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Sample records for adjusted analysis showed

  1. Adjustment to Divorce Through Transactional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James D.; Prescott, Mary R.

    1976-01-01

    Transactional Analysis in a group facilitates adjustment to divorce. Two case histories highlight the value of TA in conceptualizing the problem areas of each individual and the changes during group therapy. (Author)

  2. De novo sequencing and characterization of Picrorhiza kurrooa transcriptome at two temperatures showed major transcriptome adjustments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is an endangered plant species of medicinal importance. The medicinal property is attributed to monoterpenoids picroside I and II, which are modulated by temperature. The transcriptome information of this species is limited with the availability of few hundreds of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public databases. In order to gain insight into temperature mediated molecular changes, high throughput de novo transcriptome sequencing and analyses were carried out at 15°C and 25°C, the temperatures known to modulate picrosides content. Results Using paired-end (PE) Illumina sequencing technology, a total of 20,593,412 and 44,229,272 PE reads were obtained after quality filtering for 15°C and 25°C, respectively. Available (e.g., De-Bruijn/Eulerian graph) and in-house developed bioinformatics tools were used for assembly and annotation of transcriptome. A total of 74,336 assembled transcript sequences were obtained, with an average coverage of 76.6 and average length of 439.5. Guanine-cytosine (GC) content was observed to be 44.6%, while the transcriptome exhibited abundance of trinucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR; 45.63%) markers. Large scale expression profiling through "read per exon kilobase per million (RPKM)", showed changes in several biological processes and metabolic pathways including cytochrome P450s (CYPs), UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) and those associated with picrosides biosynthesis. RPKM data were validated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a set of 19 genes, wherein 11 genes behaved in accordance with the two expression methods. Conclusions Study generated transcriptome of P. kurrooa at two different temperatures. Large scale expression profiling through RPKM showed major transcriptome changes in response to temperature reflecting alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways, and provided insight of GC content and SSR markers. Analysis also identified

  3. 20 CFR 416.962 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 416.962 Section 416.962 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations...

  4. 20 CFR 416.962 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 416.962 Section 416.962 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations...

  5. 20 CFR 416.962 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 416.962 Section 416.962 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations...

  6. 20 CFR 416.962 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 416.962 Section 416.962 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1562 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 404.1562 Section 404.1562 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1562 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 404.1562 Section 404.1562 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1562 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 404.1562 Section 404.1562 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1562 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 404.1562 Section 404.1562 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1562 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 404.1562 Section 404.1562 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and...

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Transfer Student Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jacob T. N.; Litzler, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Transfer students' adjustment to college has received substantial attention by researchers. This focus has predominately investigated the observation of "transfer shock": a decrease in grade point average (GPA) experienced after transferring. In response to the persistent focus on transfer shock, growing attention has been directed…

  13. An Analysis of P-3 Aircraft Service Period Adjustment Criteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    A. ASPA(AIRCRAFT SERVICE PERIOD ADJUSTMENT) ....... 29 B. A REVIEW OF ANALYSIS METHODS ................... 310 1. Delphi ...uncertainty. A brief review of their procedures, advantages, and disadvantages is helpful to justify selecting the most appropriate method. 1. Delphi ...Technique The+ Delphi Technique is a method of statistically refining tie opinions of a group of experts or especially knowledgeable personnel. The

  14. Nuclear Cataract Shows Significant Familial Aggregation in an Older Population after Adjustment for Possible Shared Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Nathan; Broman, Karl W.; Lai, Hong; Munoz, Beatriz; Bowie, Heidi; Gilber, Donna; Wojciechowski, Robert; Alston, Christine; West, Sheila K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To quantify the association between siblings in age-related nuclear cataract, after adjusting for known environmental and personal risk factors. Methods All participants (probands) in the Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) project and their locally resident siblings underwent digital slit lamp photography and were administered a questionnaire to assess risk factors for cataract including: age, gender, lifetime sun exposure, smoking and diabetes history, and use of alcohol and medications such as estrogens and steroids. In addition, blood pressure, body mass index, and serum antioxidants were measured in all participants. Lens photographs were graded by trained observers masked to the subjects' identity, using the Wilmer Cataract Grading System. The odds ratio for siblings for affectedness with nuclear cataract and the sibling correlation of nuclear cataract grade, after adjusting for covariates, were estimated with generalized estimating equations. Results Among 307 probands (mean age, 77.6 ± 4.5 years) and 434 full siblings (mean age, 72.4 ± 7.4 years), the average sibship size was 2.7 per family. After adjustment for covariates, the probability of development of nuclear cataract was significantly increased (odds ratio [OR] = 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30–3.30) among individuals with a sibling with nuclear cataract (nuclear grade ≥ 3.0). The final fitted model indicated a magnitude of heritability for nuclear cataract of 35.6% (95% CI: 21.0%–50.3%) after adjustment for the covariates. Conclusions Findings in this study are consistent with a genetic effect for age-related nuclear cataract, a common and clinically significant form of lens opacity. PMID:15223793

  15. Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Face C (rear), showing Interference Analysis System Linear Test Array mounted at Level 4A - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  16. 20 CFR 416.962 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an... ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations § 416.962 Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make...

  17. Social support and adjustment to caring for elder family members: A multi-study analysis.

    PubMed

    Smerglia, Virginia L; Miller, Nancy B; Sotnak, Diane L; Geiss, Carrie A

    2007-03-01

    This multi-study analysis systematically examines research findings on relationships between social support and caregiver adjustment to discover whether informal support helps family caregivers. Caring for older relatives is an ongoing stressful life course event and role. Informal social support is often used as a predictor of caregiver adjustment outcomes. It is widely believed to enhance adjustment. Yet the varied research results do not necessarily support this belief. A computer-generated literature search of social sciences and medical databases produced thirty-five caregiving articles, published in refereed journals, which meet study parameters. A coding form was developed to categorize social support and adjustment variables for cross-tabular analyses. The findings show most relationships (61%) between social support and caregiver adjustment are not positively significant. Of the minority of positively significant relationships, neither perceived (available) nor received support is more important and neither instrumental nor socioemotional support is more likely to aid adjustment. Researchers and health care professionals need to explore the negative impact of social support and attributes of caregiver-care recipient relationships.

  18. Do insurers respond to risk adjustment? A long-term, nationwide analysis from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    von Wyl, Viktor; Beck, Konstantin

    2016-03-01

    Community rating in social health insurance calls for risk adjustment in order to eliminate incentives for risk selection. Swiss risk adjustment is known to be insufficient, and substantial risk selection incentives remain. This study develops five indicators to monitor residual risk selection. Three indicators target activities of conglomerates of insurers (with the same ownership), which steer enrollees into specific carriers based on applicants' risk profiles. As a proxy for their market power, those indicators estimate the amount of premium-, health care cost-, and risk-adjustment transfer variability that is attributable to conglomerates. Two additional indicators, derived from linear regression, describe the amount of residual cost differences between insurers that are not covered by risk adjustment. All indicators measuring conglomerate-based risk selection activities showed increases between 1996 and 2009, paralleling the establishment of new conglomerates. At their maxima in 2009, the indicator values imply that 56% of the net risk adjustment volume, 34% of premium variability, and 51% cost variability in the market were attributable to conglomerates. From 2010 onwards, all indicators decreased, coinciding with a pre-announced risk adjustment reform implemented in 2012. Likewise, the regression-based indicators suggest that the volume and variance of residual cost differences between insurers that are not equaled out by risk adjustment have decreased markedly since 2009 as a result of the latest reform. Our analysis demonstrates that risk-selection, especially by conglomerates, is a real phenomenon in Switzerland. However, insurers seem to have reduced risk selection activities to optimize their losses and gains from the latest risk adjustment reform.

  19. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P < .001) and were more likely to include screen time use (25.0% of snacking incidents vs 4.0% of meals, P < .001). Young characters and those coded as being of low socioeconomic status or overweight were overrepresented in snacking incidents. Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  20. Molecular Isotopic Distribution Analysis (MIDAs) with Adjustable Mass Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Gelio; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y.; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present Molecular Isotopic Distribution Analysis (MIDAs), a new software tool designed to compute molecular isotopic distributions with adjustable accuracies. MIDAs offers two algorithms, one polynomial-based and one Fourier-transform-based, both of which compute molecular isotopic distributions accurately and efficiently. The polynomial-based algorithm contains few novel aspects, whereas the Fourier-transform-based algorithm consists mainly of improvements to other existing Fourier-transform-based algorithms. We have benchmarked the performance of the two algorithms implemented in MIDAs with that of eight software packages (BRAIN, Emass, Mercury, Mercury5, NeutronCluster, Qmass, JFC, IC) using a consensus set of benchmark molecules. Under the proposed evaluation criteria, MIDAs's algorithms, JFC, and Emass compute with comparable accuracy the coarse-grained (low-resolution) isotopic distributions and are more accurate than the other software packages. For fine-grained isotopic distributions, we compared IC, MIDAs's polynomial algorithm, and MIDAs's Fourier transform algorithm. Among the three, IC and MIDAs's polynomial algorithm compute isotopic distributions that better resemble their corresponding exact fine-grained (high-resolution) isotopic distributions. MIDAs can be accessed freely through a user-friendly web-interface at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/midas/index.html.

  1. School adjustment of children in residential care: a multi-source analysis.

    PubMed

    Martín, Eduardo; Muñoz de Bustillo, María del Carmen

    2009-11-01

    School adjustment is one the greatest challenges in residential child care programs. This study has two aims: to analyze school adjustment compared to a normative population, and to carry out a multi-source analysis (child, classmates, and teacher) of this adjustment. A total of 50 classrooms containing 60 children from residential care units were studied. The "Método de asignación de atributos perceptivos" (Allocation of perceptive attributes; Díaz-Aguado, 2006), the "Test Autoevaluativo Multifactorial de Adaptación Infantil" (TAMAI [Multifactor Self-assessment Test of Child Adjustment]; Hernández, 1996) and the "Protocolo de valoración para el profesorado (Evaluation Protocol for Teachers; Fernández del Valle, 1998) were applied. The main results indicate that, compared with their classmates, children in residential care are perceived as more controversial and less integrated at school, although no differences were observed in problems of isolation. The multi-source analysis shows that there is agreement among the different sources when the externalized and visible aspects are evaluated. These results are discussed in connection with the practices that are being developed in residential child care programs.

  2. The learning advantage: bird species that learn their song show a tighter adjustment of song to noisy environments than those that do not learn.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Chelén, Alejandro Ariel; Salaberria, C; Barbosa, I; Macías Garcia, C; Gil, D

    2012-11-01

    Song learning has evolved within several avian groups. Although its evolutionary advantage is not clear, it has been proposed that song learning may be advantageous in allowing birds to adapt their songs to the local acoustic environment. To test this hypothesis, we analysed patterns of song adjustment to noisy environments and explored their possible link to song learning. Bird vocalizations can be masked by low-frequency noise, and birds respond to this by singing higher-pitched songs. Most reports of this strategy involve oscines, a group of birds with learning-based song variability, and it is doubtful whether species that lack song learning (e.g. suboscines) can adjust their songs to noisy environments. We address this question by comparing the degree of song adjustment to noise in a large sample of oscines (17 populations, 14 species) and suboscines (11 populations, 7 species), recorded in Brazil (Manaus, Brasilia and Curitiba) and Mexico City. We found a significantly stronger association between minimum song frequency and noise levels (effect size) in oscines than in suboscines, suggesting a tighter match in oscines between song transmission capacity and ambient acoustics. Suboscines may be more vulnerable to acoustic pollution than oscines and thus less capable of colonizing cities or acoustically novel habitats. Additionally, we found that species whose song frequency was more divergent between populations showed tighter noise-song frequency associations. Our results suggest that song learning and/or song plasticity allows adaptation to new habitats and that this selective advantage may be linked to the evolution of song learning and plasticity.

  3. Authenticity and TV Shows: A Multidimensional Analysis Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Surmi, Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    Television shows, especially soap operas and sitcoms, are usually considered by English as a second language practitioners as a source of authentic spoken conversational materials presumably because they reflect the linguistic features of natural conversation. However, practitioners are faced with the dilemma of how to assess whether such…

  4. Comparison of conditional bias-adjusted estimators for interim analysis in clinical trials with survival data.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Masashi; Gosho, Masahiko; Hirakawa, Akihiro

    2017-02-17

    Group sequential designs are widely used in clinical trials to determine whether a trial should be terminated early. In such trials, maximum likelihood estimates are often used to describe the difference in efficacy between the experimental and reference treatments; however, these are well known for displaying conditional and unconditional biases. Established bias-adjusted estimators include the conditional mean-adjusted estimator (CMAE), conditional median unbiased estimator, conditional uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimator (CUMVUE), and weighted estimator. However, their performances have been inadequately investigated. In this study, we review the characteristics of these bias-adjusted estimators and compare their conditional bias, overall bias, and conditional mean-squared errors in clinical trials with survival endpoints through simulation studies. The coverage probabilities of the confidence intervals for the four estimators are also evaluated. We find that the CMAE reduced conditional bias and showed relatively small conditional mean-squared errors when the trials terminated at the interim analysis. The conditional coverage probability of the conditional median unbiased estimator was well below the nominal value. In trials that did not terminate early, the CUMVUE performed with less bias and an acceptable conditional coverage probability than was observed for the other estimators. In conclusion, when planning an interim analysis, we recommend using the CUMVUE for trials that do not terminate early and the CMAE for those that terminate early. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Children’s Sleep and Adjustment: A Residualized Change Analysis

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Bub, Kristen L.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal relations between children’s sleep and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and anger/aggression. We expected that initial sleep problems and increases in these problems over time would be associated with worse adjustment outcomes. The study had three waves with one year lags. At T1, 128 girls and 123 boys (M age = 8.23 years, SD = 0.73) participated; M ages at T2 and T3 = 9.31 years (SD = 0.79) and 10.28 (SD = 0.99). The sample was diverse in relation to economic adversity and ethnicity (66% European and 34% African American). Higher initial levels and increases in sleep/wake problems or sleepiness over three years predicted higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms at T3, controlling for T1 levels. These associations were more pronounced for girls, African-American children, and children from lower SES homes. Findings build on a small body of literature addressing links between sleep and adjustment longitudinally and highlight the importance of adequate sleep for children’s optimal development, especially within the broader sociocultural milieu. PMID:23025266

  6. Genetic and Environmental Components of Adolescent Adjustment and Parental Behavior: A Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loehlin, John C.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent adjustment measures may be related to each other and to the social environment in various ways. Are these relationships similar in genetic and environmental sources of covariation, or different? A multivariate behaviorgenetic analysis was made of 6 adjustment and 3 treatment composites from the study Nonshared Environment in Adolescent…

  7. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Cross-Cultural Training on Expatriate Performance and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mark A.; Robie, Chet

    2001-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 16 studies of expatriate managers' adjustment and 25 of expatriate job performance showed that mean effect sizes were lower than in previous analyses. Cautions about basing cross-cultural training on results of such studies were expressed. (Contains 68 references.) (SK)

  8. Adjusting game difficulty level through Formal Concept Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Martín, Marco A.; Gómez-Martín, Pedro P.; Gonzâlez-Calero, Pedro A.; Díaz-Agudo, Belén

    In order to reach as many players as possible, videogames usually allow the user to choose the difficulty level. To do it, game designers have to decide the values that some game parameters will have depending on that decision. In simple videogames this is almost trivial: minesweeper is harder with longer board sizes and number of mines. In more complex games, game designers may take advantage of data mining to establish which of all the possible parameters will affect positively to the player experience. This paper describes the use of Formal Concept Analysis to help to balance the game using the logs obtained in the tests made prior the release of the game.

  9. A Third Moment Adjusted Test Statistic for Small Sample Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Johnny; Bentler, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Goodness of fit testing in factor analysis is based on the assumption that the test statistic is asymptotically chi-square; but this property may not hold in small samples even when the factors and errors are normally distributed in the population. Robust methods such as Browne's asymptotically distribution-free method and Satorra Bentler's mean scaling statistic were developed under the presumption of non-normality in the factors and errors. This paper finds new application to the case where factors and errors are normally distributed in the population but the skewness of the obtained test statistic is still high due to sampling error in the observed indicators. An extension of Satorra Bentler's statistic is proposed that not only scales the mean but also adjusts the degrees of freedom based on the skewness of the obtained test statistic in order to improve its robustness under small samples. A simple simulation study shows that this third moment adjusted statistic asymptotically performs on par with previously proposed methods, and at a very small sample size offers superior Type I error rates under a properly specified model. Data from Mardia, Kent and Bibby's study of students tested for their ability in five content areas that were either open or closed book were used to illustrate the real-world performance of this statistic.

  10. An automatic step adjustment method for average power analysis technique used in fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Ming

    2006-04-01

    An automatic step adjustment (ASA) method for average power analysis (APA) technique used in fiber amplifiers is proposed in this paper for the first time. In comparison with the traditional APA technique, the proposed method has suggested two unique merits such as a higher order accuracy and an ASA mechanism, so that it can significantly shorten the computing time and improve the solution accuracy. A test example demonstrates that, by comparing to the APA technique, the proposed method increases the computing speed by more than a hundredfold under the same errors. By computing the model equations of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, the numerical results show that our method can improve the solution accuracy by over two orders of magnitude at the same amplifying section number. The proposed method has the capacity to rapidly and effectively compute the model equations of fiber Raman amplifiers and semiconductor lasers.

  11. Analysis, design, and control of a novel optically commutated adjustable-speed motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Wyatt S.; Risch, Ivan; Zhang, Yuandao; Garverick, Steven; Inerfield, Michael

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes the analysis, design and control of a novel, single-phase motor with a unique behavior resulting from the use of rotating power electronics mounted to the motor armature. Coils on the armature are selectively shorted by power MOSFET's which rotate with the armature, and torque is produced by interaction between currents induced in the shorted coils and the magnetic field produced by a stationary field coil. Control is limited to the timing of which armature coils are to be shorted as a function of armature speed and angle, it is possible to modulate torque production and obtain torque or speed control using only single-phase ac power and without the use of brushes or permanent magnets. An electro-mechanical model for this type of motor is presented and validated with respect to experimentation. The results show promise for achieving low- cost, adjustable-speed drives using this novel method of rotating electronics, optical communications, and computed commutation.

  12. Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Autism: Sibling Psychosocial Adjustment during and Following Intervention Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cebula, Katie R.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither…

  13. On the geometric analysis and adjustment of optical satellite observations. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsimis, E.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite geodesy methods were catagorized into three divisions: geometric, dynamic, and mixed. These catagories furnish the basis for distinction between geometric and dynamic satellite geodesy. The dual adjustment, geometric analysis, and Cartesian coodinate determination are examined for two observing stations. Similar illustrations are given when more than two observing stations are used.

  14. Children's Responses to Interparental Conflict: A Meta-Analysis of Their Associations with Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis examined the relations between children's adjustment and children's cognitive, affective, behavioral, and physiological responses to interparental conflict. Studies included children between 5 and 19 years of age. Moderate effect sizes were found for the associations between cognitions and internalizing and externalizing behavior…

  15. Parents' psychological adjustment in families of children with Spina Bifida: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vermaes, Ignace PR; Janssens, Jan MAM; Bosman, Anna MT; Gerris, Jan RM

    2005-01-01

    Background Spina Bifida (SB) is the second most common birth defect worldwide. Since the chances of survival in children with severe SB-forms have increased, medical care has shifted its emphasis from life-saving interventions to fostering the quality of life for these children and their families. Little is known, however, about the impact of SB on family adjustment. Reviewers have struggled to synthesize the few contradictory studies available. In this systematic review a new attempt was made to summarize the findings by using meta-analysis and by delimiting the scope of review to one concept of family adjustment: Parents' psychological adjustment. The questions addressed were: (a) do parents of children with SB have more psychological distress than controls? (b) do mothers and fathers differ? and (c) which factors correlate with variations in psychological adjustment? Methods PsycInfo, Medline, and reference lists were scanned. Thirty-three relevant studies were identified of which 15 were eligible for meta-analysis. Results SB had a negative medium-large effect on parents' psychological adjustment. The effect was more heterogeneous for mothers than for fathers. In the reviewed studies child factors (age, conduct problems, emotional problems, and mental retardation), parent factors (SES, hope, appraised stress, coping, and parenting competence), family factors (family income, partner relationship, and family climate), and environmental factors (social support) were found to be associated with variations in parents' psychological adjustment. Conclusion Meta-analysis proved to be helpful in organizing studies. Clinical implications indicate a need to be especially alert to psychological suffering in mothers of children with SB. Future research should increase sample sizes through multi-center collaborations. PMID:16120229

  16. Chiropractic Adjustment

    MedlinePlus

    ... structural alignment and improve your body's physical function. Low back pain, neck pain and headache are the most common ... treated. Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only ...

  17. Linkage analysis followed by association show NRG1 associated with cannabis dependence in African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shizhong; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Kranzler, Henry R.; Oslin, David; Anton, Raymond; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Gelernter, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background A genetic contribution to cannabis dependence (CaD) has been established, but susceptibility genes for CaD remain largely unknown. Methods We employed a multi-stage design to identify genetic variants underlying CaD. We first performed a genomewide linkage scan for CaD in 384 African-American (AA) and 354 European-American (EA) families ascertained for genetic studies of cocaine and opioid dependence. We then conducted association analysis under the linkage peak, first using data from a genomewide association study from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE), followed by replication studies of prioritized single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in independent samples. Results We identified the strongest linkage evidence with CaD (lod=2.9) on chromosome 8p21.1 in AAs. In the association analysis of the SAGE sample under the linkage peak, we identified one SNP (rs17664708) associated with CaD in both AAs (minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.02, OR=2.93, 95% CI=1.47–5.85, P=0.0022) and EAs (MAF=0.096, OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.05–1.81, P=0.02). This SNP, located at NRG1, a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, was prioritized for further study. We replicated the association of rs17664708 with CaD in an independent sample of AAs (MAF=0.013, OR=2.81, 95% CI=1.23–6.45, P=0.0068). The joint analysis of the two AA samples demonstrated highly significant association between rs17664708 and CaD with adjustment for either global (OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.42–3.85, P=0.00044) or local ancestry (OR=2.33, 95% CI=1.39–3.91, P=0.00075). Conclusions Our study shows that NRG1 is probably a susceptibility gene for CaD, based on convergent evidence of linkage and replicated associations in two independent AA samples. PMID:22520967

  18. Directional Variance Adjustment: Bias Reduction in Covariance Matrices Based on Factor Analysis with an Application to Portfolio Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Daniel; Hatrick, Kerr; Hesse, Christian W.; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lemm, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Robust and reliable covariance estimates play a decisive role in financial and many other applications. An important class of estimators is based on factor models. Here, we show by extensive Monte Carlo simulations that covariance matrices derived from the statistical Factor Analysis model exhibit a systematic error, which is similar to the well-known systematic error of the spectrum of the sample covariance matrix. Moreover, we introduce the Directional Variance Adjustment (DVA) algorithm, which diminishes the systematic error. In a thorough empirical study for the US, European, and Hong Kong stock market we show that our proposed method leads to improved portfolio allocation. PMID:23844016

  19. Blinded sample size recalculation for clinical trials with normal data and baseline adjusted analysis.

    PubMed

    Friede, Tim; Kieser, Meinhard

    2011-01-01

    Baseline adjusted analyses are commonly encountered in practice, and regulatory guidelines endorse this practice. Sample size calculations for this kind of analyses require knowledge of the magnitude of nuisance parameters that are usually not given when the results of clinical trials are reported in the literature. It is therefore quite natural to start with a preliminary calculated sample size based on the sparse information available in the planning phase and to re-estimate the value of the nuisance parameters (and with it the sample size) when a portion of the planned number of patients have completed the study. We investigate the characteristics of this internal pilot study design when an analysis of covariance with normally distributed outcome and one random covariate is applied. For this purpose we first assess the accuracy of four approximate sample size formulae within the fixed sample size design. Then the performance of the recalculation procedure with respect to its actual Type I error rate and power characteristics is examined. The results of simulation studies show that this approach has favorable properties with respect to the Type I error rate and power. Together with its simplicity, these features should make it attractive for practical application.

  20. Refinement of Stereo Image Analysis Using Photometric Shape Recovery as AN Alternative to Bundle Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumpe, A.; Schröer, C.; Kauffmann, S.; Fricke, T.; Wöhler, C.; Mall, U.

    2016-06-01

    Topographic mapping, e.g. the generation of Digital Elevation Models (DEM), is of general interest to the remote sensing community and scientific research. Commonly, photogrammetric methods, e.g. stereo image analysis methods (SIAM) or bundle adjustment methods (BAM), are applied to derive 3D information based on multiple images of an area. These methods require the detection of control points, i.e. common points within multiple images, which relies on a similarity measure and usually yields a sparse map of 3D points. The full spatial DEM is then obtained by interpolation techniques or imposed restrictions, e.g. smoothness constraints. Since BAM utilizes all images of the area, it is assumed to provide a more accurate DEM than SIAM which utilizes only pairs of images. Intensity-based shape recovery, e.g. shape from shading (SfS), utilizes the reflectance behavior of the object surface and thus provides a dense map of relative height changes, which provide the possibility to refine the photogrammetric DEMs. Based on Rosetta NavCam images of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko we compare intensity-based DEM refinement methods which use DEMs obtained based on SIAM and BAM as a reference. We show that both the SIAM based DEM refinement and the BAM based DEM refinement are of similar quality. It is thus possible to derive DEMs of high lateral resolution by applying the intensity-based refinement to the less complex SIAM.

  1. Analysis of Case-Parent Trios Using a Loglinear Model with Adjustment for Transmission Ratio Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lam O.; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Labbe, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of the two parental alleles to offspring deviating from the Mendelian ratio is termed Transmission Ratio Distortion (TRD), occurs throughout gametic and embryonic development. TRD has been well-studied in animals, but remains largely unknown in humans. The Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) was first proposed to test for association and linkage in case-trios (affected offspring and parents); adjusting for TRD using control-trios was recommended. However, the TDT does not provide risk parameter estimates for different genetic models. A loglinear model was later proposed to provide child and maternal relative risk (RR) estimates of disease, assuming Mendelian transmission. Results from our simulation study showed that case-trios RR estimates using this model are biased in the presence of TRD; power and Type 1 error are compromised. We propose an extended loglinear model adjusting for TRD. Under this extended model, RR estimates, power and Type 1 error are correctly restored. We applied this model to an intrauterine growth restriction dataset, and showed consistent results with a previous approach that adjusted for TRD using control-trios. Our findings suggested the need to adjust for TRD in avoiding spurious results. Documenting TRD in the population is therefore essential for the correct interpretation of genetic association studies. PMID:27630667

  2. Applied behavior analysis programs for autism: sibling psychosocial adjustment during and following intervention use.

    PubMed

    Cebula, Katie R

    2012-05-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither significant drawbacks nor benefits in terms of their behavioral adjustment, sibling relationship quality and self-concept compared to control group siblings, either during or following intervention use. Parents and siblings perceived improvements in sibling interaction since the outset of ABA, with parents somewhat more positive in their views than were siblings. Social support was associated with better sibling outcomes in all groups. Implications for supporting families using ABA are considered.

  3. Design and Stress Analysis of Low-Noise Adjusted Bearing Contact Spiral Bevel Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Fuentes, Alfonso; Mullins, Baxter R.; Woods, Ron

    2002-01-01

    An integrated computerized approach for design and stress analysis of low-noise spiral bevel gear drives with adjusted bearing contact has been developed. The computation procedure is an iterative process, requiring four separate steps that provide: (a) a parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to reduce the effect of errors of alignment, and (b) reduction of the shift of bearing contact caused by misalignment. Application of finite element analysis permits the contact and bending stresses to be determined and investigate the formation of the bearing contact. The design of finite element models and boundary conditions is automated and does not require an intermediate CAD computer program. A commercially available finite element analysis computer program with contact capability was used to conduct the stress analysis. The theory developed is illustrated with numerical examples.

  4. Early adolescent friendships and academic adjustment: examining selection and influence processes with longitudinal social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated early adolescent friendship selection and social influence with regard to academic motivation (self-efficacy and intrinsic value), engagement (effortful and disruptive behavior), and achievement (GPA calculated from report card grades) among 6th graders (N = 587, 50% girls at Wave 1; N = 576, 52% girls at Wave 2) followed from fall to spring within 1 academic year. A stochastic actor-based model of social network analysis was used to overcome methodological limitations of prior research on friends, peer groups, and academic adjustment. Evidence that early adolescents sought out friends who were similar to themselves (selection) was found in regard to academic self-efficacy, and a similar trend was found for achievement. Evidence that friends became more similar to their friends over time (influence) was found for all aspects of academic adjustment except academic self-efficacy. Collectively, results indicate that selection effects were not as pervasive as influence effects in explaining similarity among friends in academic adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Design and Stress Analysis of Low-Noise Adjusted Bearing Contact Spiral Bevel Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuentes, A.; Litvin, F. L.; Mullins, B. R.; Woods, R.; Handschuh, R. F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2002-01-01

    An integrated computerized approach for design and stress analysis of low-noise spiral bevel gear drives with adjusted bearing contact is proposed. The procedure of computations is an iterative process that requires four separate procedures and provide: (a) a parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to reduce the effect of errors of alignment on noise and vibration, and (b) reduction of the shift of bearing contact caused by misalignment. Application of finite element analysis enables us to determine the contact and bending stresses and investigate the formation of the bearing contact. The design of finite element models and boundary conditions is automated and does not require intermediate CAD computer programs for application of general purpose computer program for finite element analysis.

  6. Partner's adjustment to breast cancer: a critical analysis of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Barbara B; Lewis, Frances Marcus

    2005-05-01

    Partners of breast cancer patients do not have resources available for dealing with their concerns. An analysis of intervention studies with partners was conducted, spanning research published from 1966 to 2004. Although there is considerable descriptive research documenting the need for partner interventions in the context of breast cancer, only 4 studies met criteria for inclusion in this analysis. Two studies reported limited intervention efficacy, but none incorporated all characteristics of a rigorous clinical trial with adequate power to fully test the intervention. Future intervention research should incorporate randomized, controlled clinical trial designs; have adequate statistical power; clearly report eligibility criteria; delineate theoretically based, fully explicated, and consistently delivered interventions; and use outcome measures that are sensitive to empirically derived partner-adjustment issues.

  7. Skart: A skewness- and autoregression-adjusted batch-means procedure for simulation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafazzoli Yazdi, Ali

    We discuss Skart, an automated batch-means procedure for constructing a skewness- and autoregression-adjusted confidence interval (CI) for the steady-state mean of a simulation output process in either discrete time (i.e., observation-based statistics) or continuous time (i.e., time-persistent statistics). Skart is a sequential procedure designed to deliver a CI that satisfies user-specified requirements concerning not only the CI's coverage probability but also the absolute or relative precision provided by its half-length. Skart exploits separate adjustments to the half-length of the classical batchmeans CI so as to account for the effects on the distribution of the underlying Student's t-statistic that arise from skewness (nonnormality) and autocorrelation of the batch means. The skewness adjustment is based on a modified Cornish-Fisher expansion for the classical batch-means Student's t -ratio, and the autocorrelation adjustment is based on an autoregressive approximation to the batch-means process for sufficiently large batch sizes. Skart also delivers a point estimator for the steady-state mean that is approximately free of initialization bias. The duration of the associated warm-up period (i.e., the statistics clearing time) is based on iteratively applying von Neumann's randomness test to spaced batch means with progressively increasing batch sizes and interbatch spacer sizes. In an experimental performance evaluation involving a wide range of test processes, Skart compared favorably with other simulation analysis methods---namely, its predecessors ASAP3, WASSP, and SBatch as well as ABATCH, LBATCH, the Heidelberger-Welch procedure, and the Law-Carson procedure. Specifically, Skart exhibited competitive sampling efficiency and substantially closer conformance to the given CI coverage probabilities than the other procedures. Also presented is a nonsequential version of Skart, called N-Skart, in which the user supplies a single simulation-generated series of

  8. Links between patterns of racial socialization and discrimination experiences and psychological adjustment: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Alex A; Syed, Moin

    2014-10-01

    This study used a person-oriented analytic approach to identify meaningful patterns of barriers-focused racial socialization and perceived racial discrimination experiences in a sample of 295 late adolescents. Using cluster analysis, three distinct groups were identified: Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, and High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination clusters. These groups were substantively unique in terms of the frequency of racial socialization messages about bias preparation and out-group mistrust its members received and their actual perceived discrimination experiences. Further, individuals in the High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination cluster reported significantly higher depressive symptoms than those in the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. However, no differences in adjustment were observed between the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. Overall, the findings highlight important individual differences in how young people of color experience their race and how these differences have significant implications on psychological adjustment.

  9. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Depressive Symptoms over 12 Years and Offspring Adjustment in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Susan B.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Cox, Martha J.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2009-01-01

    We used data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and latent class analysis to model patterns of maternal depressive symptoms from infant age 1 month to the transition to adolescence (age 12), and then examined adolescent adjustment at age 15 as a function of the course and severity of maternal symptoms. We identified five latent classes of symptoms in these 1357 women while also taking into account sociodemographic measures: never depressed; stable subclinical; early-decreasing; moderately elevated; chronic. Women with few symptoms were more likely to be married, better educated, and in better physical health than women with more elevated symptoms. Family size and whether the pregnancy was planned also differentiated among classes. At age 15, adolescents whose mothers were in the chronic, elevated, and stable subclinical latent classes reported more internalizing and externalizing problems and acknowledged engaging in more risky behavior than did children of never-depressed mothers. Latent class differences in self-reported loneliness and dysphoria were also found. Finally, several significant interactions between sex and latent class suggested that girls whose mothers reported elevated symptoms of depression over time experienced more internalizing distress and dysphoric mood relative to their male counterparts. Discussion focuses on adolescent adjustment, especially among offspring whose mothers report stable symptoms of depression across their childhoods. PMID:19685946

  10. Adjustment of Adaptive Gain with Bounded Linear Stability Analysis to Improve Time-Delay Margin for Metrics-Driven Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinvas

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the application of Bounded Linear Stability Analysis (BLSA) method for metrics driven adaptive control. The bounded linear stability analysis method is used for analyzing stability of adaptive control models, without linearizing the adaptive laws. Metrics-driven adaptive control introduces a notion that adaptation should be driven by some stability metrics to achieve robustness. By the application of bounded linear stability analysis method the adaptive gain is adjusted during the adaptation in order to meet certain phase margin requirements. Analysis of metrics-driven adaptive control is evaluated for a linear damaged twin-engine generic transport model of aircraft. The analysis shows that the system with the adjusted adaptive gain becomes more robust to unmodeled dynamics or time delay.

  11. Adjustment for population stratification via principal components in association analysis of rare variants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiwei; Guan, Weihua; Pan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    For unrelated samples, principal component (PC) analysis has been established as a simple and effective approach to adjusting for population stratification in association analysis of common variants (CVs, with minor allele frequencies MAF > 5%). However, it is less clear how it would perform in analysis of low-frequency variants (LFVs, MAF between 1% and 5%), or of rare variants (RVs, MAF < 5%). Furthermore, with next-generation sequencing data, it is unknown whether PCs should be constructed based on CVs, LFVs, or RVs. In this study, we used the 1000 Genomes Project sequence data to explore the construction of PCs and their use in association analysis of LFVs or RVs for unrelated samples. It is shown that a few top PCs based on either CVs or LFVs could separate two continental groups, European and African samples, but those based on only RVs performed less well. When applied to several association tests in simulated data with population stratification, using PCs based on either CVs or LFVs was effective in controlling Type I error rates, while nonadjustment led to inflated Type I error rates. Perhaps the most interesting observation is that, although the PCs based on LFVs could better separate the two continental groups than those based on CVs, the use of the former could lead to overadjustment in the sense of substantial power loss in the absence of population stratification; in contrast, we did not see any problem with the use of the PCs based on CVs in all our examples.

  12. A Qualitative Analysis of Life Course Adjustment to Multiple Morbidity and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie; Taylor, Jessica; Fredland, Nina; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Janiece; Choban, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of limitations over the life course requires that women re-adapt to environmental barriers that they encounter over time. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to detail the life experiences associated with living with mobility, cognitive, and sensory loss experienced by a woman and her sister who participated in an on-going ethnographic study of mobility impairment in women. In-depth interviews were subjected to thematic, life course analysis. A family case study was interpreted as an exemplar for aging with early onset disability into multiple morbidity, which was described as a series of loss, recovery and re-engagement. Within the case study, the participant suggested that because her functional limitations were not accommodated earlier in life due to societal and family level disadvantage, functional limitations were more difficult to adjust to in later years. PMID:23437442

  13. Method of Individual Adjustment for 3D CT Analysis: Linear Measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Kyu; Choi, Dong Hun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Yang, Jung Dug; Chung, Ho Yun; Cho, Byung Chae; Choi, Kang Young

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We aim to regularize measurement values in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstructed images for higher-precision 3D analysis, focusing on length-based 3D cephalometric examinations. Methods. We measure the linear distances between points on different skull models using Vernier calipers (real values). We use 10 differently tilted CT scans for 3D CT reconstruction of the models and measure the same linear distances from the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). In both cases, each measurement is performed three times by three doctors, yielding nine measurements. The real values are compared with the PACS values. Each PACS measurement is revised based on the display field of view (DFOV) values and compared with the real values. Results. The real values and the PACS measurement changes according to tilt value have no significant correlations (p > 0.05). However, significant correlations appear between the real values and DFOV-adjusted PACS measurements (p < 0.001). Hence, we obtain a correlation expression that can yield real physical values from PACS measurements. The DFOV value intervals for various age groups are also verified. Conclusion. Precise confirmation of individual preoperative length and precise analysis of postoperative improvements through 3D analysis is possible, which is helpful for facial-bone-surgery symmetry correction.

  14. Method of Individual Adjustment for 3D CT Analysis: Linear Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong Hun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Yang, Jung Dug; Chung, Ho Yun; Cho, Byung Chae

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We aim to regularize measurement values in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstructed images for higher-precision 3D analysis, focusing on length-based 3D cephalometric examinations. Methods. We measure the linear distances between points on different skull models using Vernier calipers (real values). We use 10 differently tilted CT scans for 3D CT reconstruction of the models and measure the same linear distances from the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). In both cases, each measurement is performed three times by three doctors, yielding nine measurements. The real values are compared with the PACS values. Each PACS measurement is revised based on the display field of view (DFOV) values and compared with the real values. Results. The real values and the PACS measurement changes according to tilt value have no significant correlations (p > 0.05). However, significant correlations appear between the real values and DFOV-adjusted PACS measurements (p < 0.001). Hence, we obtain a correlation expression that can yield real physical values from PACS measurements. The DFOV value intervals for various age groups are also verified. Conclusion. Precise confirmation of individual preoperative length and precise analysis of postoperative improvements through 3D analysis is possible, which is helpful for facial-bone-surgery symmetry correction. PMID:28070517

  15. Exercise as a treatment for depression: A meta-analysis adjusting for publication bias.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Felipe B; Vancampfort, Davy; Richards, Justin; Rosenbaum, Simon; Ward, Philip B; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-06-01

    The effects of exercise on depression have been a source of contentious debate. Meta-analyses have demonstrated a range of effect sizes. Both inclusion criteria and heterogeneity may influence the effect sizes reported. The extent and influence of publication bias is also unknown. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from a recent Cochrane review and searches of major electronic databases from 01/2013 to 08/2015. We included RCTs of exercise interventions in people with depression (including those with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) or ratings on depressive symptoms), comparing exercise versus control conditions. A random effects meta-analysis calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD, 95% confidence interval; CI), meta-regressions, trim and fill and fail-safe n analyses were conducted. Twenty-five RCTs were included comparing exercise versus control comparison groups, including 9 examining participants with MDD. Overall, exercise had a large and significant effect on depression (SMD adjusted for publication bias = 1.11 (95% CI 0.79-1.43)) with a fail-safe number of 1057. Most adjusted analyses suggested publication bias led to an underestimated SMD. Larger effects were found for interventions in MDD, utilising aerobic exercise, at moderate and vigorous intensities, in a supervised and unsupervised format. In MDD, larger effects were found for moderate intensity, aerobic exercise, and interventions supervised by exercise professionals. Exercise has a large and significant antidepressant effect in people with depression (including MDD). Previous meta-analyses may have underestimated the benefits of exercise due to publication bias. Our data strongly support the claim that exercise is an evidence-based treatment for depression.

  16. INVESTIGATING DIFFERENCES IN BRAIN FUNCTIONAL NETWORKS USING HIERARCHICAL COVARIATE-ADJUSTED INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Human brains perform tasks via complex functional networks consisting of separated brain regions. A popular approach to characterize brain functional networks in fMRI studies is independent component analysis (ICA), which is a powerful method to reconstruct latent source signals from their linear mixtures. In many fMRI studies, an important goal is to investigate how brain functional networks change according to specific clinical and demographic variabilities. Existing ICA methods, however, cannot directly incorporate covariate effects in ICA decomposition. Heuristic post-ICA analysis to address this need can be inaccurate and inefficient. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical covariate-adjusted ICA (hc-ICA) model that provides a formal statistical framework for estimating covariate effects and testing differences between brain functional networks. Our method provides a more reliable and powerful statistical tool for evaluating group differences in brain functional networks while appropriately controlling for potential confounding factors. We present an analytically tractable EM algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of our model. We also develop a subspace-based approximate EM that runs significantly faster while retaining high accuracy. To test the differences in functional networks, we introduce a voxel-wise approximate inference procedure which eliminates the need of computationally expensive covariance matrix estimation and inversion. We demonstrate the advantages of our methods over the existing method via simulation studies. We apply our method to an fMRI study to investigate differences in brain functional networks associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  17. Phylogenetic concordance analysis shows an emerging pathogen is novel and endemic.

    PubMed

    Storfer, Andrew; Alfaro, Michael E; Ridenhour, Benjamin J; Jancovich, James K; Mech, Stephen G; Parris, Matthew J; Collins, James P

    2007-11-01

    Distinguishing whether pathogens are novel or endemic is critical for controlling emerging infectious diseases, an increasing threat to wildlife and human health. To test the endemic vs. novel pathogen hypothesis, we present a unique analysis of intraspecific host-pathogen phylogenetic concordance of tiger salamanders and an emerging Ranavirus throughout Western North America. There is significant non-concordance of host and virus gene trees, suggesting pathogen novelty. However, non-concordance has likely resulted from virus introductions by human movement of infected salamanders. When human-associated viral introductions are excluded, host and virus gene trees are identical, strongly supporting coevolution and endemism. A laboratory experiment showed an introduced virus strain is significantly more virulent than endemic strains, likely due to artificial selection for high virulence. Thus, our analysis of intraspecific phylogenetic concordance revealed that human introduction of viruses is the mechanism underlying tree non-concordance and possibly disease emergence via artificial selection.

  18. Parental Attachment, Separation-Individuation, and College Student Adjustment: A Structural Equation Analysis of Mediational Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattanah, Jonathan F.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Brand, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    Secure parental attachment and healthy levels of separation-individuation have been consistently linked to greater college student adjustment. The present study proposes that the relation between parental attachment and college adjustment is mediated by healthy separation-individuation. The authors gathered data on maternal and paternal…

  19. A Multivariate Analysis of Emotional and Behavioral Adjustment and Preschool Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John; Bulotsky, Rebecca; McDermott, Paul; Mosca, Samuel; Lutz, Megan Noone

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the multivariate relationship between dimensions of preschool emotional and behavioral adjustment assessed at the beginning of the year by the Adjustment Scales for Preschool Intervention (ASPI) and multiple learning and social competencies at the end of the year with an urban Head Start sample. This study also examined the…

  20. Analysis of competition performance in dressage and show jumping of Dutch Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Rovere, G; Ducro, B J; van Arendonk, J A M; Norberg, E; Madsen, P

    2016-12-01

    Most Warmblood horse studbooks aim to improve the performance in dressage and show jumping. The Dutch Royal Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) includes the highest score achieved in competition by a horse to evaluate its genetic ability of performance. However, the records collected during competition are associated with some aspects that might affect the quality of the genetic evaluation based on these records. These aspects include the influence of rider, censoring and preselection of the data. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of rider effect, censoring and preselection on the genetic analysis of competition data of dressage and show jumping of KWPN. Different models including rider effect were evaluated. To assess the impact of censoring, genetic parameters were estimated in data sets that differed in the degree of censoring. The effect of preselection on variance components was analysed by defining a binary trait (sport-status) depending on whether the horse has a competition record or not. This trait was included in a bivariate model with the competition trait and used all horses registered by KWPN since 1984. Results showed that performance in competition for dressage and show jumping is a heritable trait (h(2) ~ 0.11-0.13) and that it is important to account for the effect of rider in the genetic analysis. Censoring had a small effect on the genetic parameter for highest performance achieved by the horse. A moderate heritability obtained for sport-status indicates that preselection has a genetic basis, but the effect on genetic parameters was relatively small.

  1. Children's exposure to intimate partner violence: A meta-analysis of longitudinal associations with child adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Vu, Nicole L; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David

    2016-06-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed 74 studies that examined longitudinal associations between children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and their adjustment problems. Results indicated that children's exposure to IPV is linked prospectively with child externalizing, internalizing, and total adjustment problems. Moreover, the magnitude of the association between IPV exposure and child externalizing and internalizing problems strengthens over time. In addition, associations are stronger between IPV exposure and child externalizing and internalizing problems when IPV is conceptualized broadly rather than narrowly (physical IPV+psychological and/or sexual IPV versus physical IPV only), and when information on IPV and child adjustment problems is obtained from the same source, rather than independent sources. When IPV exposure is measured at younger ages, compared to older ages, the association between IPV and child externalizing problems is greater. However, when child adjustment problems are measured at older ages, compared to younger ages, the association between IPV and child internalizing problems is greater. Child sex, sample type, and whether only the male partner's violence or both partners' violence was measured did not predict the association between children's exposure to IPV and later adjustment problems. The findings have both research and clinical implications regarding the long-term adjustment of children exposed to IPV and the conceptualization and measurement of resilience subsequent to IPV.

