Science.gov

Sample records for adjusted death rates

  1. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations. PMID:27632152

  2. Comparison of hurricane exposure methods and associations with county fetal death rates, adjusting for environmental quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse effects of hurricanes are increasing as coastal populations grow and events become more severe. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy can influence fetal death rates through mechanisms related to healthcare, infrastructure disruption, nutrition, and injury. Estimation of hu...

  3. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  4. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  5. Vibrato rate adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dromey, Christopher; Carter, Neisha; Hopkin, Arden

    2003-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to document the acoustic changes that occur as singers attempt to increase or decrease their vibrato rate to match target stimuli. Eight advanced singing students produced vowels with vibrato in three registers, both naturally and while attempting to match faster or slower rate stimuli. Slower rates were associated with lower intensity and less steady vibrato. Faster rates involved increased vibrato extent in the chest register and increased intensity in the head register. Singers whose spontaneous vibrato rates were naturally either slower or faster tended to also be relatively slower or faster when matching target rates. This ability to modify rate may have beneficial effects on the artistic quality of the voice for performance. PMID:12825649

  6. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances...,'' is ``premised on the recent recession as an exigent event.'' Id. at 1, 2. In Order No. 1059,...

  7. Adolescent Adjustment Before and After HIV-Related Parental Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weiss, Robert; Alber, Susan; Lester, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    The impact of HIV-related parental death on 414 adolescents was examined over a period of 6 years. The adjustment of bereaved adolescents was compared over 4 time periods relative to parental death and was also compared with the adjustment of nonbereaved adolescents. Bereaved adolescents had significantly more emotional distress, negative life…

  8. Death rate variation in US subpopulations.

    PubMed Central

    Kindig, David A.; Seplaki, Christopher L.; Libby, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To account for variations in death rates in population subgroups of the USA. METHODS: Factors associated with age-adjusted death rates in 366 metropolitan and non- metropolitan areas of the United States were examined for 1990-92. The rates ranged from 690 to 1108 per 100 000 population (mean = 885 +/- 78 per 100 000). FINDINGS: Least squares regression analysis explained 71% of this variance. Factors with the strongest independent positive association were ethnicity (African-American), less than a high school education, high Medicare expenditures, and location in western or southern regions. Factors with the strongest independent negative associations were employment in agriculture and forestry, ethnicity (Hispanic) and per capita income. CONCLUSION: Additional research at the individual level is needed to determine if these associations are causal, since some of the factors with the strongest associations, such as education, have long latency periods. PMID:11884968

  9. SIDS Family Adjustment Scale: A Method of Assessing Family Adjustment to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Harold J.; Breme, Frederick J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and the family's resultant grief process. Explores SIDS as a family crisis, and by identifying the psychological factors or tasks pertinent to family adjustment, proposes a SIDS Family Adjustment Scale which assists in recognizing adaptive and maladaptive grief responses. (Author)

  10. Does religiosity help Muslims adjust to death?: a research note.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Samir; Siddique, Mohammad Zakaria

    2008-01-01

    Death is the end of life. But Muslims believe death is an event between two lives, not an absolute cessation of life. Thus religiosity may influence Muslims differently about death. To explore the impact of religious perception, thus religiosity, a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytic and correlational study was conducted on 150 Muslims. Self-declared healthy Muslims equally from both sexes (N = 150, Age range--20 to 50 years, Minimum education--Bachelor) were selected by stratified sampling and randomly under each stratum. Subjects, divided in five levels of religiosity, were assessed and scored for the presence of maladjustment symptoms and stage of adjustment with death. ANOVA and correlation coefficient was applied on the sets of data collected. All statistical tests were done at the level of 95% confidence (P < 0.05). Final results were higher than the table values used for ANOVA and correlation coefficient yielded P values of < 0.05, < 0.01, and < 0.001. Religiosity as a criterion of Muslims influenced the quality of adjustment with death positively. So we hypothesized that religiosity may help Muslims adjust to death.

  11. 76 FR 42140 - Rate Adjustment Remand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... the amount of the revenue lost as a result of the exigent circumstances.'' Id. \\6\\ Id. The court... amount of the proposed adjustments precisely to the amount of revenue lost as a result of the exigent... amount of an exigent rate adjustment must match the amount of revenue lost as a result of an...

  12. Computations of adjusted rates and lifetime risks from occupational cohort data: a program package using FORTRAN and GLIM.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S Y; Mazumdar, S; Redmond, C K; Dong, M H; Costantino, J P

    1991-02-01

    A program package using FORTRAN and GLIM is presented to compute lifetime risks of dying from a particular cause of death for a worker subjected to specific risk exposures using death rates adjusted for selected covariates (risk factors). Calculations of the exposure index and adjusted rates depend on several commonly used procedures. Tests of homogeneity and trend for adjusted rates are provided. Lifetime risks are calculated in two different ways: adjusting or ignoring competing causes of death.

  13. 76 FR 7883 - Postal Service Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... rate adjustment.\\1\\ The Notice concerns the inbound portion of a bilateral agreement with HongKong Post... upon the Postal Service obtaining all regulatory approvals and notifying HongKong Post that all such... Agreement (CPG) Agreement. The Postal Service and HongKong Post, the postal operator for Hong Kong,...

  14. Judging hospitals by severity-adjusted mortality rates: the influence of the severity-adjustment method.

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, L I; Ash, A S; Shwartz, M; Daley, J; Hughes, J S; Mackiernan, Y D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This research examined whether judgments about a hospital's risk-adjusted mortality performance are affected by the severity-adjustment method. METHODS: Data came from 100 acute care hospitals nationwide and 11880 adults admitted in 1991 for acute myocardial infarction. Ten severity measures were used in separate multivariable logistic models predicting in-hospital death. Observed-to-expected death rates and z scores were calculated with each severity measure for each hospital. RESULTS: Unadjusted mortality rates for the 100 hospitals ranged from 4.8% to 26.4%. For 32 hospitals, observed mortality rates differed significantly from expected rates for 1 or more, but not for all 10, severity measures. Agreement between pairs of severity measures on whether hospitals were flagged as statistical mortality outliers ranged from fair to good. Severity measures based on medical records frequently disagreed with measures based on discharge abstracts. CONCLUSIONS: Although the 10 severity measures agreed about relative hospital performance more often than would be expected by chance, assessments of individual hospital mortality rates varied by different severity-adjustment methods. PMID:8876505

  15. Risk adjustment for a children's capitation rate.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Manning, W G; Keeler, E B

    1993-01-01

    Few capitation arrangements vary premiums by a child's health characteristics, yielding an incentive to discriminate against children with predictably high expenditures from chronic diseases. In this article, we explore risk adjusters for the 35 percent of the variance in annual out-patient expenditure we find to be potentially predictable. Demographic factors such as age and gender only explain 5 percent of such variance; health status measures explain 25 percent, prior use and health status measures together explain 65 to 70 percent. The profit from risk selection falls less than proportionately with improved ability to adjust for risk. Partial capitation rates may be necessary to mitigate skimming and dumping. PMID:10133708

  16. Risk Adjustment for a Children's Capitation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; Sloss, Elizabeth M.; Manning, Willard G.; Keeler, Emmett B.

    1993-01-01

    Few capitation arrangements vary premiums by a child's health characteristics, yielding an incentive to discriminate against children with predictably high expenditures from chronic diseases. In this article, we explore risk adjusters for the 35 percent of the variance in annual outpatient expenditure we find to be potentially predictable. Demographic factors such as age and gender only explain 5 percent of such variance; health status measures explain 25 percent, prior use and health status measures together explain 65 to 70 percent. The profit from risk selection falls less than proportionately with improved ability to adjust for risk. Partial capitation rates may be necessary to mitigate skimming and dumping. PMID:10133708

  17. Heart Rate and Risk of Cancer Death in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Jouven, Xavier; Escolano, Sylvie; Celermajer, David; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Bingham, Annie; Hermine, Olivier; Desnos, Michel; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Marijon, Eloi; Ducimetière, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Background Data from several previous studies examining heart-rate and cardiovascular risk have hinted at a possible relationship between heart-rate and non-cardiac mortality. We thus systematically examined the predictive value of heart-rate variables on the subsequent risk of death from cancer. Methods In the Paris Prospective Study I, 6101 asymptomatic French working men aged 42 to 53 years, free of clinically detectable cardiovascular disease and cancer, underwent a standardized graded exercise test between 1967 and 1972. Resting heart-rate, heart-rate increase during exercise, and decrease during recovery were measured. Change in resting heart-rate over 5 years was also available in 5139 men. Mortality including 758 cancer deaths was assessed over the 25 years of follow-up. Findings There were strong, graded and significant relationships between all heart-rate parameters and subsequent cancer deaths. After adjustment for age and tobacco consumption and, compared with the lowest quartile, those with the highest quartile for resting heart-rate had a relative risk of 2.4 for cancer deaths (95% confidence interval: 1.9–2.9, p<0.0001) This was similar after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and was observed for the commonest malignancies (respiratory and gastrointestinal). Similarly, significant relationships with cancer death were observed between poor heart rate increase during exercise, poor decrease during recovery and greater heart-rate increase over time (p<0.0001 for all). Interpretation Resting and exercise heart rate had consistent, graded and highly significant associations with subsequent cancer mortality in men. PMID:21826196

  18. Lung cancer death rates fall, helping drive decrease in overall cancer death rates

    Cancer.gov

    The Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, covering the period 1975–2010, showed death rates for lung cancer, which accounts for more than one in four cancer deaths, dropping at a faster pace than in previous years.

  19. Associations between Periodontal Microbiota and Death Rates

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chung-Jung; Chang, Min-Lee; Taylor, Allen

    2016-01-01

    It is conceived that specific combinations of periodontal bacteria are associated with risk for the various forms of periodontitis. We hypothesized that such specificity is also related to human cause-specific death rates. We tested this hypothesis in a representative sample of the US population followed for a mean duration of 11 years and found that two specific patterns of 21 serum antibodies against periodontal bacteria were significantly associated with increased all-cause and/or diabetes-related mortalities. These data suggested that specific combinations of periodontal bacteria, even without inducing clinically significant periodontitis, may have a significant impact on human cause-specific death rates. Our findings implied that increased disease and mortality risk could be transmittable via the transfer of oral microbiota, and that developing personalized strategies and maintaining healthy oral microbiota beyond protection against periodontitis would be important to manage the risk. PMID:27748442

  20. Adjustable flow rate controller for polymer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Kenneth M.

    1981-01-01

    An adjustable device for controlling the flow rate of polymer solutions which results in only little shearing of the polymer molecules, said device comprising an inlet manifold, an outlet manifold, a plurality of tubes capable of providing communication between said inlet and outlet manifolds, said tubes each having an internal diameter that is smaller than that of the inlet manifold and large enough to insure that viscosity of the polymer solution passing through each said tube will not be reduced more than about 25 percent, and a valve associated with each tube, said valve being capable of opening or closing communication in that tube between the inlet and outlet manifolds, each said valve when fully open having a diameter that is substantially at least as great as that of the tube with which it is associated.

  1. Iowa record-linkage study: death rates in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Black, D W

    1998-09-01

    The Iowa record-linkage study was developed to investigate death rates in psychiatric patients, and involved computer matching of death certificates with a roster of patients. A list of all patients admitted to our hospital from 1972 through 1981 was obtained and after removing duplicate entries the list was pared to 5412 names. The record included multiple identifiers (e.g., name, gender, date-of-birth, hospital number). This information was then linked by computer with all Iowa death certificates for the same period; a total of 331 deaths were identified. Patients were assigned to a single psychiatric diagnostic category based on a computer program that reviewed each patient's clinical diagnoses and picked the one with the highest priority in a hierarchy we had created. Age and sex adjusted mortality tables were constructed, allowing us to compute expected numbers of deaths. Relative risk for premature death was greatest among women, and those under 20 years. Risk was associated with all psychiatric diagnoses and was significantly higher among patients of either gender with an organic mental disorder or schizophrenia; women with acute schizophrenia, depressive neuroses, alcoholism, drug abuse, and psychophysiological disorders; and men with neuroses. Death from natural causes, especially from heart disease, was significantly excessive among women, while death from accidents and suicides was excessive for both men and women. The overall SMR was 1.65 (P < 0.001). Most importantly, we found that the greatest excess of mortality occurred within the first 2 years following hospital discharge. Thus, we were able to demonstrate that risk of mortality in general, and of suicide specifically, differed according to age, gender, diagnosis, and portion of the follow-up. We have subsequently used this method to investigate specific risk factors associated with mortality in mood disorders, schizophrenia, and antisocial personality disorder. Findings from these studies are

  2. Scuba injury death rate among insured DAN members.

    PubMed

    Denoble, Petar J; Pollock, Neal W; Vaithiyanathan, Panchabi; Caruso, James L; Dovenbarger, Joel A; Vann, Richard D

    2008-12-01

    We calculated the annual rates of diving-related deaths among DAN-insured members in the period from 2000 to 2006 and investigated the effects of age and sex on death rate by logistic regression. We determined relative risks for divers < 50 and ≥ 50 years of age for drowning, arterial gas embolism, and cardiac incidents, the three most common disabling injuries associated with diving death. There were 1,141,367 insured member-years and 187 diving-related deaths. Males made up 64% of the members. Individuals ≥ 50 years of age constituted 31% of the fatalities. Insured mean age increased from 40 ± 12 to 43 ± 13 years over the seven-year study period. Annual fatality rates varied between 12.1 and 22.9 (average 16.4, 95% confidence intervals 14.2, 18.9) per 100,000 persons insured. The relative risk for male divers in their thirties was six times greater than the risk for female divers in the same age range. Fatality rates increased with age for both sexes, but the higher relative risk for males progressively decreased until the rates became similar for both sexes after age 60. Death associated with cardiac incidents was 12.9 times more likely in divers ≥ 50 years of age. We recommend that older divers adjust their participation in diving according to health status and physical fitness, maintain fitness with regular exercise, and abstain from diving in conditions likely to require unaccustomed physical activity.

  3. 5 CFR 9901.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9901... Increases § 9901.322 Setting and adjusting rate ranges. (a) Subject to § 9901.105, the Secretary may set and... factors. (b) The Secretary may determine the effective date of newly set or adjusted band rate...

  4. 5 CFR 880.207 - Adjustment of accounts after finding of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. 880.207 Section 880.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Procedures § 880.207 Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. After a missing annuitant is...

  5. 5 CFR 880.207 - Adjustment of accounts after finding of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. 880.207 Section 880.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... Procedures § 880.207 Adjustment of accounts after finding of death. After a missing annuitant is...

  6. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Periodic rate adjustments. 154.403 Section 154.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate Changes § 154.403 Periodic rate adjustments....

  7. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  8. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  9. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  10. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  11. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  12. 5 CFR 536.305 - Adjusting an employee's retained rate when a pay schedule is adjusted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... employee's existing position of record. (2) As provided in 5 CFR 531.206, a retained rate adjustment under... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Pay Retention § 536.305 Adjusting an employee's... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjusting an employee's retained...

  13. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  14. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  15. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjusted internal rate of return. 436.22 Section 436.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS... adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation...

  16. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjusted internal rate of return. 436.22 Section 436.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS... adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation...

  17. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section... Western Area Power Administrations § 903.11 Advance announcement of rate adjustment. The Administrator may... advertisement, and/or by Federal Register publication. Written comments relevant to rate policy and design...

  18. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section... Western Area Power Administrations § 903.11 Advance announcement of rate adjustment. The Administrator may... advertisement, and/or by Federal Register publication. Written comments relevant to rate policy and design...

  19. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section... Western Area Power Administrations § 903.11 Advance announcement of rate adjustment. The Administrator may... advertisement, and/or by Federal Register publication. Written comments relevant to rate policy and design...

  20. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section 903.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area Power Administrations §...

  1. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section... Western Area Power Administrations § 903.11 Advance announcement of rate adjustment. The Administrator may... advertisement, and/or by Federal Register publication. Written comments relevant to rate policy and design...

  2. Early Parental Adjustment and Bereavement after Childhood Cancer Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Maru; O'connor, Kathleen; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Spencer, Lynlee; Nicholas, David; Jovcevska, Vesna; Tallet, Susan; Schneiderman, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This study comprehensively explored parental bereavement and adjustment at 6 months post-loss due to childhood cancer. Interviews were conducted with 18 mothers and 13 fathers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed based on qualitative methodology. A model describing early parental bereavement and adaptation emerged with 3 domains:…

  3. Reducing the Teen Death Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Life continues to hold considerable risk for adolescents in the United States. In 2006, the teen death rate stood at 64 deaths per 100,000 teens (13,739 teens) (KIDS COUNT Data Center, 2009). Although it has declined by 4 percent since 2000, the rate of teen death in this country remains substantially higher than in many peer nations, based…

  4. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9701.322 Section 9701.322 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate Ranges... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9701.322 Section 9701.322 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  6. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjusted internal rate of return. 436.22 Section 436.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return....

  7. 75 FR 455 - Adjustment of Cable Statutory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Participate. SUMMARY: The Copyright Royalty Judges are announcing the commencement of the proceeding to adjust the rates for the cable statutory license. The Copyright Royalty Judges also are announcing the date... Copyright Royalty Board Adjustment of Cable Statutory License Royalty Rates AGENCY: Copyright Royalty...

  8. 76 FR 53160 - Postal Service Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Service and Koninklijke TNT Post BV and TNT Post Pakketservice Benelux BV (TNT Agreement), and the China... the agreement is functionally equivalent to the previously filed TNT and CPG Agreements, and contains...'' and the TNT Agreement does not include rates for a service described as ``Global Confirmation Over...

  9. Reducing the Child Death Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In the 20th century's final decades, advances in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases sharply reduced the child death rate. Despite this progress, the child death rate in the U.S. remains higher than in many other wealthy nations. The under-five mortality rate in the U.S. is almost three times higher than that of Iceland and Sweden…

  10. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Periodic rate... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate Changes § 154.403 Periodic rate adjustments. (a) This section applies to the passthrough, on a...

  11. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Periodic rate... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate Changes § 154.403 Periodic rate adjustments. (a) This section applies to the passthrough, on a...

  12. 24 CFR 203.49 - Eligibility of adjustable rate mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... National Housing Act. (a) Types of mortgages insurable. The types of adjustable rate mortgages that are... payment, except that, for these types of mortgages, the first adjustment shall be no sooner or later than... secured by a principal dwelling under the Truth in Lending Act, 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq. (h)...

  13. Death row inmate characteristics, adjustment, and confinement: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mark D; Vigen, Mark P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews and summarizes research on death row inmates. The contributions and weaknesses of death row demographic data, clinical studies, and research based on institutional records are critiqued. Our analysis shows that death row inmates are overwhelmingly male and disproportionately Southern. Racial representation remains controversial. Frequently death row inmates are intellectually limited and academically deficient. Histories of significant neurological insult are common, as are developmental histories of trauma, family disruption, and substance abuse. Rates of psychological disorder among death row inmates are high, with conditions of confinement appearing to precipitate or aggravate these disorders. Contrary to expectation, the extant research indicates that the majority of death row inmates do not exhibit violence in prison even in more open institutional settings. These findings have implications for forensic mental health sentencing evaluations, competent attorney representation, provision of mental health services, racial disparity in death sentences, death row security and confinement policies, and moral culpability considerations. Future research directions on death row populations are suggested.

  14. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....322 Section 9701.322 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....322 Section 9701.322 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate...

  16. Death Rates among Detained Immigrants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Granski, Megan; Keller, Allen; Venters, Homer

    2015-01-01

    The United States system of immigrant detention centers has been the subject of considerable scrutiny with respect to health care of detainees. We sought to characterize the rates and types of deaths that have occurred within this system between the years 2003–2015. We analyzed a file of detainee deaths released by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as part of a freedom of information request. Between 2003 and 2015, 150 deaths were recorded. During this time period, the annual rate of death among detainees dropped dramatically, whether measured by annual admissions or by person years of exposure. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular, cancer and suicide. More research is needed to adequately account for the contributors to these declining rates of death in immigration detention settings. PMID:26569284

  17. Death Rates among Detained Immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Granski, Megan; Keller, Allen; Venters, Homer

    2015-11-12

    The United States system of immigrant detention centers has been the subject of considerable scrutiny with respect to health care of detainees. We sought to characterize the rates and types of deaths that have occurred within this system between the years 2003-2015. We analyzed a file of detainee deaths released by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as part of a freedom of information request. Between 2003 and 2015, 150 deaths were recorded. During this time period, the annual rate of death among detainees dropped dramatically, whether measured by annual admissions or by person years of exposure. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular, cancer and suicide. More research is needed to adequately account for the contributors to these declining rates of death in immigration detention settings.

  18. Death Rates among Detained Immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Granski, Megan; Keller, Allen; Venters, Homer

    2015-11-01

    The United States system of immigrant detention centers has been the subject of considerable scrutiny with respect to health care of detainees. We sought to characterize the rates and types of deaths that have occurred within this system between the years 2003-2015. We analyzed a file of detainee deaths released by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as part of a freedom of information request. Between 2003 and 2015, 150 deaths were recorded. During this time period, the annual rate of death among detainees dropped dramatically, whether measured by annual admissions or by person years of exposure. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular, cancer and suicide. More research is needed to adequately account for the contributors to these declining rates of death in immigration detention settings. PMID:26569284

  19. 75 FR 29577 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... rates for the 2011 season in the Federal Register on October 23, 2009 (74 FR 54848), and we will publish... rates for the 2011 season for the San Carlos Irrigation Project (74 FR 40227).) Final Project name Rate... published in the Federal Register on October 23, 2009 (74 FR 54846) to propose adjustments to the...

  20. Relation of Total and Cardiovascular Death Rates to Climate System, Temperature, Barometric Pressure, and Respiratory Infection.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Bryan G; Qualls, Clifford; Kloner, Robert A; Laskey, Warren K

    2015-10-15

    A distinct seasonal pattern in total and cardiovascular death rates has been reported. The factors contributing to this pattern have not been fully explored. Seven locations (average total population 71,354,000) were selected where data were available including relatively warm, cold, and moderate temperatures. Over the period 2004 to 2009, there were 2,526,123 all-cause deaths, 838,264 circulatory deaths, 255,273 coronary heart disease deaths, and 135,801 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) deaths. We used time series and multivariate regression modeling to explore the association between death rates and climatic factors (temperature, dew point, precipitation, barometric pressure), influenza levels, air pollution levels, hours of daylight, and day of week. Average seasonal patterns for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths were very similar across the 7 locations despite differences in climate. After adjusting for multiple covariates and potential confounders, there was a 0.49% increase in all-cause death rate for every 1°C decrease. In general, all-cause, circulatory, coronary heart disease and STEMI death rates increased linearly with decreasing temperatures. The temperature effect varied by location, including temperature's linear slope, cubic fit, positional shift on the temperature axis, and the presence of circulatory death increases in locally hot temperatures. The variable effect of temperature by location suggests that people acclimatize to local temperature cycles. All-cause and circulatory death rates also demonstrated sizable associations with influenza levels, dew point temperature, and barometric pressure. A greater understanding of how climate, temperature, and barometric pressure influence cardiovascular responses would enhance our understanding of circulatory and STEMI deaths.

  1. Relation of Total and Cardiovascular Death Rates to Climate System, Temperature, Barometric Pressure, and Respiratory Infection.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Bryan G; Qualls, Clifford; Kloner, Robert A; Laskey, Warren K

    2015-10-15

    A distinct seasonal pattern in total and cardiovascular death rates has been reported. The factors contributing to this pattern have not been fully explored. Seven locations (average total population 71,354,000) were selected where data were available including relatively warm, cold, and moderate temperatures. Over the period 2004 to 2009, there were 2,526,123 all-cause deaths, 838,264 circulatory deaths, 255,273 coronary heart disease deaths, and 135,801 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) deaths. We used time series and multivariate regression modeling to explore the association between death rates and climatic factors (temperature, dew point, precipitation, barometric pressure), influenza levels, air pollution levels, hours of daylight, and day of week. Average seasonal patterns for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths were very similar across the 7 locations despite differences in climate. After adjusting for multiple covariates and potential confounders, there was a 0.49% increase in all-cause death rate for every 1°C decrease. In general, all-cause, circulatory, coronary heart disease and STEMI death rates increased linearly with decreasing temperatures. The temperature effect varied by location, including temperature's linear slope, cubic fit, positional shift on the temperature axis, and the presence of circulatory death increases in locally hot temperatures. The variable effect of temperature by location suggests that people acclimatize to local temperature cycles. All-cause and circulatory death rates also demonstrated sizable associations with influenza levels, dew point temperature, and barometric pressure. A greater understanding of how climate, temperature, and barometric pressure influence cardiovascular responses would enhance our understanding of circulatory and STEMI deaths. PMID:26297511

  2. Preventable trauma death rate in Daegu, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sungbae; Lee, Suk Hee; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Kim, Jong Kun; Ahn, Jae Yun; Kim, Sung Jin; Jeon, Jae Cheon; Lee, Kyung Woo; Sung, Ae Jin; Kim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Dae Ro; Do, Byung Soo; Park, Sin Ryul; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the preventable death rate in Daegu, South Korea, and assessed affecting factors and preventable factors in order to improve the treatment of regional trauma patients. Methods All traumatic deaths between January 2012 and December 2012 in 5 hospitals in Daegu were analyzed by panel review, which were classified into preventable and non-preventable deaths. We determined the factors affecting trauma deaths and the preventable factors during trauma care. Results There were overall 358 traumatic deaths during the study period. Two hundred thirty four patients were selected for the final analysis after excluding cases of death on arrival, delayed death, and unknown causes. The number of preventable death was 59 (25.2%), which was significantly associated with mode of arrival, presence of head injury, date, and time of injury. A multivariate analysis revealed that preventable death was more likely when patients were secondly transferred from another hospital, visited hospital during non-office hour, and did not have head injuries. The panel discovered 145 preventable factors, which showed that majority of factors occurred in emergency departments (49.0%), and were related with system process (76.6%). Conclusion The preventable trauma death rate in Daegu was high, and mostly process-related. PMID:27752603

  3. 38 CFR 3.27 - Automatic adjustment of benefit rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjustment of benefit rates. (a) Improved pension. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit... income limitation and maximum monthly rates. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit...(b)(1)) (c) Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for certain individuals who are children...

  4. 38 CFR 3.27 - Automatic adjustment of benefit rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjustment of benefit rates. (a) Improved pension. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit... income limitation and maximum monthly rates. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit...(b)(1)) (c) Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for certain individuals who are children...

  5. 38 CFR 3.27 - Automatic adjustment of benefit rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjustment of benefit rates. (a) Improved pension. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit... income limitation and maximum monthly rates. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit...(b)(1)) (c) Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for certain individuals who are children...

  6. 38 CFR 3.27 - Automatic adjustment of benefit rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjustment of benefit rates. (a) Improved pension. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit... income limitation and maximum monthly rates. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit...(b)(1)) (c) Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for certain individuals who are children...

  7. Association Between Air Temperature and Cancer Death Rates in Florida

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proponents of global warming predict adverse events due to a slight warming of the planet in the last 100 years. This ecological study tests one of the possible arguments that might support the global warming theory – that it may increase cancer death rates. Thus, average daily air temperature is compared to cancer death rates at the county level in a U.S. state, while controlling for variables of smoking, race, and land elevation. The study revealed that lower cancer death rates were associated with warmer temperatures. Further study is indicated to verify these findings. PMID:26674418

  8. Estimation of death rates in US states with small subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Voulgaraki, Anastasia; Wei, Rong; Kedem, Benjamin

    2015-05-20

    In US states with small subpopulations, the observed mortality rates are often zero, particularly among young ages. Because in life tables, death rates are reported mostly on a log scale, zero mortality rates are problematic. To overcome the observed zero death rates problem, appropriate probability models are used. Using these models, observed zero mortality rates are replaced by the corresponding expected values. This enables logarithmic transformations and, in some cases, the fitting of the eight-parameter Heligman-Pollard model to produce mortality estimates for ages 0-130 years, a procedure illustrated in terms of mortality data from several states.

  9. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  10. The Impact of Financial Sophistication on Adjustable Rate Mortgage Ownership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hyrum; Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of a financial sophistication scale on adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) borrowing is explored. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis using recent data from the Survey of Consumer Finances reveal that ARM borrowing is driven by both the least and most financially sophisticated households but for different reasons. Less…

  11. 76 FR 53982 - New Postal Product and Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...). In Order No. 700, the Commission approved the functionally equivalent HongKong Post Agreement.\\2\\ The..., TNT Agreement, and the HongKong Post Agreement. The Postal Service requests that the China Post 2011... Operators 1 product. Notice at 2. \\2\\ See Docket No. R2011-4, Order Approving Rate Adjustment for...

  12. 24 CFR 203.49 - Eligibility of adjustable rate mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section shall apply only to mortgage loans described under sections 203(b), 203(h) and 203(k) of the...; (ii) Three-year adjustable rate mortgages—no sooner than 36 months or later than 42 months; (iii) Five... secured by a principal dwelling under the Truth in Lending Act, 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq. (h)...

  13. Long-term dynamics of death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and improving air quality

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Holman, Sheila; Ross, William G; Lyerly, H Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. Materials and methods We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993–2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population) calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Results Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths–with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths–with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only the underlying causes of deaths were used, and when mortality and air-quality data were analyzed on the county level. In each case, the results of sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability. The importance of analysis of pneumonia as an underlying cause of death was also highlighted. Conclusion Significant associations were observed between decreasing death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and decreases in levels of ambient air pollutants in North Carolina. PMID:25018627

  14. Report to the Nation shows cancer death rates dropping

    Cancer.gov

    The Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2009, shows that overall cancer death rates continued to decline in the United States among both men and women, among all major racial and ethnic groups, and for all of the most common cancer s

  15. Childhood Cancer Death Rates Continue to Fall: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... 19, for black and white children, and for boys and girls. A noteworthy point, Curtin said, is that black ... see disparities," she said. On the other hand, boys consistently had higher cancer death rates than girls -- 30 percent higher in 2014. The full explanation ...

  16. 39 CFR 3010.44 - Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments. 3010.44... DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Rate Adjustments for Negotiated Service Agreements (Type 2 Rate Adjustments) § 3010.44 Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments. (a) The Commission will establish a docket for...

  17. 39 CFR 3010.44 - Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments. 3010.44... DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Rate Adjustments for Negotiated Service Agreements (Type 2 Rate Adjustments) § 3010.44 Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments. (a) The Commission will establish a docket for...

  18. 39 CFR 3010.44 - Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments 3010.44... DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Rate Adjustments for Negotiated Service Agreements (Type 2 Rate Adjustments) § 3010.44 Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments (a) The Commission will establish a docket for...

  19. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  20. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  1. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  2. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  3. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  4. RATE-ADJUSTMENT ALGORITHM FOR AGGREGATE TCP CONGESTION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    P. TINNAKORNSRISUPHAP, ET AL

    2000-09-01

    The TCP congestion-control mechanism is an algorithm designed to probe the available bandwidth of the network path that TCP packets traverse. However, it is well-known that the TCP congestion-control mechanism does not perform well on networks with a large bandwidth-delay product due to the slow dynamics in adapting its congestion window, especially for short-lived flows. One promising solution to the problem is to aggregate and share the path information among TCP connections that traverse the same bottleneck path, i.e., Aggregate TCP. However, this paper shows via a queueing analysis of a generalized processor-sharing (GPS) queue with regularly-varying service time that a simple aggregation of local TCP connections together into a single aggregate TCP connection can result in a severe performance degradation. To prevent such a degradation, we introduce a rate-adjustment algorithm. Our simulation confirms that by utilizing our rate-adjustment algorithm on aggregate TCP, connections which would normally receive poor service achieve significant performance improvements without penalizing connections which already receive good service.

  5. Rising lung cancer death rates among black men: the importance of occupation and social class.

    PubMed

    Miller, W J; Cooper, R

    1982-03-01

    From 1950 to 1977 the age-adjusted cancer death rates for nonwhite men in the United States rose an astonishing 63.2 percent, while rates for white men increased 22.2 percent and fell slightly for women of both races. The bulk of this increase can be accounted for by cancer of the lung. As a serious health problem that is increasing in severity, cancer in black men deserves close attention and definitive action. This discussion focuses on basic epidemiological relationships in the origins of this epidemic, particularly in regard to the relative importance of occupation, cigarette smoking, and social class.

  6. Estimation of adjusted rate differences using additive negative binomial regression.

    PubMed

    Donoghoe, Mark W; Marschner, Ian C

    2016-08-15

    Rate differences are an important effect measure in biostatistics and provide an alternative perspective to rate ratios. When the data are event counts observed during an exposure period, adjusted rate differences may be estimated using an identity-link Poisson generalised linear model, also known as additive Poisson regression. A problem with this approach is that the assumption of equality of mean and variance rarely holds in real data, which often show overdispersion. An additive negative binomial model is the natural alternative to account for this; however, standard model-fitting methods are often unable to cope with the constrained parameter space arising from the non-negativity restrictions of the additive model. In this paper, we propose a novel solution to this problem using a variant of the expectation-conditional maximisation-either algorithm. Our method provides a reliable way to fit an additive negative binomial regression model and also permits flexible generalisations using semi-parametric regression functions. We illustrate the method using a placebo-controlled clinical trial of fenofibrate treatment in patients with type II diabetes, where the outcome is the number of laser therapy courses administered to treat diabetic retinopathy. An R package is available that implements the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27073156

  7. Rates and Correlates of Undetermined Deaths among African Americans: Results from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with undetermined death classifications among African Americans. In this study, the rates of undetermined deaths were assessed, the prevalence of missing information was estimated, and whether the circumstances preceding death differ by race were examined. Data were derived from the 2005-2008 National…

  8. Peer- and Self-Rated Correlates of a Teacher-Rated Typology of Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, William A., Jr.; Lease, A. Michele; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2007-01-01

    External correlates of a teacher-rated typology of child adjustment developed using the Behavior Assessment System for Children were examined. Participants included 377 elementary school children recruited from 26 classrooms in the southeastern United States. Multivariate analyses of variance and planned comparisons were used to determine whether…

  9. 39 CFR 3010.26 - Calculation of unused rate adjustment authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... unused rate adjustment authority. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 33834, June 12, 2014. (a... the second notice is filed and interim unused rate adjustment authority will be calculated for the... months before the second notice is filed. (2) Interim unused rate adjustment authority is equal to...

  10. Estimating division and death rates from CFSE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Rob J.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2005-12-01

    The division tracking dye, carboxyfluorescin diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) is currently the most informative labeling technique for characterizing the division history of cells in the immune system. Gett and Hodgkin (Nat. Immunol. 1 (2000) 239-244) have proposed to normalize CFSE data by the 2-fold expansion that is associated with each division, and have argued that the mean of the normalized data increases linearly with time, t, with a slope reflecting the division rate p. We develop a number of mathematical models for the clonal expansion of quiescent cells after stimulation and show, within the context of these models, under which conditions this approach is valid. We compare three means of the distribution of cells over the CFSE profile at time t: the mean, [mu](t), the mean of the normalized distribution, [mu]2(t), and the mean of the normalized distribution excluding nondivided cells, .In the simplest models, which deal with homogeneous populations of cells with constant division and death rates, the normalized frequency distribution of the cells over the respective division numbers is a Poisson distribution with mean [mu]2(t)=pt, where p is the division rate. The fact that in the data these distributions seem Gaussian is therefore insufficient to establish that the times at which cells are recruited into the first division have a Gaussian variation because the Poisson distribution approaches the Gaussian distribution for large pt. Excluding nondivided cells complicates the data analysis because , and only approaches a slope p after an initial transient.In models where the first division of the quiescent cells takes longer than later divisions, all three means have an initial transient before they approach an asymptotic regime, which is the expected [mu](t)=2pt and . Such a transient markedly complicates the data analysis. After the same initial transients, the normalized cell numbers tend to decrease at a rate e-dt, where d is the death rate

  11. 76 FR 26324 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Section 31 Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... FR 24757 (May 5, 2010). \\7\\ The annual adjustments, as well as the mid-year adjustments required in... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Section 31 Fee Rates I. Background Section 31... Commission to make one final adjustment for fiscal year 2012.\\8\\ \\6\\ Order Making Fiscal Year 2011...

  12. Rates and correlates of undetermined deaths among African Americans: results from the National Violent Death Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson H

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with undetermined death classifications among African Americans. In this study, the rates of undetermined deaths were assessed, the prevalence of missing information was estimated, and whether the circumstances preceding death differ by race were examined. Data were derived from the 2005-2008 National Violent Death Reporting System. African Americans had higher prevalence of missing information than Whites. African Americans classified as undetermined deaths were more likely to be older, women, never married/single, to have had a blood alcohol content at or above the legal limit, and to have had a substance abuse problem. The results suggest that racial differences in the preponderance and the type of evidence surrounding the death may affect death classification.

  13. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administration of adjusted rates of pay. 38.3 Section 38.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.3 Administration of adjusted rates of pay. (a) An employee...

  14. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of adjusted rates of pay. 38.3 Section 38.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.3 Administration of adjusted rates of pay. (a) An employee...

  15. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Administration of adjusted rates of pay. 38.3 Section 38.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.3 Administration of adjusted rates of pay. (a) An employee...

  16. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of adjusted rates of pay. 38.3 Section 38.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.3 Administration of adjusted rates of pay. (a) An employee...

  17. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of adjusted rates of pay. 38.3 Section 38.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.3 Administration of adjusted rates of pay. (a) An employee...

  18. 5 CFR 535.105 - Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay... REGULATIONS CRITICAL POSITION PAY AUTHORITY § 535.105 Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay. (a) The rate... head of an agency may set pay initially at any amount up to the rate of pay for level II or level I...

  19. Death rates reflect accumulating brain damage in arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Duane B; Brancato, Carolina L; Prior, Andrew E; Shelton, Peter M.J; Sheehy, Matt R.J

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of the first quantitative, whole-lifespan study of the relationship between age-specific neurolipofuscin concentration and natural mortality rate in any organism. In a convenient laboratory animal, the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, we find an unusual delayed-onset neurolipofuscin accumulation pattern that is highly correlated with exponentially accelerating age-specific Gompertz–Makeham death rates in both males (r=0.93, p=0.0064) and females (r=0.97, p=0.0052). We then test the conservation of this association by aggregating the locust results with available population-specific data for a range of other terrestrial, freshwater, marine, tropical and temperate arthropods whose longevities span three orders of magnitude. This synthesis shows that the strong association between neurolipofuscin deposition and natural mortality is a phylogenetically and environmentally widespread phenomenon (r=0.96, p<0.0001). These results highlight neurolipofuscin as a unique and outstanding integral biomarker of ageing. They also offer compelling evidence for the proposal that, in vital organs like the brain, either the accumulation of toxic garbage in the form of lipofuscin itself, or the particular molecular reactions underlying lipofuscinogenesis, including free-radical damage, are the primary events in senescence. PMID:16191601

  20. Death rates reflect accumulating brain damage in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Duane B; Brancato, Carolina L; Prior, Andrew E; Shelton, Peter M J; Sheehy, Matt R J

    2005-09-22

    We present the results of the first quantitative, whole-lifespan study of the relationship between age-specific neurolipofuscin concentration and natural mortality rate in any organism. In a convenient laboratory animal, the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, we find an unusual delayed-onset neurolipofuscin accumulation pattern that is highly correlated with exponentially accelerating age-specific Gompertz-Makeham death rates in both males (r=0.93, p=0.0064) and females (r=0.97, p=0.0052). We then test the conservation of this association by aggregating the locust results with available population-specific data for a range of other terrestrial, freshwater, marine, tropical and temperate arthropods whose longevities span three orders of magnitude. This synthesis shows that the strong association between neurolipofuscin deposition and natural mortality is a phylogenetically and environmentally widespread phenomenon (r=0.96, p < 0.0001). These results highlight neurolipofuscin as a unique and outstanding integral biomarker of ageing. They also offer compelling evidence for the proposal that, in vital organs like the brain, either the accumulation of toxic garbage in the form of lipofuscin itself, or the particular molecular reactions underlying lipofuscinogenesis, including free-radical damage, are the primary events in senescence.

