Science.gov

Sample records for adjusted feed conversion

  1. Evaluation of feed conversion in steers from a diallel of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford, and Brahman beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Cooper, J B; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K

    1991-07-01

    A total of 269 steers produced in a four-breed diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford, and Brahman breeds were evaluated for the unadjusted and maintenance-adjusted total feed intake to total weight gain ratio. Time on feed ranged from 184 to 251 d. Covariate adjustments were made separately for age- and 12th rib fat-constant end points. Purebred, general combining ability, and maternal effects and heterosis were estimated. Effects of year, breed of dam, slaughter group, and days on feed accounted for most of the variation in feed conversion. Significantly higher unadjusted cumulative feed/gain ratios were found for steers from Brahman sires and for those from Simmental, Limousin, and Brahman dams. Adjustment to either fat- or age-constant values did not rerank breed groups, but a small reduction in the differences between these groups was detected for fat-constant efficiency. For maintenance-adjusted feed intake, progeny of Simmental and Limousin dams were less efficient than those of Polled Hereford and Brahman dams. Negative values for general combining ability, maternal effects, and heterosis would indicate less feed required per unit of weight gain. General combining ability for Polled Hereford crosses was negative and significant for cumulative feed/gain ratios, but no difference among dam breeds was found for the maintenance-adjusted ratio. Maternal effects for Limousin dams were positive and significant for all maintenance-adjusted ratios. Heterosis estimates for specific breed crosses were generally negative and ranged from -.87 to .22. PMID:1885389

  2. Adjusting Conceptual Pacts in Three-Party Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Si On; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    During conversation, partners develop representations of jointly known information--the common ground--and use this knowledge to guide subsequent linguistic exchanges. Extensive research on 2-party conversation has offered key insights into this process, in particular, its partner-specificity: Common ground that is shared with 1 partner is not…

  3. Conversations with God: Prayer and Bargaining in Adjustment to Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Valerie J.; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Blanco, E. Lisette

    2013-01-01

    The role of religiosity and spirituality in the process of adjustment to disability is of increasing interest to rehabilitation professionals. Beginning with the Kubler-Ross models of grief and adjustment to disability and terminal illness, a number of stage models have included spiritual and religious interactions as a part of the adjustment…

  4. Plasma gun with coaxial powder feed and adjustable cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved plasma gun coaxially injects particles of ceramic materials having high melting temperatures into the central portion of a plasma jet. This results in a more uniform and higher temperature and velocity distribution of the sprayed particles. The position of the cathode is adjustable to facilitate optimization of the performance of the gun wherein grains of the ceramic material are melted at lower power input levels.

  5. Management factors affecting mortality, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of grow-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Agostini, P S; Fahey, A G; Manzanilla, E G; O'Doherty, J V; de Blas, C; Gasa, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of animal management and farm facilities on total feed intake (TFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality rate (MORT) of grower-finishing pigs. In total, 310 batches from 244 grower-finishing farms, consisting of 454 855 Pietrain sired pigs in six Spanish pig companies were used. Data collection consisted of a survey on management practices (season of placement, split-sex by pens, number of pig origins, water source in the farm, initial or final BW) and facilities (floor, feeder, ventilation or number of animals placed) during 2008 and 2009. Results indicated that batches of pigs placed between January and March had higher TFI (P=0.006), FCR (P=0.005) and MORT (P=0.03) than those placed between July and September. Moreover, batches of pigs placed between April and June had lower MORT (P=0.003) than those placed between January and March. Batches which had split-sex pens had lower TFI (P=0.001) and better FCR (P<0.001) than those with mixed-sex in pens; pigs fed with a single-space feeder with incorporated drinker also had the lowest TFI (P<0.001) and best FCR (P<0.001) in comparison to single and multi-space feeders without a drinker. Pigs placed in pens with <50% slatted floors presented an improvement in FCR (P<0.05) than pens with 50% or more slatted floors. Batches filled with pigs from multiple origins had higher MORT (P<0.001) than those from a single origin. Pigs housed in barns that performed manual ventilation control presented higher MORT (P<0.001) in comparison to automatic ventilation. The regression analysis also indicated that pigs which entered to grower-finisher facilities with higher initial BW had lower MORT (P<0.05) and finally pigs which were sent to slaughterhouse with a higher final BW presented higher TFI (P<0.001). The variables selected for each dependent variable explained 61.9%, 24.8% and 20.4% of the total variability for TFI, FCR and MORT, respectively. This study indicates that

  6. Effect of Bubbles and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology during Conversion to Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, Jose; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-10-21

    As the nuclear waste glass melter feed is converted to molten glass, the feed becomes a continuous glass-forming melt where dissolving refractory constituents are suspended together with numerous gas bubbles. Knowledge of mechanical properties of the reacting melter feed is crucial for understanding the feed-to-glass conversion as it occurs during melting. We studied the melter feed viscosity during heating and correlated it with volume fractions of dissolving quartz particles and gas phase. The measurements were performed with a rotating spindle rheometer on the melter feed heated at 5 K/min, starting at several different temperatures. The effects of undissolved quartz particles, gas bubbles, and compositional inhomogeneity on the melter feed viscosity were determined by fitting a linear relationship between log viscosity and volume fractions of suspended phases.

  7. The Effect of Foaming and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology during Conversion to Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, Jose; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-11-23

    As the nuclear waste glass melter feed is converted to molten glass, the feed eventually becomes a continuous glass-forming melt in which dissolving refractory constituents are suspended together with numerous gas bubbles. Knowledge of mechanical properties of the melter feed is crucial for understanding the feed-to-glass conversion as it occurs in the cold cap. We measured the viscosity during heating of the feed and correlated it with the independently determined volume fractions of dissolving quartz particles and the gas phase. The measurement was performed with a rotating spindle rheometer on the melter feed heated at 5 K/min starting at several different temperatures. The effect of quartz particles, gas bubbles, and compositional inhomogeneity on the glass-forming melt viscosity was determined by fitting a linear relationship between log viscosity and volume fractions of suspended phases to data.

  8. Genetic parameters of growth, feed intake, feed conversion and carcass composition of dual-purpose bulls in performance testing.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J; Mao, I L; Andersen, B B; Madsen, P

    1991-03-01

    Genetic parameters for growth, total energy intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily energy intake and carcass composition were estimated in an experiment with 650 bull calves from 31 half-sib groups of Holstein Friesian or Brown Swiss sires. All traits analyzed had an amount of additive genetic variance that allows for considerable response to selection. No interaction between genotype (sire group) and proportion of roughage in the diet was found. Daily gain was strongly correlated negatively with feed conversion ratio but positively correlated with daily energy intake. Results indicate that genetic selection for either daily gain or average daily energy intake would decrease carcass fatness at a constant slaughter weight. However, the environmental correlation between daily energy intake and carcass fatness was positive. PMID:2061263

  9. Growth and feed conversion of pond-raised hybrid catfish harvested at different sizes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine growth and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of pond-raised hybrid catfish (channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus × blue catfish I. furcatus) harvested at different sizes. Fingerling hybrid catfish (mean initial weight ± SD = 62 ± 2.0 g/fish) were stocked into 25 earthen pon...

  10. Comparative effects of constant versus fluctuating thermal regimens on yellow perch growth, feed conversion and survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of fluctuating or constant thermal regimens on growth, mortality, and feed conversion were determined for juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Yellow perch averaging 156mm total length and 43g body weight were held in replicate 288L circular tanks for 129 days under: 1) a diel therm...

  11. Effects of feed intake and genetics on tissue nitrogen-15 enrichment and feed conversion efficiency in sheep.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Logan, C M; Dewhurst, R J; Hodge, S; Zhou, H; Edwards, G R

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of sheep genetics and feed intake on nitrogen isotopic fractionation (ΔN) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE; live weight gain/DMI), using a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 2 levels of genetic merit for growth (high vs. low) and 2 levels of feed intake (110 vs. 170% of ME for maintenance [MEm]). No effect of genetic merit was detected for live weight gain ( = 0.64), FCE ( = 0.46), plasma urea nitrogen ( = 0.52), plasma glucose ( = 0.78), and ΔN of wool ( = 0.45), blood ( = 0.09), and plasma ( = 0.51). Sheep receiving 170% of MEm had 175% higher live weight gain ( < 0.001) and 77% higher FCE ( < 0.001) than sheep receiving 110% of MEm. There was no difference among treatments at the beginning of the study for either blood or plasma ∆N, but the treatment groups started to diverge in blood and plasma ∆N at 21 and 7 d, respectively. Blood, plasma, and wool samples were enriched in N compared with feed. There was a higher blood, plasma, and wool ∆N for the low feed intake group than the high feed intake group ( < 0.001 in all cases). Across the 4 treatment groups, higher FCE in sheep was associated with lower ∆N for plasma, blood, and wool. Overall, the results are consistent with the potential of ∆N as a rapid, low-cost biomarker of FCE in sheep, despite there being no effects of genetic treatment on FCE and ∆N. PMID:26641195

  12. Effect of bubbles and silica dissolution on melter feed rheology during conversion to glass.

    PubMed

    Marcial, José; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel; Schweiger, Michael

    2014-10-21

    Nuclear-waste melter feeds are slurry mixtures of wastes with glass-forming and glass-modifying additives (unless prefabricated frits are used), which are converted to molten glass in a continuous electrical glass-melting furnace. The feeds gradually become continuous glass-forming melts. Initially, the melts contain dissolving refractory feed constituents that are suspended together with numerous gas bubbles. Eventually, the bubbles escape, and the melts homogenize and equilibrate. Knowledge of various physicochemical properties of the reacting melter feed is crucial for understanding the feed-to-glass conversion that occurs during melting. We studied the melter feed viscosity during heating and correlated it with the volume fractions of dissolving quartz (SiO2) particles and the gas phase. The measurements were performed with a rotating spindle rheometer on the melter feed heated at 5 K/min, starting at several different temperatures. The effects of undissolved quartz particles, gas bubbles, and compositional inhomogeneity on the melter feed viscosity were determined by fitting a linear relationship between the logarithm of viscosity and the volume fractions of suspended phases. PMID:25229521