  2. Network Analysis Shows Novel Molecular Mechanisms of Action for Copper-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Mejía, Carmen; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanisms associated with the action of chemotherapeutic agents is fundamental to assess and account for possible side-effects of such treatments. Casiopeínas have demonstrated a cytotoxic effect by activation of pro-apoptotic processes in malignant cells. Such processes have been proved to activate the apoptotic intrinsic route, as well as cell cycle arrest. Despite this knowledge, the whole mechanism of action of Casiopeínas is yet to be completely understood. In this work we implement a systems biology approach based on two pathway analysis tools (Over-Representation Analysis and Causal Network Analysis) to observe changes in some hallmarks of cancer, induced by this copper-based chemotherapeutic agent in HeLa cell lines. We find that the metabolism of metal ions is exacerbated, as well as cell division processes being globally diminished. We also show that cellular migration and proliferation events are decreased. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms of liver protection are increased in the cell cultures under the actions of Casiopeínas, unlike the case in many other cytotoxic drugs. We argue that this chemotherapeutic agent may be promising, given its protective hepatic function, concomitant with its cytotoxic participation in the onset of apoptotic processes in malignant cells. PMID:26793116

  3. Farm Business Management Analysis: Adjusting the Farm Business to Increase Profit. Unit III. Volume 15, Number 3. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Robert; And Others

    Designed primarily for Missouri vocational agricultural instructors participating in the Farm Business Management Analysis Program, this instructor's guide, consisting of 10 lessons, deals with adjusting a farm business to increase profits. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: law and the farm family, planning income tax…

  4. The Games Analysis Intervention: A Procedure to Increase the Peer Acceptance and Social Adjustment of Socially Isolated Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike

    The effectiveness of a therapeutic motor development program in increasing the social adjustment and peer acceptance of seven socially isolated fifth grade children was investigated using a single subject experimental design. The program was based on the games analysis model which allows movement games to be designed for individual motoric,…

  5. Phylogenomic analysis shows that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 ( = CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507) was isolated from cured vanilla beans and involved in the formation of vanilla aroma compounds. A draft genome of this strain was assembled and yielded a length of 3.71 Mbp with a DNA G+C content of 46.3 mol%. Comparative genomic analysis with its nearest relatives showed only minor differences between this strain and the genome of the Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T ( = BCC 22614T = KACC 16244T), with a calculated DNA–DNA hybridization (DDH) value of 91.2 % and an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 98.9 %. This DDH value is well above the recommended 70 % threshold for species delineation, as well as the ANI threshold of 95 %. In addition, the results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the type strains of these two taxa are highly similar with phenotype coherence. A core genome multi-locus sequencing analysis was conducted for the strains and the results show that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 clusters closely to the type strain of Bacillus siamensis. Therefore, it is proposed that the species ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 ( = CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507) should be reclassified as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T ( = BCC 22614T = KACC 16244T). An emended description of Bacillus siamensis is provided.

  6. HIV-1 Phylogenetic analysis shows HIV-1 transits through the meninges to brain and peripheral tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lamers, Susanna L.; Gray, Rebecca R.; Salemi, Marco; Huysentruyt, Leanne C.; McGrath, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Brain infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been investigated in many reports with a variety of conclusions concerning the time of entry and degree of viral compartmentalization. To address these diverse findings, we sequenced HIV-1 gp120 clones from a wide range of brain, peripheral and meningeal tissues from five patients who died from several HIV-1 associated disease pathologies. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis confirmed previous studies that showed a significant degree of compartmentalization in brain and peripheral tissue subpopulations. Some intermixing between the HIV-1 subpopulations was evident, especially in patients that died from pathologies other than HIV-associated dementia. Interestingly, the major tissue harboring virus from both the brain and peripheral tissues was the meninges. These results show that 1) HIV-1 is clearly capable of migrating out of the brain, 2) the meninges are the most likely primary transport tissues, and 3) infected brain macrophages comprise an important HIV reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:21055482

  7. The African Development Bank, structural adjustment, and child mortality: a cross-national analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Pandolfelli, Lauren E; Shandra, John M

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a cross-national analysis to test the hypothesis that African Development Bank (AfDB) structural adjustment adversely impacts child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We use generalized least square random effects regression models and two-step Heckman models that correct for selection bias using data on 35 nations with up to four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005). We find substantial support for our hypothesis, which indicates that Sub-Saharan African nations that receive an AfDB structural adjustment loan tend to have higher levels of child mortality than Sub-Saharan African nations that do not receive such a loan. This finding remains stable even when controlling for selection bias on whether or not a Sub-Saharan African nation receives an AfDB structural adjustment loan. We conclude by discussing the methodological implications of the article, policy suggestions, and possible directions for future research.

  8. Nonparametric randomization-based covariate adjustment for stratified analysis of time-to-event or dichotomous outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Michael A; Koch, Gary G; Preisser, John S; Saville, Benjamin R

    2016-01-01

    Time-to-event or dichotomous outcomes in randomized clinical trials often have analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model or conditional logistic regression, respectively, to obtain covariate-adjusted log hazard (or odds) ratios. Nonparametric Randomization-Based Analysis of Covariance (NPANCOVA) can be applied to unadjusted log hazard (or odds) ratios estimated from a model containing treatment as the only explanatory variable. These adjusted estimates are stratified population-averaged treatment effects and only require a valid randomization to the two treatment groups and avoid key modeling assumptions (e.g., proportional hazards in the case of a Cox model) for the adjustment variables. The methodology has application in the regulatory environment where such assumptions cannot be verified a priori. Application of the methodology is illustrated through three examples on real data from two randomized trials.

  9. Cooperative Genome-Wide Analysis Shows Increased Homozygosity in Early Onset Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nalls, Michael A.; Martinez, Maria; Schulte, Claudia; Holmans, Peter; Gasser, Thomas; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew B.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Brice, Alexis; Heutink, Peter; Williams, Nigel; Morris, Huw R.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) occurs in both familial and sporadic forms, and both monogenic and complex genetic factors have been identified. Early onset PD (EOPD) is particularly associated with autosomal recessive (AR) mutations, and three genes, PARK2, PARK7 and PINK1, have been found to carry mutations leading to AR disease. Since mutations in these genes account for less than 10% of EOPD patients, we hypothesized that further recessive genetic factors are involved in this disorder, which may appear in extended runs of homozygosity. We carried out genome wide SNP genotyping to look for extended runs of homozygosity (ROHs) in 1,445 EOPD cases and 6,987 controls. Logistic regression analyses showed an increased level of genomic homozygosity in EOPD cases compared to controls. These differences are larger for ROH of 9 Mb and above, where there is a more than three-fold increase in the proportion of cases carrying a ROH. These differences are not explained by occult recessive mutations at existing loci. Controlling for genome wide homozygosity in logistic regression analyses increased the differences between cases and controls, indicating that in EOPD cases ROHs do not simply relate to genome wide measures of inbreeding. Homozygosity at a locus on chromosome19p13.3 was identified as being more common in EOPD cases as compared to controls. Sequencing analysis of genes and predicted transcripts within this locus failed to identify a novel mutation causing EOPD in our cohort. There is an increased rate of genome wide homozygosity in EOPD, as measured by an increase in ROHs. These ROHs are a signature of inbreeding and do not necessarily harbour disease-causing genetic variants. Although there might be other regions of interest apart from chromosome 19p13.3, we lack the power to detect them with this analysis. PMID:22427796

  10. Brain regions that show repetition suppression and enhancement: A meta-analysis of 137 neuroimaging experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hongkeun

    2017-04-01

    Repetition suppression and enhancement refer to the reduction and increase in the neural responses for repeated rather than novel stimuli, respectively. This study provides a meta-analysis of the effects of repetition suppression and enhancement, restricting the data used to that involving fMRI/PET, visual stimulus presentation, and healthy participants. The major findings were as follows. First, the global topography of the repetition suppression effects was strikingly similar to that of the "subsequent memory" effects, indicating that the mechanism for repetition suppression is the reduced engagement of an encoding system. The lateral frontal cortex effects involved the frontoparietal control network regions anteriorly and the dorsal attention network regions posteriorly. The left fusiform cortex effects predominantly involved the dorsal attention network regions, whereas the right fusiform cortex effects mainly involved the visual network regions. Second, the category-specific meta-analyses and their comparisons indicated that most parts of the alleged category-specific regions showed repetition suppression for more than one stimulus category. In this regard, these regions may not be "dedicated cortical modules," but are more likely parts of multiple overlapping large-scale maps of simple features. Finally, the global topography of the repetition enhancement effects was similar to that of the "retrieval success" effects, suggesting that the mechanism for repetition enhancement is voluntary or involuntary explicit retrieval during an implicit memory task. Taken together, these results clarify the network affiliations of the regions showing reliable repetition suppression and enhancement effects and contribute to the theoretical interpretations of the local and global topography of these two effects. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1894-1913, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Development and Validation of a Brief Version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale With a Nonparametric Item Analysis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Stephane; Valois, Pierre; Lussier, Yvan

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the current research was to develop an abbreviated form of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) with nonparametric item response theory. The authors conducted 5 studies, with a total participation of 8,256 married or cohabiting individuals. Results showed that the item characteristic curves behaved in a monotonically increasing…

  12. Molecular-Genetic Analysis of Osmoregulation, Osmotic Adjustment and Growth in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Bray

    2009-05-04

    The molecular mechanism by which plants control cellular solute and water content, called osmoregulation, is critical for cell expansion and survival, particularly in response to cellular water deficit or low water potential. Two loci, lwr1 and lwr2 (low water potential response), that affect osmoregulation were isolated as part of a larger screen to identify mutants with alterations in low water potential-induced proline accumulation. When seedlings of lwr2 were exposed to a steady low water potential stress over a period of several days using PEG-infused agar plates, the mutants had lesser proline accumulation and osmotic adjustment than the wild type, Ben. A mapping population was raised but it was not possible to reliably identify the mutants in the population and thus could not be used for mapping. The mutant lwr1 was mapped and the gene identified. The mutant lwr1 had greater accumulation of proline, higher total solute content, greater osmotic adjustment at low water potential, altered abscisic acid content, and increased sensitivity to applied abscisic acid with respect to Pro content than the wild type, Ben, when the water potential was decreased over a period of several days using PEG-infused agar plates. lwr1 also had altered growth and morphology, including defects in trichome branching with the majority of the trichomes having a single point, shortened siliques which were crooked, and significantly lengthened time to flowering. Using bulk segregant analysis, the lwr1 loci was mapped to the lower arm of chromosome II, near the marker nga168. Further detailed fine mapping located the mutation to the gene PKL, At2g25170, which was previously identified as a gene involved in altered root development. PKL encodes a chromatin remodeling factor. The mutation in lwr1 introduced a stop codon in the 14th exon of At2g25170. The mutant was not complemented by 4 other known mutants having a disrupted PKL gene confirming the placement of this mutation in lwr1. In

  13. Mass cytometry analysis shows that a novel memory phenotype B cell is expanded in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Hansmann, Leo; Blum, Lisa; Ju, Chia-Hsin; Liedtke, Michaela; Robinson, William H.; Davis, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    It would be very beneficial if the status of cancers could be determined from a blood specimen. However, peripheral blood leukocytes are very heterogeneous between individuals and thus high resolution technologies are likely required. We used cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF) and next generation sequencing to ask whether a plasma cell cancer (multiple myeloma) and related pre-cancerous states had any consistent effect on the peripheral blood mononuclear cell phenotypes of patients. Analysis of peripheral blood samples from 13 cancer patients, 9 pre-cancer patients, and 9 healthy individuals revealed significant differences in the frequencies of the T, B, and natural killer cell compartments. Most strikingly, we identified a novel B-cell population that normally accounts for 4.0±0.7% (mean±SD) of total B cells and is up to 13-fold expanded in multiple myeloma patients with active disease. This population expressed markers previously associated with both memory (CD27+) and naïve (CD24loCD38+) phenotypes. Single-cell immunoglobulin gene sequencing showed polyclonality, indicating that these cells are not precursors to the myeloma, and somatic mutations, a characteristic of memory cells. SYK, ERK, and p38 phosphorylation responses, and the fact that most of these cells expressed isotypes other than IgM or IgD, confirmed the memory character of this population, defining it as a novel type of memory B cells. PMID:25711758

  14. Proteomic analysis of rice leaves shows the different regulations to osmotic stress and stress signals.

    PubMed

    Shu, Lie-Bo; Ding, Wei; Wu, Jin-Hong; Feng, Fang-Jun; Luo, Li-Jun; Mei, Han-Wei

    2010-11-01

    Following the idea of partial root-zone drying (PRD) in crop cultivation, the morphological and physiological responses to partial root osmotic stress (PROS) and whole root osmotic stress (WROS) were investigated in rice. WROS caused stress symptoms like leaf rolling and membrane leakage. PROS stimulated stress signals, but did not cause severe leaf damage. By proteomic analysis, a total of 58 proteins showed differential expression after one or both treatments, and functional classification of these proteins suggests that stress signals regulate photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Two other proteins (anthranilate synthase and submergence-induced nickel-binding protein) were upregulated only in the PROS plants, indicating their important roles in stress resistance. Additionally, more enzymes were involved in stress defense, redox homeostasis, lignin and ethylene synthesis in WROS leaves, suggesting a more comprehensive regulatory mechanism induced by osmotic stress. This study provides new insights into the complex molecular networks within plant leaves involved in the adaptation to osmotic stress and stress signals.

  15. Geosat crossover analysis in the tropical Pacific. Part 1: Constrained sinusoidal crossover adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Chang-Kou

    1988-01-01

    A new method (constrained sinusoidal crossover adjustment) for removing the orbit error in satellite altimetry is tested (using crossovers accumulated in the first 91 days of the Geosat non-repeat era in the tropical Pacific) and found to have excellent qualities. Two features distinguish the new method from the conventional bias-and-tilt crossover adjustment. First, a sine wave (with wavelength equaling the circumference of the Earth) is used to represent the orbit error for each satellite revolution, instead of the bias-and-tilt (and curvature, if necessary) approach for each segment of the satellite ground track. Secondly, the indeterminacy of the adjustment process is removed by a simple constraint minimizing the amplitudes of the sine waves, rather than by fixing selected tracks. Overall the new method is more accurate, more efficient, and much less cumbersome than the old. The idea of restricting the crossover adjustment to crossovers between tracks that are less than certain days apart in order to preserve the large-scale long-term oceanic variability is also tested with inconclusive results because the orbit error was unusually nonstationary in the initial 91 days of the GEOSAT mission.

  16. The Effects of the Family Foundations Prevention Program on Coparenting and Child Adjustment: A Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Solmeyer, Anna R.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Coffman, Donna L.; Jones, Damon E.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and emotional problems are common in early childhood and put children at risk for developing more serious problems. This study tested the mediating mechanisms through which a universal coparenting intervention implemented during the transition to parenthood led to reduced child adjustment problems at age 3, and explored child gender as a potential moderator. 169 heterosexual couples expecting their first child were randomly assigned to a control condition or Family Foundations, a series of eight classes that targeted the coparenting relationship. Data were collected through videotaped triadic mother-father-child interaction tasks when the child was 1 and 3 years of age. Separate longitudinal path analyses for mothers and fathers tested coparenting competition and positivity as mediators of program effects on child adjustment problems. Significant mediated effects for coparenting competition were found for fathers with both sons and daughters and for mothers with sons, but not for mothers with daughters. These effects accounted for between 39 and 55% of the intervention’s impact on child adjustment problems. Coparenting positivity did not mediate program effects. These results support the use of a prevention approach to reduce coparenting competition and enhance child adjustment, and provide information that can be used to refine theory. PMID:23404669

  17. Marital Adjustment in Parents of Children with Disabilities: A Historical Review and Meta- Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risdal, Don; Singer, George H. S.

    2004-01-01

    This report uses meta-analytic methods to reexamine a body of research literature on comparative levels of divorce and marital satisfaction/discord in parents of children with and without developmental disabilities in light of new assumptions about variability in family adjustment, including successful family adaptation and longterm resilience. A…

  18. Factors Associated with Community Adjustment of Young Adults with Serious Emotional Disturbance: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Kathleen H.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2003-01-01

    Rates of change in behaviors in relation to community adjustment were examined for 292 participants in the 7-year longitudinal National Adolescent and Child Treatment Study (NACTS) as they transitioned to the adult world. Participants with initially higher social-adaptive behavior and whose behavior improved over time attained higher adjustment…

  19. Children's Sleep and Adjustment: A Residualized Change Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Bub, Kristen L.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal relations between children's sleep and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and anger/aggression. We expected that initial sleep problems and increases in these problems over time would be associated with worse adjustment outcomes. The study had 3 waves with 1-year lags. At Time 1 [T1], 128 girls and 123 boys (M age =…

  20. The Predictive Analysis of Adjustment Difficulties from Loneliness, Social Support, and Social Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duru, Erdinc

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine direct and indirect effects of social support, social connectedness, and loneliness in predicting adjustment difficulties. The sample of the study was 404 university students (212 females and 192 males) studying in different departments of the Faculty of Education at Pamukkale University. The ages of the…

  1. Examining the Cultural Adjustment Experiences of African International College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Anderson, Gregory M.; Berkel, LaVerne A.; Caldwell, Leon D.; Utsey, Shawn O.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the cultural adjustment experiences of 12 Kenyan, Nigerian, and Ghanaian international college students through semistructured interviews. Using consensual qualitative research methodology (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997), 7 primary domains or themes related to these students' cultural adjustment…

  2. Distributive Education and Occupational Work Adjustment. Topic Analysis for Vocational Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Six papers on distributive education and occupational work adjustment (OWA) which were presented at a teacher education leadership conference on the development of common core curriculum for vocational education teachers are contained in this booklet. The title and authors are as follow: "Methods of Teaching Distributive Education," by John…

  3. Community Involvement and Victimization at School: An Analysis through Family, Personal and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Teresa Isabel; Musitu, Gonzalo; Ramos, Manuel Jesus; Murgui, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzes the impact of adolescents' community involvement on victimization by peers at school through various indicators of family, personal and social adjustment (openness of communication with mother and father, life satisfaction, social self-esteem, and loneliness). Participating in the project were 565 adolescents aged 11 to…

  4. 3D Indoor Building Environment Reconstruction using Least Square Adjustment, Polynomial Kernel, Interval Analysis and Homotopy Continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Ali; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Mioc, Darka

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, municipalities intend to have 3D city models for facility management, disaster management and architectural planning. Indoor models can be reconstructed from construction plans but sometimes, they are not available or very often, they differ from `as-built' plans. In this case, the buildings and their rooms must be surveyed. One of the most utilized methods of indoor surveying is laser scanning. The laser scanning method allows taking accurate and detailed measurements. However, Terrestrial Laser Scanner is costly and time consuming. In this paper, several techniques for indoor 3D building data acquisition have been investigated. For reducing the time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, the Trimble LaserAce 1000 range finder is used. The proposed approache use relatively cheap equipment: a light Laser Rangefinder which appear to be feasible, but it needs to be tested to see if the observation accuracy is sufficient for the 3D building modelling. The accuracy of the rangefinder is evaluated and a simple spatial model is reconstructed from real data. This technique is rapid (it requires a shorter time as compared to others), but the results show inconsistencies in horizontal angles for short distances in indoor environments. The range finder horizontal angle sensor was calibrated using a least square adjustment algorithm, a polynomial kernel, interval analysis and homotopy continuation.

  5. Postural adjustments associated with rapid voluntary arm movements. II. Biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Friedli, W G; Cohen, L; Hallett, M; Stanhope, S; Simon, S R

    1988-01-01

    Normal subjects performed bilaterally symmetric rapid elbow flexions or extensions ("focal movements") while standing. Specific patterns of electromyographic activity in leg and trunk muscles ("associated postural adjustments") were seen for each type of movement. The biomechanical significance of these postural adjustments was analysed by means of the ground reaction forces and motion of the various body segments. Experimental data were compared with that from a theoretical model of the body consisting of a six segment kinetic chain with rigid links. Distinct patterns of the ground reaction forces with elbow flexion were opposite in direction to those seen with elbow extension. Movements of the various body segments were small and specific for a certain focal movement. Dynamic perturbations arising from the arm movement in an anteroposterior direction were found to be compensated by postural adjustments, whereas vertical perturbations were not compensated. The muscular activity acting about different joints in the different movements was found to correlate with the predictions of activity needed to compensate for net joint reaction moments arising from the focal movement. Motion of the various body segments could be understood as resulting from the interplay of the net reaction moments and the net muscular moments at the different joints. Dynamic postural requirements are accomplished by a precise active compensation initiated before the focal movement. PMID:3346688

  6. Return period adjustment for runoff coefficients based on analysis in undeveloped Texas watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dhakal, Nirajan; Fang, Xing; Asquith, William H.; Cleveland, Theodore G.; Thompson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    The rational method for peak discharge (Qp) estimation was introduced in the 1880s. The runoff coefficient (C) is a key parameter for the rational method that has an implicit meaning of rate proportionality, and the C has been declared a function of the annual return period by various researchers. Rate-based runoff coefficients as a function of the return period, C(T), were determined for 36 undeveloped watersheds in Texas using peak discharge frequency from previously published regional regression equations and rainfall intensity frequency for return periods T of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years. The C(T) values and return period adjustments C(T)/C(T=10  year) determined in this study are most applicable to undeveloped watersheds. The return period adjustments determined for the Texas watersheds in this study and those extracted from prior studies of non-Texas data exceed values from well-known literature such as design manuals and textbooks. Most importantly, the return period adjustments exceed values currently recognized in Texas Department of Transportation design guidance when T>10  years.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and osmotic adjustment in response to NaCl stress: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Augé, Robert M.; Toler, Heather D.; Saxton, Arnold M.

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can enhance plant resistance to NaCl stress in several ways. Two fundamental roles involve osmotic and ionic adjustment. By stimulating accumulation of solutes, the symbiosis can help plants sustain optimal water balance and diminish Na+ toxicity. The size of the AM effect on osmolytes has varied widely and is unpredictable. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the size of the AM effect on 22 plant solute characteristics after exposure to NaCl and to examine how experimental conditions have influenced the AM effect. Viewed across studies, AM symbioses have had marked effects on plant K+, increasing root and shoot K+ concentrations by an average of 47 and 42%, respectively, and root and shoot K+/Na+ ratios by 47 and 58%, respectively. Among organic solutes, soluble carbohydrates have been most impacted, with AM-induced increases of 28 and 19% in shoots and roots. The symbiosis has had no consistent effect on several characteristics, including root glycine betaine concentration, root or shoot Cl− concentrations, leaf Ψπ, or shoot proline or polyamine concentrations. The AM effect has been very small for shoot Ca++ concentration and root concentrations of Na+, Mg++ and proline. Interpretations about AM-conferred benefits regarding these compounds may be best gauged within the context of the individual studies. Shoot and root K+/Na+ ratios and root proline concentration showed significant between-study heterogeneity, and we examined nine moderator variables to explore what might explain the differences in mycorrhizal effects on these parameters. Moderators with significant impacts included AM taxa, host type, presence or absence of AM growth promotion, stress severity, and whether NaCl constituted part or all of the experimental saline stress treatment. Meta-regression of shoot K+/Na+ ratio showed a positive response to root colonization, and root K+/Na+ ratio a negative response to time of exposure to NaCl. PMID:25368626

  8. Phylogenomic analysis shows that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18T (=CGMCC 8629 T =NCCB 100507 T) was isolated from cured vanilla beans and involved in the formation of vanilla aroma compounds. A draft genome of this type strain was assembled and yielded a length of 3.72 Mbp and a GC content of 46.3%. Comparative genomic analysis with its ...

  9. EPA Analysis Shows Decreased Toxic Chemical Releases in Massachusetts in 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's most recent Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data is now available for the reporting year of 2015. In Massachusetts, the reporting data show that overall releases of pollutants to the environment decreased since the previous reporting year (2014).

  10. EPA Analysis Shows Increased Toxic Chemical Releases in Vermont in 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's most recent Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data is now available for the reporting year of 2015. In Vermont, the reporting data show that overall releases of pollutants to the environment increased since the previous reporting year (2014).

  11. EPA Analysis Shows Increased Toxic Chemical Releases in Rhode Island in 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's most recent Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data is now available for the reporting year of 2015. In Rhode Island, the reporting data show that overall releases of pollutants to the environment increased since the previous reporting year (2014).

  12. EPA Analysis Shows Decreased Toxic Chemical Releases in Connecticut in 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's most recent Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data is now available for the reporting year of 2015. In Connecticut, the reporting data show that overall releases of pollutants to the environment decreased since the previous reporting year (2014).

  13. EPA Analysis Shows Decreased Toxic Chemical Releases in Maine in 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's most recent Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data is now available for the reporting year of 2015. In Maine, the reporting data show that overall releases of pollutants to the environment decreased since the previous reporting year (2014).

  14. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in compensatory control of posture: 2. Biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marcio J; Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2010-06-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) utilizes anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments to maintain equilibrium while standing. It is known that these postural adjustments involve displacements of the center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP). The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between APAs and CPAs from a kinetic and kinematic perspective. Eight subjects were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations induced at the shoulder level while standing. Kinematic and kinetic data were recorded and analyzed during the time duration typical for anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments. When the perturbations were unpredictable, the COM and COP displacements were larger compared to predictable conditions with APAs. Thus, the peak of COM displacement, after the pendulum impact, in the posterior direction reached 28+/-9.6mm in the unpredictable conditions with no APAs whereas it was 1.6 times smaller, reaching 17+/-5.5mm during predictable perturbations. Similarly, after the impact, the peak of COP displacement in the posterior direction was 60+/-14 mm for unpredictable conditions and 28+/-3.6mm for predictable conditions. Finally, the times of the peak COM and COP displacements were similar in the predictable and unpredictable conditions. This outcome provides additional knowledge about how body balance is controlled in presence and in absence of information about the forthcoming perturbation. Moreover, it suggests that control of posture could be enhanced by better utilization of APAs and such an approach could be considered as a valuable modality in the rehabilitation of individuals with balance impairment.

  15. The Coordination of Verbal and Nonverbal Interaction towards Three Parties: The Analysis of a Talk Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Raffler-Engel, Walburga

    A study of randomly selected "Donahue" shows revealed how host Phil Donahue interacts with several parties at one time and how he subordinates various interactions to suit the hierarchy of importance he attributes to each party, with the television viewer being the most important. Donahue organizes his body movement mainly for television…

  16. Molecular analysis of mixed endometrial carcinomas shows clonality in most cases

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Lien N.; Almadani, Noorah; Li, Xiaodong; Soslow, Robert A; Gilks, C. Blake; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2016-01-01

    Mixed endometrial carcinoma refers to a tumor that is comprised of two or more distinct histotypes. We studied 18 mixed-type endometrial carcinomas - 11 mixed serous and low-grade endometrioid carcinomas (SC/EC), 5 mixed clear cell and low-grade endometrioid carcinomas (CCC/EC), and 2 mixed clear cell and serous carcinoma (CCC/SC), using targeted next generation sequencing and immunohistochemistry to compare the molecular profiles of the different histotypes present in each case. In 16 of 18 cases there was molecular evidence that both components shared a clonal origin. Eight cases (6 EC/SC, 1 EC/CCC and 1 SC/CCC) showed a serous carcinoma molecular profile that was the same in both components. Five cases (3 CCC/EC and 2 SC/EC) showed a shared endometrioid molecular profile and identical mismatch repair protein (MMR) deficiency in both components. A single SC/EC case harbored the same POLE exonuclease domain mutation in both components. One SC/CCC and one EC/CCC case showed both shared and unique molecular features in the two histotype components, suggesting early molecular divergence from a common clonal origin. In two cases, there were no shared molecular features and these appear to be biologically unrelated synchronous tumors. Overall, these results show that the different histologic components in mixed endometrial carcinomas typically share the same molecular aberrations. Mixed endometrial carcinomas most commonly occur through morphological mimicry, whereby tumors with serous-type molecular profile show morphological features of endometrioid or clear cell carcinoma, or through underlying deficiency in DNA nucleotide repair, with resulting rapid accrual of mutations and intratumoral phenotypic heterogeneity. Less commonly, mixed endometrial carcinomas are the result of early molecular divergence from a common progenitor clone or are synchronous biologically unrelated tumors (collision tumors). PMID:26492180

  17. Social Network Analysis Shows Direct Evidence for Social Transmission of Tool Use in Wild Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Gruber, Thibaud

    2014-01-01

    Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition—that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, “moss-sponging” and “leaf-sponge re-use,” in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most “cultural” of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans. PMID:25268798

  18. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from other people Skipped heartbeats and other physical complaints Trembling or twitching To have adjustment disorder, you ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  19. SR-FTIR Coupled with Principal Component Analysis Shows Evidence for the Cellular Bystander Effect.

    PubMed

    Lipiec, E; Bambery, K R; Lekki, J; Tobin, M J; Vogel, C; Whelan, D R; Wood, B R; Kwiatek, W M

    2015-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation-Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis was used as an independent modality to monitor the cellular bystander effect. Single, living prostate cancer PC-3 cells were irradiated with various numbers of protons, ranging from 50-2,000, with an energy of either 1 or 2 MeV using a proton microprobe. SR-FTIR spectra of cells, fixed after exposure to protons and nonirradiated neighboring cells (bystander cells), were recorded. Spectral differences were observed in both the directly targeted and bystander cells and included changes in the DNA backbone and nucleic bases, along with changes in the protein secondary structure. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the variance in the entire data set. The percentage of bystander cells relative to the applied number of protons with two different energies was calculated. Of all the applied quantities, the dose of 400 protons at 2 MeV was found to be the most effective for causing significant macromolecular perturbation in bystander PC-3 cells.

  20. Complete genome sequence analysis of goatpox virus isolated from China shows high variation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiancheng; Chi, Xuelin; Li, Wei; Hao, Wenbo; Li, Ming; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Yifan; Rock, Daniel L; Luo, Shuhong; Wang, Shihua

    2014-09-17

    Goatpox virus (GTPV), a member of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family, is the causative agent of variolo caprina (goatpox). GTPV can cause significant economic losses of domestic ruminants in endemic regions and can threaten breeding stocks. In this study, we report on the compilation of the complete genomic sequence of an isolated GTPV field strain FZ (GTPV_FZ). The 150,194bp GTPV genome consists of a central coding region bounded by two identical 2301bp inverted terminal repeats and contains 151 putative genes. Comparative genomic analysis reveals the apparent genetic relationships among Capripoxviruses are close, but sufficient genomic variants in the field isolate strain FZ have been identified to distinguish it from other GTPV strains and other Capripoxvirus species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the p32 and complete GTPV genome can be used to differentiate SPPVs, GTPVs and LSDVs. These data may contribute to the epidemiological study of the Chinese capripoxvirus and help to develop more specific detection methods to distinguish GTPVs, SPPVs and LSDVs.

  1. Integrated single-cell analysis shows Pichia pastoris secretes protein stochastically.

    PubMed

    Love, Kerry Routenberg; Panagiotou, Vasiliki; Jiang, Bo; Stadheim, Terrance A; Love, J Christopher

    2010-06-01

    The production of heterologous proteins by secretion from cellular hosts is an important determinant for the cost of biotherapeutics. A single-cell analytical method called microengraving was used to examine the heterogeneity in secretion by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We show that constitutive secretion of a human Fc fragment by P. pastoris is not cell-cycle dependent, but rather fluctuates between states of high and low productivity in a stochastic manner.

  2. Ultrastructural analysis of Vitis vinifera leaf tissues showing atypical symptoms of Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Musetti, R; Stringher, L; Borselli, S; Vecchione, A; Zulini, L; Pertot, I

    2005-01-01

    In an abandoned farm in Tuscany a year by year regression of downy mildew disease on grapevines was observed and a decrease in virulence as well as vigor and fertility of the causal fungus, Plasmopara viticola. Anomalous spots of the fungus (i.e. atypical coloration of leaves or mosaic) on leaf tissues of a sensitive Vitis vinifera grapevine were observed. The anomalous symptoms were often associated with the typical 'oil spots' and were present under environmental conditions favourable for a normal development of the disease. An ultrastructural study was carried out on leaf tissues of grapevine plants aimed at clarifying the cause of this phenomenon and detecting whether there were alterations in P. viticola mycelium and endophytes present. ELISA was also performed to check the presence of grapevine viruses in the plants. TEM results demonstrated that characteristic P. viticola was present in leaf samples showing oil spots, while, both the fungus and the host tissues showed cytological alterations in leaves with mosaic symptoms. Finally, hyphae were absent in leaf tissues without downy mildew spots, but showing severe ultrastructural modifications. Several plant virus infections were found in these grapevines. Literature reports that the development and sporulation of some phytopathogenic fungi inside their hosts can be limited by virus infections. Further experimental approaches are required to determine if resistance to P. viticola can be induced by viral infections in grapevines.

  3. Shortwave radiative forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback to the surface by sulfate geoengineering: analysis of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G4 scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashimura, Hiroki; Abe, Manabu; Watanabe, Shingo; Sekiya, Takashi; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John C.; Cole, Jason N. S.; Kravitz, Ben

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates the forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback of net shortwave radiation at the surface in the G4 experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project by analysing outputs from six participating models. G4 involves injection of 5 Tg yr-1 of SO2, a sulfate aerosol precursor, into the lower stratosphere from year 2020 to 2069 against a background scenario of RCP4.5. A single-layer atmospheric model for shortwave radiative transfer is used to estimate the direct forcing of solar radiation management (SRM), and rapid adjustment and feedbacks from changes in the water vapour amount, cloud amount, and surface albedo (compared with RCP4.5). The analysis shows that the globally and temporally averaged SRM forcing ranges from -3.6 to -1.6 W m-2, depending on the model. The sum of the rapid adjustments and feedback effects due to changes in the water vapour and cloud amounts increase the downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface by approximately 0.4 to 1.5 W m-2 and hence weaken the effect of SRM by around 50 %. The surface albedo changes decrease the net shortwave radiation at the surface; it is locally strong (˜ -4 W m-2) in snow and sea ice melting regions, but minor for the global average. The analyses show that the results of the G4 experiment, which simulates sulfate geoengineering, include large inter-model variability both in the direct SRM forcing and the shortwave rapid adjustment from change in the cloud amount, and imply a high uncertainty in modelled processes of sulfate aerosols and clouds.

  4. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in compensatory control of posture: 1. Electromyographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marcio J; Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2010-06-01

    Anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments are the two principal mechanisms that the central nervous system uses to maintain equilibrium while standing. We studied the role of APAs in compensatory postural adjustments. Eight subjects were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations induced at the shoulder level, while standing with eyes open and closed. Electrical activity of leg and trunk muscles was recorded and analyzed during four epochs representing the time duration typical for anticipatory and compensatory postural control. No anticipatory activity of the trunk and leg muscles was seen in the case of unpredictable perturbations; instead, significant compensatory activation of muscles was observed. When the perturbations were predictable, strong anticipatory activation was seen in all the muscles: such APAs were associated with significantly smaller compensatory activity of muscles and COP displacements after the perturbations. The outcome of the study highlights the importance of APAs in control of posture and points out the existence of a relationship between the anticipatory and the compensatory components of postural control. It also suggests a possibility to enhance balance control by improving the APAs responses during external perturbations.

  5. Genome-wide microarray analysis of tomato roots showed defined responses to iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants react to iron deficiency stress adopting different kind of adaptive responses. Tomato, a Strategy I plant, improves iron uptake through acidification of rhizosphere, reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and transport of Fe2+ into the cells. Large-scale transcriptional analyses of roots under iron deficiency are only available for a very limited number of plant species with particular emphasis for Arabidopsis thaliana. Regarding tomato, an interesting model species for Strategy I plants and an economically important crop, physiological responses to Fe-deficiency have been thoroughly described and molecular analyses have provided evidence for genes involved in iron uptake mechanisms and their regulation. However, no detailed transcriptome analysis has been described so far. Results A genome-wide transcriptional analysis, performed with a chip that allows to monitor the expression of more than 25,000 tomato transcripts, identified 97 differentially expressed transcripts by comparing roots of Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient tomato plants. These transcripts are related to the physiological responses of tomato roots to the nutrient stress resulting in an improved iron uptake, including regulatory aspects, translocation, root morphological modification and adaptation in primary metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and TCA cycle. Other genes play a role in flavonoid biosynthesis and hormonal metabolism. Conclusions The transcriptional characterization confirmed the presence of the previously described mechanisms to adapt to iron starvation in tomato, but also allowed to identify other genes potentially playing a role in this process, thus opening new research perspectives to improve the knowledge on the tomato root response to the nutrient deficiency. PMID:22433273

  6. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass, Adjustable Gastric Banding and Non-Surgical Weight Loss Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Leon; Devlin, Allison; Sullivan, Sean D.; Flum, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Setting Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) are the two most commonly performed bariatric procedures. While both procedures likely reduce healthcare expenditures related to the resolution of comorbid conditions, they have different rates of perioperative risks and differential rates of associated weight loss. Objective We designed a model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER) of these procedures compared to non-operative weight loss interventions and to each other. Methods Deterministic, payer-perspective model comparing the lifetime expected costs and outcomes of LAGB, LRYGB and non-surgical treatment. The major endpoints were survival, health related quality of life and weight loss. Life expectancy and lifetime medical costs were calculated across age, sex and body mass index (BMI) strata using previously published data. Results For both men and women LRYGB and LAGB were cost-effective at less than $25,000/QALY even when evaluating the full range of baseline BMI and estimates of adverse outcomes, weight loss and costs. For base-case scenarios in men (age 35, BMI 40) the ICER was $11,604 per QALY for LAGB, compared to $18,543 per QALY for LRYGB. For base-case scenarios in women (age 35, BMI 40) the ICER was $8,878 per QALY for LAGB, compared to $14,680 per QALY for LRYGB. Conclusions Modeled cost-effectiveness analysis showed that both operative interventions for morbid obesity, LAGB and RYGB, were cost-effective at less than $25,000, and LAGB was more cost-effective than RYGB for all the base-case scenarios. PMID:18069075

  7. Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. Results The integration of 15 maps resulted in a consensus map with 531 markers and a total map length of 1821 cM. Fifty-three yield QTL reported in 15 studies were projected on a consensus map and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen meta-QTL were obtained on seven chromosomes. MQTL1.2, MQTL1.3, MQTL1.4, and MQTL12.1 were around 700 kb and corresponded to a reasonably small genetic distance of 1.8 to 5 cM and they are suitable for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). The meta-QTL for grain yield under drought coincided with at least one of the meta-QTL identified for root and leaf morphology traits under drought in earlier reports. Validation of major-effect QTL on a panel of random drought-tolerant lines revealed the presence of at least one major QTL in each line. DTY12.1 was present in 85% of the lines, followed by DTY4.1 in 79% and DTY1.1 in 64% of the lines. Comparative genomics of meta-QTL with other cereals revealed that the homologous regions of MQTL1.4 and MQTL3.2 had QTL for grain yield under drought in maize, wheat, and barley respectively. The genes in the meta-QTL regions were analyzed by a comparative genomics approach and candidate genes were deduced for grain yield under drought. Three groups of genes such as stress-inducible genes, growth and development-related genes, and sugar transport-related genes were found in clusters in most of the meta-QTL. Conclusions Meta-QTL with small genetic and physical intervals could be useful in Marker-assisted selection individually and in

  8. AMS 14C analysis of teeth from archaeological sites showing anomalous esr dating results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Rainer; Abeyratne, Mohan; Head, John; Tuniz, Claudio; Hedges, Robert E. M.

    We have carried out AMS radiocarbon analysis on two groups of samples: the first one gave reasonable ESR age estimates and the second one yielded serious age underestinations. All samples were supposedly older than 35 ka, the oldest being around 160 ka. Two pretreatment techniques were used for radiocarbon dating: acid evolution and thermal release. Heating to 600, 750 and 900°C combined with total de-gassing at these temperatures was chosen to obtain age estimates on the organic fraction, secondary carbonates and original carbonate present in the hydroxyapatite mineral phase, respectively. All radiocarbon results present serious age underestimations. The secondary carbonate fraction gives almost modern results indicating an extremely rapid exchange of this component. Owing to this very rapid carbonate exchange it is not likely that the ESR signals used for dating are associated with the secondary carbonates. One tooth from Tabun with independent age estimates of >150 ka was further investigated by the Oxford AMS laboratory, yielding an age estimate of 1930±100 BP on the residual collagen from dentine and 18,000±160 BP on the carbonate component of the enamel bioapatite. We did not, however, find an explanation of why some samples give serious ESR underestimatioils whilst many others provide reasonable results.

  9. PCR-DGGE analysis of the bacterial composition of a kaolin slurry showing altered rheology.

    PubMed

    Papp, Ildikó; Balázs, Margit; Tombácz, Etelka; Babcsán, Norbert; Kesserű, Péter; Kiss, István; Szvetnik, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Kaolin is an important industrial raw material and a basis of a range of different products. Microbial spoilage is a detrimental process observed especially in kaolin slurries, leading to low quality products and economic loss. Although the alteration of kaolin slurries in ceramic industry was observed, the process and the microbial background have not been analyzed in details. This study provides the first data using a cultivation independent molecular biological approach (PCR-DGGE) regarding the bacterial composition of an altered kaolin slurry. The results show that potential exopolymer (EPS) producer bacteria (e.g. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas) appear in the altered kaolin slurry, which may have an important role in the modification of kaolin slurries.

  10. Retrospective Analysis of Patient Presentations at the Sydney (Australia) Royal Easter Show from 2012 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Nathan; Mo, Shirley; Ong, Leon; Jegathees, Thuvarahan; Wei, Daniel; Fahey, David; Liu, Jia Jenny

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Comprehensive studies on the relationship between patient demographics and subsequent treatment and disposition at a single mass-gathering event are lacking. The Sydney Royal Easter Show (SRES; Sydney Olympic Park, New South Wales, Australia) is an annual, 14-day, agricultural mass-gathering event occurring around the Easter weekend, attracting more than 800,000 patrons per year. In this study, patient records from the SRES were analyzed to examine relationships between weather, crowd size, day of week, and demographics on treatment and disposition. This information would help to predict factors affecting patient treatment and disposition to guide ongoing training of first responders and to evaluate the appropriateness of staffing skills mix at future events. Hypothesis Patient demographics, environmental factors, and attendance would influence the nature and severity of presentations at the SRES, which would influence staffing requirements.

  11. Analysis of Cylinder-pressure-indicator Diagrams Showing Effects of Mixture Strength and Spark Timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

    1940-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the effect of mixture strength and of normal as well as optimum spark timing on the combustion, on the cylinder temperature, and on the performance characteristics of an engine. A single-cylinder test unit utilizing an air-cooled cylinder and a carburetor and operating with gasoline having an octane rating of 92 was used. The investigation covered a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.053 to 0.118. Indicator diagrams and engine-performance data were taken for each change in engine conditions. Examination of the indicator shows that for fuel-air ratios less than and greater than 0.082 the rate and the amount of effective fuel burned decreased. For a fuel-air ratio of 0.118 the combustion efficiency was only 58 percent. Advancing the spark timing increased the rate of pressure rise. This effect was more pronounced with leaner mixtures.

  12. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting

    PubMed Central

    Białek, Michał; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship). However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries—conjoint analysis—which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 and 2), and they are more stable over time (Study 2) compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods. PMID:25674069

  13. Retrospective analysis showing the water method increased adenoma detection rate — a hypothesis generating observation

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Joseph W; Do, Lynne D; Siao-Salera, Rodelei M; Ngo, Catherine; Parikh, Dhavan A; Mann, Surinder K

    2011-01-01

    Background A water method developed to attenuate discomfort during colonoscopy enhanced cecal intubation in unsedated patients. Serendipitously a numerically increased adenoma detection rate (ADR) was noted. Objective To explore databases of sedated patients examined by the air and water methods to identify hypothesis-generating findings. Design: Retrospective analysis. Setting: VA endoscopy center. Patients: creening colonoscopy. Interventions: From 1/2000–6/2006 the air method was used - judicious air insufflation to permit visualization of the lumen to aid colonoscope insertion and water spray for washing mucosal surfaces. From 6/2006–11/2009 the water method was adopted - warm water infusion in lieu of air insufflation and suction removal of residual air to aid colonoscope insertion. During colonoscope withdrawal adequate air was insufflated to distend the colonic lumen for inspection, biopsy and polypectomy in a similar fashion in both periods. Main outcome measurements: ADR. Results The air (n=683) vs. water (n=495) method comparisons revealed significant differences in overall ADR 26.8% (183 of 683) vs. 34.9% (173 of 495) and ADR of adenomas >9 mm, 7.2% vs. 13.7%, respectively (both P<0.05, Fisher's exact test). Limitations: Non-randomized data susceptible to bias by unmeasured parameters unrelated to the methods. Conclusion Confirmation of the serendipitous observation of an impact of the water method on ADR provides impetus to call for randomized controlled trials to test hypotheses related to the water method as an approach to improving adenoma detection. Because of recent concerns over missed lesions during colonoscopy, the provocative hypothesis-generating observations warrant presentation. PMID:21686105

  14. Mass transport analysis: inhalation rfc methods framework for interspecies dosimetric adjustment.

    PubMed

    Hanna, L M; Lou, S R; Su, S; Jarabek, A M

    2001-05-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency introduced dosimetry modeling into the methods used to derive an inhalation reference concentration (RfC). The type of dosimetric adjustment factor (DAF) applied had to span the range of physicochemical characteristics of the gases listed on the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1991 as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and accommodate differences in available data with respect to their toxicokinetic properties. A framework was proposed that allowed for a hierarchy of dosimetry model structures, from optimal to rudimentary, and a category scheme that provided for limiting model structures based on physicochemical and toxicokinetic properties. These limiting cases were developed from restricting consideration to specific properties relying on an understanding of the generalized system based on mass transport theory. Physiochemical characteristics included the solubility and reactivity (e.g., propensity to dissociate, oxidize, or serve as a metabolic substrate) of the gas and were used as major determinants of absorption. Dosimetric adjustments were developed to evaluate portal of entry (POE) effects as well as remote (systemic) effects relevant to the toxicokinetic properties of the gas of interest. The gas categorization scheme consisted of defining three gas categories: (1) gases that are highly soluble and/or reactive, absorbing primarily in the extrathoracic airways; (2) gases that are moderately soluble and/or reactive, absorbing throughout the airways, as well as accumulating in the bloodstream; and (3) gases that have a low water solubility and are lipid soluble such that they are primarily absorbed in the pulmonary region and likely to act systemically. This article presents the framework and the mass transport theory behind the RfC method. Comparison to compartmental approaches and considerations for future development are also discussed.