  1. 77 FR 10767 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ..., Telephone: (435) 722-4341. Walker River Irrigation Project Athena Brown, Superintendent, 311 E. Washington... Federal Register on September 20, 2011 (76 FR 58293) to propose adjustments to the irrigation assessment... 203(d) of the Arizona Water Settlements Act (Pub. L. 108-451). Issue: The BIA should not use...

  2. 76 FR 26759 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Federal Register on November 1, 2010 (75 FR 67095) to propose adjustments to the irrigation assessment..., Oregon 97232-4169, Telephone: (503) 231- 6702 Project Name Project/Agency Contacts Fort Hall Dean Fox..., PH: (406) 653-1752 602 6th Avenue North Wolf Point, MT 59201 Wind River Ed Lone Fight,...

  3. Demonization of Divorce: Prevalence Rates and Links to Postdivorce Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    The meaning-making process can be crucial to individuals as they adjust to their divorce. Demonization is a negative coping response (also known as spiritual struggle) that involves appraising someone or something as related to demonic forces. Individuals may cognitively frame a divorce as the work of Satan in order to understand suffering while…

  4. 39 CFR 3010.27 - Application of unused rate adjustment authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... unused rate adjustment authority. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 33834, June 12, 2014. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 33834, June 12, 2014. When the percentage change in rates for a class.... Second, the unused rate adjustment authority generated in the most recent Type 1-A or Type 1-B...

  5. 75 FR 8730 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; FHA- Disclosure of Adjustable Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Adjustable Rate Mortgages (ARMs) Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing, HUD. ACTION... of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35, as amended). This Notice is soliciting comments from members of the... also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Disclosure of Adjustable Rate Mortgages...

  6. 12 CFR 747.1001 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation. (a) NCUA is required by the Federal Civil Penalties... adjust the maximum amount of each civil money penalty within its jurisdiction by the rate of...

  7. 77 FR 13663 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Mid-Year Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Mid-Year Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates I. Background Section... Commission by Congress for such fiscal year.''). \\5\\ Id. \\6\\ Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments... fiscal year 2012 calculated by the Commission in its Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments...

  8. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate... section of this subpart, and to revisions on a periodic basis of a gas reimbursement percentage. (b) Where a pipeline recovers fuel use and unaccounted-for natural gas in kind, the fuel...

  9. 75 FR 81817 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Extensions Act, 2011 (H.R. 3082), which I signed into law today (the ``Continuing Appropriations Act''), the...; section 301(a) of Public Law 102-40) at Schedule 3. Sec. 2. Senior Executive Service. The ranges of rates... section 140 of Public Law 97-92) at Schedule 7. Sec. 4. Uniformed Services. The rates of monthly basic...

  10. Cause-specific premature death from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India: Estimate adjusted for baseline mortality.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sourangsu; Dey, Sagnik

    2016-05-01

    In India, more than a billion population is at risk of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration exceeding World Health Organization air quality guideline, posing a serious threat to health. Cause-specific premature death from ambient PM2.5 exposure is poorly known for India. Here we develop a non-linear power law (NLP) function to estimate the relative risk associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure using satellite-based PM2.5 concentration (2001-2010) that is bias-corrected against coincident direct measurements. We show that estimate of annual premature death in India is lower by 14.7% (19.2%) using NLP (integrated exposure risk function, IER) for assumption of uniform baseline mortality across India (as considered in the global burden of disease study) relative to the estimate obtained by adjusting for state-specific baseline mortality using GDP as a proxy. 486,100 (811,000) annual premature death in India is estimated using NLP (IER) risk functions after baseline mortality adjustment. 54.5% of premature death estimated using NLP risk function is attributed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 24.0% to ischemic heart disease (IHD), 18.5% to stroke and the remaining 3.0% to lung cancer (LC). 44,900 (5900-173,300) less premature death is expected annually, if India achieves its present annual air quality target of 40μgm(-3). Our results identify the worst affected districts in terms of ambient PM2.5 exposure and resulting annual premature death and call for initiation of long-term measures through a systematic framework of pollution and health data archive. PMID:27063285

  11. 78 FR 71501 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... the section 119 compulsory license for the 2010-2014 term. See 75 FR 53198. The rates adopted by the... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... Copyright Royalty Judges announce a cost of living adjustment (COLA) of 1% in the royalty rates...

  12. 77 FR 3818 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates I. Background Section 31... Rel. No. 34-64373, Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to the Fee Rates Applicable under... Exchange Act effective on the later of October 1, 2011 or the date of enactment of an Act making a...

  13. 78 FR 25515 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates I. Background Section 31... notice of the new fee rates under Section 31 not later than 30 days after the date on which an Act making... appendix also includes the data used by the Commission in making this adjustment. III. Effective Date...

  14. A Short Form of the Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.

    2007-01-01

    A total of 278 children at Time 1 (144 male and 134 female) from School Years 1 and 2 in the United Kingdom serve as participants. The children complete self-rated scales of school adjustment, and their teachers complete the Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment (TRSSA) twice across a 1-year period. At Time 1, children's performance on…

  15. [Death].

    PubMed

    Ribas, Jordi Domingo

    2003-12-01

    Intercultural factors are essential for reflection. In this article, the authors deals with a more direct vision on the special edition about Grief and Mourning, about the topic which lies in the depths of all of our consciences: death and the question what lies beyond death? The author provides us elements to reflect about concepts, some accepted in various cases, rejected in others, but always polemical, which help us to penetrate farther into the real mystery of life: death and what follows death.

  16. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1) Compute an... must compute its initial rate using either of the following systems: (i) A community rating system...

  17. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1) Compute an... must compute its initial rate using either of the following systems: (i) A community rating system...

  18. 78 FR 80451 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... ] TD31DE13.201 ] TD31DE13.202 ] TD31DE13.203 ] TD31DE13.204 [FR Doc. 2013-31445 Filed 12-30-13; 11:15 a.m... Administration of the Department of Veterans Affairs (38 U.S.C. 7306, 7404; section 301(a) of Public Law 102-40... under 37 U.S.C. 1009, and the rate of monthly cadet or midshipman pay (37 U.S.C. 203(c)) are set...

  19. A 5-trial adjusting delay discounting task: Accurate discount rates in less than 60 seconds

    PubMed Central

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who discount delayed rewards at a high rate are more likely to engage in substance abuse, overeating, or problem gambling. Findings such as these suggest the value of methods to obtain an accurate and fast measurement of discount rate that can be easily deployed in variety of settings. In the present study, we developed and evaluated the 5-trial adjusting delay task, a novel method of obtaining discount rate in less than one minute. We hypothesized that discount rates from the 5-trial adjusting delay task would be similar and correlated with discount rates from a lengthier task we have used previously, and that four known effects relating to delay discounting would be replicable with this novel task. To test these hypotheses, the 5-trial adjusting delay task was administered to 111 college students six times to obtain discount rates for six different commodities, along with a lengthier adjusting amount discounting task. We found that discount rates were similar and correlated between the 5-trial adjusting delay task and the adjusting amount task. Each of the four known effects relating to delay discounting was replicated with the 5-trial adjusting delay task to varying degrees. First, discount rates were inversely correlated with amount. Second, discount rates between past and future outcomes were correlated. Third, discount rates were greater for consumable rewards than with money, although we did not control for amount in this comparison. Fourth, discount rates were lower when zero amounts opposing the chosen time point were explicitly described. Results indicate that the 5-trial adjusting delay task is a viable, rapid method to assess discount rate. PMID:24708144

  20. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine. PMID:25019265

  1. 75 FR 75624 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... FR 53198 (August 31, 2010). Section 119(c)(2) requires the Judges annually to adjust these rates ``to... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The...

  2. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  3. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  4. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  5. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  6. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  7. The Impact of Statistically Adjusting for Rater Effects on Conditional Standard Errors of Performance Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Mark R.; Harik, Polina; Clauser, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research indicates that the overall reliability of performance ratings can be improved by using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to adjust for rater effects. The present investigation extends previous work by evaluating the impact of OLS adjustment on standard errors of measurement ("SEM") at specific score levels. In addition, a…

  8. 12 CFR 747.1001 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of inflation. 747.1001 Section 747.1001 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Inflation Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties § 747.1001 Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation. (a) NCUA is required by the Federal Civil...

  9. 12 CFR 747.1001 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of inflation. 747.1001 Section 747.1001 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Inflation Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties § 747.1001 Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation. (a) NCUA is required by the Federal Civil...

  10. 12 CFR 747.1001 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of inflation. 747.1001 Section 747.1001 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Inflation Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties § 747.1001 Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation. (a) NCUA is required by the Federal Civil...

  11. 12 CFR 747.1001 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of inflation. 747.1001 Section 747.1001 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Inflation Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties § 747.1001 Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation. (a) NCUA is required by the Federal Civil...

  12. 75 FR 53198 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... rates in the Federal Register. 75 FR 39891 (July 13, 2010). Section 119(c)(1)(D)(ii)(III) provides that... proposed rates as published on July 13, 2010. See 75 FR 39891. List of Subjects in 37 CFR Part 386... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License...

  13. Trends in European liver death rates: implications for alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jo; Sheron, Nick

    2010-06-01

    Changing alcohol consumption has led to a three- to fivefold increase in liver deaths in the UK and Finland, and a three- to fivefold decrease in France and Italy. Increasing consumption from a low baseline has been driven by fiscal, marketing and commercial factors--some of which have occurred as a result of countries joining the EU. In contrast consumption has fallen from previously very high levels as a result of shifting social and cultural factors; a move from rural to urban lifestyles and increased health consciousness. The marketing drive in these countries has had to shift from a model based on quantity to one based on quality, which means that health gains have occurred alongside a steady improvement in the overall value of the wine industry. Fiscal incentives--minimum pricing, restricting cross border trade and more volumetric taxation could aid this shift. A healthier population and a healthy drinks industry are not incompatible. PMID:20726458

  14. A study of the effects of cause specific death rates on age-specific death rates with special reference to Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, K

    1983-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of cause specific death rates on age specific death rates for Tamil Nadu rural females during the period 1970-75 in various age groups. 2 regression lines have been fitted. The age specific death rates were taken as dependent variables and time as an independent variable; the age-cause specific death rates were dependent variables and time was an independent variable. In the analysis, the ratio of regression coefficients of 2 regression lines gives the effect of age specific death rates due to the j-th cause in the i-th group. The trend of mortality in the age groups (0-4) and (5-14) declines over the period 1970-75 and increases in the age groups (15-34), (34-54) and 55 and older. The causes of declining mortality in the 0-4 age group are cough, fever, other clear symptoms and other causes. The %s of contribution for this decline are respectively 14%, 41%, 21% and 72% to the overall decline in that age group. The cause group violence and injury, digestive disorders and causes peculiar to infancy have contributed to increase in the 0-4 age group death rates. Digestive disorders, coughs and other causes have contributed to declining mortality in the 5-14 age group. The cause group accidents and injury, digestive disorders, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy and other causes are promoted to increase the mortality of the 15-34 age group. The causes contributing to the increasing trend of mortality in the 35-54 age group are violence and injury, digestive disorders, coughs, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy. Digestive disorders and other causes contributed to the mortality increase in the over 55 age group. PMID:12266915

  15. Deaths Rates in Public Hospitals of Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Buso, DL; Longo-Mbenza, B; Bovet, P; van den Borne, B; Okwe, A Nge; Mzingelwa, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: South Africa (SA) is experiencing a rapid epidemiologic transition as a consequence of political, economic and social changes. In this study we described, based on hospital data, the mortality patterns of Non communicable Diseases (NCD), Communicable Diseases (CD), the NCD/CD ratios, and the trends of deaths. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all deaths occurring in several public hospitals in the Eastern Cape Province of SA between 2002 and 2006. Causes of deaths were coded according to the ICD 10 Edition. Results: A total of 107380 admissions responded to the inclusion criteria between 2002 and 2006. The crude death rate was 4.3% (n=4566) with a mean age of 46±21 years and a sex ratio of 3.1 men (n=3453): 1 woman (n=1113). Out of all deaths, there were 62.9% NCD (n=2872) vs. 37.1% CD (n=1694) with NCD/CD ratio of 1.7. The ratio NCD/CD deaths in men was 1.3 (n=1951/1502) vs. NCD/CD deaths in women of 1.9 (n=735/378). The peak of deaths was observed in winter season. The majority of NCD deaths were at age of 30–64 years, whereas the highest rate of CD deaths was at age< 30 years. The trend of deaths including the majority of NCD, increased from 2002 to 2006. There was a tendency of increase in tuberculosis deaths, but a tendency of decrease in HIV/AIDS deaths was from 2002 to 2006. Conclusion: Non-communicable diseases are the leading causes of deaths in rural Eastern Cape province of SA facing Post-epidemiologic transition stages. We recommend overarching priority actions for the response to the Non-communicable Diseases: policy change, prevention, treatment, international cooperation, research, monitoring, accountability, and re-orientation of health systems. PMID:23641386

  16. 39 CFR 3010.13 - Proceedings for Type 1-A and Type 1-B rate adjustment filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proceedings for Type 1-A and Type 1-B rate... (Type 1-A and 1-B Rate Adjustments) § 3010.13 Proceedings for Type 1-A and Type 1-B rate adjustment... pursuant to appropriate action by the Governors. (e) If planned rate adjustments are found...

  17. Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Samuel R.; O’Brien, Barbara; Hu, Chen; Kennedy, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of erroneous conviction of innocent criminal defendants is often described as not merely unknown but unknowable. There is no systematic method to determine the accuracy of a criminal conviction; if there were, these errors would not occur in the first place. As a result, very few false convictions are ever discovered, and those that are discovered are not representative of the group as a whole. In the United States, however, a high proportion of false convictions that do come to light and produce exonerations are concentrated among the tiny minority of cases in which defendants are sentenced to death. This makes it possible to use data on death row exonerations to estimate the overall rate of false conviction among death sentences. The high rate of exoneration among death-sentenced defendants appears to be driven by the threat of execution, but most death-sentenced defendants are removed from death row and resentenced to life imprisonment, after which the likelihood of exoneration drops sharply. We use survival analysis to model this effect, and estimate that if all death-sentenced defendants remained under sentence of death indefinitely, at least 4.1% would be exonerated. We conclude that this is a conservative estimate of the proportion of false conviction among death sentences in the United States. PMID:24778209

  18. Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death.

    PubMed

    Gross, Samuel R; O'Brien, Barbara; Hu, Chen; Kennedy, Edward H

    2014-05-20

    The rate of erroneous conviction of innocent criminal defendants is often described as not merely unknown but unknowable. There is no systematic method to determine the accuracy of a criminal conviction; if there were, these errors would not occur in the first place. As a result, very few false convictions are ever discovered, and those that are discovered are not representative of the group as a whole. In the United States, however, a high proportion of false convictions that do come to light and produce exonerations are concentrated among the tiny minority of cases in which defendants are sentenced to death. This makes it possible to use data on death row exonerations to estimate the overall rate of false conviction among death sentences. The high rate of exoneration among death-sentenced defendants appears to be driven by the threat of execution, but most death-sentenced defendants are removed from death row and resentenced to life imprisonment, after which the likelihood of exoneration drops sharply. We use survival analysis to model this effect, and estimate that if all death-sentenced defendants remained under sentence of death indefinitely, at least 4.1% would be exonerated. We conclude that this is a conservative estimate of the proportion of false conviction among death sentences in the United States.

  19. Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death.

    PubMed

    Gross, Samuel R; O'Brien, Barbara; Hu, Chen; Kennedy, Edward H

    2014-05-20

    The rate of erroneous conviction of innocent criminal defendants is often described as not merely unknown but unknowable. There is no systematic method to determine the accuracy of a criminal conviction; if there were, these errors would not occur in the first place. As a result, very few false convictions are ever discovered, and those that are discovered are not representative of the group as a whole. In the United States, however, a high proportion of false convictions that do come to light and produce exonerations are concentrated among the tiny minority of cases in which defendants are sentenced to death. This makes it possible to use data on death row exonerations to estimate the overall rate of false conviction among death sentences. The high rate of exoneration among death-sentenced defendants appears to be driven by the threat of execution, but most death-sentenced defendants are removed from death row and resentenced to life imprisonment, after which the likelihood of exoneration drops sharply. We use survival analysis to model this effect, and estimate that if all death-sentenced defendants remained under sentence of death indefinitely, at least 4.1% would be exonerated. We conclude that this is a conservative estimate of the proportion of false conviction among death sentences in the United States. PMID:24778209

  20. Natural background radioactive carbon and the natural death rate of people.

    PubMed

    Germanskaia, Anna A

    2006-01-01

    A brief analysis of the known data on the potential danger of radiocarbon incorporation into DNA structure shows that the great genetic importance of transmutational transformations of DNA-incorporated 14C is theoretically and experimentally proved. This effect exists both in huge and small radiation doses (similar to doses of 14C natural background radiation). Therefore, the human death rate can be assumed to be dependent on natural and anthropogenous fluctuations of atmospheric 14C. Calculation methods of the age parameter dynamics of the natural human death rate are offered. It is shown that when calculating the parameters of the natural death rate, the use of Gompertz's formula is reasonable provided that the data on the general death rate are taken for the age interval "60 to 85 years." The ratios reflecting the regular and casual errors of the parameters R and a of Gompertz's equation, caused by people's casual deaths, were determined. A comparison of the historical dynamics of people's natural death rates in the last 150 years with the variations of 14C of the natural background during the same period showed that these are coordinated phenomena, the strong correlation of which indicates the possibility of their functional dependence. The 14C-concentration increase in an organism is the result of its increase in the surrounding biospheric composition, causing an increase in the natural death rate and vice versa: The increase of a person's life expectancy is caused by a decrease of 14C concentration. PMID:16706659

  1. High death rates in health care workers and teachers in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Harries, A D; Hargreaves, N J; Gausi, F; Kwanjana, J H; Salaniponi, F M

    2002-01-01

    High death rates are reported in health care workers (HCWs) and teachers in urban areas of Malawi. The present study was carried out to determine the annual death rate in HCWs and primary school teachers working in semi-urban and rural areas of Malawi, and to try to ascertain the main causes of death. Forty district and mission hospitals in Malawi were visited. A record was made of the number of clinical and nursing-based HCWs in each hospital in 1999, the number of deaths in that calendar year and reported causes of death. A record was also made of the number of teachers working in 4 primary schools nearest to each hospital in 1999, the number of deaths in that calendar year and reported causes of death. There were 2979 HCWs, of whom 60 (2.0%) died. There were 4367 teachers of whom 101 (2.3%) died. Annual death rates, calculated per 100,000 people, were significantly higher in male HCWs compared with female HCWs (2495 versus 1770, RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.20, P < 0.001), and significantly higher in female teachers compared with male teachers (2521 versus 1934, RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.11-1.17, P < 0.001). In male HCWs and teachers the highest death rates were in those aged 35-44 years. In female HCWs and teachers, the highest death rates were in those aged 25-34 years and 35-44 years, respectively. Reported causes of death in HCWs were tuberculosis (TB) in 47%, chronic illness in 45% and acute illness in the remainder, while in teachers the causes were TB in 27%, chronic illness in 49% and acute illness in 25%. Chronic illness, thought to be due to AIDS, and TB were the common causes of death. The current high death rates from AIDS and TB will have a crippling toll on the health and education sectors, and effective ways of reducing these death rates must be found.

  2. 75 FR 32228 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... adjusted the rates in 1997. 62 FR 55742 (October 28, 1997). In the Satellite Home Viewer Improvement Act of... the former Copyright Royalty Tribunal. 57 FR 129052 (May 1, 1992). When the license was reauthorized... carriers; and the Librarian adopted the respective rates. See 70 FR 17320 (April 6, 2005) and 70 FR...

  3. 75 FR 39891 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... carrier statutory license, 17 U.S.C. 119. 75 FR 32228 (June 7, 2010). The law further provides that... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License AGENCY... are publishing for comment negotiated royalty rates for the satellite carrier statutory license of...

  4. 77 FR 47582 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2013 Annual Review and Adjust; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 45539) proposing rate adjustments for pilotage services on the Great Lakes. The charge rate... of proposed rulemaking published in the Federal Register on August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45539) is corrected...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NPRM published August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45539) contains an...

  5. 25 CFR 166.408 - Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically? 166.408 Section 166.408 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental...

  6. 25 CFR 166.408 - Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically? 166.408 Section 166.408 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental...

  7. 25 CFR 166.408 - Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically? 166.408 Section 166.408 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental...

  8. 25 CFR 166.408 - Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically? 166.408 Section 166.408 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental...

  9. 25 CFR 166.408 - Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically? 166.408 Section 166.408 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental...

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-31 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (Percentage Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction Wage Rate... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-31 Construction Wage Rate Requirements—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method). As prescribed in 22.407(f), insert the following clause: Construction Wage...

  11. Self-reports and spouse ratings of neuroticism: perspectives on emotional adjustment in couples.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G

    2015-04-01

    Evidence of reciprocal associations between individual emotional adjustment and the quality of intimate relationships has led to the growing use of interventions that combine a focus on couple issues with a focus on individual emotional functioning. In these approaches, spouse ratings of emotional functioning can provide an important second method of assessment, beyond the much more commonly used self-reports. Although an extensive literature demonstrates substantial convergent correlations between self-reported and spouse-rated emotional adjustment, levels of adjustment evident across these 2 assessment methods are much less commonly compared, especially among couples reporting higher levels of marital distress. Well-documented limitations of both self-reports and spouse ratings suggest that differences--which would not necessarily be evident in correlations between methods--might be common and substantial, perhaps raising complications in couple assessments and intervention. The present study compared self-reports and spouse ratings of neuroticism and its specific components using the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised in a sample of 301 middle-aged and older couples. For overall neuroticism and the specific facets of anxiety, angry hostility, and vulnerability, self-reported levels of negative emotionality were consistently lower than the parallel ratings by spouses, most notably among couples reporting low levels of marital adjustment. Hence, substantial underestimates of negative emotionality obtained through self-reports as compared to ratings by spouses (or overestimates as obtained through spouse ratings) may be common and could complicate couple assessment and intervention. PMID:25844498

  12. 75 FR 24757 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Adjustments to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Section 6(b...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...), 75 FR 9964 (March 4, 2010). \\10\\ The annual adjustments, as well as the mid-year adjustments required... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Adjustments to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Section 6(b) of... adjustment based on that estimate. The appendix includes the data used by the Commission in making...

  13. 12 CFR 622.61 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended. 622.61... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment... is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990,...

  14. 12 CFR 622.61 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended. 622.61... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment... is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990,...

  15. 12 CFR 622.61 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended. 622.61... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment... is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990,...

  16. 12 CFR 622.61 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended. 622.61... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment... is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990,...

  17. 12 CFR 622.61 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended. 622.61... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment... is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990,...

  18. Use of age-adjusted rates of suicide in time series studies in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2009-01-01

    Durkheim's modified theory of suicide was examined to explore how consistent it was in predicting Israeli rates of suicide from 1965 to 1997 when using age-adjusted rates rather than crude ones. In this time-series study, Israeli male and female rates of suicide increased and decreased, respectively, between 1965 and 1997. Conforming to Durkheim's modified theory, the Israeli male rate of suicide was lower in years when rates of marriage and birth are higher, while rates of suicide are higher in years when rates of divorce are higher, the opposite to that of Israeli women. The corrected regression coefficients suggest that the Israeli female rate of suicide remained lower in years when rate of divorce is higher, again the opposite suggested by Durkheim's modified theory. These results may indicate that divorce affects the mental health of Israeli women as suggested by their lower rate of suicide. Perhaps the "multiple roles held by Israeli females creates suicidogenic stress" and divorce provides some sense of stress relief, mentally speaking. The results were not as consistent with predictions suggested by Durkheim's modified theory of suicide as were rates from the United States for the same period nor were they consistent with rates based on "crude" suicide data. Thus, using age-adjusted rates of suicide had an influence on the prediction of the Israeli rate of suicide during this period.

  19. Implementation Of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs Associated With Reductions In Opioid-Related Death Rates.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Stephen W; Fry, Carrie E; Jones, Timothy F; Buntin, Melinda B

    2016-07-01

    Over the past two decades the number of opioid pain relievers sold in the United States rose dramatically. This rise in sales was accompanied by an increase in opioid-related overdose deaths. In response, forty-nine states (all but Missouri) created prescription drug monitoring programs to detect high-risk prescribing and patient behaviors. Our objectives were to determine whether the implementation or particular characteristics of the programs were effective in reducing opioid-related overdose deaths. In adjusted analyses we found that a state's implementation of a program was associated with an average reduction of 1.12 opioid-related overdose deaths per 100,000 population in the year after implementation. Additionally, states whose programs had robust characteristics-including monitoring greater numbers of drugs with abuse potential and updating their data at least weekly-had greater reductions in deaths, compared to states whose programs did not have these characteristics. We estimate that if Missouri adopted a prescription drug monitoring program and other states enhanced their programs with robust features, there would be more than 600 fewer overdose deaths nationwide in 2016, preventing approximately two deaths each day. PMID:27335101

  20. The single match approach to strike rate adjustments in batting performance measures in cricket.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, Hermanus H

    2011-01-01

    Batting performance measures containing strike rate adjustments take into account the important fact that if two batsmen had scored the same number of runs in a match, the one with the better strike rate had performed best. But match conditions can influence the batting and bowling performances of cricket players. On a good pitch a batsman can get a good score at a high strike rate, but if the pitch was bad, a similar good score is normally accompanied by a much lower strike rate. The main objective of this study is to propose a method that can be used to make batsmen's scores comparable despite the fact that playing conditions might have been very different. The number of runs scored by a batsman is adjusted by comparing his strike rate with the overall strike rate of all the players in the specific match. These adjusted runs are then used in the most appropriate formula to calculate the average of the batsman. The method is illustrated by using the results of the Indian Premier League 2009 Twenty20 Series played during May and June 2009. The main conclusion is that the traditional average is not the most appropriate measure to compare batsmen's performances after conclusion of a short series. Key pointsIt is unfair to compare the score of a batsman obtained on a good pitch under ideal batting conditions with that of a batsman who had to battle under severe conditions.By comparing a batsman's strike rate with the overall strike rate of the players in the specific match, his score can be adjusted to get a better figure for his true performance.The results demonstrate clearly that the use of adjusted scores lead to rankings that differ from those based on the traditional measures.

  1. Effects of local extrinsic mortality rate, crime and sex ratio on preventable death in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Uggla, Caroline; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Individual investment in health varies greatly within populations and results in significant differences in the risk of preventable death. Life history theory predicts that individuals should alter their investment in health (somatic maintenance) in response to ecological cues that shift the perceived fitness payoffs to such investments. However, previous research has failed to isolate the effects of different ecological factors on preventable death, and has often relied on macro-level data without individual controls. Here, we test some key predictions concerning the local ecology—that higher extrinsic mortality rate (EMR), crime rate and mate-scarcity (male/female-biased sex ratio) at the ward-level—will be associated with a higher risk of preventable death. Methodology: We use census-based data from Northern Ireland (n = 927 150) on preventable death during an 8.7-year period from the 2001 Census and run Cox regressions for (i) accident/suicide or alcohol-related death and (ii) deaths from preventable diseases, for men and women separately, controlling for a wide range of individual variables. Results: We find evidence of ward-level EMR and crime rate being positively associated with preventable death among men, particularly men with low socioeconomic position. There was a tentative relationship between male-biased sex ratio and preventable death among women, but not among men. Conclusion and implications: Both behaviours that might lead to ‘risky’ death and health neglect might be adaptive responses to local ecologies. Efforts to reduce crime might be as effective as those to reduce extrinsic mortality, and both could have positive effects on various health behaviours. PMID:26338679

  2. Low Cloud Cover-Adjusted Ultraviolet B Irradiance Is Associated with High Incidence Rates of Leukemia: Study of 172 Countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are 52,380 cases of leukemia and 24,090 deaths from it in the US annually. Its causes are unknown and no preventive strategies have been implemented. We hypothesized that leukemia is due mainly to vitamin D deficiency, which is due mainly to low solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance. To test this hypothesis, we estimated age-standardized cloud-cover-adjusted winter UVB irradiance using cloud cover data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, latitudes of population centroids, and standard astronomical calculations. Incidence rates for 172 countries, available from the International Agency for Cancer Research, were plotted according to cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance. We used multiple regression to account for national differences in elevation and average life expectancy. Leukemia incidence rates were inversely associated with cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance in males (p ≤ 0.01) and females (p ≤ 0.01) in both hemispheres. There were few departures from the trend line, which was parabolic when plotted with the equator at the center of the display, northern hemisphere countries on the right side and southern hemisphere countries on the left. The bivariate association displayed by the polynomial trend line indicated that populations at higher latitudes had at least two times the risk of leukemia compared to equatorial populations. The association persisted in males (p ≤ 0.05) and females (p ≤ 0.01) after controlling for elevation and life expectancy. Incidence rates of leukemia were inversely associated with solar UVB irradiance. It is plausible that the association is due to vitamin D deficiency. This would be consistent with laboratory studies and a previous epidemiological study. Consideration should be given to prudent use of vitamin D for prevention of leukemia. PMID:26637119

  3. Low Cloud Cover-Adjusted Ultraviolet B Irradiance Is Associated with High Incidence Rates of Leukemia: Study of 172 Countries.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Garland, Cedric F; Gorham, Edward D; Mohr, Sharif B

    2015-01-01

    There are 52,380 cases of leukemia and 24,090 deaths from it in the US annually. Its causes are unknown and no preventive strategies have been implemented. We hypothesized that leukemia is due mainly to vitamin D deficiency, which is due mainly to low solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance. To test this hypothesis, we estimated age-standardized cloud-cover-adjusted winter UVB irradiance using cloud cover data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, latitudes of population centroids, and standard astronomical calculations. Incidence rates for 172 countries, available from the International Agency for Cancer Research, were plotted according to cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance. We used multiple regression to account for national differences in elevation and average life expectancy. Leukemia incidence rates were inversely associated with cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance in males (p ≤ 0.01) and females (p ≤ 0.01) in both hemispheres. There were few departures from the trend line, which was parabolic when plotted with the equator at the center of the display, northern hemisphere countries on the right side and southern hemisphere countries on the left. The bivariate association displayed by the polynomial trend line indicated that populations at higher latitudes had at least two times the risk of leukemia compared to equatorial populations. The association persisted in males (p ≤ 0.05) and females (p ≤ 0.01) after controlling for elevation and life expectancy. Incidence rates of leukemia were inversely associated with solar UVB irradiance. It is plausible that the association is due to vitamin D deficiency. This would be consistent with laboratory studies and a previous epidemiological study. Consideration should be given to prudent use of vitamin D for prevention of leukemia. PMID:26637119

  4. 39 CFR 3010.12 - Contents of notice of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be developed from the most recent applicable Commission approved analytical principles. Effective... text, (b)(4), and (e), redesignating paragraphs (b)(9) and (10) as (b)(11) and (12) respectively, and... added and revised text is set forth as follows: § 3010.12 Contents of notice of rate adjustment. (a)...

  5. 76 FR 55139 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates I. Background The... includes the data used by the Commission in making its ``baseline estimate of the aggregate...

  6. 78 FR 54934 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates I. Background The... includes the data used by the Commission in making its ``baseline estimate of the aggregate...

  7. 77 FR 55240 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates I. Background The... Commission in making its ``baseline estimate of the aggregate maximum offering price'' for fiscal year...

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... include any allowance for any increased cost for which adjustment is being requested. (c) The Contracting... be limited to increases or decreases in wages and fringe benefits as described in paragraph (c) of... DBA craft New WD Hourly rate paid Diff. Actual hrs. Actual units (sq. yard) Increase/sq. yard...

  9. 76 FR 590 - Adjustment or Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Making and Distributing Phonorecords

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ..., starting in the year 2006. A proceeding was commenced in 2006, 71 FR 1454 (January 9, 2006); on ] January... FR 4510 (January 26, 2009). Thus, in accordance with section 804(b)(4), a party may file a petition... Copyright Royalty Board Adjustment or Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Making and...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.323 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with a rate range adjustment. 9701.323 Section 9701.323 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.323 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with a rate range adjustment. 9701.323 Section 9701.323 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting...

  12. ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDING EQUIPMENT FOR SWIMMING POOLS. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NUMBER 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THE SCOPE OF THIS STANDARD COVERS ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDERS, WHETHER USED FOR SOLUTIONS, SLURRIES OR SOLIDS. IT ALSO INCLUDES AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT SUCH AS PUMPS, STRAINERS, TUBING CONNECTIONS, TANKS, INJECTION FITTINGS AND OTHER REQUIRED COMPONENTS. THE FEEDERS DESCRIBED ARE INTENDED TO BE DESIGNED AND USED SPECIFICALLY FOR CHEMICAL…

  13. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  14. Death and injury rates of U.S. military personnel in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Matthew S

    2010-04-01

    In the first 6.5 years of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), U.S. military casualties exceeded 3,400 hostile deaths, 800 nonhostile deaths (due to disease, nonbattle injury, and other causes), and over 31,000 troops wounded in action. Casualty rates in Iraq have been considerably lower that during the Vietnam conflict, and a greater proportion of troops wounded in Iraq survive their wounds. Before the surge in troop levels that began in early 2007, the survival rate was 90.4% in Iraq as compared to 86.5% in Vietnam. Wounded-in-action rates increased during the first few months of the surge, but declined below presurge levels after the number of U.S. brigades in Iraq climbed from 15 to its maximum level of 20. Wounds during the surge were somewhat more lethal than previously, but because there were fewer wounding incidents the net effect was a reduction in the hostile death rate.

  15. Report to the nation finds continuing declines in cancer death rates

    Cancer.gov

    Death rates from all cancers combined for men, women, and children continued to decline in the United States between 2004 and 2008, according to the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2008. The overall rate of new cancer diagnoses,

  16. Death Rates, Psychiatric Commitments, Blood Pressure, and Perceived Crowding as a Function of Institutional Crowding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Paul; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Emphasis was directed toward three factors: (1) social density; (2) spatial density; and (3) overall institutional population level. In prisons, higher population years yielded higher death rates and higher rates of psychiatric commitments. Blood pressure was higher in more crowded housing. Degree of perceived crowding was related to space per…

  17. Parenting stress and external stressors as predictors of maternal ratings of child adjustment.

    PubMed

    Ostberg, Monica; Hagekull, Berit

    2013-06-01

    This study sought to disentangle the effects of different kinds of stress on maternal ratings of child externalizing and internalizing problems, social inhibition, and social competence, with a primary focus on parenting stress. The relations were explored in a sample consisting of mothers of 436 children (Mage  = 7 years) in Sweden. Half the sample had had early clinical contacts during infancy due to child regulation problems, and the rest were mothers without known such early contacts. Demographic factors, family stressors, and parenting stress were examined in stress - adjustment models. Family stressors were clinical contact during infancy, current child and parent health problems, recent negative life events, and insufficient social support. Parenting stress as a mediator of the effect of other stressors on rated child adjustment was tested as was social support as a moderator of the effect of parenting stress on adjustment. The results showed that a higher parenting stress level was associated with maternal ratings of more externalizing and internalizing behaviors, more social inhibition, and lower social competence. Other family stressors and background variables were also found to be of importance, mainly for externalizing and internalizing problems and to some extent for social competence. Social inhibition had a unique relation to parenting stress only. Parenting stress mediated effects of other stressors in twelve models, whereas social support had no moderating effect on the link between parenting stress and child adjustment. Thus, parenting stress seems to be an important overarching construct. Clinical implications are proposed.

  18. Blood pressure and heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity before and after brain death

    PubMed Central

    Conci, F; Di, R; Castiglioni, P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate spontaneous blood pressure and heart rate variability and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity before and after brain death.
METHODS—Spontaneous variability of arterial blood pressure and heart rate—estimated by power spectra of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and pulse interval (PI)—and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS)—estimated by the alpha index and the sequence technique—were evaluated in 11 patients twice: shortly before and 1 hour after the onset of brain death.
RESULTS—Significant spectral changes occurred after brain death: a general power reduction in PI spectra; a shift of SBP, DBP and PI powers toward the lower frequencies, resulting in a greater slope of the "1/f" spectral trends; and a marked reduction of SBP and DBP powers (-93%) and of SBP-PI coherence (−63%) at 0.1Hz. The estimated average BRS was relatively high before brain death (around 11 ms/mm Hg), and fell close to 0 or even was not detectable at all after brain death.
CONCLUSIONS—Parameters describing spontaneous blood pressure and heart rate variability and indexes reflecting the baroreflex function, which were relatively normal up to a few hours before brain death, underwent marked changes with the onset of brain death. All the changes found are likely to reflect the cessation of activity of the cardiovascular brain stem centres. These findings indicate that techniques of blood pressure and heart rate spectral analysis and of dynamic assessment of baroreflex sensitivity may be useful to complement the diagnosis of brain stem death.

 PMID:11606674

  19. Correlation of Alzheimer's disease death rates with historical per capita personal income in the USA.

    PubMed

    Stępkowski, Dariusz; Woźniak, Grażyna; Studnicki, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degenerating disease of complex etiology. A variety of risk factors contribute to the chance of developing AD. Lifestyle factors, such as physical, mental and social activity, education, and diet all affect the susceptibility to developing AD. These factors are in turn related to the level of personal income. Lower income usually coincides with lower level of education, lesser mental, leisure-social and physical activity, and poorer diet. In the present paper, we have analyzed the correlation of historical (1929-2011) per capita personal income (PCPI) for all states of the USA with corresponding age-adjusted AD death rates (AADR) for years 2000, 2005 and 2008. We found negative correlations in all cases, the highest one (R ≈ -0.65) for the PCPIs in the year 1970 correlated against the AADRs in 2005. From 1929 to 2005 the R value varies in an oscillatory manner, with the strongest correlations in 1929, 1970, 1990 and the weakest in 1950, 1980, 1998. Further analysis indicated that this oscillatory behavior of R is not artificially related to the economic factors but rather to delayed biological consequences associated with personal income. We conclude that the influence of the income level on the AD mortality in 2005 was the highest in the early years of life of the AD victims. Overall, the income had a significant, lifelong, albeit constantly decreasing, influence on the risk of developing AD. We postulate that the susceptibility of a population to late-onset AD (LOAD) is determined to a large extent by the history of income-related modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Among these risk factors, inappropriate diet has a significant contribution.

  20. Trend and forecasting rate of cancer deaths at a public university hospital using univariate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A.; Hassan, Noor I.