  13. Effects of unilateral stroke on multi-finger synergies and their feed-forward adjustments.

    PubMed

    Jo, H J; Maenza, C; Good, D C; Huang, X; Park, J; Sainburg, R L; Latash, M L

    2016-04-01

    We explored the changes in multi-finger synergies in patients after a single cortical stroke with mild motor impairments. We hypothesized that both synergy indices and anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to the initiation of a self-paced quick action would be diminished in the patients compared to age-matched controls. The patients with history of cortical stroke, and age-matched controls (n=12 in each group) performed one-finger and multi-finger accurate force production tasks involving both steady-state and quick force pulse production. Finger interdependence (enslaving) and multi-finger synergies stabilizing total force were quantified. The stroke patients showed lower maximal finger forces, in particular in the contralesional hand, which also showed increased enslaving indices. Multi-finger synergies during steady-state force production were, however, unchanged after stroke. In contrast, a drop in the synergy index prior to the force pulse generation was significantly delayed in the stroke patients. Our results show that mild cortical stroke leads to no significant changes in multifinger synergies, but there is impairment in feed-forward adjustments of the synergies prior to a quick action, a drop in the maximal force production, and an increase in enslaving. We conclude that studies of synergies reveal two aspects of synergic control differentially affected by cortical stroke. PMID:26828408

  14. Conversion of organic material by black soldier fly larvae: establishing optimal feeding rates.

    PubMed

    Diener, Stefan; Zurbrügg, Christian; Tockner, Klement

    2009-09-01

    Larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are voracious feeders of organic material and may thus be used in simple engineered systems to reduce organic waste in low- and middle-income countries. Controlled feeding experiments with standard fodder were conducted to assess the optimum amount of organic waste to be added to a CORS system (Conversion of Organic Refuse by Saprophages). A daily feeding rate of 100 mg chicken feed (60% moisture content) per larva resulted in an optimum trade-off between material reduction efficiency (41.8%, SE 0.61) and biomass production (prepupal dry weight: 48.0 mg, SE 2.0). Applied to market waste and human faeces, this corresponds to a potential daily feeding capacity of 3-5 kg/m(2) and 6.5 kg/m(2), respectively. In addition, H. illucens prepupae quality was assessed to determine their suitability to substitute fishmeal in animal feed production. The chitin-corrected crude protein content ranged from 28.2 to 42.5%, depending on the amount of food provided to the larvae. Based on our study, a waste processing unit could yield a daily prepupal biomass of 145 g (dry mass) per m(2). We conclude that larvae of the black soldier fly are potentially capable of converting large amounts of organic waste into protein-rich biomass to substitute fishmeal, thereby contributing to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:19502252

  15. Nutrient conversions by photosynthetic bacteria in a concentrated animal feeding operation lagoon system.

    PubMed

    Sund, J L; Evenson, C J; Strevett, K A; Nairn, R W; Athay, D; Trawinski, E

    2001-01-01

    A diurnal examination was conducted to determine the effect of photosynthetic bacteria on nutrient conversions in a two-stage concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) lagoon system in west-central Oklahoma. Changes in nutrients, microbial populations, and physical parameters were examined at three depths (0, 1.5, and 3.0 m) every 3 h over a 36-h period. The south lagoon (SL) was anaerobic (dissolved oxygen [DO] = 0.09 +/- 0.12 mg/L) while the north lagoon (NL) was facultative (DO ranged from 4.0-0.1 mg/L over 36-h period). Negative sulfide-sulfate (-0.85) and bacteriochlorophyll a (bchl a)-sulfate (-0.83) correlations, as well as positive bchl a-sulfide (0.87) and light intensity (I)-bchl a (0.89) correlations revealed that the SL was dominated by sulfur conversions driven by the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). The correlation data was supported by diurnal trends for sulfate, sulfide, and bchl a. Both nitrogen and sulfur conversions played a role in the NL; however, nitrogen conversions appeared to dominate this system because of the activity of cyanobacteria. This was shown by positive chlorophyll a (chl a)-I (0.91) and chl a-nitrate (0.98) correlations and the negative correlation between ammonium and nitrite (-0.88). Correlation data was further supported by diurnal trends observed for chl a, DO, and ammonium. For both lagoons, the dominant photosynthetic microbial species determined which nutrient conversion processes were most important. PMID:11285928

  16. Model for the conversion of nuclear waste melter feed to glass

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2014-02-01

    The rate of batch-to-glass conversion is a primary concern for the vitrification of nuclear waste, as it directly influences the life cycle of the cleanup process. This study describes the development of an advanced model of the cold cap, which augments the previous model by further developments on the structure and the dynamics of the foam layer. The foam layer on the bottom of the cold cap consists of the primary foam, cavities, and the secondary foam, and forms an interface through which the heat is transferred to the cold cap. Other model enhancements include the behavior of intermediate crystalline phases and the dissolution of quartz particles. The model relates the melting rate to feed properties and melter conditions, such as the molten glass temperature, foaminess of the feed, or the heat fraction supplied to the cold cap from the plenum space. The model correctly predicts a 25% increase in melting rate when changing the alumina source in the melter feed from Al(OH)3 to AlO(OH). It is expected that this model will be incorporated in the full glass melter model as its integral component.

  17. State-of-the-art assessment of coal feeding for coal conversion plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, B.T. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Coal Feeding is one of the critical steps common to all coal conversion processes such as gasification, liquefaction and fluidized bed combustion. For liquefaction in processes such as H-Coal and SRC I and II, reciprocating slurry pumps are primarily used in current practice. The dry coal must be slurried with recycle oils or water. In first generation gasifiers such as the Lurgi installations at Sasol, lockhoppers are used. The demonstration sized plants such as ICGG COGAS and Concoco Slagging Lurgi also are slated to use lockhopper type systems. In atmospheric fluidized bed combustors combination mechanical feeding with pneumatic assist is used at the Rivesville Installation. Overfeed stokers are used at Georgetown. Flow splitting to achieve uniformity of feed to the bed has been a problem. If we have satisfactory feeders such as lockhoppers, why is DOE sponsoring feeder development. High installation costs and high power consumptions have been indicated by several studies when compared to projected costs of developmental feeders. There are several advanced technology feeders being developed by the private sector both with and without DOE support. These feeders can be broken down into types such as screw extruders, rotary or drums, cavity, centrifugal, and pneumatic. The various feeders of each type are discussed, giving maximum pressure obtained to date, coal types and sizes handled, and operational hours obtained to date giving an indication of progress in development. A table of feeders versus application for current DOE major coal conversion projects is presented. The feeder currently proposed for each project as well as possible applications of newer feeders is given.

  18. Model for the conversion of nuclear waste melter feed to glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel

    2014-02-01

    The rate of batch-to-glass conversion is a primary concern for the vitrification of nuclear waste, as it directly influences the life cycle of the cleanup process. This study describes the development of an advanced model of the cold cap, which augments the previous model by further developments on the structure and the dynamics of the foam layer. The foam layer on the bottom of the cold cap consists of the primary foam, cavities, and the secondary foam, and forms an interface through which the heat is transferred to the cold cap. Other model enhancements include the behavior of intermediate crystalline phases and the dissolution of quartz particles. The model relates the melting rate to feed properties and melter conditions, such as the molten glass temperature, foaminess of the melt, or the heat fraction supplied to the cold cap from the plenum space. The model correctly predicts a 25% increase in melting rate when changing the alumina source in the melter feed from Al(OH)3 to AlO(OH). It is expected that this model will be incorporated in the full glass melter model as its integral component.

  19. The genetics of feed conversion efficiency traits in a commercial broiler line

    PubMed Central

    Reyer, Henry; Hawken, Rachel; Murani, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Individual feed conversion efficiency (FCE) is a major trait that influences the usage of energy resources and the ecological footprint of livestock production. The underlying biological processes of FCE are complex and are influenced by factors as diverse as climate, feed properties, gut microbiota, and individual genetic predisposition. To gain an insight to the genetic relationships with FCE traits and to contribute to the improvement of FCE in commercial chicken lines, a genome-wide association study was conducted using a commercial broiler population (n = 859) tested for FCE and weight traits during the finisher period from 39 to 46 days of age. Both single-marker (generalized linear model) and multi-marker (Bayesian approach) analyses were applied to the dataset to detect genes associated with the variability in FCE. The separate analyses revealed 22 quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions on 13 different chromosomes; the integration of both approaches resulted in 7 overlapping QTL regions. The analyses pointed to acylglycerol kinase (AGK) and general transcription factor 2-I (GTF2I) as positional and functional candidate genes. Non-synonymous polymorphisms of both candidate genes revealed evidence for a functional importance of these genes by influencing different biological aspects of FCE. PMID:26552583

  20. A safety analysis of food waste-derived animal feeds from three typical conversion techniques in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    This study was based on the food waste to animal feed demonstration projects in China. A safety analysis of animal feeds from three typical treatment processes (i.e., fermentation, heat treatment, and coupled hydrothermal treatment and fermentation) was presented. The following factors are considered in this study: nutritive values characterized by organoleptic properties and general nutritional indices; the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials; microbiological indices for Salmonella, total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TAC), molds and yeast (MY), Staphylococcus Aureus (SA), and Listeria; chemical contaminant indices for hazardous trace elements such as Cr, Cd, and As; and nitrite and organic contaminants such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). The present study reveals that the feeds from all three conversion processes showed balanced nutritional content and retained a certain feed value. The microbiological indices and the chemical contaminant indices for HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), nitrite, and mercury all met pertinent feed standards; however, the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials and a few chemical contaminants such as Pb were close to or might exceed the legislation permitted values in animal feeding. From the view of treatment techniques, all feed retained part of the nutritional values of the food waste after the conversion processes. Controlled heat treatment can guarantee the inactivation of bacterial pathogens, but none of the three techniques can guarantee the absence of cattle- and sheep-derived materials and acceptable levels of certain contaminants. The results obtained in this research and the feedstuffs legislation related to animal feed indicated that food waste-derived feed could be considered an adequate alternative to be used in animal diets, while the feeding action should be changed with the different qualities of the products, such as restrictions on the application

