receptor contributes to the generation of deep-layer cortical neurons by coupling endocannabinoid signals from the neurogenic niche to the intrinsic proneurogenic Ctip2/Satb2 axis, thus influencing appropriate subcerebral projection neuron specification and corticospinal motor function in the adulthood.

  6. Ultra-Efficient and Power Dense Electric Motors for U. S. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Melfi, Michael J.; Schiferl, Richard F.; Umans, Stephen D.

    2013-03-12

    The primary purpose of this project was to combine the ease-of-installation and ease-of-use attributes of industrial induction motors with the low-loss and small size and weight advantages of PM motors to create an ultra-efficient, high power density industrial motor that can be started across-the-line or operated from a standard, Volts/Hertz drive without the need for a rotor position feedback device. PM motor products that are currently available are largely variable speed motors that require a special adjustable speed drive with rotor position feedback. The reduced size and weight helps to offset the magnet cost in order make these motors commercially viable. The scope of this project covers horsepower ratings from 20 ? 500. Prototypes were built and tested at ratings ranging from 30 to 250 HP. Since fans, pumps and compressors make up a large portion of industrial motor applications, the motor characteristics are tailored to those applications. Also, since there is extensive use of adjustable frequency inverters in these applications, there is the opportunity to design for an optimal pole number and operate at other than 60 Hz frequency when inverters are utilized. Designs with four and eight pole configurations were prototyped as part of this work. Four pole motors are the most commonly used configuration in induction motors today. The results of the prototype design, fabrication, and testing were quite successful. The 50 HP rating met all of the design goals including efficiency and power density. Tested values of motor losses at 50 HP were 30% lower than energy efficient induction motors and the motor weight is 35% lower than the energy efficient induction motor of the same rating. Further, when tested at the 30 HP rating that is normally built in this 286T frame size, the efficiency far exceeds the project design goals with 30 HP efficiency levels indicating a 55% reduction in loss compared to energy efficient motors with a motor weight that is a few

  7. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  8. A Novel Current Angle Control Scheme in a Current Source Inverter Fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Lixin; Su, Gui-Jia

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel speed control scheme to operate a current source inverter (CSI) driven surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) applications. The idea is to use the angle of the current vector to regulate the rotor speed while keeping the two dc-dc converter power switches on all the time to boost system efficiency. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme was verified with a 3 kW CSI-SPMSM drive prototype.

  9. Long-Term Fatigue Life Expenditure of Turbine Shafts Owing to Noncharacteristic Harmonics Produced by Slip Energy Recovery Induction Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jong-Ian

    In this paper, the long-term effect of noncharacteristic harmonics resulting from a slip energy recovery induction motor drive (SERIMD) on the fatigue life expenditure of turbine-generator shafts is analyzed. A feed-water pump (FP) in power plants is one of the most essential pieces of auxiliary equipment and consumes considerably large quantities of energy. An SERIMD has many advantages and is an adequate candidate for the purpose of variable speed control. However, it gives rise to sustainable variable frequency subharmonics which induce electromechanical subsynchronous oscillations in turbine shafts through proposed deductions. Accordingly, the author has determined that the long-term effect of these subharmonics is a cause of fatigue damage on turbine shafts even under normal operating conditions through fatigue life estimation.

  10. Nonequivalence of membrane voltage and ion-gradient as driving forces for the bacterial flagellar motor at low load.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chien-Jung; Leake, Mark C; Pilizota, Teuta; Berry, Richard M

    2007-07-01

    Many bacterial species swim using flagella. The flagellar motor couples ion flow across the cytoplasmic membrane to rotation. Ion flow is driven by both a membrane potential (V(m)) and a transmembrane concentration gradient. To investigate their relation to bacterial flagellar motor function we developed a fluorescence technique to measure V(m) in single cells, using the dye tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester. We used a convolution model to determine the relationship between fluorescence intensity in images of cells and intracellular dye concentration, and calculated V(m) using the ratio of intracellular/extracellular dye concentration. We found V(m) = -140 +/- 14 mV in Escherichia coli at external pH 7.0 (pH(ex)), decreasing to -85 +/- 10 mV at pH(ex) 5.0. We also estimated the sodium-motive force (SMF) by combining single-cell measurements of V(m) and intracellular sodium concentration. We were able to vary the SMF between -187 +/- 15 mV and -53 +/- 15 mV by varying pH(ex) in the range 7.0-5.0 and extracellular sodium concentration in the range 1-85 mM. Rotation rates for 0.35-microm- and 1-microm-diameter beads attached to Na(+)-driven chimeric flagellar motors varied linearly with V(m). For the larger beads, the two components of the SMF were equivalent, whereas for smaller beads at a given SMF, the speed increased with sodium gradient and external sodium concentration.

  11. A fuzzy-based approach for open-transistor fault diagnosis in voltage-source inverter induction motor drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianghan; Luo, Hui; Zhao, Jin; Wu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a novel method for the detection and isolation of open-transistor faults in voltage-source inverters feeding induction motors. Based on analyzing the load currents trajectories after Concordia transformation, six diagnostic signals each of which indicates a certain switch are extracted and a fuzzy rule base is designed to perform fuzzy reasoning in order to detect and isolate 21 fault modes including single- and double-transistor faults. In addition, the fuzzy rules are rearranged and each of them is set to a reasonable value representing the fault modes. The simulation and experiment are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy approach.

  12. Thermal drift is enough to drive a single microtubule along its axis even in the absence of motor proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, T; Sato-Yoshitake, R; Okada, Y; Noda, Y; Hirokawa, N

    1993-01-01

    One-dimensional diffusion of microtubules (MTs), a back-and-forth motion of MTs due to thermal diffusion, was reported in dynein motility assay. The interaction between MTs and dynein that allows such motion was implicated in its importance in the force generating cycle of dynein ATPase cycle. However, it was not known whether the phenomenon is special to motor proteins. Here we show two independent examples of one-dimensional diffusion of MTs in the absence of motor proteins. Dynamin, a MT-activated GTPase, causes a nucleotide dependent back-and-forth movement of single MT up to 1 micron along the longitudinal axes, although the MT never showed unidirectional consistent movement. Quantitative analysis of the motion and its nucleotide condition indicates that the motion is due to a thermal driven diffusion, restricted to one dimension, under the weak interaction between MT and dynamin. However, specific protein-protein interaction is not essential for the motion, because similar back-and-forth movement of MT was achieved on coverslips coated with only 0.8% methylcellulose. Both cases demonstrate that thermal diffusion could provide a considerable sliding of MTs only if MTs are restricted on the surface appropriately. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7906153

  13. Type-2 fuzzy logic control based MRAS speed estimator for speed sensorless direct torque and flux control of an induction motor drive.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Tejavathu; Kumar Panda, Anup; Shiva Kumar, S

    2015-07-01

    In this research study, a model reference adaptive system (MRAS) speed estimator for speed sensorless direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of an induction motor drive (IMD) using two adaptation mechanism schemes are proposed to replace the conventional proportional integral controller (PIC). The first adaptation mechanism scheme is based on Type-1 fuzzy logic controller (T1FLC), which is used to achieve high performance sensorless drive in both transient as well as steady state conditions. However, the Type-1 fuzzy sets are certain and unable to work effectively when higher degree of uncertainties presents in the system which can be caused by sudden change in speed or different load disturbances, process noise etc. Therefore, a new Type-2 fuzzy logic controller (T2FLC) based adaptation mechanism scheme is proposed to better handle the higher degree of uncertainties and improves the performance and also robust to various load torque and sudden change in speed conditions, respectively. The detailed performances of various adaptation mechanism schemes are carried out in a MATLAB/Simulink environment with a speed sensor and speed sensorless modes of operation when an IMD is operating under different operating conditions, such as, no-load, load and sudden change in speed, respectively. To validate the different control approaches, the system also implemented on real-time system and adequate results are reported for its validation.

  14. A rugged 650 V SOI-based high-voltage half-bridge IGBT gate driver IC for motor drive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Qing; Li, Zehong; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Weizhong; Huang, Xiangjun; Feng, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a rugged high-voltage N-channel insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) gate driver integrated circuit. The device integrates a high-side and a low-side output stages on a single chip, which is designed specifically for motor drive applications. High-voltage level shift technology enables the high-side stage of this device to operate up to 650 V. The logic inputs are complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)/transistor transistor logic compatible down to 3.3 V. Undervoltage protection functionality with hysteresis characteristic has also been integrated to enhance the device reliability. The device is fabricated in a 1.0 μm, 650 V high-voltage bipolar CMOS double-diffused metal oxide semiconductor (BCD) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process. Deep trench dielectric isolation technology is employed to provide complete electrical isolation with advantages such as reduced parasitic effects, excellent noise immunity and low leakage current. Experimental results show that the isolation voltage of this device can be up to approximately 779 V at 25°C, and the leakage current is only 5 nA at 650 V, which is 15% higher and 67% lower than the conventional ones. In addition, it delivers an excellent thermal stability and needs very low quiescent current and offers a high gate driver capability which is needed to adequately drive IGBTs that have large input capacitances.

  15. Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, R.

    2008-12-15

    Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos.

  16. Comparison of a linear and a non-linear model for using sensory-motor, cognitive, personality, and demographic data to predict driving ability in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hoggarth, Petra A; Innes, Carrie R H; Dalrymple-Alford, John C; Severinsen, Julie E; Jones, Richard D

    2010-11-01

    This study compared the ability of binary logistic regression (BLR) and non-linear causal resource analysis (NCRA) to utilize a range of cognitive, sensory-motor, personality and demographic measures to predict driving ability in a sample of cognitively healthy older drivers. Participants were sixty drivers aged 70 and above (mean=76.7 years, 50% men) with no diagnosed neurological disorder. Test data was used to build classification models for a Pass or Fail score on an on-road driving assessment. The generalizability of the models was estimated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Sixteen participants (27%) received an on-road Fail score. Area under the ROC curve values were .76 for BLR and .88 for NCRA (no significant difference, z=1.488, p=.137). The ROC curve was used to select three different cut-points for each model and to compare classification. At the cut-point corresponding to the maximum average of sensitivity and specificity, the BLR model had a sensitivity of 68.8% and specificity of 75.0% while NCRA had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 95.5%. However, leave-one-out cross-validation reduced sensitivity in both models and particularly reduced specificity for NCRA. Neither model is accurate enough to be relied on solely for determination of driving ability. The lowered accuracy of the models following leave-one-out cross-validation highlights the importance of investigating models beyond classification alone in order to determine a model's ability to generalize to new cases.