    2013-09-01

    Cancer is one of the principal causes of death in Malaysia. This study was performed to determine the pattern of rate of cancer deaths at a public hospital in Malaysia over an 11 year period from year 2001 to 2011, to determine the best fitted model of forecasting the rate of cancer deaths using Univariate Modeling and to forecast the rates for the next two years (2012 to 2013). The medical records of the death of patients with cancer admitted at this Hospital over 11 year's period were reviewed, with a total of 663 cases. The cancers were classified according to 10th Revision International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Data collected include socio-demographic background of patients such as registration number, age, gender, ethnicity, ward and diagnosis. Data entry and analysis was accomplished using SPSS 19.0 and Minitab 16.0. The five Univariate Models used were Naïve with Trend Model, Average Percent Change Model (ACPM), Single Exponential Smoothing, Double Exponential Smoothing and Holt's Method. The overall 11 years rate of cancer deaths showed that at this hospital, Malay patients have the highest percentage (88.10%) compared to other ethnic groups with males (51.30%) higher than females. Lung and breast cancer have the most number of cancer deaths among gender. About 29.60% of the patients who died due to cancer were aged 61 years old and above. The best Univariate Model used for forecasting the rate of cancer deaths is Single Exponential Smoothing Technique with alpha of 0.10. The forecast for the rate of cancer deaths shows a horizontally or flat value. The forecasted mortality trend remains at 6.84% from January 2012 to December 2013. All the government and private sectors and non-governmental organizations need to highlight issues on cancer especially lung and breast cancers to the public through campaigns using mass media, media electronics, posters and pamphlets in the attempt to decrease the rate of cancer deaths in Malaysia.

  1. Falling Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria Death Rate among Adults despite Rising Incidence, Sabah, Malaysia, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Rajahram, Giri S; Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J; Menon, Jayaram; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    Deaths from Plasmodium knowlesi malaria have been linked to delayed parenteral treatment. In Malaysia, early intravenous artesunate is now recommended for all severe malaria cases. We describe P. knowlesi fatalities in Sabah, Malaysia, during 2012-2014 and report species-specific fatality rates based on 2010-2014 case notifications. Sixteen malaria-associated deaths (caused by PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi [7], P. falciparum [7], and P. vivax [1] and microscopy-diagnosed "P. malariae" [1]) were reported during 2012-2014. Six patients with severe P. knowlesi malaria received intravenous artesunate at hospital admission. For persons ≥15 years of age, overall fatality rates during 2010-2014 were 3.4, 4.2, and 1.0 deaths/1,000 P. knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax notifications, respectively; P. knowlesi-associated fatality rates fell from 9.2 to 1.6 deaths/1,000 notifications. No P. knowlesi-associated deaths occurred among children, despite 373 notified cases. Although P. knowlesi malaria incidence is rising, the notification-fatality rate has decreased, likely due to improved use of intravenous artesunate.

  2. Influence of changing travel patterns on child death rates from injury: trend analysis.

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Li, L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in child mortality from unintentional injury between 1985 and 1992 and to find how changes in modes of travel contributed to these trends. DESIGN: Poisson regression modelling using data from death certificates, censuses, and national travel surveys. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: Resident children aged 0-14. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths from unintentional injury and poisoning. RESULTS: Child deaths from injury declined by 34% (95% confidence interval 28% to 40%) per 100,000 population between 1985 and 1992. Substantial decreases in each of the leading causes of death from injury contributed to this overall decline. On average, children walked and cycled less distance and travelled substantially more miles by car in 1992 compared with 1985. Deaths from road traffic accidents declined for pedestrians by 24% per mile walked and for cyclists by 20% per mile cycled, substantially less than the declines per 100,000 population of 37% and 38% respectively. In contrast, deaths of occupants of motor vehicles declined by 42% per mile travelled by car compared with a 21% decline per 100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS: If trends in child mortality from injury continue the government's target to reduce the rate by 33% by the year 2005 will be achieved. A substantial proportion of the decline in pedestrian traffic and pedal cycling deaths, however, seems to have been achieved at the expense of children's walking and cycling activities. Changes in travel patterns may exact a considerable price in terms of future health problems. PMID:9116546

  3. Association between resting heart rate and coronary artery disease, stroke, sudden death and noncardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongfeng; Wang, Weijing; Li, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Resting heart rate is linked to risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, sudden death and noncardiovascular diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess these associations in general populations and in populations of patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase and MEDLINE from inception to Mar. 5, 2016. We used a random-effects model to combine study-specific relative risks (RRs). We used restricted cubic splines to assess the dose–response relation. Results: We included 45 nonrandomized prospective cohort studies in the meta-analysis. The multivariable adjusted RR with an increment of 10 beats/min in resting heart rate was 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–1.14) for coronary artery disease, 1.05 (95% CI 1.01–1.08) for stroke, 1.12 (95% CI 1.02–1.24) for sudden death, 1.16 (95% CI 1.12–1.21) for noncardiovascular diseases, 1.09 (95% CI 1.06–1.12) for all types of cancer and 1.25 (95% CI 1.17–1.34) for noncardiovascular diseases excluding cancer. All of these relations were linear. In an analysis by category of resting heart rate (< 60 [reference], 60–70, 70–80 and > 80 beats/min), the RRs were 0.99 (95% CI 0.93–1.04), 1.08 (95% CI 1.01–1.16) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.19–1.43), respectively, for coronary artery disease; 1.08 (95% CI 0.98–1.19), 1.11 (95% CI 0.98–1.25) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.93–1.25), respectively, for stroke; and 1.17 (95% CI 0.94–1.46), 1.31 (95% CI 1.12–1.54) and 1.57 (95% CI 1.39–1.77), respectively, for noncardiovascular diseases. After excluding studies involving patients with hypertension or diabetes, we obtained similar results for coronary artery disease, stroke and noncardiovascular diseases, but found no association with sudden death. Interpretation: Resting heart rate was an independent predictor of coronary artery disease, stroke, sudden death and noncardiovascular diseases over all of the studies combined. When the analysis included only studies

  4. A predator-prey model with generic birth and death rates for the predator.

    PubMed

    Terry, Alan J

    2014-02-01

    We propose and study a predator-prey model in which the predator has a Holling type II functional response and generic per capita birth and death rates. Given that prey consumption provides the energy for predator activity, and that the predator functional response represents the prey consumption rate per predator, we assume that the per capita birth and death rates for the predator are, respectively, increasing and decreasing functions of the predator functional response. These functions are monotonic, but not necessarily strictly monotonic, for all values of the argument. In particular, we allow the possibility that the predator birth rate is zero for all sufficiently small values of the predator functional response, reflecting the idea that a certain level of energy intake is needed before a predator can reproduce. Our analysis reveals that the model exhibits the behaviours typically found in predator-prey models - extinction of the predator population, convergence to a periodic orbit, or convergence to a co-existence fixed point. For a specific example, in which the predator birth and death rates are constant for all sufficiently small or large values of the predator functional response, we corroborate our analysis with numerical simulations. In the unlikely case where these birth and death rates equal the same constant for all sufficiently large values of the predator functional response, the model is capable of structurally unstable behaviour, with a small change in the initial conditions leading to a more pronounced change in the long-term dynamics.

  5. Nonlinear fluctuations-induced rate equations for linear birth-death processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkonen, J.

    2008-05-01

    The Fock-space approach to the solution of master equations for one-step Markov processes is reconsidered. It is shown that in birth-death processes with an absorbing state at the bottom of the occupation-number spectrum and occupation-number independent annihilation probability of occupation-number fluctuations give rise to rate equations drastically different from the polynomial form typical of birth-death processes. The fluctuation-induced rate equations with the characteristic exponential terms are derived for Mikhailov’s ecological model and Lanchester’s model of modern warfare.

  6. EFFECT OF AIR-POLLUTION CONTROL ON DEATH RATES IN DUBLIN, IRELAND: AN INTERVENTION STUDY. (R827353C006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Particulate air pollution episodes have been associated with increased daily death. However, there is little direct evidence that diminished particulate air pollution concentrations would lead to reductions in death rates. We assessed the effect of ...

  7. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts.

  8. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts. PMID:26453708

  9. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  10. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  11. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  12. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  13. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  14. Violent Death Rates and Risk for Released Prisoners in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Lize, Steven Edward; Scheyett, Anna M; Morgan, Candice R; Proescholdbell, Scott K; Norwood, Tammy; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    Released prisoners face high risk of early mortality. The risk of violent death, specifically homicide and suicide, are addressed in this study. Data on inmates released from the North Carolina Division of Adult Corrections (N = 476) matched to the Violent Death Reporting System are analyzed to estimate rates and demographic and criminal justice-related predictors. Violent death rates for persons released from prison were more than 7 times higher than for the general adult population. Results from multinomial logistic regression indicate decreased homicide risk for every year of age, whereas male gender and minority race increased risk. For suicide, minority race, release without supervision, and substance abuse treatment in prison decreased fatality risk. By contrast, a history of mental illness increased suicide risk. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:26440107

  15. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nguyen Xuan; Sheingold, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share hospital (DSH) adjustments to Medicare's prospective payment rates for inpatient services are generally intended to compensate hospitals for patient care costs related to teaching activities and care of low income populations. These adjustments were originally established based on the statistical relationships between IME and DSH and hospital costs. Due to a variety of policy considerations, the legislated levels of these adjustments may have deviated over time from these “empirically justified levels,” or simply, “empirical levels.” In this paper, we estimate the empirical levels of IME and DSH using 2006 hospital data and 2009 Medicare final payment rules. Our analyses suggest that the empirical level for IME would be much smaller than under current law— about one-third to one-half. Our analyses also support the DSH adjustment prescribed by the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA)—about one-quarter of the pre-ACA level. For IME, the estimates imply an increase in costs of 1.88% for each 10% increase in teaching intensity. For DSH, the estimates imply that costs would rise by 0.52% for each 10% increase in the low-income patient share for large urban hospitals. PMID:22340777

  16. 38 CFR 3.22 - DIC benefits for survivors of certain veterans rated totally disabled at time of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... survivors of certain veterans rated totally disabled at time of death. 3.22 Section 3.22 Pensions, Bonuses... disabled at time of death. (a) Even though a veteran died of non-service-connected causes, VA will pay..., and (2) At the time of death, the veteran was receiving, or was entitled to receive, compensation...

  17. 39 CFR 3010.13 - Proceedings for Type 1-A and Type 1-B rate adjustment filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements of 39 U.S.C. chapter 36, subchapter 1: (1) Whether the planned rate adjustments measured using the... an order announcing its findings. (h) If the planned rate adjustments as amended are found to be... 39 U.S.C. chapter 36, subchapter 1 is provisional and subject to subsequent review....

  18. 39 CFR 3010.13 - Proceedings for Type 1-A and Type 1-B rate adjustment filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of 39 U.S.C. chapter 36, subchapter 1: (1) Whether the planned rate adjustments measured using the... an order announcing its findings. (h) If the planned rate adjustments as amended are found to be... 39 U.S.C. chapter 36, subchapter 1 is provisional and subject to subsequent review....

  19. Risk-adjusted melanoma skin cancer incidence rates in Whites (United States).

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray Martell

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain a better population-based measure of risk for melanoma skin cancer. A method has been previously proposed for estimating cancer incidence rates for data collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Unlike conventionally reported incidence rates in the USA, this method uses the first primary cancer and adjusts for population-based cancer prevalence to obtain a better measure of cancer risk. The study involves SEER data for white men and women. Conventional melanoma incidence rates overestimate risk for men, increasingly so from 3.3% in the age group of 30-39 years to 11.3% in the age group of 80 years and older. Overestimation in risk for women ranged from 3.3% in the age group of 30-39 years to 8.9% in the age group of 80 years and older. Overestimation of risk was more pronounced when both in-situ and malignant melanomas were considered. Increasing trends in conventional rates were slightly greater than trends in risk-adjusted incidence rates (RAIRs). In 2007, the estimated number of cases with malignant melanoma among the white population based on conventional cancer incidence rates is 37 636 (64 125 including in-situ cases) for men and 28 935 (49 361 including in-situ cases) for women. The estimated number of cases in the USA based on RAIRS is 34 652 [(7.9%); 55 413 (13.6%) including in-situ cases] for male and 27 178 [(6.1%); 44 467 (9.9%) including in-situ cases] for women. We concluded that RAIRs are a better measure of melanoma skin cancer risk and should be used for estimating the number of cancer patients in the USA.

  20. Death and injury rates of U.S. military personnel in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Matthew S

    2010-04-01

    In the first 6.5 years of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), U.S. military casualties exceeded 3,400 hostile deaths, 800 nonhostile deaths (due to disease, nonbattle injury, and other causes), and over 31,000 troops wounded in action. Casualty rates in Iraq have been considerably lower that during the Vietnam conflict, and a greater proportion of troops wounded in Iraq survive their wounds. Before the surge in troop levels that began in early 2007, the survival rate was 90.4% in Iraq as compared to 86.5% in Vietnam. Wounded-in-action rates increased during the first few months of the surge, but declined below presurge levels after the number of U.S. brigades in Iraq climbed from 15 to its maximum level of 20. Wounds during the surge were somewhat more lethal than previously, but because there were fewer wounding incidents the net effect was a reduction in the hostile death rate. PMID:20446496

  1. Adjustable high-repetition-rate pulse trains in a passively-mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Fodil, Rachid; Amrani, Foued; Yang, Changxi; Kellou, Abdelhamid; Grelu, Ph.

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally investigate multipulse regimes obtained within a passively-mode-locked fiber laser that includes a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer. By adjusting the time delay imbalance of the MZ, ultrashort pulse trains at multi-GHz repetition rates are generated. We compare the observed dynamics with high-harmonic mode locking, and show that the multi-GHz pulse trains display an inherent instability, which has been overlooked. By using a recirculation loop containing the MZ, we demonstrate a significant improvement of the pulse train stability.

  2. Clinical Dementia Rating Performed Several Years prior to Death Predicts Regional Alzheimer’s Neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Schmeidler, James; Wysocki, Michael; Grossman, Hillel Z.; Purohit, Dushyant P.; Perl, Daniel P.; Haroutunian, Vahram

    2011-01-01

    Aims To assess the relationships between early and late antemortem measures of dementia severity and Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology severity. Methods 40 residents of a nursing home, average age at death 82.0, participated in this longitudinal cohort study with postmortem assessment. Severity of dementia was measured by Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) at two time points, averaging 4.5 and 1.0 years before death. Densities of postmortem neuritic plaques (NPs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were measured in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and entorhinal cortex. Results For most brain areas, both early and late CDRs were significantly associated with NPs and NFTs. CDRs assessed proximal to death predicted NFTs beyond the contribution of early CDRs. NPs were predicted by both early and late CDRs. NPs were predictive of both early and late CDRs after controlling for NFTs. NFTs were only associated significantly with late CDR in the cerebral cortex after controlling for NPs. Conclusions Even if assessed several years before death, dementia severity is associated with AD neuropathology. NPs are more strongly associated with dementia severity than NFTs. NFTs consistently associate better with late than early CDR, suggesting that these neuropathological changes may occur relatively later in the course of the disease. PMID:18367838

  3. Achieving high bit rate logical stochastic resonance in a bistable system by adjusting parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Gu, Feng-Shou; Feng, Guo-Jin; Yang, Yong-Min; Ball, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The phenomenon of logical stochastic resonance (LSR) in a nonlinear bistable system is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments. However, the bit rates of the logical signals are relatively low and not suitable for practical applications. First, we examine the responses of the bistable system with fixed parameters to different bit rate logic input signals, showing that an arbitrary high bit rate LSR in a bistable system cannot be achieved. Then, a normalized transform of the LSR bistable system is introduced through a kind of variable substitution. Based on the transform, it is found that LSR for arbitrary high bit rate logic signals in a bistable system can be achieved by adjusting the parameters of the system, setting bias value and amplifying the amplitudes of logic input signals and noise properly. Finally, the desired OR and AND logic outputs to high bit rate logic inputs in a bistable system are obtained by numerical simulations. The study might provide higher feasibility of LSR in practical engineering applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51379526).

  4. 5 CFR 591.228 - How does OPM convert the price index plus adjustment factor to a COLA rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OPM convert the price index plus... Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.228 How does OPM convert the price index plus adjustment factor to a COLA rate? (a) OPM converts the price index plus the adjustment factor to a COLA...

  5. Enhanced recovery program for hip and knee replacement reduces death rate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Multimodal techniques can aid early rehabilitation and discharge of patients following primary joint replacement. We hypothesized that this not only reduces the economic burden of joint replacement by reducing length of stay, but also helps in reduction of early complications. Patients and methods We evaluated 4,500 consecutive unselected total hip replacements and total knee replacements regarding length of hospital stay, mortality, and perioperative complications. The first 3,000 underwent a traditional protocol while the other 1,500 underwent an enhanced recovery protocol involving behavioral, pharmacological, and procedural modifications. Results There was a reduction in 30-day death rate (0.5% to 0.1%, p = 0.02) and 90-day death rate (0.8% to 0.2%, p = 0.01). The median length of stay decreased from 6 days to 3 days (p < 0.001), resulting in a saving of 5,418 bed days. Requirement for blood transfusion was reduced (23% to 9.8%, p < 0.001). There was a trend of a reduced rate of 30-day myocardial infarction (0.8% to 0.5%. p = 0 .2) and stroke (0.5% to 0.2%, p = 0.2). The 60-day deep vein thrombosis figures (0.8% to 0.6%, p = 0.5) and pulmonary embolism figures (1.2% to 1.1%, p = 0.9) were similar. Re-admission rate remained unchanged during the period of the study (4.7% to 4.8%, p = 0.8). Interpretation This large observational study of unselected consecutive hip and knee arthroplasty patients shows a substantial reduction in death rate, reduced length of stay, and reduced transfusion requirements after the introduction of a multimodal enhanced recovery protocol. PMID:21895500

  6. Diabetes death rates among youths aged ≤ 19 years--United States, 1968-2009.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Although diabetes mellitus most often is diagnosed in adulthood, it remains one of the most common serious chronic diseases of childhood. Youths with diabetes are at risk for diabetes-related mortality because of acute complications that can result from the condition, including diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia. In the United States in 2010, an estimated 215,000 persons aged ≤ 19 years had diagnosed diabetes. Medical care for diabetes has improved considerably in recent decades, leading to improved survival rates. However, recent trends in diabetes death rates among youths aged <10 years and 10-19 years in the United States have not been reported. To assess these trends, CDC analyzed data from the National Vital Statistics System for deaths in the United States with diabetes listed as the underlying cause during 1968-2009. This report highlights the results of that analysis, which found that diabetes-related mortality decreased 61%, from an annual rate of 2.69 per million for the period 1968-1969 to a rate of 1.05 per million in 2008-2009. The percentage decrease was greater among youths aged <10 years (78%) than among youths aged 10-19 years (52%). These findings demonstrate improvements in diabetes mortality among youths but also indicate a need for continued improvement in diabetes diagnosis and care. PMID:23114253

  7. Picosecond supercontinuum light source for stroboscopic white-light interferometry with freely adjustable pulse repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Steffen; Durairaj, Vasuki; Shavrin, Igor; Lipiäinen, Lauri; Kokkonen, Kimmo; Kaivola, Matti; Ludvigsen, Hanne

    2014-06-01

    We present a picosecond supercontinuum light source designed for stroboscopic white-light interferometry. This source offers a potential for high-resolution characterization of vibrational fields in electromechanical components with frequencies up to the GHz range. The light source concept combines a gain-switched laser diode, the output of which is amplified in a two-stage fiber amplifier, with supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber. Implemented in our white-light interferometer setup, optical pulses with optimized spectral properties and below 310 ps duration are used for stroboscopic illumination at freely adjustable repetition rates. The performance of the source is demonstrated by characterizing the surface vibration field of a square-plate silicon MEMS resonator at 3.37 MHz. A minimum detectable vibration amplitude of less than 100 pm is reached.

  8. Compact range reflector analysis using the plane wave spectrum approach with an adjustable sampling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, James P.; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    1991-06-01

    An improved method for determining the test zone field of compact range reflectors is presented. The plane wave spectrum (PWS) approach is used to obtain the test zone field from knowledge of the reflector aperture field distribution. The method is particularly well suited to the analysis of reflectors with a linearly serrated rim for reduced edge diffraction. Computation of the PWS of the reflector aperture field is facilitated by a closed-form expression for the Fourier transform of a polygonal window function. Inverse transformation in the test zone region is accomplished using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm with a properly adjusted sampling rate (which is a function of both the reflector size and the distance from the reflector). The method is validated by comparison with results obtained using surface current and aperture field integration techniques. The performance of several serrated reflectors is evaluated in order to observe the effects of edge diffraction on the test zone fields.

  9. 34 CFR 668.208 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.208 Section 668.208 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.208 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a) Remaining eligible. You...

  10. 34 CFR 668.189 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.189 Section 668.189 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.189 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a)...

  11. 34 CFR 668.208 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.208 Section 668.208 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.208 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a) Remaining eligible. You...

  12. 34 CFR 668.208 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.208 Section 668.208 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.208 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a) Remaining eligible. You...

  13. 34 CFR 668.208 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.208 Section 668.208 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.208 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a) Remaining eligible. You...

  14. 34 CFR 668.208 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.208 Section 668.208 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.208 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a) Remaining eligible. You...

  15. 34 CFR 668.189 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.189 Section 668.189 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.189 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a)...

  16. 34 CFR 668.189 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.189 Section 668.189 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.189 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a)...

  17. 34 CFR 668.189 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.189 Section 668.189 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.189 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a)...

  18. 34 CFR 668.189 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.189 Section 668.189 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.189 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a)...

  19. A Distributed Transmission Rate Adjustment Algorithm in Heterogeneous CSMA/CA Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuanglong; Low, Kay Soon; Gunawan, Erry

    2015-01-01

    Distributed transmission rate tuning is important for a wide variety of IEEE 802.15.4 network applications such as industrial network control systems. Such systems often require each node to sustain certain throughput demand in order to guarantee the system performance. It is thus essential to determine a proper transmission rate that can meet the application requirement and compensate for network imperfections (e.g., packet loss). Such a tuning in a heterogeneous network is difficult due to the lack of modeling techniques that can deal with the heterogeneity of the network as well as the network traffic changes. In this paper, a distributed transmission rate tuning algorithm in a heterogeneous IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CA network is proposed. Each node uses the results of clear channel assessment (CCA) to estimate the busy channel probability. Then a mathematical framework is developed to estimate the on-going heterogeneous traffics using the busy channel probability at runtime. Finally a distributed algorithm is derived to tune the transmission rate of each node to accurately meet the throughput requirement. The algorithm does not require modifications on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer and it has been experimentally implemented and extensively tested using TelosB nodes with the TinyOS protocol stack. The results reveal that the algorithm is accurate and can satisfy the throughput demand. Compared with existing techniques, the algorithm is fully distributed and thus does not require any central coordination. With this property, it is able to adapt to traffic changes and re-adjust the transmission rate to the desired level, which cannot be achieved using the traditional modeling techniques. PMID:25822140

  20. Effect of marital status on death rates. Part 2: Transient mortality spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-05-01

    We examine what happens in a population when it experiences an abrupt change in surrounding conditions. Several cases of such "abrupt transitions" for both physical and living social systems are analyzed from which it can be seen that all share a common pattern. First, a steep rising death rate followed by a much slower relaxation process during which the death rate decreases as a power law. This leads us to propose a general principle which can be summarized as follows: "Any abrupt change in living conditions generates a mortality spike which acts as a kind of selection process". This we term the Transient Shock conjecture. It provides a qualitative model which leads to testable predictions. For example, marriage certainly brings about a major change in personal and social conditions and according to our conjecture one would expect a mortality spike in the months following marriage. At first sight this may seem an unlikely proposition but we demonstrate (by three different methods) that even here the existence of mortality spikes is supported by solid empirical evidence.

  1. 77 FR 51681 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for...: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing... for certain dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by...

  2. Fetal death and reduced birth rates associated with exposure to lead-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This ecologic study notes that fetal death rates (FDR) during the Washington DC drinking water "lead crisis" (2000-2004) peaked in 2001 when water lead levels (WLLs) were highest, and were minimized in 2004 after public health interventions were implemented to protect pregnant women. Changes in the DC FDR vs neighboring Baltimore City were correlated to DC WLL (R(2) = 0.72). Birth rates in DC also increased versus Baltimore City and versus the United States in 2004-2006, when consumers were protected from high WLLs. The increased births in DC neighborhoods comparing 2004 versus 2001 was correlated to the incidence of lead pipes (R(2) = 0.60). DC birth rates from 1999 to 2007 correlated with proxies for maternal blood lead including the geometric mean blood lead in DC children (R(2) = 0.68) and the incidence of lead poisoning in children under age 1.3 years (R(2) = 0.64). After public health protections were removed in 2006, DC FDR spiked in 2007-2009 versus 2004-2006 (p < 0.05), in a manner consistent with high WLL health risks to consumers arising from partial lead service line replacements, and DC FDR dropped to historically low levels in 2010-2011 after consumers were protected and the PSLR program was terminated. Re-evaluation of a historic construction-related miscarriage cluster in the USA Today Building (1987-1988), demonstrates that high WLLs from disturbed plumbing were a possible cause. Overall results are consistent with prior research linking increased lead exposure to higher incidence of miscarriages and fetal death, even at blood lead elevations (≈5 μg/dL) once considered relatively low.

  3. Fetal death and reduced birth rates associated with exposure to lead-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This ecologic study notes that fetal death rates (FDR) during the Washington DC drinking water "lead crisis" (2000-2004) peaked in 2001 when water lead levels (WLLs) were highest, and were minimized in 2004 after public health interventions were implemented to protect pregnant women. Changes in the DC FDR vs neighboring Baltimore City were correlated to DC WLL (R(2) = 0.72). Birth rates in DC also increased versus Baltimore City and versus the United States in 2004-2006, when consumers were protected from high WLLs. The increased births in DC neighborhoods comparing 2004 versus 2001 was correlated to the incidence of lead pipes (R(2) = 0.60). DC birth rates from 1999 to 2007 correlated with proxies for maternal blood lead including the geometric mean blood lead in DC children (R(2) = 0.68) and the incidence of lead poisoning in children under age 1.3 years (R(2) = 0.64). After public health protections were removed in 2006, DC FDR spiked in 2007-2009 versus 2004-2006 (p < 0.05), in a manner consistent with high WLL health risks to consumers arising from partial lead service line replacements, and DC FDR dropped to historically low levels in 2010-2011 after consumers were protected and the PSLR program was terminated. Re-evaluation of a historic construction-related miscarriage cluster in the USA Today Building (1987-1988), demonstrates that high WLLs from disturbed plumbing were a possible cause. Overall results are consistent with prior research linking increased lead exposure to higher incidence of miscarriages and fetal death, even at blood lead elevations (≈5 μg/dL) once considered relatively low. PMID:24321041

  4. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  5. Use of GRACE determined secular gravity rates for glacial isostatic adjustment studies in North-America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Wu, Patrick; Sideris, Michael G.; Shum, C. K.

    2008-10-01

    Monthly geopotential spherical harmonic coefficients from the GRACE satellite mission are used to determine their usefulness and limitations for studying glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in North-America. Secular gravity rates are estimated by unweighted least-squares estimation using release 4 coefficients from August 2002 to August 2007 provided by the Center for Space Research (CSR), University of Texas. Smoothing is required to suppress short wavelength noise, in addition to filtering to diminish geographically correlated errors, as shown in previous studies. Optimal cut-off degrees and orders are determined for the destriping filter to maximize the signal to noise ratio. The halfwidth of the Gaussian filter is shown to significantly affect the sensitivity of the GRACE data (with respect to upper mantle viscosity and ice loading history). Therefore, the halfwidth should be selected based on the desired sensitivity. It is shown that increase in water storage in an area south west of Hudson Bay, from the summer of 2003 to the summer of 2006, contributes up to half of the maximum estimated gravity rate. Hydrology models differ in the predictions of the secular change in water storage, therefore even 4-year trend estimates are influenced by the uncertainty in water storage changes. Land ice melting in Greenland and Alaska has a non-negligible contribution, up to one-fourth of the maximum gravity rate. The estimated secular gravity rate shows two distinct peaks that can possibly be due to two domes in the former Pleistocene ice cover: west and south east of Hudson Bay. With a limited number of models, a better fit is obtained with models that use the ICE-3G model compared to the ICE-5G model. However, the uncertainty in interannual variations in hydrology models is too large to constrain the ice loading history with the current data span. For future work in which GRACE will be used to constrain ice loading history and the Earth's radial viscosity profile, it is

  6. Soil bacterial and fungal community dynamics in relation to Panax notoginseng death rate in a continuous cropping system.

    PubMed

    Dong, Linlin; Xu, Jiang; Feng, Guangquan; Li, Xiwen; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Notoginseng (Panax notoginseng), a valuable herbal medicine, has high death rates in continuous cropping systems. Variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of notoginseng mortality, although the taxa responsible for crop failure remains unidentified. This study used high-throughput sequencing methods to characterize changes in the microbial community and screen microbial taxa related to the death rate. Fungal diversity significantly decreased in soils cropped with notoginseng for three years. The death rate and the fungal diversity were significantly negatively correlated, suggesting that fungal diversity might be a potential bioindicator of soil health. Positive correlation coefficients revealed that Burkholderiales, Syntrophobacteraceae, Myrmecridium, Phaeosphaeria, Fusarium, and Phoma were better adapted to colonization of diseased plants. The relative abundance of Fusarium oxysporum (R = 0.841, P < 0.05) and Phaeosphaeria rousseliana (R = 0.830, P < 0.05) were positively associated with the death rate. F. oxysporum was a pathogen of notoginseng root-rot that caused seedling death. Negative correlation coefficients indicated that Thermogemmatisporaceae, Actinosynnemataceae, Hydnodontaceae, Herpotrichiellaceae, and Coniosporium might be antagonists of pathogens, and the relative abundance of Coniosporium perforans was negatively correlated with the death rate. Our findings provide a dynamic overview of the microbial community and present a clear scope for screening beneficial microbes and pathogens of notoginseng. PMID:27549984

  7. Soil bacterial and fungal community dynamics in relation to Panax notoginseng death rate in a continuous cropping system.

    PubMed

    Dong, Linlin; Xu, Jiang; Feng, Guangquan; Li, Xiwen; Chen, Shilin

    2016-08-23

    Notoginseng (Panax notoginseng), a valuable herbal medicine, has high death rates in continuous cropping systems. Variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of notoginseng mortality, although the taxa responsible for crop failure remains unidentified. This study used high-throughput sequencing methods to characterize changes in the microbial community and screen microbial taxa related to the death rate. Fungal diversity significantly decreased in soils cropped with notoginseng for three years. The death rate and the fungal diversity were significantly negatively correlated, suggesting that fungal diversity might be a potential bioindicator of soil health. Positive correlation coefficients revealed that Burkholderiales, Syntrophobacteraceae, Myrmecridium, Phaeosphaeria, Fusarium, and Phoma were better adapted to colonization of diseased plants. The relative abundance of Fusarium oxysporum (R = 0.841, P < 0.05) and Phaeosphaeria rousseliana (R = 0.830, P < 0.05) were positively associated with the death rate. F. oxysporum was a pathogen of notoginseng root-rot that caused seedling death. Negative correlation coefficients indicated that Thermogemmatisporaceae, Actinosynnemataceae, Hydnodontaceae, Herpotrichiellaceae, and Coniosporium might be antagonists of pathogens, and the relative abundance of Coniosporium perforans was negatively correlated with the death rate. Our findings provide a dynamic overview of the microbial community and present a clear scope for screening beneficial microbes and pathogens of notoginseng.

  8. Soil bacterial and fungal community dynamics in relation to Panax notoginseng death rate in a continuous cropping system

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Linlin; Xu, Jiang; Feng, Guangquan; Li, Xiwen; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Notoginseng (Panax notoginseng), a valuable herbal medicine, has high death rates in continuous cropping systems. Variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of notoginseng mortality, although the taxa responsible for crop failure remains unidentified. This study used high-throughput sequencing methods to characterize changes in the microbial community and screen microbial taxa related to the death rate. Fungal diversity significantly decreased in soils cropped with notoginseng for three years. The death rate and the fungal diversity were significantly negatively correlated, suggesting that fungal diversity might be a potential bioindicator of soil health. Positive correlation coefficients revealed that Burkholderiales, Syntrophobacteraceae, Myrmecridium, Phaeosphaeria, Fusarium, and Phoma were better adapted to colonization of diseased plants. The relative abundance of Fusarium oxysporum (R = 0.841, P < 0.05) and Phaeosphaeria rousseliana (R = 0.830, P < 0.05) were positively associated with the death rate. F. oxysporum was a pathogen of notoginseng root-rot that caused seedling death. Negative correlation coefficients indicated that Thermogemmatisporaceae, Actinosynnemataceae, Hydnodontaceae, Herpotrichiellaceae, and Coniosporium might be antagonists of pathogens, and the relative abundance of Coniosporium perforans was negatively correlated with the death rate. Our findings provide a dynamic overview of the microbial community and present a clear scope for screening beneficial microbes and pathogens of notoginseng. PMID:27549984

  9. Comparison of total and cardiovascular death rates in the same city during a losing versus winning super bowl championship.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A; McDonald, Scott; Leeka, Justin; Poole, W Kenneth

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were changes in death rates when a local football team participated in the Super Bowl. Los Angeles (LA) played in the Super Bowl twice: on January 20, 1980 (LA Rams vs Pittsburgh Steelers, which LA lost), and on January 22, 1984 (LA Raiders vs Washington Redskins, which LA won). Data from LA County were analyzed for all-cause and circulatory death rates for the Super Bowl and the following 14 days when LA played (Super Bowl-related days) and control days (from January 15 to the end of February for 1980 to 1983 and 1984 to 1988). The Super Bowl-related days during LA's losing 1980 game were associated with higher daily death rates in LA County (per 100,000 population) for all deaths (2.4482 vs 2.0968 for control days, p <0.0001), circulatory deaths (1.3024 vs 1.0665 for control days, p <0.0001), deaths from ischemic heart disease (0.8551 vs 0.7143 for control days, p <0.0001), and deaths from acute myocardial infarctions (0.2710 vs 0.2322 for control days, p = 0.0213). In contrast, the Super Bowl-related days during the winning 1984 game were associated with a lower rate of all-cause death (2.1870 vs 2.3205 for control days, p = 0.0302). In conclusion, the emotional stress of loss and/or the intensity of a game played by a sports team in a highly publicized rivalry such as the Super Bowl can trigger total and cardiovascular deaths.

  10. Diesel vehicle emission and death rates in Tokyo, Japan: a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kaneda, Mariko; Takao, Soshi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    Evidence linking air pollution with adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes is accumulating. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate whether vehicle emission control improves public health. We thus evaluated the effect of a diesel emission control law on mortality rates in 23 wards of Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. We obtained daily counts of mortality and concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM(2.5)) from April 2003 to December 2008. Time-series and interrupted time-series analysis were employed to analyze the data in two periods: prior to the introduction of tighter restrictions (April 2003 to March 2006) and after the enforcement (April 2006 to December 2008). Concentrations of air pollutants gradually decreased during the study period: from 36.3 ppb (NO(2)) and 22.8 μg/m(3) (PM(2.5)) to 32.1 ppb and 20.3 μg/m(3), respectively. Air pollutants were positively associated with circulatory and pulmonary disease mortality, especially cerebrovascular disease. Each same-day PM(2.5) increase of 10 μg/m(3) was associated with a 1.3% increase in cerebrovascular mortality rate (95% confidence interval: 0.2-2.4). Rate ratios were attenuated after the enforcement in most of the outcomes, probably due to reduced toxicity of the pollutants. In the crude interrupted time-series analysis, reductions of standardized mortality rates after the enforcement were the greatest in high traffic areas. Even after adjustment of longer-time trend, mortality rate from cerebrovascular disease was reduced by 8.50% (p<.001) with dose-response relationship. However, the declines in other cause-specific mortality became equivocal. This natural experiment in Tokyo suggests that emission controls improved air quality. Although suggestive, further data are needed to conclusively demonstrate an impact on mortality rates.

  11. Diesel vehicle emission and death rates in Tokyo, Japan: a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kaneda, Mariko; Takao, Soshi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    Evidence linking air pollution with adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes is accumulating. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate whether vehicle emission control improves public health. We thus evaluated the effect of a diesel emission control law on mortality rates in 23 wards of Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. We obtained daily counts of mortality and concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM(2.5)) from April 2003 to December 2008. Time-series and interrupted time-series analysis were employed to analyze the data in two periods: prior to the introduction of tighter restrictions (April 2003 to March 2006) and after the enforcement (April 2006 to December 2008). Concentrations of air pollutants gradually decreased during the study period: from 36.3 ppb (NO(2)) and 22.8 μg/m(3) (PM(2.5)) to 32.1 ppb and 20.3 μg/m(3), respectively. Air pollutants were positively associated with circulatory and pulmonary disease mortality, especially cerebrovascular disease. Each same-day PM(2.5) increase of 10 μg/m(3) was associated with a 1.3% increase in cerebrovascular mortality rate (95% confidence interval: 0.2-2.4). Rate ratios were attenuated after the enforcement in most of the outcomes, probably due to reduced toxicity of the pollutants. In the crude interrupted time-series analysis, reductions of standardized mortality rates after the enforcement were the greatest in high traffic areas. Even after adjustment of longer-time trend, mortality rate from cerebrovascular disease was reduced by 8.50% (p<.001) with dose-response relationship. However, the declines in other cause-specific mortality became equivocal. This natural experiment in Tokyo suggests that emission controls improved air quality. Although suggestive, further data are needed to conclusively demonstrate an impact on mortality rates. PMID:21703665

  12. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... aged enrollees, disabled enrollees, and enrollees who have ESRD. (2) The amount calculated in paragraph... risk adjustment data. This factor is phased as follows: (A) 100 percent of payments for ESRD...