  15. Lead-iodide nanowire perovskite with methylviologen showing interfacial charge-transfer absorption: a DFT analysis.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Giorgi, Giacomo

    2014-09-07

    Methylviologen lead-iodide perovskite (MVPb2I6) is a self-assembled one-dimensional (1-D) material consisting of lead-iodide nanowires and intervening organic electron-accepting molecules, methylviologen (MV(2+)). MVPb2I6 characteristically shows optical interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions from the lead-iodide nanowire to MV(2+) in the visible region and unique ambipolar photoconductivity, in which electrons are transported through the three-dimensional (3-D) organic network and holes along the 1-D lead-iodide nanowire. In this work, we theoretically study the electronic band-structure and photocarrier properties of MVPb2I6 by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our results clearly confirm the experimentally reported type-II band alignment, whose valence band mainly consists of 5p (I) orbitals of the lead-iodide nanowires and the conduction band of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of MV(2+). The DFT calculation also reveals weak charge-transfer interactions between the lead-iodide nanowires and MV(2+). In addition, the electronic distributions of the valence and conduction bands indicate the 3-D transport of electrons and 1-D transport of holes, supporting the reported experimental result.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Bifidobacterium longum strains that show a differential response to hydrogen peroxide stress.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Taylor S; Ward, Robert E; Steele, James L; Broadbent, Jeff R

    2015-10-20

    Consumer and commercial interest in foods containing probiotic bifidobacteria is increasing. However, because bifidobacteria are anaerobic, oxidative stress can diminish cell viability during production and storage of bioactive foods. We previously found Bifidobacterium longum strain NCC2705 had significantly greater intrinsic and inducible resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than strain D2957. Here, we explored the basis for these differences by examining the transcriptional responses of both strains to sub-lethal H2O2 exposure for 5- or 60-min. Strain NCC2705 had 288 genes that were differentially expressed after the 5-min treatment and 114 differentially expressed genes after the 60-min treatment. In contrast, strain D2957 had only 21 and 90 differentially expressed genes after the 5- and 60-min treatments, respectively. Both strains showed up-regulation of genes coding enzymes implicated in oxidative stress resistance, such as thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, peroxiredoxin, ferredoxin, glutaredoxin, and anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase, but induction levels were typically highest in NCC2705. Compared to D2957, NCC2705 also had more up-regulated genes involved in transcriptional regulation and more down-regulated genes involved in sugar transport and metabolism. These results provide a greater understanding of the molecular basis for oxidative stress resistance in B. longum and the factors that contribute to strain-to-strain variability in survival in bioactive food products.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis Showed a Differential Signature between Invasive and Non-invasive Corticotrophinomas

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Leonardo Jose Tadeu; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; de Castro, Margaret; Martins, Clarissa Silva; Bronstein, Marcello Delano; Machado, Marcio Carlos; Trarbach, Ericka Barbosa; Villares Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson

    2017-01-01

    ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism caused by a pituitary adenoma [Cushing’s disease (CD)] is the most common cause of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. CD is often associated with several morbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis/bone fractures, secondary infections, and increased cardiovascular mortality. While the majority (≈80%) of the corticotrophinomas visible on pituitary magnetic resonance imaging are microadenomas (MICs, <10 mm of diameter), some tumors are macroadenomas (MACs, ≥10 mm) with increased growth potential and invasiveness, exceptionally exhibiting malignant demeanor. In addition, larger and invasive MACs are associated with a significant increased risk of local complications, such as hypopituitarism and visual defects. Given the clinical and molecular heterogeneity of corticotrophinomas, the aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of genetic differential expression between MIC and MAC, including the invasiveness grade as a criterion for categorizing these tumors. In this study, were included tumor samples from patients with clinical, laboratorial, radiological, and histopathological diagnosis of hypercortisolism due to an ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma. Differential gene expression was studied using an Affymetrix microarray platform in 12 corticotrophinomas, classified as non-invasive MIC (n = 4) and MAC (n = 5), and invasive MAC (n = 3), according to modified Hardy criteria. Somatic mutations in USP8 were also investigated, but none of the patients exhibited USP8 variants. Differential expression analysis demonstrated that non-invasive MIC and MAC have a similar genetic signature, while invasive MACs exhibited a differential expression profile. Among the genes differentially expressed, we highlighted CCND2, ZNF676, DAPK1, and TIMP2, and their differential expression was validated through quantitative real-time PCR in another cohort of 15 non-invasive and 3 invasive cortocotrophinomas. We also

  18. Meta-analysis of lung cancer in asphalt roofing and paving workers with external adjustment for confounding by coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Fayerweather, W.E.

    2007-07-01

    The study's objectives were to update Partanen's and Boffetta's 1994 meta-analysis of lung cancer among roofing and paving asphalt workers and explore the role of coal tar in explaining the statistical heterogeneity among these studies. Information retrieval strategies and eligibility criteria were defined for identifying the epidemiologic studies to be included in the analysis. The relative risk ratio (RR) for lung cancer was selected as the effect measure of interest. Coal tar bias factors were developed and used to externally adjust each eligible study's published RR for confounding by coal tar. The meta-Relative Risk (meta-RR) and its variance were estimated by general variance-based methods. Heterogeneity of the RRs was assessed by heterogeneity chi-square and I{sup 2} tests. The results from this update were similar to those in Partanen's and Boffetta's original meta-analysis. Although the meta-RRs for the roofers and the pavers were no longer statistically significantly different from one another, significant heterogeneity remained within each of the coal tar-adjusted sectors. Meta-analysis of non-experimental epidemiologic studies is subject to significant uncertainties as is externally correcting studies for confounding. Given these uncertainties, the specific quantitative estimates in this (or any similar) analysis must be viewed with caution. Nevertheless, this analysis provides support for the hypothesis proposed by several major reviewers that confounding by coal tar-related PAH exposures may explain most or all of the lung cancer risks found in the epidemiologic literature on asphalt roofing and paving workers.

  19. A propensity score analysis shows that empirical treatment with linezolid does not increase the thirty-day mortality rate in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Ternavasio-de la Vega, Hugo-Guillermo; Mateos-Díaz, Ana-María; Martinez, Jose-Antonio; Almela, Manel; Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Morata, Laura; De-la-Calle, Cristina; Sala, Marta; Mensa, Josep; Marcos, Miguel; Soriano, Alex

    2014-12-01

    The role of linezolid in empirical therapy of suspected bacteremia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of empirical use of linezolid or glycopeptides in addition to other antibiotics on the 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. For this purpose, 1,126 patients with Gram-negative bacteremia in the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona from 2000 to 2012 were included in this study. In order to compare the mortality rates between patients who received linezolid or glycopeptides, the propensity scores on baseline variables were used to balance the treatment groups, and both propensity score matching and propensity-adjusted logistic regression were used to compare the 30-day mortality rates between the groups. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 16.0% during the study period. Sixty-eight patients received empirical treatment with linezolid, and 1,058 received glycopeptides. The propensity score matching included 64 patients in each treatment group. After matching, the mortality rates were 14.1% (9/64) in patients who received glycopeptides and 21.9% (14/64) in those who received linezolid, and a nonsignificant association between empirical linezolid treatment and mortality rate (odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 3.82; P = 0.275, McNemar's test) was found. This association remained nonsignificant when variables that remained unbalanced after matching were included in a conditional logistic regression model. Further, the stratified propensity score analysis did not show any significant relationship between empirical linezolid treatment and the mortality rate after adjustment by propensity score quintiles or other variables potentially associated with mortality. In conclusion, the propensity score analysis showed that empirical treatment with linezolid compared with that with glycopeptides was not associated with 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia.

  20. Hormone therapy and radiotherapy for early prostate cancer: A utility-adjusted number needed to treat (NNT) analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jani, Ashesh B.; Kao, Johnny; Heimann, Ruth; Hellman, Samuel . E-mail: s-hellman@uchicago.edu

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: To quantify, using the number needed to treat (NNT) methodology, the benefit of short-term ({<=}6 months) hormone therapy adjuvant to radiotherapy in the group of patients with early (clinical stage T1-T2c) prostate cancer. Methods and materials: The absolute biochemical control benefit for the use of hormones adjuvant to radiotherapy in early-stage disease was determined by literature review. A model was developed to estimate the utility-adjusted survival detriment due to the side effects of hormone therapy. The NNTs before and after the incorporation of hormone sequelae were computed; the sign and magnitude of the NNTs were used to gauge the effect of the hormones. Results: The absolute NNT analysis, based on summarizing the results of 8 reports including a total of 3652 patients, demonstrated an advantage to the addition of hormones for the general early-stage prostate cancer population as well as for all prognostic groups. After adjustment for hormone-induced functional loss, the advantage of hormones remained considerable in the high- and intermediate-risk groups, with the utility-adjusted NNT becoming weakened in the low-risk group when the utility compromise from complications of hormones was assumed to be considerable. Conclusions: Short-term hormone therapy seems to be beneficial for selected early-stage prostate cancer patients. The advantage seems to be greatest in the intermediate- and high-risk groups; with current follow-up, the side effects of hormones may outweigh their benefit in certain clinical situations in the favorable group. The present investigation demonstrates the significant role of the NNT technique for oncologic and radiotherapeutic management decisions when treatment complications need to be considered and balanced with the beneficial effects of the treatment.

  1. Cost analysis of adjustments of the epidemiological surveillance system to mass gatherings.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of economical analysis of public health activities at mass gatherings. After presentation of elementary review of basic economical approaches to cost analysis author tries to analyze applicability of those methods to planning of mass gatherings. Difficulties in comparability of different events and lack of the outcome data at the stage of planning make most of the economic approaches unsuitable to application at the planning stage. Even applicability of cost minimization analysis may be limited to comparison of predicted costs of preconceived standards of epidemiological surveillance. Cost effectiveness performed ex post after the event when both costs and obtained effects are known, may bring more information for future selection of most effective procedures.

  2. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  3. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  4. A Third Moment Adjusted Test Statistic for Small Sample Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Johnny; Bentler, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Goodness-of-fit testing in factor analysis is based on the assumption that the test statistic is asymptotically chi-square, but this property may not hold in small samples even when the factors and errors are normally distributed in the population. Robust methods such as Browne's (1984) asymptotically distribution-free method and Satorra Bentler's…

  5. The Analysis of Repeated Measurements with Mixed-Model Adjusted "F" Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalchuk, Rhonda K.; Keselman, H. J.; Algina, James; Wolfinger, Russell D.

    2004-01-01

    One approach to the analysis of repeated measures data allows researchers to model the covariance structure of their data rather than presume a certain structure, as is the case with conventional univariate and multivariate test statistics. This mixed-model approach, available through SAS PROC MIXED, was compared to a Welch-James type statistic.…

  6. A Four-Step Faculty Compensation Model: From Equity Analysis to Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Among the varied analytical challenges institutional researchers face, examining faculty pay may be one of the most vexing. Although the literature on faculty compensation analysis dates back to the 1970s (Loeb and Ferber, 1971; Gordon, Morton, and Braden, 1974; Scott, 1977; Braskamp and Johnson, 1978; McLaughlin, Smart, and Montgomery, 1978),…

  7. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the…

  8. MANGO – Modal Analysis for Grid Operation: A Method for Damping Improvement through Operating Point Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chen, Yousu; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Diao, Ruisheng; Fuller, Jason C.; Mittelstadt, William A.; Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2010-10-18

    Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability in the U.S. power grid. An undamped mode can cause large-amplitude oscillations and may result in system breakups and large-scale blackouts. There have been several incidents of system-wide oscillations. Of those incidents, the most notable is the August 10, 1996 western system breakup, a result of undamped system-wide oscillations. Significant efforts have been devoted to monitoring system oscillatory behaviors from measurements in the past 20 years. The deployment of phasor measurement units (PMU) provides high-precision, time-synchronized data needed for detecting oscillation modes. Measurement-based modal analysis, also known as ModeMeter, uses real-time phasor measurements to identify system oscillation modes and their damping. Low damping indicates potential system stability issues. Modal analysis has been demonstrated with phasor measurements to have the capability of estimating system modes from both oscillation signals and ambient data. With more and more phasor measurements available and ModeMeter techniques maturing, there is yet a need for methods to bring modal analysis from monitoring to actions. The methods should be able to associate low damping with grid operating conditions, so operators or automated operation schemes can respond when low damping is observed. The work presented in this report aims to develop such a method and establish a Modal Analysis for Grid Operation (MANGO) procedure to aid grid operation decision making to increase inter-area modal damping. The procedure can provide operation suggestions (such as increasing generation or decreasing load) for mitigating inter-area oscillations.

  9. Using a detailed uncertainty analysis to adjust mapped rates of forest disturbance derived from Landsat time series data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Stehman, S.; Huang, C.; Healey, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest ecosystem process models require spatially and temporally detailed disturbance data to accurately predict fluxes of carbon or changes in biodiversity over time. A variety of new mapping algorithms using dense Landsat time series show great promise for providing disturbance characterizations at an annual time step. These algorithms provide unprecedented detail with respect to timing, magnitude, and duration of individual disturbance events, and causal agent. But all maps have error and disturbance maps in particular can have significant omission error because many disturbances are relatively subtle. Because disturbance, although ubiquitous, can be a relatively rare event spatially in any given year, omission errors can have a great impact on mapped rates. Using a high quality reference disturbance dataset, it is possible to not only characterize map errors but also to adjust mapped disturbance rates to provide unbiased rate estimates with confidence intervals. We present results from a national-level disturbance mapping project (the North American Forest Dynamics project) based on the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) with annual Landsat time series and uncertainty analyses that consist of three basic components: response design, statistical design, and analyses. The response design describes the reference data collection, in terms of the tool used (TimeSync), a formal description of interpretations, and the approach for data collection. The statistical design defines the selection of plot samples to be interpreted, whether stratification is used, and the sample size. Analyses involve derivation of standard agreement matrices between the map and the reference data, and use of inclusion probabilities and post-stratification to adjust mapped disturbance rates. Because for NAFD we use annual time series, both mapped and adjusted rates are provided at an annual time step from ~1985-present. Preliminary evaluations indicate that VCT captures most of the higher

  10. Detailed analysis of charge transport in amorphous organic thin layer by multiscale simulation without any adjustable parameters

    PubMed Central

    Uratani, Hiroki; Kubo, Shosei; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Furitsu; Fukushima, Tatsuya; Kaji, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    Hopping-type charge transport in an amorphous thin layer composed of organic molecules is simulated by the combined use of molecular dynamics, quantum chemical, and Monte Carlo calculations. By explicitly considering the molecular structure and the disordered intermolecular packing, we reasonably reproduce the experimental hole and electron mobilities and their applied electric field dependence (Poole–Frenkel behaviour) without using any adjustable parameters. We find that the distribution of the density-of-states originating from the amorphous nature has a significant impact on both the mobilities and Poole–Frenkel behaviour. Detailed analysis is also provided to reveal the molecular-level origin of the charge transport, including the origin of Poole–Frenkel behaviour. PMID:28000728

  11. Detailed analysis of charge transport in amorphous organic thin layer by multiscale simulation without any adjustable parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uratani, Hiroki; Kubo, Shosei; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Furitsu; Fukushima, Tatsuya; Kaji, Hironori

    2016-12-01

    Hopping-type charge transport in an amorphous thin layer composed of organic molecules is simulated by the combined use of molecular dynamics, quantum chemical, and Monte Carlo calculations. By explicitly considering the molecular structure and the disordered intermolecular packing, we reasonably reproduce the experimental hole and electron mobilities and their applied electric field dependence (Poole–Frenkel behaviour) without using any adjustable parameters. We find that the distribution of the density-of-states originating from the amorphous nature has a significant impact on both the mobilities and Poole–Frenkel behaviour. Detailed analysis is also provided to reveal the molecular-level origin of the charge transport, including the origin of Poole–Frenkel behaviour.

  12. Evaluating the effects of variation in clinical practice: a risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E) analysis of acute stroke services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methods for the cost-effectiveness analysis of health technologies are now well established, but such methods may also have a useful role in the context of evaluating the effects of variation in applied clinical practice. This study illustrates a general methodology for the comparative analysis of applied clinical practice at alternative institutions – risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E) analysis – with an application that compares acute hospital services for stroke patients admitted to the main public hospitals in South Australia. Methods Using linked, routinely collected data on all South Australian hospital separations from July 2001 to June 2008, an analysis of the RAC-E of services provided at four metropolitan hospitals was undertaken using a decision analytic framework. Observed (plus extrapolated) and expected lifetime costs and survival were compared across patient populations, from which the relative cost-effectiveness of services provided at the different hospitals was estimated. Results Unadjusted results showed that at one hospital patients incurred fewer costs and gained more life years than at the other hospitals (i.e. it was the dominant hospital). After risk adjustment, the cost minimizing hospital incurred the lowest costs, but with fewer life-years gained than one other hospital. The mean incremental cost per life-year gained of services provided at the most effective hospital was under $20,000, with an associated 65% probability of being cost-effective at a $50,000 per life year monetary threshold. Conclusions RAC-E analyses can be used to identify important variation in the costs and outcomes associated with clinical practice at alternative institutions. Such data provides an impetus for further investigation to identify specific areas of variation, which may then inform the dissemination of best practice service delivery and organisation. PMID:22905669

  13. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods.

  14. Adjusting stream-sediment geochemical maps in the Austrian Bohemian Massif by analysis of variance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.C.; Hausberger, G.; Schermann, O.; Bohling, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Austrian portion of the Bohemian Massif is a Precambrian terrane composed mostly of highly metamorphosed rocks intruded by a series of granitoids that are petrographically similar. Rocks are exposed poorly and the subtle variations in rock type are difficult to map in the field. A detailed geochemical survey of stream sediments in this region has been conducted and included as part of the Geochemischer Atlas der Republik O??sterreich, and the variations in stream sediment composition may help refine the geological interpretation. In an earlier study, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied to the stream-sediment data in order to minimize unwanted sampling variation and emphasize relationships between stream sediments and rock types in sample catchment areas. The estimated coefficients were used successfully to correct for the sampling effects throughout most of the region, but also introduced an overcorrection in some areas that seems to result from consistent but subtle differences in composition of specific rock types. By expanding the model to include an additional factor reflecting the presence of a major tectonic unit, the Rohrbach block, the overcorrection is removed. This iterative process simultaneously refines both the geochemical map by removing extraneous variation and the geological map by suggesting a more detailed classification of rock types. ?? 1995 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  15. A joint latent class analysis for adjusting survival bias with application to a trauma transfusion study

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Jing; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Choi, Sangbum; Hong, Chuan; Piao, Jin; del Junco, Deborah J.; Fox, Erin E.; Rahbar, Elaheh; Holcomb, John B.

    2015-01-01

    There is no clear classification rule to rapidly identify trauma patients who are severely hemorrhaging and may need substantial blood transfusions. Massive transfusion (MT), defined as the transfusion of at least 10 units of red blood cells within 24 h of hospital admission, has served as a conventional surrogate that has been used to develop early predictive algorithms and establish criteria for ordering an MT protocol from the blood bank. However, the conventional MT rule is a poor proxy, because it is likely to misclassify many severely hemorrhaging trauma patients as they could die before receiving the 10th red blood cells transfusion. In this article, we propose to use a latent class model to obtain a more accurate and complete metric in the presence of early death. Our new approach incorporates baseline patient information from the time of hospital admission, by combining respective models for survival time and usage of blood products transfused within the framework of latent class analysis. To account for statistical challenges, caused by induced dependent censoring inherent in 24-h sums of transfusions, we propose to estimate an improved standard via a pseudo-likelihood function using an expectation-maximization algorithm with the inverse weighting principle. We evaluated the performance of our new standard in simulation studies and compared with the conventional MT definition using actual patient data from the Prospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion study. PMID:26256455

  16. A joint latent class analysis for adjusting survival bias with application to a trauma transfusion study.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jing; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Choi, Sangbum; Hong, Chuan; Piao, Jin; del Junco, Deborah J; Fox, Erin E; Rahbar, Elaheh; Holcomb, John B

    2016-01-15

    There is no clear classification rule to rapidly identify trauma patients who are severely hemorrhaging and may need substantial blood transfusions. Massive transfusion (MT), defined as the transfusion of at least 10 units of red blood cells within 24 h of hospital admission, has served as a conventional surrogate that has been used to develop early predictive algorithms and establish criteria for ordering an MT protocol from the blood bank. However, the conventional MT rule is a poor proxy, because it is likely to misclassify many severely hemorrhaging trauma patients as they could die before receiving the 10th red blood cells transfusion. In this article, we propose to use a latent class model to obtain a more accurate and complete metric in the presence of early death. Our new approach incorporates baseline patient information from the time of hospital admission, by combining respective models for survival time and usage of blood products transfused within the framework of latent class analysis. To account for statistical challenges, caused by induced dependent censoring inherent in 24-h sums of transfusions, we propose to estimate an improved standard via a pseudo-likelihood function using an expectation-maximization algorithm with the inverse weighting principle. We evaluated the performance of our new standard in simulation studies and compared with the conventional MT definition using actual patient data from the Prospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. An analysis of the dynamic avalanche mechanism of an improved FCE diode with a deep p+ adjusting region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailin, Wang; Lei, Zhang

    2015-04-01

    An improved field charge extraction (FCE) diode with a deep p+ adjusting region at the cathode side is studied. The reverse recovery mechanism and electric field gradient are thoroughly analyzed and validated using ISE simulation results. The results show that, based on the premise of ensuring the static characteristics, the improved FCE diode can clearly improve the softness and effectively suppress the peak electric field of the nn- junction at the cathode side during reverse recovery, and thus has a high dynamic avalanche capability compared with conventional FCE diodes. Project supported by the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (RFDP) (No. 20136118110004), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51077110, 51477137).

  18. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  19. Automatic methods for the adjustment of faceted solar-energy concentrators and heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhidov, R. A.; Khakimov, R. A.; Abdurakhmanov, A. A.; Sizov, Iu. M.; Baranov, V. K.

    An automatic adjustment technique is described which makes possible a considerable simplification of the operation of solar-energy installations. Diagrams of devices for the automatic adjustment of the facets of a composite concentrator and of a plane heliostat are presented. An error analysis shows that the accuracy of the adjustment method is 4-5 arcmin.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Aortae from Human Lipoprotein(a) Transgenic Mice Shows an Early Metabolic Response Independent of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, Euan J.; Suetani, Rachel J.; Jones, Gregory T.; Kleffmann, Torsten; Carne, Alan; Legge, Michael; McCormick, Sally P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) and lipoprotein(a) are independent risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. Using a proteomic approach we aimed to determine early changes in arterial protein expression in transgenic mice containing both human LDL and lipoprotein(a) in circulation. Methods and Results Plasma lipid analyses showed the lipoprotein(a) transgenic mice had significantly higher lipid levels than wildtype, including a much increased LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Analysis of aortae from lipoprotein(a) mice showed lipoprotein(a) accumulation but no lipid accumulation or foam cells, leaving the arteries essentially atherosclerosis free. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we identified 34 arterial proteins with significantly altered abundance (P<0.05) in lipoprotein(a) transgenic mice compared to wildtype including 17 that showed a ≥2 fold difference. Some proteins of interest showed a similarly altered abundance at the transcript level. These changes collectively indicated an initial metabolic response that included a down regulation in energy, redox and lipid metabolism proteins and changes in structural proteins at a stage when atherosclerosis had not yet developed. Conclusions Our study shows that human LDL and lipoprotein(a) promote changes in the expression of a unique set of arterial proteins which may be early indicators of the metabolic disturbances preceding atherosclerosis. PMID:22276189

  1. Design and error analysis of adjustable reflection-type magneto-optical photonic crystals for optical isolator application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Mehdi; Ghanaatshoar, Majid

    2014-05-01

    We have performed a theoretical study on the case of reflection-type one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals (MPCs) to establish a practical magneto-optical isolator (MOI). We have introduced thin MPC structures with concurrent high reflectance and large Kerr rotation for oblique incidence, and with the capability of being adjusted to perfect MOIs. It has been shown that the adjustment technique can also provide a framework for establishment of MPCs which are stable against fabrication and setup errors.

  2. Nonlinear relative-proportion-based route adjustment process for day-to-day traffic dynamics: modeling, equilibrium and stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenlong; Ma, Shoufeng; Tian, Junfang; Li, Geng

    2016-11-01

    Travelers' route adjustment behaviors in a congested road traffic network are acknowledged as a dynamic game process between them. Existing Proportional-Switch Adjustment Process (PSAP) models have been extensively investigated to characterize travelers' route choice behaviors; PSAP has concise structure and intuitive behavior rule. Unfortunately most of which have some limitations, i.e., the flow over adjustment problem for the discrete PSAP model, the absolute cost differences route adjustment problem, etc. This paper proposes a relative-Proportion-based Route Adjustment Process (rePRAP) maintains the advantages of PSAP and overcomes these limitations. The rePRAP describes the situation that travelers on higher cost route switch to those with lower cost at the rate that is unilaterally depended on the relative cost differences between higher cost route and its alternatives. It is verified to be consistent with the principle of the rational behavior adjustment process. The equivalence among user equilibrium, stationary path flow pattern and stationary link flow pattern is established, which can be applied to judge whether a given network traffic flow has reached UE or not by detecting the stationary or non-stationary state of link flow pattern. The stability theorem is proved by the Lyapunov function approach. A simple example is tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the rePRAP model.

  3. Linkage Analysis in a Dutch Population Isolate Shows No Major Gene for Left-Handedness or Atypical Language Lateralization

    PubMed Central

    Ophoff, Roel A.; Aukes, Maartje F.; Cantor, Rita M.; Boks, Marco P.; Dauwan, Meenakshi; de Visser, Kees L.; Kahn, René S.; Sommer, Iris E.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral dominance of language function and hand preference are suggested to be heritable traits with possible shared genetic background. However, joined genetic studies of these traits have never been conducted. We performed a genetic linkage study in 37 multigenerational human pedigrees of both sexes (consisting of 355 subjects) enriched with left-handedness in which we also measured language lateralization. Hand preference was measured with the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, and language lateralization was measured with functional transcranial Doppler during language production. The estimated heritability of left-handedness and language lateralization in these pedigrees is 0.24 and 0.31, respectively. A parametric major gene model was tested for left-handedness. Nonparametric analyses were performed for left-handedness, atypical lateralization, and degree of language lateralization. We did not observe genome-wide evidence for linkage in the parametric or nonparametric analyses for any of the phenotypes tested. However, multiple regions showed suggestive evidence of linkage. The parametric model showed suggestive linkage for left-handedness in the 22q13 region [heterogeneity logarithm of odds (HLOD) = 2.18]. Nonparametric multipoint analysis of left-handedness showed suggestive linkage in the same region [logarithm of odds (LOD) = 2.80]. Atypical language lateralization showed suggestive linkage in the 7q34 region (LODMax = 2.35). For strength of language lateralization, we observed suggestive linkage in the 6p22 (LODMax = 2.54), 7q32 (LODMax = 1.93), and 9q33 (LODMax = 2.10) regions. We did not observe any overlap of suggestive genetic signal between handedness and the extent of language lateralization. The absence of significant linkage argues against the presence of a major gene coding for both traits; rather, our results are suggestive of these traits being two independent polygenic complex traits. PMID:26063907

  4. Do invasive species show higher phenotypic plasticity than native species and, if so, is it adaptive? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Amy Michelle; Jennions, Michael; Nicotra, Adrienne B

    2011-04-01

    Do invasive plant species have greater phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species? And, if so, how does this affect their fitness relative to native, non-invasive species? What role might this play in plant invasions? To answer these long-standing questions, we conducted a meta-analysis using data from 75 invasive/non-invasive species pairs. Our analysis shows that invasive species demonstrate significantly higher phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species. To examine the adaptive benefit of this plasticity, we plotted fitness proxies against measures of plasticity in several growth, morphological and physiological traits to test whether greater plasticity is associated with an improvement in estimated fitness. Invasive species were nearly always more plastic in their response to greater resource availability than non-invasives but this plasticity was only sometimes associated with a fitness benefit. Intriguingly, non-invasive species maintained greater fitness homoeostasis when comparing growth between low and average resource availability. Our finding that invasive species are more plastic in a variety of traits but that non-invasive species respond just as well, if not better, when resources are limiting, has interesting implications for predicting responses to global change.

  5. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    PubMed

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  6. Adjusting the Measurement of the Output of the Medical Sector for Quality: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hall, Anne E

    2016-08-11

    The Bureau of Economic Analysis recently created new price indexes for health care in its health care satellite account and now faces the problem of how to adjust them for quality. I review the literature on this topic and divide the articles that created quality-adjusted price indexes for individual medical conditions into those that use primarily outcomes-based adjustments and those that use only process-based adjustments. Outcomes-based adjustments adjust the indexes based on observed aggregate health outcomes, usually mortality. Process-based adjustments adjust the indexes based on the treatments provided and medical knowledge of their effectiveness. Outcomes-based adjustments are easier to implement, while process-based adjustments are more demanding in terms of data and medical knowledge. In general, the research literature shows adjusting for quality in the measurement of output in the medical sector to be quantitatively important.

  7. The value of impulsivity to define subgroups of addicted individuals differing in personality dysfunction, craving, psychosocial adjustment, and wellbeing: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Pilatti, Angelina; Lozano, Oscar; Martínez-González, José M; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    High impulsivity is common to substance and gambling addictions. Despite these commonalities, there is still substantial heterogeneity on impulsivity levels within these diagnostic groups, and variations in impulsive levels predict higher severity of symptoms and poorer outcomes. We addressed the question of whether impulsivity scores can yield empirically driven subgroups of addicted individuals that will exhibit different clinical presentations and outcomes. We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to trait (UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale) and cognitive impulsivity (Stroop and d2 tests) scores in three predominantly male addiction diagnostic groups: Cocaine with Personality Disorders, Cocaine Non-comorbid, and Gambling and analyzed the usefulness of the resulting subgroups to differentiate personality beliefs and relevant outcomes: Craving, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life. In accordance with impulsivity scores, the three addiction diagnostic groups are best represented as two separate classes: Class 1 characterized by greater trait impulsivity and poorer cognitive impulsivity performance and Class 2 characterized by lower trait impulsivity and better cognitive impulsivity performance. The two empirically derived classes showed significant differences on personality features and outcome variables (Class 1 exhibited greater personality dysfunction and worse clinical outcomes), whereas conventional diagnostic groups showed non-significant differences on most of these measures. Trait and cognitive impulsivity scores differentiate subgroups of addicted individuals with more versus less severe personality features and clinical outcomes.

  8. Geochemical analysis of potash mine seep oils, collapsed breccia pipe oil shows and selected crude oils, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, J.G.; Snyder, R.P.; Baysinger, J.P.; Threlkeld, C.N.

    1982-01-01

    Oil shows, in the form of oil stains and bleeding oil, in core samples from two breccia pipes, Hills A and C, Eddy County, New Mexico, and seepage oils in a potash mine near Hill C breccia pipe are geochemically similar. The geochemical similarities strongly suggest that they belong to the same family of oils and were derived from similar sources. The oils are relatively high in sulfur (0.89 to 1.23 percent), rich in hydrocarbons (average 82 percent), relatively high in saturated hydrocarbon/aromatic hydrocarbon ratios (average 2.9), and based on analysis of seep oils alone, have a low API gravity (average 19.4?). The oils are for the most part severely biodegraded as attested by the loss of n-paraffin molecules. Geochemical comparison of seven crude oils collected in the vicinity of the breccia pipes indicates that the Yates oils are the likely source of the above family of oils. Six barrels of crude oil that were dumped into a potash exploration borehole near Hill C breccia pipe, to release stuck casing, are considered an unlikely source of the breccia pipe and mine seep oils. Volumetric and hydrodynamic constraints make it highly improbable that such a small volume of 'dumped' oil could migrate over distances ranging from about 600 feet to 2.5 miles to the sites of the oil shows.

  9. Global morphological analysis of marine viruses shows minimal regional variation and dominance of non-tailed viruses.

    PubMed

    Brum, Jennifer R; Schenck, Ryan O; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-09-01

    Viruses influence oceanic ecosystems by causing mortality of microorganisms, altering nutrient and organic matter flux via lysis and auxiliary metabolic gene expression and changing the trajectory of microbial evolution through horizontal gene transfer. Limited host range and differing genetic potential of individual virus types mean that investigations into the types of viruses that exist in the ocean and their spatial distribution throughout the world's oceans are critical to understanding the global impacts of marine viruses. Here we evaluate viral morphological characteristics (morphotype, capsid diameter and tail length) using a quantitative transmission electron microscopy (qTEM) method across six of the world's oceans and seas sampled through the Tara Oceans Expedition. Extensive experimental validation of the qTEM method shows that neither sample preservation nor preparation significantly alters natural viral morphological characteristics. The global sampling analysis demonstrated that morphological characteristics did not vary consistently with depth (surface versus deep chlorophyll maximum waters) or oceanic region. Instead, temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration, but not chlorophyll a concentration, were more explanatory in evaluating differences in viral assemblage morphological characteristics. Surprisingly, given that the majority of cultivated bacterial viruses are tailed, non-tailed viruses appear to numerically dominate the upper oceans as they comprised 51-92% of the viral particles observed. Together, these results document global marine viral morphological characteristics, show that their minimal variability is more explained by environmental conditions than geography and suggest that non-tailed viruses might represent the most ecologically important targets for future research.

  10. Principal-component-based population structure adjustment in the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium data: impact of single-nucleotide polymorphism set and analysis method

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Population structure occurs when a sample is composed of individuals with different ancestries and can result in excess type I error in genome-wide association studies. Genome-wide principal-component analysis (PCA) has become a popular method for identifying and adjusting for subtle population structure in association studies. Using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 (GAW16) NARAC data, we explore two unresolved issues concerning the use of genome-wide PCA to account for population structure in genetic associations studies: the choice of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) subset and the choice of adjustment model. We computed PCs for subsets of genome-wide SNPs with varying levels of LD. The first two PCs were similar for all subsets and the first three PCs were associated with case status for all subsets. When the PCs associated with case status were included as covariates in an association model, the reduction in genomic inflation factor was similar for all SNP sets. Several models have been proposed to account for structure using PCs, but it is not yet clear whether the different methods will result in substantively different results for association studies with individuals of European descent. We compared genome-wide association p-values and results for two positive-control SNPs previously associated with rheumatoid arthritis using four PC adjustment methods as well as no adjustment and genomic control. We found that in this sample, adjusting for the continuous PCs or adjusting for discrete clusters identified using the PCs adequately accounts for the case-control population structure, but that a recently proposed randomization test performs poorly. PMID:20017972

  11. Brain Correlates of Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Activation Likelihood Analysis Shows Preliminary Evidence of Neural Target Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Ian S.; MacDonald, Angus W.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive remediation training (CRT) for schizophrenia has been found to improve cognitive functioning and influence neural plasticity. However, with various training approaches and mixed findings, the mechanisms driving generalization of cognitive skills from CRT are unclear. In this meta-analysis of extant imaging studies examining CRT’s effects, we sought to clarify whether varying approaches to CRT suggest common neural changes and whether such mechanisms are restorative or compensatory. We conducted a literature search to identify studies appropriate for inclusion in an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. Our criteria required studies to consist of training-based interventions designed to improve patients’ cognitive or social functioning, including generalization to untrained circumstances. Studies were also required to examine changes in pre- vs posttraining functional activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. The literature search identified 162 articles, 9 of which were appropriate for inclusion. ALE analyses comparing pre- and posttraining brain activation showed increased activity in the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal cortex, insula, and the caudate and thalamus. Notably, activation associated with CRT in the left PFC and thalamus partially overlapped with previous meta-analytically identified areas associated with deficits in working memory, executive control, and facial emotion processing in schizophrenia. We conclude that CRT interventions from varying theoretic modalities elicit plasticity in areas that support cognitive and socioemotional processes in this early set of studies. While preliminary, these changes appear to be both restorative and compensatory, though thalamocortical areas previously associated with dysfunction may be common sources of plasticity for cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. PMID:25800249

  12. Expression analysis of human pterygium shows a predominance of conjunctival and limbal markers and genes associated with cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Aryankalayil-John, M.; Campos, M.M.; Fariss, R.N.; Rowsey, J.; Agarwalla, N.; Reid, T.W.; Dushku, N.; Cox, C.A.; Carper, D.; Wistow, G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Pterygium is a vision-impairing fibrovascular lesion that grows across the corneal surface and is associated with sunlight exposure. To increase our understanding of the cells types involved in pterygium, we have used expressed sequence tag analysis to examine the transcriptional repertoire of isolated pterygium and to identify marker genes for tissue origin and cell migration. Methods An unnormalized unamplified cDNA library was prepared from 15 pooled specimens of surgically removed pterygia as part of the NEIBank project. Gene expression patterns were compared with existing data for human cornea, limbus, and conjunctiva, and expression of selected genes was verified by immunofluorescence localization in normal eye ocular surface and in pterygium. Results Sequence analysis of 2,976 randomly selected clones produced over 1,800 unique clusters, potentially representing single genes. The most abundant complementary DNAs from pterygium include clusterin, keratins 13 (Krt13) and 4 (Krt4), S100A9/calgranulin B, and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1). Markers for both conjunctiva (such as keratin 13/4 and AQP3) and corneal epithelium (such as keratin 12/3 and AQP5) were present. Immunofluorescence of Krt12 and 13 in the normal ocular surface showed specificity of Krt12 in cornea and Krt13 in conjunctival and limbal epithelia, with a fairly sharp boundary at the limbal–corneal border. In the pterygium there was a patchy distribution of both Krt12 and 13 up to a normal corneal epithelial region specific for Krt12. Immunoglobulins were also among the prominently expressed transcripts. Several of the genes expressed most abundantly in excised pterygium, particularly S100A9 and SAT1, have roles in cell migration. SAT1 exerts its effects through control of polyamine levels. IPENSpm, a polyamine analogue, showed a significant ability to reduce migration in primary cultures of pterygium. A number of genes highly expressed in cornea were not found in

  13. Analysis of ISO NE Balancing Requirements: Uncertainty-based Secure Ranges for ISO New England Dynamic Inerchange Adjustments

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Wu, Di; Hou, Zhangshuan; Sun, Yannan; Maslennikov, S.; Luo, X.; Zheng, T.; George, S.; Knowland, T.; Litvinov, E.; Weaver, S.; Sanchez, E.

    2013-01-31

    The document describes detailed uncertainty quantification (UQ) methodology developed by PNNL to estimate secure ranges of potential dynamic intra-hour interchange adjustments in the ISO-NE system and provides description of the dynamic interchange adjustment (DINA) tool developed under the same contract. The overall system ramping up and down capability, spinning reserve requirements, interchange schedules, load variations and uncertainties from various sources that are relevant to the ISO-NE system are incorporated into the methodology and the tool. The DINA tool has been tested by PNNL and ISO-NE staff engineers using ISO-NE data.

  14. CERAMIC: Case-Control Association Testing in Samples with Related Individuals, Based on Retrospective Mixed Model Analysis with Adjustment for Covariates

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Sheng; McPeek, Mary Sara

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of genetic association testing of a binary trait in a sample that contains related individuals, where we adjust for relevant covariates and allow for missing data. We propose CERAMIC, an estimating equation approach that can be viewed as a hybrid of logistic regression and linear mixed-effects model (LMM) approaches. CERAMIC extends the recently proposed CARAT method to allow samples with related individuals and to incorporate partially missing data. In simulations, we show that CERAMIC outperforms existing LMM and generalized LMM approaches, maintaining high power and correct type 1 error across a wider range of scenarios. CERAMIC results in a particularly large power increase over existing methods when the sample includes related individuals with some missing data (e.g., when some individuals with phenotype and covariate information have missing genotype), because CERAMIC is able to make use of the relationship information to incorporate partially missing data in the analysis while correcting for dependence. Because CERAMIC is based on a retrospective analysis, it is robust to misspecification of the phenotype model, resulting in better control of type 1 error and higher power than that of prospective methods, such as GMMAT, when the phenotype model is misspecified. CERAMIC is computationally efficient for genomewide analysis in samples of related individuals of almost any configuration, including small families, unrelated individuals and even large, complex pedigrees. We apply CERAMIC to data on type 2 diabetes (T2D) from the Framingham Heart Study. In a genome scan, 9 of the 10 smallest CERAMIC p-values occur in or near either known T2D susceptibility loci or plausible candidates, verifying that CERAMIC is able to home in on the important loci in a genome scan. PMID:27695091

  15. The original and simplified Wells rules and age-adjusted D-dimer testing to rule out pulmonary embolism: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Es, N; Kraaijpoel, N; Klok, F A; Huisman, M V; Den Exter, P L; Mos, I C M; Galipienzo, J; Büller, H R; Bossuyt, P M

    2017-04-01

    Essentials Evidence for the simplified Wells rule in ruling out acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is scarce. This was a post-hoc analysis on data from 6 studies comprising 7268 patients with suspected PE. The simplified Wells rule combined with age-adjusted D-dimer testing may safely rule out PE. Given its ease of use, the simplified Wells rule is to be preferred over the original Wells rule.

  16. Reciprocal influences between maternal parenting and child adjustment in a high-risk population: a 5-year cross-lagged analysis of bidirectional effects.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-09-01

    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress, and their child's adjustment, in a 2-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive 4 broad parenting constructs (involvement, control, rejection, and stress) and 3 child adjustment constructs (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influences were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, and child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bidirectional influences and their potential for practical applications.

  17. Reciprocal Influences Between Maternal Parenting and Child Adjustment in a High-risk Population: A Five-Year Cross-Lagged Analysis of Bidirectional Effects

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress and their child's adjustment, in a two-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive four broad parenting constructs (Involvement, Control, Rejection, and Stress) and three child adjustment constructs (Internalizing problems, Externalizing problems, and Social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influence were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, while child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bi-directional influences, and their potential for practical applications. PMID:25089759

  18. Individual account retirement plans: an analysis of the 2007 survey of consumer finances, with market adjustments to June 2009.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Craig

    2009-08-01

    LATEST SCF DATA: This Issue Brief assesses the current status of Americans' savings for retirement by examining the incidence of individual account plans among families, as well as the average amount of assets accumulated in these accounts. The 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), the Federal Reserve Board's triennial survey of wealth, is the basis for this study, as it is a leading source of data on Americans' wealth, provides detailed information on retirement plan incidence and account balances among families, and is the latest available. ACCOUNTING FOR THE ECONOMIC DOWNTURN: While 2007 SCF is the most comprehensive and current survey of Americans' finances, its timing was unfortunate due to the significant downturn in the economy in 2008 just after the survey was released. To account for that change, this analysis provides estimates of the changes in asset values from the end of 2007 to mid-June 2009 for individual account plan balances. The account balances of the defined contribution plans and IRAs are adjusted based on the asset allocation reported within the plans by using equity market returns and bond market returns from January 1, 2008, to June 19, 2009. MEDIAN ASSET LEVELS FOR DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLANS: Among all families with a defined contribution plan in 2007, the median (mid-point) plan balance was $31,800, up 16 percent from 2004. According to EBRI estimates, this dropped 16.4 percent (to $26,578) from year-end 2007 to mid-June 2009. Losses were higher for families with more than $100,000 a year in income (down 22 percent) or having a net worth in the top 10 percent (down 28 percent). MEDIAN ASSET LEVELS FOR IRA/KEOGH PLANS: Among all families with an IRA/Keogh plan, the median value of their plan was $34,000 in 2007, up 3 percent from 2004. EBRI estimates this median value dropped 15 percent (to $28,955) from year-end 2007 to mid-June 2009. LESS THAN HALF OF ALL FAMILIES HAVE A RETIREMENT PLAN THROUGH A CURRENT JOB: In 2007, 40.6 percent of

  19. End-point parameter adjustment on a small desk-top programmable calculator for logit-log analysis of radioimmunoassay data.

    PubMed

    Hatch, K F; Coles, E; Busey, H; Goldman, S C

    1976-08-01

    We describe an improved method of logit-log curve fitting, by adjusting end-point parameters in radioimmunoassay studies, for use with a small desk-top programmable calculator. Straight logit-log analyses are often deficient because of their high sensitivity to small errors in the end-point parametes B0 and NSB (the actual measured activity in the tubes). The literature suggests techniques for adjusting these end-point parameters, but they require too much computing time and programming space to be used with a desk-top programmable calculator. The extension to the logit-log model presented here is easily handled by the programmable calculator and provides a good estimate of the change required in B0 and NSB to obtain a better fit. The program requires 1.5 min to run on our desk-top programmable calculator, and has resulted in improved data analysis for all of the 11 types of radioimmunoassay studied.

  20. Virulent strain of Lichtheimia corymbifera shows increased phagocytosis by macrophages as revealed by automated microscopy image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kraibooj, Kaswara; Park, Hea-Reung; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Skerka, Christine; Voigt, Kerstin; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2014-12-01

    Lichtheimia corymbifera is a ubiquitous soilborne zygomycete fungus, which is an opportunistic human pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The fungus can cause life-threatening diseases by attacking the lung during early stages of invasion and by disseminating during later phases causing systemic infection. Since infections have drastically increased during the last decades, it is a major goal to investigate the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of L. corymbifera. One of the first barriers, which the fungus needs to cope with in the lung tissue, is phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. Here, we report on phagocytosis assays for murine alveolar macrophages co-incubated with resting, swollen and opsonised spores of a virulent and an attenuated L. corymbifera strain. A major finding of this study is the significantly increased phagocytosis ratio of the virulent strain if compared to the attenuated strain. We quantify the phagocytosis by performing automated analysis of fluorescence microscopy images and by computing ratios for (i) fungal phagocytosis, (ii) fungal adhesion to phagocytes and (iii) fungal aggregation and spore cluster distribution in space. Automation of the image analysis yields objective results that overcome the disadvantages of manual analyses being time consuming, error-prone and subjective. Therefore, it can be expected that automated image analysis of confrontation assays will play a crucial role in future investigations of host-pathogen interactions.