  17. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Boldea, I.; Popa, G. N.

    2014-03-01

    The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper.

  18. Nonlinear SVM-DTC for induction motor drive using input-output feedback linearization and high order sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Abdelkarim; Bourek, Amor; Benakcha, Abdelhamid

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear Direct Torque Control (DTC) strategy with Space Vector Modulation (SVM) for an induction motor. A nonlinear input-output feedback linearization (IOFL) is implemented to achieve a decoupled torque and flux control and the SVM is employed to reduce high torque and flux ripples. Furthermore, the control scheme performance is improved by inserting a super twisting speed controller in the outer loop and a load torque observer to enhance the speed regulation. The combining of dual nonlinear strategies ensures a good dynamic and robustness against parameters variation and disturbance. The system stability has been analyzed using Lyapunov stability theory. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is investigated by simulation and experimental validation using Matlab/Simulink software with real-time interface based on dSpace 1104.

  19. DSP-based adaptive backstepping using the tracking errors for high-performance sensorless speed control of induction motor drive.

    PubMed

    Zaafouri, Abderrahmen; Ben Regaya, Chiheb; Ben Azza, Hechmi; Châari, Abdelkader

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a modified structure of the backstepping nonlinear control of the induction motor (IM) fitted with an adaptive backstepping speed observer. The control design is based on the backstepping technique complemented by the introduction of integral tracking errors action to improve its robustness. Unlike other research performed on backstepping control with integral action, the control law developed in this paper does not propose the increase of the number of system state so as not increase the complexity of differential equations resolution. The digital simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control compared to the conventional PI control. The results analysis shows the characteristic robustness of the adaptive control to disturbances of the load, the speed variation and low speed.

  20. CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, B.C.; Liederbach, F.J.; Lones, W.

    1963-05-14

    A lead-screw-type control rod drive featuring an electric motor and a fluid motor arranged to provide a selectably alternative driving means is described. The electric motor serves to drive the control rod slowly during normal operation, while the fluid motor, assisted by an automatic declutching of the electric motor, affords high-speed rod insertion during a scram. (AEC)

  1. Driving and the Built Environment: The Effects of Compact Development on Motorized Travel, Energy Use, and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Ibanez, Dr. Jose; Boarnet, Marlon G.; Brake, Dianne R.; Cervero, Robert B.; Cotugno, Andrew; Downs, Anthony; Hanson, Susan; Kockelman, Kara M.; Mokhtarian, Patricia L.; Pendall, Rolf J.; Santini, Danilo J.; Southworth, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of the U.S. population-some 80 percent-now lives in metropolitan areas, but population and employment continue to decentralize within regions, and density levels continue to decline at the urban fringe. Suburbanization is a long-standing trend that reflects the preference of many Americans for living in detached single-family homes, made possible largely through the mobility provided by the automobile and an extensive highway network. Yet these dispersed, automobile-dependent development patterns have come at a cost, consuming vast quantities of undeveloped land; increasing the nation's dependence on petroleum, particularly foreign imports; and increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to global warming. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between land development patterns, often referred to as the built environment, and motor vehicle travel in the United States and to assess whether petroleum use, and by extension GHG emissions, could be reduced through changes in the design of development patterns (see Appendix A for the full statement of task). A key question of interest is the extent to which developing more compactly would reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and make alternative modes of travel (e.g., transit, walking) more feasible. The study is focused on metropolitan areas and on personal travel, the primary vectors through which policy changes designed to encourage more compact development should have the greatest effect.

  2. Practical implementation of a digital signal processor controlled multilevel inverter with low total harmonic distortion for motor drive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colak, Ilhami; Kabalci, Ersan; Gazi Electrical Machines; Energy Control (Gemec) Group

    This paper presents a digital signal processor (DSP) based algorithm to generate three-level output voltage using H-Bridge multilevel inverter (MLI). The developed sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) scheme is employed to achieve lower harmonic contents in the output waveforms of inverter. Since SPWM scheme does not utilize vector positions, any pre-calculated switching states are not required. In addition to this advantage of conventional SPWM, modulators eliminate only base band harmonics due to regular control scheme. Therefore, neglecting the side band harmonics limits the efficiency of SPWM scheme. The harmonics located in the side bands of carrier frequency are also eliminated by the enhanced SPWM scheme proposed in this study. The validation of the modelled system is verified with the total harmonic distortion (THD) analyzes. The control algorithm is developed using TMS320F2812 DSP that is a 32-bit fixed-point processor operating at 150 MHz. The simulation and experimental results are compared to previous studies. The THD ratios of phase voltages and currents are measured loading the inverter with a three- phase 3 kW asynchronous motor. The lowest THD ratios of voltage and current are obtained at 1.9% and 0.4%, respectively.

  3. Gear bearing drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  4. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  5. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  6. Low cost, compact, and high efficiency traction motor for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ehsani, Mark

    2002-10-07

    A new motor drive, the switched reluctance motor drive, has been developed for hybrid-electric vehicles. The motor drive has been designed, built and tested in the test bed at a near vehicle scale. It has been shown that the switched reluctance motor drive is more suitable for traction application than any other motor drive.

  7. The analysis and design of brushless D.C. motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benarous, Maamar

    In modern computer systems electrical drives are used to rotate hard discs. These motors require special torque- speed characteristics. The speed of the hard disc must be constant in order for the unit to function correctly. One type of drive, which is used for hard discs is the brushless-DC-motor. This machine has permanent magnet excitation and a polyphase armature winding. It therefore takes the form of a synchronous machine, and in order to be brushless the armature winding is stationary and the excitation rotates. To run at adjustable speed a variable frequency supply is required. In the brushless D.C form the inverter output is phase locked to the rotor position, it is therefore electro-magnetically similar to the D.C machine where fixed brushes determine the frequency and phase of the current in the armature winding. In order to perform the phase lock action signals measuring the rotor position are needed. In one form of machine Hall effect probes detect the position of the rotor poles, in a second given that the rotor is in motion the induced back emf is used. Experimentally it is convenient to replace these magnet systems with a photo- transistor and rotating shutter system and this was the approach used in this thesis. The objective of this research is to investigate different aspects of this motor. The generation, measurement, and placement of signals is described and illustrated, and the design and construction of an inverter supply circuit is described. Both 2D and 3D finite element analysis is used in order to find the machine parameters as well as cogging torque analysis, using the concept of permanent magnet magnetisation characteristics. It is shown that the cogging can be reduced for certain types of magnetisation. The finite element analysis is taken further by connecting the drive circuit needed to run the machine into the finite element mesh, the machine parameters are defined using this method. The close agreement between the simulation and

  8. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

    1961-06-27

    Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

  9. Ocular disease and driving.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A

    2016-09-01

    As the driving population ages, the number of drivers with visual impairment resulting from ocular disease will increase given the age-related prevalence of ocular disease. The increase in visual impairment in the driving population has a number of implications for driving outcomes. This review summarises current research regarding the impact of common ocular diseases on driving ability and safety, with particular focus on cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, hemianopia and diabetic retinopathy. The evidence considered includes self-reported driving outcomes, driving performance (on-road and simulator-based) and various motor vehicle crash indices. Collectively, this review demonstrates that driving ability and safety are negatively affected by ocular disease; however, further research is needed in this area. Older drivers with ocular disease need to be aware of the negative consequences of their ocular condition and in the case where treatment options are available, encouraged to seek these earlier for optimum driving safety and quality of life benefits.

  10. Gas centrifuge with driving motor

    DOEpatents

    Dancy, Jr., William H.

    1976-01-01

    1. A centrifuge for separating gaseous constituents of different masses comprising a vertical tubular rotor, means for introducing a gas mixture of different masses into said rotor and means for removing at least one of the gas components from the rotor, a first bearing means supporting said rotor at one end for rotational movement, a support, a damping bearing mounted on said support, a shaft fixed to said rotor at the opposite end and mechanically connecting said rotor to said damping bearing, a cup-shaped tube of electrically conductive, non-magnetic material in coaxial relationship with said shaft, the open end of said tube extending away from said rotor and the closed end of said tube being directly secured to the adjacent end of the rotor, an annular core of magnetic material fixedly mounted on said support so as to be disposed within said tube and around said shaft, and a second annular magnetic core with coils arranged thereon to receive polyphase current to produce a rotating magnetic field traversing the circumference of said tube, fixedly mounted on said support so as to surround said tube, the size of said first annular core and said second annular core being such as to permit limited radial displacement of said shaft and said tube.

  11. Fault analysis for condition monitoring of induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Subhasis

    Recently, research has picked up a fervent pace in the area of fault diagnosis of electrical machines. Like adjustable speed drives, fault prognosis has become almost indispensable. The manufacturers of these drives are now keen to include diagnostic features in the software to decrease machine down time and improve salability. Prodigious improvement in signal processing hardware and software has made this possible. Primarily, these techniques depend upon locating specific harmonic components in the line current, also known as motor current signature analysis (MCSA). These harmonic components are usually different for different types of faults. However, with multiple faults or different varieties of drive schemes, MCSA can become an onerous task as different types of faults and time harmonics may end up generating similar signatures. Thus, other signals such as speed, torque, noise, vibration, etc., are also explored for their frequency contents. Sometimes, altogether different techniques such as thermal measurements, chemical analysis, etc., are also employed to find out the nature and the degree of the fault. It is indeed evident that this area is vast in scope. Going by the present trend, human involvement in the actual fault detection decision making is slowly being replaced by automated tools such as expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy logic based systems; to name a few. However, this cannot be achieved without detailed fault analysis and subsequent recognition of the fault pattern. Keeping this in mind, simulation studies of the broken bar and eccentricity related faults using MCSA have been taken up. Also, a common theoretical basis for the different types (static, dynamic and mixed) of eccentricity related faults which give different signatures for different pole and rotor bar combinations has been developed. This will be of great importance both from fault diagnosis as well as sensorless drive applications' viewpoint. Finally, the insight gained from

  12. Variation in the electrical properties of 100 V/100 a rated mesh and stripe TDMOSFETs (Trench Double-Diffused MOSFETs) for motor drive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kyoung-Il; Kah, Dong-Ha; Kim, Sang-Gi; Koo, Jin-Gun; Kim, Jongdae; Yang, Yil-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho

    2012-05-01

    The vertical power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with deep trench structures are the most promising candidates to overcome the trade-off relationship between the ON-resistance (R ON ) and the blocking voltage (BV DS ). Especially, 100 V/100 A rated trench power MOSFETs are used in components of many power systems, such as motors and LED lighting drive ICs, DC-DC converters in electric vehicles, and so on. In this work, we studied variations of the electrical characteristics, such as threshold voltage (V TH ), BV DS , and drain current drivability, with p-well doping concentration via the SILVACO simulator. From simulation results, we found the BV DS and the drain current (I D ) as functions of the p-well doping concentration at an ion implantation energy of 80 keV. With increasing of p-well doping concentration in the guard ring region, both V TH and BV DS slowly increased, but I D decreased, because the boron lateral diffusion during the fabrication process below gate trench region affected the doping concentration of the p-body at the active region. Additionally, 100 V/100 A rated trench double-diffused MOSFETs (TDMOSFETs) with meshes and stripes were successfully developed by using a silicon deep etching process. The variations in the electrical properties, such as V TH , BV DS , and drain current drivability, of the two different kinds of fabricated devices, with cell design and density in TDMOSFETs were also studied. The BV DS and the V TH in the stripe-type TDMOSFET were 110 and 3 V, respectively. However, the V TH of mesh-type device was smaller 0.5 V than that of stripe-type because of corner effect. The BV DS improved about 20 V compared to stripe-type TDMOSFET due to edge termination, and the maximum drain current (I D.MAX ) was improved by about 10% due to an increase in the gate width at the same chip size. These effects were reflected in devices with different cell densities. When the cell density was increased, however

  13. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  14. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  15. U.S. DRIVE

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-16

    U.S. DRIVE, which stands for United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability, is an expanded government-industry partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy; USCAR, representing Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company and General Motors; Tesla Motors; five energy companies – BP America, Chevron Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two utilities – Southern California Edison and Michigan-based DTE Energy; and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The U.S. DRIVE mission is to accelerate the development of pre-competitive and innovative technologies to enable a full range of affordable and clean advanced light-duty vehicles, as well as related energy infrastructure.

  16. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1998-01-01

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  17. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  18. Michaelis-Menten at 100 and allosterism at 50: driving molecular motors in a hailstorm with noisy ATPase engines and allosteric transmission.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motor proteins move on filamentous tracks by converting input chemical energy that they derive by catalyzing the hydrolysis of ATP. The ATPase site is the analogue of an engine and hydrolysis of ATP is the analogue of burning of chemical fuel. Moreover, the functional role of a segment of the motor is analogous to that of the transmission system of an automobile, which consists of a shaft, gear, clutch, etc. The operation of the engine is intrinsically 'noisy' and the motor faces a molecular 'hailstorm' in the aqueous medium. In this commemorative review, we celebrate the centenary of Michaelis and Menten's landmark paper of 1913 and the golden jubilee of Monod and colleagues classic paper of 1963 by highlighting their relevance with respect to explaining the operational mechanisms of the engine and the transmission system, respectively, of cytoskeletal motors.

  19. Variable reluctance drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Lipo, T.A.; Liang, F.

    1995-10-17

    A variable reluctance drive system including a motor and corresponding converter for improved current commutation is described. The motor incorporates a salient pole rotor and a salient pole stator having one or more full pitch windings which operate by mutual inductance to transfer the current from the active short pitch winding following phase alignment. This increases output torque and/or speed and permits a number of simple and economical converter circuits. 17 figs.

  20. Control rod drive

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, Basil C.

    1986-01-01

    A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

  1. DC drive system for cine/pulse cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerlach, R. H.; Sharpsteen, J. T.; Solheim, C. D.; Stoap, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Camera-drive functions are separated mechanically into two groups which are driven by two separate dc brushless motors. First motor, a 90 deg stepper, drives rotating shutter; second electronically commutated motor drives claw and film transport. Shutter is made of one piece but has two openings for slow and fast exposures.

  2. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... intoxicating liquor (0.08% or greater on DOD installations; violation of civil law off post). C. Driving a... the same as the date of civil conviction, or the date that State or host-nation driving privileges...

  3. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  4. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  5. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  6. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges...

  7. A Reconfigurable Stepping Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Charles; Selvaggi, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Multiphase brushless actuators, commonly known as the stepper motors, are ubiquitous for many precision control applications. Developments in the microelectronics have lead to their use as efficient drive motors for modern electric vehicles. Understanding the physics and the control logic for interfacing these transducers continues to be important for scientists and engineers. An overview of the stepping motor principles and interfacing requirements is presented and a simple working model used to teach the concepts of stepper motors is described and demonstrated. This model was used to design a much larger stepper motor required to precisely rotate a massive optical system in the undergraduate advanced physics laboratory.

  8. Motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  9. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  10. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  11. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  12. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  13. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  14. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  15. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  16. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  17. 15 CFR 265.12 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 265.12... Speeding or reckless driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than... posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in excess of the speed limit....

  18. 32 CFR 263.6 - Speeding or reckless driving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Speeding or reckless driving. 263.6 Section 263... driving. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site at a speed greater than or in a manner... another speed limit has been duly posted, and no person shall drive a motor vehicle on the site in...

  19. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  20. Piezoceramic Ultrasonic Motor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, J.S.

    1999-02-24

    The objective of this project was to team Aerotech and AlliedSignal FM and T (AS) to develop a cost-efficient process for small-batch, high performance PZT motor production. Aerotech would acquire the basic process expertise in motor fabrication, assembly, and testing from AS. Together, Aerotech and AS were to identify appropriate process improvements, focusing on raw material quality, manufacturing processes, and durability assessment. Aerotech would then design and build a motor in consultation with AS. Aerotech engineering observed motor manufacturing in the AS piezo lab and worked side by side with AS personnel to build and test a prototype motor to facilitate learning the technology. Using information from AS and hands-on experience with the AS motor drive system enabled Aerotech to design and build its own laboratory drive system to operate motors. The team compiled information to establish a potential piezo motor users' list, and an intellectual property search was conducted to understand current patent and IP (intellectual property) status of motor design. Work was initiated to identify and develop an American source for piezo motor elements; however, due to manpower restraints created by the resignation of the AS Ph.D. ceramist responsible for these tasks, the project schedule slipped. The project was subsequently terminated before significant activities were accomplished. AS did, however, provide Aerotech with contacts in Japanese industry that are willing and capable of supplying them with special design motor elements.

  1. Do Emergency Physicians Educate Patients about the Dangers of Drinking and Driving after a Motor Vehicle Collision, and What Are the Barriers or Motivators to Do So?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Meghan; Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Van Aarsen, Kristine; Millard, Wanda; Lim, Rodrick; Miller, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Impaired driving is the leading cause of criminal death in Canada and results in numerous emergency department (ED) visits each year. Methods: An online survey was distributed to 94 emergency physicians and emergency medicine residents at an academic tertiary care hospital in Southwestern Ontario. Descriptive statistics were…

  2. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2001-01-01

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  3. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2003-05-13

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XIX, LEARNING ABOUT CRANKING MOTORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF CRANKING MOTORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT, TOPICS ARE (1) CRANKING MOTORS. (2) MOTOR PINCIPLES, (3) CRANKING MOTOR CIRCUITS, (4) TYPES OF CRANKING MOTOR DRIVES, AND (5) CRANKING MOTOR SOLENOID CIRCUITS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  5. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1994-10-25

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw. 10 figs.

  6. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1994-01-01

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw.

  7. Induction motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  8. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  9. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  10. Fatalities of Pedestrians, Bicycle Riders, and Motorists Due to Distracted Driving Motor Vehicle Crashes in the U.S., 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Fernando A.; Muelleman, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving is an increasingly deadly threat to road safety. This study documents trends in and characteristics of pedestrian, bicycle rider, and other victim deaths caused by distracted drivers on U.S. public roads. Methods We obtained data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System database from 2005 to 2010 on every crash that resulted in at least one fatality within 30 days occurring on public roads in the U.S. Following the definition used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, we identified distracted driving based on whether police investigators determined that a driver had been using a technological device, including a cell phone, onboard navigation system, computer, fax machine, two-way radio, or head-up display, or had been engaged in inattentive or careless activities. Results The rate of fatalities per 10 billion vehicle miles traveled increased from 116.1 in 2005 to 168.6 in 2010 for pedestrians and from 18.7 in 2005 to 24.6 in 2010 for bicyclists. Pedestrian victims of distracted driving crashes were disproportionately male, 25–64 years of age, and non-Hispanic white. They were also more likely to die at nighttime, be struck by a distracted driver outside of a marked crosswalk, and be in a metro location. Bicycling victims of distracted crashes were disproportionately male, non-Hispanic white, and struck by a distracted driver outside of a crosswalk. Compared with pedestrians, bicyclists were less likely to be hit in early morning. Conclusions Distracted drivers are the cause of an increasing share of fatalities found among pedestrians and bicycle riders. Policies are needed to protect pedestrians and bicycle riders as they cross intersections or travel on roadways. PMID:24179255

  11. [Driving and aging].

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Durán Segura, Mercedes; Castro Ramírez, Cándida

    2010-01-01

    The number of older people who continue to drive is constantly increasing. However, whether older people have more traffic accidents than other age groups is unclear. This age group has certain risk factors due to decreased motor, sensory and cognitive functions and also has greater frailty and vulnerability to injury. However, older drivers are aware of their heightened crash risk and employ certain compensatory actions, avoiding traveling under threatening conditions (dense traffic, bad weather or night driving), traveling by well-known routes and driving carefully. In view of these apparent contradictions, the present study attempts to discern the real crash risk and the driving and crash patterns characteristic of this population, which is continually increasing in industrialized countries.

  12. Distracted Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Motor Vehicle Safety Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Motor Vehicle Safety State Data and Information State Data Linkage ...

  13. Impaired Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Motor Vehicle Safety Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Motor Vehicle Safety State Data and Information State Data Linkage ...

  14. 76 FR 17577 - Increased Scope of Coverage for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... motors are designed to run on variable frequency drives and typically are designed to run at lower speeds... 200 horsepower, vertical solid shaft motors and close- coupled pump motors. These standards do not... partial motors are only missing the drive end face plate, and therefore can be tested with a ``dummy...