  13. Economic correlates of violent death rates in forty countries, 1962–2008: A cross-typological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bandy X.; Marotta, Phillip L.; Blay-Tofey, Morkeh; Wang, Winnie; de Bourmont, Shalila

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our goal was to identify if there might be advantages to combining two major public health concerns, i.e., homicides and suicides, in an analysis with well-established macro-level economic determinants, i.e., unemployment and inequality. Methods Mortality data, unemployment statistics, and inequality measures were obtained for 40 countries for the years 1962–2008. Rates of combined homicide and suicide, ratio of suicide to combined violent death, and ratio between homicide and suicide were graphed and analyzed. A fixed effects regression model was then performed for unemployment rates and Gini coefficients on homicide, suicide, and combined death rates. Results For a majority of nation states, suicide comprised a substantial proportion (mean 75.51%; range 0–99%) of the combined rate of homicide and suicide. When combined, a small but significant relationship emerged between logged Gini coefficient and combined death rates (0.0066, p < 0.05), suggesting that the combined rate improves the ability to detect a significant relationship when compared to either rate measurement alone. Results were duplicated by age group, whereby combining death rates into a single measure improved statistical power, provided that the association was strong. Conclusions Violent deaths, when combined, were associated with an increase in unemployment and an increase in Gini coefficient, creating a more robust variable. As the effects of macro-level factors (e.g., social and economic policies) on violent death rates in a population are shown to be more significant than those of micro-level influences (e.g., individual characteristics), these associations may be useful to discover. An expansion of socioeconomic variables and the inclusion of other forms of violence in future research could help elucidate long-term trends. PMID:26028985

  14. Diseases and Causes of Death in European Bats: Dynamics in Disease Susceptibility and Infection Rates

    PubMed Central

    Mühldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Kurth, Andreas; Lesnik, René; Freuling, Conrad; Müller, Thomas; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Background Bats receive increasing attention in infectious disease studies, because of their well recognized status as reservoir species for various infectious agents. This is even more important, as bats with their capability of long distance dispersal and complex social structures are unique in the way microbes could be spread by these mammalian species. Nevertheless, infection studies in bats are predominantly limited to the identification of specific pathogens presenting a potential health threat to humans. But the impact of infectious agents on the individual host and their importance on bat mortality is largely unknown and has been neglected in most studies published to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2002 and 2009, 486 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae) were collected in different geographic regions in Germany. Most animals represented individual cases that have been incidentally found close to roosting sites or near human habitation in urban and urban-like environments. The bat carcasses were subjected to a post-mortem examination and investigated histo-pathologically, bacteriologically and virologically. Trauma and disease represented the most important causes of death in these bats. Comparative analysis of pathological findings and microbiological results show that microbial agents indeed have an impact on bats succumbing to infectious diseases, with fatal bacterial, viral and parasitic infections found in at least 12% of the bats investigated. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate the importance of diseases and infectious agents as cause of death in European bat species. The clear seasonal and individual variations in disease prevalence and infection rates indicate that maternity colonies are more susceptible to infectious agents, underlining the possible important role of host physiology, immunity and roosting behavior as risk factors for infection of bats. PMID:22216354

  15. Raised Speed Limits, Speed Spillover, Case-Fatality Rates, and Road Deaths in Israel: A 5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Elihu D.; Barach, Paul; Friedman, Lee; Krikler, Samuel; Israeli, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the 5-year, nationwide impact on road deaths of the raise in the speed limit (November 1, 1993) on 3 major interurban highways in Israel from 90 to 100 kph. Methods. We compared before–after trends in deaths as well as case fatality—an outcome independent of exposure (defined as vehicle-kilometers traveled). Results. After the raise, speeds rose by 4.5%–9.1%. Over 5 years, there was a sustained increase in deaths (15%) and case fatality rates (38%) on all interurban roads. Corresponding increases in deaths (13%) and case fatality (24%) on urban roads indicated “speed spillover.” Conclusions. Immediate increases in case fatality predicted and tracked the sustained increase in deaths from increased speeds of impact. Newtonian fourth power models predicted the effects of “small” increases in speed on large rises in case fatality rates. Countermeasures and congestion reduced the impact on deaths and case-fatality rates by more than half. PMID:15054007

  16. 39 CFR 3010.22 - Calculation of annual limitation when notices of rate adjustment are less than 12 months apart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dividing the sum by 12 (Recent Average). The partial year limitation is then calculated by dividing the Recent Average by the Recent Average from the most recent previous notice of rate adjustment (Previous Recent Average) applicable to each affected class of mail and subtracting 1 from the quotient. The...

  17. Differences in Interaction Patterns of Families with First or Second Grade Sons Rated High or Low in Classroom Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Susan; And Others

    This study attempts to determine whether families with a son rated by his teacher as either "high" or "low" on classroom adjustment (behavior indicative of social maturity and achievement motivation) could be differentiated on the basis of their communicative patterns. It was questioned if significant differences existed in the amount of positive…

  18. 2 CFR 200.411 - Adjustment of previously negotiated indirect (F&A) cost rates containing unallowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of previously negotiated indirect (F&A) cost rates containing unallowable costs. 200.411 Section 200.411 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...

  19. Long-term survival rates of gravity-assisted, adjustable differential pressure valves in infants with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Anna-Felicitas; Schulz, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment.

  20. Greater Heart Rate Responses to Acute Stress Are Associated with Better Post-Error Adjustment in Special Police Cadets.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhuxi; Yuan, Yi; Buchanan, Tony W; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    High-stress jobs require both appropriate physiological regulation and behavioral adjustment to meet the demands of emergencies. Here, we investigated the relationship between the autonomic stress response and behavioral adjustment after errors in special police cadets. Sixty-eight healthy male special police cadets were randomly assigned to perform a first-time walk on an aerial rope bridge to induce stress responses or a walk on a cushion on the ground serving as a control condition. Subsequently, the participants completed a Go/No-go task to assess behavioral adjustment after false alarm responses. Heart rate measurements and subjective reports confirmed that stress responses were successfully elicited by the aerial rope bridge task in the stress group. In addition, greater heart rate increases during the rope bridge task were positively correlated with post-error slowing and had a trend of negative correlation with post-error miss rate increase in the subsequent Go/No-go task. These results suggested that stronger autonomic stress responses are related to better post-error adjustment under acute stress in this highly selected population and demonstrate that, under certain conditions, individuals with high-stress jobs might show cognitive benefits from a stronger physiological stress response. PMID:27428280

  1. Greater Heart Rate Responses to Acute Stress Are Associated with Better Post-Error Adjustment in Special Police Cadets

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Yuan, Yi; Buchanan, Tony W.; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    High-stress jobs require both appropriate physiological regulation and behavioral adjustment to meet the demands of emergencies. Here, we investigated the relationship between the autonomic stress response and behavioral adjustment after errors in special police cadets. Sixty-eight healthy male special police cadets were randomly assigned to perform a first-time walk on an aerial rope bridge to induce stress responses or a walk on a cushion on the ground serving as a control condition. Subsequently, the participants completed a Go/No-go task to assess behavioral adjustment after false alarm responses. Heart rate measurements and subjective reports confirmed that stress responses were successfully elicited by the aerial rope bridge task in the stress group. In addition, greater heart rate increases during the rope bridge task were positively correlated with post-error slowing and had a trend of negative correlation with post-error miss rate increase in the subsequent Go/No-go task. These results suggested that stronger autonomic stress responses are related to better post-error adjustment under acute stress in this highly selected population and demonstrate that, under certain conditions, individuals with high-stress jobs might show cognitive benefits from a stronger physiological stress response. PMID:27428280

  2. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... chronic health conditions—(i) General rule. For 2011 and subsequent years, for purposes of the adjustment... chronic health status of similar individuals. Such risk score is used instead of the default risk score... associated with frailty, individuals with multiple, comorbid chronic conditions, and individuals with...

  3. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... chronic health conditions—(i) General rule. For 2011 and subsequent years, for purposes of the adjustment... chronic health status of similar individuals. Such risk score is used instead of the default risk score... associated with frailty, individuals with multiple, comorbid chronic conditions, and individuals with...

  4. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... chronic health conditions—(i) General rule. For 2011 and subsequent years, for purposes of the adjustment... chronic health status of similar individuals. Such risk score is used instead of the default risk score... associated with frailty, individuals with multiple, comorbid chronic conditions, and individuals with...

  5. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... multiple, comorbid chronic conditions, and individuals with a diagnosis of mental illness; and (B) Costs.... (6) Improvements to risk adjustment for special needs individuals with chronic health conditions—(i... risk score that reflects the known underlying risk profile and chronic health status of...

  6. 77 FR 70373 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...\\ yielded no objections. See 75 FR 53198 (August 31, 2010). Section 119(c)(2) requires the Judges annually... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The...

  7. 76 FR 74703 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ...\\ yielded no objections. See 75 FR 53198 (August 31, 2010). Section 119(c)(2) requires the Judges annually... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The...

  8. 78 FR 13521 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2013 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Accountant CPI Consumer Price Index E.O. Executive Order FR Federal Register GLPA Canadian Great Lakes...--2013 Annual Review and Adjustment'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 45539). We received six comments on..., 5, and 7 have been designated by Presidential Proclamation, pursuant to the Act, to be waters...

  9. 76 FR 57992 - Assessment Rate Adjustment Guidelines for Large and Highly Complex Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... by the FDIC Board on February 7, 2011 (76 FR 10672 (Feb. 25, 2011)). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Adjustment Guidelines for Large Institutions and Insured Foreign Branches in Risk Category I, 72 FR 27122... into a total score.\\4\\ \\2\\ Assessments, Large Bank Pricing, 76 FR 10672 (Feb. 25, 2011) (codified at...

  10. Is whole grain intake associated with reduced total and cause-specific death rates in older women? The Iowa Women's Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, D R; Meyer, K A; Kushi, L H; Folsom, A R

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether nutrient-rich whole grains reduce mortality risk. METHODS: The study included 38,740 Iowa women, aged 55 to 69 years. A food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain data on grain intake. RESULTS: Median whole grain intake quintiles ranged from a median of 0.2 to more than 3 servings per day. Women with higher intakes had healthier lifestyles and less baseline disease. The total death rate decreased in increasing quintiles, and the pattern repeated for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other causes combined. Adjusted for lifestyle and baseline disease, the relative hazard rate ratio for total death was about 0.85 in daily consumers of whole grain. Findings persisted in strata of baseline healthy and diseased and were not explained by dietary fiber. Rates of total mortality, but not cardiovascular disease mortality, were higher among frequent consumers of refined grain. CONCLUSIONS: Total mortality risk was inversely associated with whole grain intake and positively associated with refined grain intake. Refined grains contributed more than 20% of energy intake, and whole grains contributed 1%. Substitution of whole for refined grain may reduce chronic disease risk in the United States. PMID:10076480

  11. Role of climate variability in the heatstroke death rates of Kanto region in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akihiko, Takaya; Morioka, Yushi; Behera, Swadhin K.

    2014-07-01

    The death toll by heatstroke in Japan, especially in Kanto region, has sharply increased since 1994 together with large interannual variability. The surface air temperature and humidity observed during boreal summers of 1980-2010 were examined to understand the role of climate in the death toll. The extremely hot days, when the daily maximum temperature exceeds 35°C, are more strongly associated with the death toll than the conventional Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index. The extremely hot days tend to be associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation or the Indian Ocean Dipole, suggesting a potential link with tropical climate variability to the heatstroke related deaths. Also, the influence of these climate modes on the death toll has strengthened since 1994 probably related to global warming. It is possible to develop early warning systems based on seasonal climate predictions since recent climate models show excellent predictability skills for those climate modes.

  12. Role of climate variability in the heatstroke death rates of Kanto region in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akihiko, Takaya; Morioka, Yushi; Behera, Swadhin K

    2014-07-10

    The death toll by heatstroke in Japan, especially in Kanto region, has sharply increased since 1994 together with large interannual variability. The surface air temperature and humidity observed during boreal summers of 1980-2010 were examined to understand the role of climate in the death toll. The extremely hot days, when the daily maximum temperature exceeds 35 °C, are more strongly associated with the death toll than the conventional Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index. The extremely hot days tend to be associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation or the Indian Ocean Dipole, suggesting a potential link with tropical climate variability to the heatstroke related deaths. Also, the influence of these climate modes on the death toll has strengthened since 1994 probably related to global warming. It is possible to develop early warning systems based on seasonal climate predictions since recent climate models show excellent predictability skills for those climate modes.

  13. [Clinical usefulness of the new Japanese glomerular filtration rate equation for initial and individualized dosage adjustment concentrations of vancomycin].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoki; Ueshima, Satoshi; Sato, Tomoaki; Kobiki, Eriko; Kawasaki, Yoichi; Matsunaga, Hisashi; Nakura, Hironori; Sendo, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    To clarify whether the new Japanese glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equation was able to accurately determine the initial and individualized dosage adjustment concentrations of vancomycin (VCM), the predictive performance for VCM concentrations using the eGFR and Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equations was compared. Data were retrospectively collected from clinical records of 90 patients with MRSA infection whose trough and peak VCM concentrations had been determined. The predicted VCM initial and individualized dosage adjustment concentrations were performed with the 2-compartment linear model using pharmacokinetic parameter means and their individual values via Bayesian estimation, respectively. The prediction error (PE) and its absolute value (APE) between the observed and predicted VCM concentrations were calculated as indices of bias and accuracy in predictive performance, respectively. In the initial dosage adjustment of VCM, the PE value, calculated with the eGFR equation in trough and peak VCM concentrations of patients whose BMI were 18.5 kg/m(2) and higher, was significantly smaller than that calculated with the CG equation. In particular, both PE and APE values obtained from the eGFR calculated concentrations from nonelderly patients (younger than 65 years old) were significantly improved compared with those from the CG equation. In the individualized dosage adjustment of VCM, the eGFR equation gave a significantly smaller PE value in nonelderly patients' trough concentrations than the CG equation. These findings provide useful information for adjusting the VCM dosage to achieve optimal therapeutic efficacy in patients with MRSA infection.

  14. 38 CFR 3.22 - DIC benefits for survivors of certain veterans rated totally disabled at time of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.22 DIC benefits for survivors of certain veterans rated totally..., and (2) At the time of death, the veteran was receiving, or was entitled to receive, compensation...

  15. 38 CFR 3.22 - DIC benefits for survivors of certain veterans rated totally disabled at time of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.22 DIC benefits for survivors of certain veterans rated totally..., and (2) At the time of death, the veteran was receiving, or was entitled to receive, compensation...

  16. 38 CFR 3.22 - DIC benefits for survivors of certain veterans rated totally disabled at time of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.22 DIC benefits for survivors of certain veterans rated totally..., and (2) At the time of death, the veteran was receiving, or was entitled to receive, compensation...

  17. 75 FR 7580 - Proposed Rate Adjustment for Kerr-Philpott System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... and approved Rate Schedules VA-1-A, VA-2-A, VA-3-A, VA-4-A, CP&L-1-A, CP&L-2-A, CP&L-3-A, CP&L-4-A, AP... arrangement with the Government and for providing a transmission arrangement. Rate Schedule CP&L-1-B Available... Carolinas). Rate Schedule CP&L-2-B Available to public bodies and cooperatives in North Carolina to...

  18. Associations and Trends in Cause-Specific Rates of Death Among Persons Reported with HIV Infection, 23 U.S. Jurisdictions, Through 2011

    PubMed Central

    Adih, William K.; Selik, Richard M.; Hall, H. Irene; Babu, Aruna Surendera; Song, Ruiguang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Published death rates for persons with HIV have not distinguished deaths due to HIV from deaths due to other causes. Cause-specific death rates would allow better assessment of care needs. Methods: Using data reported to the US national HIV surveillance system, we examined a) associations between selected decedent characteristics and causes of death during 2007-2011, b) trends in rates of death due to underlying causes among persons with AIDS during 1990-2011, and among all persons with diagnosed HIV infection (with or without AIDS) during 2000-2011. Results: During 2007-2011, non-HIV-attributable causes of death with the highest rates per 1,000 person-years were heart disease (2.0), non-AIDS cancers other than lung cancer (1.4), and accidents (0.8). During 1990-2011, among persons with AIDS, the annual rate of death due to HIV-attributable causes decreased by 89% (from 122.0 to 13.2), and the rate due to non-HIV-attributable-causes decreased by 57% (from 20.0 to 8.6), while the percentage of deaths caused by non-HIV-attributable causes increased from 11% to 43%. During 2000-2011, among persons with HIV infection, the rate of death due to HIV-attributable causes decreased by 69% (from 26.4 to 8.3), and the rate due to non-HIV-attributable causes decreased by 28% (from 10.5 to 7.6), while the percentage of deaths caused by non-HIV-attributable causes increased from 25% to 48%. Conclusion: Among HIV-infected persons, as rates of death due to HIV-attributable causes decreased, rates due to non-HIV-attributable causes also decreased, but the percentages of deaths due to non-HIV-attributable causes, such as heart disease and non-AIDS cancers increased. PMID:27708746

  19. 75 FR 78690 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2012-2013 Proposed Transmission Rate Adjustments Public Hearing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    .... During the workshops, BPA staff presented and discussed information about costs, load and resource forecasting, generation inputs pricing, segmentation, revenue forecasts, load forecasts, risk analysis and... to flexibly serve their retail load. Point-to-Point (PTP-12) rate--The PTP rate is a contract...

  20. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Teacher Ratings of Child Adjustment and Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Rivers, Lanee; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines similarities and differences in teacher ratings of behavioral problems and adaptive skills between a sample of 320 students from Anguilla, BWI and 315 children from the United States of America using the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992). The study also compared teacher ratings of…

  1. Effect of marital status on death rates. Part 1: High accuracy exploration of the Farr-Bertillon effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-05-01

    The Farr-Bertillon law says that for all age-groups the death rate of married people is lower than the death rate of people who are not married (i.e. single, widowed or divorced). Although this law has been known for over 150 years, it has never been established with well-controlled accuracy (e.g. error bars). This even let some authors argue that it was a statistical artifact. It is true that the data must be selected with great care, especially for age groups of small size (e.g. widowers under 25). The observations reported in this paper were selected in the way experiments are designed in physics, that is to say with the objective of minimizing error bars. Data appropriate for mid-age groups may be unsuitable for young age groups and vice versa. The investigation led to the following results. (1) The FB effect is very similar for men and women, except that (at least in western countries) its amplitude is 20% higher for men. (2) There is a marked difference between single/divorced persons on the one hand, for whom the effect is largest around the age of 40, and widowed persons on the other hand, for whom the effect is largest around the age of 25. (3) When different causes of death are distinguished, the effect is largest for suicide and smallest for cancer. For heart disease and cerebrovascular accidents, the fact of being married divides the death rate by 2.2 compared to non-married persons. (4) For young widowers the death rates are up to 10 times higher than for married persons of same age. This extreme form of the FB effect will be referred to as the "young widower effect". Chinese data are used to explore this effect more closely. A possible connection between the FB effect and Martin Raff's "Stay alive" effect for the cells in an organism is discussed in the last section.

  2. Does the volume of Internet searches using suicide-related search terms influence the suicide death rate: data from 2004 to 2009 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sueki, Hajime

    2011-06-01

    Cross-correlation was examined for the volume of suicide-related Internet searches and suicide death rate. Analysis of Google data and figures released by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare indicated that the volume of searches using the search terms jisatsu (suicide) and jisatsu houhou (suicide method) are not correlated with the suicide death rate. In addition, a rising suicide death rate might be related to the increase in suicide-related search activity (particularly utsu[depression]), but an increase in suicide-related search activity itself is not directly linked to the rise of suicide death rate.

  3. Using a detailed uncertainty analysis to adjust mapped rates of forest disturbance derived from Landsat time series data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Stehman, S.; Huang, C.; Healey, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest ecosystem process models require spatially and temporally detailed disturbance data to accurately predict fluxes of carbon or changes in biodiversity over time. A variety of new mapping algorithms using dense Landsat time series show great promise for providing disturbance characterizations at an annual time step. These algorithms provide unprecedented detail with respect to timing, magnitude, and duration of individual disturbance events, and causal agent. But all maps have error and disturbance maps in particular can have significant omission error because many disturbances are relatively subtle. Because disturbance, although ubiquitous, can be a relatively rare event spatially in any given year, omission errors can have a great impact on mapped rates. Using a high quality reference disturbance dataset, it is possible to not only characterize map errors but also to adjust mapped disturbance rates to provide unbiased rate estimates with confidence intervals. We present results from a national-level disturbance mapping project (the North American Forest Dynamics project) based on the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) with annual Landsat time series and uncertainty analyses that consist of three basic components: response design, statistical design, and analyses. The response design describes the reference data collection, in terms of the tool used (TimeSync), a formal description of interpretations, and the approach for data collection. The statistical design defines the selection of plot samples to be interpreted, whether stratification is used, and the sample size. Analyses involve derivation of standard agreement matrices between the map and the reference data, and use of inclusion probabilities and post-stratification to adjust mapped disturbance rates. Because for NAFD we use annual time series, both mapped and adjusted rates are provided at an annual time step from ~1985-present. Preliminary evaluations indicate that VCT captures most of the higher

  4. 77 FR 29259 - Adjustment of Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Mechanical and Digital Phonorecords

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... the section 115 license on January 9, 2006, 71 FR 1454, and their final determination of said rates and terms was published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2009. 74 FR 4510. Therefore, the next.... 76 FR 590 (January 5, 2011). Petitions to Participate were received from: Microsoft...

  5. 75 FR 51191 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2011 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ...'' then click on the balloon shape in the ``Actions'' column. If you submit your comments by mail or hand... in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public Meeting We do not plan... was published on April 3, 2006 (71 FR 16501). Since then, rates have been reviewed under Appendix...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.334 - Setting and adjusting locality and special rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... special rate supplements. 9701.334 Section 9701.334 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.334 - Setting and adjusting locality and special rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... special rate supplements. 9701.334 Section 9701.334 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality...

  8. 75 FR 14150 - Proposed Rate Adjustment, Public Forum, and Opportunities for Public Review and Comment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... rate for the sale of power from the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System of Projects (75 FR 12740... April 29, 2010. The address of the forum was established as the Sheraton Gateway Atlanta Airport.... Southeastern is changing the address of the forum to Atlanta Airport Hilton, 1031 Virginia Avenue, Atlanta,...

  9. Automatic learning rate adjustment for self-supervising autonomous robot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arras, Michael K.; Protzel, Peter W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    Described is an application in which an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) controls the positioning of a robot arm with five degrees of freedom by using visual feedback provided by two cameras. This application and the specific ANN model, local liner maps, are based on the work of Ritter, Martinetz, and Schulten. We extended their approach by generating a filtered, average positioning error from the continuous camera feedback and by coupling the learning rate to this error. When the network learns to position the arm, the positioning error decreases and so does the learning rate until the system stabilizes at a minimum error and learning rate. This abolishes the need for a predetermined cooling schedule. The automatic cooling procedure results in a closed loop control with no distinction between a learning phase and a production phase. If the positioning error suddenly starts to increase due to an internal failure such as a broken joint, or an environmental change such as a camera moving, the learning rate increases accordingly. Thus, learning is automatically activated and the network adapts to the new condition after which the error decreases again and learning is 'shut off'. The automatic cooling is therefore a prerequisite for the autonomy and the fault tolerance of the system.

  10. Work Adjustment Theory: An Empirical Test Using a Fuzzy Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A fuzzy graphic rating scale elicited work preferences and job perceptions of 166 (of 170) Australian bank employees. Correspondence between preferences and perceptions correlated significantly with job satisfaction. Satisfaction and performance related to tenure intentions; this relation was higher for poorer performers. (SK)

  11. A comparison of pressure ulcer prevalence rates in nursing homes in the Netherlands and Germany, adjusted for population characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tannen, Antje; Bours, Gerrie; Halfens, Ruud; Dassen, Theo

    2006-12-01

    Annual pressure ulcer surveys in the Netherlands and Germany have shown remarkable differences in prevalence rates. We explored the differences between the two populations, and the degree to which these differences were associated with differences in prevalence. To this end, data from 48 Dutch and 45 German facilities (n = 9772) from 2003 were analyzed. The prevalence of pressure ulcers (excluding grade 1) was 12.5% in the Netherlands and 4.3% in Germany. After adjusting for age, sex, and other risk factors, the probability of developing a pressure ulcer of stage 2 or higher in Dutch nursing homes was three times greater than in German homes.

  12. Tribological development of TiCN coatings by adjusting the flowing rate of reactive gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Momeni, Soroush

    2016-03-01

    TiCN coatings were deposited by means of direct current magnetron sputtering of Ti targets in presence of N2 and C2H2 reactive gases. The microstructure, composition, mechanical and tribological properties of the deposited thin films were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), nanoindentation, ball-on-disc, scratch test, and three dimensional (3D) optical microscopy. The obtained results presents a reproducible processing route for tailoring microstructure, mechanical and tribological behavior of TiCN coatings by controlling flowing rate of the reactive gases.

  13. Quality of Death Rates by Race and Hispanic Origin: A Summary of Current Research, 1999. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 2: Data Evaluation and Methods Research. No. 128.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHHS/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    This report summarizes current knowledge and research on the quality and reliability of death rates by race and Hispanic origin in official mortality statistics of the United States produced by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). It provides a quantitative assessment of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin and identifies…

  14. The relationship between safety climate and injury rates across industries: the need to adjust for injury hazards.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon S; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Ho, Michael; Chen, Peter Y

    2006-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that strong safety climates (shared perceptions of safe conducts at work) are associated with lower workplace-injury rates, but they rarely control for differences in industry hazards. Based on 33 companies, we assessed its association with injury rates using three rate based injury measures (claims per 100 employees, claims per 100,000 h worked, and claims per 1 million US dollars payroll), which were derived from workers' compensation injury claims. Linear regression models were used to test the predictability of safety climate on injury rates, followed by controlling for differences in hazard across industries gauged by national industry-specific injury rates. In the unadjusted model, company level safety climate were negatively and significantly associated with injury rates. However, all of the above associations were no longer apparent when controlling for the hazardousness of the specific industry. These findings may be due to over adjustment of hazard risk, or the overwhelming effects of industry specific hazards relative to safety climate effects that could not be differentiated with the statistical power in our study. Industry differences in hazard, conceptualized as one type of injury risk, however need to be considered when testing the association between safety climate and injury across different industries. PMID:16430845

  15. Measuring awareness in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: development of the Memory Awareness Rating Scale--adjusted.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Rachel M; Oyebode, Jan R; Clare, Linda

    2006-04-01

    Variations in level of awareness among people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may impact on well-being for the person with dementia and their carer, and may influence outcomes of cognitive rehabilitation interventions. Awareness has often been assessed using discrepancies between self and proxy rating or between self-rating and objective task performance, with the latter considered to be preferable. Measures are available that are suitable for people with mild AD, for example the Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARS). However, these may be less appropriate for people whose impairments are more advanced and who consequently have more difficulty with the objective task component. In order to provide a measure suitable for people with moderate AD, an adjusted Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARSA) was developed by altering the objective task component of the MARS. The MARSA was piloted with 41 participants with mild to moderate AD. It was found to be suitable for use with a broader group of participants than the MARS. The component ratings were found to have good internal consistency. The component ratings and the two indices of awareness had high test-retest reliability. The extension of the original measure offers the opportunity to consider awareness throughout the course of the disease and provides a basis for longitudinal investigations of awareness.

  16. Reduced death rates from cyclones in Bangladesh: what more needs to be done?

    PubMed

    Haque, Ubydul; Hashizume, Masahiro; Kolivras, Korine N; Overgaard, Hans J; Das, Bivash; Yamamoto, Taro

    2012-02-01

    Tropical storms, such as cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons, present major threats to coastal communities. Around two million people worldwide have died and millions have been injured over the past two centuries as a result of tropical storms. Bangladesh is especially vulnerable to tropical cyclones, with around 718 000 deaths from them in the past 50 years. However, cyclone-related mortality in Bangladesh has declined by more than 100-fold over the past 40 years, from 500 000 deaths in 1970 to 4234 in 2007. The main factors responsible for these reduced fatalities and injuries are improved defensive measures, including early warning systems, cyclone shelters, evacuation plans, coastal embankments, reforestation schemes and increased awareness and communication. Although warning systems have been improved, evacuation before a cyclone remains a challenge, with major problems caused by illiteracy, lack of awareness and poor communication. Despite the potential risks of climate change and tropical storms, little empirical knowledge exists on how to develop effective strategies to reduce or mitigate the effects of cyclones. This paper summarizes the most recent data and outlines the strategy adopted in Bangladesh. It offers guidance on how similar strategies can be adopted by other countries vulnerable to tropical storms. Further research is needed to enable countries to limit the risks that cyclones present to public health. PMID:22423166

  17. Reduced death rates from cyclones in Bangladesh: what more needs to be done?

    PubMed

    Haque, Ubydul; Hashizume, Masahiro; Kolivras, Korine N; Overgaard, Hans J; Das, Bivash; Yamamoto, Taro

    2012-02-01

    Tropical storms, such as cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons, present major threats to coastal communities. Around two million people worldwide have died and millions have been injured over the past two centuries as a result of tropical storms. Bangladesh is especially vulnerable to tropical cyclones, with around 718 000 deaths from them in the past 50 years. However, cyclone-related mortality in Bangladesh has declined by more than 100-fold over the past 40 years, from 500 000 deaths in 1970 to 4234 in 2007. The main factors responsible for these reduced fatalities and injuries are improved defensive measures, including early warning systems, cyclone shelters, evacuation plans, coastal embankments, reforestation schemes and increased awareness and communication. Although warning systems have been improved, evacuation before a cyclone remains a challenge, with major problems caused by illiteracy, lack of awareness and poor communication. Despite the potential risks of climate change and tropical storms, little empirical knowledge exists on how to develop effective strategies to reduce or mitigate the effects of cyclones. This paper summarizes the most recent data and outlines the strategy adopted in Bangladesh. It offers guidance on how similar strategies can be adopted by other countries vulnerable to tropical storms. Further research is needed to enable countries to limit the risks that cyclones present to public health.

  18. Reduced death rates from cyclones in Bangladesh: what more needs to be done?

    PubMed Central

    Hashizume, Masahiro; Kolivras, Korine N; Overgaard, Hans J; Das, Bivash; Yamamoto, Taro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Tropical storms, such as cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons, present major threats to coastal communities. Around two million people worldwide have died and millions have been injured over the past two centuries as a result of tropical storms. Bangladesh is especially vulnerable to tropical cyclones, with around 718 000 deaths from them in the past 50 years. However, cyclone-related mortality in Bangladesh has declined by more than 100-fold over the past 40 years, from 500 000 deaths in 1970 to 4234 in 2007. The main factors responsible for these reduced fatalities and injuries are improved defensive measures, including early warning systems, cyclone shelters, evacuation plans, coastal embankments, reforestation schemes and increased awareness and communication. Although warning systems have been improved, evacuation before a cyclone remains a challenge, with major problems caused by illiteracy, lack of awareness and poor communication. Despite the potential risks of climate change and tropical storms, little empirical knowledge exists on how to develop effective strategies to reduce or mitigate the effects of cyclones. This paper summarizes the most recent data and outlines the strategy adopted in Bangladesh. It offers guidance on how similar strategies can be adopted by other countries vulnerable to tropical storms. Further research is needed to enable countries to limit the risks that cyclones present to public health. PMID:22423166

  19. Characterization of the Lightning Activity in Argentina, an Approach for Estimating the Annual Death Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicora, M. G.; Bürgesser, R. E.; Quel, E. J.; Avila, E.

    2013-05-01

    The information about lightning activity is fundamental to atmospheric surveillance due its relevant applications on different aspects as security, defense, early warning system and for generation of statistical data for planning infrastructure projects. Few countries in the world have its own lightning detection networks which allow monitoring the lightning activity inside its national border. The development of the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) provides a confidence global lightning data with low cost, which was already used to characterize the lightning activity in several regions of the world. The aim of the present work is the use of the lightning data obtained by the WWLLN to make an analysis on the lightning activity over Argentina between the years 2005-2012. In order to achieve this objective the isoceraunic maps of Argentina were made. These maps will be incorporated to the standard IRAM 2184-11 "lightning protection". Furthermore, by using data of flash per km2 per year, we provide a model for estimating deaths from lightning. The model is based on the parameterizations of the flash density, population density and urbanization of a given region. The model was adapted for Argentina and Brazil in order to obtain an estimation of deaths in different regions. The results obtained allows to promote protective behaviors in the population.

  20. Canadian National Breast Screening Study: 1. Breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 40 to 49 years.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A B; Baines, C J; To, T; Wall, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of the combination of annual screening with mammography, physical examination of the breasts and the teaching of breast self-examination in reducing the rate of death from breast cancer among women aged 40 to 49 years on entry. DESIGN: Individually randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Fifteen urban centres in Canada with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. PARTICIPANTS: Women with no history of breast cancer and no mammography in the previous 12 months were randomly assigned to undergo either annual mammography and physical examination (MP group) or usual care after an initial physical examination (UC group). The 50,430 women enrolled from January 1980 through March 1985 were followed for a mean of 8.5 years. DATA COLLECTION: Derived from the participants by initial and annual self-administered questionnaires, from the screening examinations, from the patients' physicians, from the provincial cancer registries and by record linkage to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base. Expert panels evaluated histologic and death data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of referral from screening, rates of detection of breast cancer from screening and from community care, nodal status, tumour size, and rates of death from all causes and from breast cancer. RESULTS: Over 90% of the women in each group attended the screening sessions or returned the annual questionnaires, or both, over years 2 to 5. The characteristics of the women in the two groups were similar. Compared with the Canadian population, the participants were more likely to be married, have fewer children, have more education, be in a professional occupation, smoke less and have been born in North America. The rate of screen-detected breast cancer on first examination was 3.89 per 1000 in the MP group and 2.46 per 1000 in the UC group; more node-positive tumours were found in the MP group than in the UC group. During years 2 through 5 the ratios of observed

  1. Differences in age-standardized mortality rates for avoidable deaths based on urbanization levels in Taiwan, 1971-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-02-05

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result.

  2. Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

  3. Canadian National Breast Screening Study: 2. Breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 50 to 59 years.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A B; Baines, C J; To, T; Wall, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of annual mammography over and above annual physical examination of the breasts and the teaching of breast self-examination among women aged 50 to 59 on entry. DESIGN: Individually randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Fifteen urban centres in Canada with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. PARTICIPANTS: Women with no history of breast cancer and no mammography in the previous 12 months were randomly assigned to undergo either annual mammography and physical examination (MP group) or annual physical examination only (PO group). The 39,405 women enrolled from January 1980 through March 1985 were followed for a mean of 8.3 years. DATA COLLECTION: Derived from the participants by initial and annual self-administered questionnaires, from the screening examinations, from the patients' physicians, from the provincial cancer registries and by record linkage to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base. Expert panels evaluated histologic and death data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of referral from screening, rates of detection of breast cancer from screening and from community care, nodal status, tumour size and rates of death from all causes and from breast cancer. RESULTS: Over 85% of the women in each group attended the screening sessions after screen 1. The characteristics of the women in the two groups were similar. Compared with the Canadian population the participants were more likely to be married, have fewer children, have more education, be in a professional occupation, smoke less and have been born in North America. The rate of screen-detected breast cancer on first examination was 7.20 per 1000 in the MP group and 3.45 per 1000 in the PO group, more node-positive tumours were found in the MP group than in the PO group. At subsequent screens the detection rates were a little less than half the rates at screen 1. During years 2 through 5 the ratios of observed to expected cases of invasive breast cancer

  4. Impact of delayed diagnosis time in estimating progression rates to hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis and death.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bo; Wang, Wenbin; Shi, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Delay of the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV), and its treatment to avert cirrhosis, is often present sincethe early stage of HCV progression is latent. Current methods to determine the incubation time to HCV-related cirrhosis and the duration time from cirrhosis to subsequent events (e.g. complications or death) used to be based on the time of liver biopsy diagnosis and ignore this delay which led to an interval censoring for the first event time and a double censoring for the subsequent event time. To investigate the impact of this delay in estimating HCV progression rates and relevant estimating bias, we present a correlated two-stage progression model for delayed diagnosis time and fit the developed model to the previously studied hepatitis C cohort data from Edinburgh. Our analysis shows that taking the delayed diagnosis into account gives a mildly different estimate of progression rate to cirrhosis and significantly lower estimated progression rate to HCV-related death in comparison with conventional modelling. We also find that when the delay increases, the bias in estimating progression increases significantly.

  5. [Mortality rates by causes of deaths in the area aggregated by dyeing factories in Kyoto (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sugita, M; Yoshida, O; Miyakawa, M; Okada, Y; Oshiro, K; Yamaguchi, N; Tsuchiya, K

    1980-01-01

    In 1971 and 1973, Yoshida, et al. reported a higher relative risk of urinary bladder cancer among the workers of dyeing factories in Kyoto city. In order to confirm this, death certificates in Kyoto city from 1969 to 1972 were retrospectively investigated. Kyoto city was devided into three areas, that is, areas with high, medium and low clusterings of dyeing factories, and the differences of the mortality rates of all causes of deaths among these three areas were examined. As a result of this study, a statistically significant difference of the mortality rate of bladder cancer could not be found for males. But, the relative risk of bladder cancer in the areas with high and medium clusterings of dyeing factories compared to the area with low was found to be 1.45. Therefore, the relationship between dyeing work and bladder cancer could not necessarily be denied. It is, thus, necessary to carry out a prospective study, by which a more precise result can be obtained. In addition, our study revealed a significantly high mortality rate of skin cancer among the areas with high and medium clusterings of dyeing factories for males, observing a relative risk of 3.88. The observed association between skin cancer and dyeing work should be further studied.

  6. Project MotherCare: one hospital's response to the high perinatal death rate in New Haven, CT.

    PubMed Central

    Reguero, W; Crane, M

    1994-01-01

    Starling national statistics indicate that New Haven, CT, is the seventh poorest city of its size, in terms of per capita income, in the United States. In 1989, it was reported to have the highest rate of infant mortality--18.5 infant deaths per 1,000 live birth--in the nation for a city with more than 100,000 people. Seventy-five percent of all perinatal deaths are attributed to low birth weight infants. Adequate prenatal care is a proven means of reducing this risk. To further compound the problem, substance abuse among pregnant women has increased dramatically. Census tract data revealed that many of the infant deaths were localized to several well-defined areas of the city. Forty-four percent of the infant deaths were ascribed to extreme immaturity or other causes related to low birth weight. Approximately 21 percent of the pregnant population had either no prenatal care or care was begun late--after the first trimester. The traditional avenues for prenatal care have been ineffective; an innovative approach, one that can be replicated, was initiated. The Hospital of Saint Raphael's "Project MotherCare" embarked on an initiative to address these problems by reducing the access barriers to prenatal care regardless of insurance status or ability to pay. The mission was twofold: (a) to bring prenatal care to underserved neighborhoods of New Haven and (b) to identify the substance-abusing pregnant woman and deliver a continuum of services including prenatal care, counseling, social services, and referral to a drug treatment program.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7938385

  7. Project MotherCare: one hospital's response to the high perinatal death rate in New Haven, CT.

    PubMed

    Reguero, W; Crane, M

    1994-01-01

    Starling national statistics indicate that New Haven, CT, is the seventh poorest city of its size, in terms of per capita income, in the United States. In 1989, it was reported to have the highest rate of infant mortality--18.5 infant deaths per 1,000 live birth--in the nation for a city with more than 100,000 people. Seventy-five percent of all perinatal deaths are attributed to low birth weight infants. Adequate prenatal care is a proven means of reducing this risk. To further compound the problem, substance abuse among pregnant women has increased dramatically. Census tract data revealed that many of the infant deaths were localized to several well-defined areas of the city. Forty-four percent of the infant deaths were ascribed to extreme immaturity or other causes related to low birth weight. Approximately 21 percent of the pregnant population had either no prenatal care or care was begun late--after the first trimester. The traditional avenues for prenatal care have been ineffective; an innovative approach, one that can be replicated, was initiated. The Hospital of Saint Raphael's "Project MotherCare" embarked on an initiative to address these problems by reducing the access barriers to prenatal care regardless of insurance status or ability to pay. The mission was twofold: (a) to bring prenatal care to underserved neighborhoods of New Haven and (b) to identify the substance-abusing pregnant woman and deliver a continuum of services including prenatal care, counseling, social services, and referral to a drug treatment program. Community need caused the program to expand beyond prenatal services and provide additional primary care services to other residents of these neighborhoods.