  1. Investigation of the available technologies and their feasibility for the conversion of food waste into fish feed in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-04-01

    Food waste is the largest constituent of municipal solid waste in Hong Kong, but food waste recycling is still in its infancy. With the imminent saturation of all landfill sites by 2020, multiple technologies are needed to boost up the food waste recycling rate in Hong Kong. Conversion of food waste into animal feeds is prevalent in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, treating over 40 % of their recycled food waste. This direction is worth exploring in Hong Kong once concerns over food safety are resolved. Fortunately, while feeding food waste to pigs and chickens poses threats to public health, feeding it to fish is considered low risk. In order to examine the feasibility of converting food waste into fish feed in Hong Kong, this paper investigates the market demand, technical viability, feed quality, regulatory hurdles, and potential contribution. The results show that a significant amount of food waste can be recycled by converting it into fish feed due to the enormous demand from feed factories in mainland China. Two conversion technologies, heat drying and black soldier fly bioconversion, are studied extensively. Black soldier fly bioconversion is preferable because the end-product, insect powder, is anticipated to gain import approval from mainland China. The authors suggest further research efforts to speed up its application for food waste recycling in urban cities. PMID:25982983

  2. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food. PMID:26699129

  3. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J. A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food. PMID:26699129

  4. ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDING EQUIPMENT FOR SWIMMING POOLS. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NUMBER 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THE SCOPE OF THIS STANDARD COVERS ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDERS, WHETHER USED FOR SOLUTIONS, SLURRIES OR SOLIDS. IT ALSO INCLUDES AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT SUCH AS PUMPS, STRAINERS, TUBING CONNECTIONS, TANKS, INJECTION FITTINGS AND OTHER REQUIRED COMPONENTS. THE FEEDERS DESCRIBED ARE INTENDED TO BE DESIGNED AND USED SPECIFICALLY FOR CHEMICAL…

  5. A single nucleotide polymorphism in suppressor of cytokine signalling-2 is associated with growth and feed conversion efficiency in pigs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Piper, E; Zhang, Y; Tier, B; Graser, H U; Luxford, B G; Moran, C

    2011-04-01

    Feed efficiency and growth are the most important traits in pig production, and very few genetic markers have been reported to be associated with feed efficiency. The suppressor of cytokine signalling-2 (encoded by SOCS2) is the main negative regulator of somatic growth, and the knockout of SOCS2 and naturally mutant mice have high-growth phenotypes. Porcine SOCS2 was selected as a primary positional candidate for feed efficiency, because it is located on chromosome 5q, in the vicinity of a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) region for food conversion ratio in pigs. Here, we report five single nucleotide polymorphisms identified by sequencing of the promoter region and exon 1. One PCR-RFLP assay was designed for genotyping the polymorphism c.1667A > G (GenBank Accession No AY312266). Association analyses were performed in an Australian mapping resource pedigree population (PRDC-US43) for food conversion ratio, backfat, IGF1 level and growth traits and showed significant effects on average daily gain on test (ADG2) (P < 0.01) and marginal association with food conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.08). PMID:24725230

  6. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J

    2016-04-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from

  7. Mechanisms contributing to family variations in feed conversion and growth in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed costs often represent greater than 50% of the operating expenses in aquaculture production. Therefore, the efficiency at which fish convert feed into biomass directly impacts the profitability of a farm. Understanding the physiological and genetic mechanisms contributing to family variations ...

  8. Tunneling-injection in vertical quasi-2D heterojunctions enabled efficient and adjustable optoelectronic conversion

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wei-Chun; Chiang, Chia-Wei; Hofmann, Mario; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The advent of 2D materials integration has enabled novel heterojunctions where carrier transport proceeds thrsough different ultrathin layers. We here demonstrate the potential of such heterojunctions on a graphene/dielectric/semiconductor vertical stack that combines several enabling features for optoelectronic devices. Efficient and stable light emission was achieved through carrier tunneling from the graphene injector into prominent states of a luminescent material. Graphene’s unique properties enable fine control of the band alignment in the heterojunction. This advantage was used to produce vertical tunneling-injection light-emitting transistors (VtiLET) where gating allows adjustment of the light emission intensity independent of applied bias. This device was shown to simultaneously act as a light detecting transistor with a linear and gate tunable sensitivity. The presented development of an electronically controllable multifunctional light emitter, light detector and transistor open up a new route for future optoelectronics. PMID:27507171

  9. Tunneling-injection in vertical quasi-2D heterojunctions enabled efficient and adjustable optoelectronic conversion.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei-Chun; Chiang, Chia-Wei; Hofmann, Mario; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The advent of 2D materials integration has enabled novel heterojunctions where carrier transport proceeds thrsough different ultrathin layers. We here demonstrate the potential of such heterojunctions on a graphene/dielectric/semiconductor vertical stack that combines several enabling features for optoelectronic devices. Efficient and stable light emission was achieved through carrier tunneling from the graphene injector into prominent states of a luminescent material. Graphene's unique properties enable fine control of the band alignment in the heterojunction. This advantage was used to produce vertical tunneling-injection light-emitting transistors (VtiLET) where gating allows adjustment of the light emission intensity independent of applied bias. This device was shown to simultaneously act as a light detecting transistor with a linear and gate tunable sensitivity. The presented development of an electronically controllable multifunctional light emitter, light detector and transistor open up a new route for future optoelectronics. PMID:27507171

  10. Tunneling-injection in vertical quasi-2D heterojunctions enabled efficient and adjustable optoelectronic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wei-Chun; Chiang, Chia-Wei; Hofmann, Mario; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2016-08-01

    The advent of 2D materials integration has enabled novel heterojunctions where carrier transport proceeds thrsough different ultrathin layers. We here demonstrate the potential of such heterojunctions on a graphene/dielectric/semiconductor vertical stack that combines several enabling features for optoelectronic devices. Efficient and stable light emission was achieved through carrier tunneling from the graphene injector into prominent states of a luminescent material. Graphene’s unique properties enable fine control of the band alignment in the heterojunction. This advantage was used to produce vertical tunneling-injection light-emitting transistors (VtiLET) where gating allows adjustment of the light emission intensity independent of applied bias. This device was shown to simultaneously act as a light detecting transistor with a linear and gate tunable sensitivity. The presented development of an electronically controllable multifunctional light emitter, light detector and transistor open up a new route for future optoelectronics.

  11. Simple measurements reveal the feeding history, the onset of reproduction, and energy conversion efficiencies in captive bluefin tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusup, Marko; Klanjšček, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    We present a numerical approach that, in conjunction with a fully set up Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, aims at consistently approximating the feeding history of cultivated fish from the commonly measured aquaculture data (body length, body mass, or the condition factor). We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by performing validation of a DEB-based model for Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) on an independent dataset and exploring the implied bioenergetics of this species in captivity. In the context of validation, the results indicate that the model successfully accounts for more than 75% of the variance in actual fish feed. At the 5% significance level, predictions do not underestimate nor overestimate observations and there is no bias. The overall model accuracy of 87.6% is satisfactory. In the context of tuna bioenergetics, we offer an explanation as to why the first reproduction in the examined case occurred only after the fish reached seven years of age, whereas it takes five years in the wild and sometimes as little as three years in captivity. Finally, we calculate energy conversion efficiencies and the supply stress throughout the entire lifetime to theoretically underpin the relatively low contribution of growth to aerobic metabolism implied by respirometry and high feed conversion ratio observed in bluefin tuna aquaculture.

  12. De novo transcriptome assembly and identification of genes associated with feed conversion ratio and breast muscle yield in domestic ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Yuan, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Zhen-He; Hao, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yu-Ze; Hu, Shen-Qiang; Yang, Fang-Xi; Qu, Lu-Jiang; Hou, Zhuo-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Breast muscle yield and feed conversion efficiency are the major breeding aims in duck breeding. Understanding the role of specific transcripts in the muscle and small intestine might lead to the elucidation of interrelated biological processes. In this study, we obtained jejunum and breast muscle samples from two strains of Peking ducks that were sorted by feed conversion ratio (FCR) and breast muscle percentage into two-tailed populations. Ten RNA-Seq libraries were developed from the pooled samples and sequenced using the Hiseq2000 platform. We created a reference duck transcript database using de novo assembly methods, which included 16 663 irredundant contigs with an N50 length of 1530 bp. This new duck reference cDNA dataset significantly improved the mapping rate for RNA-Seq data, from 50% to 70%. Mapping and annotation were followed by Gene Ontology analysis, which showed that numerous genes were differentially expressed between the low and high FCR groups. The differentially expressed genes in the jejunum were enriched in biological processes related to immune response and immune response activation, whereas those in the breast muscle were significantly enriched in biological processes related to muscle cell differentiation and organ development. We identified new candidate genes, that is, PCK1, for improving the FCR and breast muscle yield of ducks and obtained much better reference duck transcripts. This study suggested that de novo assembly is essential when applying transcriptome analysis to a species with an incomplete genome. PMID:26545935

  13. I. Evaluation of the impact of alternative light technology on male broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, and allometric characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Allison G; Pritchett, Elizabeth M; Alphin, Robert L; Brannick, Erin M; Benson, Eric R

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the impact of light-emitting diode (LED), cold cathode fluorescent (CCFL), and incandescent lamps on broiler performance. Male Ross 708 broilers (n=672) were raised to 6 wk age in 8 black-out modified large colony houses, under identical intermittent lighting conditions using 4 unique types of lamps, which were gradually dimmed throughout the study. Incandescent lamps served as the control; experimental technologies tested included CCFL and 2 different LED lamps. Each technology was tested in duplicate for each of 4 trials (8 replications total per technology) conducted across the course of one year to account for seasonal variance. Live performance for each technology was evaluated using live broiler body weight (BW), weight gain, feed conversion, and mortality. Birds were removed from each house at 7, 14, 35, and 42 d to be humanely euthanized, weighed, and necropsied for allometric tissue sample analysis. Relative to the technologies tested, results indicate that birds raised under incandescent lamps had significantly higher BW by 42 d, compared to birds raised under CCFL lamps, which had poorer BW performance (P=0.03). Birds raised under both LED technologies grew to final BWs similar to those raised under incandescent light, with significant differences in neither feed conversion nor mortality. PMID:25628420