  15. Financial performance, ISO 9000 standard and safe driving practices effects on accident rate in the U.S. motor carrier industry.

    PubMed

    Naveh, Eitan; Marcus, Alfred

    2007-07-01

    The question this research address is if voluntary certification with ISO 9000 standards can reduce the number of accidents large trucks have. Certification might have a positive effect depending upon the actions a company takes as a result of being certified, for instance, a company may change driver training and maintenance and how it carries out corrective action. We identified 40 ISO 9002: 1994 certified U.S. trucking companies and compared their safety performance before and after ISO certification. We also compared them to a group of motor carriers that had similar characteristics but were not certified. The safety performance of the certified carriers was significantly better after certification than before, and it also was significantly better than that of non-certified carriers, findings that we believe can be useful to carriers, shippers and regulators who wish to better understand the value of certification.

  16. Low cost electronic ultracapacitor interface technique to provide load leveling of a battery for pulsed load or motor traction drive applications

    DOEpatents

    King, Robert Dean; DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson

    1998-01-01

    A battery load leveling arrangement for an electrically powered system in which battery loading is subject to intermittent high current loading utilizes a passive energy storage device and a diode connected in series with the storage device to conduct current from the storage device to the load when current demand forces a drop in battery voltage. A current limiting circuit is connected in parallel with the diode for recharging the passive energy storage device. The current limiting circuit functions to limit the average magnitude of recharge current supplied to the storage device. Various forms of current limiting circuits are disclosed, including a PTC resistor coupled in parallel with a fixed resistor. The current limit circuit may also include an SCR for switching regenerative braking current to the device when the system is connected to power an electric motor.

  17. Chemistry: No turning back for motorized molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayden, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Two molecular motors have been developed that use chemical energy to drive rotational motion in a single direction. The findings bring the prospect of devices powered by such motors a tantalizing step closer. See Letter p.235

  18. iDriving (Intelligent Driving)

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2012-09-17

    iDriving identifies the driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is used with the aim of optimizing a driving style with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels is constructed to reflect the responses produced in fuel economy by changing the driving factors. The optimization framework is used to develop a real-time feedback system, including visual instructions, to enable drivers to alter their driving styles in responses to actual driving conditions to improve fuel efficiency.

  19. Engine starter and accessory drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, T.R.

    1986-10-07

    An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

  20. [Automobile driving capacity in dementia].

    PubMed

    Seeger, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Dementia influences at an early stage the driving aptitude of motor vehicle steering persons. Every year in Switzerland, around 16'000 driving permit holders suffer newly from dementia; therefore the driving aptitude is questioned, especially because of possibly limited executive functions. Individuals with early-stage dementia often may show a dangerous driving stile. However, a mild dementia does not a priori exclude the driving aptitude, and less than half of these drivers can continue driving for another 1 - 3 years. In contrast, there is no further driving aptitude in presence of moderate dementia. In the assessment of driving aptitude, the underlying cause of dementia is always taken into account. Cognitive short tests such as the Mini-Mental Status Exam, Clock Drawing Test and Trail-Making Test are not suitable to make reliable statements about the aptitude to drive, but these tests are very important for the initial diagnosis of dementia in primary care practice and can lead the way for further examination concerning driving aptitude. The legally prescribed regular check-up for motorists aged over 70 years in Switzerland provides an ideal opportunity for early detection of incipient dementia. The practical procedure for the assessment of aptitude to drive in the primary care practice is presented. The physician-guided on-road driving test represents a meaningful, practical and relatively cost-effective tool for the evaluation of driving aptitude in cases of doubt.

  1. Driving and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda; Molnar, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide primary care physicians with an approach to driving safety concerns when older persons present with memory difficulties. Sources of information The approach is based on an accredited memory clinic training program developed by the Centre for Family Medicine Primary Care Collaborative Memory Clinic. Main message One of the most challenging aspects of dementia care is the assessment of driving safety. Drivers with dementia are at higher risk of motor vehicle collisions, yet many drivers with mild dementia might be safely able to continue driving for several years. Because safe driving is dependent on multiple cognitive and functional skills, clinicians should carefully consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns affect driving safety. Specific findings on corroborated history and office-based cognitive testing might aid in the physician’s decisions to refer for comprehensive on-road driving evaluation and whether to notify transportation authorities in accordance with provincial reporting requirements. Sensitive communication and a person-centred approach are essential. Conclusion Primary care physicians must consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns might affect driving safety in older drivers. PMID:28115437

  2. Drugged Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... in the past year. Middle Figure: Driving after marijuana use is more common than driving after alcohol ...

  3. Impaired Driving

    MedlinePlus

    Impaired driving is dangerous. It's the cause of more than half of all car crashes. It means operating a ... texting Having a medical condition which affects your driving For your safety and the safety of others, ...

  4. Dementia and driving.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  5. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD.

  6. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, C.E.; Benson, R.A.

    1994-11-29

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor. 3 figures.

  7. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, Charles E.; Benson, Ralph A.

    1994-01-01

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor.

  8. Development of a drive system for a sequential space camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpsteen, J. T.; Solheim, C. D.; Stoap, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Breadboard models of single and dual motor drives for the shutter, claw and magazine of a space camera system were designed and tested. The single motor technique utilizes a single electronically commutated motor to drive the claw and shutter without resorting to a solenoid actuated clutch for pulse operation. Shutter speed is established by a combination of the cinemode speed and the opening of the conventional DAC two piece shutter. Pulse mode operation is obtained by applying power at a fixed clock rate and removing power at an appropriate point in the mechanical cycle such that the motor comes to rest by system friction. The dual motor approach utilizes a stepper motor to drive the shutter and an electronically commutated dc motor to drive the claw and magazine functions. The motors are synchronized electronically.

  9. Electric Drive Study. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-21

    necessary and identify by block number) FIELD j GROUP SUB-GROUP IElectric Drives, Motors, Homopolar Motors, Induction Motof’s, I-u I ’Propulsion Systems...E-I APPENDIX F. VEHICLE AND PROPULSION SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS ..... .F-I APPENDIX G. HOMOPOLAR MACHINE DESCRIPTION ..... ............ G-1 APPENDIX H...System (19.5 Ton) ............... .. 62 5-22. Homopolar (DC) System (19.5 Ton).... . .. . 64 5-23. HF Induction AC System (19.5 Ton) (Split Power’Pack

  10. Apparatus for forming drive belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topits, A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus for manufacturing belts, such as seamless belts, is provided, the apparatus has relatively movable rollers that are mounted in an oven. A belt blank, for example, of a thin polyester film, is rotated on the rollers as heat is applied. Four rollers, each mounted on a separate roller assembly, are movable along appropriate tracks while a fifth centrally located roller is stationary. A pair of dc motors are operatively connected to a speed reduction gear assembly to provide a pair of rotating drive shafts that extend into the oven. One rotating shaft drives all of the rollers through a rotational gear assembly while the other drive shaft is capable of positioning the movable rollers through respective rotating threaded shafts. Control devices are provided for controlling the motors while measuring devices are operatively connected to the positional drive shaft to indicate the position of the rollers.

  11. Pile Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  12. Comparison of capabilities of reluctance synchronous motor and induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štumberger, Gorazd; Hadžiselimović, Miralem; Štumberger, Bojan; Miljavec, Damijan; Dolinar, Drago; Zagradišnik, Ivan

    2006-09-01

    This paper compares the capabilities of a reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with those of an induction motor (IM). An RSM and IM were designed and made, with the same rated power and speed. They differ only in the rotor portion while their stators, housings and cooling systems are identical. The capabilities of both motors in a variable speed drive are evaluated by comparison of the results obtained by magnetically nonlinear models and by measurements.

  13. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  14. Sensorless, online motor diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kliman, G.B.; Premerlani, W.J.; Yazici, B.; Koegl, R.A.; Mazereeuw, J.

    1997-04-01

    Electric motors play a very important role in the safe and efficient running of any industrial plant. Early detection of abnormalities in the motors will help avoid expensive failures. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) implemented in a computer-based motor monitor can contribute to such condition-based maintenance functions. Such a system may also detect an abnormality in the process as well as the motor. Extensive online monitoring of the motors can lead to greater plant availability, extended plant life, higher quality product, and smoother plant operation. With advances in digital technology over the last several years, adequate data processing capability is now available on cost-effective, microprocessor-based, protective-relay platforms to monitor motors for a variety of abnormalities in addition to the normal protection functions. Such multifunction monitors, first introduced by Multilin, are displacing the multiplicity of electromechanical devices commonly applied for many years. Following some background information on motor monitoring, this article features recent developments in providing tools for the diagnosis of faults or incipient faults in electric motor drives: Sensorless torque measurement, direct detection of turn-to-turn short circuits, detection of cracked or broken rotor bars, and detection of bearing deterioration.

  15. Circuit increases capability of hysteresis synchronous motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, I. N.

    1967-01-01

    Frequency and phase detector circuit enables a hysteresis synchronous motor to drive a load of given torque value at a precise speed determined by a stable reference. This technique permits driving larger torque loads with smaller motors and lower power drain.

  16. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  17. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  18. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  19. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  20. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  1. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  2. 32 CFR 634.18 - Reinstatement of driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reinstatement of driving privileges. 634.18... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.18 Reinstatement of driving privileges. Reinstatement of driving privileges shall be automatic, provided...

  3. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  4. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  5. 32 CFR 634.6 - Requirements for driving privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Requirements for driving privileges. 634.6... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.6 Requirements for driving privileges. (a) Driving a Government vehicle or POV on military installations is...

  6. Distracted driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... the road Your hands on the wheel Your mind on driving Distracted driving occurs when something gets in the way of you doing all 3 things. Examples include: Talking on a cell phone Reading or sending text messages Eating and drinking Grooming ( ...

  7. Simulation model for a seven-phase BLDCM drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Won-Cheol; Lee, Jung-Hyo; Yu, Jae-Sung; Kim, Gyu-Sik; Won, Chung-Yuen

    2007-12-01

    BLDC motors have many advantages over brushed DC motors and induction motors. So, BLDC motors extend their application to many industrial fields. In this paper, the digital simulation and modeling of a 7-phase brushless DC motor have been presented. The 14-switch inverter and a 7-phase brushless DC motor drive system are simulated using hysteresis current controller and logic of switching pattern with the Boolean¡s function. Through some simulations, we found that our modeling and analysis of a 7-phase BLDCM with PWM inverter would be helpful for the further studies of the multi-phase BLDCM drive systems.