  8. Emergency Department Death Rates Dropped By Nearly 50 Percent, 1997-2011.

    PubMed

    Kanzaria, Hemal K; Probst, Marc A; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-07-01

    Between 1997 and 2011, there was a nearly 50 percent reduction in US emergency department mortality rates for adults. This trend likely has many causes, related to advances in palliative, prehospital, and emergency care. PMID:27385248

  9. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... depreciation, obsolescence, amortization, and depletion allowed the taxpayer on such property for the period..., obsolescence, amortization, and depletion for the period held by the taxpayer prior to the decedent's death... in contemplation of death. Depreciation in the amount of $750 per year was allowable for each of...

  10. Debris-flow deposits and watershed erosion rates near southern Death Valley, CA, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, K.M.; Menges, C.M.; ,

    2003-01-01

    Debris flows from the steep, granitic hillslopes of the Kingston Range, CA are commensurate in age with nearby fluvial deposits. Quaternary chronostratigraphic differentiation of debris-flow deposits is based upon time-dependent characteristics such as relative boulder strength, derived from Schmidt Hammer measurements, degree of surface desert varnish, pedogenesis, and vertical separation. Rock strength is highest for Holocene-aged boulders and decreases for Pleistocene-aged boulders weathering to grus. Volumes of age-stratified debris-flow deposits, constrained by deposit thickness above bedrock, GPS surveys, and geologic mapping, are greatest for Pleistocene deposits. Shallow landslide susceptibility, derived from a topographically based GIS model, in conjunction with deposit volumes produces watershed-scale erosion rates of ???2-47 mm ka-1, with time-averaged Holocene rates exceeding Pleistocene rates. ?? 2003 Millpress.

  11. Alcohol-Related Vehicular Death Rates for College Students in the Commonwealth of Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James; Bauerle, Jennifer; Keller, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Determine rate of college student alcohol-related vehicular traffic fatalities in Virginia during 2007. Participants: Undergraduates at colleges and universities in Virginia. Methods: Institutions with membership in the American College Health Association were invited to participate in a survey. Data collected from institutional reports…

  12. Running Head: Control and Adjustment of the Rate of Photosynthesis Above Present CO{sub 2} Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J. Timothy

    1996-12-01

    The adjustment of photosynthesis to different environmental conditions and especially to elevated CO{sub 2} is often characterized in terms of changes in the processes that establish (limit) the net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate. At slightly above present ambient pCO{sub 2} light-saturated photosynthetic responses to CO{sub 2} depart limitation by the catalytic capacity of tissue rubisco content. An hypothesis attributing this departure to limited thylakoid reaction/electron transport capacity is widely accepted, although we find no experimental evidence in the literature supporting this proposition.. The results of several tests point to the conclusion that the capacity of the thyiakoid reactions cannot be generally responsible for the deviation from rubisco limitation. This conclusion leaves a significant gap in the interpretation of gas exchange responses to CO{sub 2}. Since the inputs to the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (CO{sub 2} and photon-capture/electron-transport products) do not limit photosynthesis on the shoulder of the A=f(c{sub i}) curve, the control of photosynthesis can be characterized as: due to feedback. Several characteristics of gas exchange and fluorescence that occur when steady-states in this region are perturbed by changes in CO{sub 2} or O{sub 2} suggest significant regulation by conditions other than directly by substrate RuBP levels. A strong candidate to explain these responses is the triose-phosphate flux/ inorganic phosphate regulatory sequence, although not all of the gas exchange characteristics expected with ''TPU-limitation'' are present (e.g. oxygen-insensitive photosynthesis). Interest in nitrogen allocation between rubisco and light capture/electron transport as the basis for photosynthetic adjustment to elevated CO{sub 2} may need to be reconsidered as a result of these findings. Contributors to the feedback regulation of photosynthesis (which may include sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose bisphosphatase activities

  13. Late Quaternary incision rates in the southern French Alps from river longitudinal profiles inversion: climatic forcing and internal adjustments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Carole; Cassol, Davide; Rolland, Yann; Saillard, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Southern French Alps, and especially the external crystalline massifs, show evidences of rapid river incision featured by deeply incised gorges and widespread active landslides. The onset of rapid incision is not precisely dated, but cosmogenic nuclide dating of river polished profiles evidences rapid incision (of the order of 2-3 mm.yr-1) since 20 ka. These data suggest that it may be related to temperature and runoff increase due to glacier melting after le last glacial maximum (LGM). In this study, we use river longitudinal profiles from tributaries of the Tinée River, in the Argentera-Mercantour crystalline massif, to determine recent incision rate (IR) variations through time with the inversion method of Goren et al. (2014). Overall, the background IR is of approximately 5 mm.yr-1, in agreement with recent IR estimates from cosmogenic nuclide dating in the Tinée River. Incision rate histories of all tributaries show periodic pulses of large IR that could be correlated to quaternary interglacials and interstadials, based on the comparison with global temperature curves. However, some tributaries show very large IR in the Holocene period, whereas others show a recent (post 10 ka) IR decrease. We suggest that local internal adjustments, possibly in relation with meander migration of the main stem, are responsible for these different behaviors.

  14. Centenarian Rates and Life Expectancy Related to the Death Rates of Multiple Sclerosis, Asthma, and Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Children.

    PubMed

    Lens-Pechakova, Lilia S

    2016-02-01

    The autoimmune diseases are among the 10 leading causes of death for women and the number two cause of chronic illness in America as well as a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Patients of some autoimmune diseases have shown a shorter life span and are a model of accelerated immunosenescence. Conversely, centenarians are used as a model of successful aging and have shown several immune parameters that are better preserved and lower levels of autoantibodies. The study reported here focused on clarifying the connection between longevity and some autoimmune and allergic diseases in 29 developed Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, because multidisciplinary analyses of the accelerated or delayed aging data could show a distinct relationship pattern, help to identify common factors, and determine new important factors that contribute to longevity and healthy aging. The relationships between the mortality rates data of multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), asthma, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) from one side and centenarian rates (two sets) as well as life expectancy data from the other side were assessed using regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients. The data obtained correspond to an inverse linear correlation with different degrees of linearity. This is the first observation of a clear tendency of diminishing centenarian rates or life expectancy in countries having higher death rates of asthma, MS, and RA and a higher incidence of T1D in children. The conclusion is that most probably there are common mechanistic pathways and factors affecting the above diseases and at the same time but in the opposite direction the processes of longevity. Further study, comparing genetic data, mechanistic pathways, and other factors connected to autoimmune diseases with those of longevity could clarify the processes involved, so as to promote longevity and limit the expansion of those

  15. Centenarian Rates and Life Expectancy Related to the Death Rates of Multiple Sclerosis, Asthma, and Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Children.

    PubMed

    Lens-Pechakova, Lilia S

    2016-02-01

    The autoimmune diseases are among the 10 leading causes of death for women and the number two cause of chronic illness in America as well as a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Patients of some autoimmune diseases have shown a shorter life span and are a model of accelerated immunosenescence. Conversely, centenarians are used as a model of successful aging and have shown several immune parameters that are better preserved and lower levels of autoantibodies. The study reported here focused on clarifying the connection between longevity and some autoimmune and allergic diseases in 29 developed Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, because multidisciplinary analyses of the accelerated or delayed aging data could show a distinct relationship pattern, help to identify common factors, and determine new important factors that contribute to longevity and healthy aging. The relationships between the mortality rates data of multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), asthma, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) from one side and centenarian rates (two sets) as well as life expectancy data from the other side were assessed using regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients. The data obtained correspond to an inverse linear correlation with different degrees of linearity. This is the first observation of a clear tendency of diminishing centenarian rates or life expectancy in countries having higher death rates of asthma, MS, and RA and a higher incidence of T1D in children. The conclusion is that most probably there are common mechanistic pathways and factors affecting the above diseases and at the same time but in the opposite direction the processes of longevity. Further study, comparing genetic data, mechanistic pathways, and other factors connected to autoimmune diseases with those of longevity could clarify the processes involved, so as to promote longevity and limit the expansion of those

  16. Reliability of the interval death rate analysis for estimating the time course of the motoneurone afterhyperpolarization in humans.

    PubMed

    MacDonell, Christopher William; Ivanova, Tanya Dimitrova; Garland, S Jayne

    2007-05-15

    The reliability of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) time course, as estimated by the interval death rate (IDR) analysis was evaluated both within and between investigators. The IDR analysis uses the firing history of a single motor unit train at low tonic firing rates to calculate an estimate of the AHP time course [Matthews PB. Relationship of firing intervals of human motor units to the trajectory of post-spike after-hyperpolarization and synaptic noise. J Physiol 1996;492:597-628]. Single motor unit trains were collected from the tibialis anterior (TA) to determine intra-rater reliability (within investigator). Data from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI), collected in a previous investigation [Gossen ER, Ivanova TD, Garland SJ. The time course of the motoneurone afterhyperpolarization is related to motor unit twitch speed in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol 2003;552:657-64], were used to examine the inter-rater reliability (between investigators). The lead author was blinded to the original time constants and file identities for the re-analysis. The intra-rater reliability of the AHP time constant in the TA data was high (r(2)=0.88; p<0.001; ICC=0.91). The inter-rater reliability for the FDI data was also strong (r(2)=0.92; p<0.001; ICC=0.95). The standard error of measurement was 0.61 ms for the TA and 0.55 ms for FDI. It is concluded that the interval death rate analysis is a reliable tool for estimating the AHP time course with experienced investigators.

  17. Multi-parametric heart rate analysis in premature babies exposed to sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Maristella; Signorini, Maria G; Fifer, William P; Sahni, Rakhesh

    2014-01-01

    Severe premature babies present a risk profile higher than the normal population. Reasons are related to the incomplete development of physiological systems that support baby's life. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis can help the identification of distress conditions as it is sensitive to Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) behavior. This paper presents results obtained in 35 babies with severe prematurity, in quiet and active sleep and in prone and supine position. HRV was analyzed in time and frequency domain and with nonlinear parameters. The novelty of this approach lies in the combined use of parameters generally adopted in fetal monitoring and "adult" indices. Results show that most parameters succeed in classifying different experimental conditions. This is very promising as our final objective is to identify a set of parameters that could be the basis for a risk classifier to improve the care path of premature population. PMID:25571458

  18. 42 CFR 484.220 - Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-day episode payment rate for case-mix and area wage levels. 484.220 Section 484.220 Public Health... Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and area wage levels... case-mix using a case-mix index to explain the relative resource utilization of different patients....

  19. Heart rate and blood pressure in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

    PubMed

    Nei, Maromi; Mintzer, Scott; Skidmore, Christopher; Sperling, Michael R; Ho, Reginald T

    2016-05-01

    Epilepsy is associated with interictal and ictal autonomic dysfunction. Seizures can immediately cause increases in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). However, it is unknown whether uncontrolled seizures, particularly when frequent, might chronically elevate the BP or HR. Additionally, it is unknown whether the interictal BP and HR is altered in individuals who are at risk for SUDEP, compared with other individuals with epilepsy. SUDEP often occurs in patients with highly refractory epilepsy. Such individuals might be at risk for a state of chronically heightened sympathetic tone, which might affect the HR and BP interictally. This study compared the resting awake interictal HR and BP in individuals who subsequently died due to SUDEP and compared these to HR and BP in two control epilepsy groups (refractory and controlled). While the overall HR and BP are similar between groups, there is a trend toward a higher diastolic BP and more stable HR in individuals who subsequently died due to SUDEP, compared with epilepsy controls. These data suggest that there may be specific types of interictal autonomic dysfunction in individuals at risk for SUDEP. Such abnormalities might serve as markers for those at elevated risk for SUDEP. PMID:26921856

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning deaths in the United States, 1999 to 2012☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Kanta; Clower, Jacquelyn; Shin, Mi kyong; Bailey, Cathy; King, Michael; Yip, Fuyuen

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintentional, non-fire related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning deaths are preventable. Surveillance of the populations most at-risk for unintentional, non-fire related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is crucial for targeting prevention efforts. Objective This study provides estimates on UNFR CO poisoning mortality in the United States and characterizes the at-risk populations. Methods We used 1999 to 2012 data to calculate death rates. We used underlying and multiple conditions variables from death records to identify UNFR CO poisoning cases. Results For this study, we identified 6136 CO poisoning fatalities during 1999 to 2012 resulting in an average of 438 deaths annually. The annual average age-adjusted death rate was 1.48 deaths per million. Fifty four percent of the deaths occurred in a home. Age-adjusted death rates were highest for males (2.21 deaths per million) and non-Hispanic blacks (1.74 deaths per million). The age-specific death rate was highest for those aged ≥85 years (6.00 deaths per million). The annual rate of UNFR CO poisoning deaths did not change substantially during the study period, but we observed a decrease in the rate of suicide and unintentional fire related cases. Conclusion CO poisoning was the second most common non-medicinal poisonings death. Developing and enhancing current public health interventions could reduce ongoing exposures to CO from common sources, such as those in the residential setting. PMID:26032660

  1. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  2. Suicide on death row.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Tartaro, Christine

    2002-09-01

    The suicide rate on death row for the period 1976 through 1999 was found to be high (113 per 100,000 per year), some five times higher than the suicide rate for the male population of the United States. The death row suicide rate was predicted by features of the death row population (negatively with the population on death row) and by social indicators of the society as a whole (negatively with birth and divorce rates and positively with marriage rates).

  3. The ability of self-rated health to predict mortality among community-dwelling elderly individuals differs according to the specific cause of death: data from the NEDICES Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Guerra-Vales, Juan M.; Trincado, Rocío; Fernández, Rebeca; Medrano, María José; Villarejo, Alberto; Benito-León, Julián; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2013-01-01

    Background The biomedical and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality in elderly individuals remain unclear. Objective To assess the association between different measurements of subjective health (global, age-comparative, and time-comparative SRH) and cause-specific mortality. Methods Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) is a prospective population-based survey of the prevalence and incidence of major age-associated conditions. Data on demographic and health-related variables were collected from 5,278 subjects (≥65 years) at the baseline questionnaire. Thirteen-year mortality and cause of death were obtained from the National Death Registry. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for SRH and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Results At baseline, 4,958 participants (93.9%) answered the SRH questionnaire. At the end of follow-up 2,468 (49.8%) participants had died (of whom 723 [29.2%] died from cardiovascular diseases, 609 [24.7%] from cancer, and 359 [14.5%] from respiratory diseases). Global SRH predicted independently all-cause mortality (aHR for “poor or very poor” vs. “very good” category: 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–1.69). Analysis of cause-specific mortality revealed that global SRH was an independent predictor for death due to respiratory diseases (aHR for “poor or very poor” vs. “very good” category: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.55–4.39), whereas age-comparative SRH exhibited a gradient effect on the risk of death due to stroke. Time-comparative SRH provided small additional predictive value. Conclusions The predictive ability of SRH for mortality largely differs according to the specific cause of death, with the strongest associations found for respiratory disease and stroke mortality. PMID:23615509

  4. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary.

  5. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  6. Measurement of OH, O, and NO densities and their correlations with mouse melanoma cell death rate treated by a nanosecond pulsed streamer discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Ippei; Shirakawa, Yuki; Hirakata, Kenta; Akiyama, Taketoshi; Yonemori, Seiya; Mizuno, Kazue; Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2015-10-01

    Mouse melanoma cells in a culture medium are treated using a nanosecond pulsed streamer discharge plasma and the correlations between the rate of cell death and the densities of reactive species (OH, O, and NO) in the plasma are measured. The plasma is irradiated onto the culture medium surface with a vertical gas flow of an O2/N2 mixture from a glass tube at various gas flow rates and O2 concentrations. The densities of the reactive species are measured very close to the culture medium surface, where the reactive species interact with the culture medium, using laser-induced fluorescence. In the case of the N2 discharge (O2 = 0%), an increase in gas flow rate decreases OH density because it lowers the water vapor concentration by diluting the vapor, which is required for OH production. The increase in gas flow rate also leads to a decreased cell death rate. In the case of the O2/N2 discharge, on the other hand, an increase in O2 concentration at a fixed flow rate does not affect the rate of cell death, although it considerably changes the O and NO densities. These findings indicate that some reactive species derived from water vapor such as OH are responsible for the melanoma cell death, whereas those from O2, such as O and NO, are less likely responsible. They also indicate the importance of water evaporation from the culture medium surface in cell treatment.

  7. 75 FR 9964 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2010 Mid-Year Adjustment to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Sections 31(b...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... FR 21018 (May 6, 2009). Based on data provided by the national securities exchanges and the national... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2010 Mid-Year Adjustment to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Sections 31(b... amount of sales for fiscal year 2010 calculated by the Commission in its Order Making Fiscal 2010...

  8. Predation or scavenging? Thoracic muscle pH and rates of water loss reveal cause of death in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erin E; Young, Christine V; Holway, David A

    2010-08-01

    The difficulty of directly observing predatory events hinders a complete understanding of how predation structures food webs. Indirect approaches such as PCR-based and isotopic analyses clarify patterns of resource consumption but fail to distinguish predation from scavenging. Given that facultative scavenging is a ubiquitous and phylogenetically widespread foraging strategy, an improved ability to discriminate prey from carrion is needed to enhance an understanding of the demographic effects of consumption and the true nature of trophic interactions. Using physiological properties of muscle tissue - specifically pH and rate of water loss - we develop a novel method to discriminate prey from carrion collected by scavenging hymenopteran predators. Our focal system is the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica), a common scavenging predator in Hawaii and western North America. Prior to consumption, the physical properties of hymenopteran muscle tissue change in a quantifiable and deterministic manner post mortem and can be used to estimate the time and putative cause of death of diet items. Applying this method in laboratory and field situations resulted in the correct identification of prey and carrion in 49 out of 56 cases (88%). Although further investigation is needed to determine how post-mortem physiology of diet items changes in the guts of consumers, the approaches developed in this study can be used to distinguish predation from scavenging by central-place foragers (particularly arthropods). Such information will provide a more definitive characterization of species interactions and food webs.

  9. 38 CFR 3.22 - DIC benefits for survivors of certain veterans rated totally disabled at time of death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... death benefits to the surviving spouse or children in the same manner as if the veteran's death were.... 1318(b)) (b) For purposes of this section, “entitled to receive” means that the veteran filed a claim...) To be entitled to benefits under this section, a surviving spouse must have been married to...

  10. Death rates in HIV-positive antiretroviral-naive patients with CD4 count greater than 350 cells per microL in Europe and North America: a pooled cohort observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether antiretroviral (ART) naive HIV-positive individuals with high CD4 counts have a raised mortality risk compared with the general population, but this is relevant for considering earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Methods Pooling data from 23 European and North American cohorts, we calculated country-, age-, sex-, and year-standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), stratifying by risk group. Included patients had at least one pre-ART CD4 count above 350 cells/mm3. The association between CD4 count and death rate was evaluated using Poisson regression methods. Findings Of 40,830 patients contributing 80,682 person-years of follow up with CD4 count above 350 cells/mm3, 419 (1.0%) died. The SMRs (95% confidence interval) were 1.30 (1.06-1.58) in homosexual men, and 2.94 (2.28-3.73) and 9.37 (8.13-10.75) in the heterosexual and IDU risk groups respectively. CD4 count above 500 cells/mm3 was associated with a lower death rate than 350-499 cells/mm3: adjusted rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for 500-699 cells/mm3 and above 700 cells/mm3 were 0.77 (0.61-0.95) and 0.66 (0.52-0.85) respectively. Interpretation In HIV-infected ART-naive patients with high CD4 counts, death rates were raised compared with the general population. In homosexual men this was modest, suggesting that a proportion of the increased risk in other groups is due to confounding by other factors. Even in this high CD4 count range, lower CD4 count was associated with raised mortality. PMID:20638118

  11. Metabolic rates of ATP transfer through creatine kinase (CK Flux) predict clinical heart failure events and death.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Paul A; Panjrath, Gurusher S; Lai, Shenghan; Hirsch, Glenn A; Wu, Katherine; Najjar, Samer S; Steinberg, Angela; Gerstenblith, Gary; Weiss, Robert G

    2013-12-11

    Morbidity and mortality from heart failure (HF) are high, and current risk stratification approaches for predicting HF progression are imperfect. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is required for normal cardiac contraction, and abnormalities in creatine kinase (CK) energy metabolism, the primary myocardial energy reserve reaction, have been observed in experimental and clinical HF. However, the prognostic value of abnormalities in ATP production rates through CK in human HF has not been investigated. Fifty-eight HF patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy underwent ³¹P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify cardiac high-energy phosphates and the rate of ATP synthesis through CK (CK flux) and were prospectively followed for a median of 4.7 years. Multiple-event analysis (MEA) was performed for HF-related events including all-cause and cardiac death, HF hospitalization, cardiac transplantation, and ventricular-assist device placement. Among baseline demographic, clinical, and metabolic parameters, MEA identified four independent predictors of HF events: New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), African-American race, and CK flux. Reduced myocardial CK flux was a significant predictor of HF outcomes, even after correction for NYHA class, LVEF, and race. For each increase in CK flux of 1 μmol g⁻¹ s⁻¹, risk of HF-related composite outcomes decreased by 32 to 39%. These findings suggest that reduced CK flux may be a potential HF treatment target. Newer imaging strategies, including noninvasive ³¹P MRS that detect altered ATP kinetics, could thus complement risk stratification in HF and add value in conditions involving other tissues with high energy demands, including skeletal muscle and brain.

  12. Children and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.

    Health professionals and educators should develop their abilities to educate about death and to comfort the bereaved. Due to lower death rates, the lack of philosophical religious views, and distorted perceptions of death contributed by television, death has become a mystery instead of a segment of the common experience. Particularly when a child…

  13. Rates of cardiovascular events and deaths are associated with advanced stages of HIV-infection: results of the HIV HEART study 7, 5 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Stefan; Eisele, Lewin; Schwarz, Birte; Schulze, Christina; Holzendorf, Volker; Brockmeyer, Nobert H; Hower, Martin; Kwirant, Friedhelm; Rudolph, Roland; Neumann, Till; Reinsch, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are increasing in aging HIV-positive patients (HIV+). Impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, HIV-specific parameters and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE) and on the mortality rate are investigated in different HIV+ cohorts. Methods The HIV HEART (HIVH) study is an ongoing prospective observational cohort study in the German Ruhr area to assess the frequency and clinical course of cardiac disorders in 1481 HIV+ by standardized non-invasive cardiovascular screening. CVE were defined as diagnosed or documented myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, arterial coronary intervention, stent implantation, bypass operation and stroke. Results 1481 HIV+ subjects (mean age: 49.3±10.7 years (y), female: 15.6%) were included. 130 CVE and 90 deaths were documented until the end of 7, 5 year follow-up of HIVH. Mean duration of the HIV-infection was 12.9±6.8 y. HIV+ were treated with ART on average for 8.6±6.8 y. According to the CDC classification of the HIV-infection, HIV+ were distributed over the clinical categories (A:34.6%; B:31.4% and C:33.9%) while more than the half had an advanced immunodeficiency (I:8.3%; II:41.1%; III:50.7%). Advanced clinical and immunological stages were significantly (p<0.001) associated with higher incidences of deaths (A:16.7%; B:26.7%; C:56.7% and I:6.7%; II:27.7%; III:65.6%) and CVE (A:17.7%; B:33.1%; C:49.2% and I:3.1%; II:32.3%; III:64.6%) but not with the duration of HIV-infection (per y: Hazard ratio (HR): 0.91 [0.88–0.94]) and ART (per y: HR: 0.81 [0.79–0.84]) adjusted for age. The proportion of deceased HIV+ with HIV-RNA ≥50 copies/mL and lower CD4-cell counts at their last visit is significantly higher compared with living HIV+ without CVE (HIV-RNA ≥50 copies/mL: 25.6% vs 14.7%). Median CD4-cells: 286.5 cells/µL (IQR: 168.8–482.8) versus 574 cells/µL (IQR: 406–786). 96.1% of the living HIV+ with CVE had HIV-RNA<50 copies

  14. Using textual cause-of-death data to study drug poisoning deaths.

    PubMed

    Ossiander, Eric M

    2014-04-01

    Death certificate data are often used to study the epidemiology of poisoning deaths, but the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes used to tabulate death data do not convey all of the available information about the drugs and other substances named on death certificates. In the United States and some other countries, the SuperMICAR computer system is used to assign ICD codes to deaths. The SuperMICAR system also stores a verbatim record of the text entered for the cause of death. We used the SuperMICAR text entries to study the 7,817 poisoning deaths that occurred among Washington State residents between 2003 and 2010. We tabulated the drugs named on death certificates and computed age-adjusted and age-specific death rates for the top-named drugs and for prescription and illicit drugs. Methadone was named on 2,149 death certificates and was the most frequently named substance, followed by alcohol, opiate, cocaine, oxycodone, and methamphetamine. For both men and women and at all ages, prescription drugs were involved in more deaths than were illicit drugs. Among the 25 drugs named most frequently, only 4 have unique ICD codes; the other 21 can be identified only by using the SuperMICAR data.

  15. Study of device use adjusted rates in health care-associated infections after implementation of "bundles" in a closed-model medical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Venkatram, Sindhaghatta; Rachmale, Sonal; Kanna, Balavenkatesh

    2010-03-01

    "Bundles" strategies improve health care-associated infection (HCAI) rates in medical intensive care units (MICUs). However, few studies have analyzed HCAI rates adjusted for the device removal component of the bundles. An observational study of adult MICU patients while using bundles to prevent HCAIs associated with endovascular catheters, mechanical ventilation, and urinary tract catheters was conducted. The HCAI rates, unadjusted and adjusted for device use, were calculated using incidence rate ratios (unadjusted IRRs [uIRR] and adjusted IRRs [aIRR], respectively). Among 4550 study patients, HCAIs declined from 47 in 2004 to 10 in 2005, 8 in 2006, and 3 in 2007. Catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) rates decreased from 10.77 to 1.67 per 1000 central line days (uIRR, 0.155; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.18; P < .0001). Foley-related urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) decreased from 6.23 to 0.63 per 1000 device days (uIRR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.08-0.19; P < .0001). Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) per 1000 ventilator days diminished from 2.17 to 0.62 (uIRR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.21-0.38; P < .0001). After adjustment for device use, aIRRs of CRBSI (0.14; 95% CI, 0.11-0.18), UTI (0.09; 95% CI, 0.06-0.12), and VAP (0.33; 95% CI, 0.22-0.47) declined significantly (P < .00001). Implementing comprehensive bundle strategies reduces HCAI beyond the impact of device removal.

  16. Risk adjustment models for interhospital comparison of CS rates using Robson’s ten group classification system and other socio-demographic and clinical variables

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Caesarean section (CS) rate is a quality of health care indicator frequently used at national and international level. The aim of this study was to assess whether adjustment for Robson’s Ten Group Classification System (TGCS), and clinical and socio-demographic variables of the mother and the fetus is necessary for inter-hospital comparisons of CS rates. Methods The study population includes 64,423 deliveries in Emilia-Romagna between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2004, classified according to theTGCS. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted hospital relative risks of CS compared to a reference category. Analyses were carried out in the overall population and separately according to the Robson groups (groups I, II, III, IV and V–X combined). Adjusted relative risks (RR) of CS were estimated using two risk-adjustment models; the first (M1) including the TGCS group as the only adjustment factor; the second (M2) including in addition demographic and clinical confounders identified using a stepwise selection procedure. Percentage variations between crude and adjusted RRs by hospital were calculated to evaluate the confounding effect of covariates. Results The percentage variations from crude to adjusted RR proved to be similar in M1 and M2 model. However, stratified analyses by Robson’s classification groups showed that residual confounding for clinical and demographic variables was present in groups I (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and III (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and to a minor extent in groups II (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour). Conclusions The TGCS classification is useful for

  17. The Contributions of Selected Diseases to Disparities in Death Rates and Years of Life Lost for Racial/Ethnic Minorities in the United States, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Peace, Frederick; Howard, Virginia J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Differences in risk for death from diseases and other causes among racial/ethnic groups likely contributed to the limited improvement in the state of health in the United States in the last few decades. The objective of this study was to identify causes of death that are the largest contributors to health disparities among racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using data from WONDER system, we measured the relative (age-adjusted mortality ratio [AAMR]) and absolute (difference in years of life lost [dYLL]) differences in mortality risk between the non-Hispanic white population and the black, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Asian/Pacific Islander populations for the 25 leading causes of death. Results Many causes contributed to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and blacks, led by assault (AAMR, 7.56; dYLL, 4.5 million). Malignant neoplasms were the second largest absolute contributor (dYLL, 3.8 million) to black–white disparities; we also found substantial relative and absolute differences for several cardiovascular diseases. Only assault, diabetes, and diseases of the liver contributed substantially to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics (AAMR ≥ 1.65; dYLL ≥ 325,000). Many causes of death, led by assault (AAMR, 3.25; dYLL, 98,000), contributed to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and American Indians/Alaska Natives; Asian/Pacific Islanders did not have a higher risk than non-Hispanic whites for death from any disease. Conclusion Assault was a substantial contributor to disparities in mortality among non-Asian racial/ethnic minority populations. Research and intervention resources need to target diseases (such as diabetes and diseases of the liver) that affect certain racial/ethnic populations. PMID:25078566

  18. Stress-induced electrolyte leakage: the role of K+-permeable channels and involvement in programmed cell death and metabolic adjustment.

    PubMed

    Demidchik, Vadim; Straltsova, Darya; Medvedev, Sergey S; Pozhvanov, Grigoriy A; Sokolik, Anatoliy; Yurin, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Electrolyte leakage accompanies plant response to stresses, such as salinity, pathogen attack, drought, heavy metals, hyperthermia, and hypothermia; however, the mechanism and physiological role of this phenomenon have only recently been clarified. Accumulating evidence shows that electrolyte leakage is mainly related to K(+) efflux from plant cells, which is mediated by plasma membrane cation conductances. Recent studies have demonstrated that these conductances include components with different kinetics of activation and cation selectivity. Most probably they are encoded by GORK, SKOR, and annexin genes. Hypothetically, cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and ionotropic glutamate receptors can also be involved. The stress-induced electrolyte leakage is usually accompanied by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and often results in programmed cell death (PCD). Recent data strongly suggest that these reactions are linked to each other. ROS have been shown to activate GORK, SKOR, and annexins. ROS-activated K(+) efflux through GORK channels results in dramatic K(+) loss from plant cells, which stimulates proteases and endonucleases, and promotes PCD. This mechanism is likely to trigger plant PCD under severe stress. However, in moderate stress conditions, K(+) efflux could play an essential role as a 'metabolic switch' in anabolic reactions, stimulating catabolic processes and saving 'metabolic' energy for adaptation and repair needs.

  19. 48 CFR 52.222-30 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to workers subject to the Construction Wage Rate Requirements statute. (End of clause) ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction Wage Rate... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-30 Construction Wage Rate...

  20. Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for Injuries Using Death Certificates and Hospital Discharge Survey by the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A system for assessing the burdens imposed by disease and injury was developed to meet healthcare, priority setting, and policy planning needs. The first such system, the Global Burden of Disease (GBD), was implemented in 1990. However, problems associated with limited data and assumed disability weightings remain to be resolved. The purpose of the present study was to estimate national burdens of injuries in Korea using more reliable data and disability weightings. The incidences of injuries were estimated using the Korean National Hospital Discharge Survey and the mortality data from the Korean National Statistical Office in 2010. Additionally, durations of injuries and age at injury onset were used to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALY) using disability weightings derived from the Korean Burden of Disease (KBD) study. Korea had 1,581,072 DALYs resulting from injuries (3,170 per 100,000), which was 22.9% higher than found by the GBD 2010 study. Males had almost twice as heavy an injury burden as females. Road injury, fall, and self-harm ranked 1st, 2nd, and 3rd in terms of burden of injury in 2010. Total injury burden peaked in the forties, while burden per person declined gradually from early adulthood. We hope that this study contributes to the reliable evaluation of injury burden and a better understanding of injury-related health status using nation-specific, dependable data. PMID:27775258

  1. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  2. Adjustable Nyquist-rate System for Single-Bit Sigma-Delta ADC with Alternative FIR Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Vincent; Dadouche, Foudil; Berviller, Hervé

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new smart and compact system dedicated to control the output sampling frequency of an analogue-to-digital converters (ADC) based on single-bit sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulator. This system dramatically improves the spectral analysis capabilities of power network analysers (power meters) by adjusting the ADC's sampling frequency to the input signal's fundamental frequency with a few parts per million accuracy. The trade-off between straightforwardness and performance that motivated the choice of the ADC's architecture are preliminary discussed. It particularly comes along with design considerations of an ultra-steep direct-form FIR that is optimised in terms of size and operating speed. Thanks to compact standard VHDL language description, the architecture of the proposed system is particularly suitable for application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) implementation-oriented low-power and low-cost power meter applications. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) prototyping and experimental results validate the adjustable sampling frequency concept. They also show that the system can perform better in terms of implementation and power capabilities compared to dedicated IP resources.

  3. Loss of Bcl-2 in invasive breast cancer is associated with high rates of cell death, but also with increased proliferative activity.

    PubMed Central

    van Slooten, H. J.; van de Vijver, M. J.; van de Velde, C. J.; van Dierendonck, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    Bcl-2 has been demonstrated to inhibit apoptosis in breast cancer cells in vitro, and the ratio between Bcl-2 and its proapoptotic homologue Bax seems to be an important determinant of cellular sensitivity to induction of apoptosis. However, little information is available on the relationship between Bcl-2 and the rate of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in breast tumours. From a series of 441 premenopausal, lymphnode-negative breast cancer patients, a subset of 49 tumours was selected in which immunostaining for the 26-kDa isoform of Bcl-2 was either absent (n = 23) or very high (n = 26). High expression of Bcl-2 was found to be strongly associated with low rates of apoptotic (P < 0.001) and necrotic cell death (P < 0.001). The mean value of the apoptotic index was 2.69%+/-1.40% in Bcl-2-negative tumours and 0.68%+/-1.00% in Bcl-2-positive tumours. Expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax correlated neither with Bcl-2 nor with the frequency of apoptotic cells. Immunostaining for the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 homologue BcI-X(L) correlated with Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.001) but not with apoptosis. High proliferation rate and high tumour grade (Bloom-Richardson) were strongly associated with absence of Bcl-2 expression (P< 0.001). p53 accumulation was associated with absence of Bcl-2 expression and increased apoptotic activity. Loss of Bcl-2 expression was strongly correlated with increased apoptotic and necrotic cell death, high proliferation rate and high tumour grade, supporting a model in which Bcl-2 not only mediates cell death, but also cell division in breast cancer tissue, and in which regulation of cell division and cell death are tightly linked. Images Figure 1 PMID:9514059

  4. A poly(glycerol sebacate)-coated mesoporous bioactive glass scaffold with adjustable mechanical strength, degradation rate, controlled-release and cell behavior for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan; Yang, Kai; Tang, Wei; Liu, Yutong; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-07-01

    Various requirements in the field of tissue engineering have motivated the development of three-dimensional scaffold with adjustable physicochemical properties and biological functions. A series of multiparameter-adjustable mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds with uncrosslinked poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) coating was prepared in this article. MBG scaffold was prepared by a modified F127/PU co-templating process and then PGS was coated by a simple adsorption and lyophilization process. Through controlling macropore parameters and PGS coating amount, the mechanical strength, degradation rate, controlled-release and cell behavior of the composite scaffold could be modulated in a wide range. PGS coating successfully endowed MBG scaffold with improved toughness and adjustable mechanical strength covering the bearing range of trabecular bone (2-12MPa). Multilevel degradation rate of the scaffold and controlled-release rate of protein from mesopore could be achieved, with little impact on the protein activity owing to an "ultralow-solvent" coating and "nano-cavity entrapment" immobilization method. In vitro studies indicated that PGS coating promoted cell attachment and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting the osteogenic induction capacity of MBG substrate. These results first provide strong evidence that uncrosslinked PGS might also yield extraordinary achievements in traditional MBG scaffold. With the multiparameter adjustability, the composite MBG/PGS scaffolds would have a hopeful prospect in bone tissue engineering. The design considerations and coating method of this study can also be extended to other ceramic-based artificial scaffolds and are expected to provide new thoughts on development of future tissue engineering materials.

  5. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Return Method Rate of return for a period may be calculated by computing the net performance divided by the beginning net asset value for each trading day in the period and compounding each daily rate of... commodity pool operator or commodity trading advisor may present to the Commission proposals regarding...

  6. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Return Method Rate of return for a period may be calculated by computing the net performance divided by the beginning net asset value for each trading day in the period and compounding each daily rate of... commodity pool operator or commodity trading advisor may present to the Commission proposals regarding...

  7. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Return Method Rate of return for a period may be calculated by computing the net performance divided by the beginning net asset value for each trading day in the period and compounding each daily rate of... commodity pool operator or commodity trading advisor may present to the Commission proposals regarding...

  8. 75 FR 70744 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2012-2013 Proposed Power Rate Adjustments Public Hearing and Opportunities for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... information about costs, load and resource forecasting, generation inputs pricing, segmentation, revenue... Public customers serving new large single loads. BPA is forecasting no sales at the NR rate in the... governed by BPA's Procedures Governing Bonneville Power Administration Rate Hearings, 51 FR ] 7611...

  9. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Return Method Rate of return for a period may be calculated by computing the net performance divided by the beginning net asset value for each trading day in the period and compounding each daily rate of... commodity pool operator or commodity trading advisor may present to the Commission proposals regarding...

  10. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Return Method Rate of return for a period may be calculated by computing the net performance divided by the beginning net asset value for each trading day in the period and compounding each daily rate of... commodity pool operator or commodity trading advisor may present to the Commission proposals regarding...

  11. Impact of the 1998 Football World Cup on Suicide Rates in France: Results from the National Death Registry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Encrenaz, Gaelle; Contrand, Benjamin; Leffondre, Karen; Queinec, Raphaelle; Aouba, Albertine; Jougla, Eric; Miras, Alain; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup in 1998 had a short-term impact on the number of suicides in France. Exhaustive individual daily data on suicides from 1979 to 2006 were obtained from the French epidemiological center on the medical causes of death (CepiDC-INSERM;…

  12. Low Heart Rate Variability in a 2-Minute Electrocardiogram Recording Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in the General Population: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Ankit; Norby, Faye L; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Adabag, Selcuk; Whitsel, Eric A; Alonso, Alvaro; Chen, Lin Y

    2016-01-01

    Low heart rate variability (HRV) has been linked to increased total mortality in the general population; however, the relationship between low HRV and sudden cardiac death (SCD) is less well-characterized. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between low HRV and SCD in a community-based cohort. Our cohort consisted of 12,543 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. HRV measures were derived from 2-minute electrocardiogram recordings obtained during the baseline exam (1987-89). Time domain measurements included the standard deviation of all normal RR intervals (SDNN) and the root mean squared successive difference (r-MSSD). Frequency domain measurements included low frequency power (LF) and high frequency (HF) power. During a median follow-up of 13 years, 215 SCDs were identified from physician adjudication of all coronary heart disease deaths through 2001. In multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, each standard deviation decrement in SDNN, LF, and HF were associated with 24%, 27% and 16% increase in SCD risk, respectively. Low HRV is independently associated with increased risk of SCD in the general population. PMID:27551828

  13. Low Heart Rate Variability in a 2-Minute Electrocardiogram Recording Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in the General Population: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Ankit; Norby, Faye L.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Adabag, Selcuk; Whitsel, Eric A.; Alonso, Alvaro; Chen, Lin Y.