  14. The effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion, and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, J.; Bebak, J.; Mazik, P.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive aquaculture systems, particularly recirculating systems, utilize equipment such as aerators, air and water pumps, blowers, and filtration systems that inadvertently increase noise levels in fish culture tanks. Sound levels and frequencies measured within intensive aquaculture systems are within the range of fish hearing, but species-specific effects of aquaculture production noise are not well defined. Field and laboratory studies have shown that fish behavior and physiology can be negatively impacted by intense sound. Therefore, chronic exposure to aquaculture production noise could cause increased stress, reduced growth rates and feed conversion efficiency, and decreased survival. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the long term effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion efficiency, and survival of cultured rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rainbow trout were cultured in replicated tanks using two sound treatments: 117??dB re 1????Pa RMS which represented sound levels lower than those recorded in an intensive recycle system and 149??dB re 1????Pa RMS, representing sound levels near the upper limits known to occur in recycle systems. To begin the study mean fish weights in the 117 and 149??dB tanks were 40 and 39??g, respectively. After five months of exposure no significant differences were identified between treatments for mean weight, length, specific growth rates, condition factor, feed conversion, or survival (n = 4). Mean final weights for the 117 and 149??dB treatments were 641 ?? 3 and 631 ?? 10??g, respectively. Overall specific growth rates were equal, i.e. 1.84 ?? 0.00 and 1.84 ?? 0.01%/day. Analysis of growth rates of individually tagged rainbow trout indicated that fish from the 149??dB tanks grew slower during the first month of noise exposure (p < 0.05); however, fish acclimated to the noise thereafter. This study further suggests that rainbow trout growth

  15. Effects of direct-fed Bacillus pumilus 8G-134 on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, feed conversion, and health condition of pre- and postpartum Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Luan, S; Duersteler, M; Galbraith, E A; Cardoso, F C

    2015-09-01

    The usage of direct-fed microbials (DFM) has become common in the dairy industry, but questions regarding choice of strain, mode of action, and efficacy remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a DFM (Bacillus pumilus 8G-134) on pre- and postpartum performance and incidence of subclinical ketosis in early lactation. Forty-three multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design; cows in the direct-fed microbial treatment (DFMt, n=21) received 5.0×10(9) cfu/cow of B. pumilus in 28 g of a maltodextrin carrier, whereas cows in the control treatment (CON, n=22) received 28 g of maltodextrin carrier alone. Treatments were top-dressed on the total mixed ration daily. Treatments were applied from 21 d before expected calving date to 154 d after calving. Cows on treatment DFMt tended to have lower serum haptoglobin concentration than CON cows on d 14. Cows on treatment DFMt had higher IgA concentrations in milk than CON cows during the first week after calving. Cows fed DFMt had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein during the second week of lactation than CON; however, we found no differences between treatments on milk yield and milk components overall. Cows on DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and to have lower prevalence of subclinical ketosis (beta-hydroxybutyrate >1.2 mmol/L) on d 5 than cows fed CON. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by DFMt supplementation. Milk production efficiencies (calculated based on fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk) were higher by 0.1 kg of milk per kilogram of dry matter intake in cows that received DFMt compared with cows that received CON. In conclusion, cows receiving DFMt tended to have lower incidence of subclinical ketosis than cows receiving CON. Cows fed DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and evidence for greater immunity than CON

  16. "I Tell Them I Know How to Do My ABCs!": Kindergartners' School-Related Conversations with Parents and Associations with Adjustment and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Helen; Johnson, Kiana R.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Gray, DeLeon L.

    2011-01-01

    We examined kindergartners' (N = 160) reports of their conversations with parents about school, including whether parents ask about school, what parents ask about, what children tell them, and whether children want to tell their parents. We also investigated whether school adjustment and achievement were associated with either parent questions or…

  17. Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yong , Liu; Wei

    2012-01-24

    The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

  18. Effect of Corncob bedding on feed conversion efficiency in a high-fat diet-induced prediabetic model in C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Ambery, Ashley G; Tackett, Lixuan; Penque, Brent A; Hickman, Debra L; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory facilities use many varieties of contact bedding, including wood chips, paper products, and corncob, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Corncob bedding, for example, is often used because of its high absorbency, ability to minimize detectable ammonia, and low cost. However, observations that mice eat the corncob lead to concerns that its use can interfere with dietary studies. We evaluated the effect of corncob bedding on feed conversion (change in body weight relative to the apparent number of kcal consumed over 7 d) in mice. Four groups of mice (6 to 12 per group) were housed in an individually ventilated caging system: (1) low-fat diet housed on recycled paper bedding, (2) low-fat diet housed on corncob bedding, (3) high-fat diet housed on recycled paper bedding, and (4) high-fat diet housed on corncob bedding. After 4 wk of the high-fat diet, feed conversion and percentage body weight change both were lower in corncob-bedded mice compared with paper-bedded mice. Low-fat-fed mice on corncob bedding versus paper bedding did not show statistically significant differences in feed conversion or change in percentage body weight. Average apparent daily feed consumption did not differ among the 4 groups. In conclusion, these data suggest that corncob bedding reduces the efficiency of feed conversion in mice fed a high-fat diet and that other bedding choices should be favored in these models. PMID:25255066

  19. Broiler ascites syndrome: collateral damage from efficient feed to meat conversion.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Isabelle D; Vanrompay, Daisy; Janssens, Geert P J

    2013-08-01

    Chickens have been raised as food for human consumption for over 4000 years. Over this time they have been continuously selected for specific desirable characteristics by active selection of parents to produce birds which fit perceived needs. Despite this long history of selective breeding and improvements in rearing techniques, the efficiency with which broiler meat is produced has shown a remarkable leap in recent decades. Persistent selection for rapid growth, high feed utilisation efficiency and large cut yield has resulted in modern meat-type poultry lines with superior genetic potential with regard to productivity. However, mortality and the incidence of metabolic diseases has increased in parallel with growth rate. One such disease is broiler ascites syndrome, which has been shown to be closely associated with the fast growth and high meat yield resulting from intense selection and with modern rearing techniques. The review is focused on the historical background, pathogenesis, epidemiology and prevention of broiler ascites syndrome in modern broiler production. PMID:23628419

  20. The effects of essential oils BIOMIN PEP MGE on weight gain feed conversion ratio and survival of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of matrix encapsulated essential oils (Biomin® P.E.P. MGE) on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and survival of channel catfish. Five hundred catfish (32.4 ± 1.7 g/fish) were randomly assigned to two treatments with five replicate tanks/tre...

  1. High partial feed conversion efficiency appears to be a persistent trait associated with reduction in selected measures of methane emissions in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States enteric methane (CH4) contributes approximately 21% of all anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Alongside dietary manipulations, exploiting among-animal variation in feed conversion efficiency (FCE) may offer possible CH4 mitigation strategies. This experiment was designed to evaluate t...

  2. Weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine as response criteria in evaluating supplements of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan to deficient diets for rats.

    PubMed

    Frydrych, Z; Heger, J

    1986-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted on growing male SPF-rats to compare weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine concentration as response criteria in evaluating adequacy of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan supplements to the deficient diets. Two basal semisynthetic diets were prepared limiting in lysine and threonine (Expt. 1) and lysine and tryptophan (Expt. 2). The addition of graded supplements to the basal diets of L-lysine X HCl alone (0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0% of diet) induced imbalance of amino acids resulting in low level of daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Plasma free lysine concentration started to grow linearly from the first supplement of L-lysine X HCl. If rats were fed the diets containing identical supplements of L-lysine X HCl in combination with two supplements of L-threonine (0.2 and 0.4% of diet, Expt. 1) or L-tryptophan (0.05 and 0.1% of diet, Expt. 2), plasma free lysine started to increase before supplements of amino acids were adequate to support maximum weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. this difference in response seems to be caused by different feeding regiment during the growth period of the experiments (ad libitum) and training period prior to blood sampling (feeding twice daily). PMID:3098208

  3. Effects of dietary levels of carbohydrate, lipid, phosphorus and zinc on the growth, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongjie; Lei, Wu; Yang, Yunxia; Ye, Jun

    1993-09-01

    A 54-day feeding experiment was conducted on juvenile Nile tilapia using isonitrogenous, isocaloric semipurified diets. The carbohydrate content in the diet was 9%, 32% and 50%; the corresponding lipid content was 22.2%, 12%, and 4%. The diets were supplemented with 0.85% or 1.5% phosphorus and 40 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg zinc. The experiment was carried out in flow-through aquaria using dechlorinated tap water at 23 26°C. The experiment showed that the increase of the carbohydrate content in the diets resulted in a 43 249% increase in weight gain, a 27 59% decrease in feed conversion ratio, and a 65 121% increase in protein efficiency ratio. In fish fed diets containing 36 50% carbohydrate, an increase in supplemented phosphorus to 1.5% greatly increased the weight gain. On the contrary, a high content of supplemented zinc (100 mg/kg) inhibited growth and increased feed conversion ratio.