  8. Variable-Reluctance Motor For Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes research on variable-reluctance electric-motor drive for eventual use in electric-vehicle propulsion. Primary design and performance criteria were torque and power output per unit mass of motor, cost, and drive efficiency. For each criterion, optimized drive design developed, and designs unified to yield single electric-vehicle drive. Scaled-down motor performed as expected. Prototype of paraplegic lift operated by toggle switch and joystick. Lift plugs into household electrical outlet for recharging when not in use.

  9. QUICK RELEASABLE DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1958-07-01

    A quick releasable mechanical drive system suitable for use in a nuclear reactor is described. A small reversible motor positions a control rod by means of a worm and gear speed reducer, a magnetic torque clutch, and a bell crank. As the control rod is raised to the operating position, a heavy coil spring is compressed. In the event of an emergency indicated by either a''scram'' signal or a power failure, the current to the magnetic clutch is cut off, thereby freeing the coil spring and the bell crank positioner from the motor and speed reduction gearing. The coil spring will immediately act upon the bell crank to cause the insertion of the control rod. This arrangement will allow the slow, accurate positioning of the control rod during reactor operation, while providing an independent force to rapidly insert the rod in the event of an emergency.

  10. A linear magnetic motor and generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    In linear magnetic motor and generator suitable for remote and hostile environments, magnetic forces drive reciprocating shaft along its axis. Actuator shaft is located in center of cylindrical body and may be supported by either contacting or noncontacting bearings. When device operates as bidirectional motor, drive coil selectively adds and subtracts magnetic flux to and from flux paths, producing forces that drive actuator along axis. When actuator is driven by external reciprocating engine, device becomes ac generator.

  11. Battery powererd electric motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlbacker, K.

    1984-02-28

    A battery powered vehicle is provided with a vehicle frame and an electric motor whose main shaft is connected to a differential gear by means of a gear train with a variable transmission ratio, the motor shaft and all gear shafts being parallel to the axle of the driving wheels. In order to achieve a compact design and to avoid power-consuming drive elements the electric motor and the variable transmission gear as well as a potential reducing gear mounted between the latter and the differential gear, are positioned on a subframe which is connected to the housing of the driving wheel axle on the one side whereas the other side carrying the electric motor is attached to the vehicle frame by means of a cardanic suspension.

  12. Dementia & Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caregiver Resource Center Family Care Navigator Research Registry Support Groups Caregiver Stories Connections e-Newsletter FCA+(plus) Services ... be like if you could no longer drive. Support groups provide a good venue for both the caregivers ...

  13. Get the message: distracted driving and teens.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Ruth; Gibbons, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Distracted driving is a growing problem in the United States. With the integration of wireless devices into everyday life, cell phone use behind the wheel is a distraction requiring increasing concern. Teen drivers are most susceptible to the dangers of distracted driving as made evident in the overrepresentation of teens in distraction-related motor vehicle crashes. This article describes the causes, consequences, and statistics related to distracted driving in teenagers and an injury prevention program for teenagers.

  14. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  15. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1989-03-14

    This patent describes a motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  16. 24. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, OFF VERTICAL DEFLECTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, OFF VERTICAL DEFLECTOR SHEAVE, MOTOR, BRAKE, PINION SHAFT, DRIVE WHEEL. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. Disk Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A new material known as AlBeMet, developed by Brush Wellman for research applications in the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program, is now used for high performance disk drives. AlBeMet is a compression of aluminum, beryllium metal matrix composite. It reduces system weight and its high thermal conductivity can effectively remove heat and increase an electrical system's lifetime. The lighter, stiffer AlBeMet (AlBeMet 160) used in the disk drive means heads can be moved faster, improving disk performance.

  18. Variation in motor output and motor performance in a centrally generated motor pattern.

    PubMed

    Wenning, Angela; Norris, Brian J; Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-07-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) produce motor patterns that ultimately drive motor outputs. We studied how functional motor performance is achieved, specifically, whether the variation seen in motor patterns is reflected in motor performance and whether fictive motor patterns differ from those in vivo. We used the leech heartbeat system in which a bilaterally symmetrical CPG coordinates segmental heart motor neurons and two segmented heart tubes into two mutually exclusive coordination modes: rear-to-front peristaltic on one side and nearly synchronous on the other, with regular side-to-side switches. We assessed individual variability of the motor pattern and the beat pattern in vivo. To quantify the beat pattern we imaged intact adults. To quantify the phase relations between motor neurons and heart constrictions we recorded extracellularly from two heart motor neurons and movement from the corresponding heart segments in minimally dissected leeches. Variation in the motor pattern was reflected in motor performance only in the peristaltic mode, where larger intersegmental phase differences in the motor neurons resulted in larger phase differences between heart constrictions. Fictive motor patterns differed from those in vivo only in the synchronous mode, where intersegmental phase differences in vivo had a larger front-to-rear bias and were more constrained. Additionally, load-influenced constriction timing might explain the amplification of the phase differences between heart segments in the peristaltic mode and the higher variability in motor output due to body shape assumed in this soft-bodied animal. The motor pattern determines the beat pattern, peristaltic or synchronous, but heart mechanics influence the phase relations achieved.

  19. Pulse-Width-Modulating Driver for Brushless dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, Phil M.

    1991-01-01

    High-current pulse-width-modulating driver for brushless dc motor features optical coupling of timing signals from low-current control circuitry to high-current motor-driving circuitry. Provides high electrical isolation of motor-power supply, helping to prevent fast, high-current motor-driving pulses from being coupled through power supplies into control circuitry, where they interfere with low-current control signals.

  20. 27. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST IN THE ELECTRICAL MOTOR ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST IN THE ELECTRICAL MOTOR ROOM. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. DC GENERATOR, AC MOTOR, OLD DC GENERATOR, OPENING FOR THE BELT TO THE CLUTCH ASSEMBLY FOR THE MILL POWER SYSTEM. THE BOARDS THAT ARE ASKEW WERE PROTECTION AROUND THE DRIVE BELT. THE SMALL MOTOR IN THE FOREGROUND IS THE MOTOR THAT MOST RECENTLY POWERED THE MILL'S BELT DRIVE SYSTEM. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  1. Mathematical modeling of bent-axis hydraulic piston motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartos, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the DSN 70-m antennas uses 16 bent-axis hydraulic piston motors as part of the antenna drive system. On each of the two antenna axes, four motors are used to drive the antenna and four motors provide counter torque to remove the backlash in the antenna drive train. This article presents a mathematical model for bent-axis hydraulic piston motors. The model was developed to understand the influence of the hydraulic motors on the performance of the DSN 70-m antennas' servo control system.

  2. Test facility for advanced electric adjustable frequency drives and generators of typical industrial ratings. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    A test facility has been developed, for electric adjustable-speed motors and variable-speed generators, that is unique in US universities in terms of its range (5 to 300 hp currently with 0.1 to 1,000 hp final capability) and flexibility (standard NEMA frame and novel geometry machines can be accommodated). The basic facility was constructed with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute. The instrumentation obtained under this DOE grant has been integrated into the facility which was completed in Fall 1997. The facility has already provided useful studies for DOE, EPRI, as well as several West Coast industries and electric energy utilities.

  3. Modeling an electric motor in 1-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Quite often the dynamicist will be faced with having an electric drive motor as a link in the elastic path of a structure such that the motor's characteristics must be taken into account to properly represent the dynamics of the primary structure. He does not want to model it so accurately that he could get detailed stress and displacements in the motor proper, but just sufficiently to represent its inertia loading and elastic behavior from its mounting bolts to its drive coupling. Described here is how the rotor and stator of such a motor can be adequately modeled as a colinear pair of beams.

  4. Butalbital and driving impairment.

    PubMed

    Yeakel, Jillian K; Logan, Barry K

    2013-07-01

    Butalbital (Fiorinal(®)), used in the treatment of migraines and muscle pain, is the most commonly encountered barbiturate in impaired driving cases. It has central nervous system (CNS) depressant properties, including sedation, drowsiness, and feelings of intoxication, which can contribute to driving impairment. Twenty-six driving under the influence cases are reviewed including results from field sobriety tests and toxicology testing. Blood samples were screened using enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique immunoassay, and the presence of butalbital was confirmed and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, or gas chromatography nitrogen/phosphorus detection. Butalbital concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 30.2 mg/L, with a mean and median of 16.0 mg/L. General impairment indicators in these cases included horizontal and vertical nystagmus, lack of convergence, poor motor coordination, and balance and speech problems, which are common to CNS depressant intoxication, similar to that associated with alcohol. These findings indicate the importance of toxicological testing for butalbital in cases where CNS depressants are indicated.

  5. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in §...

  6. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle...

  7. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in §...

  8. 49 CFR 383.77 - Substitute for driving skills tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitute for driving skills tests. 383.77... CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS... Substitute for driving skills tests. At the discretion of a State, the driving skill test as specified...

  9. 32 CFR 634.15 - Restricted driving privileges or probation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Restricted driving privileges or probation. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.15 Restricted driving privileges or probation. (a) For the Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and...

  10. 28 CFR 97.13 - Maximum driving time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum driving time. 97.13 Section 97.13... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.13 Maximum driving time. Companies covered under this part must adhere to the maximum driving time provisions applicable to commercial motor vehicle operators, as set forth...

  11. 32 CFR 634.15 - Restricted driving privileges or probation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restricted driving privileges or probation. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.15 Restricted driving privileges or probation. (a) For the Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and...

  12. 28 CFR 97.13 - Maximum driving time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum driving time. 97.13 Section 97.13... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.13 Maximum driving time. Companies covered under this part must adhere to the maximum driving time provisions applicable to commercial motor vehicle operators, as set forth...

  13. 32 CFR 634.15 - Restricted driving privileges or probation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Restricted driving privileges or probation. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.15 Restricted driving privileges or probation. (a) For the Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and...

  14. 28 CFR 97.13 - Maximum driving time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum driving time. 97.13 Section 97.13... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.13 Maximum driving time. Companies covered under this part must adhere to the maximum driving time provisions applicable to commercial motor vehicle operators, as set forth...

  15. 28 CFR 97.13 - Maximum driving time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum driving time. 97.13 Section 97.13... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.13 Maximum driving time. Companies covered under this part must adhere to the maximum driving time provisions applicable to commercial motor vehicle operators, as set forth...