    2016-01-01

    Low heart rate variability (HRV) has been linked to increased total mortality in the general population; however, the relationship between low HRV and sudden cardiac death (SCD) is less well-characterized. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between low HRV and SCD in a community-based cohort. Our cohort consisted of 12,543 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. HRV measures were derived from 2-minute electrocardiogram recordings obtained during the baseline exam (1987–89). Time domain measurements included the standard deviation of all normal RR intervals (SDNN) and the root mean squared successive difference (r-MSSD). Frequency domain measurements included low frequency power (LF) and high frequency (HF) power. During a median follow-up of 13 years, 215 SCDs were identified from physician adjudication of all coronary heart disease deaths through 2001. In multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, each standard deviation decrement in SDNN, LF, and HF were associated with 24%, 27% and 16% increase in SCD risk, respectively. Low HRV is independently associated with increased risk of SCD in the general population. PMID:27551828

  14. 5 CFR 9701.337 - Treatment of employees whose rate of pay falls below the minimum adjusted rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements § 9701.337 Treatment of employees whose rate of pay...

  15. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments.

    PubMed

    Loebner, Keith T K; Underwood, Thomas C; Cappelli, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated. PMID:26133835

  16. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments.

    PubMed

    Loebner, Keith T K; Underwood, Thomas C; Cappelli, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated.

  17. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebner, Keith T. K.; Underwood, Thomas C.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2015-06-01

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated.

  18. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Loebner, Keith T. K. Underwood, Thomas C.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2015-06-15

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated.

  19. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    PubMed

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  20. You have no Choice but to go on: How Physicians and Midwives in Ghana Cope with High Rates of Perinatal Death.

    PubMed

    Petrites, Alissa D; Mullan, Patricia; Spangenberg, Kathryn; Gold, Katherine J

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Healthcare providers in low-resource settings confront high rates of perinatal mortality. How providers cope with such challenges can affect their well-being and patient care; we therefore sought to understand how physicians and midwives make sense of and cope with these deaths. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with midwives, obstetrician-gynecologists, pediatricians and trainee physicians at a large teaching hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Interviews focused on participants' coping strategies surrounding perinatal death. We identified themes from interview transcripts using qualitative content analysis. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study. Themes from the transcripts revealed a continuum of control/self-efficacy and engagement with the deaths. Providers demonstrated a commitment to push on with their work and provide the best care possible. In select cases, they described the transformative power of attitude and sought to be agents of change. Conclusions Physicians and midwives in a low-resource country in sub-Saharan Africa showed remarkable resiliency in coping with perinatal death. Still, future work should focus on training clinicians in coping and strengthening their self-efficacy and engagement. PMID:26987854

  1. Adjustment on the Type I Error Rate for a Clinical Trial Monitoring for both Intermediate and Primary Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Halabi, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In many clinical trials, a single endpoint is used to answer the primary question and forms the basis for monitoring the experimental therapy. Many trials are lengthy in duration and investigators are interested in using an intermediate endpoint for an accelerated approval, but will rely on the primary endpoint (such as, overall survival) for the full approval of the drug by the Food and Drug Administration. We have designed a clinical trial where both intermediate (progression-free survival, (PFS)) and primary endpoints (overall survival, (OS)) are used for monitoring the trial so the overall type I error rate is preserved at the pre-specified alpha level of 0.05. A two-stage procedure is used. In the first stage, the Bonferroni correction was used where the global type I error rate was allocated to each of the endpoints. In the next stage, the O’Brien-Fleming approach was used to design the boundary for the interim and final analysis for each endpoint. Data were generated assuming several parametric copulas with exponential marginals. Different degrees of dependence, as measured by Kendall’s τ, between OS and PFS were assumed: 0 (independence) 0.3, 0.5 and 0.70. This approach is applied to an example in a prostate cancer trial. PMID:24466469

  2. Improvement in in vitro fertilization rate, decrease in reactive oxygen species and spermatozoa death incidence in rams by dietary fish oil.

    PubMed

    Matini Behzad, A; Ebrahimi, B; Alizadeh, A R; Esmaeili, V; Dalman, A; Rashki, L; Shahverdi, A H

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the effects of fish oil feeding on sperm classical parameters, level of reactive oxygen spices (ROS), spermatozoa death incidence and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate in rams. We randomly assigned nine rams, into two experimental groups (isoenergetic and isonitrogenous rations with constant level of vitamin E supplement): control (CTR; n = 5) and fish oil (FO; n = 4, 35 g/day/ram). Diets were fed for 70 days during the physiological breeding season. After a 21-day dietary adaptation period, semen was collected weekly from each ram by an artificial vagina. Sperm classical parameters were determined by the computer-assisted sperm analyzer system (CASA), and it was prepared for IVF process by swim-up technique. These evaluations were performed during the first and last weeks of sampling. Intracellular ROS level and spermatozoa death incidence were detected by flow cytometry on a weekly basis after adaptation. Data were analysed with SPSS 15. The volume, concentration (3.6 and 2.7 × 10(9) /ml) and sperm progressive motility (60 and 48%) were significantly improved in the FO group compared with the CTR (p < 0.05). A comparison of two-cell stage embryos following IVF in the two groups showed a significantly higher fertilization rate in the FO group (56%) compared with the CTR (49%). Superoxide anion (O2 (-) ) rate was significantly lower (p < 0.05) at the third week of sampling in the FO. Although the H2 O2 rate was numerically lower in the FO group compared with the CTR, this difference was not significant. In addition, apoptosis showed a significant difference in the third week of sampling (15 and 30% for FO and CTR, respectively; p < 0.05). Overall, adding fish oil to the ram diet not only improved sperm quality and IVF results, it also could reduce oxygen-free radicals and the incidence of spermatozoa death.

  3. The changing geography of major causes of death among middle age white Americans, 1939-1981.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M R

    1987-01-01

    Urban areas, especially the Northeast, are assumed to have the highest death rates from chronic diseases in the United States. Based on analysis of age-adjusted death rates of the white population 35-64 from 1939-1941 through 1979-1981, it is shown that chronic disease rates in the urban Northeast and Midwest have declined compared to the rest of the United States. High rates of chronic as well as traumatic causes of death now characterize the South. Hypotheses are offered to explain these changes, including changes in lifestyle, differences in state government policies, the changing geography of industry and ethnic populations, and the spread of medical care.

  4. Death imagery and death anxiety.

    PubMed

    McDonald, R T; Hilgendorf, W A

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between positive/negative death imagery and death anxiety. Subjects were 179 undergraduate students at a large, private, midwestern university. Results reveal that on five measures of death anxiety the subjects with low death anxiety scores had significantly more positive death images than did those with high death anxiety scores. The few subjects who imagined death to be young (N = 14) had a significantly more positive image of death than those who perceived it to be an old person. Death was seen as male by 92% of the male respondents and 74% of the female respondents. Significant differences in death imagery and death anxiety were found between subjects enrolled in an introductory psychology course and those enrolled in a thanatology course. No sex differences in death anxiety or positive/negative death imagery were found.

  5. Rate of phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue complex formation in acidic persulfate digested sample matrix for total dissolved phosphorus determination: importance of post-digestion pH adjustment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2008-10-19

    Acidic persulfate oxidation is one of the most common procedures used to digest dissolved organic phosphorus compounds in water samples for total dissolved phosphorus determination. It has been reported that the rates of phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue complex formation were significantly reduced in the digested sample matrix. This study revealed that the intermediate products of persulfate oxidation, not the slight change in pH, cause the slowdown of color formation. This effect can be remedied by adjusting digested samples pH to a near neural to decompose the intermediate products. No disturbing effects of chlorine on the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue formation in seawater were observed. It is noted that the modification of mixed reagent recipe cannot provide near neutral pH for the decomposition of the intermediate products of persulfate oxidation. This study provides experimental evidence not only to support the recommendation made in APHA standard methods that the pH of the digested sample must be adjusted to within a narrow range of sample, but also to improve the understanding of role of residue from persulfate decomposition on the subsequent phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue formation.

  6. Reproductive Justice and the Pace of Change: Socioeconomic Trends in US Infant Death Rates by Legal Status of Abortion, 1960–1980

    PubMed Central

    Gruskin, Sofia; Singh, Nakul; Kiang, Mathew V.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Waterman, Pamela D.; Gottlieb, Jillian; Beckfield, Jason; Coull, Brent A.

    2015-01-01

    US infant death rates for 1960 to 1980 declined most quickly in (1) 1970 to 1973 in states that legalized abortion in 1970, especially for infants in the lowest 3 income quintiles (annual percentage change = −11.6; 95% confidence interval = −18.7, −3.8), and (2) the mid-to-late 1960s, also in low-income quintiles, for both Black and White infants, albeit unrelated to abortion laws. These results imply that research is warranted on whether currently rising restrictions on abortions may be affecting infant mortality. PMID:25713932

  7. The death of marriage? The effects of new forms of legal recognition on marriage rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dillender, Marcus

    2014-04-01

    Some conservative groups argue that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the value of marriage to opposite-sex couples. This article examines how changes in U.S. legal recognition laws occurring between 1995 and 2010 designed to include same-sex couples have altered marriage rates in the United States. Using a difference-in-differences strategy that compares how marriage rates change after legal recognition in U.S. states that alter legal recognition versus states that do not, I find no evidence that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the opposite-sex marriage rate. Although the opposite-sex marriage rate is unaffected by same-sex couples marrying, it decreases when domestic partnerships are available to opposite-sex couples.

  8. The death of marriage? The effects of new forms of legal recognition on marriage rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dillender, Marcus

    2014-04-01

    Some conservative groups argue that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the value of marriage to opposite-sex couples. This article examines how changes in U.S. legal recognition laws occurring between 1995 and 2010 designed to include same-sex couples have altered marriage rates in the United States. Using a difference-in-differences strategy that compares how marriage rates change after legal recognition in U.S. states that alter legal recognition versus states that do not, I find no evidence that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the opposite-sex marriage rate. Although the opposite-sex marriage rate is unaffected by same-sex couples marrying, it decreases when domestic partnerships are available to opposite-sex couples. PMID:24481925

  9. SUICIDE ON DEATH ROW.

    PubMed

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2015-12-01

    For the period 1976-2011, the suicide rate on death rows in the United States was only weakly (and non-significantly) associated with the marriage, birth, divorce, and unemployment rates in the general population. Possible explanations for why social indicators in the larger society might be associated with the behavior of prisoners on death row were discussed. PMID:26595302

  10. Deaths following influenza vaccination--background mortality or causal connection?

    PubMed

    Kokia, Ehud S; Silverman, Barbara G; Green, Manfred; Kedem, Hagai; Guindy, Michal; Shemer, Joshua

    2007-12-12

    In October 2006, four deaths occurred in Israel shortly after influenza immunization, resulting in a temporary halt to the vaccination campaign. After an epidemiologic investigation, the Ministry of Health concluded that these deaths were not related to the vaccine itself and the campaign resumed; however, vaccine uptake was markedly reduced. Estimates of true background mortality in this high-risk population would aid in public education and quell unnecessary concerns regarding vaccine safety. We used data from a large HMO to estimate mortality in influenza vaccine recipients aged 55 and over during four consecutive winters (2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006). Date of immunization was ascertained from patient treatment files, vital status through Israeli National Insurance Institute data. We calculated crude death rates within 7, 14 and 30 days of influenza immunization, and used a Cox Proportional Hazards Model to estimate the risk of death within 14 days of vaccination, adjusting for age and comorbid conditions (age over 75, history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, status as homebound patient) in 2006. The death rate among influenza vaccine recipients ranged from 0.01 to 0.02% within 7 days and 0.09-0.10% at 30 days. Influenza immunization was associated with a decreased risk of death within 14 days after adjustment for comorbidities (Hazard ratio, 0.33, 95% CI, 0.18-0.61). Our findings support the assumption that influenza vaccination is not associated with increased risk of death in the short term.

  11. Adaptive upstream rate adjustment by RSOA-ONU depending on different injection power of seeding light in standard-reach and long-reach PON systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, C. H.; Chow, C. W.; Shih, F. Y.; Pan, C. L.

    2012-08-01

    The wavelength division multiplexing-time division multiplexing (WDM-TDM) passive optical network (PON) using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based colorless optical networking units (ONUs) is considered as a promising candidate for the realization of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH). And this architecture is actively considered by Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) for the realization of FTTH in Taiwan. However, different fiber distances and optical components would introduce different power budgets to different ONUs in the PON. Besides, due to the aging of optical transmitter (Tx), the power decay of the distributed optical carrier from the central office (CO) could also reduce the injection power into each ONU. The situation will be more severe in the long-reach (LR) PON, which is considered as an option for the future access. In this work, we investigate a WDM-TDM PON using RSOA-based ONU for upstream data rate adjustment depending on different continuous wave (CW) injection powers. Both standard-reach (25 km) and LR (100 km) transmissions are evaluated. Moreover, a detail analysis of the upstream signal bit-error rate (BER) performances at different injection powers, upstream data rates, PON split-ratios under stand-reach and long-reach is presented.

  12. Acute cell death rate of vascular smooth muscle cells during or after short heating up to 20s ranging 50 to 60°C as a basic study of thermal angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Machiko; Shimazaki, Natsumi; Ogawa, Emiyu; Machida, Naoki; Arai, Tsunenori

    2014-02-01

    We studied the relations between the time history of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) death rate and heating condition in vitro to clarify cell death mechanism in heating angioplasty, in particular under the condition in which intimal hyperplasia growth had been prevented in vivo swine experiment. A flow heating system on the microscope stage was used for the SMCs death rate measurement during or after the heating. The cells were loaded step-heating by heated flow using a heater equipped in a Photo-thermo dynamic balloon. The heating temperature was set to 37, 50-60°C. The SMCs death rate was calculated by a division of PI stained cell number by Hoechst33342 stained cell number. The SMCs death rate increased 5-10% linearly during 20 s with the heating. The SMCs death rate increased with duration up to 15 min after 5 s heating. Because fragmented nuclei were observed from approximately 5 min after the heating, we defined that acute necrosis and late necrosis were corresponded to within 5 min after the heating and over 5 min after the heating, respectively. This late necrosis is probably corresponding to apoptosis. The ratio of necrotic interaction divided the acute necrosis rate by the late necrosis was calculated based on this consideration as 1.3 under the particular condition in which intimal hyperplasia growth was prevented in vivo previous porcine experiment. We think that necrotic interaction rate is larger than expected rate to obtain intimal hyperplasia suppression.

  13. High Emergency Lung Transplantation: dramatic decrease of waiting list death rate without relevant higher post-transplant mortality.

    PubMed

    Roux, Antoine; Beaumont-Azuar, Laurence; Hamid, Abdul Monem; De Miranda, Sandra; Grenet, Dominique; Briend, Guillaume; Bonnette, Pierre; Puyo, Philippe; Parquin, François; Devaquet, Jerome; Trebbia, Gregoire; Cuquemelle, Elise; Douvry, Benoit; Picard, Clément; Le Guen, Morgan; Chapelier, Alain; Stern, Marc; Sage, Edouard

    2015-09-01

    Many candidates for lung transplantation (LT) die on the waiting list, raising the question of graft availability and strategy for organ allocation. We report the experience of the new organ allocation program, "High Emergency Lung Transplantation" (HELT), since its implementation in our center in 2007. Retrospective analysis of 201 lung transplant patients, of whom 37 received HELT from 1st July 2007 to 31th May 2012. HELT candidates had a higher impairment grade on respiratory status and higher Lung Allocation Score (LAS). HELT patients had increased incidence of perioperative complications (e.g., perioperative bleeding) and extracorporeal circulatory assistance (75% vs. 36.6%, P = 0.0005). No significant difference was observed between HELT and non-HELT patients in mechanical ventilation duration (15.5 days vs. 11 days, P = 0.27), intensive care unit length of stay (15 days vs. 10 days, P = 0.22) or survival rate at 12 (81% vs. 80%), and 24 months post-LT (72.9% vs. 75.0%). Lastly, mortality on the waiting list was spectacularly reduced from 19% to 2% when compared to the non-HELT 2004-2007 group. Despite a more severe clinical status of patients on the waiting list, HELT provided similar results to conventional LT. These results were associated with a dramatic reduction in the mortality rate of patients on the waiting list.

  14. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... the event may become too much for you. Stressors for people of any age include: Death of ... the following: The symptoms clearly come after a stressor, most often within 3 months The symptoms are ...

  15. Contribution of self-reported health ratings to predicting frailty, institutionalization, and death over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Gutman, G M; Stark, A; Donald, A; Beattie, B L

    2001-01-01

    Cross-sectional data from Phase 1 of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging was used to examine the relationship between two self-report health measures: "How would you say your health is these days?"(HEALTH) and "How much do your health troubles stand in the way of your doing the things you want to do?"(TROUBLE). The contribution of these measures to predictive models for institutionalization and mortality is examined, using linked data from Phases 1 and 2. Their relationship to a proposed frailty measure is also examined. At CSHA-1, a majority of respondents perceived that they were in good health and did not feel that their health problems interfered with their preferred activities. At all frailty levels, a majority of both males and females rated their health as "very good" or "pretty good." As frailty increased, health problems increasingly interfered with normal activities. Logistic regression of the longitudinal data indicated that, despite their correlation, HEALTH and TROUBLE cannot act as proxies for each other. They appear to predict independently; adding one to the other significantly improved prediction of institutionalization and mortality. PMID:11892970

  16. Invariant death

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    In nematodes, environmental or physiological perturbations alter death’s scaling of time. In human cancer, genetic perturbations alter death’s curvature of time. Those changes in scale and curvature follow the constraining contours of death’s invariant geometry. I show that the constraints arise from a fundamental extension to the theories of randomness, invariance and scale. A generalized Gompertz law follows. The constraints imposed by the invariant Gompertz geometry explain the tendency of perturbations to stretch or bend death’s scaling of time. Variability in death rate arises from a combination of constraining universal laws and particular biological processes. PMID:27785361

  17. Cot Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrrell, Shelagh

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

  18. The rate and pattern of bed incision and bank adjustment on the Colorado River in Glen Canyon downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, 1956-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grams, P.E.; Schmidt, J.C.; Topping, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 transformed the Colorado River by reducing the magnitude and duration of spring floods, increasing the magnitude of base flows, and trapping fine sediment delivered from the upper watershed. These changes caused the channel downstream in Glen Canyon to incise, armor, and narrow. This study synthesizes over 45 yr of channel-change measurements and demonstrates that the rate and style of channel adjustment are directly related to both natural processes associated with sediment deficit and human decisions about dam operations. Although bed lowering in lower Glen Canyon began when the first cofferdam was installed in 1959, most incision occurred in 1965 in conjunction with 14 pulsed high flows that scoured an average of 2.6 m of sediment from the center of the channel. The average grain size of bed material has increased from 0.25 mm in 1956 to over 20 mm in 1999. The magnitude of incision at riffles decreases with distance downstream from the dam, while the magnitude of sediment evacuation from pools is spatially variable and extends farther downstream. Analysis of bed-material mobility indicates that the increase in bed-material grain size and reduction in reach-average gradient are consistent with the transformation of an adjustable-bed alluvial river to a channel with a stable bed that is rarely mobilized. Decreased magnitude of peak discharges in the post-dam regime coupled with channel incision and the associated downward shifts of stage-discharge relations have caused sandbar and terrace erosion and the transformation of previously active sandbars and gravel bars to abandoned deposits that are no longer inundated. Erosion has been concentrated in a few pre-dam terraces that eroded rapidly for brief periods and have since stabilized. The abundance of abandoned deposits decreases downstream in conjunction with decreasing magnitude of shift in the stage-discharge relations. In the downstream part of the study area where riffles

  19. Epidemiologic characteristics of death by poisoning in 1991-2001 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Do; Suh, Gil Joon; Rhee, Joong Eui; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jaiyong

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of the death by poisoning in Korea. We recoded the Death Certificates Database by injury based on the short version of the International Classification of External Causes of Injuries (ICECI). We evaluated the mortality rate by total injury and poisoning, and analyzed the mortality rate by age, gender, year and month, toxic agent, and intent. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to evaluate the effects of socioeconomic factors on suicidal poisoning death. The total number of death cases by injury was 346,656. The proportion of death cases by injury decreased from 13.53% of all death cases in 1991 to 11.89% in 2001. However, the mortality rate by poisoning increased rapidly from 1998, and then remained stable. The number of suicidal poisoning deaths has gradually increased, and its mortality rate was 6.41 (per 100,000) in 2001. Major toxic agents were pesticides and herbicides (50.90%) in 2001. Adjusted odds ratios of suicidal poisoning versus other poisonings showed significant differences in education attainment, region, and marital status. In conclusion, the mortality rate by poisoning has increased, and the proportion of suicidal poisoning also has increased compared to that of accidental poisoning.

  20. The national financial adjustment policy and the equalisation of health levels among prefectures

    PubMed Central

    Takano, T; Nakamura, K

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES—The objectives of this study were to examine (1) trends concerning financial assistance from the national government to local governments, (2) trends regarding death rates and life expectancies among prefectures, and (3) the effect of the national financial adjustment policy in equalising both the revenues of local governments and variations in the health levels among prefectures in terms of death rates and life expectancies.
DESIGN—The study analysed prefectural income, the amount of national taxes collected, financial assistance from the national government to local governments, and age adjusted death rates and life expectancies of all of the prefectures in Japan during the period from 1965 through 1995.
MAIN RESULTS—(1) Under the financial adjustment policy, financial assistance from the national government to the local governments, which consists of the sum of the local allocation tax and treasury disbursements, increased from 1831 billion yen in 1965 to 31 116 billion yen in 1995. (2) During the same period, the age adjusted death rate per 100 000 people decreased from 1168.9 (1965) to 545.3 (1995). The range of variation in the age adjusted death rate among prefectures diminished as the coefficient of variation of the death rate declined from 0.060 in 1965 to 0.043 in 1995. (3) There was a significant statistical correlation between higher prefectural incomes and lower mortality rates during from 1965 until 1975 (p < 0.05), whereas this correlation was indistinct in the 1980s and has not been observed since 1990. (4) The relative health level of Tokyo has declined in terms of its ranking among all the prefectures with regard to life expectancy, from being the best in 1965 to below average in 1995.
CONCLUSIONS—The national financial adjustment policy to balance the revenues of local governments has increased the health levels of rural prefectures. It is probable that the policy reduced the disparity in death

  1. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, Marta; Cherubini, Paolo; Fravolini, Giulia; Marchetti, Marco; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Schärer, Michael; Synal, Hans-Arno; Bertoldi, Daniela; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto; Egli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Due to the large size (e.g. sections of tree trunks) and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the timescales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the chronosequence approach and the five-decay class system that is based on a macromorphological assessment. For the decay classes 1-3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose, and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model, a regression approach, and the stage-based matrix model. In the decay classes 1-3, the ages of the CWD were similar and varied between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch, with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative of deadwood age. This seems to be due to a time lag between the death of a standing tree and its contact with the soil. We found distinct tree-species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were estimated to be in the range 0.018 to 0.022 y-1 for spruce and to about 0.012 y-1 for larch. Snapshot sampling (chronosequences) may overestimate the age and mean residence time of CWD. No sampling bias was, however, detectable using the stage-based matrix model. Cellulose and lignin time trends could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 years for spruce and 50 years for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than

  2. Laboratory trend analyses and proactive adjustments to minimize the need for holding epoetin alfa doses.

    PubMed

    Breiterman-White, Randee; Reznicek, Jacci

    2008-01-01

    Holding doses of epoetin alfa (Epogen) alters the balance between red blood cell production and death rates, and leads to a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Although clinical circumstances sometimes require that epoetin alfa doses be held, this can be minimized by monitoring longitudinal trends, predicting the probable future course of Hb, and intervening to proactively adjust epoetin alfa doses before holding is required.

  3. The thickness history of the northern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: an assessment of glacial isostatic adjustment models, sea-level measurements, and vertical land motion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A.

    2014-12-01

    The fit of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model predictions to 24 relative sea-level histories and an additional 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates constrains the thickness and volume history of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet. The predictions of the best-fit GIA model indicate respective peak ice thicknesses west and east of Hudson Bay of 3.4-3.6 km and approximately 4 km. These values represent, respectively, a large decrease, and a moderate increase, to the load thickness compared to ICE-5G. This result is generally consistent with other GIA studies focussing on space-geodetic constraints. The large reduction to the ice load west of Hudson Bay also reduces the vertical mantle response along the margins of the load centre, which improves the fit to relative sea-level data from the southern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The fit of GIA model predictions to relative sea-level data from the Baffin Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet indicate peak ice thicknesses there of 1.2-1.3 km, a modest reduction compared to ICE-5G. On Baffin Island, the modelled elastic crustal response of the Earth to present-day ice mass changes is large. Accounting for this effect improves the agreement between GPS measurements of vertical crustal motion and the GIA model predictions. However, work is needed to incorporate more detailed observations and modelling of present-day changes to glaciers and ice caps. Overall, the fit to the data is most strongly improved in the region west of Hudson Bay (the χ2 RSL misfit is reduced by a factor of ~4) although the entire revised reconstruction for the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet provides an improved fit to both the regional RSL data (the cumulative χ2 misfit is reduced by a factor of >2) and the GPS data (the RMS misfit is reduced by a factor of 9).

  4. 25 CFR 171.565 - How will I know if BIA plans to adjust my annual operation and maintenance assessment rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and Collections § 171.565 How will I know if BIA plans to adjust my annual operation...

  5. A Multicenter Experience from Lebanon in Childhood and Adolescent Acute Myeloid Leukemia: High rate of Early Death in Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Roula A.; Horkos, Jessy G.; Bustros, Youssef D.; Farhat, Hussein Z.; Abla, Oussama

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease with marked heterogeneity. Despite major improvement in outcome, it remains a life-threatening malignancy. Demographic and clinical data on pediatric AML is lacking among the Lebanese population. Purpose We aimed to identify clinical, molecular and outcome data in children with AML in Lebanon. Methods A retrospective chart review of children with AML diagnosed in three Lebanese hospitals during the past 8 years was conducted. Results From May 2002 through March 2010, we identified 24 children with AML in Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, University Medical Center Rizk Hospital, and Abou-Jaoude Hospital. Males and females were equally represented; median age at diagnosis was 9 years (range 1–24) and median WBC at diagnosis was 31 × 109/L (range: 2.1–376 × 109/L). Twenty five percent of patients (6 out of 24) had acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Karyotype was normal in 33% of patients; t(8;21), inv (16), t(8;9), t(7;11), t(9;11), complex chromosomal abnormality, monosomy 7 and trisomy 8 were the most common cytogenetic abnormalities encountered. Patients were treated on different European and North American protocols. Twelve patients (50%) achieved morphologic CR after cycle 1, 6 of them (50%) had bone marrow relapse within 11 months from diagnosis. Nine patients underwent allogeneic stem cell transplant, and 3 of them are alive at 5 years post-transplant. Early death rate was 16.6% of patients, mainly those with APL and a presenting WBC > 10 × 109/L. Fifty per cent of APL patients had an early death due to DIC despite starting ATRA therapy. Overall, median survival for AML patients who died from disease progression was 25.8 months (range: 1–60 months). Overall disease-free survival was 30.4%. Patients < 10 years of age had a 50% survival rate compared to 0% in patients > 10 years. Conclusions Our report highlights the needs in Lebanon for better supportive care of children with APL

  6. Risk-adjusted outcomes in Medicare inpatient nephrectomy patients

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Donald E.; Pine, Michael; Nedza, Susan M.; Locke, David G.; Reband, Agnes M.; Pine, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Without risk-adjusted outcomes of surgical care across both the inpatient and postacute period of time, hospitals and surgeons cannot evaluate the effectiveness of current performance in nephrectomy and other operations, and will not have objective metrics to gauge improvements from care redesign efforts. We compared risk-adjusted hospital outcomes following elective total and partial nephrectomy to demonstrate differences that can be used to improve care. We used the Medicare Limited Dataset for 2010 to 2012 for total and partial nephrectomy for benign and malignant neoplasms to create prediction models for the adverse outcomes (AOs) of inpatient deaths, prolonged length-of-stay outliers, 90-day postdischarge deaths without readmission, and 90-day relevant readmissions. From the 4 prediction models, total predicted adverse outcomes were determined for each hospital in the dataset that met a minimum of 25 evaluable cases for the study period. Standard deviations (SDs) for each hospital were used to identify specific z-scores. Risk-adjusted adverse outcomes rates were computed to permit benchmarking each hospital's performance against the national standard. Differences between best and suboptimal performing hospitals defined the potential margin of preventable adverse outcomes for this operation. A total of 449 hospitals with 23,477 patients were evaluated. Overall AO rate was 20.8%; 17 hospitals had risk-adjusted AO rates that were 2 SDs poorer than predicted and 8 were 2 SDs better. The top performing decile of hospitals had a risk-adjusted AO rate of 10.2% while the lowest performing decile had 32.1%. With a minimum of 25 cases for each study hospital, no statistically valid improvement in outcomes was seen with increased case volume. Inpatient and 90-day postdischarge risk-adjusted adverse outcomes demonstrated marked variability among study hospitals and illustrate the opportunities for care improvement. This analytic design is applicable for comparing

  7. Risk-adjusted outcomes in Medicare inpatient nephrectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Fry, Donald E; Pine, Michael; Nedza, Susan M; Locke, David G; Reband, Agnes M; Pine, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    Without risk-adjusted outcomes of surgical care across both the inpatient and postacute period of time, hospitals and surgeons cannot evaluate the effectiveness of current performance in nephrectomy and other operations, and will not have objective metrics to gauge improvements from care redesign efforts.We compared risk-adjusted hospital outcomes following elective total and partial nephrectomy to demonstrate differences that can be used to improve care. We used the Medicare Limited Dataset for 2010 to 2012 for total and partial nephrectomy for benign and malignant neoplasms to create prediction models for the adverse outcomes (AOs) of inpatient deaths, prolonged length-of-stay outliers, 90-day postdischarge deaths without readmission, and 90-day relevant readmissions. From the 4 prediction models, total predicted adverse outcomes were determined for each hospital in the dataset that met a minimum of 25 evaluable cases for the study period. Standard deviations (SDs) for each hospital were used to identify specific z-scores. Risk-adjusted adverse outcomes rates were computed to permit benchmarking each hospital's performance against the national standard. Differences between best and suboptimal performing hospitals defined the potential margin of preventable adverse outcomes for this operation.A total of 449 hospitals with 23,477 patients were evaluated. Overall AO rate was 20.8%; 17 hospitals had risk-adjusted AO rates that were 2 SDs poorer than predicted and 8 were 2 SDs better. The top performing decile of hospitals had a risk-adjusted AO rate of 10.2% while the lowest performing decile had 32.1%. With a minimum of 25 cases for each study hospital, no statistically valid improvement in outcomes was seen with increased case volume.Inpatient and 90-day postdischarge risk-adjusted adverse outcomes demonstrated marked variability among study hospitals and illustrate the opportunities for care improvement. This analytic design is applicable for comparing provider

  8. Deaths among members of the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, 1965-89.

    PubMed Central

    Lange, W R; Frankenfield, D L; Carico, J; Pfeiffer, M B; Snyder, F R; Van Der Decker, J

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps performs health promotion and disease prevention activities and provides clinical care. The authors examined the epidemiology of deaths among active duty personnel and the hypothesis that, based on the mission, mortality would be less than in the general population, and that deaths would reflect nonpreventable causes. A retrospective record review for the period 1965-89 showed 118 active duty deaths, 26 percent of the number anticipated in a general population group adjusted for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. The five major causes of death were coronary heart disease, suicide, motor vehicle crash, malignant neoplasm, and drowning. Beginning with the mid-1980s, infectious disease became a principal cause of death, the only cause for which the rate trended upward. Among professionals, death rates were highest among sanitarians and veterinarians, and lowest among pharmacists. The only causes for which deaths exceeded the expected number involved suicides and possibly deaths related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Active duty status in the Commissioned Corps was associated with a death rate less than that of comparable groups in the general population. Many of the premature deaths were attributable to preventable causes. PMID:1561297

  9. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  10. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  11. Puma cooperates with Bim, the rate-limiting BH3-only protein in cell death during lymphocyte development, in apoptosis induction

    PubMed Central

    Erlacher, Miriam; Labi, Verena; Manzl, Claudia; Böck, Günther; Tzankov, Alexandar; Häcker, Georg; Michalak, Ewa; Strasser, Andreas; Villunger, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The physiological role of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) homology 3–only proteins has been investigated in mice lacking the individual genes identifying rate-limiting roles for Bim (Bcl-2–interacting mediator of cell death) and Puma (p53–up-regulated modulator of apoptosis) in apoptosis induction. The loss of Bim protects lymphocytes from apoptosis induced by cytokine deprivation and deregulated Ca++ flux and interferes with the deletion of autoreactive lymphocytes and the shutdown of immune responses. In contrast, Puma is considered the key mediator of p53-induced apoptosis. To investigate the hypothesis that Bim and Puma have overlapping functions, we generated mice lacking both genes and found that bim−/−/puma−/− animals develop multiple postnatal defects that are not observed in the single knockout mice. Most strikingly, hyperplasia of lymphatic organs is comparable with that observed in mice overexpressing Bcl-2 in all hemopoietic cells exceeding the hyperplasia observed in bim−/− mice. Bim and Puma also have clearly overlapping functions in p53-dependent and -independent apoptosis. Their combined loss promotes spontaneous tumorigenesis, causing the malignancies observed in Bcl-2 transgenic mice, but does not exacerbate the autoimmunity observed in the absence of Bim. PMID:17178918

  12. Deaths: Final Data for 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sherry L.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents final 1998 data on U.S. deaths and death rates according to demographic and medical characteristics such as age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, state of residence, and cause of death. Trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal…

  13. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, M.; Cherubini, P.; Fravolini, G.; Ascher, J.; Schärer, M.; Synal, H.-A.; Bertoldi, D.; Camin, F.; Larcher, R.; Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the large size and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the time scales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests have been poorly investigated and are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the five-decay class system commonly employed for forest surveys, based on a macromorphological and visual assessment. For the decay classes 1 to 3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) and some others not having enough tree rings, radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model. In the decay classes 1 to 3, the ages of the CWD were similar varying between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative for deadwood age. We found, however, distinct tree species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were 0.012 to 0.018 yr-1 for spruce and 0.005 to 0.012 yr-1 for larch. Cellulose and lignin time trends half-lives (using a multiple-exponential model) could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 yr for spruce and 50 yr for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than 100 years in larch CWD.

  14. Identifying and quantifying misclassified and under-reported AIDS deaths in Brazil: a retrospective analysis from 1985 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Fazito, Erika; Cuchi, Paloma; Ma Fat, Doris; Ghys, Peter Denis; Pereira, Mauricio G; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Pascom, Ana Roberta Pati

    2012-01-01

    Background A retrospective analysis of deaths registered in the Brazilian Mortality System was conducted to quantify the under-reporting of HIV/AIDS deaths and those misclassified to AIDS-related conditions in the 15–49 years old population in Brazil. Methods Death rates for AIDS-related diseases were calculated by age and sex for 1985–2009. Changes in the age-sex-specific death rates over time were used to identify conditions likely to be misclassified AIDS deaths and to quantify the corresponding number of misclassified deaths. Deaths due to ill-defined causes were redistributed across all other natural causes of death. The resulting total number of AIDS deaths was further adjusted for incompleteness of the mortality reporting system. Results Out of the 28 potential causes of death investigated, five increased in the same distinct age pattern as AIDS: pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma, other immunodeficiencies, other septicaemia and toxoplasmosis. 18 490 deaths due to these five causes were recoded to HIV/AIDS from 1985 to 2009. 38 145 deaths due to ill-defined causes were redistributed to AIDS and 15 485 were added to the number of AIDS deaths to correct for completeness of the mortality system in Brazil. Altogether, 72 120 deaths were recoded to AIDS between 1985 and 2009 and added to the reported 194 445 AIDS related deaths in the country, representing 27% misclassification of AIDS deaths in Brazil. Conclusions This study demonstrated that AIDS mortality is underestimated by the official mortality information system in Brazil. Efforts need to be made to reduce misclassification of causes of death in the future and identify ways in which the confidentiality of information regarding cause of death can be maintained. PMID:23172349

  15. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  16. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  17. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  18. Death duties

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kathryn A.; Eden, David

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED Family physicians are often called upon to pronounce and certify the deaths of patients. Inadequate knowledge of the Coroners Act (in the province of Ontario) and of the correct process of certifying death can make physicians uncomfortable when confronted with these tasks. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To educate family physicians about how to perform the administrative tasks required of them when patients die. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The program included an educational video, a tutorial outlining the process of death certification, and discussion with a regional coroner about key features of the Coroners Act. In small groups, participants worked through cases of patient deaths in which they were asked to determine whether a coroner needed to be involved, to determine the manner of death, and to complete a mock death certificate for each case. CONCLUSION All participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the workshop and thought the main objective of the program had been achieved. Results of a test given 3 months after the workshop showed substantial improvement in participants’ knowledge of the coroner’s role and of the process of death certification. PMID:17872782

  19. Neighborhood racial residential segregation and changes in health or death among older adults.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Joseph J; Perzynski, Adam; Wong, David W; Colabianchi, Natalie; Litaker, David

    2013-01-01

    We assessed relationships between neighborhood racial residential segregation (RRS), individual-level health declines and mortality using Health and Retirement Study data. We calculated the census-tract level Location Quotient for Racial Residential Segregation (LQRRS), and estimated adjusted relative risks (ARR) of LQRRS for declines in self-reported health or death 1992-2000, controlling for individual-level characteristics. Of 6653 adults, 3333 lived in minimal, 2242 in low, 562 in moderate, and 516 in high LQRRS tracts in 1992. Major decline/death rates were: 18.6%, 25.2%, 33.8% and 30.4% in minimal, low, moderate and high tracts, respectively. Adjusting for demographic characteristics, residence in low, moderate and high LQRRS census tracts was associated with greater likelihood of major decline/death compared to minimal LQRRS. Controlling for all variables, only moderate LQRRS predicted major decline/death, ARR=1.31 (95% CI 1.07, 1.59; p<.05).

  20. Patterns of United States mortality for ten selected causes of death

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-11-06

    Income, ethnicity, education, and occupation are examples of socio-economic factors associated with the occurrence of disease, whether an investigation focuses on an individual or on an aggregation of individuals. In this study, data aggregated to the county level are used to explore two issues - geographic variation and geographic covariation of ten selected causes of death in the United States. The counties of the United States are characterized by 15 socio-economic variables and age-adjusted mortality rates for the ten selected causes of death. The observed variation among the US counties, as measured by the socio-economic variables, is first assessed, then the geographic variation and covariation are described for each cause of death and, finally, the covariation among causes of death is analyzed after adjusting for the influences of the measured sources of county variation.