  4. A genome-wide approach to screen for genetic variants in broilers (Gallus gallus) with divergent feed conversion ratio.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tejas M; Patel, Namrata V; Patel, Anand B; Upadhyay, Maulik R; Mohapatra, Amitbikram; Singh, Krishna M; Deshpande, Sunil D; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2016-08-01

    Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is an economically important trait in broilers and feed accounts for a significant proportion of the costs involved in broiler production. To explore the contribution of functional variants to FCR trait, we analyzed coding and non-coding single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) across the genome by exome sequencing in seven pairs of full-sibs broilers with divergent FCR and with a sequence coverage at an average depth of fourfold. We identified 192,119 high-quality SNVs, including 30,380 coding SNVs (cSNVs) in the experimental population. We discovered missense SNVs in PGM2, NOX4, TGFBR3, and TMX4, and synonymous SNVs in TSNAX, ITA, HSP90B1, and COL18A1 associated with FCR. Haplotype analyses of genome-wide significant SNVs in PGM2, PHKG1, DGKZ, and SOD2 were also observed with suggestive evidence of haplotype association with FCR. Single-variant and FCR QTL-related genes-based association analyses of SNVs identified newly associated genes for FCR in the regions subjected to targeted exome sequencing. The top seven SNVs were next evaluated in independent replication data sets where SNV chr. 3: 13,990,160 (c. 961G>C) at TMX4 was replicated (p < 0.05). Collectively, we have detected SNVs associated with FCR in broiler as well as identification of SNVs in known FCR QTL region. These findings should facilitate the discovery of causative variants for FCR and contribute to marker-assisted selection. PMID:27174137

  5. Adjusting to motherhood. The importance of BMI in predicting maternal well-being, eating behaviour and feeding practice within a cross cultural setting.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard; Hetherington, Marion

    2014-10-01

    Maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative body image and restrained eating which are experienced differently across cultures. The present study aimed to: 1) examine if self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction changed from early pregnancy to 2-6 months after giving birth; 2) explore changes according to country (Israel vs. UK) and BMI; and 3) determine any relationship between these measurements and infant feeding. Participants completed questionnaires assessing self-esteem, body image and eating/feeding behaviours. Multilevel linear modelling was used to account for change and to assess the independent impact of BMI on outcomes. Seventy-three women and infants participated in the study in early pregnancy and again 16 (9) weeks following birth. Women gained 1.5 kg (range -12 + 23) and UK mothers reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction, but self-esteem and eating behaviours remained stable. BMI was the main predictor of self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction. Mothers' perceptions of infant's eating did not vary according to BMI or country; however, heavier mothers reported feeding their infants according to a schedule. The first months after giving birth are a key time to assess adjustment to motherhood but later assessments are necessary in order to track changes beyond the early period post-pregnancy. PMID:24933685

  6. Investigation of Rheological Impacts on the Defense Waste Processing Facility's Sludge Slurry Feed as Insoluble Solids and Wash Endpoints are Adjusted

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T. L.; Howard, S.J.; Lee, M.C.; Galloway, R.H.

    2006-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently pursuing an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste (HLW) tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To create a batch of feed for the DWPF, several tanks of radioactive sludge slurry are combined into one of the million gallon (i.e. 3.79 E06 liters) feed tanks for DWPF. Once these sludge slurries are combined, the soluble sodium and weight percent total solids are adjusted by a 'washing' process. The 'washing' process involves diluting the soluble sodium of the sludge slurry with inhibited water (0.015 M NaOH and 0.015 M NaNO{sub 2}) and allowing the sludge slurry to settle into two layers. The two layers in the tank consist of a clear supernate on top and a layer of settled sludge solids on the bottom. The clear supernate layer is then decanted to another hold tank. This 'washing' process is repeated until the desired wash endpoint (i.e. sodium concentration in the supernate) and weight percent total solids are achieved. A final washed batch of feed consists of approximately 500,000 gallons (i.e. 1.89 E06 liters). DWPF has already processed three batches of feed and is currently processing a fourth. Prior to processing a batch of feed in the DWPF, it must be well characterized. Samples of the prepared feed batch are sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for this characterization. As a part of the SRNL characterization for the fourth batch, rheology measurements were performed. Measurements were performed at different weight percent insoluble solids loadings to mimic potential facility processing scenarios (i.e. mixing/pumping of concentrated sludge slurry). In order to determine the influence of the soluble Na on the rheological properties of the sample, the supernate of the 'as received' sample was adjusted from 1 M soluble Na to 0.5 M soluble Na by using a lab scale version of the 'washing' process. Rheology

  7. Palatability of diets for channel catfish that contain amprolium or salinomycin using feed conversion ratio as criterion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two feeding studies were conducted to evaluate the palatability of diets for juvenile Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus that contained the poultry anticoccidial drugs Amprolium or Salinomycin, which are candidates to control the Channel Catfish myxozoan parasite, Henneguya ictaluri. These chemothe...

  8. Feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows: Repeatability, variation in digestion and metabolism of energy and nitrogen, and ruminal methanogens.

    PubMed

    Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Crump, P M; Wattiaux, M A

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to study repeatability and sources of variation in feed conversion efficiency [FCE, milk kg/kg dry matter intake (DMI)] of lactating cows in mid to late lactation. Trials 1 and 2 used 16 cows (106 to 368 d in milk) grouped in 8 pairs of 1 high- and 1 low-FCE cow less than 16 d in milk apart. Trial 1 determined the repeatability of FCE during a 12-wk period. Trial 2 quantified the digestive and metabolic partitioning of energy and N with a 3-d total fecal and urine collection and measurement of CH4 and CO2 emission. Trial 3 studied selected ruminal methanogens in 2 pairs of cows fitted with rumen cannulas. Cows received a single diet including 28% corn silage, 27% alfalfa silage, 17% crude protein, and 28% neutral detergent fiber (dry matter basis). In trial 1, mean FCE remained repeatedly different and averaged 1.83 and 1.03 for high- and low-FCE cows, respectively. In trial 2, high-FCE cows consumed 21% more DMI, produced 98% more fat- and protein-corrected milk, excreted 42% less manure per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, but emitted the same daily amount of CH4 and CO2 compared with low-FCE cows. Percentage of gross energy intake lost in feces was higher (28.6 vs. 25.9%), but urinary (2.76 vs. 3.40%) and CH4 (5.23 vs. 6.99%) losses were lower in high- than low-FCE cows. Furthermore, high-FCE cows partitioned 15% more of gross energy intake toward net energy for maintenance, body gain, and lactation (37.5 vs. 32.6%) than low-FCE cows. Lower metabolic efficiency and greater heat loss in low-FCE cows might have been associated in part with greater energy demand for immune function related to subclinical mastitis, as somatic cell count was 3.8 fold greater in low- than high-FCE cows. As a percentage of N intake, high-FCE cows tended to have greater fecal N (32.4 vs. 30.3%) and had lower urinary N (32.2 vs. 41.7%) and greater milk N (30.3 vs. 19.1%) than low-FCE cows. In trial 3, Methanobrevibacter spp. strain AbM4 was less prevalent in

  9. The relationship between parental yolk cholesterol and yolk fat concentration to abdominal fat content and feed conversion ratio of their respective offspring.

    PubMed

    Suk, Y O; Washburn, K W

    1998-03-01

    The correlation of yolk cholesterol and yolk fat concentrations of egg from the pedigreed Athens-Canadian Randombred control population with the percentage of abdominal fat (AF) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of their progeny were studied. The average yolk cholesterol, yolk fat, and AF were 20.3 mg/g yolk, 244 mg/g yolk, and 1.64%, respectively. The phenotypic correlation of both yolk cholesterol and yolk fat content of eggs from the parental population with AF or FCR of their progeny were low and nonsignificant. PMID:9521446

  10. Influence of gas feed composition and pressure on the catalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons using a traditional cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Dorner; Dennis R. Hardy; Frederick W. Williams; Burtron H. Davis; Heather D. Willauer

    2009-08-15

    The hydrogenation of CO{sub 2} using a traditional Fischer-Tropsch Co-Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for the production of valuable hydrocarbon materials is investigated. The ability to direct product distribution was measured as a function of different feed gas ratios of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} (3:1, 2:1, and 1:1) as well as operating pressures (ranging from 450 to 150 psig). As the feed gas ratio was changed from 3:1 to 2:1 and 1:1, the production distribution shifted from methane toward higher chain hydrocarbons. This change in feed gas ratio is believed to lower the methanation ability of Co in favor of chain growth, with possibly two different active sites for methane and C2-C4 products. Furthermore, with decreasing pressure, the methane conversion drops slightly in favor of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} paraffins. Even though under certain reaction conditions product distribution can be shifted slightly away from the formation of methane, the catalyst studied behaves like a methanation catalyst in the hydrogenation of CO{sub 2}. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Bacteria within the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota Correlated with Improved Growth and Feed Conversion: Challenges Presented for the Identification of Performance Enhancing Probiotic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Dragana; Hughes, Robert J.; Geier, Mark S.; Moore, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of bacteria associated with desirable productivity outcomes in animals may offer a direct approach to the identification of probiotic bacteria for use in animal production. We performed three controlled chicken trials (n = 96) to investigate caecal microbiota differences between the best and poorest performing birds using four performance measures; feed conversion ratio (FCR), utilization of energy from the feed measured as apparent metabolisable energy, gain rate (GR), and amount of feed eaten (FE). The shifts in microbiota composition associated with the performance measures were very different between the three trials. Analysis of the caecal microbiota revealed that the high and low FCR birds had significant differences in the abundance of some bacteria as demonstrated by shifts in microbiota alpha and beta diversity. Trials 1 and 2 showed significant overall community shifts, however, the microbial changes driving the difference between good and poor performers were very different. Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae families and genera Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium and multiple lineages of genus Clostridium (from families Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae) were highly abundant in good FCR birds in Trial 1. Different microbiota was associated with FCR in Trial 2; Catabacteriaceae and unknown Clostridiales family members were increased in good FCR and genera Clostridium (from family Clostridiaceae) and Lactobacillus were associated with poor FCR. Trial 3 had only mild microbiota differences associated with all four performance measures. Overall, the genus Lactobacillus was correlated with feed intake which resulted in poor FCR performance. The genus Faecalibacterium correlated with improved FCR, increased GR and reduced FE. There was overlap in phylotypes correlated with improved FCR and GR, while different microbial cohorts appeared to be correlated with FE. Even under controlled conditions different