  1. Clinical usefulness and safety of an age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff levels to exclude pulmonary embolism: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Flores, Julio; García de Tena, Jaime; Galipienzo, Javier; García-Avello, Ángel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Esteban; Tortuero, José Ignacio; Álvarez, Concepción; Ruíz, Antonio; Arribas, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    Age-adjusted D-dimer (AADD) appears to increase the proportion of patients in whom pulmonary embolism (PE) can safely be excluded compared with conventional D-dimer (CDD), according to a limited number of studies. The aim if this study was to assess whether the use of an AADD might safely increase the clinical usefulness of CDD for the diagnosis of PE in our setting. Three hundred and sixty two consecutive outpatients with clinically suspected PE in whom plasma samples were obtained to measure D-dimer were included in this post hoc analysis of a previous study. CDD cutoff value was 500 ng/mL and AADD was calculated as (patient's age × 10) ng/mL in patients aged >50. Sensitivity, specificity, clinical usefulness (i.e., proportion of true-negative tests among all patients with suspected PE), and the proportion of false negatives were calculated for both AADD and CDD among patients with low-to-moderate clinical probability of PE according to Well's criteria. PE was confirmed in 98 patients (27%). Among 331 patients with low-to-moderate clinical probability of PE, sensitivity and clinical usefulness were 100 and 27.8% for CDD, respectively, and 100 and 36.5% for AADD, respectively. In 29 patients aged >50 with CDD >500 ng/mL, AADD showed values under its normal cutoff point, without false negatives for the diagnosis of PE (0%, 95% CI 0-11%). AADD increases clinical usefulness notably with respect to that of CDD in patients with clinical suspected PE without losing sensitivity in our cohort. The use of AADD apparently does not reduce the safety of CDD for the exclusion of PE.

  2. Global gene analysis of oocytes from early stages in human folliculogenesis shows high expression of novel genes in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Markholt, S; Grøndahl, M L; Ernst, E H; Andersen, C Yding; Ernst, E; Lykke-Hartmann, K

    2012-02-01

    The pool of primordial follicles in humans is laid down during embryonic development and follicles can remain dormant for prolonged intervals, often decades, until individual follicles resume growth. The mechanisms that induce growth and maturation of primordial follicles are poorly understood but follicles once activated either continue growth or undergo atresia. We have isolated pure populations of oocytes from human primordial, intermediate and primary follicles using laser capture micro-dissection microscopy and evaluated the global gene expression profiles by whole-genome microarray analysis. The array data were confirmed by qPCR for selected genes. A total of 6301 unique genes were identified as significantly expressed representing enriched specific functional categories such as 'RNA binding', 'translation initiation' and 'structural molecule activity'. Several genes, some not previously known to be associated with early oocyte development, were identified with exceptionally high expression levels, such as the anti-proliferative transmembrane protein with an epidermal growth factor-like and two follistatin-like domains (TMEFF2), the Rho-GTPase-activating protein oligophrenin 1 (OPHN1) and the mitochondrial-encoded ATPase6 (ATP6). Thus, the present study provides not only a technique to capture and perform transcriptome analysis of the sparse material of human oocytes from the earliest follicle stages but further includes a comprehensive basis for our understanding of the regulatory factors and pathways present during early human folliculogenesis.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. Methods In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to the laboratory protocol. Results The AutoVue system confirmed ABO blood typing of 12,816 samples (97.7%), and these results were concordant with those of the manual method. The remaining 297 samples (2.3%) showed discrepant results in the AutoVue system and were confirmed by the manual method. The discrepant results involved weak serum reactions (<2+ reaction grade), extra serum reactions, samples from patients who had received stem cell transplants, ABO subgroups, and specific system error messages. Among the 98 samples showing ≤1+ reaction grade in the AutoVue system, 70 samples (71.4%) showed a normal serum reaction (≥2+ reaction grade) with the manual method, and 28 samples (28.6%) showed weak serum reaction in both methods. Conclusions ABO blood tying of 97.7% samples could be confirmed by the AutoVue system and a small proportion (2.3%) needed to be re-evaluated by the manual method. Samples with a 2+ reaction grade in serum typing do not need to be evaluated manually, while those with ≤1+ reaction grade do. PMID:28028997

  4. Analysis of the Relationship Between Predictors of No-Show Appointment Behavior and the Benefit of Automated Patient Reminders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    number of patients who miss their appointment, clinics have been able to achieve greater efficiency through demand forecasting (Dove and Schneider, 1981 ... 1981 ). Lending further creditability to the predictive value of patient specific characteristics, Goldman, Freidin, Cook, Eigner and Grich ( 1981 ) found...independently correlated with no-show behavior (Goldman et al., 1981 ). As administrators and clinicians grapple with the best method for curbing the

  5. Adjustment of Measurements with Multiplicative Errors: Error Analysis, Estimates of the Variance of Unit Weight, and Effect on Volume Estimation from LiDAR-Type Digital Elevation Models

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-01

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

  6. Adjustment of measurements with multiplicative errors: error analysis, estimates of the variance of unit weight, and effect on volume estimation from LiDAR-type digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-10

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM.

  7. Whole Genome Sequence and Phylogenetic Analysis Show Helicobacter pylori Strains from Latin America Have Followed a Unique Evolution Pathway.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Ramírez, Zilia Y; Mendez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Kato, Ikuko; Bravo, Maria M; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Thorell, Kaisa; Torres, Roberto; Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Camorlinga, Margarita; Canzian, Federico; Torres, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) genetics may determine its clinical outcomes. Despite high prevalence of HP infection in Latin America (LA), there have been no phylogenetic studies in the region. We aimed to understand the structure of HP populations in LA mestizo individuals, where gastric cancer incidence remains high. The genome of 107 HP strains from Mexico, Nicaragua and Colombia were analyzed with 59 publicly available worldwide genomes. To study bacterial relationship on whole genome level we propose a virtual hybridization technique using thousands of high-entropy 13 bp DNA probes to generate fingerprints. Phylogenetic virtual genome fingerprint (VGF) was compared with Multi Locus Sequence Analysis (MLST) and with phylogenetic analyses of cagPAI virulence island sequences. With MLST some Nicaraguan and Mexican strains clustered close to Africa isolates, whereas European isolates were spread without clustering and intermingled with LA isolates. VGF analysis resulted in increased resolution of populations, separating European from LA strains. Furthermore, clusters with exclusively Colombian, Mexican, or Nicaraguan strains were observed, where the Colombian cluster separated from Europe, Asia, and Africa, while Nicaraguan and Mexican clades grouped close to Africa. In addition, a mixed large LA cluster including Mexican, Colombian, Nicaraguan, Peruvian, and Salvadorian strains was observed; all LA clusters separated from the Amerind clade. With cagPAI sequence analyses LA clades clearly separated from Europe, Asia and Amerind, and Colombian strains formed a single cluster. A NeighborNet analyses suggested frequent and recent recombination events particularly among LA strains. Results suggests that in the new world, H. pylori has evolved to fit mestizo LA populations, already 500 years after the Spanish colonization. This co-adaption may account for regional variability in gastric cancer risk.

  8. Whole Genome Sequence and Phylogenetic Analysis Show Helicobacter pylori Strains from Latin America Have Followed a Unique Evolution Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Ramírez, Zilia Y.; Mendez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Kato, Ikuko; Bravo, Maria M.; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Thorell, Kaisa; Torres, Roberto; Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Camorlinga, Margarita; Canzian, Federico; Torres, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) genetics may determine its clinical outcomes. Despite high prevalence of HP infection in Latin America (LA), there have been no phylogenetic studies in the region. We aimed to understand the structure of HP populations in LA mestizo individuals, where gastric cancer incidence remains high. The genome of 107 HP strains from Mexico, Nicaragua and Colombia were analyzed with 59 publicly available worldwide genomes. To study bacterial relationship on whole genome level we propose a virtual hybridization technique using thousands of high-entropy 13 bp DNA probes to generate fingerprints. Phylogenetic virtual genome fingerprint (VGF) was compared with Multi Locus Sequence Analysis (MLST) and with phylogenetic analyses of cagPAI virulence island sequences. With MLST some Nicaraguan and Mexican strains clustered close to Africa isolates, whereas European isolates were spread without clustering and intermingled with LA isolates. VGF analysis resulted in increased resolution of populations, separating European from LA strains. Furthermore, clusters with exclusively Colombian, Mexican, or Nicaraguan strains were observed, where the Colombian cluster separated from Europe, Asia, and Africa, while Nicaraguan and Mexican clades grouped close to Africa. In addition, a mixed large LA cluster including Mexican, Colombian, Nicaraguan, Peruvian, and Salvadorian strains was observed; all LA clusters separated from the Amerind clade. With cagPAI sequence analyses LA clades clearly separated from Europe, Asia and Amerind, and Colombian strains formed a single cluster. A NeighborNet analyses suggested frequent and recent recombination events particularly among LA strains. Results suggests that in the new world, H. pylori has evolved to fit mestizo LA populations, already 500 years after the Spanish colonization. This co-adaption may account for regional variability in gastric cancer risk. PMID:28293542

  9. Self-worth and psychological adjustment of obese children: An analysis through the Draw-A-Person

    PubMed Central

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Alborghetti, Amelia; Bruno, Antonio; Troili, Giulia Maria; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate psychopathological correlates of child obesity via the Draw-A-Person test (DAP). METHODS The participants were 50 children with a mean age of 9.74 years. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of body fat. Children were divided into normal (n = 17), overweight (n = 14) and obese (n = 19). Two qualitative methods of scoring the DAP based on an integrative approach were used to assess self-concept (ESW) and overall level of children’s adjustment (EAC). A procedure for judging interpretative skills of clinicians was implemented before they evaluated children’s drawings. RESULTS As predicted by our hypothesis, BMI was negatively correlated with ESW, r (50) = -0.29, P < 0.05, but not with EAC, r (50) = - 0.08, P = ns. To evaluate the effect of gender, Pearson correlations were re-computed regrouping the sample accordingly: BMI and EAC reached a significant negative correlation in female subjects, r (24) = -0.36, P < 0.05, and a positive correlation in male subjects, r (26) = 0.37, P = < 0.05; negative correlation between BMI and ESW became stronger in females, r (24) = -0.51, P < 0.01 but not in males, whose correlation disappeared resulting not-significant, r (26) = -0.06, P = ns. No effect of age was found. Results indicate that obesity has a negative correlation exclusively on overall adjustment and self-concept in female children. CONCLUSION It was concluded that there is a negative bias toward females that reveals how the stigma of obesity is widespread in Western society. PMID:27679772

  10. Large scale genomic analysis shows no evidence for pathogen adaptation between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid niches during bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Lees, John A.; Kremer, Philip H. C.; Manso, Ana S.; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Ferwerda, Bart; Serón, Mercedes Valls; Oggioni, Marco R.; Parkhill, Julian; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for rapid pathogen genome diversification, some of which could potentially affect the course of disease. We have previously described such variation seen between isolates infecting the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a single patient during a case of bacterial meningitis. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of paired isolates from the blood and CSF of 869 meningitis patients to determine whether such variation frequently occurs between these two niches in cases of bacterial meningitis. Using a combination of reference-free variant calling approaches, we show that no genetic adaptation occurs in either invaded niche during bacterial meningitis for two major pathogen species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. This study therefore shows that the bacteria capable of causing meningitis are already able to do this upon entering the blood, and no further sequence change is necessary to cross the blood–brain barrier. Our findings place the focus back on bacterial evolution between nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion, or diversity of the host, as likely mechanisms for determining invasiveness. PMID:28348877

  11. Intrinsic K-Ras dynamics: A novel molecular dynamics data analysis method shows causality between residue pair motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatansever, Sezen; Gümüş, Zeynep H.; Erman, Burak

    2016-11-01

    K-Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers, but there are still no drugs that directly target it in the clinic. Recent studies utilizing dynamics information show promising results for selectively targeting mutant K-Ras. However, despite extensive characterization, the mechanisms by which K-Ras residue fluctuations transfer allosteric regulatory information remain unknown. Understanding the direction of information flow can provide new mechanistic insights for K-Ras targeting. Here, we present a novel approach –conditional time-delayed correlations (CTC) – using the motions of all residue pairs of a protein to predict directionality in the allosteric regulation of the protein fluctuations. Analyzing nucleotide-dependent intrinsic K-Ras motions with the new approach yields predictions that agree with the literature, showing that GTP-binding stabilizes K-Ras motions and leads to residue correlations with relatively long characteristic decay times. Furthermore, our study is the first to identify driver-follower relationships in correlated motions of K-Ras residue pairs, revealing the direction of information flow during allosteric modulation of its nucleotide-dependent intrinsic activity: active K-Ras Switch-II region motions drive Switch-I region motions, while α-helix-3L7 motions control both. Our results provide novel insights for strategies that directly target mutant K-Ras.

  12. Intrinsic K-Ras dynamics: A novel molecular dynamics data analysis method shows causality between residue pair motions

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Sezen; Gümüş, Zeynep H.; Erman, Burak

    2016-01-01

    K-Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers, but there are still no drugs that directly target it in the clinic. Recent studies utilizing dynamics information show promising results for selectively targeting mutant K-Ras. However, despite extensive characterization, the mechanisms by which K-Ras residue fluctuations transfer allosteric regulatory information remain unknown. Understanding the direction of information flow can provide new mechanistic insights for K-Ras targeting. Here, we present a novel approach –conditional time-delayed correlations (CTC) – using the motions of all residue pairs of a protein to predict directionality in the allosteric regulation of the protein fluctuations. Analyzing nucleotide-dependent intrinsic K-Ras motions with the new approach yields predictions that agree with the literature, showing that GTP-binding stabilizes K-Ras motions and leads to residue correlations with relatively long characteristic decay times. Furthermore, our study is the first to identify driver-follower relationships in correlated motions of K-Ras residue pairs, revealing the direction of information flow during allosteric modulation of its nucleotide-dependent intrinsic activity: active K-Ras Switch-II region motions drive Switch-I region motions, while α-helix-3L7 motions control both. Our results provide novel insights for strategies that directly target mutant K-Ras. PMID:27845397

  13. Analysis of HCV genotypes from blood donors shows three new HCV type 6 subgroups exist in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Shinji, Toshiyuki; Kyaw, Yi Yi; Gokan, Katsunori; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Ochi, Koji; Kusano, Nobuchika; Mizushima, Takaaki; Fujioka, Shin-ichi; Shiraha, Hidenori; Lwin, Aye Aye; Shiratori, Yasushi; Mizokami, Masashi; Khin, Myo; Miyahara, Masayuki; Okada, Shigeru; Koide, Norio

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Myanmar in comparison with the rest of Southeast Asia is not well known. Serum samples were obtained from 201 HCV antibody-positive volunteer blood donors in and around the Myanmar city of Yangon. Of these, the antibody titers of 101 samples were checked by serial dilution using HCV antibody PA test II and Terasaki microplate as a low-cost method. To compare antibody titers by this method and RNA identification, we also checked HCV-RNA using the Amplicor 2.0 test. Most high-titer groups were positive for HCV-RNA. Of the 201 samples, 110 were successfully polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified. Among them, 35 (31.8%) were of genotype 1, 52 (47.3%) were of genotype 3, and 23 (20.9%) were of type 6 variants, and phylogenetic analysis of these type 6 variants revealed that 3 new type 6 subgroups exist in Myanmar. We named the subgroups M6-1, M6-2, and M6-3. M6-1 and M6-2 were relatively close to types 8 and 9, respectively. M6-3, though only found in one sample, was a brand-new subgroup. These subtypes were not seen in Vietnam, where type 6 group variants are widely spread. These findings may be useful for analyzing how and when these subgroups were formed.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Neolithic slate plaques from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula are not genealogical recording systems.

    PubMed

    García Rivero, Daniel; O'Brien, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500-2,750 B.C. (calibrated age). One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it.

  15. Anatomical Network Analysis Shows Decoupling of Modular Lability and Complexity in the Evolution of the Primate Skull

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Boughner, Julia C.; Diogo, Rui; Villmoare, Brian A.; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Modularity and complexity go hand in hand in the evolution of the skull of primates. Because analyses of these two parameters often use different approaches, we do not know yet how modularity evolves within, or as a consequence of, an also-evolving complex organization. Here we use a novel network theory-based approach (Anatomical Network Analysis) to assess how the organization of skull bones constrains the co-evolution of modularity and complexity among primates. We used the pattern of bone contacts modeled as networks to identify connectivity modules and quantify morphological complexity. We analyzed whether modularity and complexity evolved coordinately in the skull of primates. Specifically, we tested Herbert Simon’s general theory of near-decomposability, which states that modularity promotes the evolution of complexity. We found that the skulls of extant primates divide into one conserved cranial module and up to three labile facial modules, whose composition varies among primates. Despite changes in modularity, statistical analyses reject a positive feedback between modularity and complexity. Our results suggest a decoupling of complexity and modularity that translates to varying levels of constraint on the morphological evolvability of the primate skull. This study has methodological and conceptual implications for grasping the constraints that underlie the developmental and functional integration of the skull of humans and other primates. PMID:25992690

  16. Anatomical network analysis shows decoupling of modular lability and complexity in the evolution of the primate skull.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Boughner, Julia C; Diogo, Rui; Villmoare, Brian A; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Modularity and complexity go hand in hand in the evolution of the skull of primates. Because analyses of these two parameters often use different approaches, we do not know yet how modularity evolves within, or as a consequence of, an also-evolving complex organization. Here we use a novel network theory-based approach (Anatomical Network Analysis) to assess how the organization of skull bones constrains the co-evolution of modularity and complexity among primates. We used the pattern of bone contacts modeled as networks to identify connectivity modules and quantify morphological complexity. We analyzed whether modularity and complexity evolved coordinately in the skull of primates. Specifically, we tested Herbert Simon's general theory of near-decomposability, which states that modularity promotes the evolution of complexity. We found that the skulls of extant primates divide into one conserved cranial module and up to three labile facial modules, whose composition varies among primates. Despite changes in modularity, statistical analyses reject a positive feedback between modularity and complexity. Our results suggest a decoupling of complexity and modularity that translates to varying levels of constraint on the morphological evolvability of the primate skull. This study has methodological and conceptual implications for grasping the constraints that underlie the developmental and functional integration of the skull of humans and other primates.

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis Shows That Neolithic Slate Plaques from the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula Are Not Genealogical Recording Systems

    PubMed Central

    García Rivero, Daniel; O'Brien, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500–2,750 B.C. (calibrated age). One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it. PMID:24558384

  18. Meta-analysis of quantification methods shows that archaea and bacteria have similar abundances in the subseafloor.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Karen G; May, Megan K; Kevorkian, Richard T; Steen, Andrew D

    2013-12-01

    There is no universally accepted method to quantify bacteria and archaea in seawater and marine sediments, and different methods have produced conflicting results with the same samples. To identify best practices, we compiled data from 65 studies, plus our own measurements, in which bacteria and archaea were quantified with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition FISH (CARD-FISH), polyribonucleotide FISH, or quantitative PCR (qPCR). To estimate efficiency, we defined "yield" to be the sum of bacteria and archaea counted by these techniques divided by the total number of cells. In seawater, the yield was high (median, 71%) and was similar for FISH, CARD-FISH, and polyribonucleotide FISH. In sediments, only measurements by CARD-FISH in which archaeal cells were permeabilized with proteinase K showed high yields (median, 84%). Therefore, the majority of cells in both environments appear to be alive, since they contain intact ribosomes. In sediments, the sum of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene qPCR counts was not closely related to cell counts, even after accounting for variations in copy numbers per genome. However, qPCR measurements were precise relative to other qPCR measurements made on the same samples. qPCR is therefore a reliable relative quantification method. Inconsistent results for the relative abundance of bacteria versus archaea in deep subsurface sediments were resolved by the removal of CARD-FISH measurements in which lysozyme was used to permeabilize archaeal cells and qPCR measurements which used ARCH516 as an archaeal primer or TaqMan probe. Data from best-practice methods showed that archaea and bacteria decreased as the depth in seawater and marine sediments increased, although archaea decreased more slowly.

  19. Tropical cyclone losses in the USA and the impact of climate change - A trend analysis based on data from a new approach to adjusting storm losses

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Silvio; Hoeppe, Peter

    2009-11-15

    Economic losses caused by tropical cyclones have increased dramatically. Historical changes in losses are a result of meteorological factors (changes in the incidence of severe cyclones, whether due to natural climate variability or as a result of human activity) and socio-economic factors (increased prosperity and a greater tendency for people to settle in exposed areas). This paper aims to isolate the socio-economic effects and ascertain the potential impact of climate change on this trend. Storm losses for the period 1950-2005 have been adjusted to the value of capital stock in 2005 so that any remaining trend cannot be ascribed to socio-economic developments. For this, we introduce a new approach to adjusting losses based on the change in capital stock at risk. Storm losses are mainly determined by the intensity of the storm and the material assets, such as property and infrastructure, located in the region affected. We therefore adjust the losses to exclude increases in the capital stock of the affected region. No trend is found for the period 1950-2005 as a whole. In the period 1971-2005, since the beginning of a trend towards increased intense cyclone activity, losses excluding socio-economic effects show an annual increase of 4% per annum. This increase must therefore be at least due to the impact of natural climate variability but, more likely than not, also due to anthropogenic forcings.

  20. Genetic analysis shows that morphology alone cannot distinguish asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinid species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; McCalla, Sunnie; Chapman, Duane C.; Rees, Christopher B.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; George, Amy E.; Richardson, William B.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Fish eggs and embryos (hereafter collectively referred to as “eggs”) were collected in the upper Mississippi River main stem (~300 km upstream of previously reported spawning by invasive Asian carp) during summer 2013. Based on previously published morphological characteristics, the eggs were identified as belonging to Asian carp. A subsample of the eggs was subsequently analyzed by using molecular methods to determine species identity. Genetic identification using the cytochrome-c oxidase 1 gene was attempted for a total of 41 eggs. Due to the preservation technique used (formalin) and the resulting DNA degradation, sequences were recovered from only 17 individual eggs. In all 17 cases, cyprinids other than Asian carp (usually Notropis sp.) were identified as the most likely species. In previously published reports, a key characteristic that distinguished Asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinids was size: Asian carp eggs exhibited diameters ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 mm and were thought to be much larger than the otherwise similar eggs of native species. Eggs from endemic cyprinids were believed to rarely reach 3.0 mm and had not been observed to exceed 3.3 mm. However, many of the eggs that were genetically identified as originating from native cyprinids were as large as 4.0 mm in diameter (at early developmental stages) and were therefore large enough to over- lap with the lower end of the size range observed for Asian carp eggs. Researchers studying the egg stages of Asian carp and other cyprinids should plan on preserving subsets of eggs for genetic analysis to confirm morphological identifications.

  1. Efficacy of extended thrombo-prophylaxis in major abdominal surgery: what does the evidence show? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bottaro, Federico Jorge; Elizondo, Maria Cristina; Doti, Carlos; Bruetman, Julio Enrique; Perez Moreno, Pablo Diego; Bullorsky, Eduardo Oscar; Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2008-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication following major abdominal surgery. The use of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) to prevent thrombotic events in these patients is a common and well documented practice. However, there is some controversy surrounding the duration of the prophylaxis, as it has been suggested that the risk persists for several weeks after surgery. The objective of this meta-analysis is to systematically review the clinical studies that compared safety and efficacy of extended use of LMWH (for three to four weeks after surgery) versus conventional in-hospital prophylaxis. An electronic data base search was performed. Only randomized, controlled studies were eligible. Data on the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), VTE and bleeding were extracted. Only three studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The indication for surgery was neoplastic disease in 70.6% (780/1104) of patients. The administration of extended LMWH prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of VTE, 5.93% (23/388) versus 13.6% (55/405), RR 0.44 (CI 95% 0.28 - 0.7); DVT 5.93% (23/388) versus 12.9% (52/402), RR 0.46 (CI 95% 0.29 - 0.74); proximal DVT 1% (4/388) versus 4.72% (19/402), RR 0.24 (CI 95% 0.09 - 0.67). We found no significant difference in major or minor bleeding between the two groups: 3.85% (21/545) in the extended thrombo-prophylaxis (ETP) group versus 3.48% (19/559) in the conventional prophylaxis group; RR 1.12 (CI 95% 0.61 - 2.06). There was no heterogeneity between the studies. We conclude that ETP with LMWH should be considered as a safe and useful strategy to prevent VTE in high-risk major abdominal surgery.

  2. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  3. Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Bollongino, Ruth; Scheu, Amelie; Chamberlain, Andrew; Tresset, Anne; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Baird, Jillian F; Larson, Greger; Ho, Simon Y.W; Heupink, Tim H; Shapiro, Beth; Freeman, Abigail R; Thomas, Mark G; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Arndt, Betty; Bartosiewicz, László; Benecke, Norbert; Budja, Mihael; Chaix, Louis; Choyke, Alice M; Coqueugniot, Eric; Döhle, Hans-Jürgen; Göldner, Holger; Hartz, Sönke; Helmer, Daniel; Herzig, Barabara; Hongo, Hitomi; Mashkour, Marjan; Özdogan, Mehmet; Pucher, Erich; Roth, Georg; Schade-Lindig, Sabine; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Schulting, Rick J; Stephan, Elisabeth; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; Vörös, István; Voytek, Barbara; Bradley, Daniel G; Burger, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius) was a large type of cattle that ranged over almost the whole Eurasian continent. The aurochs is the wild progenitor of modern cattle, but it is unclear whether European aurochs contributed to this process. To provide new insights into the demographic history of aurochs and domestic cattle, we have generated high-confidence mitochondrial DNA sequences from 59 archaeological skeletal finds, which were attributed to wild European cattle populations based on their chronological date and/or morphology. All pre-Neolithic aurochs belonged to the previously designated P haplogroup, indicating that this represents the Late Glacial Central European signature. We also report one new and highly divergent haplotype in a Neolithic aurochs sample from Germany, which points to greater variability during the Pleistocene. Furthermore, the Neolithic and Bronze Age samples that were classified with confidence as European aurochs using morphological criteria all carry P haplotype mitochondrial DNA, suggesting continuity of Late Glacial and Early Holocene aurochs populations in Europe. Bayesian analysis indicates that recent population growth gives a significantly better fit to our data than a constant-sized population, an observation consistent with a postglacial expansion scenario, possibly from a single European refugial population. Previous work has shown that most ancient and modern European domestic cattle carry haplotypes previously designated T. This, in combination with our new finding of a T haplotype in a very Early Neolithic site in Syria, lends persuasive support to a scenario whereby gracile Near Eastern domestic populations, carrying predominantly T haplotypes, replaced P haplotype-carrying robust autochthonous aurochs populations in Europe, from the Early Neolithic onward. During the period of coexistence, it appears that domestic cattle were kept separate from wild aurochs and introgression was extremely rare. PMID

  4. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of ‘modern’ and Neanderthal features

    PubMed Central

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M1s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M1s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M1 occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M1s. PMID:23914934

  5. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  6. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of 'modern' and Neanderthal features.

    PubMed

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M(1) s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M(1) s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M(1) occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M(1) s.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of inbreeding depression in cold-sensitive Drosophila melanogaster shows upregulation of the immune response.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, C J; Sørensen, P; Kirilova Gagalova, K; Loeschcke, V

    2013-09-01

    In sexually reproducing species, increased homozygosity often causes a decline in fitness, called inbreeding depression. Recently, researchers started describing the functional genomic changes that occur during inbreeding, both in benign conditions and under environmental stress. To further this aim, we have performed a genome-wide gene expression study of inbreeding depression, manifesting as cold sensitivity and conditional lethality. Our focus was to describe general patterns of gene expression during inbreeding depression and to identify specific processes affected in our line. There was a clear difference in gene expression between the stressful restrictive environment and the benign permissive environment in both the affected inbred line and the inbred control line. We noted a strong inbreeding-by-environment interaction, whereby virtually all transcriptional differences between lines were found in the restrictive environment. Functional annotation showed enrichment of transcripts coding for serine proteases and their inhibitors (serpins and BPTI/Kunitz family), which indicates activation of the innate immune response. These genes have previously been shown to respond transcriptionally to cold stress, suggesting the conditional lethal effect is associated with an exaggerated cold stress response. The set of differentially expressed genes significantly overlapped with those found in three other studies of inbreeding depression, demonstrating that it is possible to detect a common signature across different genetic backgrounds.

  8. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

    2004-01-07

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X-rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that show increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype co-segregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-versus-dose assays in at least two haploid and one homozygous diploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1 and VID21/EAF1, and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes have a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, has at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultra-violet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino-acids are also X-ray sensitive, seeming to confirm that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage.

  9. An actuarial analysis shows that offering lung cancer screening as an insurance benefit would save lives at relatively low cost.

    PubMed

    Pyenson, Bruce S; Sander, Marcia S; Jiang, Yiding; Kahn, Howard; Mulshine, James L

    2012-04-01

    Lung cancer screening is not established as a public health practice, yet the results of a recent large randomized controlled trial showed that screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography reduces lung cancer mortality. Using actuarial models, this study estimated the costs and benefits of annual lung cancer screening offered as a commercial insurance benefit in the high-risk US population ages 50-64. Assuming current commercial reimbursement rates for treatment, we found that screening would cost about $1 per insured member per month in 2012 dollars. The cost per life-year saved would be below $19,000, an amount that compares favorably with screening for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers. Our results suggest that commercial insurers should consider lung cancer screening of high-risk individuals to be high-value coverage and provide it as a benefit to people who are at least fifty years old and have a smoking history of thirty pack-years or more. We also believe that payers and patients should demand screening from high-quality, low-cost providers, thus helping set an example of efficient system innovation.

  10. Comparative analysis of zygotic developmental genes in Rhodnius prolixus genome shows conserved features on the tracheal developmental pathway.

    PubMed

    Lavore, A; Pascual, A; Salinas, F M; Esponda-Behrens, N; Martinez-Barnetche, J; Rodriguez, M; Rivera-Pomar, R

    2015-09-01

    Most of the in-depth studies on insect developmental genetic have been carried out in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an holometabolous insect, so much more still remains to be studied in hemimetabolous insects. Having Rhodnius prolixus sequenced genome available, we search for orthologue genes of zygotic signaling pathways, segmentation, and tracheogenesis in the R. prolixus genome and in three species of Triatoma genus transcriptomes, concluding that there is a high level of gene conservation. We also study the function of two genes required for tracheal system development in D. melanogaster - R. prolixus orthologues: trachealess (Rp-trh) and empty spiracles (Rp-ems). From that we see that Rp-trh is required for early tracheal development since Rp-trh RNAi shows that the primary tracheal branches fail to form. On the other hand, Rp-ems is implied in the proper formation of the posterior tracheal branches, in a similar way to D. melanogaster. These results represent the initial characterization of the genes involved in the tracheal development of an hemimetabolous insect building a bridge between the current genomic era and V. Wigglesworth's classical studies on insects' respiratory system physiology.

  11. Analysis of pattern precision shows that Drosophila segmentation develops substantial independence from gradients of maternal gene products.

    PubMed

    Holloway, David M; Harrison, Lionel G; Kosman, David; Vanario-Alonso, Carlos E; Spirov, Alexander V

    2006-11-01

    We analyze the relation between maternal gradients and segmentation in Drosophila, by quantifying spatial precision in protein patterns. Segmentation is first seen in the striped expression patterns of the pair-rule genes, such as even-skipped (eve). We compare positional precision between Eve and the maternal gradients of Bicoid (Bcd) and Caudal (Cad) proteins, showing that Eve position could be initially specified by the maternal protein concentrations but that these do not have the precision to specify the mature striped pattern of Eve. By using spatial trends, we avoid possible complications in measuring single boundary precision (e.g., gap gene patterns) and can follow how precision changes in time. During nuclear cleavage cycles 13 and 14, we find that Eve becomes increasingly correlated with egg length, whereas Bcd does not. This finding suggests that the change in precision is part of a separation of segmentation from an absolute spatial measure, established by the maternal gradients, to one precise in relative (percent egg length) units.

  12. A Nationwide Analysis of Outcomes of Weekend Admissions for Intracerebral Hemorrhage Shows Disparities Based on Hospital Teaching Status

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Achint A.; Benjo, Alexandre; Pathak, Ambarish; Kar, Jitesh; Jani, Vishal B.; Annapureddy, Narender; Agarwal, Shiv Kumar; Sabharwal, Manpreet S.; Simoes, Priya K.; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Yacoub, Rabi; Javed, Fahad; El Hayek, Georges; Menon, Madhav C.; Nadkarni, Girish N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: With the “weekend effect” being well described, the Brain Attack Coalition released a set of “best practice” guidelines in 2005, with the goal to uniformly provide standard of care to patients with stroke. We attempted to define a “weekend effect” in outcomes among patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) over the last decade, utilizing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data. We also attempted to analyze the trend of such an effect. Materials and Methods: We determined the association of ICH weekend admissions with hospital outcomes including mortality, adverse discharge, length of stay, and cost compared to weekday admissions using multivariable logistic regression. We extracted our study cohort from the NIS, the largest all-payer data set in the United States. Results: Of 485 329 ICH admissions from 2002 to 2011, 27.5% were weekend admissions. Overall, weekend admissions were associated with 11% higher odds of in-hospital mortality. When analyzed in 3-year groups, excess mortality of weekend admissions showed temporal decline. There was higher mortality with weekend admissions in nonteaching hospitals persisted (odds ratios 1.16, 1.13, and 1.09, respectively, for 3-year subgroups). Patients admitted during weekends were also 9% more likely to have an adverse discharge (odds ratio 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.11; P < .001) with no variation by hospital status. There was no effect of a weekend admission on either length of stay or cost of care. Conclusion: Nontraumatic ICH admissions on weekends have higher in-hospital mortality and adverse discharge. This demonstrates need for in-depth review for elucidating this discrepancy and stricter adherence to standard-of-care guidelines to ensure uniform care. PMID:27053981

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis during Mammalian Infection Shows Cells Undergo Adaptation and Exist in a Stringent Response State

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kristi L.; Colomer-Winter, Cristina; Grindle, Suzanne M.; Lemos, José A.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Dunny, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    As both a commensal and a major cause of healthcare-associated infections in humans, Enterococcus faecalis is a remarkably adaptable organism. We investigated how E. faecalis adapts in a mammalian host as a pathogen by characterizing changes in the transcriptome during infection in a rabbit model of subdermal abscess formation using transcriptional microarrays. The microarray experiments detected 222 and 291 differentially regulated genes in E. faecalis OG1RF at two and eight hours after subdermal chamber inoculation, respectively. The profile of significantly regulated genes at two hours post-inoculation included genes involved in stress response, metabolism, nutrient acquisition, and cell surface components, suggesting genome-wide adaptation to growth in an altered environment. At eight hours post-inoculation, 88% of the differentially expressed genes were down-regulated and matched a transcriptional profile consistent with a (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response. Subsequent subdermal abscess infections with E. faecalis mutants lacking the (p)ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase RSH, the small synthetase RelQ, or both enzymes, suggest that intracellular (p)ppGpp levels, but not stringent response activation, influence persistence in the model. The ability of cells to synthesize (p)ppGpp was also found to be important for growth in human serum and whole blood. The data presented in this report provide the first genome-wide insights on E. faecalis in vivo gene expression and regulation measured by transcriptional profiling during infection in a mammalian host and show that (p)ppGpp levels affect viability of E. faecalis in multiple conditions relevant to mammalian infection. The subdermal abscess model can serve as a novel experimental system for studying the E. faecalis stringent response in the context of the mammalian immune system. PMID:25545155

  14. "Hand down, man down." Analysis of defensive adjustments in response to the hot hand in basketball using novel defense metrics.

    PubMed

    Csapo, Peter; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The hot-hand phenomenon, according to which a player's performance is significantly elevated during certain phases relative to the expected performance based on the player's base rate, has left many researchers and fans in basketball puzzled: The vast majority of players, coaches and fans believe in its existence but statistical evidence supporting this belief has been scarce. It has frequently been argued that the hot hand in basketball is unobservable because of strategic adjustments and defensive interference of the opposing team. We use a dataset with novel metrics, such as the number of defenders and the defensive intensity for each shot attempt, which enable us to directly measure defensive pressure. First, we examine how the shooting percentage of NBA players changes relative to the attributes of each metric. We find that it is of lesser importance by how many defenders a player is guarded but that defensive intensity, e.g., whether a defender raises his hand when his opponent shoots, has a larger impact on shot difficulty. Second, we explore how the underlying metrics and shooting accuracy change as a function of streak length. Our results indicate that defensive pressure and shot difficulty increase (decrease) during hot (cold) streaks, so that defenders seem to behave according to the hot-hand belief and try to force hot players into more difficult shots. However, we find that shooting percentages of presumably hot players do not increase and that shooting performance is not related to streakiness, so that the defenders' hot-hand behavior cannot be considered ecologically rational. Therefore, we are unable to find evidence in favor of the hot-hand effect even when accounting for defensive pressure.

  15. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  16. Analysis of the Status Quo and Suggested Policy Adjustments for Sino-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiqiong, Qin

    2009-01-01

    Statistics and analysis indicate that there are many problems to be resolved over the issue of Sino-foreign cooperation in running schools. These include national policy failing to catch up with development, Chinese and foreign partners disagreeing on the objectives of their cosponsored programs, cooperation being geographically unbalanced,…

  17. Family Adjustment Measure: Scale Construction and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daire, Andrew P.; Dominguez, Vanessa N.; Carlson, Ryan G.; Case-Pease, Jenene

    2014-01-01

    We administered the Family Adjustment Measure to 368 parents of children with special needs to identify positive adjustment. We randomly split the sample to conduct exploratory factor analysis ("n" = 194) and confirmatory factor analysis ("n" = 174). Results indicated four possible subscales and that explain 51% of the variance.

  18. Applying risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E) analysis to hospitals: estimating the costs and consequences of variation in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Karnon, Jonathan; Caffrey, Orla; Pham, Clarabelle; Grieve, Richard; Ben-Tovim, David; Hakendorf, Paul; Crotty, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is well established for pharmaceuticals and medical technologies but not for evaluating variations in clinical practice. This paper describes a novel methodology--risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E)--that facilitates the comparative evaluation of applied clinical practice processes. In this application, risk adjustment is undertaken with a multivariate matching algorithm that balances the baseline characteristics of patients attending different settings (e.g., hospitals). Linked, routinely collected data are used to analyse patient-level costs and outcomes over a 2-year period, as well as to extrapolate costs and survival over patient lifetimes. The study reports the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative forms of clinical practice, including a full representation of the statistical uncertainty around the mean estimates. The methodology is illustrated by a case study that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of services for patients presenting with acute chest pain across the four main public hospitals in South Australia. The evaluation finds that services provided at two hospitals were dominated, and of the remaining services, the more effective hospital gained life years at a low mean additional cost and had an 80% probability of being the most cost-effective hospital at realistic cost-effectiveness thresholds. Potential determinants of the estimated variation in costs and effects were identified, although more detailed analyses to identify specific areas of variation in clinical practice are required to inform improvements at the less cost-effective institutions.

  19. Family Adjustment of Single Parents in the U. S. Army: An Empirical Analysis of Work Stressors and Adaptive Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    0: cca m w 0 0n ~C4 CR *4~ c.0 t- 00r ’wa -. cgq Cog I .~ ~ 15 Regression Analysis* Single MotherS Table 8 presents the results from the hierarchical...Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. (AD A225 085) Orthner, D.K., Bowen, G.L., & Beare, V.G. (1990). The organization family: A

  20. Experimental investigation and theoretical analysis of pulse repetition rate adjustable deep ultraviolet picosecond radiation by second harmonic generation in KBe2BO3F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhi; Zhang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Shenjin; Wang, Zhimin; Yang, Feng; Xu, Fengliang; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Zhang, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan

    2014-06-01

    We reported on an experimental investigation and theoretical analysis of pulse repetition rate (PRR) adjustable deep ultraviolet (DUV) picosecond (ps) radiation by second harmonic generation (SHG) in KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF) crystal. Third harmonic radiation at 355 nm of a ps Nd:YVO4 laser output with PRR of 200 kHz-1 MHz was employed as the pump source. The dependence of the 177.3 nm output power on the 355 nm pump power was measured at different PRRs, and the maximum 177.3 nm average output power of 695 μW was obtained at the PRR of 200 kHz. The measured data agreed well with the results of the ps KBBF SHG theoretical simulations. Using simulations, the pulse width and the spectral bandwidth of the generated radiation at 177.3 nm were estimated to be 5.88 ps and 7.84 pm, respectively.

  1. CALORIMETER-BASED ADJUSTMENT OF MULTIPLICITY DETERMINED 240PU EFF KNOWN-A ANALYSIS FOR THE ASSAY OF PLUTONIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Dubose, F.

    2012-02-21

    In nuclear material processing facilities, it is often necessary to balance the competing demands of accuracy and throughput. While passive neutron multiplicity counting is the preferred method for relatively fast assays of plutonium, the presence of low-Z impurities (fluorine, beryllium, etc.) rapidly erodes the assay precision of passive neutron counting techniques, frequently resulting in unacceptably large total measurement uncertainties. Conversely, while calorimeters are immune to these impurity effects, the long count times required for high accuracy can be a hindrance to efficiency. The higher uncertainties in passive neutron measurements of impure material are driven by the resulting large (>>2) {alpha}-values, defined as the ({alpha},n):spontaneous fission neutron emission ratio. To counter impurity impacts for high-{alpha} materials, a known-{alpha} approach may be adopted. In this method, {alpha} is determined for a single item using a combination of gamma-ray and calorimetric measurements. Because calorimetry is based on heat output, rather than a statistical distribution of emitted neutrons, an {alpha}-value determined in this way is far more accurate than one determined from passive neutron counts. This fixed {alpha} value can be used in conventional multiplicity analysis for any plutonium-bearing item having the same chemical composition and isotopic distribution as the original. With the results of single calorimeter/passive neutron/gamma-ray measurement, these subsequent items can then be assayed with high precision and accuracy in a relatively short time, despite the presence of impurities. A calorimeter-based known-{alpha} multiplicity analysis technique is especially useful when requiring rapid, high accuracy, high precision measurements of multiple plutonium bearing items having a common source. The technique has therefore found numerous applications at the Savannah River Site. In each case, a plutonium (or mixed U/Pu) bearing item is divided

  2. Delay Adjusted Incidence

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of dialysis and kidney transplant in patients with renal impairment using disability adjusted life years in Iran

    PubMed Central

    YaghoubiFard, Safiye; Goudarzi, Reza; Etminan, Abbas; Baneshi, MohammadReza; Barouni, Mohsen; Jafari Sirizi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: This cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the cost-effectiveness of three therapeutic methods of long-term hemodialysis, kidney transplant from a living person and kidney transplant from a cadaver utilizing Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) using data from the records of patients referred to Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman in 2012. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilizing Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) as outcome measure, used data from the records of patients referred to Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman in 2012. The decision tree model and decision tree software (Tree Age pro 11) were used for data analysis. In this research, costs and effects were studied from the patients and healthcare providers’ perspective. Results: In the patient’s perspective, the CER of dialysis was 5.04 times greater than transplant from a living person and 6.15 times higher than transplant from a cadaveric donor. In the hospital’s perspective, the average cost-effectiveness ratio of dialysis was 8.4 times greater than transplant from a living person and 14.07 times higher than transplant from a cadaver. The smaller the C-E ratio, the greater was the cost-effectiveness. In both perspectives, the order of effectiveness of treatment methods were transplant from a cadaver, transplant from a living person and dialysis. Conclusion: Considering the results obtained in this study, measures should be taken to increase the desire for organ donation from brain-dead patients, living people and patients’ relatives PMID:27493934

  4. The relationship between social support and self-reported health status in immigrants: an adjusted analysis in the Madrid Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Social support is an important factor in the adaptation process of immigrants, helping for their integration in a new environment. The lack of social support may influence on well-being and health status. The aim of this study is to describe the social support of immigrant and native population and study the possible association between immigration and lack social support after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, income, stress and self-reported health status. Methods Cross-sectional population based study of immigrants and national patients without mental disorders of 15 urban primary health centers in the north-eastern area of Madrid. Participants provided information on social support, stress level, perceived health status and socio-economic characteristics. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression were conducted. Results The proportion of the global perception of social support among immigrants and natives was 79.2% and 94.2%, respectively. The lack of global social support adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) of immigrant was 2.72 (95% Confidence Interval = 1.81-4.09), showing a significant association with being male (PR = 2.26), having monthly income below 500 euros (PR = 3.81) and suffering stress (PR = 1.94). For the dimensions of lack of social support the higher association was being an immigrant and suffering stress. Conclusions We conclude that with regardless of the level of monthly income, stress level, self-reported health status, and gender, immigrant status is directly associated with lack social support. The variable most strongly associated with lack social support has been monthly income below 500 euros. PMID:21651759

  5. Gait initiation is impaired in subjects with Parkinson's disease in the OFF state: Evidence from the analysis of the anticipatory postural adjustments through wearable inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Bonora, Gianluca; Mancini, Martina; Carpinella, Ilaria; Chiari, Lorenzo; Horak, Fay B; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    People with Parkinson's disease (PD) typically demonstrate impaired anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) that shift the body center of mass forward (imbalance) and over the stance leg (unloading) prior to gait initiation. APAs are known to be smallest when people with PD are in their OFF-medication state compared to ON-medication or healthy controls. The aim of this pilot study is to validate a previously developed method for the assessment of gait initiation on PD patients in OFF state with body-worn, inertial sensors. Ten subjects with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD and twelve healthy controls of similar age performed three gait initiation trials. The spatio-temporal parameters of APAs were extracted from three wearable sensors, placed on the shins and on the lower back, and validated with two force plates. Temporal parameters extracted from sensors and force plates, as well as the trunk medio-lateral acceleration and the correspondent displacement of the center of pressure, were significantly correlated. Subjects with PD showed hypometric adjustments in the medio-lateral direction (p-value<0.003) and increased duration of the unloading phase (p-value=0.04). The unloading phase was significantly longer than the imbalance (p-value=0.003) only in subjects with PD. The validity of the method of quantifying APAs from inertial sensors was confirmed in PD subjects by comparison with force plates. Sensitivity in discriminating PD patients from healthy controls was proven by both spatial and temporal parameters. Objective measures of gait initiation deficits with wearable technology provides valuable instrument for the assessment of gait initiation in clinical environments.