  16. 32 CFR 634.15 - Restricted driving privileges or probation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restricted driving privileges or probation. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.15 Restricted driving privileges or probation. (a) For the Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and...

  17. 32 CFR 634.15 - Restricted driving privileges or probation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Restricted driving privileges or probation. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.15 Restricted driving privileges or probation. (a) For the Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and...

  18. 28 CFR 97.13 - Maximum driving time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum driving time. 97.13 Section 97.13... OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.13 Maximum driving time. Companies covered under this part must adhere to the maximum driving time provisions applicable to commercial motor vehicle operators, as set forth...

  19. Micromachine Wedge Stepping Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Schriner, H.K.

    1998-11-04

    A wedge stepping motor, which will index a mechanism, has been designed and fabricated in the surface rnicromachine SUMMiT process. This device has demonstrated the ability to index one gear tooth at a time with speeds up to 205 teeth/see. The wedge stepper motor has the following features, whi:h will be useful in a number of applications. o The ability to precisely position mechanical components. . Simple pulse signals can be used for operation. o Only 2 drive signals are requixed for operation. o Torque and precision capabilities increase with device size . The device to be indexed is restrained at all times by the wedge shaped tooth that is used for actuation. This paper will discuss the theory of operation and desi=m of the wedge stepping motor. The fabrication and testing of I he device will also be presented.

  20. Development of a drive system for a sequential space camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpsteen, J. T.; Solheim, C. D.; Stoap, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    An electronically commutated dc motor is reported for driving the camera claw and magazine, and a stepper motor is described for driving the shutter with the two motors synchronized electrically. Subsequent tests on the breadboard positively proved the concept, but further development beyond this study should be done. The breadboard testing also established that the electronically commutated motor can control speed over a wide dynamic range, and has a high torque capability for accelerating loads. This performance suggested the possibility of eliminating the clutch from the system while retaining all of the other mechanical features of the DAC, if the requirement for independent shutter speeds and frame rates can be removed. Therefore, as a final step in the study, the breadboard shutter and shutter drive were returned to the original DAC configuration, while retaining the brushless dc motor drive.

  1. Advanced motor and motor control development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuertz, Kenneth L.; Beauchamp, Edward D.

    1988-08-01

    The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for high speed drive applications up to 100-hp level.

  2. Electric vehicle drive train components

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, F.

    1994-12-31

    Power Control Systems has developed a family of electric vehicle drive systems that range from 65 horsepower through 300 horse power. These propulsion systems support vehicle applications ranging from light cars and pickups to buses and trucks weighing as much as 40,000 lbs (18,400 kg). These robust systems are designed specifically for automotive applications including safety, electromagnetic emissions, and environment ruggedness. Dolphin Drive Systems are very flexible. Their inverter controllers are programmable and can be provided as stand alone components matched to customer specified motors. A selection of pre-calibrated systems including motor and inverter/controller can be provided. Accessory tools are also available for customer self programming. Dolphin Drive Systems provide precision control of AC induction motors providing excellent torque-speed performance usually eliminating the need for multistage transmissions. In addition, they are very efficient over a wide speed/torque range. This provides for excellent power management over a variety of continuous speed and stop and go applications.

  3. DC Motor control using motor-generator set with controlled generator field

    DOEpatents

    Belsterling, Charles A.; Stone, John

    1982-01-01

    A d.c. generator is connected in series opposed to the polarity of a d.c. power source supplying a d.c. drive motor. The generator is part of a motor-generator set, the motor of which is supplied from the power source connected to the motor. A generator field control means varies the field produced by at least one of the generator windings in order to change the effective voltage output. When the generator voltage is exactly equal to the d.c. voltage supply, no voltage is applied across the drive motor. As the field of the generator is reduced, the drive motor is supplied greater voltage until the full voltage of the d.c. power source is supplied when the generator has zero field applied. Additional voltage may be applied across the drive motor by reversing and increasing the reversed field on the generator. The drive motor may be reversed in direction from standstill by increasing the generator field so that a reverse voltage is applied across the d.c. motor.

  4. Synchronous motor with soft start element formed between the motor rotor and motor output shaft to successfully synchronize loads that have high inertia and/or high torque

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D; Nisley, Donald L; Melfi, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    A line-start synchronous motor has a housing, a rotor shaft, and an output shaft. A soft-start coupling portion is operatively coupled to the output shaft and the rotor shaft. The soft-start coupling portion is configurable to enable the synchronous motor to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling. The synchronous motor is sufficiently rated to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling.

  5. Personal and situational influences on drink driving and sober driving among a cohort of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, L; Begg, D; Langley, J

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare personal and situational influences on incidents involving drink driving with those involving sober driving. Methods: Information on a range of road safety practices was sought in face to face interviews conducted with 969 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort at age 26 years. A total of 750 study members reported an incident that involved the opportunity to consume alcohol and also travel by motor vehicle. Of these, 87 were classified as "drink drive incidents" and 663 as "sober drive incidents". Results: Study members who were male, of lower socioeconomic status, had no school qualifications, or were dependent on alcohol or marijuana at age 21 were significantly more likely to report a drink drive incident at age 26. Compared with the sober drive incidents, the drink drive incidents were more commonly associated with driving alone, drinking at bars, and no advanced planning. For drink drive incidents the amount of alcohol consumed was influenced by the conviviality of the occasion, whereas for sober drive incidents it was the need to drive. One quarter of those reporting drink drive incidents stated they had used marijuana and/or LSD at the event at which they drank. Conclusions: Drink drive and sober drive incidents differed, particularly with regard to decisions made before the event. Prevention efforts could usefully be targeted toward these decisions. PMID:12120828

  6. MULTIPLE DIFFERENTIAL ROTARY MECHANICAL DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Smits, R.G.

    1964-01-28

    This patent relates to a mechanism suitable for such applications as driving two spaced-apart spools which carry a roll film strip under conditions where the film movement must be rapidly started, stopped, and reversed while maintaining a constant tension on the film. The basic drive is provided by a variable speed, reversible rnotor coupled to both spools through a first differential mechanism and driving both spools in the same direction. A second motor, providing a constant torque, is connected to the two spools through a second differential mechanism and is coupled to impart torque to one spool in a first direction anid to the other spool in the reverse direction thus applying a constant tension to the film passing over the two spools irrespective of the speed or direction of rotation thereof. (AEC)

  7. High Power Density Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  8. A review of alcohol-impaired driving: the role of blood alcohol concentration and complexity of the driving task.

    PubMed

    Martin, Teri L; Solbeck, Patricia A M; Mayers, Daryl J; Langille, Robert M; Buczek, Yvona; Pelletier, Marc R

    2013-09-01

    The operation of a motor vehicle requires the integrity of sensory, motor, and intellectual faculties. Impairment of these faculties following the consumption of alcohol has been studied extensively through laboratory, closed-course and on-road driving, and epidemiological studies. The scientific literature was reviewed critically, with a focus on low-to-moderate blood alcohol concentrations (BAC ≤ 0.100%), to identify the most reliable determinants of alcohol-impaired driving. Variables such as age, gender, driving skill, and tolerance were shown to have limited impact on impairment. It was concluded the most relevant variables are BAC and complexity of the driving task. The scientific literature provides a high degree of confidence to support the conclusion that a BAC of 0.050% impairs faculties required in the operation of a motor vehicle. Whether impairment is apparent depends upon the complexity of the driving task, which applies to both study design and actual driving.

  9. Electropneumatic transducer automatically limits motor current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovitt, T. F.

    1966-01-01

    Pneumatic controller regulates the load on a centrifugal freon compressor in a water cooling system, thus limiting the current input to an electric motor driving it. An electromechanical transducer monitoring the motor input current sends out air signals which indicate changes in the current to the pneumatic controller.

  10. SRS Computer Animation and Drive Train System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthun, Daniel; Schachner, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The spinning rocket simulator (SRS) is an ongoing project at Oral Roberts University. The goal of the SRS is to gather crucial data concerning a spinning rocket under thrust for the purpose of analysis and correction of the coning motion experienced by this type of spacecraft maneuver. The computer animation simulates a virtual, scale model of the component of the SRS that represents the spacecraft itself. This component is known as the (VSM), or virtual spacecraft model. During actual physical simulation, this component of the SRS will experience a coning. The goal of the animation is to cone the VSM within that range to accurately represent the motion of the actual simulator. The drive system of the SRS is the apparatus that turns the actual simulator. It consists of a drive motor, motor mount and chain to power the simulator into motion. The motor mount is adjustable and rigid for high torque application. A digital stepper motor controller actuates the main drive motor for linear acceleration. The chain transfers power from the motor to the simulator via sprockets on both ends.

  11. Timing mechanism for wind motors

    SciTech Connect

    White, H.O.

    1980-09-23

    A plate is carried by the blade support shaft journalled within the frame of a wind motor. The axle shaft of the blade is securable to the plate at variable distances relative the support shaft to selectively vary the offset of the blade. A primary drive element, gear or sprocket, coaxial with the axle shaft and rotatable in response to rotation of the blade, drivingly engages a driven idler element, gear or sprocket, respectively, carried by an idler shaft journalled within the plate. A planetary gear rotatable in response to the driven idler element, drivingly engages a sun gear fixed to the frame coaxial with the support shaft.

  12. Circuit Regulates Speed Of dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Charles; Padden, Robin; Brown, Floyd A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Driving circuit regulates speed of small dc permanent-magnet motor in tape recorder. Two nested feedback loops maintain speed within 1 percent of constant value. Inner loop provides coarse regulation, while outer loop removes most of variation in speed that remains in the presence of regulation by the inner loop. Compares speed of motor with commanded speed and adjusts current supplied to motor accordingly.

  13. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  14. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  15. Motor syndromes.

    PubMed

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances.