  12. Bacteria within the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota Correlated with Improved Growth and Feed Conversion: Challenges Presented for the Identification of Performance Enhancing Probiotic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Dragana; Hughes, Robert J; Geier, Mark S; Moore, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Identification of bacteria associated with desirable productivity outcomes in animals may offer a direct approach to the identification of probiotic bacteria for use in animal production. We performed three controlled chicken trials (n = 96) to investigate caecal microbiota differences between the best and poorest performing birds using four performance measures; feed conversion ratio (FCR), utilization of energy from the feed measured as apparent metabolisable energy, gain rate (GR), and amount of feed eaten (FE). The shifts in microbiota composition associated with the performance measures were very different between the three trials. Analysis of the caecal microbiota revealed that the high and low FCR birds had significant differences in the abundance of some bacteria as demonstrated by shifts in microbiota alpha and beta diversity. Trials 1 and 2 showed significant overall community shifts, however, the microbial changes driving the difference between good and poor performers were very different. Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae families and genera Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium and multiple lineages of genus Clostridium (from families Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae) were highly abundant in good FCR birds in Trial 1. Different microbiota was associated with FCR in Trial 2; Catabacteriaceae and unknown Clostridiales family members were increased in good FCR and genera Clostridium (from family Clostridiaceae) and Lactobacillus were associated with poor FCR. Trial 3 had only mild microbiota differences associated with all four performance measures. Overall, the genus Lactobacillus was correlated with feed intake which resulted in poor FCR performance. The genus Faecalibacterium correlated with improved FCR, increased GR and reduced FE. There was overlap in phylotypes correlated with improved FCR and GR, while different microbial cohorts appeared to be correlated with FE. Even under controlled conditions different

  13. Conversion of distiller's grain into fuel alcohol and a higher-value animal feed by dilute-acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Melvin P; Nagle, Nicholas J; Jennings, Edward W; Ibsen, Kelly N; Aden, Andy; Nguyen, Quang A; Kim, Kyoung H; Noll, Sally L

    2004-01-01

    Over the past three decades ethanol production in the United States has increased more than 10-fold, to approx 2.9 billion gal/yr (mid-2003), with ethanol production expected to reach 5 billion gal/yr by 2005. The simultaneous coproduction of 7 million t/yr of distiller's grain (DG) may potentially drive down the price of DG as a cattle feed supplement. The sale of residual DG for animal feed is an important part of corn dry-grind ethanol production economics; therefore, dry-grind ethanol producers are seeking ways to improve the quality of DG to increase market penetration and help stabilize prices. One possible improvement is to increase the protein content of DG by converting the residual starch and fiber into ethanol. We have developed methods for steam explosion, SO2, and dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of DG for evaluation as a feedstock for ethanol production. The highest soluble sugar yields (approximately 77% of available carbohydrate) were obtained by pretreatment of DG at 140 degrees C for 20 min with 3.27 wt% H2SO4. Fermentation protocols for pretreated DG were developed at the bench scale and scaled to a working volume of 809 L for production of hydrolyzed distiller's grain (HDG) for feeding trials. The pretreated DG was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A, with ethanol yields of 73% of theoretical from available glucans. The HDG was air-dried and used for turkey-feeding trials. The inclusion of HDG into turkey poult (as a model non-ruminant animal) diets at 5 and 10% levels, replacing corn and soybean meal, showed weight gains in the birds similar to controls, whereas 15 and 20% inclusion levels showed slight decreases (-6%) in weight gain. At the conclusion of the trial, no negative effects on internal organs or morphology, and no mortality among the poults, was found. The high protein levels (58-61%) available in HDG show promising economics for incorporation of this process into corn dry-grind ethanol plants. PMID:15054259

  14. Supported liquid membrane based removal of lead(II) and cadmium(II) from mixed feed: Conversion to solid waste by precipitation.

    PubMed

    Bhatluri, Kamal Kumar; Manna, Mriganka Sekhar; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Saha, Prabirkumar

    2015-12-15

    Simultaneous removal of two heavy metals, lead(II) and cadmium(II), from mixed feed using supported liquid membrane (SLM) based technique is investigated in this work. The carrier-solvent combination of "sodium salt of Di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) (4% w/w) in environmentally benign coconut oil" was immobilized into the pores of solid polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) support. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) was used as the stripping agent. Carbonate salts of lead(II) and cadmium(II) were formed in the stripping side interface and they were insoluble in water leading to precipitation inside the stripping solution. The transportation of solute is positively affected due to the precipitation. Lead(II) removal was found to be preferential due to its favorable electronic configuration. The conversion of the liquid waste to the solid one was added advantage for the final removal of hazardous heavy metals. PMID:26252994

  15. Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of three edible mealworm species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on diets composed of organic by-products.

    PubMed

    van Broekhoven, Sarah; Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-02-01

    Insects receive increasing attention as an alternative protein-rich food source for humans. Producing edible insects on diets composed of organic by-products could increase sustainability. In addition, insect growth rate and body composition, and hence nutritional quality, can be altered by diet. Three edible mealworm species Tenebrio molitor L., Zophobas atratus Fab. and Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer were grown on diets composed of organic by-products originating from beer brewing, bread/cookie baking, potato processing and bioethanol production. Experimental diets differed with respect to protein and starch content. Larval growth and survival was monitored. Moreover, effects of dietary composition on feed conversion efficiency and mealworm crude protein and fatty acid profile were assessed. Diet affected mealworm development and feed conversion efficiency such that diets high in yeast-derived protein appear favourable, compared to diets used by commercial breeders, with respect to shortening larval development time, reducing mortality and increasing weight gain. Diet also affected the chemical composition of mealworms. Larval protein content was stable on diets that differed 2-3-fold in protein content, whereas dietary fat did have an effect on larval fat content and fatty acid profile. However, larval fatty acid profile did not necessarily follow the same trend as dietary fatty acid composition. Diets that allowed for fast larval growth and low mortality in this study led to a comparable or less favourable n6/n3 fatty acid ratio compared to control diets used by commercial breeders. In conclusion, the mealworm species used in this study can be grown successfully on diets composed of organic by-products. Diet composition did not influence larval protein content, but did alter larval fat composition to a certain extent. PMID:25576652

  16. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains and enzyme supplementation on growth rates, feed conversion ratio and beef fatty acid profile in feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; He, M L; Zhao, Y L; Xu, L; Walker, N D; Beauchemin, K A; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effect of wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) inclusion, and (2) dietary feed enzyme (FE; Econase XT) supplementation in a finishing diet containing wheat DDGS on fatty acid profile of the pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle of beef cattle. A total of 160 crossbred yearling steers with initial BW of 495 ± 38 kg were blocked by BW and randomized into 16 pens (10 head/pen). The pens were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments: (1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate, dry matter (DM) basis); (2) diet containing 30% wheat DDGS in place of barley grain without FE (WDG); (3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL; 1 ml FE/kg DM); and (4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (2 ml FE/kg DM). The pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle samples were collected from cattle at slaughter at the end of the finishing period (120 days) with a targeted live weight of 650 kg. No differences in organic matter intake, final BW and average daily gain were observed among treatments. However, steers fed WDG had greater (P<0.01) feed conversion ratio than those fed CON, and increasing FE application in wheat DDGS-based diets tended (P<0.10) to linearly decrease feed conversion ratio. In assessing the effects of including WDG diets without FE, concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle tended to be greater (P<0.10) for steers fed WDG than steers fed CON. In addition, inclusion of wheat DDGS into the diet increased (P<0.05) concentration of CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) in muscle and also resulted in a higher (P<0.05) ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA compared with that from steers fed CON diet. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS-based diets did not modify the concentrations of individual or total fatty acids. These results suggest that inclusion of wheat DDGS in finishing diets may improve fatty acid profile of beef muscle which could benefit human health. PMID

  17. Diurnal and nutritional adjustments of intracellular Ca2+ release channels and Ca2+ ATPases associated with restricted feeding schedules in the rat liver

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intracellular calcium is a biochemical messenger that regulates part of the metabolic adaptations in the daily fed-fast cycle. The aim of this study was to characterize the 24-h variations of the liver ryanodine and IP3 receptors (RyR and IP3R) as well as of the endoplasmic-reticulum and plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA and PMCA) in daytime restricted feeding protocol. Methods A biochemical and immunohistochemical approach was implemented in this study: specific ligand-binding for RyR and IP3R, enzymatic activity (SERCA and PMCA), and protein levels and zonational hepatic-distribution were determined by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry respectively under conditions of fasting, feeding, and temporal food-restriction. Results Binding assays and immunoblots for IP3R1 and 2 showed a peak at the light/dark transition in the ad-libitum (AL) group, whereas in the restricted-feeding (RF) group the peak shifted towards the food-access time. In the case of RyR binding experiments, both AL and RF groups showed a modest elevation during the dark period, with the RF rats exhibiting increased binding in response to feeding. The AL group showed 24-h rhythmicity in SERCA level; in contrast, RF group showed a pronounced amplitude elevation and a peak phase-shift during the light-period in SERCA level and activity. The activity of PMCA was constant along day in both groups; PMCA1 levels showed a 24-h rhythmicity in the RF rats (with a peak in the light period), meanwhile PMCA4 protein levels showed rhythmicity in both groups. The fasted condition promoted an increase in IP3R binding and protein level; re-feeding increased the amount of RyR; neither the activity nor expression of SERCA and PMCA protein was affected by fasting–re-feeding conditions. Histochemical experiments showed that the distribution of the Ca2+-handling proteins, between periportal and pericentral zones of the liver, varied with the time of day and the feeding protocol. Conclusions Our findings

  18. The effects of menhaden oil, flaxseed oil and a dairy-yeast prebiotic on growth , health , feed conversion , survival , critical maximum temperature, and body composition of sunshine bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted with juvenile "sunshine bass" female Morone chrysops x male M. saxatilis using four diets containing two levels of a dairy-yeast prebiotic (0 or 2%) and either menhaden fish oil or flaxseed oil as a lipid source. The objective was to determine the main and inte...

  19. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  20. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  1. Evaluation of coal feed systems being developed by the Energy Research and Development administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Luckow, W. K.; Mattson, L.; Otth, D.; Tsou, P.

    1977-01-01

    Development criteria and recommendations for coal feed system selections that include supporting data are presented. Considered are the areas of coal feed coasts, coal feed system reliability, and the interaction of the feed system with the conversion process.