  6. No Need for Lopinavir Dose Adjustment during Pregnancy: a Population Pharmacokinetic and Exposure-Response Analysis in Pregnant and Nonpregnant HIV-Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Aksana Kaefer; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Taylor, Graham P.; Patterson, Kristine B.; Nilius, Angela M.; Klein, Cheri Enders

    2015-01-01

    Lopinavir-ritonavir is frequently prescribed to HIV-1-infected women during pregnancy. Decreased lopinavir exposure has been reported during pregnancy, but the clinical significance of this reduction is uncertain. This analysis aimed to evaluate the need for lopinavir dose adjustment during pregnancy. We conducted a population pharmacokinetic analysis of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations collected from 84 pregnant and 595 nonpregnant treatment-naive and -experienced HIV-1-infected subjects enrolled in six clinical studies. Lopinavir-ritonavir doses in the studies ranged between 400/100 and 600/150 mg twice daily. In addition, linear mixed-effect analysis was used to compare the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC0–12) and concentration prior to dosing (Cpredose) in pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects. The relationship between lopinavir exposure and virologic suppression in pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects was evaluated. Population pharmacokinetic analysis estimated 17% higher lopinavir clearance in pregnant women than in nonpregnant subjects. Lopinavir clearance values postpartum were 26.4% and 37.1% lower than in nonpregnant subjects and pregnant women, respectively. As the tablet formulation was estimated to be 20% more bioavailable than the capsule formulation, no statistically significant differences between lopinavir exposure in pregnant women receiving the tablet formulation and nonpregnant subjects receiving the capsule formulation were identified. In the range of lopinavir AUC0–12 or Cpredose values observed in the third trimester, there was no correlation between lopinavir exposure and viral load or proportion of subjects with virologic suppression. Similar efficacy was observed between pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects receiving lopinavir-ritonavir at 400/100 mg twice daily. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results support the use of a lopinavir-ritonavir 400/100-mg twice-daily dose during pregnancy

  7. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  8. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  9. Scenario analysis of carbon emissions' anti-driving effect on Qingdao's energy structure adjustment with an optimization model, Part II: Energy system planning and management.

    PubMed

    Wu, C B; Huang, G H; Liu, Z P; Zhen, J L; Yin, J G

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an inexact multistage stochastic mixed-integer programming (IMSMP) method was developed for supporting regional-scale energy system planning (EPS) associated with multiple uncertainties presented as discrete intervals, probability distributions and their combinations. An IMSMP-based energy system planning (IMSMP-ESP) model was formulated for Qingdao to demonstrate its applicability. Solutions which can provide optimal patterns of energy resources generation, conversion, transmission, allocation and facility capacity expansion schemes have been obtained. The results can help local decision makers generate cost-effective energy system management schemes and gain a comprehensive tradeoff between economic objectives and environmental requirements. Moreover, taking the CO2 emissions scenarios mentioned in Part I into consideration, the anti-driving effect of carbon emissions on energy structure adjustment was studied based on the developed model and scenario analysis. Several suggestions can be concluded from the results: (a) to ensure the smooth realization of low-carbon and sustainable development, appropriate price control and fiscal subsidy on high-cost energy resources should be considered by the decision-makers; (b) compared with coal, natural gas utilization should be strongly encouraged in order to insure that Qingdao could reach the carbon discharges peak value in 2020; (c) to guarantee Qingdao's power supply security in the future, the construction of new power plants should be emphasised instead of enhancing the transmission capacity of grid infrastructure.

  10. Psychological Separation and Adjustment to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between psychological separation and adjustment to college in freshmen (N=130) and upperclassmen (N=123). Found freshmen showed more psychological dependencies on parents than upperclassmen; separation appeared more strongly related to personal/emotional adjustment, particularly functional and emotional independence from…

  11. Metabolic control analysis of developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv Westar) embryos shows that lipid assembly exerts significant control over oil accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingguo; Guschina, Irina A; O'Hara, Paul; Slabas, Antoni R; Quant, Patti A; Fawcett, Tony; Harwood, John L

    2012-10-01

    Metabolic control analysis allows the study of metabolic regulation. We applied both single- and double-manipulation top-down control analysis to examine the control of lipid accumulation in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) embryos. The biosynthetic pathway was conceptually divided into two blocks of reactions (fatty acid biosynthesis (Block A), lipid assembly (Block B)) connected by a single system intermediate, the acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) pool. Single manipulation used exogenous oleate. Triclosan was used to inhibit specifically Block A, whereas diazepam selectively manipulated flux through Block B. Exogenous oleate inhibited the radiolabelling of fatty acids from [1-(14)C]acetate, but stimulated that from [U-14C]glycerol into acyl lipids. The calculation of group flux control coefficients showed that c. 70% of the metabolic control was in the lipid assembly block of reactions. Monte Carlo simulations gave an estimation of the error of the resulting group flux control coefficients as 0.27±0.06 for Block A and 0.73±0.06 for Block B. The two methods of control analysis gave very similar results and showed that Block B reactions were more important under our conditions. This contrasts notably with data from oil palm or olive fruit cultures and is important for efforts to increase oilseed rape lipid yields.

  12. Models of Traumatic Experiences and Children's Psychological Adjustment: The Roles of Perceived Parenting and the Children's Own Resources and Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; El Sarraj, Eyad

    1997-01-01

    Used path analysis to examine relations between trauma, perceived parenting, resources, political activity, and adjustment in Palestinian 11- and 12-year olds. Found that the more trauma experienced, the more negative parenting the children experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more they suffered from adjustment problems.…

  13. Recirculating valve lash adjuster

    SciTech Connect

    Stoody, R.R.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine with a valve assembly of the type including overhead valves supported by a cylinder head for opening and closing movements in a substantially vertical direction and a rotatable overhead camshaft thereabove lubricated by engine oil pumped by an engine oil pump. A hydraulic lash adjuster with an internal reservoir therein is solely supplied with run-off lubricating oil from the camshaft which oil is pumped into the internal reservoir of the lash adjuster by self-pumping operation of the lash adjuster produced by lateral forces thereon by the rotative operation of the camshaft comprising: a housing of the lash adjuster including an axially extending bore therethrough with a lower wall means of the housing closing the lower end thereof; a first plunger member being closely slidably received in the bore of the housing and having wall means defining a fluid filled power chamber with the lower wall means of the housing; and a second plunger member of the lash adjuster having a portion being loosely slidably received and extending into the bore of the housing for reciprocation therein. Another portion extends upwardly from the housing to operatively receive alternating side-to-side force inputs from operation of the camshaft.

  14. [Evaluation of chemotherapy for stage IV non-small cell lung cancer employing a regression tree type method for quality-adjusted survival analysis to determine prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Takabatake, H; Tagaki, S; Sohda, T; Sekine, K

    1996-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of chemotherapy on QOL, the survival period was categorized by 3 intervals: one in the hospital for chemotherapy (TOX), on an outpatient basis (TWiST Time without Symptom and Toxicity), and in the hospital for conservative therapy (REL). Coefficients showing the QOL level were expressed as ut, uw and ur. If uw was 1 and ut and ur were plotted at less than 1, ut TOX+uwTWiST+urREL could be a quality-adjusted value relative to TWiST (Q-TWiST). One hundred five patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer were included. Sixty-five were given chemotherapy, and the other 40 were not. The observation period was 2 years. Q-TWiST values for age, sex, PS, histology and chemotherapy were calculated. Their quantification was performed employing a regression tree type method. Chemotherapy contributed to Q-TWiST when ut approached 1 i.e., no side effect was supposed). When ut was less than 0.5, PS and sex had an appreciable role.

  15. The Effect of Physical Exercise on Postural Stability in Sighted Individuals and Those Who Are Visually Impaired: An Analysis Adjusted for Physical Activity and Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Dorota; Stemplewski, Rafał; Szeklicki, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of physical exercise on postural stability in sighted participants and individuals who are visually impaired, adjusted for potential modulatory effects of physical activity level and body mass index (BMI). The study included 23 participants who were severely visually impaired and 23 sighted participants. Postural stability measurements were taken with open eyes (session I) and with closed eyes (session II). During each session, the mean velocity of the center of pressure (COP) displacements was determined using a force plate both before and after physical exercise. During testing with open eyes, the 2 groups did not differ significantly in terms of their postural response to physical exercise. When examined with closed eyes, the individuals who were visually impaired showed markedly greater postexercise increase in mean velocity of the COP displacement in the mediolateral direction. This intergroup difference was likely a consequence of significantly higher preexercise values of posturographic parameters observed in the sighted participants. More pronounced postexercise changes in the postural stability of sighted participants were associated with lower levels of physical activity and higher values of BMI. Further research is needed to explain the character of the abovementioned relationships in individuals who are visually impaired.

  16. Comparative analysis of multilineage properties of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from fetal sources shows an advantage of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from cord blood in chondrogenic differentiation potential

    PubMed Central

    Pievani, Alice; Scagliotti, Valeria; Russo, Francesca Maria; Azario, Isabella; Rambaldi, Benedetta; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Marzorati, Simona; Erba, Eugenio; Giudici, Giovanni; Riminucci, Mara; Biondi, Andrea; Vergani, Patrizia; Serafini, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Background aims Cord blood (CB) and amniotic fluid (AF) could represent new and attractive mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) sources, but their potential therapeutic applications are still limited by lack of standardized protocols for isolation and differentiation. In particular, chondrogenic differentiation has never been deeply investigated. Methods MSCs were obtained from CB and AF samples collected during cesarean sections at term and compared for their biological and differentiation properties, with particular interest in cartilage differentiation, in which quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of type 2 collagen, type 10 collagen, SRY-box9 and aggrecan. Results We were able to isolate MSCs from 12 of 30 (40%) and 5 of 20 (25%) CB and AF units, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated the fetal origin of isolated MSC strains. Both populations expressed mesenchymal but not endothelial and hematopoietic markers, even though we observed a lower expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) I in CB-MSCs. No differences in proliferation rate and cell cycle analysis could be detected. After osteogenic induction, both populations showed matrix mineralization and typical marker expression. Under chondrogenic conditions, pellets derived from CB-MSCs, in contrast with AF-MSCs pellets, were significantly larger, showed cartilage-like morphology and resulted positive for chondrocyte-associated markers, such as type 2 collagen, type 10 collagen, SRY-box9 and aggrecan. Conclusions Our results show that CB-MSCs and AF-MSCs collected at term differ from each other in their biological and differentiation properties. In particular, only CB-MSCs showed a clear chondrogenic potential and thus could represent an ideal candidate for cartilage-tissue engineering. PMID:24794181

  17. Capping risk adjustment?

    PubMed

    Eugster, Patrick; Sennhauser, Michèle; Zweifel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    When premiums are community-rated, risk adjustment (RA) serves to mitigate competitive insurers' incentive to select favorable risks. However, unless fully prospective, it also undermines their incentives for efficiency. By capping its volume, one may try to counteract this tendency, exposing insurers to some financial risk. This in term runs counter the quest to refine the RA formula, which would increase RA volume. Specifically, the adjuster, "Hospitalization or living in a nursing home during the previous year" will be added in Switzerland starting 2012. This paper investigates how to minimize the opportunity cost of capping RA in terms of increased incentives for risk selection.

  18. Design of motion adjusting system for space camera based on ultrasonic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Jin, Guang; Gu, Song; Yan, Yong; Sun, Zhiyuan

    2011-08-01

    Drift angle is a transverse intersection angle of vector of image motion of the space camera. Adjusting the angle could reduce the influence on image quality. Ultrasonic motor (USM) is a new type of actuator using ultrasonic wave stimulated by piezoelectric ceramics. They have many advantages in comparison with conventional electromagnetic motors. In this paper, some improvement was designed for control system of drift adjusting mechanism. Based on ultrasonic motor T-60 was designed the drift adjusting system, which is composed of the drift adjusting mechanical frame, the ultrasonic motor, the driver of Ultrasonic Motor, the photoelectric encoder and the drift adjusting controller. The TMS320F28335 DSP was adopted as the calculation and control processor, photoelectric encoder was used as sensor of position closed loop system and the voltage driving circuit designed as generator of ultrasonic wave. It was built the mathematic model of drive circuit of the ultrasonic motor T-60 using matlab modules. In order to verify the validity of the drift adjusting system, was introduced the source of the disturbance, and made simulation analysis. It designed the control systems of motor drive for drift adjusting system with the improved PID control. The drift angle adjusting system has such advantages as the small space, simple configuration, high position control precision, fine repeatability, self locking property and low powers. It showed that the system could accomplish the mission of drift angle adjusting excellent.

  19. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  20. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  1. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  2. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    PubMed

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D

    2010-12-01

    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  3. RFLP and AFLP analysis of inter- and intraspecific variation of Brassica rapa and B. napus shows that B. rapa is an important genetic resource for B. napus improvement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Hu; Meng, Jin-Ling

    2006-09-01

    Fingerprinting of 29 accessions of oilseed rape, including seven accessions of Brassica napus, and 22 accessions of B. rapa (B. campestris) from Europe, North America, and China was analyzed using RFLP and AFLP markers. In total, 1,477 polymorphic RFLP bands and 183 polymorphic AFLP bands from 166 enzyme-probe combinations and two pairs of AFLP primers, respectively, were scored for the 29 accessions. On average, RFLP analysis showed that the Arabidopsis EST probe detected more polymorphic bands in Brassica than the random genomic probe performed. More polymorphic RFLP markers were detected with the digestion of EcoR I or BamH I than HindIII. According to the number of bands amplified from each accession, the copy numbers of each gene in the genomes of B. rapa and B. napus were estimated. The average copy numbers in B. rapa of China, B. rapa of Europe, and B. napus, were 3.2, 3.1, and 2.9, respectively. Genetic distance based on the AFLP data was well correlated with that based on the RFLP data (r = 0.72, P<0.001), but 0.39 smaller on average. Genetic diversity analysis showed that Chinese B. rapa was more polymorphic than Chinese B. napus and European materials. Some European B. napus accessions were clustered into European B. rapa, which were distinctly different from Chinese B. napus. The larger variations of Chinese accessions of B. rapa suggest that they are valuable in oilseed rape breeding. Novel strategies to use intersubgenomic heterosis between genome of B. rapa (A(r)A(r)) and genome of B. napus (A(n)A(n)C(n)C(n)) were elucidated.

  4. Allele specific-PCR and melting curve analysis showed relatively high frequency of β-casein gene A1 allele in Iranian Holstein, Simmental and native cows.

    PubMed

    Gholami, M; Hafezian, S H; Rahimi, G; Farhadi, A; Rahimi, Z; Kahrizi, D; Kiani, S; Karim, H; Vaziri, S; Muhammadi, S; Veisi, F; Ghadiri, K; Shetabi, H; Zargooshi, J

    2016-10-31

    There are two allelic forms of A1 and A2 of β-casein gene in dairy cattle. Proteolytic digestion of bovine β-casein A1 type produces bioactive peptide of β-casomorphin-7 known as milk devil. β-casomorphin-7 causes many diseases, including type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular disease syndrome, sudden death and madness. The aim of the present study was to determine the different allelic forms of β-casein gene in Iranian Holstein, Simmental and native cattle in order to identify A1 and A2 variants. The blood samples were collected randomly and DNA was extracted using modified salting out method. An 854 bp fragment including part of exon 7 and part of intron 6 of β-casein gene was amplified by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR). Also, the accuracy of AS-PCR genotyping has been confirmed by melting temperature curve analysis using Real-time PCR machinery. The comparison of observed allele and genotype frequency among the studied breeds was performed using the Fisher exact and Chi-squared test, respectively by SAS program. Obtained results showed the A1 allele frequencies of 50, 51.57, 54.5, 49.4 and 46.6% in Holstein, Simmental, Sistani, Taleshi and Mazandarani cattle populations, respectively. The chi-square test was shown that no any populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for studied marker locus. Comparison and analysis of the test results for allelic frequency showed no any significant differences between breeds (P>0.05). The frequency of observed genotypes only differs significantly between Holstein and Taleshi breeds but no any statistically significant differences were found for other breeds (P>0.05). A relatively high frequency of β-casein A1 allele was observed in Iranian native cattle. Therefore, determine the genotypes and preference alleles A2 in these native and commercial cattle is recommended.

  5. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  6. Gene expression analysis of two extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates show that two-component response systems enhance drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guohua; Cui, Zhenling; Sun, Xian; Peng, Jinfu; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Wei; Huang, Wenhua; Chu, Kaili; Zhang, Lu; Ge, Baoxue; Li, Yao

    2015-05-01

    Global analysis of expression profiles using DNA microarrays was performed between a reference strain H37Rv and two clinical extensively drug-resistant isolates in response to three anti-tuberculosis drug exposures (isoniazid, capreomycin, and rifampicin). A deep analysis was then conducted using a combination of genome sequences of the resistant isolates, resistance information, and related public microarray data. Certain known resistance-associated gene sets were significantly overrepresented in upregulated genes in the resistant isolates relative to that observed in H37Rv, which suggested a link between resistance and expression levels of particular genes. In addition, isoniazid and capreomycin response genes, but not rifampicin, either obtained from published works or our data, were highly consistent with the differentially expressed genes of resistant isolates compared to those of H37Rv, indicating a strong association between drug resistance of the isolates and genes differentially regulated by isoniazid and capreomycin exposures. Based on these results, 92 genes of the studied isolates were identified as candidate resistance genes, 10 of which are known resistance-related genes. Regulatory network analysis of candidate resistance genes using published networks and literature mining showed that three two-component regulatory systems and regulator CRP play significant roles in the resistance of the isolates by mediating the production of essential envelope components. Finally, drug sensitivity testing indicated strong correlations between expression levels of these regulatory genes and sensitivity to multiple anti-tuberculosis drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings may provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying the emergence and development of drug resistance in resistant tuberculosis isolates and useful clues for further studies on this issue.

  7. First multigene analysis of Archamoebae (Amoebozoa: Conosa) robustly reveals its phylogeny and shows that Entamoebidae represents a deep lineage of the group.

    PubMed

    Pánek, Tomáš; Zadrobílková, Eliška; Walker, Giselle; Brown, Matthew W; Gentekaki, Eleni; Hroudová, Miluše; Kang, Seungho; Roger, Andrew J; Tice, Alexander K; Vlček, Čestmír; Čepička, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Archamoebae is an understudied group of anaerobic free-living or endobiotic protists that constitutes the major anaerobic lineage of the supergroup Amoebozoa. Hitherto, the phylogeny of Archamoebae was based solely on SSU rRNA and actin genes, which did not resolve relationships among the main lineages of the group. Because of this uncertainty, several different scenarios had been proposed for the phylogeny of the Archamoebae. In this study, we present the first multigene phylogenetic analysis that includes members of Pelomyxidae, and Rhizomastixidae. The analysis clearly shows that Mastigamoebidae, Pelomyxidae and Rhizomastixidae form a clade of mostly free-living, amoeboid flagellates, here called Pelobiontida. The predominantly endobiotic and aflagellated Entamoebidae represents a separate, deep-branching lineage, Entamoebida. Therefore, two unique evolutionary events, horizontal transfer of the nitrogen fixation system from bacteria and transfer of the sulfate activation pathway to mitochondrial derivatives, predate the radiation of recent lineages of Archamoebae. The endobiotic lifestyle has arisen at least three times independently during the evolution of the group. We also present new ultrastructural data that clarifies the primary divergence among the family Mastigamoebidae which had previously been inferred from phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA.

  8. Molecular analysis of transgenic melon plants showing virus resistance conferred by direct repeat of movement gene of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Ali, Emran Md; Emran, Ali; Tabei, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Kappei; Yamaoka, Naoto; Nishiguchi, Masamichi

    2012-08-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is a major limiting factor in the production of melon plants worldwide. For effective control of this virus using the transgenic approach, the direct repeat of the movement protein gene of CGMMV was used for transforming melon plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PCR and Southern blot analyses of T₃ confirmed that they carried the transgene. Northern blot analysis with total RNA showed that transgene transcript RNA as well as siRNA was observed in all plants tested. Separate leaves or individual plants were inoculated with CGMMV and subjected to ELISA and RNA blot analysis using the coat protein gene probe of the virus. Compared to nontransgenic control, these plants were shown to have high virus resistance. Furthermore, cytosine of the transgene DNA in the plants was methylated. Thus, these results reveal that the transgenic lines were highly resistant to the virus through RNA silencing. Key message High virus resistance was obtained in transgenic melon plants with direct repeat of movement protein gene of Cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus through RNA silencing.

  9. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments.

  10. Analysis of large new South African dataset using two host-specificity indices shows generalism in both adult and larval ticks of mammals.

    PubMed

    Espinaze, Marcela P A; Hellard, Eléonore; Horak, Ivan G; Cumming, Graeme S

    2016-03-01

    Ticks and tick-borne pathogens can have considerable impacts on the health of livestock, wildlife and people. Knowledge of tick-host preferences is necessary for both tick and pathogen control. Ticks were historically considered as specialist parasites, but the range of sampled host species has been limited, infestation intensity has not been included in prior analyses, and phylogenetic distances between hosts have not been previously considered. We used a large dataset of 35 604 individual collections and two host-specificity indices to assess the specificity of 61 South African tick species, as well as distinctions between adult and juvenile ticks, for 95 mammalian hosts. When accounting for host phylogeny, most adult and juvenile ticks behaved as generalists, with juveniles being significantly more generalist than adults. When we included the intensity of tick infestation, ticks exhibited a wider diversity of specificity in all life stages. Our results show that ticks of mammals in South Africa tend to behave largely as generalists and that adult ticks are more host-specific. More generally, our analysis shows that the incorporation of life-stage differences, infestation intensity and phylogenetic distances between hosts, as well as the use of more than one specificity index, can all contribute to a deeper understanding of host-parasite interactions.

  11. Improving AFLP analysis of large-scale patterns of genetic variation--a case study with the Central African lianas Haumania spp (Marantaceae) showing interspecific gene flow.

    PubMed

    Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

    2013-04-01

    AFLP markers are often used to study patterns of population genetic variation and gene flow because they offer a good coverage of the nuclear genome, but the reliability of AFLP scoring is critical. To assess interspecific gene flow in two African rainforest liana species (Haumania danckelmaniana, H. liebrechtsiana) where previous evidence of chloroplast captures questioned the importance of hybridization and species boundaries, we developed new AFLP markers and a novel approach to select reliable bands from their degree of reproducibility. The latter is based on the estimation of the broad-sense heritability of AFLP phenotypes, an improvement over classical scoring error rates, which showed that the polymorphism of most AFLP bands was affected by a substantial nongenetic component. Therefore, using a quantitative genetics framework, we also modified an existing estimator of pairwise kinship coefficient between individuals correcting for the limited heritability of markers. Bayesian clustering confirms the recognition of the two Haumania species. Nevertheless, the decay of the relatedness between individuals of distinct species with geographic distance demonstrates that hybridization affects the nuclear genome. In conclusion, although we showed that AFLP markers might be substantially affected by nongenetic factors, their analysis using the new methods developed considerably advanced our understanding of the pattern of gene flow in our model species.

  12. Analysis of the mouse mutant Cloth-ears shows a role for the voltage-gated sodium channel Scn8a in peripheral neural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, F E; Parker, A; Parkinson, N J; Oliver, P L; Brooker, D; Underhill, P; Lukashkina, V A; Lukashkin, A N; Holmes, C; Brown, S D M

    2009-10-01

    Deafness is the most common sensory disorder in humans and the aetiology of genetic deafness is complex. Mouse mutants have been crucial in identifying genes involved in hearing. However, many deafness genes remain unidentified. Using N-ethyl N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis to generate new mouse models of deafness, we identified a novel semi-dominant mouse mutant, Cloth-ears (Clth). Cloth-ears mice show reduced acoustic startle response and mild hearing loss from approximately 30 days old. Auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) analyses indicate that the peripheral neural auditory pathway is impaired in Cloth-ears mice, but that cochlear function is normal. In addition, both Clth/Clth and Clth/+ mice display paroxysmal tremor episodes with behavioural arrest. Clth/Clth mice also show a milder continuous tremor during movement and rest. Longitudinal phenotypic analysis showed that Clth/+ and Clth/Clth mice also have complex defects in behaviour, growth, neurological and motor function. Positional cloning of Cloth-ears identified a point mutation in the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-subunit gene, Scn8a, causing an aspartic acid to valine (D981V) change six amino acids downstream of the sixth transmembrane segment of the second domain (D2S6). Complementation testing with a known Scn8a mouse mutant confirmed that this mutation is responsible for the Cloth-ears phenotype. Our findings suggest a novel role for Scn8a in peripheral neural hearing loss and paroxysmal motor dysfunction.

  13. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite.

  14. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  15. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  16. Language Adjustment of International Students in the US: A Social Network Analysis on the Effects of Language Resources, Language Norm and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The study explores factors that enhance or inhibit the language adjustment of international students in the U.S. Using social network influence model, the study examines the effects of language resources, language norm, and technology use on international students' self-confidence in overall English skills and four subskills, namely, listening,…

  17. Mothers' Early Depressive Symptoms and Children's First-Grade Adjustment: A Transactional Analysis of Child Withdrawal as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Background: The depression-inhibition hypothesis suggests that mothers' depressive symptoms undermine development because they lead children to withdraw from social contact. To test this, this study examined whether poor first-grade adjustment among children of mothers with depressive symptoms is mediated by the emergence of child withdrawal…

  18. Genome-wide analysis of AP2/ERF family genes from Lotus corniculatus shows LcERF054 enhances salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhan-Min; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Xiao, Xing-Guo; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Wu, Yan-Min

    2014-09-01

    Lotus corniculatus is used in agriculture as a main forage plant. Members of the Apetala2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) family play important roles in regulating gene expression in response to many forms of stress, including drought and salt. Here, starting from database of the L. corniculatus var. japonicus genome, we identified 127 AP2/ERF genes by insilico cloning method. The phylogeny, gene structures, and putative conserved motifs in L. corniculatus var. japonicus ERF proteins were analyzed. Based on the number of AP2/ERF domains and the function of the genes, 127 AP2/ERF genes from L. corniculatus var. japonicus were classified into five subfamilies named the AP2, dehydration-responsive element binding factor (DREB), ERF, RAV, and a soloist. Outside the AP2/ERF domain, many L. corniculatus var. japonicus-specific conserved motifs were detected. Expression profile analysis of AP2/ERF genes by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that 19 LcERF genes, including LcERF054 (KJ004728), were significantly induced by salt stress. The results showed that the LcERF054 gene encodes a nuclear transcription activator. Overexpression of LcERF054 in Arabidopsis enhanced the tolerances to salt stress, showed higher germination ratio of seeds, and had elevated levels of relative moisture contents, soluble sugars, proline, and lower levels of malondialdehyde under stress conditions compared to wild-type plants. The expression of hyperosmotic salinity response genes COR15A, LEA4-5, P5CS1, and RD29A was found to be elevated in the LcERF054-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type. These results revealed that the LcERF genes play important roles in L. corniculatus cv Leo under salt stress and that LcERFs are attractive engineering targets in applied efforts to improve abiotic stress tolerances in L. corniculatus cv Leo or other crops.

  19. Reciprocal insulation analysis of Hi-C data shows that TADs represent a functionally but not structurally privileged scale in the hierarchical folding of chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yinxiu; Mariani, Luca; Barozzi, Iros; Schulz, Edda G; Blüthgen, Nils; Stadler, Michael; Tiana, Guido; Giorgetti, Luca

    2017-03-01

    Understanding how regulatory sequences interact in the context of chromosomal architecture is a central challenge in biology. Chromosome conformation capture revealed that mammalian chromosomes possess a rich hierarchy of structural layers, from multi-megabase compartments to sub-megabase topologically associating domains (TADs) and sub-TAD contact domains. TADs appear to act as regulatory microenvironments by constraining and segregating regulatory interactions across discrete chromosomal regions. However, it is unclear whether other (or all) folding layers share similar properties, or rather TADs constitute a privileged folding scale with maximal impact on the organization of regulatory interactions. Here, we present a novel algorithm named CaTCH that identifies hierarchical trees of chromosomal domains in Hi-C maps, stratified through their reciprocal physical insulation, which is a single and biologically relevant parameter. By applying CaTCH to published Hi-C data sets, we show that previously reported folding layers appear at different insulation levels. We demonstrate that although no structurally privileged folding level exists, TADs emerge as a functionally privileged scale defined by maximal boundary enrichment in CTCF and maximal cell-type conservation. By measuring transcriptional output in embryonic stem cells and neural precursor cells, we show that the likelihood that genes in a domain are coregulated during differentiation is also maximized at the scale of TADs. Finally, we observe that regulatory sequences occur at genomic locations corresponding to optimized mutual interactions at the same scale. Our analysis suggests that the architectural functionality of TADs arises from the interplay between their ability to partition interactions and the specific genomic position of regulatory sequences.

  20. Linking concepts in the ecology and evolution of invasive plants: network analysis shows what has been most studied and identifies knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Brown, Cynthia S; Tepolt, Carolyn K; Tsutsui, Neil D; Vanparys, Valérie; Atkinson, Sheryl; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2010-03-01

    In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders' success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate recognize well-documented relationships and identify gaps in our knowledge. In this study, we used a network-based method for visualizing the connections between major aspects of ecology and evolution in the primary research literature. Using the family Poaceae as an example, we show that ecological concepts were more studied and better interconnected than were evolutionary concepts. Several possible connections were not documented at all, representing knowledge gaps between ecology and evolution of invaders. Among knowledge gaps, the concepts of plasticity, gene flow, epigenetics and human influence were particularly under-connected. We discuss five possible research avenues to better understand the relationships between ecology and evolution in the success of Poaceae, and of alien plants in general.

  1. A gigawatt level repetitive rate adjustable magnetic pulse compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song; Gao, Jing-Ming; Yang, Han-Wu; Qian, Bao-Liang; Li, Ze-Xin

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a gigawatt level repetitive rate adjustable magnetic pulse compressor is investigated both numerically and experimentally. The device has advantages of high power level, high repetitive rate achievability, and long lifetime reliability. Importantly, dominate parameters including the saturation time, the peak voltage, and even the compression ratio can be potentially adjusted continuously and reliably, which significantly expands the applicable area of the device and generators based on it. Specifically, a two-stage adjustable magnetic pulse compressor, utilized for charging the pulse forming network of a high power pulse generator, is designed with different compression ratios of 25 and 18 through an optimized design process. Equivalent circuit analysis shows that the modification of compression ratio can be achieved by just changing the turn number of the winding. At the same time, increasing inductance of the grounded inductor will decrease the peak voltage and delay the charging process. Based on these analyses, an adjustable compressor was built and studied experimentally in both the single shot mode and repetitive rate mode. Pulses with peak voltage of 60 kV and energy per pulse of 360 J were obtained in the experiment. The rise times of the pulses were compressed from 25 μs to 1 μs and from 18 μs to 1 μs, respectively, at repetitive rate of 20 Hz with good repeatability. Experimental results show reasonable agreement with analyses.

  2. Multi-Scale 7DOF View Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Isaac; Li, Jialei; Wartell, Zachary

    2017-02-13

    Multi-scale virtual environments contain geometric details ranging over several orders of magnitude and typically employ out-of-core rendering techniques. When displayed in virtual reality systems this entails using a 7 degree-of-freedom (DOF) view model where view scale is a separate 7th DOF in addition to 6DOF view pose. Dynamic adjustment of this and other view parameters become very important to usability. In this paper, we evaluate how two adjustment techniques interact with uni- and bi-manual 7 degree-of-freedom navigation in DesktopVR and a CAVE. The travel task has two stages, an initial targeted zoom and a detailed geometric inspection. The results show benefits of the auto-adjustments on completion time and stereo fusion issues, but only in certain circumstances. Peculiar view configuration examples show the difficulty of creating robust adjustment rules.

  3. A longitudinal examination of career preparation and adjustment during the transition from high school.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Kate; Kerpelman, Jennifer; Skorikov, Vladimir

    2012-09-01

    Preparing for an adult career and incorporating a career into one's identity is a key task during the transition to adulthood (Erikson, 1968), and completing developmental tasks is considered a major factor in adjustment (Havinghurst, 1972). Previous research has established associations between overall career preparation in high school and adjustment soon after high school graduation. Differences in the developmental patterns of career preparation dimensions (indecision, planning, and confidence) following high school graduation also have been found. The current study builds on that prior work by examining associations between changes in the dimensions of career preparation and changes in 3 aspects of adjustment (emotional stability, social adaptation, and self-actualization) from 12th grade in high school to 4.5 years after high school graduation in a sample of 454 youths, using latent growth curve analysis. Results showed that career preparation both predicts and is predicted by adjustment. Career confidence was a particularly important predictor of adjustment. Both 12th grade career confidence and changes in confidence over time predicted changes in adjustment and adjustment 4.5 years post-high school. In an alternative model, an increase in emotional stability was predictive of higher career confidence and lower indecision. Results are discussed in the context of developmental theories and the notion that adjustment and career are interrelated processes.

  4. The Influence of Demographic Variables on University Students' Adjustment in North Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderi, Mohd; Jdaitawi, Malek; Ishak, Noor Azniza; Jdaitawi, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to investigate the student university adjustment particularly the determination of the adjustment level of first year university students in Jordan. The three domains are namely overall college adjustment, domain of social adjustment, and academic adjustment. In addition, in this analysis, gender, age, types of…

  5. Increasing shape modelling accuracy by adjusting for subject positioning: an application to the analysis of radiographic proximal femur symmetry using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Lindner, C; Wallis, G A; Cootes, T F

    2014-04-01

    In total hip arthroplasty, the shape of the contra-lateral femur frequently serves as a template for preoperative planning. Previous research on contra-lateral femoral symmetry has been based on conventional hip geometric measurements (which reduce shape to a series of linear measurements) and did not take the effect of subject positioning on radiographic femur shape into account. The aim of this study was to analyse proximal femur symmetry based on statistical shape models (SSMs) which quantify global femoral shape while also adjusting for differences in subject positioning during image acquisition. We applied our recently developed fully automatic shape model matching (FASMM) system to automatically segment the proximal femur from AP pelvic radiographs to generate SSMs of the proximal femurs of 1258 Caucasian females (mean age: 61.3 SD=9.0). We used a combined SSM (capturing the left and right femurs) to identify and adjust for shape variation attributable to subject positioning as well as a single SSM (including all femurs as left femurs) to analyse proximal femur symmetry. We also calculated conventional hip geometric measurements (head diameter, neck width, shaft width and neck-shaft angle) using the output of the FASMM system. The combined SSM revealed two modes that were clearly attributable to subject positioning. The average difference (mean point-to-curve distance) between left and right femur shape was 1.0mm before and 0.8mm after adjusting for these two modes. The automatic calculation of conventional hip geometric measurements after adjustment gave an average absolute percent asymmetry of within 3.1% and an average absolute difference of within 1.1mm or 2.9° for all measurements. We conclude that (i) for Caucasian females the global shape of the right and left proximal femurs is symmetric without isolated locations of asymmetry; (ii) a combined left-right SSM can be used to adjust for radiographic shape variation due to subject positioning; and (iii

  6. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  7. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  8. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  9. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  10. Chemistry Game Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Susan; Muzyka, Jennifer

    2002-04-01

    We present a technological improvement to the use of game shows to help students review for tests. Our approach uses HTML files interpreted with a browser on a computer attached to an LCD projector. The HTML files can be easily modified for use of the game in a variety of courses.

  11. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  12. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  13. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  14. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  15. Structural analysis of the alcohol acyltransferase protein family from Cucumis melo shows that enzyme activity depends on an essential solvent channel.

    PubMed

    Galaz, Sebastián; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Herrera, Raúl

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol acyltransferases (AAT) play a key role in ester biosynthesis. In Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis, AATs are encoded by a gene family of four members (CmAAT1-4). CmAAT1, CmAAT3 and CmAAT4 are capable of synthesizing esters, with CmAAT1 the most active. CmAAT2 is inactive and has an Ala268 residue instead of a threonine which is present in all other active AATs, although the role of this residue is still unclear. The present work aims to understand the molecular mechanism involved in ester biosynthesis in melon fruit and to clarify the importance of the Ala268 residue. First, structural models for each protein were built by comparative modelling methodology. Afterwards, conformational interaction between the protein and several ligands, alcohols and acyl-CoAs was explored by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Structural analysis showed that CmAATs share a similar structure. Also, well-defined solvent channels were described in the CmAATs except for CmAAT2 which does not have a proper channel and instead has a small pocket around Ala268. Residues of the catalytic HxxxD motif interact with substrates within the solvent channel, with Ser363 also important. Strong binding interaction energies were described for the best substrate couple of each CmAAT (hexyl-, benzyl- and cinnamyl-acetate for CmAAT1, 3 and 4 respectively). CmAAT1 and CmAAT2 protein surfaces share similar electrostatic potentials; nevertheless the entrance channels for the substrates differ in location and electrostatic character, suggesting that Ala268 might be responsible for that. This could partly explain the major differences in activity reported for these two enzymes.

  16. Fine Resolution Analysis of Lake Malawi Sediment Record Shows No Significant Climatic Impacts from the Mount Toba Super-Eruption of ~75ky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. J.; Stone, J.; Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Debate over long, and short-term climatic impacts of the Mt. Toba super-eruption circa 75ky is often focused on East Africa. A severe drop in anatomically modern human populations has been hypothesized to be synchronous with a volcanic winter caused by the Toba super-eruption. If the Toba eruption caused a volcanic winter in East Africa, climatologically-sensitive ecosystems, such as Lake Malawi and its immediate watershed should show a direct and observable response in the sediment record. Cooler temperatures would cause a reduction of density contrast between epilimnion and hypolimnion waters, allowing for increased mixing and oxygenation of normally anoxic bottom waters. Enhanced mixing would cause noticeable changes in lake fly and algal communities. Cooler temperatures might also affect precipitation and the fire regime in the surrounding watershed. We analyzed two Lake Malawi cores at the finest practical resolution. Core 2A-10H-2 was analyzed in less than 6-year intervals and core 1C-8H-1 in 7-year intervals surrounding the Youngest Toba Tephra (YTT) for microfaunal abundance and variability, sediment composition, and evidence of changes in the occurrence of fires or watershed precipitation. Our analysis included point counts of diatoms and other algae, lake flies, charcoal, and siliciclastics. Changes in microfossil assemblage, variability, and abundance, as well as sediment composition around the YTT in Core 2A and 1C do not indicate that increased mixing or cooler temperatures occurred in either the central or northern basins of Lake Malawi. Similarly, charcoal counts do not suggest a change in fire regime. Our results indicate that at a subdecadal scale there was no substantial response in Lake Malawi or its immediate watershed to the Mt. Toba super-eruption, in contrast to predictions from the volcanic winter hypothesis.

  17. Control analysis of lipid biosynthesis in tissue cultures from oil crops shows that flux control is shared between fatty acid synthesis and lipid assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Umi S; Baker, Darren S; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

    2002-01-01

    Top-Down (Metabolic) Control Analysis (TDCA) was used to examine, quantitatively, lipid biosynthesis in tissue cultures from two commercially important oil crops, olive (Olea europaea L.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). A conceptually simplified system was defined comprising two blocks of reactions: fatty acid synthesis (Block A) and lipid assembly (Block B), which produced and consumed, respectively, a common and unique system intermediate, cytosolic acyl-CoA. We manipulated the steady-state levels of the system intermediate by adding exogenous oleic acid and, using two independent assays, measured the effect of the addition on the system fluxes (J(A) and J(B)). These were the rate of incorporation of radioactivity: (i) through Block A from [1-(14)C]acetate into fatty acids and (ii) via Block B from [U-(14)C]glycerol into complex lipids respectively. The data showed that fatty acid formation (Block A) exerted higher control than lipid assembly (Block B) in both tissues with the following group flux control coefficients (C):(i) Oil palm: *C(J(TL))(BlkA)=0.64+/-0.05 and *C(J(TL))(BlkB)=0.36+/-0.05(ii) Olive: *C(J(TL))(BlkA)=0.57+/-0.10 and *C(J(TL))(BlkB)=0.43+/-0.10where *C indicates the group flux control coefficient over the lipid biosynthesis flux (J(TL)) and the subscripts BlkA and BlkB refer to defined blocks of the system, Block A and Block B. Nevertheless, because both parts of the lipid biosynthetic pathway exert significant flux control, we suggest strongly that manipulation of single enzyme steps will not affect product yield appreciably. The present study represents the first use of TDCA to examine the overall lipid biosynthetic pathway in any tissue, and its findings are of immediate academic and economic relevance to the yield and nutritional quality of oil crops. PMID:12023882

  18. Control analysis of lipid biosynthesis in tissue cultures from oil crops shows that flux control is shared between fatty acid synthesis and lipid assembly.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Umi S; Baker, Darren S; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

    2002-06-01

    Top-Down (Metabolic) Control Analysis (TDCA) was used to examine, quantitatively, lipid biosynthesis in tissue cultures from two commercially important oil crops, olive (Olea europaea L.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). A conceptually simplified system was defined comprising two blocks of reactions: fatty acid synthesis (Block A) and lipid assembly (Block B), which produced and consumed, respectively, a common and unique system intermediate, cytosolic acyl-CoA. We manipulated the steady-state levels of the system intermediate by adding exogenous oleic acid and, using two independent assays, measured the effect of the addition on the system fluxes (J(A) and J(B)). These were the rate of incorporation of radioactivity: (i) through Block A from [1-(14)C]acetate into fatty acids and (ii) via Block B from [U-(14)C]glycerol into complex lipids respectively. The data showed that fatty acid formation (Block A) exerted higher control than lipid assembly (Block B) in both tissues with the following group flux control coefficients (C):(i) Oil palm: *C(J(TL))(BlkA)=0.64+/-0.05 and *C(J(TL))(BlkB)=0.36+/-0.05(ii) Olive: *C(J(TL))(BlkA)=0.57+/-0.10 and *C(J(TL))(BlkB)=0.43+/-0.10where *C indicates the group flux control coefficient over the lipid biosynthesis flux (J(TL)) and the subscripts BlkA and BlkB refer to defined blocks of the system, Block A and Block B. Nevertheless, because both parts of the lipid biosynthetic pathway exert significant flux control, we suggest strongly that manipulation of single enzyme steps will not affect product yield appreciably. The present study represents the first use of TDCA to examine the overall lipid biosynthetic pathway in any tissue, and its findings are of immediate academic and economic relevance to the yield and nutritional quality of oil crops.

  19. Postural adjustment after an unexpected perturbation in children with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    De Souza, F M B; Pereira, R P; Minuque, N P; Do Carmo, C M; De Mello, M H M; Villaça, P; Tanaka, C

    2012-05-01

    Children with haemophilia often bleed inside joints and muscles, which may impair postural adjustments. These postural adjustments are necessary to control postural balance during daily activities. The inability to quickly recover postural balance could elevate the risk of bleeding. To determine whether children with haemophilia have impaired postural adjustment after an unexpected perturbation compared with healthy children. Twenty children with haemophilia comprised the haemophilic group (HG), and 20 healthy, age-paired children comprised the control group (CG). Subjects stood on a force plate, and 4% of the subjects' body weight was applied via a pulley system to a belt around the subjects' trunks. The centre of pressure (COP) displacement was measured after the weight was unexpectedly released to produce a controlled postural perturbation followed by postural adjustment to recover balance. The subjects' postural adjustments in eight subsequent intervals of 1 s (t1-t8), beginning with the moment of weight removal, were compared among intervals and between groups. The applied perturbation magnitudes were the same for both groups, and no difference was observed between the groups in t1. However, the COP displacement in t2 in the HG was significantly higher than in the CG. No differences were observed between the groups in the other intervals. Within-group analysis showed that the COP was higher in t2 than in t4 (P = 0.016), t5 (P = 0.001) and t8 (P = 0.050) in the HG. No differences were observed among intervals in the CG. Children with haemophilia demonstrated differences in postural adjustment while undergoing unexpected balance perturbations when compared with healthily children.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant strain shows increased cellular efficiency in response to Populus hydrolysate compared to the wild type strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum is a model organism for consolidated processing due to its efficient fermentation of cellulose. Constituents of dilute acid pretreatment hydrolysate are known to inhibit C. thermocellum and other microorganisms. To evaluate the biological impact of this type of hydrolysate, a transcriptomic analysis of growth in hydrolysate-containing medium was conducted on 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate-tolerant mutant (PM) and wild type (WT) strains of C. thermocellum. Results In two levels of Populus hydrolysate medium (0% and 10% v/v), the PM showed both gene specific increases and decreases of gene expression compared to the wild-type strain. The PM had increased expression of genes in energy production and conversion, and amino acid transport and metabolism in both standard and 10% v/v Populus hydrolysate media. In particular, expression of the histidine metabolism increased up to 100 fold. In contrast, the PM decreased gene expression in cell division and sporulation (standard medium only), cell defense mechanisms, cell envelope, cell motility, and cellulosome in both media. The PM downregulated inorganic ion transport and metabolism in standard medium but upregulated it in the hydrolysate media when compared to the WT. The WT differentially expressed 1072 genes in response to the hydrolysate medium which included increased transcription of cell defense mechanisms, cell motility, and cellulosome, and decreased expression in cell envelope, amino acid transport and metabolism, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and lipid metabolism, while the PM only differentially expressed 92 genes. The PM tolerates up to 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate and growth in it elicited 489 genes with differential expression, which included increased expression in energy production and conversion, cellulosome production, and inorganic ion transport and metabolism and decreased expression in transcription and cell

  1. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  2. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  3. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  4. Biomechanical analysis of a new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy bone fracture plate shows less stress shielding compared to a standard clinical metal plate.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra S; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Bougherara, Habiba; Aziz, Mina S R; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    Femur fracture at the tip of a total hip replacement (THR), commonly known as Vancouver B1 fracture, is mainly treated using rigid metallic bone plates which may result in "stress shielding" leading to bone resorption and implant loosening. To minimize stress shielding, a new carbon fiber (CF)/Flax/Epoxy composite plate has been developed and biomechanically compared to a standard clinical metal plate. For fatigue tests, experiments were done using six artificial femurs cyclically loaded through the femoral head in axial compression for four stages: Stage 1 (intact), stage 2 (after THR insertion), stage 3 (after plate fixation of a simulated Vancouver B1 femoral midshaft fracture gap), and stage 4 (after fracture gap healing). For fracture fixation, one group was fitted with the new CF/Flax/Epoxy plate (n = 3), whereas another group was repaired with a standard clinical metal plate (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) (n = 3). In addition to axial stiffness measurements, infrared thermography technique was used to capture the femur and plate surface stresses during the testing. Moreover, finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to evaluate the composite plate's axial stiffness and surface stress field. Experimental results showed that the CF/Flax/Epoxy plated femur had comparable axial stiffness (fractured = 645 ± 67 N/mm; healed = 1731 ± 109 N/mm) to the metal-plated femur (fractured = 658 ± 69 N/mm; healed = 1751 ± 39 N/mm) (p = 1.00). However, the bone beneath the CF/Flax/Epoxy plate was the only area that had a significantly higher average surface stress (fractured = 2.10 ± 0.66 MPa; healed = 1.89 ± 0.39 MPa) compared to bone beneath the metal plate (fractured = 1.18 ± 0.93 MPa; healed = 0.71 ± 0.24 MPa) (p < 0.05). FEA bone surface stresses yielded peak of 13 MPa at distal epiphysis (stage 1), 16 MPa at distal epiphysis (stage 2), 85 MPa for composite and 129

  5. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  6. Restriction enzyme analysis of ribosomal DNA shows that Candida inconspicua clinical isolates can be misidentified as Candida norvegensis with traditional diagnostic procedures.