  1. Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths--United States, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rose A; Aleshire, Noah; Zibbell, Jon E; Gladden, R Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The United States is experiencing an epidemic of drug overdose (poisoning) deaths. Since 2000, the rate of deaths from drug overdoses has increased 137%, including a 200% increase in the rate of overdose deaths involving opioids (opioid pain relievers and heroin). CDC analyzed recent multiple cause-of-death mortality data to examine current trends and characteristics of drug overdose deaths, including the types of opioids associated with drug overdose deaths. During 2014, a total of 47,055 drug overdose deaths occurred in the United States, representing a 1-year increase of 6.5%, from 13.8 per 100,000 persons in 2013 to 14.7 per 100,000 persons in 2014. The rate of drug overdose deaths increased significantly for both sexes, persons aged 25-44 years and ≥55 years, non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks, and in the Northeastern, Midwestern, and Southern regions of the United States. Rates of opioid overdose deaths also increased significantly, from 7.9 per 100,000 in 2013 to 9.0 per 100,000 in 2014, a 14% increase. Historically, CDC has programmatically characterized all opioid pain reliever deaths (natural and semisynthetic opioids, methadone, and other synthetic opioids) as "prescription" opioid overdoses (1). Between 2013 and 2014, the age-adjusted rate of death involving methadone remained unchanged; however, the age-adjusted rate of death involving natural and semisynthetic opioid pain relievers, heroin, and synthetic opioids, other than methadone (e.g., fentanyl) increased 9%, 26%, and 80%, respectively. The sharp increase in deaths involving synthetic opioids, other than methadone, in 2014 coincided with law enforcement reports of increased availability of illicitly manufactured fentanyl, a synthetic opioid; however, illicitly manufactured fentanyl cannot be distinguished from prescription fentanyl in death certificate data. These findings indicate that the opioid overdose epidemic is worsening. There is a need for continued action to prevent opioid

  2. Neonatal Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... story First Candle Centering Corporation The Compassionate Friends Star Legacy Foundation Last reviewed: November, 2015 Neonatal death ... story First Candle Centering Corporation The Compassionate Friends Star Legacy Foundation Last reviewed: November, 2015 Complications & Loss ...

  3. A Q-Switched All-Solid-State Single-Longitudinal-Mode Laser with Adjustable Pulse-Width and High Repetition Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Shi-Zhong; Hou, Xia; Wei, Hui; Chen, Wei-Biao

    2006-01-01

    A single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) laser-diode pumped Nd: YAG laser with adjustable pulse width is developed by using the techniques of pre-lasing and changing polarization of birefingent crystal. The Q-switching voltage is triggered by the peak of the pre-lasing pulse to achieve the higher stability of output pulse energy. The output energy of more than 1 mJ is obtained with output energy stability of 3% (rms) at 100 Hz. The pulse-width can be adjusted from 30 ns to 300 ns by changing the Q-switching voltage. The probability of putting out single-longitudinal-mode pulses is almost 100%. The laser can be run over four hours continually without mode hopping.

  4. Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Motor Vehicle Accident Deaths in the United States, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sam; Charters, Thomas J; Strumpf, Erin C

    2015-10-01

    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) mortality has been declining overall, but little is known about trends by socioeconomic position. We examined trends in education-related inequalities in US MVA death rates from 1995 to 2010. We used mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics and population estimates from the Current Population Survey, and we calculated vehicle- and person-miles traveled using data from the National Household Travel Survey. We used negative binomial regression to estimate crude and age-, sex-, and race-adjusted mortality rates among adults aged 25 years or more. We found larger mortality decreases among the more highly educated and some evidence of mortality increases among the least educated. Adjusted death rates were 15.3 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.7, 19.9) higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top of the education distribution in 1995, increasing to 17.9 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 14.8, 21.0) by 2010. In relative terms, adjusted death rates were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.7, 3.0) times higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top in 1995, increasing to 4.3 times higher (95% CI: 3.4, 5.3) by 2010. Inequality increases were larger in terms of vehicle-miles traveled. Although overall MVA death rates declined during this period, socioeconomic differences in MVA mortality have persisted or worsened over time.

  5. Effects of Sudden vs. Chronic Illness Death on Bereavement Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Catherine M.

    1982-01-01

    Interviewed bereaved persons shortly after the death of a close family member and 18 months later. Respondents were grouped according to mode of death. The short-term chronic illness group made the most favorable adjustment. Sudden death and long-term chronic illness death groups sustained higher intensities of bereavement. (Author/RC)

  6. Deaths in the Cook County jail: 10-year report, 1995-2004.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seijeoung; Ting, Andrew; Puisis, Michael; Rodriguez, Sergio; Benson, Roger; Mennella, Connie; Davis, Faith

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe causes of death during the 10-year period between 1995 and 2004 in a large urban jail in Chicago; to compare disease specific mortality rates between the jail population and the general population; to explore demographic and incarceration characteristics of the inmates who died in the jail by cause of death; and to examine gender difference in demographic characteristics, incarceration patterns, and causes of death. A total of 178 deaths occurring in the jail over a 10-year period (1995-2004) were reviewed. Age-adjusted disease-specific mortality rates were computed for the jail population and compared with the rates in the US general population. Cause of death, demographic variables, and incarceration related factors were retrieved from multiple computerized databases. Descriptive analyses were performed to examine demographic and incarceration-related patterns by cause of death and gender. Heart disease was the most frequent cause of death in the jail population, followed by cerebrovascular disease and suicide. Mortality rates for heart diseases, infectious/inflammatory conditions and suicide were higher for jail inmates than the general population. Black inmates accounted for the majority of deaths due to illnesses and homicide, and a much higher proportion of white and Hispanic inmates were involved in suicide deaths. Deaths due to drug overdose or withdrawal were disproportionately higher among female inmates compared with male inmates. Consistent review of mortality rates and causes of deaths in jail can be a useful tool to better understand health issues and needs of jail inmates. Surveillance of acute and chronic illnesses and strategic reengineering of jail health care is a key to quality improvement for incarcerated populations for whom the jail system becomes their primary care provider. PMID:17136629

  7. Life Experience with Death: Relation to Death Attitudes and to the Use of Death-Related Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Dirk, Judith; Mackay, Michael M.; Hux, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the relation of death experience to death attitudes and to autobiographical memory use. Participants (N = 52) completed standard death attitude measures and wrote narratives about a death-related autobiographical memory and (for comparison) a memory of a low point. Self-ratings of the memory narratives were used to assess their…

  8. Epidemiology of violent deaths in the world

    PubMed Central

    Reza, A; Mercy, J; Krug, E

    2001-01-01

    Objective—This study describes epidemiologic patterns of mortality due to suicide, homicide, and war for the world in order to serve as a benchmark against which to measure future progress and to raise awareness about violence as a global public health problem. Setting—The world and its eight major regions. Method—Data were derived from The Global Burden of Disease series and the US National Center for Health Statistics to estimate crude rates, age adjusted rates, sex rate ratios, and the health burden for suicide, homicide, and war related deaths for the world and its eight major regions in 1990. Results—In 1990, an estimated 1 851 000 people died from violence (35.3 per 100 000) in the world. There were an estimated 786 000 suicides. Overall suicide rates ranged from 3.4 per 100 000 in Sub-Saharan Africa to 30.4 per 100 000 in China. There were an estimated 563 000 homicides. Overall homicide rates ranged from 1.0 per 100 000 in established market economies to 44.8 per 100 000 in Sub-Saharan Africa with peaks among males aged 15–24 years old, and among females aged 0–4 years old. There were an estimated 502 000 war related deaths with peaks in rates for both sexes among people aged 0–4, 15–29, and 60–69 years old. Conclusion—The number of violence related deaths in the world is unacceptably high. Coordinated prevention and control efforts are urgently needed. PMID:11428556

  9. Do loss to follow-up and death rates from ART care vary across primary health care facilities and hospitals in south Ethiopia? A retrospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Wondu; Belayneh, Mehretu; Moges, Mathewos; Mekonnen, Emebet; Endrias, Misganu; Ayele, Sinafiksh; Misganaw, Tebeje; Shiferaw, Mekonnen; Tesema, Tigist

    2015-01-01

    Background Decentralization and task shifting has significantly improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many studies conducted to determine the attrition rate in Ethiopia have not compared attrition rates between hospitals and health centers in a relatively recent cohort of patients. This study compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates among ART patients in hospitals and health centers in south Ethiopia. Methods Data routinely collected from patients aged older than 15 years who started ART between July 2011 and August 2012 in 20 selected health facilities (12 being hospitals) were analyzed. The outcomes of interest were LTFU and death. The data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 and Stata version 12.0. Competing-risk regression models were used. Results The service years of the facilities were similar (median 8 and 7.5 for hospitals and health centers, respectively). The mean patient age was 33.7±9.6 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 179 (interquartile range 93–263) cells/mm3. A total of 2,356 person-years of observation were made with a median follow-up duration of 28 (interquartile range 22–31) months; 24.6% were either dead or LTFU, resulting in a retention rate of 75.4%. The death rates were 3.0 and 1.5 and the LTFU rate were 9.0 and 10.9 per 100 person-years of observation in health centers and hospitals, respectively. The competing-risk regression model showed that the gap between testing and initiation of ART, body mass index, World Health Organization clinical stage, isoniazid prophylaxis, age, facility type, and educational status were independently associated with LTFU. Moreover, baseline tuberculous disease, poor functional status, and follow-up at a health center were associated with an elevated probability of death. Conclusion We observed a higher death rate and a lower LTFU rate in health centers than in hospitals. Most of the associated variables were also

  10. Time-adjusted variable resistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.

  11. A crossover adjustment for improving sea surface height mapping from in-situ high rate ship-borne GNSS data using PPP technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinyun; Dong, Zhenghua; Tan, Zhengguang; Liu, Xin; Chen, Chuanfa; Hwang, Cheinway

    2016-08-01

    Ship-borne global navigation satellite system (GNSS) technique can overcome the weakness of satellite altimetry and tide gauge in measuring sea surface heights (SSHs) over coastal seas. Ship-borne GNSS technique can be used to calibrate SSHs determined by the satellite altimetry and tide gauge. The ship-borne GNSS data are processed with the single-epoch precise point positioning (PPP) method to estimate SSHs which are filtered by the Gaussian filter to weaken and/or remove effects of sea wind and wave field. Tidal corrections are also taken into consideration to improve SSHs. One crossover adjustment method is put forward to calculate the bias and drift along the ship route and assess the accuracy of SSHs. We processed the in-situ ship-borne GPS data over the offshore sea around Keelung to compute precisely SSHs with the single-epoch PPP. Statistical results of SSH differences of crossover points indicate that the root mean squares error of SSHs determined by the ship-borne GPS is up to level of 12.9 cm over the offshore sea ~30 km far away to land.

  12. Adjustment versus no adjustment when using adjustable sutures in strabismus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liebermann, Laura; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.; Holmes, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare long-term postoperative outcomes when performing an adjustment to achieve a desired immediate postoperative alignment versus simply tying off at the desired immediate postoperative alignment when using adjustable sutures for strabismus surgery. Methods We retrospectively identified 89 consecutive patients who underwent a reoperation for horizontal strabismus using adjustable sutures and also had a 6-week and 1-year outcome examination. In each case, the intent of the surgeon was to tie off and only to adjust if the patient was not within the intended immediate postoperative range. Postoperative success was predefined based on angle of misalignment and diplopia at distance and near. Results Of the 89 patients, 53 (60%) were adjusted and 36 (40%) were tied off. Success rates were similar between patients who were simply tied off immediately after surgery and those who were adjusted. At 6 weeks, the success rate was 64% for the nonadjusted group versus 81% for the adjusted group (P = 0.09; difference of 17%; 95% CI, −2% to 36%). At 1 year, the success rate was 67% for the nonadjusted group versus 77% for the adjusted group (P = 0.3; difference of 11%; 95% CI, −8% to 30%). Conclusions Performing an adjustment to obtain a desired immediate postoperative alignment did not yield inferior long-term outcomes to those obtained by tying off to obtain that initial alignment. If patients were who were outside the desired immediate postoperative range had not been not adjusted, it is possible that their long-term outcomes would have been worse, therefore, overall, an adjustable approach may be superior to a nonadjustable approach. PMID:23415035

  13. 5 CFR 9701.336 - Treatment of employees whose pay does not fall below the minimum adjusted rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements § 9701.336 Treatment of employees whose pay does not...

  14. [Hemodynamic benefits of AV interval adjustment and heart rate increase during exercise in dual-chamber pacing as determined by Doppler].

    PubMed

    Sancho-Tello, M J; Salvador, A; Olagüe, J

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the relative significance of ventricular rate increase and AV delay on exercise cardiac output, we have studied 10 patients (8 male and 2 female, 16-59 years) with complete chronic heart block treated with AV sequential pacing. Cardiac output variations (delta CO) were estimated by pulsed Doppler comparisons of the aortic flow velocity in the supine position, at rest and during bicycle exercise. The following pacing programs were tested: DDD with AV intervals of 50, 100 and 150 ms (DDD50 o DDDD100, DDD150), VVI at 70 ppm (VVI70), and VVI at the maximal available rate in this pacing mode-113 or 130 ppm depending on the PM type (VVIM). Exercise measurements in DDD mode were taken when that rate was reached. The delta CO was calculated as a percent change of the product flow velocity integral x heart rate, from that obtained with VVI70 mode at rest. At rest, the delta CO obtained with DDD pacing was 20.4 +/- 14.7% and the optimal AV delay was 50 ms in 1 patient, 100 ms in 3 patients and 150 ms in six. During exercise, the delta CO was higher in DDD and VVIM modes (82.0 +/- 30.8% and 56.2 +/- 37.6%, respectively; p less than 0.01) than in VVI70 mode (20.4 +/- 10.4%; p less than 0.005), the greatest delta CO was reached at DDD mode in 8 out of 10 patients (p less than 0.03). The optimal AV delays were 50 ms in 5 patients, 100 ms in 4 patients and 150 ms in one. Thus, DDD pacing with the optimal AV delay seems to obtain greater haemodynamic benefits during exercise than does rate-responsive pacing; the optimal exercise AV delay varies from patient to patient and is usually less than 150 ms. PMID:2236802

  15. Urban–Rural Shifts in Intentional Firearm Death: Different Causes, Same Results

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Nance, Michael L.; Elliott, Michael R.; Richmond, Therese S.; Schwab, C. William

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed urban–rural differences in intentional firearm death. Methods. We analyzed 584629 deaths from 1989 to 1999 assigned to 3141 US counties, using negative binomial regressions and an 11-category urban–rural variable. Results. The most urban counties had 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.87, 1.20) times the adjusted firearm death rate of the most rural counties. The most rural counties experienced 1.54 (95% CI=1.29, 1.83) times the adjusted firearm suicide rate of the most urban. The most urban counties experienced 1.90 (95% CI=1.50, 2.40) times the adjusted firearm homicide rate of the most rural. Similar opposing trends were not found for nonfirearm suicide or homicide. Conclusions. Firearm suicide in rural counties is as important a public health problem as firearm homicide in urban counties. Policymakers should become aware that intentional firearm deaths affect all types of communities in the United States. PMID:15451745

  16. Death on Denali

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rodman; Mills, William J.; Rogers, Donald R.; Propst, Michael T.

    1978-01-01

    Between 1903 and 1975 about 1 percent of climbers on Mount McKinley (Denali) and Mount Foraker in Alaska died. In 1976 a total of ten (1.7 percent) of 587 mountaineers died, but this rate of death was not significantly higher than previously. Nineteen percent of climbers in 1976 suffered major or minor injuries, illness or death. Acute mountain sickness (AMS), frostbite and fractures were common. Thirty-three rescues or retrievals of bodies were mounted at a cost of more than $82,000. Inexperience (particularly with arctic mountaineering), poor leadership, faulty equipment and undue reliance on rescue by helicopter contributed to the alarming incidence of accident, illness and death on big peaks in Mount McKinley National Park in 1976. PMID:664648

  17. An index of unhealthy lifestyle is associated with coronary heart disease mortality rates for small areas in England after adjustment for deprivation.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, P; Allender, S; Rayner, M; Goldacre, M

    2011-03-01

    Indices of socio-economic deprivation are often used as a proxy for differences in the health behaviours of populations within small areas, but these indices are a measure of the economic environment rather than the health environment. Sets of synthetic estimates of the ward-level prevalence of low fruit and vegetable consumption, obesity, raised blood pressure, raised cholesterol and smoking were combined to develop an index of unhealthy lifestyle. Multi-level regression models showed that this index described about 50% of the large-scale geographic variation in CHD mortality rates in England, and substantially adds to the ability of an index of deprivation to explain geographic variations in CHD mortality rates.

  18. Controlling Type I Error Rate in Evaluating Differential Item Functioning for Four DIF Methods: Use of Three Procedures for Adjustment of Multiple Item Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihye

    2010-01-01

    In DIF studies, a Type I error refers to the mistake of identifying non-DIF items as DIF items, and a Type I error rate refers to the proportion of Type I errors in a simulation study. The possibility of making a Type I error in DIF studies is always present and high possibility of making such an error can weaken the validity of the assessment.…

  19. A frequency-locked and frequency-doubled, hybrid Q-switched Yb:KYW laser at 515 nm with a widely adjustable repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjörnhammar, S.; Zukauskas, A.; Canalias, C.; Pasiskevicius, V.; Laurell, F.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a compact wavelength-stabilized, frequency-doubled Yb-doped double-tungstate laser with widely tunable repetition rate, spanning from 35 Hz to 3 kHz obtained by hybrid Q-switching. The Q-switching unit consisted of a combination of a passive Cr:YAG crystal and an opto-mechanical active intensity modulator. The fundamental wavelength was locked at 1029 nm with a volume Bragg grating, and the pulse length and energy were 42 ns and 250 µJ, respectively. As the laser was stabilized with the VBG and the opto-mechanical modulator, the frequency instability was reduced six times from free running down to 0.29 %. Frequency doubling was done extra-cavity in PPKTP, and a repetition rate-independent conversion efficiency of 63 % was obtained. The controllable repetition rate together with stable temporal and spatial characteristics makes this laser a suitable candidate in many biology-related experiments, as a pump source for in vivo excitation of fluorophores, e.g., pumping of "living lasers" and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy.

  20. Fear of death.

    PubMed

    Penson, Richard T; Partridge, Rosamund A; Shah, Muhammad A; Giansiracusa, David; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J

    2005-02-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient and support to caregivers and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. For many, cancer is synonymous with death. Fearing death is a rational response. For too long, medicine has ignored this primeval fear. Increasingly, clinicians recognize and address end-of-life issues, facing patients' and our own emotional vulnerabilities in order to connect and explore problems and fears. Listening and learning from the patient guides us as we acknowledge much of the mystery that still surrounds the dying process. Rarely is there a simple or right answer. An empathetic response to suffering patients is the best support. Support is vital in fostering the adjustment of patients. A silent presence may prove more helpful than well-meant counsel for many patients. Through an examination of eight caregiver narratives of their patients' experiences, the role of the health care provider in the dying process, particularly in regard to challenging fear, is reviewed.

  1. [Accompany death].

    PubMed

    Salvador Borrell, Montserrat

    2010-11-01

    One of the roles of nursing is to take care of the patients in terminal situation. The time, the experience, the formation, and the personal and professional attitudes that the nurse has will propitiate that taking care of moribund patients might turn into one of the more rewarding human experiences in life. There for, it is indispensable that nurses assume death as a natural and inevitable reality to achieve. The principal aim of the study is to evaluate the competence of confrontation and the autoefficiency of the welfare among nurses who work with adult patients at the end of the life. Descriptive study realized in the units of Oncology, Hametology and Palliative Care of the following centers: La Fe, Clínico, Dr. Peset, H. General, Arnau de Vilanova and Dr. Moliner de Portacoelli in Valencia (Spain). The following instruments were used: the Bugen Scale of confrontation of the Death (1980-1981) and the Robbins Scale of Autoefficiency (1992). Data suggests that major coping gives major autoeffciency and vice versa. The realized study opens numerous questions, specially related with training and the burden of preparation along the whole professional career, in order to achieve competence for coping and autoefficiency.

  2. Risk-adjusted monitoring of survival times

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Reynolds, Marion R.; Woodall, William H.

    2009-02-26

    We consider the monitoring of clinical outcomes, where each patient has a di®erent risk of death prior to undergoing a health care procedure.We propose a risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM chart (RAST CUSUM) for monitoring clinical outcomes where the primary endpoint is a continuous, time-to-event variable that may be right censored. Risk adjustment is accomplished using accelerated failure time regression models. We compare the average run length performance of the RAST CUSUM chart to the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, using data from cardiac surgeries to motivate the details of the comparison. The comparisons show that the RAST CUSUM chart is more efficient at detecting a sudden decrease in the odds of death than the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, especially when the fraction of censored observations is not too high. We also discuss the implementation of a prospective monitoring scheme using the RAST CUSUM chart.

  3. Effects of uncertainty in SAPRC90 rate constants and selected product yields on reactivity adjustment factors for alternative fuel vehicle emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, M.S.; Russell, A.G.; Yang, Y.J.; Milford, J.B.; Kirchner, F.; Stockwell, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone is formed in the atmosphere by a series of reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). While NOx emissions are primarily composed of only two compounds, nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), there are hundreds of different VOCs being emitted. In general, VOCs promote ozone formation, however, the rate and extent of ozone produced by the individual VOCs varies considerably. For example, it is widely acknowledged that formaldehyde (HCHO) is a very reactive VOC, and produces ozone rapidly and efficiently under most conditions. On the other hand, VOCs such as methane, ethane, propane, and methanol do not react as quickly, and are likely to form less urban ozone than a comparable mass of HCHO. The difference in ozone forming potential is one of the bases for the use of alternative fuels. The fuels considered in this study included compressed natural gas, LPG, mixtures of methanol and gasoline, ethanol and gasoline, and a reformulated gasoline.

  4. Differences in postperinatal infant deaths between north and southern Derbyshire.

    PubMed Central

    Newlands, M; Adamson, E; Ghulam, S; Saleh, M; Emery, J L

    1991-01-01

    In depth confidential inquiries on all post-perinatal infant deaths were carried out for two years in North and Southern Derbyshire District Health Authorities in order to explore why the postperinatal death rates and cot death rates have been consistently higher in Southern than in North Derbyshire. It was found that the death rates for probably inevitable deaths and for 'idiopathic' cot deaths were the same in both districts. The differences in the death rates lay in the group of partly explained cot deaths. Adverse social factors associated with each death were recorded and an estimate made of their relevance to the individual deaths. The group of deaths most amenable to intervention was those of category B (partly explained cot deaths). As judged by the Jarman index there are more areas of deprivation in Southern than in North Derbyshire. PMID:1776890

  5. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  6. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  7. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  8. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  9. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  10. Encountering Death: Structured Activities for Death Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ira David; And Others

    This book is intended to be used as a supplement to standard textbooks on death and dying for college students. Chapter 1 "Encountering Death in the Self" builds the foundation for increased self-awareness for the study of death and dying. Chapter 2 "Encountering Death in the Family" provides activities which are appropriate for a wide variety of…

  11. A whole genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting milk protein percentage in Israeli-Holstein cattle, by means of selective milk DNA pooling in a daughter design, using an adjusted false discovery rate criterion.

    PubMed Central

    Mosig, M O; Lipkin, E; Khutoreskaya, G; Tchourzyna, E; Soller, M; Friedmann, A

    2001-01-01

    Selective DNA pooling was employed in a daughter design to screen all bovine autosomes for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting estimated breeding value for milk protein percentage (EBVP%). Milk pools prepared from high and low daughters of each of seven sires were genotyped for 138 dinucleotide microsatellites. Shadow-corrected estimates of sire allele frequencies were compared between high and low pools. An adjusted false discovery rate (FDR) method was employed to calculate experimentwise significance levels and empirical power. Significant associations with milk protein percentage were found for 61 of the markers (adjusted FDR = 0.10; estimated power, 0.68). The significant markers appear to be linked to 19--28 QTL. Mean allele substitution effects of the putative QTL averaged 0.016 (0.009--0.028) in units of the within-sire family standard deviation of EBVP% and summed to 0.460 EBVP%. Overall QTL heterozygosity was 0.40. The identified QTL appear to account for all of the variation in EBVP% in the population. Through use of selective DNA pooling, 4400 pool data points provided the statistical power of 600,000 individual data points. PMID:11290723

  12. Adolescents' Attitudes toward the Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Maggioncalda-Aretz, Maria; Stark, Scott Hunter

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether high school (n=142) and college students (n=112) favored the death penalty for certain criminal acts. Findings indicate that high school students rated more criminal acts as meriting the death penalty. Gender and personality were not found to be associated with attitudes toward the death penalty. (RJM)

  13. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  14. The Kenyan Political Conflict and Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M.; Myers, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an…

  15. 76 FR 22157 - Postal Service Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... flats that include, in or on the mailpiece, a two dimensional barcode readable by mobile smart phones.... Id. The Postal Service requires that the barcode must be two dimensional, and notes that one dimensional barcodes, though readable by smart phones, are not eligible to receive the discount. Id....

  16. Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Katherine G.; Jose, Powell O.; Kapphahn, Kristopher I.; Frank, Ariel T. H.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Thompson, Caroline A.; Eggleston, Karen; Cullen, Mark R.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups. Methods and Findings We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%). Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer’s disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs. Conclusions Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these

  17. Death Education and Death Fear Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Mary Louise

    1976-01-01

    The study examined the possibility of reducing the fear of death in early adolescents through a 12-lesson unit designed to assist the student to achieve an attitude of integration toward life and death. (NQ)

  18. Improvements in the early death rate in 9,380 acute myeloid leukemia patients following initial therapy: a SEER database analysis

    PubMed Central

    Percival, Mary-Elizabeth M.; Tao, Li; Medeiros, Bruno C.; Clarke, Christina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is treated with conventional induction chemotherapy shortly after diagnosis for most patients ≤ 65 years old. A recent report suggested a substantial decline in the early, or one-month, mortality rate in patients treated on clinical trials over the past 2 decades. It is unknown if a similar improvement has been observed in the general population. Methods We examined the one-month mortality in a large population-based series of 9,380 AML patients ≤ age 65 diagnosed and treated with chemotherapy between 1973 and 2010. Results We observed a significant decline in the one-month mortality rate from 18.7% among patients diagnosed from 1973–1977 (95% CI 16.4–21.2%) to 5.8% for those diagnosed in 2008–2010 (95% CI 4.5–7.6%) (p-value < 0.001). Median overall survival (OS) improved significantly from 6 months (95% CI 5–7) in 1973–1977 to 23 months (95% CI 16–20) in 2008–2010 (p-value < 0.001). Though age and geographic variation significantly influenced one-month mortality in 1973–1977, these differences in one-month mortality were no longer significant in AML patients treated more recently (2008–2010). Conclusions Over the past four decades, early mortality has become uncommon in younger patients (≤ 65 years) with newly diagnosed AML undergoing induction chemotherapy. It is encouraging that the improvements seen in one-month mortality in a selective cohort of clinical trial patients are also observed in a population-based analysis. PMID:25739348

  19. Existential anxiety as related to conceptualization of self and of death, denial of death, and religiosity.

    PubMed

    Westman, A S

    1992-12-01

    82 students completed a questionnaire which measured their existential anxiety as described by Yalom, conceptualization of self and of death, denial of death, and religiosity. For these students, scores on existential anxiety correlated with identity confusion, feeling responsible toward others but fearing emotional closeness with them, seeing people as fundamentally different and not seeing oneself as living on in one's tasks or projects. Their existential anxiety scores were not related to a particular concept of death, but death was more likely to be seen as cold and denied. Their existential anxiety seemed symptomatic of adjustment problems for which religiosity was not helpful. Specific suggestions for further research are made.

  20. Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Motor Vehicle Accident Deaths in the United States, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sam; Charters, Thomas J; Strumpf, Erin C

    2015-10-01

    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) mortality has been declining overall, but little is known about trends by socioeconomic position. We examined trends in education-related inequalities in US MVA death rates from 1995 to 2010. We used mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics and population estimates from the Current Population Survey, and we calculated vehicle- and person-miles traveled using data from the National Household Travel Survey. We used negative binomial regression to estimate crude and age-, sex-, and race-adjusted mortality rates among adults aged 25 years or more. We found larger mortality decreases among the more highly educated and some evidence of mortality increases among the least educated. Adjusted death rates were 15.3 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.7, 19.9) higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top of the education distribution in 1995, increasing to 17.9 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 14.8, 21.0) by 2010. In relative terms, adjusted death rates were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.7, 3.0) times higher at the bottom of the education distribution than at the top in 1995, increasing to 4.3 times higher (95% CI: 3.4, 5.3) by 2010. Inequality increases were larger in terms of vehicle-miles traveled. Although overall MVA death rates declined during this period, socioeconomic differences in MVA mortality have persisted or worsened over time. PMID:26354899

  1. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under 1 year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

  2. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  3. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  4. [Current concepts on sudden death].

    PubMed

    Asensio, Enrique; Narváez, René; Dorantes, Joel; Oseguera, Jorge; Orea, Arturo; Hernández, PabloR; Rebollar, Verónica; Mont, Lluís; Brugada, Josep

    2005-01-01

    Sudden death is defined as the death occurring less than one hour before the onset of the patient's symptoms. It is a severe condition considered a public health issue in several countries and in ours, it accounts for 33 000 to 53 000 annual deaths mainly related to ischemic heart disease. The main cause of sudden death are severe ventricular arrhythmias, but determining what patients are at risk for such an episode is complex, that is why risk stratification is usually a low cost-effective intervention. In the present study, we describe different sudden death risk-stratification strategies. Different sudden death treatment strategies regarding general population have different success rates in different countries, nevertheless, among select high risk populations; the best therapy currently available is the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. We also discuss other treatment options. In Mexico it is deemed necessary to do an important effort for the early detection, prevention and treatment of sudden death in order to limit the consequences of this problem. PMID:15892455

  5. Supporting families after sudden infant death.

    PubMed

    McClain, M E; Shaefer, S J

    1996-04-01

    Parents consistently report that supportive contacts with their health care providers make a difference in their overall adjustment to their baby's death. Parents require continuing validation that the baby's death is no one's fault, that it was not caused by anything they did or did not do. In supporting bereaved families, our goal is to assist parents to incorporate the baby's death into their lives in a way that allows them to continue to function and to recognize life as worth living and happiness as possible.

  6. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  7. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  8. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  9. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  10. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  11. 5 CFR 841.705 - Increases on basic employee death benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Increases on basic employee death... Adjustments § 841.705 Increases on basic employee death benefits. (a) COLA's on the basic employee death... death benefit are entitled to COLA's if the employee or Member died on or after the effective date....

  12. Risk factors for death among adults with severe asthma

    PubMed Central

    Omachi, Theodore A; Iribarren, Carlos; Sarkar, Urmimala; Tolstykh, Irina; Yelin, Edward H.; Katz, Patricia P.; Blanc, Paul D.; Eisner, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Mortality risk in adult asthma is poorly understood, especially the interplay between race, disease severity, and health-care access. Objective To examine mortality risk factors in adult asthma. Methods In a prospective cohort study of 865 adults with severe asthma in a closed-panel managed-care organization, we used structured interviews to assess baseline sociodemographics, asthma history, and health status. Subjects were followed until death or end of study, with a two-year average follow-up time. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the impact of sociodemographics, cigarette smoking, and validated measures of perceived asthma control, physical health status, and severity-of-asthma on the risk of death. Results We confirmed 123 deaths, a mortality rate of 6.7 per 100 person-years. In analysis adjusted for sociodemographics and tobacco history, higher severity-of-asthma scores (hazard ratios [HR], 1.11 per ½ standard deviation increase in severity-of-asthma score; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 - 1.23) and lower perceived asthma control scores (HR, 0.91 per ½ standard deviation increase in perceived asthma control score, 95% CI, 0.83 - 0.99) were each associated with risk of all-cause mortality. In the same adjusted analysis, African American race was not associated with an increased mortality risk relative to white race (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.35 - 1.12). Conclusions In a large managed-care organization in which access to care is unlikely to vary widely, greater severity-of-asthma scores and poorer perceived asthma control scores are each associated with increased mortality risk among adults with severe asthma, but African Americans are not at increased risk of death relative to whites. PMID:18727467

  13. Cardiovascular Deaths among Alaskan Natives, 1980-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, John P.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes death certificate data to discover the number of deaths of Alaskan natives caused by cardiovascular disease. Rates from cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis from 1980-86 among Alaskan natives were lower than rates among other Alaskans, while death rates from other causes were higher. Discusses the possible impact of diet. (JS)

  14. The Effects of Misclassification Biases on Veteran Suicide Rate Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact that possible veteran suicide misclassification biases (i.e., inaccuracy in ascertainment of veteran status on the death certificate and misclassification of suicide as other manner of death) have on veteran suicide rate estimates. Methods. We obtained suicide mortality data from the 2003–2010 National Violent Death Reporting System and the 2003–2010 Department of Defense Casualty Analysis System. We derived population estimates from the 2003–2010 American Community Survey and 2003–2010 Department of Veterans Affairs data. We computed veteran and nonveteran suicide rates. Results. The results showed that suicide rates were minimally affected by the adjustment for the misclassification of current military personnel suicides as veterans. Moreover, combining suicides and deaths by injury of undetermined intent did not alter the conclusions. Conclusions. The National Violent Death Reporting System is a valid surveillance system for veteran suicide. However, more than half of younger (< 25 years) male and female suicides, labeled as veterans, were likely to have been current military personnel at the time of their death and misclassified on the death certificate. PMID:24228669

  15. The Kenyan political conflict and children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M; Myers, Sonya S

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an important protective factor postdisaster. Specifically, severity of the disaster experience was associated with increased aggression and decreased prosocial behavior. Emotion regulation was associated with less aggression and more prosocial behavior postconflict. Findings are discussed in the context of a developmental, systems-oriented perspective of the impact of disasters on child adjustment.

  16. Inverse Susceptibility to Oxidative Death of Lymphocytes Obtained From Alzheimer's Patients and Skin Cancer Survivors: Increased Apoptosis in Alzheimer's and Reduced Necrosis in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Monica; Salech, Felipe; Ponce, Daniela P.; Merino, Daniela; Sinning, Mariana; Xiong, Chengjie; Roe, Catherine M.; Quest, Andrew F. G.

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of cancer in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and low rates of AD in cancer survivors has been reported in epidemiological studies. Deregulation in opposite directions of biological mechanisms, such as susceptibility to cell death, might be shared in the two disorders. We analyzed lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients as well as healthy controls and found significantly increased vulnerability of AD lymphocytes to H2O2-induced apoptotic death and higher resistance to death of skin cancer lymphocytes, due to reduced necrosis, as compared with healthy controls by pairwise comparisons adjusted for age and sex. H2O2-induced death in lymphocytes was caspase independent and significantly reduced by PARP-1 inhibition in all three groups. These differences in the susceptibility to cell death observed for lymphocytes from AD and skin cancer patients may be one of the mechanisms that help explain the inverse correlation detected between these diseases in epidemiological studies. PMID:22367434

  17. Physiological adjustments of sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) to a boom-or-bust economy: standard fasting metabolic rate, total evaporative water loss, and changes in the sizes of organs during food and water restriction.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Stephane; Mesochina, Pascal; Williams, Joseph B

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that desert ungulates adjust their physiology in response to long-term food and water restriction, we established three groups of sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa): one that was provided food and water (n = 6; CTRL) ad lib. for 4 mo, one that received ad lib. food and water for the same period but was deprived of food and water for the last 4.5 d (n = 6; EXPT(1)), and one that was exposed to 4 mo of progressive food and water restriction, an experimental regime designed to mimic conditions in a natural desert setting (n = 6; EXPT(2)). At the end of the 4-mo experiment, we measured standard fasting metabolic rate (SFMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of all sand gazelles and determined lean dry mass of organs of gazelles in CTRL and EXPT(2). Gazelles in CTRL had a mean SFMR of 2,524 +/- 194 kJ d(-1), whereas gazelles in EXPT(1) and EXPT(2) had SFMRs of 2,101+/- 232 and 1,365 +/- 182 kJ d(-1), respectively, values that differed significantly when we controlled for differences in body mass. Gazelles had TEWLs of 151.1 +/- 18.2, 138.5 +/- 17.53, and 98.4 +/- 27.2 g H(2)O d(-1) in CTRL, EXPT(1), and EXPT(2), respectively. For the latter group, mass-independent TEWL was 27.1% of the value for CTRL. We found that normally hydrated sand gazelles had a low mass-adjusted TEWL compared with other arid-zone ungulates: 13.6 g H(2)O kg(-0.898) d(-1), only 17.1% of allometric predictions, the lowest ever measured in an arid-zone ungulate. After 4 mo of progressive food and water restriction, dry lean mass of liver, heart, and muscle of gazelles in EXPT(2) was significantly less than that of these same organs in CTRL, even when we controlled for body mass decrease. Decreases in the dry lean mass of liver explained 70.4% of the variance of SFMR in food- and water-restricted gazelles. As oxygen demands decreased because of reduced organ sizes, gazelles lost less evaporative water, probably because of a decreased respiratory water loss. PMID

  18. Physiological adjustments of sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) to a boom-or-bust economy: standard fasting metabolic rate, total evaporative water loss, and changes in the sizes of organs during food and water restriction.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Stephane; Mesochina, Pascal; Williams, Joseph B

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that desert ungulates adjust their physiology in response to long-term food and water restriction, we established three groups of sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa): one that was provided food and water (n = 6; CTRL) ad lib. for 4 mo, one that received ad lib. food and water for the same period but was deprived of food and water for the last 4.5 d (n = 6; EXPT(1)), and one that was exposed to 4 mo of progressive food and water restriction, an experimental regime designed to mimic conditions in a natural desert setting (n = 6; EXPT(2)). At the end of the 4-mo experiment, we measured standard fasting metabolic rate (SFMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of all sand gazelles and determined lean dry mass of organs of gazelles in CTRL and EXPT(2). Gazelles in CTRL had a mean SFMR of 2,524 +/- 194 kJ d(-1), whereas gazelles in EXPT(1) and EXPT(2) had SFMRs of 2,101+/- 232 and 1,365 +/- 182 kJ d(-1), respectively, values that differed significantly when we controlled for differences in body mass. Gazelles had TEWLs of 151.1 +/- 18.2, 138.5 +/- 17.53, and 98.4 +/- 27.2 g H(2)O d(-1) in CTRL, EXPT(1), and EXPT(2), respectively. For the latter group, mass-independent TEWL was 27.1% of the value for CTRL. We found that normally hydrated sand gazelles had a low mass-adjusted TEWL compared with other arid-zone ungulates: 13.6 g H(2)O kg(-0.898) d(-1), only 17.1% of allometric predictions, the lowest ever measured in an arid-zone ungulate. After 4 mo of progressive food and water restriction, dry lean mass of liver, heart, and muscle of gazelles in EXPT(2) was significantly less than that of these same organs in CTRL, even when we controlled for body mass decrease. Decreases in the dry lean mass of liver explained 70.4% of the variance of SFMR in food- and water-restricted gazelles. As oxygen demands decreased because of reduced organ sizes, gazelles lost less evaporative water, probably because of a decreased respiratory water loss.