  2. Pig feeding strategy coupled with effluent management - fresh or stored slurry, solid phase separation - on methane potential and methane conversion factors during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarret, Guillaume; Martinez, José; Dourmad, Jean-Yves

    2011-11-01

    In the guideline for the determination of methane (CH 4) emission from animal manure (IPCC) the amount of CH 4 emitted is generally calculated according to an equation combining the amount of organic matter (OM) or volatile solids excreted, the ultimate CH 4 potential ( B0) of excreta and a system-specific methane conversion factor (MCF, %) that reflects the portion of B0 that is really converted into CH 4. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the modification of dietary crude protein and fibre levels on B0 of pig slurry and on subsequent MCF according to different strategies of slurry management. Five experimental diets differing mainly in their crude protein and fibre content were compared. Two types of measurement of CH 4 emission were performed. The first was the measurement of B0 of slurry using biomethanogene potential (BMP) test. The second consisted in a storage simulation, which was performed on different kinds of effluents: fresh slurry (FSl), stored slurry (SSl), and faeces mixed with water (FaW). The type of diet and the type of effluent affected ( P < 0.001) CH 4 production after 30, 50 and 100 days. Moreover, the interaction between type of effluent and type of diet was significant for CH 4 emission and for MCF. CH 4 production was the highest for BMP, the average production of CH 4 during storage from FaW, FSl and SSl samples representing 77%, 58% and 64% of the B0 value. The dynamic of CH 4 production during BMP tests was rather similar for all dietary treatments whereas it differed for storage simulation studies with significant effects of dietary CP and fibre contents. The results from this study indicate that the type of diet has a significant but rather limited effect on B0 value of effluent. The effect of diet is much more marked on MCF, with lower values for high protein diets, and higher values for high fibre diets. MCF is also affected by manure management, the values measured on separated faeces from urine

  3. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  4. 9 CFR 3.105 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... until the time of feeding. When food is thawed in standing or running water, cold water must be used... health in each marine mammal so that the food intake can be adjusted accordingly. Inappetence exceeding... feeding, the feeding records should reflect an accurate account of food intake; for animals fed, in...

  5. 9 CFR 3.105 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... until the time of feeding. When food is thawed in standing or running water, cold water must be used... health in each marine mammal so that the food intake can be adjusted accordingly. Inappetence exceeding... feeding, the feeding records should reflect an accurate account of food intake; for animals fed, in...

  6. 9 CFR 3.105 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... until the time of feeding. When food is thawed in standing or running water, cold water must be used... health in each marine mammal so that the food intake can be adjusted accordingly. Inappetence exceeding... feeding, the feeding records should reflect an accurate account of food intake; for animals fed, in...

  7. 9 CFR 3.105 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... until the time of feeding. When food is thawed in standing or running water, cold water must be used... health in each marine mammal so that the food intake can be adjusted accordingly. Inappetence exceeding... feeding, the feeding records should reflect an accurate account of food intake; for animals fed, in...

  8. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  9. Substituting steam-flaked corn with 20% whole shelled corn in finishing diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wet distillers grains plus solubles did not affect performance and feed conversion in feedlot heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous feeding studies suggest there may be an interaction between grain processing method and the feeding of wet distillers grains (WDGS) in beef cattle finishing diets, such that the growth response to feeding WDGS in beef cattle finishing diets based on dry rolled corn is greater than in steam ...

  10. Estimates of residual feed intake in Holstein dairy cattle using an automated, continuous feed intake monitoring system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving feed efficiency of cattle is a primary goal in livestock production to reduce feed costs and production impacts on the environment. In dairy cattle, studies to estimate efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) are limited primarily due to a lack ...

  11. Use of residual feed intake in Holsteins during early lactation shows potential to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved feed efficiency is a primary goal in dairy production to reduce feed costs and negative impacts of production on the environment. Estimates for efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) in dairy cattle are limited, primarily due to a lack of indiv...

  12. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  13. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  14. Risk analysis of poultry feed costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction and Aims. Poultry feed continues to be a significant expense in poultry production as the cost of corn and soybean meals remain elevated. Alternative meals are under investigation to reduce production costs while maintaining high feed conversion rates and body weight gain. Two promising...

  15. Feeding guilt.

    PubMed

    Byrom, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is increasingly equated to ideologies of the 'good mother' in our society in response to a growing body of evidence identifying its benefits. Women who choose not to or are unable to breastfeed can experience a sense of guilt in response to cultural expectations that 'breast is best'. These negative feelings can impact upon their adaptation to and enjoyment of motherhood. This discussion paper examines the experience of maternal guilt with specific reference to infant feeding. An exploration of the reasons mothers may feel guilty about their feeding experiences is offered. Finally some suggestions are made about how midwives and breastfeeding advocates might improve care for mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:23590082

  16. Genetic and Phenotypic Parameter Estimates for Feed Intake and Other Traits in Growing Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake and feed efficiency were moderately heritable; however, residual feed intake was more heritable than intake and feed efficiency. Adjusting residual feed intake and feed efficiency for carcass fatness had little effect on heritability and correlations with remaining traits. Flight speed was ...

  17. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  18. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  19. Treatment of Severe Feeding Refusal in Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Thomas; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the effectiveness of an inpatient multidisciplinary program for treatment of severe feeding refusal. Nineteen infants and toddlers recovering from medical and surgical disorders which had required non-oral feeding were studied. A modified method of rapid introduction of oral feedings resulted in conversion to…

  20. Metric Conversion

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-12

    ... 1,000,000 1,000,000 micrometers nano- 1,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 nanometers ... conversions, see the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publications: NIST Guide to SI Units: ...

  1. The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves.

    PubMed

    Uys, J L; Lourens, D C; Thompson, P N

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120) in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV), consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV), consisting of 2 l twice daily, during the pre-weaning period. After a pre-weaning period during which feeding was reduced to once daily, all calves were weaned at 42 days and monitored until 60 days of age. Adjusting for birth mass, birth date, dam parity and sire, average daily mass gain (ADG), both pre-weaning (days 0-42) and overall (days 0-60), was higher in HMV than in RMV calves (P < 0.001). After weaning, growth rates showed no differences and at 60 days of age the HMV calves maintained a 6.74 kg advantage in mean body mass (P < 0.001). The mean intake of dry starter feed was higher in RMV than in HMV calves. Overall feed conversion rate of HMV calves was 9.6 % better than RMV calves. However, the variable cost per kg mass gain was 12 % higher for HMV calves. In the RMV groups 75 % of calves showed cross-sucking behaviour pre-weaning and 18 % post-weaning, whereas in HMV calves the proportions were 2 % and 7 %, respectively. There was no significant effect of milk volume on the incidence of diarrhoea. We conclude that the feeding of high volumes of milk to Jersey calves has a positive effect on growth rate, without compromising health or reducing solid feed intake after weaning. However, the higher cost of such a feeding system may limit its implementation. PMID:21826838

  2. Feed Formulation and Manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides information on feed formulation and manufacture. To formulate and manufacture high quality fish feeds, including tilapia feeds, one should have knowledge of nutrient requirements, nutrient composition, digestibility, and availability of feed ingredients; impacts of manufacturin...

  3. Conveniently accessible polymer nanoparticles of adjustable polarity.

    PubMed

    Korthals, Brigitte; Morant-Miñana, Maria Carmen; Hohberger, Christiane; Mecking, Stefan

    2009-09-15

    The postpolymerization modification by hydroformylation of 1,2-polybutadiene nanoparticles provides access to colloidally stable aqueous dispersions of <20 nm particles. Their polarity can be adjusted via the degree of conversion of double bonds over a broad range. Fluorescence studies illustrate the polarity of the environment experienced by pyrene as a probe molecule. PMID:19534460

  4. Conversation Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Jiang

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity for use in the conversational English-as-a-foreign-language classroom. The activity involves having each student say one or two sentences that continues a story being made up as the activity goes along. Students were positive about the activity, because saying only one or two sentences helped them not to feel pressured or…

  5. Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Fang; Rongsheng, Wu

    2002-09-01

    Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow is examined in detail with a linear shallow water model. The initial unbalanced flow considered first falls tinder two classes. The first is similar to that adopted by Gill and is here referred to as a mass imbalance model, for the flow is initially motionless but with a sea surface displacement. The other is the same as that considered by Rossby and is referred to as a momentum imbalance model since there is only a velocity perturbation in the initial field. The significant feature of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment for the above two extreme models is that although the energy conversion ratio has a large case-to-case variability for different initial conditions, its value is bounded below by 0 and above by 1 / 2. Based on the discussion of the above extreme models, the energetics of adjustment for an arbitrary initial condition is investigated. It is found that the characteristics of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment mentioned above are also applicable to adjustment of the general unbalanced flow under the condition that the energy conversion ratio is redefined as the conversion ratio between the change of kinetic energy and potential energy of the deviational fields.

  6. The Minnesota Defense Industry Conversion Project. A Partnership for Retraining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daines, James R.; And Others

    The Minnesota Defense Conversion Adjustment Project was initiated in 1993 with funding provided through the U.S. Department of Labor's Defense Conversion Adjustment Program to help workers at a Minnesota defense plant make the transition from assembler and related production classifications to machinists and other positions requiring specific job…

  7. [Optimal feeding strategy for juvenile Hucho taimen].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Xue; Yin, Jia-Sheng; Zhang, Yong-Quan; Tong, Guang-Xiang; Bai, Qing-Li

    2013-11-01

    Three experiments including starvation and re-feeding, starvation and re-feeding recovery, and feeding frequency per day were conducted to approach the optimal feeding strategy for the growth and survival of juvenile Hucho taimen. In the experiment of starvation and re-feeding, all groups of restricted feeding showed non-compensatory growth. However, in the experiment of starvation and re-feeding recovery, different degrees of compensatory growth appeared in different starving groups, among which, the half a day starvation and half a day feeding group (S1/2) had a weight increment approximately the same as the control, and showed completely compensatory growth, indicating that the S1/2 could be a useful feeding strategy for the juvenile H. taimen at its early growth stage with the body mass from 0 to 2 g and at the water temperature from 9 to 15.3 degrees C. In feeding frequency experiment, the group T3 (three meals per day) had the highest body length, body mass, specific growth rate, and relatively high food conversion ratio, indicating that three meals a day could be more effective for improving the growth performance of juvenile H. taimen at its late stage with the body mass from 2 to 21 g and at the water temperature from 8.8 to 15.5 degrees C. PMID:24564159

  8. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  9. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  10. Conversational sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  11. Conversational sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  12. Transcript abundance of the pig stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene has no effect on fatty acid composition in muscle and fat tissues, but its polymorphism within the putative microRNA target site is associated with daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio.