    PubMed

    Majoros, L; Kardos, G; Belák, A; Maráz, A; Asztalos, L; Csánky, E; Barta, Z; Szabó, B

    2003-11-01

    We identified 29 yeast isolates from 22 patients using the API ID32C panel. Twenty-eight of these isolates were Candida norvegensis and one was C. inconspicua. Although C. norvegensis is considered a pseudohypha-producing species, only one isolate produced pseudohyphae. Restriction enzyme analysis of PCR-amplified ribosomal DNA with four different enzymes proved that all isolates were C. inconspicua.

  7. Phase II Study of Dose-Adjusted EPOCH-Rituximab in Untreated Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma with Analysis of Germinal Center and Post-Germinal Center Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Wyndham H.; Dunleavy, Kieron; Pittaluga, Stefania; Hegde, Upendra; Grant, Nicole; Steinberg, Seth M.; Raffeld, Mark; Gutierrez, Martin; Chabner, Bruce A.; Staudt, Louis; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Janik, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To assess the clinical outcome and the influence of biomarkers associated with apoptosis inhibition (Bcl-2), tumor proliferation (MIB-1) and cellular differentiation on the outcome with dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and rituximab (DA-EPOCH-R) infusional therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and analysis of germinal center B-cell (GCB) and post-GCB subtypes by immunohistochemistry. Patients and Methods Phase II study of 72 patients with untreated de novo DLBCL who were at least 18 years of age and stage II or higher. Radiation consolidation was not permitted. Results Patients had a median age of 50 (range: 19-85) years and 40% had a high-intermediate or high International Prognostic Index (IPI). At five-years, progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 79% and 80%, respectively, with a median potential follow-up of 54 months. PFS was 91%, 90%, 67% and 47%, and OS was 100%, 90%, 74% and 37%, for 0-1, 2, 3 and 4-5 IPI factors, respectively, at five-years. The Bcl-2 and MIB-1 biomarkers were not associated with PFS or OS. Based on DA-EPOCH historical controls, rituximab only benefited Bcl-2 positive tumors. Bcl-6 expression was associated with higher PFS whereas GCB exhibited a marginally significant higher PFS compared to post-GCB DLBCL. Conclusion DA-EPOCH-R outcome was not affected by tumor proliferation and rituximab appeared to overcome the adverse effect of Bcl-2. Bcl-6 may identify a biological program associated with a superior outcome. Overall, DA-EPOCH-R shows promising outcome in low and intermediate IPI groups. A molecular model of treatment outcome with rituximab and chemotherapy is presented. PMID:18378569

  8. Simultaneous dimension reduction and adjustment for confounding variation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhixiang; Yang, Can; Zhu, Ying; Duchi, John; Fu, Yao; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Bai; Zamanighomi, Mahdi; Xu, Xuming; Li, Mingfeng; Sestan, Nenad; Zhao, Hongyu; Wong, Wing Hung

    2016-12-20

    Dimension reduction methods are commonly applied to high-throughput biological datasets. However, the results can be hindered by confounding factors, either biological or technical in origin. In this study, we extend principal component analysis (PCA) to propose AC-PCA for simultaneous dimension reduction and adjustment for confounding (AC) variation. We show that AC-PCA can adjust for (i) variations across individual donors present in a human brain exon array dataset and (ii) variations of different species in a model organism ENCODE RNA sequencing dataset. Our approach is able to recover the anatomical structure of neocortical regions and to capture the shared variation among species during embryonic development. For gene selection purposes, we extend AC-PCA with sparsity constraints and propose and implement an efficient algorithm. The methods developed in this paper can also be applied to more general settings. The R package and MATLAB source code are available at https://github.com/linzx06/AC-PCA.

  9. Incorporating the sampling design in weighting adjustments for panel attrition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qixuan; Gelman, Andrew; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    We review weighting adjustment methods for panel attrition and suggest approaches for incorporating design variables, such as strata, clusters and baseline sample weights. Design information can typically be included in attrition analysis using multilevel models or decision tree methods such as the CHAID algorithm. We use simulation to show that these weighting approaches can effectively reduce bias in the survey estimates that would occur from omitting the effect of design factors on attrition while keeping the resulted weights stable. We provide a step-by-step illustration on creating weighting adjustments for panel attrition in the Galveston Bay Recovery Study, a survey of residents in a community following a disaster, and provide suggestions to analysts in decision making about weighting approaches. PMID:26239405

  10. Single-Cell Analysis and Next-Generation Immuno-Sequencing Show That Multiple Clones Persist in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kriangkum, Jitra; Motz, Sarah N; Mack, Tanner; Beiggi, Sara; Baigorri, Eva; Kuppusamy, Hemalatha; Belch, Andrew R; Johnston, James B; Pilarski, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) provides a unique molecular signature; however, we demonstrate that 26/198 CLL patients (13%) had more than one IGH rearrangement, indicating the power of molecular technology over phenotypic analysis. Single-cell PCR analysis and next-generation immuno-sequencing identified IGH-defined clones. In 23% (18/79) of cases whose clones carried unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes (U-CLL), IGH rearrangements were bialleic with one productive (P) and one non-productive (NP) allele. Two U-CLL were biclonal, each clone being monoallelic (P). In 119 IGHV-mutated (M-CLL) cases, one had biallelic rearrangements in their CLL (P/NP) and five had 2-4 distinct clones. Allelic exclusion was maintained in all B-clones analyzed. Based on single-cell PCR analysis, 5/11 partner clones (45%) reached levels of >5x10(9) cells/L, suggesting second CLL clones. Partner clones persisted over years. Conventional IGH characterization and next-generation sequencing of 13 CLL, 3 multiple myeloma, 2 Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia and 3 age-matched healthy donors consistently identified the same rearranged IGH sequences. Most multiple clones occurred in M-CLL, perhaps indicative of weak clonal dominance, thereby associating with a good prognosis. In contrast, biallelic CLL occurred primarily in U-CLL thus being associated with poor prognosis. Extending beyond intra-clonal diversity, molecular analysis of clonal evolution and apparent subclones in CLL may also reflect inter-clonal diversity.

  11. Restriction Enzyme Analysis of Ribosomal DNA Shows that Candida inconspicua Clinical Isolates Can Be Misidentified as Candida norvegensis with Traditional Diagnostic Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Majoros, L.; Kardos, G.; Belák, Á.; Maráz, A.; Asztalos, L.; Csánky, E.; Barta, Z.; Szabó, B.

    2003-01-01

    We identified 29 yeast isolates from 22 patients using the API ID32C panel. Twenty-eight of these isolates were Candida norvegensis and one was C. inconspicua. Although C. norvegensis is considered a pseudohypha-producing species, only one isolate produced pseudohyphae. Restriction enzyme analysis of PCR-amplified ribosomal DNA with four different enzymes proved that all isolates were C. inconspicua. PMID:14605175

  12. Waardenburg syndrome (WS): the analysis of a single family with a WS1 mutation showing linkage to RFLP markers on human chromosome 2q.

    PubMed Central

    Asher, J H; Morell, R; Friedman, T B

    1991-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1; MIM 19350) is caused by a pleiotropic, autosomal dominant mutation with variable penetrance and expressivity. Of individuals with this mutation, 20%-25% are hearing impaired. A multilocus linkage analysis of RFLP data from a single WS1 family with 11 affected individuals indicates that the WS1 mutation in this family is linked to the following four marker loci located on the long arm of chromosome 2: ALPP (alkaline phosphatase, placental), FN1 (fibronectin 1), D2S3 (a unique-copy DNA segment), and COL6A3 (collagen VI, alpha 3). For the RFLP marker loci, a multilocus linkage analysis using MLINK produced a peak lod (Z) of 3.23 for the following linkage relationships and recombination fractions (theta i): (ALPP----.000----FN1)----.122----D2S3----.267----CO L6A3. A similar analysis produced a Z of 6.67 for the following linkage relationships and theta i values among the markers and WS1: (FN1----.000----WS1----.000----ALPP)----.123----D2S 3----.246----COL6A3. The data confirm the conclusion of Foy et al. that at least some WS1 mutations map to chromosome 2q. Images Figure 2 PMID:1670751

  13. Nonlinear Hydrostatic Adjustment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannon, Peter R.

    1996-12-01

    The final equilibrium state of Lamb's hydrostatic adjustment problem is found for finite amplitude heating. Lamb's problem consists of the response of a compressible atmosphere to an instantaneous, horizontally homogeneous heating. Results are presented for both isothermal and nonisothermal atmospheres.As in the linear problem, the fluid displacements are confined to the heated layer and to the region aloft with no displacement of the fluid below the heating. The region above the heating is displaced uniformly upward for heating and downward for cooling. The amplitudes of the displacements are larger for cooling than for warming.Examination of the energetics reveals that the fraction of the heat deposited into the acoustic modes increases linearly with the amplitude of the heating. This fraction is typically small (e.g., 0.06% for a uniform warming of 1 K) and is essentially independent of the lapse rate of the base-state atmosphere. In contrast a fixed fraction of the available energy generated by the heating goes into the acoustic modes. This fraction (e.g., 12% for a standard tropospheric lapse rate) agrees with the linear result and increases with increasing stability of the base-state atmosphere.The compressible results are compared to solutions using various forms of the soundproof equations. None of the soundproof equations predict the finite amplitude solutions accurately. However, in the small amplitude limit, only the equations for deep convection advanced by Dutton and Fichtl predict the thermodynamic state variables accurately for a nonisothermal base-state atmosphere.

  14. Refugees, Post-Migration Stress, and Internet Use: A Qualitative Analysis of Intercultural Adjustment and Internet Use Among Iraqi and Sudanese Refugees to the United States.

    PubMed

    Mikal, Jude P; Woodfield, Braden

    2015-10-01

    Post-migration stressors represent significant obstacle to refugee adjustment, and continued exposure to post-migration stressors can negatively affect mental and physical health. Communities of support maintained over the Internet may provide a sense of constancy and reliability that may insulate against the negative effects of stress. We conducted five focus group interviews with Iraqi and Sudanese refugees to understand how refugees use the Internet to access support in their daily lives. Four trends were observed: (a) Internet use was related to culture of origin, (b) refugees were reluctant to explore online, (c) children served as brokers of online knowledge, and (d) limited Internet access is associated with increased time and financial obligations. This study aims to contribute to theory on Internet-mediated social support and to refugee health by creating smoother pathways to self-sufficiency and allowing refugees to exhibit agency in constructing and maintaining online networks of support.

  15. Comparative proteome analysis of Penicillium verrucosum grown under light of short wavelength shows an induction of stress-related proteins associated with modified mycotoxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Dominic A; Link, Sebastian; Kulling, Sabine; Geisen, Rolf; Schmidt-Heydt, Markus

    2014-04-03

    In this study the differentially expressed protein population of Penicillium verrucosum grown either in the dark or under light with a wavelength of 450nm has been analyzed. Light of short wavelength led to oxidative stress in the fungal cell; under this condition the mycotoxin biosynthesis revealed a mutual shift from ochratoxin A to citrinin. Using a proteomic approach combining an optimized protein extraction method with 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE followed by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS/MS mass spectrometric analysis, initially 56 significantly differential proteins (light vs. dark) were detected comprising proteins of a broad range of isoelectric points and molecular masses. In total, 46 proteins could be identified further by database query, most of these proteins are assumed to be involved in response to stress (e.g. antioxidative proteins, heat shock proteins) and general metabolic processes (e.g. glycolysis, ATP supply). Proteome analyses are necessary to unravel the regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis at a translational level. This may enable identification of proteins which are involved in mycotoxin biosynthesis, adaption processes or even stress compensation mechanisms. This study depicts the first proteome analysis of P. verrucosum.

  16. Study of Spiritual Intelligence and Adjustment Among Arts and Science College Students.

    PubMed

    Devi, R Kalpana; Rajesh, Nakulan V; Devi, M Anisha

    2017-06-01

    A study to evaluate the relationship between the spiritual intelligence and adjustment among the college students was conducted on a sample of 250 students in six various colleges of Tuticorin district, Tamil Nadu, India. Gender, religion, community, major subject, educational qualification of father and mother, student locality, college type, father and mother's occupation and monthly family income (n = 11 variables) were chosen for the study. Test of significance for spiritual intelligence and adjustment was studied and found them nonsignificant except student locality, found to be significant. Two valid and reliable instruments were used to assess student's spiritual intelligence and adjustment. Correlation and Chi-square analysis using structural equation model were used to analyze these data. Correlation analysis showed significant relationship between the variables among the college students (n = 250). Chi-square analysis of association between adjustments of college students showed that most variables are nonsignificant unlike father's educational qualification and mother's occupation. The results disclosed the significant positive relationship with spiritual intelligence and adjustment among adolescents.

  17. Chitosan dressing promotes healing in third degree burns in mice: gene expression analysis shows biphasic effects for rapid tissue regeneration and decreased fibrotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Ruth M; Dai, Tianhong; Kimball, Jess; Wang, Eugenia; Hamblin, Michael R; Wiesmann, William P; McCarthy, Simon J; Baker, Shenda M

    2013-02-01

    Burns are a significant health challenge and healing can result in scar formation. Chitosan, a derivative of chitin, has been used to promote wound healing. In this study we used gene expression profiling in a mouse model of full thickness cutaneous burn to assess the benefits of treating with a chitosan lactate dressing. Three days after wounding mice treated with chitosan showed increased expression of genes associated with formation of granulation tissue. At a later time point, seven days after wounding, genes that initially showed increased expression were now down-regulated, and there was increased expression of genes involved in remodeling suggesting that the chitosan treatment results in accelerated healing. Quantitative RT-PCR showed modulated mRNA levels for TGFβ1 by the chitosan dressing. TGFβ1 initially promotes healing but extended activity can result in scarring. Importantly we found that expression was elevated at day three, but decreased at day seven suggesting that chitosan treatment will not result in scar formation, and may even be beneficial in preventing scar formation. Additionally, the biphasic regulation of expression of TGFβ1 could be a powerful biomarker for future studies of the wound-healing potential of chitosan based and other treatments for burn wounds.

  18. Maps showing interpretation, using R-mode factor analysis, of trace-element abundances in heavy-mineral concentrate samples, Delta 1° x 2° Quadrangle, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimbelman, David R.

    1994-01-01

    A set of heavy-mineral concentrate data for the Delta 1° x 2° quadrangle, Utah Conterminous U.S. Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) project was compiled from results of analyses of samples collected during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program (SURE), as well as results obtained from samples collected more recently by the USGS. Data results, sampling methods, and analytical methods are provided in Abrogast and others, 1993; 1990; 1988a; 1988b). A similar report, discussing results obtained from stream-sediment samples, is presented in Zimbelman (1993a). The Delta 1° x 2° quadrangle, Utah (figure 1) contains a variety of hydrothermal mineral deposit types, including porphyry-, vein-, replacement-, and Carlin-type deposits. These deposit types have been worked for commodities including gold, silver, beryllium, uranium, lead, zinc, copper, manganese, and cadmium (Lindsey, 1977; Morris and Mogensen, 1978; Zimbelman and others, 1990; Zimbelman and others, 1988). Heavy-mineral concentrate and stream-sediment samples derived from these hydrothermally altered rocks typically contain many geochemical anomalies (for example, see Zimbelman 1993b, c, d). Element associations characterizing lithology and hydrothermal mineral deposits can be distinguished using R-mode factor analysis. This tool often is useful in reconnaissance-scale surveys where sample anomalies are often weak. and single-element distributions may not help to delineate targets. R-mode factors analysis can help identify geologic trends and areas most likely to contain the mineral deposits. R-mode factor analysis was performed on a data set of results of analyses for 19 elements in 643 samples and produced a six-factor model. These six factors represent the geochemical contributions to the data set provided by lithologic and mineralization processes, The distribution of samples that contain high scores for mineralization-related factors is widespread in the Delta quadrangle. These sample sites

  19. Diffusion tensor MRI shows progressive changes in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus after status epilepticus in rat - histological validation with Fourier-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Salo, Raimo A; Miettinen, Tuukka; Laitinen, Teemu; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra

    2017-03-04

    Imaging markers for monitoring disease progression, recovery, and treatment efficacy are a major unmet need for many neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Recent evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides high microstructural contrast even outside major white matter tracts. We hypothesized that in vivo DTI could detect progressive microstructural changes in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal CA3bc in the rat brain after status epilepticus (SE). To test this hypothesis, we induced SE with systemic kainic acid or pilocarpine in adult male Wistar rats and subsequently scanned them using in vivo DTI at five time-points: prior to SE, and 10, 20, 34, and 79 days post SE. In order to tie the DTI findings to changes in the tissue microstructure, myelin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-stained sections from the same animals underwent Fourier analysis. We compared the Fourier analysis parameters, anisotropy index and angle of myelinated axons or astrocyte processes, to corresponding DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA) and the orientation angle of the principal eigenvector. We found progressive detectable changes in DTI parameters in both the dentate gyrus (FA, axial diffusivity [D||], linear anisotropy [CL] and spherical anisotropy [CS], p<0.001, linear mixed-effects model [LMEM]) and the CA3bc (FA, D||, CS, and angle, p<0.001, LMEM; CL and planar anisotropy [CP], p<0.01, LMEM) post SE. The Fourier analysis revealed that both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes played a role in the water diffusion anisotropy changes detected by DTI in individual portions of the dentate gyrus (suprapyramidal blade, mid-portion, and infrapyramidal blade). In the whole dentate gyrus, myelinated axons markedly contributed to the water diffusion changes. In CA3bc as well as in CA3b and CA3c, both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes contributed to water diffusion anisotropy and orientation. Our study revealed that DTI is a promising method

  20. Open channel current noise analysis of S6 peptides from KvAP channel on bilayer lipid membrane shows bimodal power law scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Rajan; Malik, Chetan; Ghosh, Subhendu

    2016-06-01

    Open channel current noise in synthetic peptide S6 of KvAP channel was investigated in a voltage clamp experiment on bilayer lipid membrane (BLM). It was observed that the power spectral density (PSD) of the component frequencies follows power law with different slopes in different frequency ranges. In order to know the origin of the slopes PSD analysis was done with signal filtering. It was found that the first slope in the noise profile follows 1 / f pattern which exists at lower frequencies and has high amplitude current noise, while the second slope corresponds to 1 /f 2 - 3 pattern which exists at higher frequencies with low amplitude current noise. In addition, white noise was observed at very large frequencies. It was concluded that the plausible reason for the multiple power-law scaling is the existence of different modes of non-equilibrium ion transport through the S6 channel.

  1. Retrospective Analysis of Serotype Switching of Vibrio cholerae O1 in a Cholera Endemic Region Shows It Is a Non-random Process

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Stefan L.; Thomson, Nicholas; Mutreja, Ankur; Connor, Thomas; Sur, Dipika; Ali, Mohammad; Clemens, John; Dougan, Gordon; Holmgren, Jan; Lebens, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Genomic data generated from clinical Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates collected over a five year period in an area of Kolkata, India with seasonal cholera outbreaks allowed a detailed genetic analysis of serotype switching that occurred from Ogawa to Inaba and back to Ogawa. The change from Ogawa to Inaba resulted from mutational disruption of the methyltransferase encoded by the wbeT gene. Re-emergence of the Ogawa serotype was found to result either from expansion of an already existing Ogawa clade or reversion of the mutation in an Inaba clade. Our data suggests that such transitions are not random events but rather driven by as yet unidentified selection mechanisms based on differences in the structure of the O1 antigen or in the serotype-determining wbeT gene. PMID:27706170

  2. Retrospective Analysis of Serotype Switching of Vibrio cholerae O1 in a Cholera Endemic Region Shows It Is a Non-random Process.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Stefan L; Thomson, Nicholas; Mutreja, Ankur; Connor, Thomas; Sur, Dipika; Ali, Mohammad; Clemens, John; Dougan, Gordon; Holmgren, Jan; Lebens, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Genomic data generated from clinical Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates collected over a five year period in an area of Kolkata, India with seasonal cholera outbreaks allowed a detailed genetic analysis of serotype switching that occurred from Ogawa to Inaba and back to Ogawa. The change from Ogawa to Inaba resulted from mutational disruption of the methyltransferase encoded by the wbeT gene. Re-emergence of the Ogawa serotype was found to result either from expansion of an already existing Ogawa clade or reversion of the mutation in an Inaba clade. Our data suggests that such transitions are not random events but rather driven by as yet unidentified selection mechanisms based on differences in the structure of the O1 antigen or in the serotype-determining wbeT gene.

  3. Analysis of the Fgfr2C342Y mouse model shows condensation defects due to misregulation of Sox9 expression in prechondrocytic mesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Peskett, Emma; Kumar, Samin; Baird, William; Jaiswal, Janhvi; Li, Ming; Patel, Priyanca; Britto, Jonathan A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Syndromic craniosynostosis caused by mutations in FGFR2 is characterised by developmental pathology in both endochondral and membranous skeletogenesis. Detailed phenotypic characterisation of features in the membranous calvarium, the endochondral cranial base and other structures in the axial and appendicular skeleton has not been performed at embryonic stages. We investigated bone development in the Crouzon mouse model (Fgfr2C342Y) at pre- and post-ossification stages to improve understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. Phenotypic analysis was performed by whole-mount skeletal staining (Alcian Blue/Alizarin Red) and histological staining of sections of CD1 wild-type (WT), Fgfr2C342Y/+ heterozygous (HET) and Fgfr2C342Y/C342Y homozygous (HOM) mouse embryos from embryonic day (E)12.5-E17.5 stages. Gene expression (Sox9, Shh, Fgf10 and Runx2) was studied by in situ hybridisation and protein expression (COL2A1) by immunohistochemistry. Our analysis has identified severely decreased osteogenesis in parts of the craniofacial skeleton together with increased chondrogenesis in parts of the endochondral and cartilaginous skeleton in HOM embryos. The Sox9 expression domain in tracheal and basi-cranial chondrocytic precursors at E13.5 in HOM embryos is increased and expanded, correlating with the phenotypic observations which suggest FGFR2 signalling regulates Sox9 expression. Combined with abnormal staining of type II collagen in pre-chondrocytic mesenchyme, this is indicative of a mesenchymal condensation defect. An expanded spectrum of phenotypic features observed in the Fgfr2C342Y/C342Y mouse embryo paves the way towards better understanding the clinical attributes of human Crouzon–Pfeiffer syndrome. FGFR2 mutation results in impaired skeletogenesis; however, our findings suggest that many phenotypic aberrations stem from a primary failure of pre-chondrogenic/osteogenic mesenchymal condensation and link FGFR2 to SOX9, a principal regulator of skeletogenesis

  4. Sequence analysis of the non-recurring C-terminal domains shows that insect lipoprotein receptors constitute a distinct group of LDL receptor family members.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Kees W; Smolenaars, Marcel M W; Van Hoof, Dennis; Van der Horst, Dick J

    2006-04-01

    Lipoprotein-mediated delivery of lipids in mammals involves endocytic receptors of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) family. In contrast, in insects, the lipoprotein, lipophorin (Lp), functions as a reusable lipid shuttle in lipid delivery, and these animals, therefore, were not supposed to use endocytic receptors. However, recent data indicate additional endocytic uptake of Lp, mediated by a Lp receptor (LpR) of the LDLR family. The two N-terminal domains of LDLR family members are involved in ligand binding and dissociation, respectively, and are composed of a mosaic of multiple repeats. The three C-terminal domains, viz., the optional O-linked glycosylation domain, the transmembrane domain, and the intracellular domain, are of a non-repetitive sequence. The present classification of newly discovered LDLR family members, including the LpRs, bears no relevance to physiological function. Therefore, as a novel approach, the C-terminal domains of LDLR family members across the entire animal kingdom were used to perform a sequence comparison analysis in combination with a phylogenetic tree analysis. The LpRs appeared to segregate into a specific group distinct from the groups encompassing the other family members, and each of the three C-terminal domains of the insect receptors is composed of unique set of sequence motifs. Based on conservation of sequence motifs and organization of these motifs in the domains, LpR resembles most the groups of the LDLRs, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptors, and vitellogenin receptors. However, in sequence aspects in which LpR deviates from these three receptor groups, it most notably resembles LDLR-related protein-2, or megalin. These features might explain the functional differences disclosed between insect and mammalian lipoprotein receptors.

  5. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided.

  6. Vaccination against hepatitis B in liver transplant recipients: pilot analysis of cellular immune response shows evidence of HBsAg-specific regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Tanja; Günther, Matthias; Bienzle, Ulrich; Neuhaus, Ruth; Jilg, Wolfgang

    2007-03-01

    After liver transplantation for hepatitis-B-related diseases, patients currently receive lifelong treatment with hepatitis B immunoglobulin to prevent endogenous reinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Active immunization with hepatitis B vaccine would be a preferable alternative; however, most attempts to immunize these patients with standard vaccine have failed. A recent study with a new adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine was exceptionally successful, leading to a high-titered long-lasting antibody response in 80% of all vaccinees. To identify the immunological mechanisms behind these unexpected results, the successfully vaccinated participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-specific T and B cells, and their cellular responses to revaccination with conventional vaccine were studied. HBsAg-specific CD4(+) T lymphocytes could be detected in 13 of 16 patients after immunization with the new vaccine. Unexpectedly, these T cells produced almost exclusively interleukin (IL)-10 and had a CD4(+)/CD25(+) phenotype. They were functionally active, suppressing cytokine secretion in HBsAg-specific (Th1) cells, thus representing antigen-specific regulatory T cells (T(Reg)). Following a booster dose with conventional vaccine 22-31 months after completion of the initial vaccination series, the T-cell pattern in the revaccinated individuals changed substantially: 7 days after revaccination 9 of 11 individuals showed a switch to a Th1-type immune response with HBsAg-specific T cells secreting IL-2, interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha as observed in healthy controls. Four weeks after the booster, 4 patients still showed a Th1-type cytokine pattern, whereas in 5 patients only IL-10-secreting cells were detectable. After 1 year, in 3 of 4 revaccinated individuals only IL-10-secreting cells could be found, whereas the specific T cells of the fourth patient still showed a Th1-type of response. HBsAg-specific T(Reg) cells could be demonstrated in HBV

  7. Structure analysis of the membrane-bound PhoD signal peptide of the Tat translocase shows an N-terminal amphiphilic helix.

    PubMed

    Klein, Marco J; Grage, Stephan L; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Bürck, Jochen; Afonin, Sergii; Ulrich, Anne S

    2012-12-01

    Tat signal peptides provide the key signature for proteins that get exported by the bacterial twin arginine translocase. We have characterized the structure of the PhoD signal peptide from Bacillus subtilis in suitable membrane-mimicking environments. High-resolution ¹³C/¹⁵N NMR analysis in detergent micelles revealed a helical stretch in the signal peptide between positions 5 and 15, in good agreement with secondary structure prediction and circular dichroism results. This helix was found to be aligned parallel to the membrane surface according to oriented circular dichroism experiments carried out with planar lipid bilayers. The N-terminal α-helix exhibits a pronounced amphiphilic character, in contrast to the general view in the literature. So far, signal sequences had been supposed to consist of a positively charged N-terminal domain, followed by an α-helical hydrophobic segment, plus a C-terminal domain carrying the peptidase cleavage site. Based on our new structural insights, we propose a model for the folding and membrane interactions of the Tat signal sequence from PhoD.

  8. Global meta-analysis shows that relationships of leaf mass per area with species shade tolerance depend on leaf habit and ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Christopher H; Warton, David I

    2007-01-01

    It was predicted that relationships of leaf mass per area (LMA) with juvenile shade tolerance will depend on leaf habit, and on whether species are compared at a common age as young seedlings, or at a common size as saplings. A meta-analysis of 47 comparative studies (372 species) was used to test predictions, and the effect of light environment on this relationship. The LMA of evergreens was positively correlated with shade tolerance, irrespective of ontogeny or light environment. The LMA of young seedlings (

  9. Recombination analysis and structure prediction show correlation between breakpoint clusters and RNA hairpins in the pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 unique recombinant forms.

    PubMed

    Galli, Andrea; Lai, Alessia; Corvasce, Stefano; Saladini, Francesco; Riva, Chiara; Dehò, Lorenzo; Caramma, Ilaria; Franzetti, Marco; Romano, Laura; Galli, Massimo; Zazzi, Maurizio; Balotta, Claudia

    2008-12-01

    Recombination is recognized as a primary force in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) evolution, increasing viral diversity through reshuffling of genomic portions. The strand-switching activity of reverse transcriptase is required to complete HIV-1 replication and can occur randomly throughout the genome, leading to viral recombination. Some recombination hotspots have been identified and found to correlate with RNA structure or sequence features. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of recombination hotspots in the pol gene of HIV-1 and to assess their correlation with the underlying RNA structure. Analysis of the recombination pattern and breakpoint distribution in a group of unique recombinant forms (URFs) detected two recombination hotspots in the pol region. Two stable and conserved hairpins were consistently predicted corresponding to the identified hotspots using six different RNA-folding algorithms on the URF parental strains. These findings suggest that such hairpins may play a role in the higher recombination rates detected at these positions.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of 626 hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates from humans and animals in China (1986-2011) showing genotype diversity and zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Li, Lingjun; Wang, Ling; Bu, Qiuning; Fu, Hongwei; Han, Jian; Zhu, Yonghong; Lu, Fengmin; Zhuang, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis E is considered as a public health problem in China. To determine the overall molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and analyze the situation of cross-species transmission between humans and swine in China over the last 25 years (1986-2011), 626 HEV complete and partial sequences (89 isolates identified by our group) isolated from humans and animals in China were retrieved from GenBank and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. There were three genotypes and 11 sub-genotypes of HEV prevailing in China. Furthermore, rabbit HEVs, of which the genotype is controversial, are also widespread in China. Genotype 1 was the most isolated genotype prior to 2000 and mainly detected in Xinjiang, Beijing and East China. However, genotype 4, which was identified in most regions of China during the last 10 years, has overtaken genotype 1 in frequency of isolation nationwide. Genotype 3 HEV strains have been found only in eastern China and were thought to be imported from Japan. Both genotypes 3 and 4 were found in humans and swine and cross-species transmission from pigs to humans of the two genotypes may have occurred in Northeast, Northwest, North, East and South China. These results indicate that HEV strains with considerable genetic diversity are widespread and the zoonotic transmission between swine and humans appears ubiquitous in China.

  11. Analysis of gene-disruption mutants of a sucrose phosphate synthase gene in rice, OsSPS1, shows the importance of sucrose synthesis in pollen germination.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Tatsuro; Hashida, Yoichi; Aoki, Naohiro; Okamura, Masaki; Yonekura, Madoka; Ohto, Chikara; Terao, Tomio; Ohsugi, Ryu

    2014-08-01

    The molecular function of an isoform of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in rice, OsSPS1, was investigated using gene-disruption mutant lines generated by retrotransposon insertion. The progeny of the heterozygote of disrupted OsSPS1 (SPS1(+/-)) segregated into SPS1(+/+), SPS1(+/-), and SPS1(-/-) at a ratio of 1:1:0. This distorted segregation ratio, together with the expression of OsSPS1 in the developing pollen revealed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis and promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion assay, suggested that the disruption of OsSPS1 results in sterile pollen. This hypothesis was reinforced by reciprocal crosses of SPS1(+/-) plants with wild-type plants in which the disrupted OsSPS1 was not paternally transmitted to the progeny. While the pollen grains of SPS(+/-) plants normally accumulated starch during their development, pollen germination on the artificial media was reduced to half of that observed in the wild-type control. Overall, our data suggests that sucrose synthesis via OsSPS1 is essential in pollen germination in rice.

  12. Adjustment Disorder in Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Correlates in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women is largely unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico. Methods Pregnant women (n = 300) attending in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico were studied. All enrolled pregnant women had a psychiatric interview to evaluate the presence of adjustment disorder using the DSM-IV criteria. A questionnaire was submitted to obtain general epidemiological data of the pregnant women studied. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of adjustment disorder with the epidemiological data of the women studied. Results Fifteen (5.0%) of the 300 women studied had adjustment disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria. Adjustment disorder was not associated with age, occupation, marital status, or education of pregnant women. In contrast, multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables showed that adjustment disorder was associated with the variables lack of support from her couple (odds ratio (OR) = 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 - 14.63; P = 0.04) and couple living abroad (OR = 10.12; 95% CI: 1.56 - 65.50; P = 0.01). Conclusions This is the first report about the epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results provide evidence of the presence of adjustment disorder and contributing psychosocial factors associated with this disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results point towards further clinical and research attention should be given to this neglected disorder in pregnant women. PMID:26346070

  13. Prognostic utility of blood pressure-adjusted global and basal systolic longitudinal strain.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Isaac B; Rehman, Shuja; Jarori, Upasana; Choudhry, Muhammad W; Feigenbaum, Harvey; Sawada, Stephen G

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS) and longitudinal systolic strain of the basal segments (BLS) has shown prognostic value in cardiac disorders. However, strain is reduced with increased afterload. We assessed the prognostic value of GLS and BLS adjusted for afterload. GLS and BLS were determined in 272 subjects with normal ejection fraction and no known coronary disease, or significant valve disease. Systolic blood pressure (SP) and diastolic blood pressure (DP) obtained at the time of echocardiography were used to adjust GLS and BLS as follows: strain×SP (mmHg)/120 mmHg and strain×DP (mmHg)/80 mmHg. Patients were followed for cardiac events and mortality. The mean age was 53±15 years and 53% had hypertension. There were 19 cardiac events and 70 deaths over a mean follow-up of 26±14 months. Cox analysis showed that left ventricular mass index (P=0.001), BLS (P<0.001), and DP-adjusted BLS (P<0.001) were independent predictors of cardiac events. DP-adjusted BLS added incremental value (P<0.001) to the other two predictors and had an area under the curve of 0.838 for events. DP (P=0.001), age (P=0.001), ACE inhibitor use (P=0.017), and SP-adjusted BLS (P=0.012) were independent predictors of mortality. SP-adjusted BLS added incremental value (P=0.014) to the other independent predictors. In conclusion, DP-adjusted BLS and SP-adjusted BLS were independent predictors of cardiac events and mortality, respectively. Blood pressure-adjusted strain added incremental prognostic value to other predictors of outcome.

  14. Prognostic utility of blood pressure-adjusted global and basal systolic longitudinal strain

    PubMed Central

    Rhea, Isaac B; Rehman, Shuja; Choudhry, Muhammad W; Feigenbaum, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Assessment of global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS) and longitudinal systolic strain of the basal segments (BLS) has shown prognostic value in cardiac disorders. However, strain is reduced with increased afterload. We assessed the prognostic value of GLS and BLS adjusted for afterload. GLS and BLS were determined in 272 subjects with normal ejection fraction and no known coronary disease, or significant valve disease. Systolic blood pressure (SP) and diastolic blood pressure (DP) obtained at the time of echocardiography were used to adjust GLS and BLS as follows: strain×SP (mmHg)/120 mmHg and strain×DP (mmHg)/80 mmHg. Patients were followed for cardiac events and mortality. The mean age was 53±15 years and 53% had hypertension. There were 19 cardiac events and 70 deaths over a mean follow-up of 26±14 months. Cox analysis showed that left ventricular mass index (P=0.001), BLS (P<0.001), and DP-adjusted BLS (P<0.001) were independent predictors of cardiac events. DP-adjusted BLS added incremental value (P<0.001) to the other two predictors and had an area under the curve of 0.838 for events. DP (P=0.001), age (P=0.001), ACE inhibitor use (P=0.017), and SP-adjusted BLS (P=0.012) were independent predictors of mortality. SP-adjusted BLS added incremental value (P=0.014) to the other independent predictors. In conclusion, DP-adjusted BLS and SP-adjusted BLS were independent predictors of cardiac events and mortality, respectively. Blood pressure-adjusted strain added incremental prognostic value to other predictors of outcome. PMID:27249810

  15. Self-Adjustable Adhesion of Polyampholyte Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Roy, Chanchal Kumar; Guo, Hong Lei; Sun, Tao Lin; Ihsan, Abu Bin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Takahata, Masakazu; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Nakajima, Tasuku; Gong, Jian Ping

    2015-12-02

    Developing nonspecific, fast, and strong adhesives that can glue hydrogels and biotissues substantially promotes the application of hydrogels as biomaterials. Inspired by the ubiquitous adhesiveness of bacteria, it is reported that neutral polyampholyte hydrogels, through their self-adjustable surface, can show rapid, strong, and reversible adhesion to charged hydrogels and biological tissues through the Coulombic interaction.

  16. Factors Mediating the Adjustment to Involuntary Childlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatelli, Ronald M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored stressors that accompany experience of involuntary childlessness and examined mediators of adjustment to infertility in married individuals. Data showed deleterious effect that coping with infertility can have on couple's sexual relationship. Findings suggest important relationship between self-esteem, marital commitment, and positive…

  17. Gender Differences in International Students' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Wonsun

    2009-01-01

    As gender roles in the society are being rapidly redefined, female students today are showing outstanding academic prowess and pursuing higher education. The current study recruited Korean international students (n = 76) enrolled in universities in the US and examined gender differences in academic adjustment. The findings of the current study…

  18. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  19. Program impact pathway analysis of a social franchise model shows potential to improve infant and young child feeding practices in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Menon, Purnima; Keithly, Sarah C; Kim, Sunny S; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    By mapping the mechanisms through which interventions are expected to achieve impact, program impact pathway (PIP) analysis lays out the theoretical causal links between program activities, outcomes, and impacts. This study examines the pathways through which the Alive & Thrive (A&T) social franchise model is intended to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Vietnam. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with franchise management board members (n = 12), surveys with health providers (n = 120), counseling observations (n = 160), and household surveys (n = 2045). Six PIP components were assessed: 1) franchise management, 2) training and IYCF knowledge of health providers, 3) service delivery, 4) program exposure and utilization, 5) maternal behavioral determinants (knowledge, beliefs, and intentions) toward optimal IYCF practices, and 6) IYCF practices. Data were collected from A&T-intensive areas (A&T-I; mass media + social franchise) and A&T-nonintensive areas (A&T-NI; mass media only) by using a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Data from 2013 were compared with baseline where similar measures were available. Results indicate that mechanisms are in place for effective management of the franchise system, despite challenges to routine monitoring. A&T training was associated with increased capacity of providers, resulting in higher-quality IYCF counseling (greater technical knowledge and communication skills during counseling) in A&T-I areas. Franchise utilization increased from 10% in 2012 to 45% in 2013 but fell below the expected frequency of 9-15 contacts per mother-child dyad. Improvements in breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and practices were greater among mothers in A&T-I areas than among those in A&T-NI areas. In conclusion, there are many positive changes along the impact pathway of the franchise services, but challenges in utilization and demand creation should be addressed to achieve the full

  20. Psychosocial adjustment and marital intimacy among partners of patients with breast cancer: a comparison study with partners of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the psychosocial adjustment of 70 partners of patients with breast cancer by comparing their emotional adjustment and quality of life (QoL) with 70 partners of women without cancer. The role of marital intimacy in their adjustment and the moderating effect of group type were analyzed. The partners of patients with breast cancer presented higher levels of anxious and depressive symptomatology; poor social, psychological, general and physical QoL; and higher levels of intimacy. The moderation analysis showed that higher levels of intimacy predicted lower levels of depression and anxiety and greater QoL only among the partners of cancer patients.

  1. Quality of life-adjusted survival analysis of high-dose therapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation versus sequential chemotherapy for patients with aggressive lymphoma in first complete remission. Groupe d'Etude les Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA).

    PubMed

    Mounier, N; Haioun, C; Cole, B F; Gisselbrecht, C; Sebban, C; Morel, P; Marit, G; Bouabdallah, R; Ravoet, C; Salles, G; Reyes, F; Lepage, E

    2000-06-15

    Evaluating high-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in term of both duration and quality of life (QOL) presents major interests for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The quality-adjusted time without symptom and toxicity (Q-TWiST) methodology was applied to the LNH87-2 trial comparing HDT with ASCT versus sequential chemotherapy in 541 patients in first complete remission (CR). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) curves were used to estimate duration of 4 health states: acute short-term toxicity (Tox1), secondary toxicity (Tox2), time without symptom and toxicity (TWiST), and relapse (Rel). Areas under survival curves (AUC) were retrospectively weighted according to QOL coefficients. HDT increased, but not significantly, TWiST (+2. 4 months in AUC, P =.17) and decreased Rel (-3 months, P <.01). Survival estimates did not differ between the 2 treatments (AUC 47.7 months for OS, 39.7 months for DFS). High-risk patients treated by HDT versus chemotherapy had a significant benefit in DFS (AUC 28.8 versus 24.9 months, P <.01) but not in OS (AUC 37.3 versus 36 months, P =.27). Sensitivity analysis, performed by varying QOL coefficients, demonstrated significant quality-adjusted survival gain in high-risk patients treated by HDT. In low-risk patients, a diagram provided an aid to clinical decision-making. This analysis supports the use of HDT in these patients with adverse prognostic factors in the first CR, even after adjusting for QOL using the Q-TWiST method. (Blood. 2000;95:3687-3692)

  2. 3D Analysis of D-RaCe and Self-Adjusting File in Removing Filling Materials from Curved Root Canals Instrumented and Filled with Different Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Simsek, Neslihan; Ahmetoglu, Fuat; Bulut, Elcin Tekin; Er, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of D-RaCe files and a self-adjusting file (SAF) system in removing filling material from curved root canals instrumented and filled with different techniques by using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). The mesial roots of 20 extracted mandibular first molars were used. Root canals (mesiobuccal and mesiolingual) were instrumented with SAF or Revo-S. The canals were then filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using cold lateral compaction or thermoplasticized injectable techniques. The root fillings were first removed with D-RaCe (Step 1), followed by Step 2, in which a SAF system was used to remove the residual fillings in all groups. Micro-CT scans were used to measure the volume of residual filling after root canal filling, reinstrumentation with D-RaCe (Step 1), and reinstrumentation with SAF (Step 2). Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. There were no statistically significant differences between filling techniques in the canals instrumented with SAF (P = 0.292) and Revo-S (P = 0.306). The amount of remaining filling material was similar in all groups (P = 0.363); all of the instrumentation techniques left filling residue inside the canals. However, the additional use of SAF was more effective than using D-RaCe alone. PMID:25114976

  3. Adjusting Your Gaze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber-Thrush, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Peter Wylie is a man of many contradictions: a statistician and a storyteller, an introvert who loves an audience, and a self-described data geek with a passion for his work and the people it helps. Wylie is one of the pioneers of predictive modeling, the statistical analysis that uses data to drive educational institutions and nonprofits toward…

  4. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Male Ox1r (-/-) Mice Showed Implication of Orexin Receptor-1 in Mood, Anxiety, and Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Md G; Shoji, Hirotaka; Soya, Shingo; Hondo, Mari; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system, and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological studies using selective antagonists have suggested that orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) is involved in physiological processes that regulate emotion, the reward system, and autonomic nervous system. Here, we examined Ox1r (-/-) mice with a comprehensive behavioral test battery to screen additional OX1R functions. Ox1r (-/-) mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior, altered depression-like behavior, slightly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, reduced social interaction, increased startle response, and decreased prepulse inhibition. These results suggest that OX1R plays roles in social behavior and sensory motor gating in addition to roles in mood and anxiety.