  16. Acute tolerance to alcohol impairment of behavioral and cognitive mechanisms related to driving: drinking and driving on the descending limb

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol effects on behavioral and cognitive mechanisms influence impaired driving performance and decisions to drive after drinking (Barry 1973; Moskowitz and Robinson 1987). To date, research has focused on the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve, and there is little understanding of how acute tolerance to impairment of these mechanisms might influence driving behavior on the descending limb. Objectives To provide an integrated examination of the degree to which alcohol impairment of motor coordination and inhibitory control contributes to driving impairment and decisions to drive on the ascending and descending limbs of the blood alcohol curve. Methods Social-drinking adults (N=20) performed a testing battery that measured simulated driving performance and willingness to drive, as well as mechanisms related to driving: motor coordination (grooved pegboard), inhibitory control (cued go/no-go task), and subjective intoxication. Performance was tested in response to placebo and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) twice at comparable blood alcohol concentrations: once on the ascending limb and again on the descending limb. Results Impaired motor coordination and subjective intoxication showed acute tolerance, whereas driving performance and inhibitory control showed no recovery from impairment. Greater motor impairment was associated with poorer driving performance under alcohol, and poorer inhibitory control was associated with more willingness to drive. Conclusions Findings suggest that acute tolerance to impairment of motor coordination is insufficient to promote recovery of driving performance and that the persistence of alcohol-induced disinhibition might contribute to risky decisions to drive on the descending limb. PMID:21960182

  17. 49 CFR 395.3 - Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum driving time for property-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.3 Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles. (a... to drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a...

  18. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  19. 49 CFR 395.3 - Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum driving time for property-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.3 Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  20. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  1. 49 CFR 395.3 - Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum driving time for property-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.3 Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  2. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  3. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  4. 49 CFR 395.3 - Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum driving time for property-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.3 Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles. (a... to drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a...

  5. 49 CFR 395.3 - Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum driving time for property-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.3 Maximum driving time for property-carrying vehicles. (a... to drive a property-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive a...

  6. 49 CFR 395.5 - Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying... REGULATIONS HOURS OF SERVICE OF DRIVERS § 395.5 Maximum driving time for passenger-carrying vehicles. Subject... used by it to drive a passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicle, nor shall any such driver drive...

  7. Driving Skills May Suffer Even After Concussion Symptoms Subside

    MedlinePlus

    ... University of Georgia researchers said. "They had less vehicle control while they were doing the driving simulation, ... This is a pretty large indicator of motor vehicle accident risk, and this is at a time ...

  8. Driving and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Evans, Ben Lewis; Koerts, Janneke; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Thome, Johannes; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from various impairments of cognitive, emotional and social functioning, which can have considerable consequences for many areas of daily living. One of those areas is driving a vehicle. Driving is an important activity of everyday life and requires an efficient interplay between multiple cognitive, perceptual, and motor skills. In the present study, a selective review of the literature on driving-related difficulties associated with ADHD is performed, seeking to answer whether individuals with ADHD show increased levels of unsafe driving behaviours, which cognitive (dys)functions of individuals with ADHD are related to driving difficulty, and whether pharmacological treatment significantly improves the driving behaviour of individuals with ADHD. The available research provides convincing evidence that individuals with ADHD have different and more adverse driving outcomes than individuals without the condition. However, it appears that not all individuals with ADHD are affected uniformly. Despite various cognitive functions being related with driving difficulties, these functions do not appear helpful in detecting high risk drivers with ADHD, nor in predicting driving outcomes in individuals with ADHD, since impairments in these functions are defining criteria for the diagnoses of ADHD (e.g., inattention and impulsivity). Pharmacological treatment of ADHD, in particular stimulant drug treatment, appears to be beneficial to the driving difficulties experienced by individuals with ADHD. However, additional research is needed, in particular further studies that address the numerous methodological weaknesses of many of the previous studies.

  9. Individual Difference Factors in Risky Driving among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Ball, Karlene K.; Severson, Joan; Barton, Benjamin K.; Rizzo, Matthew; Viamonte, Sarah M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Motor-vehicle crashes kill roughly 4,500 American adults over the age of 75 annually. Among younger adults, one behavioral factor consistently linked to risky driving is personality, but this predictor has been overshadowed by research on cognitive, perceptual, and motor processes among older drivers. Method In this study, a sample of 101 licensed drivers, all age 75 and over, were recruited to complete self-report measures on personality, temperament, and driving history. Participants also completed a virtual environment (VE) course designed to assess risk-taking driving behavior. State records of motor-vehicle crashes were collected. Results Results suggest both a sensation-seeking personality and an undercontrolled temperament are related to risky driving among older adults. Sensation-seeking was particularly related to history of violations and tickets, while temperamental control was more broadly related to a number of risky driving measures. Methodological and crash prevention issues are discussed. PMID:18023635

  10. Molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  11. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  12. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  13. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  14. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  15. 32 CFR 636.18 - Driving records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Driving records. 636.18 Section 636.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.18...

  16. Development of a paddle drive mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hidekazu; Honda, Toshio; Ohhashi, Toshiro; Wachi, Shigeo; Kai, Kouji

    The paddle drive system is a key element in a three axis stabilized spacecraft, consisting of paddle drive mechanism (PDM) and paddle drive electronics (PDE). The PDM rotates the solar array paddle and transmits electrical power and signals to spacecraft. The PDE drives and controls the PDM. The investigation and design study were initiated in early 1979. The design goal of the PDM is to handle more than 3kW of electrical power with a ten year life. The hardware development was started in early 1983, as a five year program. This paper presents the results of environmental tests and a thermal vacuum life test for the various PDM elements, such as the slip ring assembly, the stepper motor, the harmonic drive, the ratchet clutch, the spur gears, the bearings and the position indicator.

  17. Torque for an Inertial Piezoelectric Rotary Motor

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jichun

    2013-01-01

    For a novel inertial piezoelectric rotary motor, the equation of the strain energy in the piezoceramic bimorph and the equations of the strain energy and the kinetic energy in the rotor are given. Based on them, the dynamic equation of the motor is obtained. Using these equations, the inertial driving torque of the motor is investigated. The results show that the impulsive driving torque changes with changing peak voltage of the excitation signal, the piezoelectric stress constant, the thickness of the piezoceramic bimorph, and the rotor radius obviously. Tests about the motor torque are completed which verifies the theory analysis here in. The results can be used to design the operating performance of the motor. PMID:24470794

  18. 49 CFR 384.203 - Driving while under the influence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Driving while under the influence. 384.203 Section 384.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... in substantial compliance with section 12009(a)(3) of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of...

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy as a tool for driving research.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew; Pang, Changle; Zhou, Yuanji; Cai, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Driving a motor vehicle requires various cognitive functions to process surrounding information, to guide appropriate actions, and especially to respond to or integrate with numerous contextual and perceptual hindrances or risks. It is, thus, imperative to examine driving performance and road safety from a perspective of cognitive neuroscience, which considers both the behaviour and the functioning of the brain. However, because of technical limitations of current brain imaging approaches, studies have primarily adopted driving games or simulators to present participants with simulated driving environments that may have less ecological validity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a relatively new, non-invasive brain-imaging technique allowing measurement of brain activations in more realistic settings, even within real motor vehicles. This study reviews current NIRS driving research and explores NIRS' potential as a new tool to examine driving behaviour, along with various risk factors in natural situations, promoting our understanding about neural mechanisms of driving safety. Practitioner Summary: Driving a vehicle is dependent on a range of neurocognitive processing abilities. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive brain-imaging technique allowing measurement of brain activation even in on-road studies within real motor vehicles. This study reviews current NIRS driving research and explores the potential of NIRS as a new tool to examine driving behaviour.

  20. Stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  1. 40 CFR 600.109-78 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-78 Section... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust... cycles. (a) The driving cycle to be utilized for generation of the city fuel economy data is...

  2. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust... cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in § 86.115 of this chapter. (b) The highway fuel...

  3. Adolescent Problem Behavior and Problem Driving in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.

    2004-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among drivers younger than age 35, making problem driving behavior among young drivers a significant public concern. Effective intervention requires a better understanding of the antecedents of problem driving. Problem behavior theory, social control theory, and Kandel's model of substance use…

  4. PORTION O MAIN DRIVE TRAIN FROM 800 HORSEPOWER TO STANDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PORTION O MAIN DRIVE TRAIN FROM 800 HORSEPOWER TO STANDS #2, 1, AND 0, INCLUDING BREAKING SPINDLE COUPLING AND #2 STAND BEVEL GEARING. THE SAME MOTOR ALSO DRIVES THE OTHER FOUR STANDS OF CONTINUOUS ROUGHING ROLLS. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  5. Can variable frequency drives reduce irrigation costs for rice producers?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable Frequency Drives (VFD's) allow for variable speed operation of electrical motor drive irrigation pumps and are an emerging technology for agricultural irrigation, primarily for pressurized irrigation systems. They are considered an energy savings device, but less is known about their app...

  6. Considerations when using variable frequency drive technology for pond aquculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some farmers have decided to use variable frequency drives (VFDs) to control pump speed and water flow rate to reduce operational cost and costs associated with repairs and maintenance. Mixed performance issues with VFDs and electric motors have been reported. Examples include frequent drive failure...

  7. Prediction and analysis of variable reluctance stepmotor drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulle, D. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A relationship between the electric terminal parameters and output/input power is derived for conventional doubly-salient synchronous machines and extended to include the variable reluctance motor. The advantages and limitations of the drive-schemes are shown in Blondel diagrams and torque speed curves. A general method for obtaining a quantitative assessment of drive-schemes is developed by the introduction of so-called performance figures, related to the output power and efficiency. From this method applied to four drive schemes, it is concluded that severe performance degradation is the result of using a forging resistance in a drive-scheme. A forced decay unipolar chopper drive is presented.

  8. Hydromechanical transmission with hydrodynamic drive

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1979-01-01

    This transmission has a first planetary gear assembly having first input means connected to an input shaft, first output means, and first reaction means, and a second planetary gear assembly having second input means connected to the first input means, second output means, and second reaction means connected directly to the first reaction means by a reaction shaft. First clutch means, when engaged, connect the first output means to an output shaft in a high driving range. A hydrodynamic drive is used; for example, a torque converter, which may or may not have a stationary case, has a pump connected to the second output means, a stator grounded by an overrunning clutch to the case, and a turbine connected to an output member, and may be used in a starting phase. Alternatively, a fluid coupling or other type of hydrodynamic drive may be used. Second clutch means, when engaged, for connecting the output member to the output shaft in a low driving range. A variable-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the input shaft, and a fixed-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the reaction shaft. The hydraulic units are hydraulically connected together so that when one operates as a pump the other acts as a motor, and vice versa. Both clutch means are connected to the output shaft through a forward-reverse shift arrangement. It is possible to lock out the torque converter after the starting phase is over.