  19. Improving the accuracy of death certification

    PubMed Central

    Myers, K A; Farquhar, D R

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based mortality statistics are derived from the information recorded on death certificates. This information is used for many important purposes, such as the development of public health programs and the allocation of health care resources. Although most physicians are confronted with the task of completing death certificates, many do not receive adequate training in this skill. Resulting inaccuracies in information undermine the quality of the data derived from death certificates. METHODS: An educational intervention was designed and implemented to improve internal medicine residents' accuracy in death certificate completion. A total of 229 death certificates (146 completed before and 83 completed after the intervention) were audited for major and minor errors, and the rates of errors before and after the intervention were compared. RESULTS: Major errors were identified on 32.9% of the death certificates completed before the intervention, a rate comparable to previously reported rates for internal medicine services in teaching hospitals. Following the intervention the major error rate decreased to 15.7% (p = 0.01). The reduction in the major error rate was accounted for by significant reductions in the rate of listing of mechanism of death without a legitimate underlying cause of death (15.8% v. 4.8%) (p = 0.01) and the rate of improper sequencing of death certificate information (15.8% v. 6.0%) (p = 0.03). INTERPRETATION: Errors are common in the completion of death certificates in the inpatient teaching hospital setting. The accuracy of death certification can be improved with the implementation of a simple educational intervention. PMID:9614825

  20. Death Does Matter—Cancer Risk in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shih-Feng; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Jan, Ren-Long; Chen, Yi-Chen; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chu, Chin-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a high mortality rate. We hypothesized that not accounting for death as a competing risk overestimates the event rate caused by ESRD. Thus, we examined the cancer risk for patients with ESRD (ESRDPos) after death as a competing risk event had been adjusted for. Patients with newly diagnosed ESRD (n = 64,299) between 1999 and 2007, together with age- and sex-matched controls without ESRD (ESRDNeg) (n = 128,592) were enrolled (1:2). In a Cox proportional hazards model that included death as a competing risk, ESRDPos patients in Taiwan had a lower overall incidence (subdistribution hazard ratio [sdHR] = 1.29) of cancer than did ESRDNeg patients in a Cox model that did not include death as a competing risk (HR = 1.70). After competing mortality had been adjusted for, ESRDPos patients ≥70 (sdHR = 0.82) and ESRDPos patients on long-term dialysis (> 5 follow-up years, sdHR = 0.62), had a lower risk for developing cancer than did ESRDNeg patients. This finding supported our hypothesis that standard survival analyses overestimate the event rate, especially when the mortality rate is high. It also showed that ESRDPos patients, when they grow older, were far less likely to develop cancer and far more likely to die because of underlying illnesses that might also affect the risk of death because of ESRD. PMID:26817891

  1. Cervical cancer: a preventable death.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer kills 260,000 women annually, and nearly 85% of these deaths occur in developing nations, where it is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Disparities of health and poverty play a large role in this high mortality rate. Whereas routine Papanicolaou and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has dramatically reduced cervical cancer deaths in Western nations, without proper infrastructure, facilities, and medical training, the rates of cervical cancer in developing nations will remain high. Studies on HPV DNA testing and the low-technology method of "screen and treat" are promising. In addition, reducing the cost and increasing the availability of HPV vaccines in developing nations brings hope and promise to the next generation of women. PMID:20111660

  2. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affects women, American Indian, Alaska Native, and black people more than other groups. These disparities show that ... female. Having an American Indian, Alaska Native, or black ... can be prevented by tracking people who have these risk factors. What CDC Is ...

  3. Case-mix adjustment for evaluation of mortality in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Gerald T; Quinton, Hebe B; Kahn, Richard; Robichaud, Priscilla; Maddock, Joanne; Lever, Thomas; Detzer, Mark; Brooks, John G

    2002-02-01

    Comparison of patient mortality rates in cystic fibrosis (CF) obtained from different institutions requires the use of case-mix adjustment methods to account for baseline differences in patient and disease characteristics. There is no current professional consensus on the use of case-mix adjustment methods for use in comparing mortality rates in CF. Characteristics used for this case-mix adjustment should include those that are different across institutions and are associated with patient survival. They should not include characteristics of disease severity that may be a consequence of effectiveness of treatment. The goal of these analyses was to identify a set of these characteristics of patients or disease that would be useful for case-mix adjustment of CF mortality rates. Data from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry and from the United States Census of the Population (1990) were used in these analyses. Kaplan-Meier techniques, the log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to estimate survivorship, calculate hazard ratios (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI(95%)), and to conduct tests of statistical significance. The data set included all 30,469 CF patients seen at CF Care Centers from 1982-1998. There were 5,906 deaths during 508,721 person-years of follow-up. In multivariate analyses, female gender (HR 1.30, CI(95%) (1.16, 1,47), P < 0.001), nonwhite race (HR 1.48, CI(95%) (1.07, 2.04), P = 0.018), Hispanic ethnicity (HR 1.85, CI(95%) (1.42, 2.43), P < 0.001), and symptomatic presentation (respiratory, gastrointestinal, respiratory and gastrointestinal, meconium ileus, and other symptomatic presentations; HRs 1.38-1.83; P values, 0.028 to < 0.001) were associated with higher risk of death. The homozygous Delta F508 genotype (HR 1.36, CI(95%) (1.19, 1.55), P < 0.001) and neither mutation being Delta F508 (HR 1.40, CI(95%) (1.15, 1.71), P = 0.001) were also associated with higher risk of death. Patients diagnosed after 36 months

  4. Twin Legacies: Victor and Vincent McKusick/Twin Studies: Twinning Rates I; Twinning Rates II; MZ Twin Discordance for Russell-Silver Syndrome; Twins' Language Skills/Headlines: Babies Born to Identical Twin Couples; Identity Exchange; Death of Princess Ashraf (Twin); Yahoo CEO Delivers Identical Twins.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-04-01

    The lives of the illustrious monozygotic (MZ) twins, Victor A. and Vincent L. McKusick, are described. Victor earned the distinction as the 'Father of Medical Genetics', while Vincent was a legendary Chief Justice of the Maine Supreme Court. This dual biographical account is followed by two timely reports of twinning rates, a study of MZ twin discordance for Russell-Silver Syndrome (RSS) and a study of twins' language skills. Twin stories in the news include babies born to identical twin couples, a case of switched identity, the death of Princess Ashraf (Twin) and a new mother of twins who is also Yahoo's CEO. PMID:26934824

  5. Twin Legacies: Victor and Vincent McKusick/Twin Studies: Twinning Rates I; Twinning Rates II; MZ Twin Discordance for Russell-Silver Syndrome; Twins' Language Skills/Headlines: Babies Born to Identical Twin Couples; Identity Exchange; Death of Princess Ashraf (Twin); Yahoo CEO Delivers Identical Twins.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-04-01

    The lives of the illustrious monozygotic (MZ) twins, Victor A. and Vincent L. McKusick, are described. Victor earned the distinction as the 'Father of Medical Genetics', while Vincent was a legendary Chief Justice of the Maine Supreme Court. This dual biographical account is followed by two timely reports of twinning rates, a study of MZ twin discordance for Russell-Silver Syndrome (RSS) and a study of twins' language skills. Twin stories in the news include babies born to identical twin couples, a case of switched identity, the death of Princess Ashraf (Twin) and a new mother of twins who is also Yahoo's CEO.

  6. Neurocysticercosis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011: Epidemiology of a neglected neurologic cause of death.

    PubMed

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Cavalcanti, Marta Guimarães; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38.2%) as associated cause. Overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 0.97 deaths/1,000,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.12). The highest NCC-related mortality rates were found in males, elderly, white race/colour and residents in endemic states/regions. Age-adjusted mortality rates at national level decreased significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -4.7; 95% CI: -6.0 to -3.3), with a decrease in the Southeast, South and Central-West regions, and a non-significant increasing trend in the North and Northeast regions. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk mortality clusters located mainly in NCC-endemic areas. Conditions related to the nervous system were the most commonly associated causes of death when NCC was mentioned as an underlying cause, and HIV/AIDS was the main underlying cause when NCC was an associated cause. NCC is a neglected and preventable cause of severe neurologic disease and death with high public health impact in Brazil. There is a clear need to strengthen nationwide epidemiological surveillance and control for the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex.

  7. Neurocysticercosis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011: Epidemiology of a neglected neurologic cause of death.

    PubMed

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Cavalcanti, Marta Guimarães; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38.2%) as associated cause. Overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 0.97 deaths/1,000,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.12). The highest NCC-related mortality rates were found in males, elderly, white race/colour and residents in endemic states/regions. Age-adjusted mortality rates at national level decreased significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -4.7; 95% CI: -6.0 to -3.3), with a decrease in the Southeast, South and Central-West regions, and a non-significant increasing trend in the North and Northeast regions. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk mortality clusters located mainly in NCC-endemic areas. Conditions related to the nervous system were the most commonly associated causes of death when NCC was mentioned as an underlying cause, and HIV/AIDS was the main underlying cause when NCC was an associated cause. NCC is a neglected and preventable cause of severe neurologic disease and death with high public health impact in Brazil. There is a clear need to strengthen nationwide epidemiological surveillance and control for the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:26505283

  8. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  9. Car design and risk of pedestrian deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L S

    1990-01-01

    Fatal pedestrian injury rates by cars with relatively sharp front-corner designs were compared to such rates by cars of similar-size with relatively smooth front-corner designs. The relative risk of death by front-corner impact was 26 percent greater among the sharp-cornered cars. Pedestrian death rates from impact with other points on the cars and insurance claim frequencies among the studied cars were similar between the two sets of cars. PMID:2327543

  10. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adjusted as a result of the transfer of an interest in a partnership by sale or exchange or on the death of... the transfer of an interest in a partnership, either by sale or exchange or as a result of the death... of the death of a partner, the transferee's basis in the transferred partnership interest...

  11. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adjusted as a result of the transfer of an interest in a partnership by sale or exchange or on the death of... the transfer of an interest in a partnership, either by sale or exchange or as a result of the death... of the death of a partner, the transferee's basis in the transferred partnership interest...

  12. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adjusted as a result of the transfer of an interest in a partnership by sale or exchange or on the death of... the transfer of an interest in a partnership, either by sale or exchange or as a result of the death... of the death of a partner, the transferee's basis in the transferred partnership interest...

  13. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adjusted as a result of the transfer of an interest in a partnership by sale or exchange or on the death of... the transfer of an interest in a partnership, either by sale or exchange or as a result of the death... of the death of a partner, the transferee's basis in the transferred partnership interest...

  14. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  15. Contribution of Excessive Alcohol Consumption to Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roeber, Jim; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D.; Zhang, Xingyou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of premature mortality in the United States. The objectives of this study were to update national estimates of alcohol-attributable deaths (AAD) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) in the United States, calculate age-adjusted rates of AAD and YPLL in states, assess the contribution of AAD and YPLL to total deaths and YPLL among working-age adults, and estimate the number of deaths and YPLL among those younger than 21 years. Methods We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Alcohol-Related Disease Impact application for 2006–2010 to estimate total AAD and YPLL across 54 conditions for the United States, by sex and age. AAD and YPLL rates and the proportion of total deaths that were attributable to excessive alcohol consumption among working-age adults (20-64 y) were calculated for the United States and for individual states. Results From 2006 through 2010, an annual average of 87,798 (27.9/100,000 population) AAD and 2.5 million (831.6/100,000) YPLL occurred in the United States. Age-adjusted state AAD rates ranged from 51.2/100,000 in New Mexico to 19.1/100,000 in New Jersey. Among working-age adults, 9.8% of all deaths in the United States during this period were attributable to excessive drinking, and 69% of all AAD involved working-age adults. Conclusions Excessive drinking was responsible for 1 in 10 deaths among working-age adults in the United States. AAD rates vary across states, but excessive drinking remains a leading cause of premature mortality nationwide. Strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force can help reduce excessive drinking and harms related to it. PMID:24967831

  16. Near-Death Experiences and Antisuicidal Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greyson, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    One hundred-fifty near death experiencers (NDErs) and 43 individuals who had come close to death without having NDEs (nonNDErs) rated 12 antisuicidal attitudes. NDErs endorsed significantly more statements than did nonNDErs, and, among NDErs, number of statements endorsed was positively associated with depth of experience. Findings support…

  17. Underweight as a risk factor for respiratory death in the Whitehall cohort study: exploring reverse causality using a 45-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Shipley, Martin J; Bell, Joshua A; Brunner, Eric J; Batty, G David; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Underweight adults have higher rates of respiratory death than the normal weight but it is unclear whether this association is causal or reflects illness-induced weight loss (reverse causality). Evidence from a 45-year follow-up of underweight participants for respiratory mortality in the Whitehall study (N=18 823; 2139 respiratory deaths) suggests that excess risk among the underweight is attributable to reverse causality. The age-adjusted and smoking-adjusted risk was 1.55-fold (95% CI 1.32 to 1.83) higher among underweight compared with normal weight participants, but attenuated in a stepwise manner to 1.14 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.71) after serial exclusions of deaths during the first 5-35 years of follow-up (P(trend)<0.001).

  18. No life without death.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Peter H; Kamiński, Marcin; Kiessling, Michael; Gülow, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis-programed cell death-is the most common form of death in the body. Once apoptosis is induced, proper execution of the cell death program requires the coordinated activation and execution of multiple molecular processes. Here, we describe the pathways and the basic components of the death-inducing machinery. Since apoptosis is a key regulator of tissue homeostasis, an imbalance of apoptosis results in severe diseases like cancer, autoimmunity, and AIDS.

  19. A "good death" for whom? Quality of spouse's death and psychological distress among older widowed persons.

    PubMed

    Carr, Deborah

    2003-06-01

    Ethicists, policy makers, and care providers are increasingly concerned with helping the dying elderly to experience a "good death." A "good death" is characterized by physical comfort, social support, acceptance, and appropriate medical care, and it should minimize psychological distress for the dying and their families. I identify the predictors of death quality and evaluate how the quality of an older adult's death affects the surviving spouse's psychological adjustment six months after the loss. Analyses use Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) data, a prospective study of married persons ages 65 and older. Positive spousal relationships during the final days increase survivors' yearning yet reduce their anger. Having a spouse die a painful death is associated with elevated anxiety, yearning, and intrusive thoughts. The perception of physician negligence is associated with elevated anger. These findings suggest that improved end-of-life care and pain management will benefit both the dying and their bereaved spouses. PMID:12866391

  20. Dreams of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deirdre

    1989-01-01

    Examined frequency and characteristics of overt dreams of dying among healthy young adults. Dreams of dying were found to be rare but distinctive content category, representing overwhelmingly pleasant dreams. Over one-half of death dreams involved lengthy afterlife sequence, remainder focused on process of death. Death dreams of these healthy…

  1. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  2. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Angel L.; Mena, Salvador; Estrela, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy. PMID:24212662

  3. Electrocardiographic Measures and Prediction of Cardiovascular and Noncardiovascular Death in CKD.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rajat; Shou, Haochang; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Yang, Wei; Arkin, Joshua M; Zhang, Xiaoming; Townsend, Raymond R; Go, Alan S; Shlipak, Michael G; Feldman, Harold I

    2016-02-01

    Limited studies have assessed the resting 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) as a screening test in intermediate risk populations. We evaluated whether a panel of common ECG parameters are independent predictors of mortality risk in a prospective cohort of participants with CKD. The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study enrolled 3939 participants with eGFR<70 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) from June 2003 to September 2008. Over a median follow-up of 7.5 years, 750 participants died. After adjudicating the initial 497 deaths, we identified 256 cardiovascular and 241 noncardiovascular deaths. ECG metrics were independent risk markers for cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval): PR interval ≥200 ms (1.62, 1.19-2.19); QRS interval 100-119 ms (1.64, 1.20-2.25) and ≥120 ms (1.75, 1.17-2.62); corrected QT (QTc) interval ≥450 ms in men or ≥460 ms in women (1.72, 1.19-2.49); and heart rate 60-90 beats per minute (1.21, 0.89-1.63) and ≥90 beats per minute (2.35, 1.03-5.33). Most ECG measures were stronger markers of risk for cardiovascular death than for all-cause mortality or noncardiovascular death. Adding these intervals to a comprehensive model of cardiorenal risk factors increased the C-statistic for cardiovascular death from 0.77 to 0.81 (P<0.001). Furthermore, adding ECG metrics to the model adjusted for standard risk factors resulted in a net reclassification of 12.1% (95% confidence interval 8.1%-16.0%). These data suggest common ECG metrics are independent risk factors for cardiovascular death and enhance the ability to predict death events in a population with CKD.

  4. Trends in the leading causes of death in Korea, 1983-2012.

    PubMed

    Lim, Daroh; Ha, Mina; Song, Inmyung

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze trends in the 10 leading causes of death in Korea from 1983 to 2012. Death rates were derived from the Korean Statistics Information Service database and age-adjusted to the 2010 population. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify the points when statistically significant changes occurred in the trends. Between 1983 and 2012, the age-standardized death rate (ASR) from all causes decreased by 61.6% for men and 51.2% for women. ASRs from malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and transport accidents increased initially before decreasing. ASRs from hypertensive diseases, heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases and diseases of the liver showed favorable trends (ASR % change: -94.4%, -53.8%, -76.0%, and -78.9% for men, and -77.1%, -36.5%, -67.8%, and -79.9% for women, respectively). ASRs from pneumonia decreased until the mid-1990s and thereafter increased. ASRs from intentional self-harm increased persistently since around 1990 (ASR % change: 122.0% for men and 217.4% for women). In conclusion, death rates from all causes in Korea decreased significantly in the last three decades except in the late 1990s. Despite the great strides made in the overall mortality, temporal trends varied widely by cause. Mortality trends for malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, pneumonia and intentional self-harm were unfavorable.

  5. Alcohol-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost--11 States, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Katherine; Roeber, Jim; Kanny, Dafna; Tran, Annie; Saiki, Cathy; Johnson, Hal; Yeoman, Kristin; Safranek, Tom; Creppage, Kathleen; Lepp, Alicia; Miller, Tracy; Tarkhashvili, Nato; Lynch, Kristine E; Watson, Joanna R; Henderson, Danielle; Christenson, Megan; Geiger, Sarah Dee

    2014-03-14

    Excessive alcohol consumption, the fourth leading preventable cause of death in the United States, resulted in approximately 88,000 deaths and 2.5 million years of potential life lost (YPLL) annually during 2006-2010 and cost an estimated $223.5 billion in 2006. To estimate state-specific average annual rates of alcohol-attributable deaths (AAD) and YPLL caused by excessive alcohol use, 11 states analyzed 2006-2010 data (the most recent data available) using the CDC Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) application. The age-adjusted median AAD rate was 28.5 per 100,000 population (range = 50.9 per 100,000 in New Mexico to 22.4 per 100,000 in Utah). The median YPLL rate was 823 per 100,000 (range = 1,534 YPLL per 100,000 for New Mexico to 634 per 100,000 in Utah). The majority of AAD (median = 70%) and YPLL (median = 82%) were among working-age (20-64 years) adults. Routine monitoring of alcohol-attributable health outcomes, including deaths and YPLL, in states could support the planning and implementation of evidence-based prevention strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force to reduce excessive drinking and related harms. Such strategies include increasing the price of alcohol, limiting alcohol outlet density, and holding alcohol retailers liable for harms related to the sale of alcoholic beverages to minors and intoxicated patrons (dram shop liability). PMID:24622285

  6. Multiple cause of death mortality patterns among Californians

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.C.

    1989-11-28

    The purpose of this study was to describe mortality patterns among the elderly using single versus multiple cause of death data and examine ways that multiple cause of death data can best be processed, analyzed and presented. Deaths among white California aged 65 and older for the years 1970, 1975 and 1980 were analyzed. Overall, mortality rates decreased over time, at all ages and for both sexes but more so for females, although the number of causes of death increased with age. Underlying cause mortality rates were compared to rates based on any mention of a cause on the death certificate; diabetes and atherosclerosis were more frequent causes of both than would be indicated by single cause statistics, and heart diseases other than ischemic heart disease increased in mentions on the death certificated while ischemic heart disease underlying mortality rates decreased. Pairs of causes of death showed increased likelihood of occurrence of a number of combinations of chronic diseases. In all pair combinations studied, the addition of another serious chronic disease lowered the mean age of death resulted in an older mean age of death. This result combined with higher number of causes per death but lower mortality rates among females raised interesting questions about interpreting more causes on death certificates as an indication of a sicker person at time of death. This study confirmed morbidity and mortality work on other that mortality of older adults in decreasing but that the number of causes of death per person is increasing. 82 refs., 30 figs., 59 tabs.

  7. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  8. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  9. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  10. Parity, Age at First Birth, and Risk of Death from Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-08-05

    We undertook this study to examine whether there exists an association between parity and age at first birth and risk of death from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Our sample included a total of 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton childbirth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. We followed each subject from their first childbirth to 31 December 2009, and determined their vital status by merging natality data with Taiwan's national death certificate database. Hazard ratios (HR) of death from NHL associated with parity and age at first birth were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In all, 412 NHL deaths were recorded during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. NHL mortality rate was 1.18 cases per 100,000 person-years. Older age at first birth (>23 vs. ≤23 years) was linked to an increased risk of death from NHL (adjusted HR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.13-1.75). Controlling for age at first birth, the adjusted HR were 0.74 (95% CI = 0.55-0.98) for women with 2 births, and 0.71 (95% CI = 0.53-0.95) for women with 3 births or more, respectively, when compared with women with only 1 birth. A statistically significant downward trend in the adjusted HR for NHL death was detected with increasing parity (p for trend = 0.05). The HR of death from NHL was decreased by 7% (HR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.87-0.99) for each additional parity. Our findings are consistent with reproductive factors (parity and early age at first birth) conferring a protective effect against the risk of NHL death.

  11. [Economic adjustment and its demographic consequences in Latin America: an overview].

    PubMed

    Bajraj, R F; Bravo, J H

    1994-06-01

    This work reviews the available literature on short and medium term demographic responses to the economic adjustment processes occurring in Latin America during the 1980s. The first section describes the immediate causes and scope of the economic crisis of the 1980s in Latin America and the measures taken to correct imbalances. An external crisis rendered the current accounts deficit of the early 1980s no longer sustainable, interest rates and commercial conditions deteriorated, and a recessive adjustment of enormous magnitude occurred. The term "adjustment" covers a wide and varied array of economic changes, fiscal and social policy reforms, and changes in international commerce. The structural adjustment measures caused deterioration in investment and in equity. Real purchasing power declined more than per capita product in most Latin American countries between 1980 and 1990. Primary income distribution underwent regressive changes. In most cases the deterioration was not compensated by social spending. As a result of the fiscal adjustment and reduced public sector spending, per capita investment in health and education was less in 1990 than in 1980 in almost all countries. The demographic consequences of the adjustment processes are difficult to gauge precisely because the experiences of individual countries were heterogeneous and because no single definition of adjustment exists that would serve as a point of reference for comparison of situations without adjustment or with different types of adjustment. Nevertheless, some studies have attempted to specify terms of comparison. Some have compared conditions before the crisis or adjustments with conditions later, and others have analyzed short term fluctuations in demographic variables from their medium or long term trends. Such works suggest that nuptiality is the variable responding most intensely, systematically, and immediately to short term economic fluctuations. Fertility also appears to have responded

  12. Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy: place and time of death

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, JFT; Thompson, AJ; Ingram, PJ

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many babies who die of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) in Northern Ireland are found dead in bed – i.e. co-sleeping – with an adult. In order to assess its frequency autopsy reports between April 1996 and August 2001 were reviewed and linked to temporal factors. The day and month of death, and the place where the baby was found were compared to a reference population of infant deaths between one week of age and the second birthday. Although the rate of SUDI was lower than the UK average, 43 cases of SUDI were identified, and two additional deaths with virtually identical autopsy findings that were attributed to asphyxia caused by suffocation due to overlaying. Thirty-two of the 45 (71%) were less than four months of age. In 30 of the 45 cases (67%) the history stated that the baby was bed sharing with others; 19 died sleeping in an adult bed, and 11 on a sofa or armchair. In 16 of the 30 (53%) there were at least two other people sharing the sleeping surface, and in one case, three. SUDI was twice as frequent at weekends (found dead Saturday – Monday mornings) compared to weekdays (p<0.02), and significantly more common compared to reference deaths (p<0.002). Co-sleeping deaths were also more frequent at weekends. Almost half of all SUDI (49%) occurred in the summer months – more than twice the frequency of reference deaths. While sharing a place of sleep per se may not increase the risk of death, our findings may be linked to factors such as habitual smoking, consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs as reported in case-control studies. In advising parents on safer childcare practices, health professionals must be knowledgeable of current research and when, for example, giving advice on co-sleeping this needs to be person-specific cognisant of the risks within a household. New and better means of targeting such information needs to be researched if those with higher risk life-styles are to be positively influenced. PMID:16457407

  13. 75 FR 4592 - January 2010 Pay Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... INFORMATION: On December 23, 2009, the President signed Executive Order 13525 (74 FR 69231), which implemented...: The President adjusted the rates of basic pay and locality payments for certain categories of Federal... authorized to receive locality payments. Executive Order 13525 establishes the range of rates of basic...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix - Example of SIFL Adjustment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Example of SIFL Adjustment Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs Treatment of deferred Federal income taxes for rate purposes. Pt. 399, Subpt....

  15. 14 CFR Appendix - Example of SIFL Adjustment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Example of SIFL Adjustment Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs Treatment of deferred Federal income taxes for rate purposes. Pt. 399, Subpt....

  16. Couples facing death. I-Psychosocial aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Stedeford, A

    1981-01-01

    Forty-one couples facing the prospect of separation by death were followed up from the time of admission to a continuing care unit through death of the patient to an interview with the bereaved spouse. Half the patients were found to have anxiety or depression or both, usually as a result of failure to cope with specific difficulties. These fell into four groups: unsatisfactory communication, direct effects of illness and treatment, failure to adjust lifestyles to changing circumstances, and pre-existing marital and family problems. This paper examines in detail the problems in the second and third groups. Support was offered to the patient and family in an attempt to help them to adjust and make the best use of their resources. The responses obtained suggest that some of the suffering of terminal illness can be relieved when psychosocial problems are recognised and appropriated help is given. PMID:6794752

  17. Estimating cancer mortality rates from SEER incidence and survival data.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K C; Horm, J W; Smart, C R

    1990-01-01

    A method to estimate site-specific cancer mortality rates using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program incidence and survival data is proposed, calculated, and validated. This measure, the life table-derived mortality rate (LTM), is the sum of the product of the probability of being alive at the beginning of an interval times the probability of dying of the cancer of interest during the interval times the annual age-adjusted incidence rate for each year that data have been collected. When the LTM is compared to death certificate mortality rates (DCM) for organ sites with no known misclassification problems, the LTM was within 10 percent of the death certificate rates for 13 of 14 organ sites. In the sites that have problems with the death certificate rates, there were major disagreements between the LTM and DCM. The LTM was systematically lower than the DCM for sites if there was overreporting on the death certificates, and the LTM was higher than the DCM for sites if there was underreporting. The limitations and applications of the LTM are detailed. PMID:2106703

  18. Increases in heroin overdose deaths - 28 States, 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rose A; Paulozzi, Len J; Bauer, Michael J; Burleson, Richard W; Carlson, Rick E; Dao, Dan; Davis, James W; Dudek, Jennifer; Eichler, Beth Ann; Fernandes, Jessie C; Fondario, Anna; Gabella, Barbara; Hume, Beth; Huntamer, Theron; Kariisa, Mbabazi; Largo, Thomas W; Miles, JoAnne; Newmyer, Ashley; Nitcheva, Daniela; Perez, Beatriz E; Proescholdbell, Scott K; Sabel, Jennifer C; Skiba, Jessica; Slavova, Svetla; Stone, Kathy; Tharp, John M; Wendling, Tracy; Wright, Dagan; Zehner, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    Nationally, death rates from prescription opioid pain reliever (OPR) overdoses quadrupled during 1999-2010, whereas rates from heroin overdoses increased by <50%. Individual states and cities have reported substantial increases in deaths from heroin overdose since 2010. CDC analyzed recent mortality data from 28 states to determine the scope of the heroin overdose death increase and to determine whether increases were associated with changes in OPR overdose death rates since 2010. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, from 2010 to 2012, the death rate from heroin overdose for the 28 states increased from 1.0 to 2.1 per 100,000, whereas the death rate from OPR overdose declined from 6.0 per 100,000 in 2010 to 5.6 per 100,000 in 2012. Heroin overdose death rates increased significantly for both sexes, all age groups, all census regions, and all racial/ethnic groups other than American Indians/Alaska Natives. OPR overdose mortality declined significantly among males, persons aged <45 years, persons in the South, and non-Hispanic whites. Five states had increases in the OPR death rate, seven states had decreases, and 16 states had no change. Of the 18 states with statistically reliable heroin overdose death rates (i.e., rates based on at least 20 deaths), 15 states reported increases. Decreases in OPR death rates were not associated with increases in heroin death rates. The findings indicate a need for intensified prevention efforts aimed at reducing overdose deaths from all types of opioids while recognizing the demographic differences between the heroin and OPR-using populations. Efforts to prevent expansion of the number of OPR users who might use heroin when it is available should continue.

  19. The Effects of Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Carl B.; Hassler, Shawn David

    Although fear of death is recorded in the writings of the oldest major religions, the study of death and the fear of death have only occurred for the last few decades. Death education courses have grown in number since the early 1970's. College students participated in an investigation of the effects of death education on death anxiety by…

  20. Increasing the Number of Organ Transplants in the United States by Optimizing Donor Authorization Rates.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D S; French, B; Abt, P L; Gilroy, R K

    2015-08-01

    While recent policies have focused on allocating organs to patients most in need and lessening geographic disparities, the only mechanism to increase the actual number of transplants is to maximize the potential organ supply. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using OPTN data on all "eligible deaths" from 1/1/08 to 11/1/13 to evaluate variability in donor service area (DSA)-level donor authorization rates, and to quantify the potential gains associated with increasing authorization rates. Despite adjustments for donor demographics (age, race/ethnicity, cause of death) and geographic factors (rural/urban status of donor hospital, statewide participation in deceased-donor registries) among 52 571 eligible deaths, there was significant variability (p < 0.001) in donor authorization rates across the 58 DSAs. Overall DSA-level adjusted authorization rates ranged from 63.5% to 89.5% (median: 72.7%). An additional 773-1623 eligible deaths could have been authorized, yielding 2679-5710 total organs, if the DSAs with authorization rates below the median and 75th percentile, respectively, implemented interventions to perform at the level of the corresponding reference DSA. Opportunities exist within the current organ acquisition framework to markedly improve DSA-level donor authorization rates. Such initiatives would mitigate waitlist mortality while increasing the number of transplants.

  1. Simple, Internally Adjustable Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Valve containing simple in-line, adjustable, flow-control orifice made from ordinary plumbing fitting and two allen setscrews. Construction of valve requires only simple drilling, tapping, and grinding. Orifice installed in existing fitting, avoiding changes in rest of plumbing.

  2. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  3. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  4. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  5. Risk adjusted and population based studies of the outcome for high risk infants in Scotland and Australia

    PubMed Central

    International, N; Consultants, S. N.; Group, N. C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To compare outcomes of care in selected neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) for very low birthweight (VLBW) or preterm infants in Scotland and Australia (study 1) and perinatal care for all VLBW infants in both countries (study 2).
DESIGN—Study 1: risk adjusted cohort study; study 2: population based cohort study.
SUBJECTS—Study 1: all 2621 infants of < 1500 g birth weight or < 31 weeks' gestation admitted to a volunteer sample of hospitals comprising eight of all 17 Scottish NICUs and six of all 12 tertiary NICUs in New South Wales and Queensland in 1993-1994; study 2: all 5986infants of 500-1499 g birth weight registered as live born in Scotland and Australia in 1993-1994.
MAIN OUTCOMES—Study 1: (a) hospital death; (b) death or cerebral damage, each adjusted for gestation and CRIB (clinical risk index for babies); study 2: neonatal (28 day) mortality.
RESULTS—Study 1. Data were obtained for 1628 admissions in six Australian NICUs, 775 in five Scottish tertiary NICUs, and 148 in three Scottish non-tertiary NICUs. Crude hospital death rates were 13%, 22%, and 22% respectively. Risk adjusted hospital mortality was about 50% higher in Scottish than in Australian NICUs (adjusted mortality ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29 to 1.63,p < 0.001). There was no difference in risk adjusted outcomes between Scottish tertiary and non-tertiary NICUs. After risk adjustment, death or cerebral damage was more common in Scottish than Australian NICUs (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.5). Both these risk adjusted adverse outcomes remained more common in Scottish than Australian NICUs after excluding all infants < 28 weeks' gestation from the comparison. Study 2. Population based neonatal mortality in infants of 500-1499 g was higher in Scotland (20.3%) than Australia (16.6%) (relative risk 1.22, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.39, p = 0.002). In a post hoc analysis, neonatal mortality was also higher in England and Wales than in Australia

  6. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania’s Experience 1979-2014

    PubMed Central

    Balmert, Lauren C.; Buchanich, Jeanine M.; Pringle, Janice L.; Williams, Karl E.; Burke, Donald S.; Marsh, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014. Methods Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49) from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates. Results Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35–44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton. Conclusions The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35–44. PMID:26963396

  7. Principles and Pitfalls: a Guide to Death Certification.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Erin G; Reed, Kurt D

    2015-06-01

    Death certificates serve the critical functions of providing documentation for legal/administrative purposes and vital statistics for epidemiologic/health policy purposes. In order to satisfy these functions, it is important that death certificates be filled out completely, accurately, and promptly. The high error rate in death certification has been documented in multiple prior studies, as has the effectiveness of educational training interventions at mitigating errors. The following guide to death certification is intended to illustrate some basic principles and common pitfalls in electronic death registration with the goal of improving death certification accuracy.

  8. Principles and Pitfalls: a Guide to Death Certification

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Erin G.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2015-01-01

    Death certificates serve the critical functions of providing documentation for legal/administrative purposes and vital statistics for epidemiologic/health policy purposes. In order to satisfy these functions, it is important that death certificates be filled out completely, accurately, and promptly. The high error rate in death certification has been documented in multiple prior studies, as has the effectiveness of educational training interventions at mitigating errors. The following guide to death certification is intended to illustrate some basic principles and common pitfalls in electronic death registration with the goal of improving death certification accuracy. PMID:26185270

  9. Mortality and causes of death among incident cases of systemic lupus erythematosus in Finland 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Elfving, P; Puolakka, K; Kautiainen, H; Virta, L J; Pohjolainen, T; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate mortality and causes of death in patients with recent-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Finland. Data for patients with SLE for the study were collected (2000-2007) from the nationwide register on decisions of special reimbursements for drugs, maintained by the Social Insurance Institution (SII) in Finland. Data on deaths of the patients were obtained from the official death certificate statistics of Statistics Finland until the end of 2008. Of the 566 incident SLE patients, median follow-up time was 5.4 (IQR 3.3, 7.1) years, and 30 patients (23 females, seven males) died in the years 2000 through 2008. Mean age at death was 67.8 ± 17.2 years for females and 62.3 ± 15.2 years for males. The 5-year survival rates were 94.8% (95%CI 92.0-96.6%) and 88.2% (95%CI 76.5-94.3%), respectively. The age- and sex-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 1.48 (95%CI 1.01-2.12). Primary causes of death were cardiovascular diseases, malignancy and SLE itself. In conclusion, survival of the patients with SLE was inferior to that of the general population. Cardiovascular diseases were responsible for 37% of deaths.

  10. Agreement of occupation and industry data on Rhode Island death certificates with two alternative sources of information.

    PubMed

    Gute, D M; Fulton, J P

    1985-01-01

    There is increasing interest in documenting the putative health effects of occupational hazards, prompting Federal and State efforts that rely primarily on occupational information obtained from the death certificate. Previous studies have assessed the agreement of occupational data on death certificates with actual lifetime employment by using current employment data from census records for comparisons. Such analyses have largely been confined to males. We compared lifetime occupational information obtained from a panel survey for both sexes with death certificate data for 446 deceased panel members. After adjusting for inadequate information, the occupation recorded on the death certificates of the men agreed with the occupation recorded in the survey 66 percent of the time. The comparable percentage for the industry where the deceased had been employed was 78 percent. Among the women's records, agreement on occupation was 65 percent, and on industry, 69 percent. Using another sample of death certificates, comparisons of the information for 322 decedents with city directory data produced similar results. The higher level of agreement for women was due in part to the large number who were reported as "housewives." In a separate analysis, the agreement rate for nonhousewives declined. Suggestions for improvements in the recording of occupational data and the constraints imposed by the use of death certificate data in occupational epidemiology are presented.

  11. Brain Death and Islam

    PubMed Central

    Ziad-Miller, Amna; Elamin, Elamin M.

    2014-01-01

    How one defines death may vary. It is important for clinicians to recognize those aspects of a patient’s religious beliefs that may directly influence medical care and how such practices may interface with local laws governing the determination of death. Debate continues about the validity and certainty of brain death criteria within Islamic traditions. A search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycNet, Sociological Abstracts, DIALOGUE ProQuest, Lexus Nexus, Google, and applicable religious texts was conducted to address the question of whether brain death is accepted as true death among Islamic scholars and clinicians and to discuss how divergent opinions may affect clinical care. The results of the literature review inform this discussion. Brain death has been acknowledged as representing true death by many Muslim scholars and medical organizations, including the Islamic Fiqh Academies of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League, the Islamic Medical Association of North America, and other faith-based medical organizations as well as legal rulings by multiple Islamic nations. However, consensus in the Muslim world is not unanimous, and a sizable minority accepts death by cardiopulmonary criteria only. PMID:25287999

  12. Conflicting Thoughts about Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Most research on children's conception of death has probed their understanding of its biological aspects: its inevitability, irreversibility and terminal impact. Yet many adults subscribe to a religious conception implying that death marks the beginning of a new life. Two recent empirical studies confirm that in the course of development, children…

  13. Death Acceptance through Ritual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the author's original research, which sought to discover the elements necessary for using death-related ritual as a psychotherapeutic technique for grieving people who experience their grief as "stuck," "unending," "maladaptive," and so on. A "death-related ritual" is defined as a ceremony, directly involving at least 1…

  14. Near-death experiences.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, S J

    1996-02-01

    Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct.

  15. The Psychology of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, B. Celestine

    1976-01-01

    Forty-eight black men and women living and/or attending school in the St. Louis and Washington, D.C. areas responded to questionnaires concerning feelings, attitudes, emotions, etc. towards death and dying. It is concluded that blacks see death as a very significant happening; and that although in some areas blacks have become Americanized in…

  16. Death Writ Large

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Mainstream thanatology has devoted its efforts to improving the understanding, care, and social integration of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness or bereavement. This article suggests that it might now be time to expand the scope and mission to include large-scale death and death that occurs through complex and multi-domain…

  17. Near-death experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, S J

    1996-01-01

    Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct. PMID:8683504

  18. Mozart's illnesses and death.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P J

    1983-01-01

    Throughout his life Mozart suffered frequent attacks of tonsillitis. In 1784 he developed post-streptococcal Schönlein-Henoch syndrome which caused chronic glomerular nephritis and chronic renal failure. His fatal illness was due to Schönlein-Henoch purpura, with death from cerebral haemorrhage and bronchopneumonia. Venesection(s) may have contributed to his death. PMID:6352940

  19. Reflections on Death Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskey, Raymond J.

    1977-01-01

    The author comments on the need to discuss death openly in the classroom, noting that engaging students with the idea of coming to grips with the fact of their own death can prepare them for living, working, and loving more fully. (SH)

  20. The Sociology of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    When we start to look at the issues associated with dying and death, we must do so in terms of the broadest parameters imaginable. Presented at the Conference on Death and Dying: Education, Counseling, and Care, December 1-3, 1976, Orlando, Florida. (Author)