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis Shows Decreased Cortical Expression of NR4A1, NR4A2 and RXRB in Schizophrenia and Provides Evidence for Nuclear Receptor Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Susan M.; Wilkins, Marc R.; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Many genes are differentially expressed in the cortex of people with schizophrenia, implicating factors that control transcription more generally. Hormone nuclear receptors dimerize to coordinate context-dependent changes in gene expression. We hypothesized that members of two families of nuclear receptors (NR4As), and retinoid receptors (RARs and RXRs), are altered in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of people with schizophrenia. We used next generation sequencing and then qPCR analysis to test for changes in mRNA levels for transcripts encoding nuclear receptors: orphan nuclear receptors (3 in the NR4A, 3 in the RAR, 3 in the RXR families and KLF4) in total RNA extracted from the DLPFC from people with schizophrenia compared to controls (n = 74). We also correlated mRNA levels with demographic factors and with estimates of antipsychotic drug exposure (schizophrenia group only). We tested for correlations between levels of transcription factor family members and levels of genes putatively regulated by these transcription factors. We found significantly down regulated expression of NR4A1 (Nurr 77) and KLF4 mRNAs in people with schizophrenia compared to controls, by both NGS and qPCR (p = or <0.01). We also detected decreases in NR4A2 (Nurr1) and RXRB mRNAs by using qPCR in the larger cohort (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). We detected decreased expression of RARG and NR4A2 mRNAs in females with schizophrenia (p<0.05). The mRNA levels of NR4A1, NR4A2 and NR4A3 were all negative correlated with lifetime estimates of antipsychotic exposure. These novel findings, which may be influenced by antipsychotic drug exposure, implicate the orphan and retinoid nuclear receptors in the cortical pathology found in schizophrenia. Genes down stream of these receptors can be dysregulated as well, but the direction of change is not immediately predictable based on the putative transcription factor changes. PMID:27992436

  6. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  7. Examining changes in relationship adjustment and life satisfaction in marriage.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Scott M; Ragan, Erica P; Rhoades, Galena K; Markman, Howard J

    2012-02-01

    The current study examined the association between relationship adjustment and life satisfaction before marriage to 6 years into marriage in a sample of 126 couples. Results showed that both premarital relationship adjustment and premarital life satisfaction uniquely predicted marital adjustment 6 years into marriage. Premarital life satisfaction, but not premarital relationship adjustment, predicted life satisfaction 6 years into marriage. While premarital relationship adjustment scores were not uniquely associated with future life satisfaction scores, changes in relationship adjustment were positively associated with future life satisfaction. These findings are supportive of the idea that helping people to improve their relationships may increase overall life satisfaction. The findings also suggest that, while an individual's base level of life satisfaction may set some parameters for the course of relationship adjustment, changes in life satisfaction over time impact marital adjustment. Starting marriage with higher life satisfaction may increase chances for a happier marriage. Overall, the findings suggest that life satisfaction plays a role in marital adjustment over time, and that it is important to consider life satisfaction as not only an outcome associated with relationship adjustment but also as a predictor of relationship adjustment.

  8. Genetic analysis shows low levels of hybridization between African wildcats (Felis silvestris lybica) and domestic cats (F. s. catus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Johannes J; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Herbst, Marna; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between domestic and wild animals is a major concern for biodiversity conservation, and as habitats become increasingly fragmented, conserving biodiversity at all levels, including genetic, becomes increasingly important. Except for tropical forests and true deserts, African wildcats occur across the African continent; however, almost no work has been carried out to assess its genetic status and extent of hybridization with domestic cats. For example, in South Africa it has been argued that the long-term viability of maintaining pure wildcat populations lies in large protected areas only, isolated from human populations. Two of the largest protected areas in Africa, the Kgalagadi Transfrontier and Kruger National Parks, as well as the size of South Africa and range of landscape uses, provide a model situation to assess how habitat fragmentation and heterogeneity influences the genetic purity of African wildcats. Using population genetic and home range data, we examined the genetic purity of African wildcats and their suspected hybrids across South Africa, including areas within and outside of protected areas. Overall, we found African wildcat populations to be genetically relatively pure, but instances of hybridization and a significant relationship between the genetic distinctiveness (purity) of wildcats and human population pressure were evident. The genetically purest African wildcats were found in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, while samples from around Kruger National Park showed cause for concern, especially combined with the substantial human population density along the park's boundary. While African wildcat populations in South Africa generally appear to be genetically pure, with low levels of hybridization, our genetic data do suggest that protected areas may play an important role in maintaining genetic purity by reducing the likelihood of contact with domestic cats. We suggest that approaches such as corridors between protected areas

  9. Genetic analysis shows low levels of hybridization between African wildcats (Felis silvestris lybica) and domestic cats (F. s. catus) in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Le Roux, Johannes J; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Herbst, Marna; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between domestic and wild animals is a major concern for biodiversity conservation, and as habitats become increasingly fragmented, conserving biodiversity at all levels, including genetic, becomes increasingly important. Except for tropical forests and true deserts, African wildcats occur across the African continent; however, almost no work has been carried out to assess its genetic status and extent of hybridization with domestic cats. For example, in South Africa it has been argued that the long-term viability of maintaining pure wildcat populations lies in large protected areas only, isolated from human populations. Two of the largest protected areas in Africa, the Kgalagadi Transfrontier and Kruger National Parks, as well as the size of South Africa and range of landscape uses, provide a model situation to assess how habitat fragmentation and heterogeneity influences the genetic purity of African wildcats. Using population genetic and home range data, we examined the genetic purity of African wildcats and their suspected hybrids across South Africa, including areas within and outside of protected areas. Overall, we found African wildcat populations to be genetically relatively pure, but instances of hybridization and a significant relationship between the genetic distinctiveness (purity) of wildcats and human population pressure were evident. The genetically purest African wildcats were found in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, while samples from around Kruger National Park showed cause for concern, especially combined with the substantial human population density along the park's boundary. While African wildcat populations in South Africa generally appear to be genetically pure, with low levels of hybridization, our genetic data do suggest that protected areas may play an important role in maintaining genetic purity by reducing the likelihood of contact with domestic cats. We suggest that approaches such as corridors between protected areas

  10. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  11. “Hand down, Man down.” Analysis of Defensive Adjustments in Response to the Hot Hand in Basketball Using Novel Defense Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Csapo, Peter; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The hot-hand phenomenon, according to which a player’s performance is significantly elevated during certain phases relative to the expected performance based on the player’s base rate, has left many researchers and fans in basketball puzzled: The vast majority of players, coaches and fans believe in its existence but statistical evidence supporting this belief has been scarce. It has frequently been argued that the hot hand in basketball is unobservable because of strategic adjustments and defensive interference of the opposing team. We use a dataset with novel metrics, such as the number of defenders and the defensive intensity for each shot attempt, which enable us to directly measure defensive pressure. First, we examine how the shooting percentage of NBA players changes relative to the attributes of each metric. We find that it is of lesser importance by how many defenders a player is guarded but that defensive intensity, e.g., whether a defender raises his hand when his opponent shoots, has a larger impact on shot difficulty. Second, we explore how the underlying metrics and shooting accuracy change as a function of streak length. Our results indicate that defensive pressure and shot difficulty increase (decrease) during hot (cold) streaks, so that defenders seem to behave according to the hot-hand belief and try to force hot players into more difficult shots. However, we find that shooting percentages of presumably hot players do not increase and that shooting performance is not related to streakiness, so that the defenders’ hot-hand behavior cannot be considered ecologically rational. Therefore, we are unable to find evidence in favor of the hot-hand effect even when accounting for defensive pressure. PMID:25474443

  12. Emotion Regulation Profiles, Temperament, and Adjustment Problems in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point…

  13. Vocational identity and psychological adjustment: a study in French adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Perchec, Cyrille; Marchal, Clotilde

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to study vocational identity in French adolescent and emerging adult students by using a French adaptation of the Vocational Identity Status Assessment (VISA), and to analyze the links between vocational identity formation and negative and positive psychological adjustment. Participants were 1077 French students who completed self-report scales about vocational identity, depression and satisfaction with life. The French version of the VISA showed good psychometric properties and six identity statuses were derived by means of cluster analysis: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion and carefree diffusion. The main findings show that diffused diffusion and moratorium represent the dark sides of identity because of their negative psychological adjustment, and that the two processes of reconsideration of commitment were differently associated with psychological adjustment. These findings demonstrate that clinical interventions should be adapted to the individual's identity profile.

  14. Showing "F = BIL" Using Video Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leon; Parker, David; Brown, Carl; Ireson, Gren

    2011-01-01

    The force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field is a common aspect of post-16 physics courses. Many textbooks approach this topic via a current balance, e.g. Hutchins (1990) through to Duncan (2000), with websites such as "Practical Physics" giving a qualitative version. This article takes the approach of equating "F = BIL"sin[theta]…

  15. Adjustment of corn nitrogen in-season fertilization based on soil texture and weather conditions: a Meta-analysis of North American trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil properties and weather conditions are known to affect soil nitrogen (N) availability and plant N uptake. However, studies examining N response as affected by soil and weather sometimes give conflicting results. Meta-analysis is a statistical method for estimating treatment effects in a series o...

  16. Differentiation in Data Analysis & Probability, PreK-Grade 2: A Content Companion for Ongoing Assessment, Grouping Students, Targeting Instruction, and Adjusting Levels of Cognitive Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This book applies the author's easy but effective differentiation strategies to the data analysis and probability content standard. Taking the foundational elements of differentiation in this book, it helps you: (1) assess students' math abilities quickly and efficiently; (2) group children by need; (3) target instruction to meet every student's…

  17. LANDSAT-5 orbit adjust maneuver report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassett, P. J.; Johnson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The orbit adjust maneuvers performed to raise the LANDSAT 5 spacecraft to mission altitude, synchronize it with the required groundtrack, and properly phase the spacecraft with LANDSAT-4 to provide an 8 day full Earth coverage cycle are described. Maneuver planning and evaluation procedures, data and analysis results for all maneuvers performed to date, the frozen orbit concept, and the phasing requirement between LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 are also examined.

  18. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  19. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podder, P.; Constantinou, P.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators.

  20. Adjusting Performance Measures to Ensure Equitable Plan Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Zaborski, Lawrence B.; Ding, Lin; Shaul, James A.; Cioffi, Matthew J.; Cleary, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    When comparing health plans on scores from the Medicare Managed Care Consumer Assessment of Health Plans (MMC-CAHPS®) survey, the results should be adjusted for patient characteristics, not under the control of health plans, that might affect survey results. We developed an adjustment model that uses self-reported measures of health status, age, education, and whether someone helped the respondent with the questionnaire. The associations of health and education with survey responses differed by HCFA administrative region. Consequently, we recommend that the case-mix model include regional interactions. Analyses of the impact of adjustment show that the adjustments were usually small but not negligible. PMID:25372572

  1. Patterns of Individual Adjustment Changes During Middle School Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, HyunHee; Elias, Maurice; Schneider, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    Examines the patterns of individual adjustment changes in a sample of 99 early adolescents during an ecological transition from elementary school to middle school. Shows significant changes in adjustment as indicated by increased psychological distress or decreased academic achievement. Examines gender differences. Presents implications for…

  2. Longitudinal impact of sleep on overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a systematic review and bias-adjusted meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Y; Doi, S A R; Mamun, A A

    2015-02-01

    Short sleep duration is considered a potential risk for overweight/obesity in childhood and adolescence. However, most of the evidence on this topic is obtained from cross-sectional studies; therefore, the nature and extent of the longitudinal associations are unclear. This study explores the prospective association between short sleep and overweight/obesity in young subjects. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, and CINAHL databases were searched for English-language articles, published until May 2014, reporting longitudinal association between sleep and body mass index (BMI) in children and adolescents. Recommendations of the Sleep Health Foundation were used to standardize reference sleep duration. Sleep category, with sleep duration less than the reference sleep, was considered as the short sleep category. Meta-analysis was conducted to explore the association between short sleep and overweight/obesity. A review of 22 longitudinal studies, with subjects from diverse backgrounds, suggested an inverse association between sleep duration and BMI. Meta-analysis of 11 longitudinal studies, comprising 24,821 participants, revealed that subjects sleeping for short duration had twice the risk of being overweight/obese, compared with subjects sleeping for long duration (odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval: 1.64-2.81). This study provides evidence that short sleep duration in young subjects is significantly associated with future overweight/obesity.

  3. 13 CFR 315.16 - Adjustment proposal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... analysis of the Firm's problems, strengths and weaknesses and an assessment of its prospects for recovery... Firm in becoming more competitive in the global marketplace. For this purpose, Adjustment...

  4. Component Separation vs. Bridged Repair for Large Ventral Hernias: A Multi-Institutional Risk-Adjusted Comparison, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Askenasy, Eric P.; Greenberg, Jacob A.; Keith, Jerrod N.; Martindale, Robert G.; Roth, J. Scott; Mo, Jiandi; Ko, Tien C.; Kao, Lillian S.; Liang, Mike K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Repair of large ventral hernia defects is associated with high rates of surgical site occurrences (SSO), including surgical site infection (SSI), site dehiscence, seroma, hematoma, and site necrosis. Two common operative strategies exist: Component separation (CS) with primary fascial closure and mesh reinforcement (PFC-CS) and bridged repair (mesh spanning the hernia defect). We hypothesized that: (1) ventral hernia repair (VHR) of large defects with bridged repair is associated with more SSOs than is PFC, and (2) anterior CS is associated with more SSOs than is endoscopic, perforator-sparing, or posterior CS. Methods: Part I of this study was a review of a multi-center database of patients who underwent VHR of a defect ≥8 cm from 2010–2011 with at least one month of follow-up. The primary outcome was SSO. The secondary outcome was recurrence. Part II of this study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing bridged repair with PFC and studies comparing different kinds of CS. Results: A total of 108 patients were followed for a median of 16 months (range 1–50 months), of whom 84 underwent PFC-CS and 24 had bridged repairs. Unadjusted results demonstrated no differences between the groups in SSO or recurrence; however, the study was underpowered for this purpose. On meta-analysis, PFC was associated with a lower risk of SSO (odds ratio [OR] = 0.569; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34–0.94) and recurrence (OR = 0.138; 95% CI = 0.08–0.23) compared with bridged repair. On multiple-treatments meta-analysis, both endoscopic and perforator-sparing CS were most likely to be the treatments with the lowest risk of SSO and recurrence. Conclusions: Bridged repair was associated with more SSOs than was PFC, and PFC should be used whenever feasible. Endoscopic and perforator-sparing CS were associated with the fewest complications; however, these conclusions are limited by heterogeneity between studies and

  5. Conflict monitoring and adjustment in the task-switching paradigm under different memory load conditions: an ERP/sLORETA analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuqin; Wang, Yan; Ding, Xiaoqian; Tang, Yi-Yuan

    2015-02-11

    The aim of the present study was to examine electrophysiological and behavioral changes caused by different memory loads in a task-switching paradigm. A total of 31 healthy individuals were subjected to a task, in which the stimulus-response reversal paradigm was combined with the task-switching paradigm. The event-related potentials were recorded and the N2 component, an index of conflict processing, was measured. In addition, the neural sources of N2 were further analyzed by standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. The event-related potential results showed that high memory load triggered a higher N2 mean amplitude. Moreover, the standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography data showed that high memory load caused an increase in current densities at the anterior cingulate cortex and the prefrontal cortex in the task-switching paradigm. In summary, our findings provide electrophysiological evidence to interpret possible influences of memory loads on conflict monitoring and modulation during the task switching. These results imply that the working memory load overrules the influence of task-switching performance on the intensification of cognitive control.

  6. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa

    2017-01-03

    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  7. Retrospective analysis of age-adjusted body mass index among pre-pregnant women in the Lithuanian urban area during three decades

    PubMed Central

    Francaite-Daugeliene, Migle; Petrenko, Vladimiras; Baliutaviciene, Dalia; Velickiene, Dzilda

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of maternal obesity at the beginning of pregnancy is increasing. However, there are some studies reporting the stabilisation of obesity epidemic or even the downward trend in the general population. Objective To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Lithuanian pre-pregnant women during 3 decades. Methods This observational retrospective study included a sample of 2827, women aged 18–44 years who gave birth in 1987–1989, 1996–1997 and 2007–2010: 861 (30.5%), 995 (35.2%) and 971 (34.3%), respectively. All women were divided into groups by body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported weight and height, and age reported during the first antenatal visit. Quantitative parametric variables were expressed as mean and SD; qualitative variables, as absolute numbers (n) and percentage (%). For parametric data, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Differences were considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity among women aged 18–24 years decreased from 20.9% in 1987–1989 to 9.5% in 1996–1997 but increased to 15.7% in 2007–2010; among women aged 25–34 years, decreased from 35.5% in 1987–1989 to 23% in 1996–1997 and to 22.4% in 2007–2010; and among women aged 35–44 years decreased from 64.9% in 1987–1989 to 34% in 1996–1997 but increased to 45.3% in 2007–2010. BMI increased with an increasing age (r=0.254, p<0.05). Analysis by separate periods (1987–1989, 1996–1997 and 2007–2010) revealed a positive correlation between BMI and age at the first antenatal visit in all periods (r=0.325, p<0.01; r=0.266, p<0.01; and r=0.210, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions The prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-pregnant women tended to decrease in the Lithuanian urban area during 3 decades. A slight increase in overweight and obesity documented in 2007–2010 compared with 1996–1997 most likely was caused by older maternal age. PMID

  8. Analysis of trichloroethylene removal and bacterial community function based on pH-adjusted in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Hu, Miao; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Xin; Meng, Qingjuan

    2015-11-01

    The study reported the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor performance in treating wastewater containing trichloroethylene (TCE) and characterized variations of bacteria composition and structure by changing the pH from 6.0 to 8.0. A slightly acidic environment (pH < 7.0) had a greater impact on the TCE removal. Illumina pyrosequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial community changes in response to pH shifts. The results demonstrated that pH greatly influenced the dominance and presence of specific populations. The potential TCE degradation pathway in the UASB reactor was proposed. Importantly, the genus Dehalobacter which was capable of reductively dechlorinating TCE was detected, and it was not found at pH of 6.0, which presumably is the reason why the removal efficiency of TCE was the lowest (80.73 %). Through Pearson correlation analyses, the relative abundance of Dehalobacter positively correlated with TCE removal efficiency (R = 0.912). However, the relative abundance of Lactococcus negatively correlated with TCE removal efficiency according to the results from Pearson correlation analyses and redundancy analysis (RDA).

  9. The impacts of climatological adjustment of quantitative precipitation estimates on the accuracy of flash flood detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Reed, Sean; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Cosgrove, Brian; Kitzmiller, David; Seo, Dong-Jun; Cifelli, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The multisensor Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (MQPEs) created by the US National Weather Service (NWS) are subject to a non-stationary bias. This paper quantifies the impacts of climatological adjustment of MQPEs alone, as well as the compound impacts of adjustment and model calibration, on the accuracy of simulated flood peak magnitude and that in detecting flood events. Our investigation is based on 19 watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region of US, which are grouped into small (<500 km2) and large (>500 km2) watersheds. NWS archival MQPEs over 1997-2013 for this region are adjusted to match concurrent gauge-based monthly precipitation accumulations. Then raw and adjusted MQPEs serve as inputs to the NWS distributed hydrologic model-threshold frequency framework (DHM-TF). Two experiments via DHM-TF are performed. The first one examines the impacts of adjustment alone through uncalibrated model simulations, whereas the second one focuses on the compound effects of adjustment and calibration on the detection of flood events. Uncalibrated model simulations show broad underestimation of flood peaks for small watersheds and overestimation those for large watersheds. Prior to calibration, adjustment alone tends to reduce the magnitude of simulated flood peaks for small and large basins alike, with 95% of all watersheds experienced decline over 2004-2013. A consequence is that a majority of small watersheds experience no improvement, or deterioration in bias (0% of basins experiencing improvement). By contrast, most (73%) of larger ones exhibit improved bias. Outcomes of the detection experiment show that the role of adjustment is not diminished by calibration for small watersheds, with only 25% of which exhibiting reduced bias after adjustment with calibrated parameters. Furthermore, it is shown that calibration is relatively effective in reducing false alarms (e.g., false alarm rate is down from 0.28 to 0.19 after calibration for small watersheds with calibrated

  10. Design of life testboard of manual slack adjuster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zai; Qiu, Guofeng; Lin, Min; Guo, Bin

    2011-12-01

    In order to solve the problem of realization of the manual slack adjuster"s life test system, this paper introduces the hardware system design and software programming to control the movement of manual slack adjuster intelligently, so as to record and judge single manual slack adjuster"s life. The paper firstly introduces the manual adjuster"s structure, work theory and the structure expression of its failure. Then, based on the work theory, it is designed that the test system which mainly consists of hardware system and software system. The hardware system is composed of computer, PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), electric control system, pneumatic system, sensor system, the adjuster to be measured and so on. The software system consists of control software and display software. Control software is designed by using ladder diagram for programming in CX-Programmer 7.3 environment. Meanwhile, display software which is based on MCGS (Monitor and Control Generated System) software is designed with a reasonable and convenient interface. We calculate uncertainty in life testing of the manual slack adjuster to analyze the experimental results. The experimental results show that the system runs stably and measures accurately. Consequently, it meets the design requirements well.

  11. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  12. Comparable-Worth Adjustments: Yes--Comparable-Worth Adjustments: No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Sue; O'Neill, June

    1985-01-01

    Two essays address the issue of pay equity and present opinions favoring and opposing comparable-worth adjustments. Movement of women out of traditionally female jobs, the limits of "equal pay," fairness of comparable worth and market-based wages, implementation and efficiency of comparable worth system, and alternatives to comparable…

  13. Association between physical activity and body fat percentage, with adjustment for BMI: a large cross-sectional analysis of UK Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenji; Armstrong, Miranda E G; Key, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine if, in the general population, physically active adults have less body fat after taking body mass index (BMI) into account. Design A cross-sectional analysis of participants recruited into UK Biobank in 2006–2010. Setting UK Biobank assessment centres throughout the UK. Participants 119 230 men and 140 578 women aged 40–69 years, with complete physical activity information, and without a self-reported long-term illness, disability or infirmity. Exposures Physical activity measured as excess metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours per week, estimated from a combination of walking, and moderate and vigorous physical activity. BMI from measured height and weight. Main outcome measure Body fat percentage estimated from bioimpedance. Results BMI and body fat percentage were highly correlated (r=0.85 in women; r=0.79 in men), and both were inversely associated with physical activity. Compared with <5 excess MET-hours/week at baseline, ≥100 excess MET-hours/week were associated with a 1.1 kg/m2 lower BMI (27.1 vs 28.2 kg/m2) and 2.8 percentage points lower body fat (23.4% vs 26.3%) in men, and 2.2 kg/m2 lower BMI (25.6 vs 27.7 kg/m2) and 4.0 percentage points lower body fat (33.9% vs 37.9%) in women. For a given BMI, greater physical activity was associated with lower average body fat percentage (for a BMI of 22.5–24.99 kg/m2: 2.0 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.2), percentage points lower body fat in men and 1.8 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.0) percentage points lower body fat in women, comparing ≥100 excess MET-hours per week with <5 excess MET-hours/week). Conclusions In this sample of middle-aged adults, drawn from the general population, physical activity was inversely associated with BMI and body fat percentage. For people with the same BMI, those who were more active had a lower body fat percentage. PMID:28341684

  14. Analysis of Regional Climate Changes adjusted Future Urban Growth Scenarios and possibility of the future air quality prediction in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    urbanized area. Additionally, we thought that the difference of variables like surface temperature and PBL height will surely create the variation of the future air quality in SMA. So, we examined the CMAQ (Community Modeling and Analysis System) model, which is usually to predict the timely variation and the spatial distribution of air pollutant like ozone, particular matter, to know the possibility of the prediction of the future air quality changes under the urban growth changes and ECHAM5/OM-1 A1B scenarios. To make the initial emission data for CMAQ modeling, we analyzed the National Air Pollutants emission data for past 12 years (1999~2010) generated by National institute of Environmental Research in Korea and assumed that future emission is increased linearly by 2050.

  15. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  16. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  17. Dyadic Adjustment: An Ecosystemic Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; McCulloch, B. Jan; Stone, Katherine L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of background, individual, and family influences on dyadic adjustment, using an ecological perspective. Data from 102 married couples were used. Age at marriage for husbands, emotional health for wives, and number of marriage and family problems as well as family life satisfaction for both were related to dyadic…

  18. Problems of Adjustment to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolini, Leandro A.

    This paper, one of several written for a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education in Illinois, examines and summarizes the literature on the problems of young children in adjusting to starting school full-time and describes the nature and extent of their difficulties in relation to statewide educational policy. The review of studies…

  19. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  20. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term... by: (1) The fee set forth in § 1.18(f); and (2) A showing to the satisfaction of the Director...

  1. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term... by: (1) The fee set forth in § 1.18(f); and (2) A showing to the satisfaction of the Director...

  2. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term... showing to the satisfaction of the Director that, in spite of all due care, the applicant was unable...

  3. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term... showing to the satisfaction of the Director that, in spite of all due care, the applicant was unable...

  4. SIM_ADJUST -- A computer code that adjusts simulated equivalents for observations or predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poeter, Eileen P.; Hill, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the SIM_ADJUST computer code. SIM_ADJUST surmounts an obstacle that is sometimes encountered when using universal model analysis computer codes such as UCODE_2005 (Poeter and others, 2005), PEST (Doherty, 2004), and OSTRICH (Matott, 2005; Fredrick and others (2007). These codes often read simulated equivalents from a list in a file produced by a process model such as MODFLOW that represents a system of interest. At times values needed by the universal code are missing or assigned default values because the process model could not produce a useful solution. SIM_ADJUST can be used to (1) read a file that lists expected observation or prediction names and possible alternatives for the simulated values; (2) read a file produced by a process model that contains space or tab delimited columns, including a column of simulated values and a column of related observation or prediction names; (3) identify observations or predictions that have been omitted or assigned a default value by the process model; and (4) produce an adjusted file that contains a column of simulated values and a column of associated observation or prediction names. The user may provide alternatives that are constant values or that are alternative simulated values. The user may also provide a sequence of alternatives. For example, the heads from a series of cells may be specified to ensure that a meaningful value is available to compare with an observation located in a cell that may become dry. SIM_ADJUST is constructed using modules from the JUPITER API, and is intended for use on any computer operating system. SIM_ADJUST consists of algorithms programmed in Fortran90, which efficiently performs numerical calculations.

  5. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  6. Childhood peer relationship problems and psychosocial adjustment in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Woodward, L J; Fergusson, D M

    1999-02-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, this paper examined the relationship between teacher reported peer relationship problems at age 9 and psychosocial adjustment in late adolescence. Results showed that, by age 18, children with high rates of early peer relationship problems were at increased risk of externalizing behavior problems such as criminal offending and substance abuse, but were not at increased risk of anxiety disorder or major depression. Subsequent analyses revealed that these associations were largely explained by the effects of child and family factors associated with both early peer relationship problems and later adjustment. The most influential variable in explaining associations between peer relationship problems and later adjustment was the extent of children's early conduct problems. These results suggest that reported associations between early peer problems and later adjustment are noncausal, and appear to reflect underlying continuities in behavioral adjustment.

  7. 26 CFR 1.481-4 - Adjustments taken into account with consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Adjustments § 1.481-4 Adjustments taken into account with consent. (a... on the parties except upon a showing of fraud, malfeasance, or misrepresentation of material fact....

  8. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy shows similar response in patients with inflammatory or locally advanced breast cancer when compared with operable breast cancer: a secondary analysis of the GeparTrio trial data.

    PubMed

    Costa, Serban Dan; Loibl, Sibylle; Kaufmann, Manfred; Zahm, Dirk-Michael; Hilfrich, Jörn; Huober, Jens; Eidtmann, Holger; du Bois, Andreas; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Ataseven, Beyhan; Weiss, Erich; Tesch, Hans; Gerber, Bernd; Baumann, Klaus H; Thomssen, Christoph; Breitbach, Georg Peter; Ibishi, Shaip; Jackisch, Christian; Mehta, Keyur; von Minckwitz, Gunter

    2010-01-01

    difference in response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was found by tumor stage when analysis was adjusted for baseline characteristics.

  9. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within the OCC's jurisdiction is adjusted in accordance with the...

  10. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  11. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  12. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  13. Adjustment in mothers of children with Asperger syndrome: an application of the double ABCX model of family adjustment.

    PubMed

    Pakenham, Kenneth I; Samios, Christina; Sofronoff, Kate

    2005-05-01

    The present study examined the applicability of the double ABCX model of family adjustment in explaining maternal adjustment to caring for a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-seven mothers completed questionnaires at a university clinic while their children were participating in an anxiety intervention. The children were aged between 10 and 12 years. Results of correlations showed that each of the model components was related to one or more domains of maternal adjustment in the direction predicted, with the exception of problem-focused coping. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that, after controlling for the effects of relevant demographics, stressor severity, pile-up of demands and coping were related to adjustment. Findings indicate the utility of the double ABCX model in guiding research into parental adjustment when caring for a child with Asperger syndrome. Limitations of the study and clinical implications are discussed.

  14. Citicoline in pre-clinical animal models of stroke: a meta-analysis shows the optimal neuroprotective profile and the missing steps for jumping into a stroke clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Alejandro; Giralt, Dolors; Garcia-Bonilla, Lidia; Campos, Mireia; Rosell, Anna; Montaner, Joan

    2012-10-01

    The neuroprotective actions of citicoline have been documented for experimental stroke therapy. We used a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess this evidence. From 64 identified studies using citicoline in stroke animal models, only those describing ischemic occlusive stroke and reporting data on infarct volume and/or neurological outcome were included (14 studies, 522 animals). Overall, the quality of the studies was modest (5, 4-6), while the absence of studies involving animals with co-morbidities, females, old animals or strain differences indicated that studies did not fulfill the STAIR recommendations. Weighted mean difference meta-analysis showed citicoline to reduce infarct volume by 27.8% [(19.9%, 35.6%); p < 0.001]. In the stratified analysis, citicoline effect on reducing infarct volume was higher in proximal occlusive models of middle cerebral artery (MCA) compared with distal occlusion. Moreover, the efficacy was superior using multiple doses than single dose and when a co-treatment was administered compared with citicoline monotherapy, the only independent factor identified in the meta-regression. Citicoline improved neurological deficit by 20.2% [(6.8%, 33.7%); p = 0.015], but only four studies including 176 animals reported these data. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence of citicoline efficacy in stroke animal models and shows the optimal neuroprotective profile and the missing experimental requirements before jumping into clinical trials.

  15. RATE-ADJUSTMENT ALGORITHM FOR AGGREGATE TCP CONGESTION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    P. TINNAKORNSRISUPHAP, ET AL

    2000-09-01

    The TCP congestion-control mechanism is an algorithm designed to probe the available bandwidth of the network path that TCP packets traverse. However, it is well-known that the TCP congestion-control mechanism does not perform well on networks with a large bandwidth-delay product due to the slow dynamics in adapting its congestion window, especially for short-lived flows. One promising solution to the problem is to aggregate and share the path information among TCP connections that traverse the same bottleneck path, i.e., Aggregate TCP. However, this paper shows via a queueing analysis of a generalized processor-sharing (GPS) queue with regularly-varying service time that a simple aggregation of local TCP connections together into a single aggregate TCP connection can result in a severe performance degradation. To prevent such a degradation, we introduce a rate-adjustment algorithm. Our simulation confirms that by utilizing our rate-adjustment algorithm on aggregate TCP, connections which would normally receive poor service achieve significant performance improvements without penalizing connections which already receive good service.

  16. Does an active adjustment of aerodynamic drag make sense?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Marek

    2016-09-01

    The article concerns evaluation of the possible impact of the gap between the tractor and semitrailer on the aerodynamic drag coefficient. The aim here is not to adjust this distance depending on the geometrical shape of the tractor and trailer, but depending solely on the speed of articulated vehicle. All the tests have form of numerical simulations. The method of simulation is briefly explained in the article. It considers various issues such as the range and objects of tests as well as the test conditions. The initial (pre-adaptive) and final (after adaptation process) computational meshes have been presented as illustrations. Some of the results have been presented in the form of run chart showing the change of value of aerodynamic drag coefficients in time, for different geometric configurations defined by a clearance gap between the tractor and semitrailer. The basis for a detailed analysis and conclusions were the averaged (in time) aerodynamic drag coefficients as a function of the clearance gap.

  17. Contact angle adjustment in equation-of-state-based pseudopotential model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Anjie; Li, Longjian; Uddin, Rizwan; Liu, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The single component pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model has been widely applied in multiphase simulation due to its simplicity and stability. In many studies, it has been claimed that this model can be stable for density ratios larger than 1000. However, the application of the model is still limited to small density ratios when the contact angle is considered. The reason is that the original contact angle adjustment method influences the stability of the model. Moreover, simulation results in the present work show that, by applying the original contact angle adjustment method, the density distribution near the wall is artificially changed, and the contact angle is dependent on the surface tension. Hence, it is very inconvenient to apply this method with a fixed contact angle, and the accuracy of the model cannot be guaranteed. To solve these problems, a contact angle adjustment method based on the geometry analysis is proposed and numerically compared with the original method. Simulation results show that, with our contact angle adjustment method, the stability of the model is highly improved when the density ratio is relatively large, and it is independent of the surface tension.

  18. Contact angle adjustment in equation-of-state-based pseudopotential model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Anjie; Li, Longjian; Uddin, Rizwan; Liu, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The single component pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model has been widely applied in multiphase simulation due to its simplicity and stability. In many studies, it has been claimed that this model can be stable for density ratios larger than 1000. However, the application of the model is still limited to small density ratios when the contact angle is considered. The reason is that the original contact angle adjustment method influences the stability of the model. Moreover, simulation results in the present work show that, by applying the original contact angle adjustment method, the density distribution near the wall is artificially changed, and the contact angle is dependent on the surface tension. Hence, it is very inconvenient to apply this method with a fixed contact angle, and the accuracy of the model cannot be guaranteed. To solve these problems, a contact angle adjustment method based on the geometry analysis is proposed and numerically compared with the original method. Simulation results show that, with our contact angle adjustment method, the stability of the model is highly improved when the density ratio is relatively large, and it is independent of the surface tension.

  19. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  20. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  1. Satellite Animation Shows California Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows a series of moisture-laden storms affecting California from Jan. 6 through Jan. 9, 2017. TRT: 00:36 Credit: NASA...

  2. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  3. Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Harmon Daniel B. Levine Stanley A. Horowitz, Project Leader INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES 4850 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1882 Approved...T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5112 Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition Bruce R. Harmon Daniel B. Levine...might do a better job? The focus of the study is on aircraft procurement. By way of terminology , “cost index,” “price index,” and “deflator” are used

  4. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  5. Psychological adjustment and autonomic disturbances in inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pellissier, Sonia; Dantzer, Cécile; Canini, Fréderic; Mathieu, Nicolas; Bonaz, Bruno

    2010-06-01

    Psychological factors and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to assess, firstly the way IBS and IBD patients cope with their pathology according to their affective adjustment and secondly the possible links between these affective adjustments and ANS reactivity. Patients with Crohn's disease (CD; n=26), ulcerative colitis (UC; n=22), or IBS (n=27) were recruited and compared to 21 healthy subjects based on psychological variables (trait- and state anxiety, depressive symptomatology, negative mood, perceived stress, coping, health locus of control) and sympatho-vagal balance through heart-rate variability monitored at rest. A principal component analysis, performed on all affective variables, isolated a leading factor labelled as "affective adjustment". In each disease, patients were distributed into positive and negative affective adjustment. In all the diseases, a positive affect was associated with problem-focused coping, and a negative affect with emotion-focused coping and external health locus of control. Results show that the sympatho-vagal balance varied according to the disease. In CD presenting positive affectivity, an adapted high sympathetic activity was observed. In UC, a parasympathetic blunt was observed in the presence of negative affectivity and an equilibrated sympatho-vagal balance in the presence of positive affectivity. In contrast, in IBS, an important dysautonomia (with high sympathetic and low parasympathetic tone) was constantly observed whatever the affective adjustment. In conclusion, this study suggests that the equilibrium of the ANS is differentially adapted according to the disease. This equilibrium is conjugated with positive affective and cognitive adjustment in IBD (CD and UC) but not in IBS.

  6. The impact of firms' adjustments on the indirect cost of illness.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Koń, Beata

    2017-02-02

    Illness-related absenteeism reduces firms' output, an effect referred to as indirect cost (IC) and often included in cost-of-illness or cost-effectiveness (of health technologies) studies. The companies may foresee this effect and modify hiring or contracting policies. We present a model allowing the estimation of IC with such adjustments. We show that the risk of illness does not change the general shape and properties of the (expected) marginal productivity function. We apply our model to several illustrative examples and show that firm's adjustments impact IC in an ambiguous way, depending on detailed company/market characteristics: in some cases the company reduces the employment (further increasing IC), in another-the opposite happens. Contrary to previous findings, teamwork and shortfall penalties may reduce IC in some settings. Our analysis highlights that IC should be split into the result of companies preparing for and actually experiencing sick leaves.

  7. 48 CFR 201.109 - Statutory acquisition-related dollar thresholds-adjustment for inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory acquisition-related dollar thresholds-adjustment for inflation. 201.109 Section 201.109 Federal Acquisition...-adjustment for inflation. (d) A matrix showing the most recent escalation adjustments of...

  8. 48 CFR 201.109 - Statutory acquisition-related dollar thresholds-adjustment for inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statutory acquisition-related dollar thresholds-adjustment for inflation. 201.109 Section 201.109 Federal Acquisition...-adjustment for inflation. (d) A matrix showing the most recent escalation adjustments of...

  9. An Empirical Study into Gender Differences in the Relationships among Academic, Social and Psychological Adjustments of University Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2014-01-01

    There are three dimensions through which to measure university support for students' transition to university life: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous research studies show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships. The…

  10. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  11. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    PubMed

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  12. Adjusting the Contour of Reflector Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Giebler, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Postfabrication adjustment of contour of panels for reflector, such as parabolic reflector for radio antennas, possible with simple mechanism consisting of threaded stud, two nuts, and flexure. Contours adjusted manually.

  13. 48 CFR 1450.103 - Contract adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract adjustments. 1450.103 Section 1450.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT... Contract adjustments....

  14. First Year Adjustment in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosemore, Jean Ann

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between adjustment to secondary school and 17 cognitive and noncognitive variables, including intelligence (verbal and nonverbal reasoning), academic achievement, extraversion-introversion, stable/unstable, social adjustment, endeavor, age, sex, and school form. (CP)

  15. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  16. Generalized adjustment by least squares ( GALS).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elassal, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The least-squares principle is universally accepted as the basis for adjustment procedures in the allied fields of geodesy, photogrammetry and surveying. A prototype software package for Generalized Adjustment by Least Squares (GALS) is described. The package is designed to perform all least-squares-related functions in a typical adjustment program. GALS is capable of supporting development of adjustment programs of any size or degree of complexity. -Author

  17. 46. Building 102, view showing waveguide control switch used to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Building 102, view showing waveguide control switch used to achieve equal length adjustments and frequency control between separate Klystron tube radion frequency (RF) generators. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  18. 49 CFR 393.53 - Automatic brake adjusters and brake adjustment indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... brake adjustment indicators. (a) Automatic brake adjusters (hydraulic brake systems). Each commercial motor vehicle manufactured on or after October 20, 1993, and equipped with a hydraulic brake...

  19. The out-of-body experience and personality adjustment.

    PubMed

    Tobacyk, J J; Mitchell, T P

    1987-06-01

    Relationships between the out-of-body experience and personality adjustment were studied. A total of 445 college students, including 65 reporting out-of-body experiences, completed self-report measures of death orientation, defensive style, narcissism, paranormal beliefs, self-concept, and social desirability. No significant differences were found between respondents reporting out-of-body experiences and nonreporters on any of the instruments, except for the Paranormal Belief Scale. Reporters of out-of-body experiences showed significantly greater belief in precognition, psi, spiritualism, and witchcraft than did nonreporters. Findings indicate considerable similarity between reporters and nonreporters in personality adjustment. It is clear that, on these personality adjustment measures, the out-of-body experience was associated with neither less effective nor more effective adjustment.

  20. Adult Attachment and Dyadic Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Shame.

    PubMed

    Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena

    2016-07-03

    Although it is widely recognized that adult attachment is associated with romantic relationship quality, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of external and internal shame on the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. A battery of self-report measures was completed by 228 Portuguese participants and a serial multiple mediation model was tested. Data showed that, in the population under study, attachment dimensions were associated with worse dyadic adjustment through high external and internal shame. Internal shame alone also mediated the association between attachment avoidance and dyadic adjustment. This study identifies a new putative mechanism linking adult attachment and intimate relationship functioning that may be targeted in couples therapy to promote a better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning.

  1. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400 h, (4) 1600 h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

  2. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  3. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  4. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  5. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  6. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  7. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  8. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  9. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  10. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  11. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  12. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  13. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  14. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  15. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  16. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  17. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  18. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  19. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  20. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  1. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  2. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  3. [Effect of economic structure adjustment on pollution emission: a case study of COD].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Sheng; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Yuan-Hang; Li, Qian; Zhang, Jian-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Economic structure adjustment is an important means to reduce the emissions of pollutants. For quantitative analysis of the effect of economic structure adjustment on the reduction of pollution emission, the country was divided into four sub-regions, eastern, northeastern, central and western, and the industry was divided into 39 sectors. Taking chemical oxygen demand (COD) as an example, the influences of regional structure and industry structure adjustment on total emission reduction and emission intensity were analyzed through building a model. The results showed that, in 2000-2010: (1) COD emissions in China were reduced from 1 445 x 10(4) t to 1 238 x 10(4) t, with a total emission of 14 950 x 10(4) t in 11 years, among which the emissions from eastern area occupied the largest proportion, accounting for 35.6%. (2) In the industrial COD emissions, emission from paper and paper products was the largest, accounting for 35.8% of the industrial COD emissions. (3) The economic structure changes in the four areas reduced the COD emissions by 420 x 10(4) t, resulting in a decrease of 1.29% in COD emission intensity. (4) Industrial internal structure changes reduced the COD emissions by 533 x 10(4) t, leading to a decrease of 3.1% in COD emission intensity. The research results have certain reference value in guiding the Chinese economic structure adjustment and achieving the targets of energy-saving and emission reduction.

  4. Thriving, Managing, and Struggling: A Mixed Methods Study of Adolescent African Refugees’ Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen; Levin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this mixed method study was to characterize the patterns of psychosocial adjustment among adolescent African refugees in U.S. resettlement. Methods A purposive sample of 73 recently resettled refugee adolescents from Burundi and Liberia were followed for two years and qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed using a mixed methods exploratory design. Results Protective resources identified were the family and community capacities that can promote youth psychosocial adjustment through: 1) Finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) Social support networks; 4) Engaged parenting; 5) Family cohesion; 6) Cultural adherence and guidance; 7) Educational support; and, 8) Faith and religious involvement. The researchers first inductively identified 19 thriving, 29 managing, and 25 struggling youths based on review of cases. Univariate analyses then indicated significant associations with country of origin, parental education, and parental employment. Multiple regressions indicated that better psychosocial adjustment was associated with Liberians and living with both parents. Logistic regressions showed that thriving was associated with Liberians and higher parental education, managing with more parental education, and struggling with Burundians and living parents. Qualitative analysis identified how these factors were proxy indicators for protective resources in families and communities. Conclusion These three trajectories of psychosocial adjustment and six domains of protective resources could assist in developing targeted prevention programs and policies for refugee youth. Further rigorous longitudinal mixed-methods study of adolescent refugees in U.S. resettlement are needed. PMID:24205467

  5. Establishing force and speed training targets for lumbar spine high-velocity, low-amplitude chiropractic adjustments*

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Edward F.; Hosek, Ronald S.; Sullivan, Stephanie G.B.; Russell, Brent S.; Mullin, Linda E.; Dever, Lydia L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We developed an adjusting bench with a force plate supporting the lumbar portion to measure loads transmitted during lumbar manual adjustment. It will be used to provide force-feedback to enhance student learning in technique labs. The study goal is to define the learning target loads and speeds, with instructors as expert models. Methods: A total of 11 faculty members experienced in teaching Gonstead technique methods performed 81 simulated adjustments on a mannequin on the force plate. Adjustments were along 9 lumbopelvic “listings” at 3 load levels: light, normal, and heavy. We analyzed the thrusts to find preload, peak load, duration, and thrust rate. Results: Analysis of 891 thrusts showed wide variations between doctors. Peak loads ranged from 100 to 1400 N. All doctors showed clear distinctions between peak load levels, but there was overlap between high and low loads. Thrust rates were more uniform across doctors, averaging 3 N/ms. Conclusion: These faculty members delivered a range of thrusts, not unlike those seen in the literature for high velocity, low amplitude manipulation. We have established at least minimum force and speed targets for student performance, but more work must be done to create a normative adjustment to guide refinement of student learning. PMID:26600272

  6. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  7. Contextual, Ecological and Organizational Variations in Risk-Adjusted COPD and Asthma Hospitalization Rates of Rural Medicare Beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Wan, Thomas T H; Lin, Yi-Ling; Ortiz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine what factors contributing to the variability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and asthma hospitalization rates when the influence of patient characteristics is being simultaneously considered by applying a risk adjustment method. A longitudinal analysis of COPD and asthma hospitalization of rural Medicare beneficiaries in 427 rural health clinics (RHCs) was conducted utilizing administrative data and inpatient and outpatient claims from Region 4. The repeated measures of risk-adjusted COPD and asthma admission rate were analyzed by growth curve modeling. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) method was used to identify the relevance of selected predictors in accounting for the variability in risk-adjusted admission rates for COPD and asthma. Both adjusted and unadjusted rates of COPD admission showed a slight decline from 2010 to 2013. The growth curve modeling showed the annual rates of change were gradually accentuated through time. GEE revealed that a moderate amount of variance (marginal R(2) = 0.66) in the risk-adjusted hospital admission rates for COPD and asthma was accounted for by contextual, ecological, and organizational variables. The contextual, ecological, and organizational factors are those associated with RHCs, not hospitals. We cannot infer how the variability in hospital practices in RHC service areas may have contributed to the disparities in admissions. Identification of RHCs with substantially higher rates than an average rate can portray the need for further enhancement of needed ambulatory or primary care services for the specific groups of RHCs. Because the risk-adjusted rates of hospitalization do not very by classification of rural area, future research should address the variation in a specific COPD and asthma condition of RHC patients. Risk-adjusted admission rates for COPD and asthma are influenced by the synergism of multiple contextual, ecological, and organizational factors

  8. Focus adjustment effects on visual acuity and oculomotor balance with aviator night vision displays.

    PubMed

    Kotulak, J C; Morse, S E

    1994-04-01

    Sixteen U.S. Army aviators, who were given training on focus adjustment technique with aviator night vision goggles (NVG), showed an improvement in visual acuity with focus adjustment compared to a fixed infinity focus control. The long-term effect of focus adjustment on vision was not measured; however, adjustment accuracy was found to be generally within acceptable limits based on computer modeling and available physiologic data. Fixed focus eyepieces that are set to a low minus power may partially compensate for instrument myopia, but they may not optimize visual acuity to the extent that adjustable focus eyepieces do. Eyepiece adjustment proficiency with present night vision devices can be improved through training that emphasizes focusing to the least possible minus dioptric power. Future night vision displays can minimize focus misadjustment by providing a tactile zero marking, a limited dioptric adjustment range, and a focusing knob capable of finer adjustment than is available with current NVG's.