  9. Predictors of Driving Outcomes in Advancing Age

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Jamie L.; Johnson, Amy M.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop predictive models for real-life driving outcomes in older drivers. Demographics, driving history, on-road driving errors, and performance on visual, motor, and neuropsychological test scores at baseline were assessed in 100 older drivers (ages 65–89 years [72.7]). These variables were used to predict time to driving cessation, first moving violation, or crash. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, significant individual predictors for driving cessation were greater age and poorer scores on Near Visual Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity, Useful Field of View, Judgment of Line Orientation, Trail Making Test-Part A, Benton Visual Retention Test, Grooved Pegboard, and a composite index of overall cognitive ability. Greater weekly mileage, higher education, and “serious” on-road errors predicted moving violations. Poorer scores from Trail Making Test-Part B or Trail Making Test (B-A) and serious on-road errors predicted crashes. Multivariate models using “off-road” predictors revealed (1) age and Contrast Sensitivity as best predictors for driving cessation; (2) education, weekly mileage, and Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall for moving violations; and (3) education, number of crashes over the past year, Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall, and Trail Making Test (B-A) for crashes. Diminished visual, motor, and cognitive abilities in older drivers can be easily and noninvasively monitored with standardized off-road tests, and performances on these measures predict involvement in motor vehicle crashes and driving cessation, even in the absence of a neurological disorder. PMID:22182364

  10. COAXIAL CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.J.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-04-14

    A drive mechanism is presented for the control rod or a nuclear reactor. In this device the control rod is coupled to a drive shaft which extends coaxially through the rotor of an electric motor for relative rotation with respect thereto. A gear reduction mehanism is coupled between the rotor and the drive shaft to convert the rotary motion of the motor into linear motion of the shaft with a comparatively great reduction in speed, thereby providing relatively glow linear movement of the shaft and control rod for control purposes.

  11. Space Digital Controller for Improved Motor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves-Nunes, Samuel; Daras, Gaetan; Dehez, Bruno; Maillard, Christophe; Bekemans, Marc; Michel, Raymond

    2014-08-01

    Performing digital motor control into space equipment is a new challenge. The new DPC (Digital Programmable Controller) is the first chip that we can use as a micro-controller, allowing us to drive motors with digital control schemes. In this paper, the digital control of hybrid stepper motors is considered. This kind of motor is used for solar array rotation and antenna actuation. New digital control technology brings a lot of advantages, allowing an important reduction of thermal losses inside the motor, and a reduction of thermal constraints on power drive electronic components. The opportunity to drive motors with a digital controller also brings many new functionalities like post-failure torque analysis, micro- vibrations and cogging torque reduction, or electro- mechanical damping of solar array oscillations. To evaluate the performance of the system, Field-Oriented Control (FOC) is implemented on a hybrid stepper motor. A test-bench, made of an active load, has been made to emulate the mechanical behaviour of the solar array, by the use of a torsionally-compliant model. The experimental results show that we can drastically reduce electrical power consumption, compared with the currently used open-loop control scheme.

  12. Methods for rotational speed reduction for alternating current electric motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, A. V.; Glukhanich, D. Y.

    2017-02-01

    The analysis of rotational speed reduction methods for alternating current electric motors are given, assigned to low-speed electric drives of various power levels. The integrated classification of electric machines of well-known types is given, the rotational speed reduction method being used as the basis. The main advantages and disadvantages, defining perspectives for the application in various low-speed electric drives, are explained. The approximate bounds of engineering expediency of the applications of the motors are given for obtaining certain assessments in selection of a type of the drive motor.

  13. Epilepsy and driving: current status of research.

    PubMed

    L Devlin, Anna; Odell, Morris; L Charlton, Judith; Koppel, Sjaanie

    2012-12-01

    In many parts of the world, licensing guidelines state that drivers with medical conditions such as epilepsy are restricted or prohibited from driving. These guidelines are sometimes subjective and not strongly evidence-based, rendering the task of assessing fitness to drive a complex one. Determining fitness to drive is not only essential for maintaining the safety of individual drivers but has implications for the community at large. It is therefore important to review the current state of knowledge regarding epilepsy and driving in order to aid health professionals required to assess fitness to drive and to guide future research directions. This review outlines the functional impairments related to epilepsy and driving, treatment and management issues, motor vehicle crash risk for drivers with epilepsy, estimates of predicted seizure occurrence and concludes with a discussion of the international licensing guidelines and relevant legal issues. More comprehensive research, including investigation into the effects of antiepileptic medication on driving, could aid in the development of policies and guidelines for assessing fitness to drive.

  14. Dynamics and control of instrumented harmonic drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazerooni, H.; Ellis, S. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Since torque in harmonic drives is transmitted by a pure couple, harmonic drives do not generate radial forces and therefore can be instrumented with torque sensors without interference from radial forces. The installation of torque sensors on the stationary component of harmonic drives (the Flexipline cup in this research work) produce backdrivability needed for robotic and telerobotic compliant maneuvers. Backdrivability of a harmonic drive, when used as torque increaser, means that the output shaft can be rotated via finite amount of torque. A high ratio harmonic drive is non-backdrivable because its output shaft cannot be turned by applying a torque on it. This article first develops the dynamic behavior of a harmonic drive, in particular the non-backdrivability, in terms of a sensitivity transfer function. The instrumentation of the harmonic drive with torque sensor is then described. This leads to a description of the control architecture which allows modulation of the sensitivity transfer function within the limits established by the closed-loop stability. A set of experiments on an active hand controller, powered by a DC motor coupled to an instrumented harmonic drive, is given to exhibit this method's limitations.

  15. Electric vehicle drive train with direct coupling transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Tankersley, Jerome B.; Boothe, Richard W.; Konrad, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    An electric vehicle drive train includes an electric motor and an associated speed sensor, a transmission operable in a speed reduction mode or a direct coupled mode, and a controller responsive to the speed sensor for operating the transmission in the speed reduction mode when the motor is below a predetermined value, and for operating the motor in the direct coupled mode when the motor speed is above a predetermined value. The controller reduces the speed of the motor, such as by regeneratively braking the motor, when changing from the speed reduction mode to the direct coupled mode. The motor speed may be increased when changing from the direct coupled mode to the speed reduction mode. The transmission is preferably a single stage planetary gearbox.

  16. Electric vehicle drive train with direct coupling transmission

    DOEpatents

    Tankersley, J.B.; Boothe, R.W.; Konrad, C.E.

    1995-04-04

    An electric vehicle drive train includes an electric motor and an associated speed sensor, a transmission operable in a speed reduction mode or a direct coupled mode, and a controller responsive to the speed sensor for operating the transmission in the speed reduction mode when the motor is below a predetermined value, and for operating the motor in the direct coupled mode when the motor speed is above a predetermined value. The controller reduces the speed of the motor, such as by regeneratively braking the motor, when changing from the speed reduction mode to the direct coupled mode. The motor speed may be increased when changing from the direct coupled mode to the speed reduction mode. The transmission is preferably a single stage planetary gearbox. 6 figures.

  17. Mineral Dilution and Shallow Groundwater Dynamics as Motor to Drive Fluid Migration in the Deep Crystalline Crust - Interpretation of Hydraulic Investigations From the 9,101 m Super Deep German Continental Drillhole -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W.; Graesle, W.

    2002-12-01

    The results of 16 years of research at the scientific drilling test site KTB Oberpfalz show that fluid flow and open hydraulic fractures exist down to 9,101m (Kessels, 1991; Huenges et. al., 1997). This means that in this seismically low active area, crustal dynamics produces stress accumulation and related fracturing (Zoback et. al. 1993). Two major fractured fault zones cross the KTB main hole at about 4,000 m and 7,100m depth. Hydraulic communication between the KTB main hole and the 4,000 m deep pilot hole shows that the upper 400 m thick fracture zone has a good transmissivity and a very low fracture porosity (Kessels and KÂ\\x81ck, 1995). The distance between both holes was 200m. The isotopic components of the fluid recovered from this zone indicate a west - east fluid flow from a topographic lower sedimentary area to the higher hilly area of the KTB site (M”ller et. al. 1997). To explain this phenomenon, the existence of a permanent, density driven dilution motor pushing such a flow is suggested. With such a system it is possible to explain fluid flow in the deep crust against the higher potential of the groundwater surface. By means of a simple convection model it can be shown that the density driven dilution motor can create a more effective hydraulic potential than a motor driven by precipitation and the related hydraulic head of the groundwater surface. Furthermore, with common geothermal gradients, the geothermal convection motor is weak compared with the fluid density effects discussed here. References: KESSELS, W. (1991): Objectives and execution of hydraulic experiments in the KTB-Oberpfalz borehole within the long-term measurement and test programme, Scientific Drilling 2, S. 287-298. ZOBACK, D., APEL, R., BAUMGÂŽRTNER, J., BRUDY, M., EMMERMANN, R, ENGESER, B., FUCHS, K., KESSELS, W., RISCHMšLLER, H., RUMMEL, F., VERNIK, L. (1993): Upper-crustal strength inferred from stress measurements to 6 km depth in the KTB borehole, Nature, 365, S

  18. Coaxial Redundant Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissette, R.

    1983-01-01

    Harmonic drives allow redundancy and high out put torque in small package. If main drive fails, standby drive takes over and produces torque along same axis as main drive. Uses include power units in robot for internal pipeline inspection, manipulators in deep submersible probes or other applications in which redundancy protects against costly failures.

  19. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J

    2012-12-14

    vProject Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, Motors and Generators for the 21st Century. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can

  20. Distracted driving: prevalence, problems, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Overton, Tiffany L; Rives, Terry E; Hecht, Carrie; Shafi, Shahid; Gandhi, Rajesh R

    2015-01-01

    While the number of motor vehicle crashes has declined over the years, crashes resulting from distracted driving are increasing in the United States resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The national public seems to be aware of the dangers associated with using technology while driving, but continues to engage in this dangerous behaviour, and may be unaware of or underestimate the impact of cell phone use on their own driving performance. Problems associated with distracted driving are not limited to novice or teenage drivers; multifaceted universal prevention efforts aimed at impacting large segments of the population may have the greatest impact. Legislation limiting drivers' cell phone use has had little impact, possibly due to low regulation and enforcement. Behaviour change programmes, improved vehicle safety, and public awareness campaigns have been developed as potential preventive efforts to reduce accidents caused by distracted drivers.