  9. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2012-02-01

    Mobile devices present a challenging platform for 3D video because of inherent device limitations. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles for Mobile Devices (CAPS-MD) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich 3D stereoscopic effect. For every scene that contains lateral motion in a 2D movie, CAPS-MD provides realistic 3D. Since it requires minimal additional processing, it is appropriate for mobile devices. 3D movies utilizing the Pulfrich stereoscopic effect have been made for 80 years using passive viewing spectacles. CAPS-MD use active viewing spectacles to overcome the limitations of passive spectacles. 3D movies normally employ the asymmetry of dual images to produce stereopsis. CAPS-MD works on the principle of illumination asymmetry, and only needs to control the differential lens optical densities. CAPS-MD is fabricated from optoelectronic materials that electronically control the lens optical densities. The eye's retinal triggering is used by CAPS-MD to determine the differential lens optical densities. Motion estimation calculations from the digital image processing used to display 2D video on mobile devices are reused to calculate realtime lens adjustments so CAPS-MD always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic effect. Only negligible additional processing is necessary for CAPS-MD to show 3D for every scene that contains lateral motion in any 2D movie.

  10. Temperature-Compensated Clock Skew Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Secilla, Jose María; Palomares, Jose Manuel; Olivares, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    This work analyzes several drift compensation mechanisms in wireless sensor networks (WSN). Temperature is an environmental factor that greatly affects oscillators shipped in every WSN mote. This behavior creates the need of improving drift compensation mechanisms in synchronization protocols. Using the Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol (FTSP), this work demonstrates that crystal oscillators are affected by temperature variations. Thus, the influence of temperature provokes a low performance of FTSP in changing conditions of temperature. This article proposes an innovative correction factor that minimizes the impact of temperature in the clock skew. By means of this factor, two new mechanisms are proposed in this paper: the Adjusted Temperature (AT) and the Advanced Adjusted Temperature (A2T). These mechanisms have been combined with FTSP to produce AT-FTSP and A2T-FTSP Both have been tested in a network of TelosB motes running TinyOS. Results show that both AT-FTSP and A2T-FTSP improve the average synchronization errors compared to FTSP and other temperature-compensated protocols (Environment-Aware Clock Skew Estimation and Synchronization for WSN (EACS) and Temperature Compensated Time Synchronization (TCTS)). PMID:23966192

  11. "Show me" bioethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Myra J

    2007-10-01

    Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy.

  12. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up.

    Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  14. Sugar intake, soft drink consumption and body weight among British children: further analysis of National Diet and Nutrition Survey data with adjustment for under-reporting and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid; Neate, Deborah

    2007-09-01

    We investigated associations between body mass index (BMI) and intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) and caloric soft drinks using weighed 7-day food records, nutrient intakes, BMI measurements and 7-day physical activity (PA) diaries from the UK National Dietary and Nutritional Survey of Young People (n=1,294 aged 7-18 years). NMES and caloric soft drinks (excluding 100% fruit juice) were quantified by their contribution to energy intake. BMI z-scores were calculated from UK reference curves and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-off values were used to define overweight. The BMI z-score was weakly inversely correlated with percentage energy from NMES after adjustment for under-reporting and dieting (r=-0.06, P=0.03). The percentage of energy from soft drinks was not associated with the BMI z-score or PA. After excluding under-reporters and dieters, the heaviest children (top quintile: Q5 of BMI z-scores) consumed more total energy (+1,220 kJ/day) than those in the lowest quintile (Q1), but only 60 kJ (5%) was from soft drinks. In logistic regression (adjusted for age and gender, under-reporting, and dieting), overweight was positively associated with energy intake (MJ) (odds ratio [OR]=1.58, confidence interval [CI]=1.42-1.77) and sedentary activity (h) (OR=1.11, CI=1.01-1.23), and inversely associated with moderate/vigorous activity (h) (OR=0.71, CI=0.58-0.86). In the macronutrient model, high fat and protein intake (top tertile vs lowest tertile, g/day) were positively associated with overweight (OR>2.5, P<0.001) while starch had less impact (OR=1.60, CI=1.0-2.55, P<0.05). Top tertile intakes of caloric soft drinks were weakly associated with overweight (OR=1.39, CI=0.96-2.0, P=0.08), while other sources of NMES showed no association (OR=0.81, CI=0.52-1.27, P=0.4). Risk associated with caloric soft drinks appeared non-linear with an increase in odds only for very high consumers (top quintile, mean 870 kJ/day; OR=1.67, CI=1.04-2.66, P=0.03). These

  15. Analysis of Latvian familial melanoma patients shows novel variants in the noncoding regions of CDKN2A and that the CDK4 mutation R24H is a founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Veinalde, Rūta; Ozola, Aija; Azarjana, Kristīne; Molven, Anders; Akslen, Lars A; Doniņa, Simona; Proboka, Guna; Cēma, Ingrīda; Baginskis, Ainārs; Pjanova, Dace

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary cutaneous melanoma is associated with mutations in the high-risk CDKN2A gene in about 40% of melanoma-prone families. Mutations in the CDK4 gene are the cause in only a few pedigrees. In this study, we analyzed 20 Latvian familial melanoma probands and carried out a comprehensive analysis of CDKN2A including sequencing of its promoter/intronic regions and deletion screening. We also analyzed the critical second exon of the CDK4 gene. One novel intronic variant (IVS2+82C>T) of the CDKN2A gene and a small deletion (c.-20677_-20682delGTACGC) in its promoter region were found. Genotyping of the novel variants in larger melanoma and control groups indicated that the deletion increases the risk of melanoma (odds ratio=6.353, 95% confidence interval: 1.34-30.22, P=0.0168). The CDK4 gene analysis showed a Latvian melanoma family with the mutation R24H carried on the same haplotype as in two previously described Latvian CDK4-positive families. Our study suggests that the main risk gene in Latvian families with a strong family history of melanoma is CDK4 and that most of the other cases analyzed could be sporadic or associated with low-penetrance risk genes.

  16. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  17. Assessing the utility of statistical adjustments for imperfect detection in tropical conservation science

    PubMed Central

    Banks-Leite, Cristina; Pardini, Renata; Boscolo, Danilo; Cassano, Camila Righetto; Püttker, Thomas; Barros, Camila Santos; Barlow, Jos

    2014-01-01

    1. In recent years, there has been a fast development of models that adjust for imperfect detection. These models have revolutionized the analysis of field data, and their use has repeatedly demonstrated the importance of sampling design and data quality. There are, however, several practical limitations associated with the use of detectability models which restrict their relevance to tropical conservation science. 2. We outline the main advantages of detectability models, before examining their limitations associated with their applicability to the analysis of tropical communities, rare species and large-scale data sets. Finally, we discuss whether detection probability needs to be controlled before and/or after data collection. 3. Models that adjust for imperfect detection allow ecologists to assess data quality by estimating uncertainty and to obtain adjusted ecological estimates of populations and communities. Importantly, these models have allowed informed decisions to be made about the conservation and management of target species. 4. Data requirements for obtaining unadjusted estimates are substantially lower than for detectability-adjusted estimates, which require relatively high detection/recapture probabilities and a number of repeated surveys at each location. These requirements can be difficult to meet in large-scale environmental studies where high levels of spatial replication are needed, or in the tropics where communities are composed of many naturally rare species. However, while imperfect detection can only be adjusted statistically, covariates of detection probability can also be controlled through study design. Using three study cases where we controlled for covariates of detection probability through sampling design, we show that the variation in unadjusted ecological estimates from nearly 100 species was qualitatively the same as that obtained from adjusted estimates. Finally, we discuss that the decision as to whether one should control for

  18. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  19. The Impact of Financial Sophistication on Adjustable Rate Mortgage Ownership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hyrum; Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of a financial sophistication scale on adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) borrowing is explored. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis using recent data from the Survey of Consumer Finances reveal that ARM borrowing is driven by both the least and most financially sophisticated households but for different reasons. Less…

  20. Effects of Relational Authenticity on Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Holman, Rachel L.; Lancaster, Chloe; Gotay, Stephanie G.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the association between relational health and student adjustment to college. Data were collected from 138 undergraduate students completing their 1st semester at a large university in the mid-southern United States. Regression analysis indicated that higher levels of relational authenticity were a predictor of success during…

  1. An improved accrual: reducing medical malpractice year-end adjustments.

    PubMed

    Frese, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    Healthcare organizations can improve their year-end malpractice insurance accruals by taking the following steps: Maintain productive communication. Match accrual and accounting policies. Adjust amount of credit to own historical loss experience. Request more frequent analysis. Obtain a second opinion.

  2. Reporting on covariate adjustment in randomised controlled trials before and after revision of the 2001 CONSORT statement: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the use and reporting of adjusted analysis in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and compare the quality of reporting before and after the revision of the CONSORT Statement in 2001. Design Comparison of two cross sectional samples of published articles. Data Sources Journal articles indexed on PubMed in December 2000 and December 2006. Study Selection Parallel group RCTs with a full publication carried out in humans and published in English Main outcome measures Proportion of articles reported adjusted analysis; use of adjusted analysis; the reason for adjustment; the method of adjustment and the reporting of adjusted analysis results in the main text and abstract. Results In both cohorts, 25% of studies reported adjusted analysis (84/355 in 2000 vs 113/422 in 2006). Compared with articles reporting only unadjusted analyses, articles that reported adjusted analyses were more likely to specify primary outcomes, involve multiple centers, perform stratified randomization, be published in general medical journals, and recruit larger sample sizes. In both years a minority of articles explained why and how covariates were selected for adjustment (20% to 30%). Almost all articles specified the statistical methods used for adjustment (99% in 2000 vs 100% in 2006) but only 5% and 10%, respectively, reported both adjusted and unadjusted results as recommended in the CONSORT guidelines. Conclusion There was no evidence of change in the reporting of adjusted analysis results five years after the revision of the CONSORT Statement and only a few articles adhered fully to the CONSORT recommendations. PMID:20482769

  3. Teacher Self-Efficacy and Its Effects on Classroom Processes, Student Academic Adjustment, and Teacher Well-Being: A Synthesis of 40 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, Marjolein; Koomen, Helma M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study integrates 40 years of teacher self-efficacy (TSE) research to explore the consequences of TSE for the quality of classroom processes, students' academic adjustment, and teachers' psychological well-being. Via a criteria-based review approach, 165 eligible articles were included for analysis. Results suggest that TSE shows positive…

  4. Effects of Corporal Punishment, Perceived Caretaker Warmth, and Cultural Beliefs on the Psychological Adjustment of Children in St. Kitts, West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Structural equation modeling analysis of 349 youths, aged 9-16, in St. Kitts, West Indies, showed that physical punishment by itself does make a modest, but significant, direct and negative contribution to youths' psychological adjustment. Children tended to experience themselves to be rejected in direct proportion to the frequency and severity of…

  5. Traumatization, Marital Adjustment, and Parenting among Veterans and Their Spouses: A Longitudinal Study of Reciprocal Relations.

    PubMed

    Levin, Yafit; Bachem, Rahel; Solomon, Zahava

    2016-10-26

    Despite considerable research on secondary traumatization, the ramifications of veterans' and their wives' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) for the family system remain largely uninvestigated. Beginning to fill this gap, the current study aims to investigate the reciprocal relations between both spouses' PTSS and marital adjustment, and the implications these bear for their parental functioning. Two hundred and twenty-five Israeli veterans (mean age = 58.62, SD = 7.6) from the 1973 Yom Kippur War and their wives (mean age = 58.28, SD = 5.79) were examined at two points in time: 30 (T1) and 35-37 years after the war (T2). Analysis included longitudinal actor-partner interdependence modeling and sequential mediation analyses. The results show that higher PTSS among the wives at T1 predicted higher PTSS among husbands at T2, and vice versa, and predicted their husbands' marital adjustment at T2. Moreover, wives' PTSS at T1 had a significant effect on parental overinvolvement of both parents at T2, but neither their PTSS nor their husbands' PTSS had an impact on positive parenting. In the intrapersonal domain, better marital adjustment at T1 predicted positive parenting among both spouses in subsequent measurement. Interpersonally, wives' lower marital adjustment at T1 predicted husbands' higher parental functioning, but not vice versa. Furthermore, marital adjustment mediated the association between PTSS and positive parenting for both spouses. The results emphasize the detrimental ramifications of war trauma on the interpersonal domains in veterans' families. Hence, both marital and parental consequences of trauma should be considered in clinical family interventions.

  6. Adjustable mount for electro-optic transducers in an evacuated cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (Inventor); Haynes, David P. (Inventor); Jones, Howard C. (Inventor); Jones, Irby W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention is an adjustable mount for positioning an electro-optic transducer in an evacuated cryogenic environment. Electro-optic transducers are used in this manner as high sensitivity detectors of gas emission lines of spectroscopic analysis. The mount is made up of an adjusting mechanism and a transducer mount. The adjusting mechanism provided five degrees of freedom, linear adjustments and angular adjustments. The mount allows the use of an internal lens to focus energy on the transducer element thereby improving the efficiency of the detection device. Further, the transducer mount, although attached to the adjusting mechanism, is isolated thermally such that a cryogenic environment can be maintained at the transducer while the adjusting mechanism remains at room temperature. Radiation shields also are incorporated to further reduce heat flow to the transducer location.

  7. Characterizing the community use of an ultralight wheelchair with “on the fly” adjustable seating functions: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mattie, Johanne; Borisoff, Jaimie; Miller, William C.; Noureddin, Borna

    2017-01-01

    An ultralight manual wheelchair that allows users to independently adjust rear seat height and backrest angle during normal everyday usage was recently commercialized. Prior research has been performed on wheelchair tilt, recline, and seat elevation use in the community, however no such research has been done on this new class of manual ultralight wheelchair with “on the fly” adjustments. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate and characterize the use of the two adjustable seating functions available on the Elevation™ ultralight dynamic wheelchair during its use in the community. Eight participants had data loggers installed onto their own wheelchair for seven days to measure rear seat height, backrest angle position, occupied sitting time, and distance traveled. Analysis of rear seat height and backrest adjustment data revealed considerable variability in the frequency of use and positions used by participants. There was a wide spread of mean daily rear seat heights among participants, from 34.1 cm to 46.7 cm. Two sub-groups of users were further identified: those who sat habitually at a single typical rear seat height, and those who varied their rear seat height more continuously. Findings also showed that participants used the rear seat height adjustment feature significantly more often than the backrest adjustment feature. This obvious contrast in feature use may indicate that new users of this class of wheelchair may benefit from specific training. While the small sample size and exploratory nature of this study limit the generalizability of our results, our findings offer a first look at how active wheelchairs users are using a new class of ultralight wheelchair with “on the fly” seating adjustments in their communities. Further studies are recommended to better understand the impact of dynamic seating and positioning on activity, participation and quality of life. PMID:28278254

  8. Trajectories of Anxiety Among Women with Breast Cancer: A Proxy for Adjustment from Acute to Transitional Survivorship.

    PubMed

    Saboonchi, Fredrik; Petersson, Lena-Marie; Wennman-Larsen, Agneta; Alexanderson, Kristina; Vaez, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the main components of distress among women with breast cancer (BC), particularly in the early stages of the disease. Changes in anxiety over time may reflect the process of adjustment or lack thereof. The process of adjustment in the traverse of acute to transitional stages of survivorship warrants further examination. To examine the trajectory of anxiety and the specific patterns that may indicate a lack of adjustment within 2 years following BC surgery, survey data from a 2-year prospective cohort study of 725 women with BC were analyzed by Mixture Growth Modelling and logistic regression and Analysis of Variance. A piece-wise growth curve displayed the best fit to the data, indicating a significant decrease in anxiety in the first year, followed by a slower rate of change during the second year. Four classes of trajectories were identified: High Stable, High Decrease, Mild Decrease, and Low Decrease. Of these, High Stable anxiety showed the most substantive indications of lack of adjustment. This subgroup was predominantly characterized by sociodemographic variables such as financial difficulties. Our results support an emphasis on the transitional nature of the stage that follows the end of primary active treatment and imply a need for supportive follow up care for those who display lack of adjustment at this stage.

  9. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  10. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  11. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  12. Analysis of gene expression pattern and neuroanatomical correlates for SLC20A2 (PiT-2) shows a molecular network with potential impact in idiopathic basal ganglia calcification ("Fahr's disease").

    PubMed

    da Silva, R J Galdino; Pereira, I C L; Oliveira, J R M

    2013-06-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC), also known as "Fahr's disease," is a neuropsychiatric disorder with motor and cognitive symptoms. It is characterized pathologically by bilateral calcification most commonly in the basal ganglia and also in other brain regions such as the thalamus and cerebellum. A recent report by Wang et al. (2012) discovered multiple families with FIBGC carrying mutations in the SLC20A2 gene, encoding the inorganic phosphate transporter PiT-2, which segregated in an autosomal dominant pattern. To understand further the role of SLC20A2 in FIBGC brain pathology, here we described the gene expression pattern across the whole brain for SLC20A2, using the Allen Institute Human Brain Atlas database. Microarray analysis provided evidence that the neuroanatomical pattern of expression for SLC20A2 is highest in the regions most commonly affected in FIBGC. Neuroanatomical regions that demonstrated high correlation or anti-correlation with SLC20A2 expression also showed a molecular network with potential to explain the limited neuroanatomical distribution of calcifications in IBGC. Lastly, these co-expression networks suggest additional further candidate genes for FIBGC.

  13. Longitudinal data analysis of polymorphisms in the κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin genes shows differential effects along the trajectory of the lactation curve in tropical dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Samir Julián Calvo; Cadavid, Henry Cardona; Corrales, Juan David; Munilla, Sebastián; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    The κ-casein (CSN-3) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) genes are extensively polymorphic in ruminants. Several association studies have estimated the effects of polymorphisms in these genes on milk yield, milk composition, and cheese-manufacturing properties. Usually, these results are based on production integrated over the lactation curve or on cross-sectional studies at specific days in milk (DIM). However, as differential expression of milk protein genes occurs over lactation, the effect of the polymorphisms may change over time. In this study, we fitted a mixed-effects regression model to test-day records of milk yield and milk quality traits (fat, protein, and total solids yields) from Colombian tropical dairy goats. We used the well-characterized A/B polymorphisms in the CSN-3 and BLG genes. We argued that this approach provided more efficient estimators than cross-sectional designs, given the same number and pattern of observations, and allowed exclusion of between-subject variation from model error. The BLG genotype AA showed a greater performance than the BB genotype for all traits along the whole lactation curve, whereas the heterozygote showed an intermediate performance. We observed no such constant pattern for the CSN-3 gene between the AA homozygote and the heterozygote (the BB genotype was absent from the sample). The differences among the genotypic effects of the BLG and the CSN-3 polymorphisms were statistically significant during peak and mid lactation (around 40-160 DIM) for the BLG gene and only for mid lactation (80-145 DIM) for the CSN-3 gene. We also estimated the additive and dominant effects of the BLG locus. The locus showed a statistically significant additive behavior along the whole lactation trajectory for all quality traits, whereas for milk yield the effect was not significant at later stages. In turn, we detected a statistically significant dominance effect only for fat yield in the early and peak stages of lactation (at about 1-45 DIM

  14. Multi-adjustable headband. [for headsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toole, Pierce C. (Inventor); Chalson, Howard E. (Inventor); Bussey, Walter S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to a headband for a headset having separate coarse and fine adjustment features. The adjustments may be to the axial distance between at least one earpiece element and a side support. Such adjustment to the axial distance varies the pressure exerted on the head of the user. The present fine adjustment feature may be used while the headset is being worn, thereby permitting a user to optimize the amount of pressure between the contending criteria of comfort and keeping the headset in place on the user's head.

  15. Standardization of age-adjusted mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-02-01

    Because age is a significant variable in the occurrence and frequency of human disease, any comparison of disease or mortality rates, to be useful, must be age-specific or age-adjusted. Age-specific comparisons are not always appropriate or possible, however. A common method of eliminating the influence of age in comparing mortality rates from one community to another is to employ statistical methods of age-adjustment. While a variety of methods will accomplish this task, most are weighted averages of the age-specific rates. Two widely used adjustment procedures are direct and indirect age-adjustment.

  16. A membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with adjustable acoustic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfeldt, F.; Riecken, J.; Gleine, W.; von Estorff, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new realization of a membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (MAM) with adjustable sound transmission properties is presented. The proposed design distinguishes itself from other realizations by a stacked arrangement of two MAMs which is inflated using pressurized air. The static pressurization leads to large nonlinear deformations and, consequently, geometrical stiffening of the MAMs which is exploited to adjust the eigenmodes and sound transmission loss of the structure. A theoretical analysis of the proposed inflatable MAM design using numerical and analytical models is performed in order to identify two important mechanisms, namely the shifting of the eigenfrequencies and modal residuals due to the pressurization, responsible for the transmission loss adjustment. Analytical formulas are provided for predicting the eigenmode shifting and normal incidence sound transmission loss of inflated single and double MAMs using the concept of effective mass. The investigations are concluded with results from a test sample measurement inside an impedance tube, which confirm the theoretical predictions.

  17. Emotion regulation profiles, temperament, and adjustment problems in preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Wilson, Anna C; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N=196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point occurring 1 year apart. LPA identified 5 frustration and 4 anxiety regulation profiles based on children's physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. The relation of effortful control to conduct problems was mediated by frustration regulation profiles, as was the relation of effortful control to depression. Anxiety regulation profiles did not mediate relations between temperament and adjustment.

  18. Limitations of quantitative research in the study of structural adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lundy, P

    1996-02-01

    Sociologists and, more recently, critical medical anthropologists have been arguing for a refocusing of the analysis of health and health care towards a perspective which considers the broader global political economy. In the context of the debt crisis and IMF/World Bank-inspired structural adjustment policies, the political economy theoretical perspective is becoming even more relevant in the analysis of health underdevelopment in many 'Third World' countries. This study focuses on the direct and indirect effects of the Jamaican debt crisis and structural adjustment programmes on health care services and health standards. In this paper it is argued that there are methodological problems using quantitative data when studying the effects of structural adjustment. In addition to providing a limited account of the effects, it is argued that the basic problem is a matter of the availability and reliability of the quantitative data in many 'Third World' countries. It is argued that some of these problems could be overcome by the application of qualitative micro-level analysis. This type of methodology is important to ascertain the effects of global processes at the grass roots level and to gain insights into what those working in the health sector are experiencing and what they perceive as the effects, if any, of structural adjustment policies. This has often been missing from the impersonal accounts offered by quantitative research on the subject to date.

  19. Assessing the Efficacy of Adjustable Moving Averages Using ASEAN-5 Currencies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the trends in the exchange rate markets of the ASEAN-5 countries (Indonesia (IDR), Malaysia (MYR), the Philippines (PHP), Singapore (SGD), and Thailand (THB)) through the application of dynamic moving average trading systems. This research offers evidence of the usefulness of the time-varying volatility technical analysis indicator, Adjustable Moving Average (AMA′) in deciphering trends in these ASEAN-5 exchange rate markets. This time-varying volatility factor, referred to as the Efficacy Ratio in this paper, is embedded in AMA′. The Efficacy Ratio adjusts the AMA′ to the prevailing market conditions by avoiding whipsaws (losses due, in part, to acting on wrong trading signals, which generally occur when there is no general direction in the market) in range trading and by entering early into new trends in trend trading. The efficacy of AMA′ is assessed against other popular moving-average rules. Based on the January 2005 to December 2014 dataset, our findings show that the moving averages and AMA′ are superior to the passive buy-and-hold strategy. Specifically, AMA′ outperforms the other models for the United States Dollar against PHP (USD/PHP) and USD/THB currency pairs. The results show that different length moving averages perform better in different periods for the five currencies. This is consistent with our hypothesis that a dynamic adjustable technical indicator is needed to cater for different periods in different markets. PMID:27574972

  20. Assessing the Efficacy of Adjustable Moving Averages Using ASEAN-5 Currencies.

    PubMed

    Chan Phooi M'ng, Jacinta; Zainudin, Rozaimah

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the trends in the exchange rate markets of the ASEAN-5 countries (Indonesia (IDR), Malaysia (MYR), the Philippines (PHP), Singapore (SGD), and Thailand (THB)) through the application of dynamic moving average trading systems. This research offers evidence of the usefulness of the time-varying volatility technical analysis indicator, Adjustable Moving Average (AMA') in deciphering trends in these ASEAN-5 exchange rate markets. This time-varying volatility factor, referred to as the Efficacy Ratio in this paper, is embedded in AMA'. The Efficacy Ratio adjusts the AMA' to the prevailing market conditions by avoiding whipsaws (losses due, in part, to acting on wrong trading signals, which generally occur when there is no general direction in the market) in range trading and by entering early into new trends in trend trading. The efficacy of AMA' is assessed against other popular moving-average rules. Based on the January 2005 to December 2014 dataset, our findings show that the moving averages and AMA' are superior to the passive buy-and-hold strategy. Specifically, AMA' outperforms the other models for the United States Dollar against PHP (USD/PHP) and USD/THB currency pairs. The results show that different length moving averages perform better in different periods for the five currencies. This is consistent with our hypothesis that a dynamic adjustable technical indicator is needed to cater for different periods in different markets.

  1. A newer technique to program a semi adjustable articulator

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshwaran, R.; Karthigeyan, Suma; Manoharan, P. S.; Konchada, Jagadish; Ramaswamy, Manikandan; Bhuminathan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The difficulty in reproducing accurate angle of condylar guidance in semi-adjustable articulators. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the angle of horizontal condylar inclination obtained on a semi-adjustable articulator and the corresponding angle traced on a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) radiograph in completely edentulous subject. Materials and Methods: The horizontal condylar inclination angle was obtained in a semi-adjustable articulator by means of height tracer (extra oral tracing device) and interocclusal records to program the articulator in 21 subjects. TMJ radiograph were recorded by the same operator with same orthopantomogram (OPG) machine (planmeca). Tracings of inclines of articular eminence on the radiograph were compared with the angle obtained on a semi-adjustable articulator. Each measurement was made using manual methods of measuring angle. The results were subjected to the Pearson correlation statistical analysis (α =0.01). Results: The outline of the articular eminence in a TMJ tomogram radiographic image was identified and traced. A significant correlation was found between the horizontal condylar inclination on a semi-adjustable and the corresponding TMJ tomogram radiographic image for both right (R = 0.789; P = 0.001) and left (i = 0.747; P = 0.004) sides. Conclusion: The articular eminence traced on a TMJ tomogram image represents the horizontal condylar inclination with a mean difference of 5° in 21 subjects evaluated. PMID:25210356

  2. Two aspects of feedforward postural control: anticipatory postural adjustments and anticipatory synergy adjustments.

    PubMed

    Klous, Miriam; Mikulic, Pavle; Latash, Mark L

    2011-05-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore the relations between anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during feedforward control of vertical posture. ASAs represent a drop in the index of a multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing the coordinate of the center of pressure in preparation to an action. ASAs reflect early changes of an index of covariation among variables reflecting muscle activation, whereas APAs reflect early changes in muscle activation levels averaged across trials. The assumed purpose of ASAs is to modify stability of performance variables, whereas the purpose of APAs is to change magnitudes of those variables. We hypothesized that ASAs would be seen before APAs and that this finding would be consistent with regard to the muscle-mode composition defined on the basis of different tasks and phases of action. Subjects performed a voluntary body sway task and a quick, bilateral shoulder flexion task under self-paced and reaction time conditions. Surface muscle activity of 12 leg and trunk muscles was analyzed to identify sets of 4 muscle modes for each task and for different phases within the shoulder flexion task. Variance components in the muscle-mode space and indexes of multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing shift of the center of pressure were computed. ASAs were seen ∼ 100-150 ms prior to the task initiation, before APAs. The results were consistent with respect to different sets of muscle modes defined over the two tasks and different shoulder flexion phases. We conclude that the preparation for a self-triggered postural perturbation is associated with two types of anticipatory adjustments, ASAs and APAs. They reflect different feedforward processes within the hypothetical hierarchical control scheme, resulting in changes in patterns of covariation of elemental variables and in their patterns averaged across trials, respectively. The results show that synergies quantified

  3. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  4. Adjusted Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index Score as a Risk Measure of Perioperative Mortality before Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Wei, Chang-Kao; Wu, Chin-Chia; Su, Yu-Chieh; Yu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of patients at risk of death from cancer surgery should aid in preoperative preparation. The purpose of this study is to assess and adjust the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) to identify cancer patients with increased risk of perioperative mortality. Methods We identified 156,151 patients undergoing surgery for one of the ten common cancers between 2007 and 2011 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Half of the patients were randomly selected, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop an adjusted-ACCI score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by variables from the original ACCI. The score was validated. The association between the score and perioperative mortality was analyzed. Results The adjusted-ACCI score yield a better discrimination on mortality after cancer surgery than the original ACCI score, with c-statics of 0.75 versus 0.71. Over 80 years of age, 70–80 years, and renal disease had the strongest impact on mortality, hazard ratios 8.40, 3.63, and 3.09 (P < 0.001), respectively. The overall 90-day mortality rates in the entire cohort varied from 0.9%, 2.9%, 7.0%, and 13.2% in four risk groups stratifying by the adjusted-ACCI score; the adjusted hazard ratio for score 4–7, 8–11, and ≥ 12 was 2.84, 6.07, and 11.17 (P < 0.001), respectively, in 90-day mortality compared to score 0–3. Conclusions The adjusted-ACCI score helps to identify patients with a higher risk of 90-day mortality after cancer surgery. It might be particularly helpful for preoperative evaluation of patients over 80 years of age. PMID:26848761

  5. Preretirement Counseling, Retirement Adjustment, and the Older Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mark R.; And Others

    This study analyzed relationships between successful adjustment to retirement, preretirement counseling, and the psychological, economic, and other background characteristics of individual employees. A preliminary study in the western states showed no small companies, and relatively few other, with preretirement counseling programs of any…

  6. Deviant Friends and Early Adolescents' Emotional and Behavioral Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated whether friendships with deviant peers would be related negatively to the emotional and behavioral adjustment of 305 adolescents, 13 years of age. Found that adolescents with deviant friends were more delinquent than those with no mutual friends or nondeviant friends, and showed similarly problematic depression levels as friendless…

  7. Psychosocial Adjustment of College Students with Tattoos and Piercings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberti, Jonathan W.; Storch, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between body modification practices and psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 198 undergraduate college students, 129 of whom had I or more piercings (other than in earlobe) or tattoos. Findings showed that individuals with body modifications reported more symptoms of depression and…

  8. Marital Adjustment, Parental Functioning, and Emotional Sharing in War Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Zahava; Debby-Aharon, Shimrit; Zerach, Gadi; Horesh, Danny

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine the implications of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and emotional sharing in marital adjustment and parental functioning among Israeli veterans of the 1982 Lebanon War. The sample consisted of combat stress reaction (CSR) veterans (n = 264) and non-CSR veterans (n = 209). Results show that traumatized…

  9. 75 FR 41432 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... (No. 2010002) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for U.S. lobster (Homarus americanus) that was... to the decrease in one of the above factors for the agricultural commodity. All petitions were... data for the same time period showed a 1.1-percent decrease, rather than the required increase....

  10. Parental Care Aids, but Parental Overprotection Hinders, College Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Matthew B.; Pierce, John D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students who have troublesome relationships with their parents show higher risk factors for poorer college adjustment. In the present study, we focused on the balance between two key aspects of parenting style, parental care and overprotection, as they affect the transition to college life. Eighty-three undergraduate…

  11. Relational contexts in adjustment to pregnancy of HIV-positive women: relationships, social support and personal adjustment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marco; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2009-03-01

    Relational contexts are a central issue in most people's lives, and people usually rely on the support of others in everyday circumstances. Social support, as a relational context, could have a positive influence on personal adjustment, and is particularly relevant in the psychological well-being of HIV patients. Guided by the Convoy Model of social networks, in a sample of 31 HIV-positive pregnant women we try to assess the role of social support and social network in the adjustment to pregnancy. Profile analysis suggests a greater importance of social support provided by the partner and both parents, especially the support provided by the mother. At the same time, it seems to highlight the buffering hypothesis of social support, which could be understood as a protection factor in the adjustment of HIV-infected women' to pregnancy.

  12. A mutational analysis of the cytosolic domain of the tomato Cf-9 disease-resistance protein shows that membrane-proximal residues are important for Avr9-dependent necrosis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Apratim; Velusamy, Thilaga; Tee, Choon Yang; Jones, David A

    2016-05-01

    The tomato Cf-9 gene encodes a membrane-anchored glycoprotein that imparts race-specific resistance against the tomato leaf mould fungus Cladosporium fulvum in response to the avirulence protein Avr9. Although the N-terminal half of the extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) domain of the Cf-9 protein determines its specificity for Avr9, the C-terminal half, including its small cytosolic domain, is postulated to be involved in signalling. The cytosolic domain of Cf-9 carries several residues that are potential sites for ubiquitinylation or phosphorylation, or signals for endocytic uptake. A targeted mutagenesis approach was employed to investigate the roles of these residues and cellular processes in Avr9-dependent necrosis triggered by Cf-9. Our results indicate that the membrane-proximal region of the cytosolic domain of Cf-9 plays an important role in Cf-9-mediated necrosis, and two amino acids within this region, a threonine (T835) and a proline (P838), are particularly important for Cf-9 function. An alanine mutation of T835 had no effect on Cf-9 function, but an aspartic acid mutation, which mimics phosphorylation, reduced Cf-9 function. We therefore postulate that phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation of T835 could act as a molecular switch to determine whether Cf-9 is in a primed or inactive state. Yeast two-hybrid analysis was used to show that the cytosolic domain of Cf-9 interacts with the cytosolic domain of tomato VAP27. This interaction could be disrupted by an alanine mutation of P838, whereas interaction with CITRX remained unaffected. We therefore postulate that a proline-induced kink in the membrane-proximal region of the cytosolic domain of Cf-9 may be important for interaction with VAP27, which may, in turn, be important for Cf-9 function.

  13. Show Me Your Rump Hair and I Will Tell You What You Ate – The Dietary History of Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) Revealed by Sequential Stable Isotope Analysis of Guard Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Mosbacher, Jesper Bruun; Michelsen, Anders; Stelvig, Mikkel; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Schmidt, Niels Martin

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional state of animals is tightly linked to the ambient environment, and for northern ungulates the state strongly influences vital population demographics, such as pregnancy rates. Continuously growing tissues, such as hair, can be viewed as dietary records of animals over longer temporal scales. Using sequential data on nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N) in muskox guard hairs from ten individuals in high arctic Northeast Greenland, we were able to reconstruct the dietary history of muskoxen over approximately 2.5 years with a high temporal resolution of app. 9 days. The dietary chronology included almost three full summer and winter periods. The diet showed strong intra- and inter-annual seasonality, and was significantly linked to changes in local environmental conditions (temperature and snow depth). The summer diets were highly similar across years, reflecting a graminoid-dominated diet. In contrast, winter diets were markedly different between years, a pattern apparently linked to snow conditions. Snow-rich winters had markedly higher δ15N values than snow-poor winters, indicating that muskoxen had limited access to forage, and relied more heavily on their body stores. Due to the close link between body stores and calf production in northern ungulates, the dietary winter signals could eventually serve as an indicator of calf production the following spring. Our study opens the field for further studies and longer chronologies to test such links. The method of sequential stable isotope analysis of guard hairs thus constitutes a promising candidate for population-level monitoring of animals in remote, arctic areas. PMID:27097032

  14. Energy flow analysis of amputee walking shows a proximally-directed transfer of energy in intact limbs, compared to a distally-directed transfer in prosthetic limbs at push-off.

    PubMed

    Weinert-Aplin, R A; Howard, D; Twiste, M; Jarvis, H L; Bennett, A N; Baker, R J

    2017-01-01

    Reduced capacity and increased metabolic cost of walking occurs in amputees, despite advances in prosthetic componentry. Joint powers can quantify deficiencies in prosthetic gait, but do not reveal how energy is exchanged between limb segments. This study aimed to quantify these energy exchanges during amputee walking. Optical motion and forceplate data collected during walking at a self-selected speed for cohorts of 10 controls, 10 unilateral trans-tibial, 10 unilateral trans-femoral and 10 bilateral trans-femoral amputees were used to determine the energy exchanges between lower limb segments. At push-off, consistent thigh and shank segment powers were observed between amputee groups (1.12W/kg vs. 1.05W/kg for intact limbs and 0.97W/kg vs. 0.99W/kg for prosthetic limbs), and reduced prosthetic ankle power, particularly in trans-femoral amputees (3.12W/kg vs. 0.87W/kg). Proximally-directed energy exchange was observed in the intact limbs of amputees and controls, while prosthetic limbs displayed distally-directed energy exchanges at the knee and hip. This study used energy flow analysis to show a reversal in the direction in which energy is exchanged between prosthetic limb segments at push-off. This reversal was required to provide sufficient energy to propel the limb segments and is likely a direct result of the lack of push-off power at the prosthetic ankle, particularly in trans-femoral amputees, and leads to their increased metabolic cost of walking.

  15. Defense mechanisms in adolescent conduct disorder and adjustment reaction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe; Kelly, Francis D

    2004-02-01

    The use of defense mechanisms by male and female adolescents with a diagnosis of conduct disorder was compared with the defense use of adolescents with a diagnosis of adjustment reaction. Because conduct disorder has been shown to be associated with a developmental lag in several areas of psychological functioning, we expected that these adolescents would show immaturity in the use of defenses. This expectation was confirmed. As compared with adjustment reaction, conduct disordered youths were more likely to use the immature defense of denial and less likely to use the mature defense of identification.

  16. Retroactive Adjustment of Perceived Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Minal; Chait, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Accurately timing acoustic events in dynamic scenes is fundamental to scene analysis. To detect events in busy scenes, listeners must often identify a change in the "pattern" of ongoing fluctuation, resulting in many ubiquitous events being detected later than when they occurred. This raises the question of how delayed detection time affects the…

  17. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  18. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  19. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  20. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  1. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  2. Parenting Styles and Adjustment in Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilarinos, Vassiliki; Solomon, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between parenting styles and the psychosocial adjustment of 48 children aged 7 to 11 years, each of whom had been identified as gifted on the basis of a score of 130 or above on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition. Parenting styles and child psychosocial adjustment were measured…

  3. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  4. Adjustable, Audible Continuity Tester For Delicate Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalister, William B.

    1988-01-01

    Unit adjustable to resistances up to 35 ohms. Adjustable, audible electrical-continuity tester gives audible indication. Used safely on circuit boards in which semiconductor components installed, and on complementary metal oxide/semiconductor integrated circuits. Tester compact and circuit simple. Built from inexpensive standard components.

  5. Adjustably Preloaded Quick-Release Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold W.

    1992-01-01

    Modified adjustable-grip-length quick-release pin holds two bodies together. Threaded shaft of pin threaded in floating nut to pretension fastener. Pin connects and disconnects rapidly and adjusted to accommodate small differences between thicknesses of nominally identical sets of parts to be attached to each other.

  6. 78 FR 70080 - Market Dominant Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Market Dominant Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... market dominant products. The adjustments are scheduled to take effect January 26, 2014. This notice.... Ordering Paragraphs I. Overview A. Index-Based Price Changes for Market Dominant Classes of Mail...

  7. College Student Adjustment and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lisa Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between student adjustment theory and college student health behaviors. Specifically, this research examined first-year freshmen college student physical activity and nutrition behaviors and impact on adjustment to college (N = 37,564). The design for this study was a non-experimental "ex post facto"…

  8. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Title IV of the HEA, which authorizes the Federal Family Education Loan Program $35,000. 20 U.S.C. 1094... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION §...

  9. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  10. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  11. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  12. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  13. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  14. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  15. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  16. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  17. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  18. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  19. Fuel injection pump with adjustable timing

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Abe, N.

    1987-04-28

    A fuel injection pump is described comprising: a pump body; a plunger disposed in the pump body for reciprocating within the pump body; and a pre-stroke adjusting mechanism disposed in the pump body and operatively connected with the plunger for adjusting an effective pre-stroke of the plunger.

  20. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...-term firm power contracts only as required to respond to changes in hydrology and river...

  1. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...-term firm power contracts only as required to respond to changes in hydrology and river...

  2. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...-term firm power contracts only as required to respond to changes in hydrology and river...

  3. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...-term firm power contracts only as required to respond to changes in hydrology and river...

  4. Divorcing Parents: Guidelines for Promoting Children's Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kurt A.; Adams, Christina D; Drabman, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    There are measures that parents can take to help their children through the often distressing process of parental divorce. Describes the empirical literature regarding issues and factors relevant to children's adjustment to divorce. Provides practical guidelines and suggestions likely to help parents enhance their children's adjustment.…

  5. 7 CFR 2201.30 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustments. 2201.30 Section 2201.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.30 Adjustments. (a) The...

  6. 7 CFR 2201.30 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustments. 2201.30 Section 2201.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.30 Adjustments. (a) The...

  7. Does Fall History Influence Residential Adjustments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Natalie; Porell, Frank; Murphy, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To determine whether reported falls at baseline are associated with an older adult's decision to make a residential adjustment (RA) and the type of adjustment made in the subsequent 2 years. Design and Methods: Observations (n = 25,036) were from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of…

  8. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  9. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  10. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  11. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  12. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  13. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  14. A Digital Game for International Students' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisadi, Maryam; Chua, Alton Y. K; Keong, Lee Chu

    2013-01-01

    Although digital games have been developed for various subject areas, little attention has been focused on using digital games to address international students' adjustment issues. For this reason, this paper endeavors to explore the use of a digital game in facilitating international students acquire adjustment-related information. Specifically,…

  15. Adjustable Optical Mount Is More Rigid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Bill G.; Coombs, David S.; Jones, Irby W.; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Improved mount for lens or mirror in laser offers rigidity similar to that of nonadjustable optical mount. In comparison with older adjustable optical mounts, this one less susceptible to movements and distortions caused by vibrations and by thermal expansions and contractions. Mount contains neither adjustment rods (which grow or shrink as temperature varies) nor springs (which transmit vibrations to mounted optic).

  16. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati

    2014-01-01

    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  17. Predicting changes in adjustment using repeated measures of sociometric status.

    PubMed

    Mayeux, Lara; Bellmore, Amy D; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2007-12-01

    The authors' goals in the study were to investigate the possible gains made by including multiple assessments of status in the prediction of change in psychosocial adjustment and to compare the effectiveness of continuous and categorical measures of peer status in predicting adjustment. The authors obtained continuous and categorical measures of status (social preference and rejected status) for 644 Grade 4 students at 3 points within 1 school year (fall, winter, and spring). The authors measured peer, teacher, and self-report indexes of social adjustment (including aggression, anxiety, and sociability) in Grades 4 and 5. Both measures of peer status at all 3 time points in Grade 4 were significant predictors of adjustment in Grade 5, controlling for Grade 4 levels, with the midyear (i.e., winter) assessment showing a slight predictive advantage over the fall and spring assessments. Children who were classified as peer rejected over multiple assessments had more social adjustment problems in the next school year than did children who were classified as peer rejected at 1 time point only. The authors discuss these findings in terms of the utility of multiple assessments of both continuous and categorical measures of peer status for predicting later outcomes.

  18. What's the Risk? A Simple Approach for Estimating Adjusted Risk Measures from Nonlinear Models Including Logistic Regression

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Lawrence C; Norton, Edward C

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a general method (called regression risk analysis) to estimate adjusted risk measures from logistic and other nonlinear multiple regression models. We show how to estimate standard errors for these estimates. These measures could supplant various approximations (e.g., adjusted odds ratio [AOR]) that may diverge, especially when outcomes are common. Study Design Regression risk analysis estimates were compared with internal standards as well as with Mantel–Haenszel estimates, Poisson and log-binomial regressions, and a widely used (but flawed) equation to calculate adjusted risk ratios (ARR) from AOR. Data Collection Data sets produced using Monte Carlo simulations. Principal Findings Regression risk analysis accurately estimates ARR and differences directly from multiple regression models, even when confounders are continuous, distributions are skewed, outcomes are common, and effect size is large. It is statistically sound and intuitive, and has properties favoring it over other methods in many cases. Conclusions Regression risk analysis should be the new standard for presenting findings from multiple regression analysis of dichotomous outcomes for cross-sectional, cohort, and population-based case–control studies, particularly when outcomes are common or effect size is large. PMID:18793213

  19. Current evidence shows that survival outcomes are equivalent for dialysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Remón Rodríguez, C; Quirós Ganga, P L

    2011-01-01

    Studies that have analyzed survival between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis have showed heterogeneous outcomes for both techniques, and often confusing, also dependent on many factors. For this reason, it is necessary to know if there are real differences between the two treatments, to put the scientific evidence as a fundamental pillar in the choice of treatment, along with the clinical circumstances of individual patients, preferences and lifestyle of these. A comparative review of survival among dialysis techniques cannot avoid a basic methodological characteristics or attributes, such as appropriate designs such as observational studies with large cohorts, with incidents and no prevalent populations, with "intent to treat analysis "survival analysis and multivariate analysis with adjustments to the main comorbidity. We studied the nine classical main studies (incidents before 2002), presenting similar conclusions: there are no major differences between the techniques outcomes. When performing a stratification and adjustment for comorbidities, peritoneal dialysis has a equivalent or better prognosis in the nondiabetic group, less comorbidity and younger, almost all the publications, and hemodialysis in diabetics, older and more comorbid groups. The recent studies (including incidents after 2002), concluding a similar behavior for the survival HD: DP. Similarly, age and comorbidity influence the patient's outcomes almost identical to previous studies. In the last decade has seen an improvement in the prognosis of patients on dialysis, more pronounced in PD patients, both in the U.S., and Europe, Australia and in Spain (Andalusia analysis also). Finally, by multivariate analysis, we can show that patient survival on dialysis is much more influenced by conditions at the beginning of the treatment, as age, presence of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, rather than the type of technique of dialysis.  

  20. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...