    PubMed

    Bartz, M; Szydlowski, M; Kociucka, B; Salamon, S; Jeleń, H H; Switonski, M

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid composition in porcine intramuscular fat affects the dietetic value and technological properties of meat. The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene is a strong positional and functional candidate for fatty acid composition. Our sequence analysis in 4 breeds (Duroc, Pietrain, Polish Landrace, and Polish Large White) revealed a novel SNP in the 5'-flanking sequence and 9 novel SNP and 2 novel indels in the 3' untranslated region (UTR). Transcript level of the SCD in subcutaneous fat was significantly greater than in muscle tissue (n=83; P<0.001) and the interbreed comparison revealed a greater transcript level in the fat tissue of Polish Landrace (P<0.01). We found no association between the abundance of the SCD transcript and fatty acid composition in any of the tissues. We performed an association analysis between 4 SNP (c.-353C>T, c.-233T>C, c.*164A>G, and c.*928G>C), 1 indel (c.*2574_2576delGTC), and production traits in Polish Large White (n=185) and synthetic line 990 (n=243). The most pronounced associations were observed for the c.*928G>C polymorphism, which occurs within a predicted target site for 2 microRNA (ssc-miR-185 and ssc-miR-491). In line 990, this polymorphism was significantly associated with daily BW gain (P<0.04 under the general model) and feed conversion ratio (P<0.0004) but not with fatness traits. The same tendency, but not significant, was observed in the Polish Large White breed. When both breeds were analyzed together, these associations were again highly significant (daily BW gain P<0.003; feed conversion ratio P<0.0001). We conclude that c.*928G>C is a promising marker for both porcine traits. PMID:23048140

  13. 12 CFR 615.5210 - Risk-adjusted assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-adjusted assets. 615.5210 Section 615.5210... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5210 Risk-adjusted assets. (a... appropriate credit conversion factor in § 615.5212, is assigned to one of the risk categories specified...

  14. 12 CFR 615.5210 - Risk-adjusted assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk-adjusted assets. 615.5210 Section 615.5210... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5210 Risk-adjusted assets. (a... appropriate credit conversion factor in § 615.5212, is assigned to one of the risk categories specified...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5210 - Risk-adjusted assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk-adjusted assets. 615.5210 Section 615.5210... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5210 Risk-adjusted assets. (a... appropriate credit conversion factor in § 615.5212, is assigned to one of the risk categories specified...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5210 - Risk-adjusted assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk-adjusted assets. 615.5210 Section 615.5210... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5210 Risk-adjusted assets. (a... appropriate credit conversion factor in § 615.5212, is assigned to one of the risk categories specified...

  17. Fabrication of a Feeding Obturator for Infants.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Paul A; Cook, N Blaine; Ahmad, Omaid

    2016-03-01

    Large clefts in the lip and palate are common congenital anomalies. If the cleft palate is large enough, conventional feeding techniques may not provide proper nutrition for the infant. Feeding obturators will aid in the ability of the infant to attain suction and help the infant to feed adequately. It is necessary for the infant to have sustained weight gain prior to surgery to correct the cleft lip and/or palate. Fabrication of an infant feeding obturator is a simple technique using materials found in every dental office. An impression is made using modeling plastic impression compound. This impression is relined using irreversible hydrocolloid, and the resulting cast is used to enable a vacuum-formed obturator to be fabricated. The vacuum-formed obturator is smoothed and adjusted in the infant's mouth to ensure closure of the palate but allows pace posteriorly to allow normal breathing. The resulting obturator is well retained in the infant's mouth, allowing feeding. PMID:26237189

  18. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  19. Proceedings of the conference on Coal Feeding Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Development of coal feed systems for coal gasification, fluidized bed combustion, and magnetohydrodynamic applications is discussed. Process operations experience, energy conversion efficiency, and environment effects are among the factors considered.

  20. Converse Piezoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springborg, Michael; Kirtman, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Piezoelectricity results from a coupling between responses to mechanical and electric perturbations and leads to changes in the polarization due to strain or stress or, alternatively, the occurrence of strain as a function of an applied external, electrostatic field (i.e., converse piezoelectricity). Theoretical studies of those properties for extended systems require accordingly that their dipole moment or polarization can be calculated. However, whereas the definition of the operator for the dipole moment for any finite system is trivial, it is only within the last 2 decades that the expressions for the equivalent operator in the independent-particle approximation for the infinite and periodic system have been presented. Here, we demonstrate that the so called branch dependence of the polarization for the infinite, periodic system is related to physical observables in contrast to what often is assumed. This is related to the finding that converse piezoelectric properties depend both on the surfaces of the samples of interest even for samples with size well above the thermodynamic limit. However, we shall demonstrate that these properties can be calculated without explicitly taking the surfaces into account. Both the foundations and results for real system shall be presented.

  1. Energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Woodall, J.M.

    1982-02-16

    Energy conversion capable of receiving input energy in thermal or radiant form at a variable rate and releasing energy in thermal, radiant or electrical form independent of rate is accomplished by providing a buffer member of a material that has three criteria: a melting temperature above 1300/sup degree/ K, a thermal conductance greater than 0.1 in calories per square centimeter per centimeter per degree per second and a latent heat of fusion of the order of 1 kilocalorie per mole. The converter can absorb energy of multiple types, store it and then release it in a form compatible with the prospective use. Sunlight of daylight duration and varying intensity is converted to steady 24 hour a day electrical output.

  2. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Rueter, Martha A.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families. Adolescents in these families were, on average, 16 years of age. The results supported our hypothesis. Adopted adolescents were at significantly greater risk for adjustment problems compared to nonadopted adolescents in families that emphasized conformity orientation without conversation orientation and in families that emphasized neither conformity nor conversation orientation. Adolescents in families emphasizing conversation orientation were at lower risk for adjustment problems, regardless of adoption status. PMID:19649145

  3. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  4. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  5. Irradiation enhancement of biomass conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. S.; Kiesling, H. E.; Galyean, M. L.; Bader, J. R.

    The vast supply of cellulosic agricultural residues and industrial by-products that is produced each year is a prospective resource of biomass suitable for conversion to useful products such as feedstock for the chemicals industry and feedstuffs for the livestock industry. Conversions of such biomass is poor at present, and utilization is inefficient, because of physio-chemical barriers to biological degradation and (or) anti-quality components such as toxicants that restrict biological usages. Improvements in biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic materials have been accomplished by gamma-ray and electron-beam irradiation at intermediate dosage (˜ 50 Mrad; .5 MGy); but applications of the technology have been hampered by questionable interpretations of results. Recent research with organic wastes such as sewage sludge and straw suggests opportunity for important applications of irradiation technology in enhancement of biomass conversion. Data from experiments using irradiated straw as feed for ruminants are presented and discussed in relation to research on prospective usage of sewage products as feed for ruminants. Findings are discussed in regard to prospective applications in industrial fermentation processes. Possible usage of irradiation technology for destruction of toxicants in exotic plants is considered in regard to prospective new feedstuffs.

  6. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  7. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  8. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  9. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  10. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians. PMID:22927194

  11. 42 CFR 419.43 - Adjustments to national program payment and beneficiary copayment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital outpatient department services and determines a wage adjustment factor to adjust the portion of... index factor. CMS uses the hospital inpatient prospective payment system wage index established in... applied before calculating outlier payments. (h) Applicable adjustments to conversion factor for CY...

  12. 42 CFR 419.43 - Adjustments to national program payment and beneficiary copayment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... corresponding calendar year. (2) Limitation. Any reduction to a hospital's adjustment to its conversion factor... hospital outpatient department services and determines a wage adjustment factor to adjust the portion of... index factor.—(1) CMS uses the hospital inpatient prospective payment system wage index established...

  13. Feed array metrology and correction layer for large antenna systems in ASIC mixed signal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centureli, F.; Scotti, G.; Tommasino, P.; Trifiletti, A.; Romano, F.; Cimmino, R.; Saitto, A.

    2014-08-01

    The paper deals with a possible use of the feed array present in a large antenna system, as a layer for measuring the antenna performance with a self-test procedure and a possible way to correct residual errors of the Antenna geometry and of the antenna distortions. Focus has been concentrated on a few key critical elements of a possible feed array metrology program. In particular, a preliminary contribution to the design and development of the feed array from one side, and the subsystem dedicated to antenna distortion monitoring and control from the other, have been chosen as the first areas of investigation. Scalability and flexibility principles and synergic approach with other coexistent technologies have been assumed of paramount importance to ensure ease of integrated operation and therefore allowing in principle increased performance and efficiency. The concept is based on the use of an existing feed array grid to measure antenna distortion with respect to the nominal configuration. Measured data are then processed to develop a multilayer strategy to control the mechanical movable devices (when existing) and to adjust the residual fine errors through a software controlled phase adjustment of the existing phase shifter The signal from the feed array is converted passing through a FPGA/ASIC level to digital data channels. The kind of those typically used for the scientific experiments. One additional channel is used for monitoring the antenna distortion status. These data are processed to define the best correction strategy, based on a software managed control system capable of operating at three different levels of the antenna system: reflector rotation layer, sub reflector rotation and translation layer (assuming the possibility of controlling a Stewart machine), phase shifter of the phased array layer. The project is at present in the design phase, a few elements necessary for a sound software design of the control subsystem have been developed at a

  14. Development of coal-feeding systems at the Morgantown Energy Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobday, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Systems for feeding crushed and pulverized coal into coal conversion reactor vessels are described. Pneumatic methods for feeding pulverized coal, slurry feeders, and coal pumps, methods for steam pickup, and a method for drying a water-coal slurry in a steam fluidized bed subsequent to feeding the coal into a reactor vessel are included.

  15. Development of DIPRES feed for the fabrication of mixed-oxide fuels for fast breeder reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, C W; Rasmussen, D E; Lloyd, M H

    1983-01-01

    The DIrect PREss Spheroidized feed process combines the conversion of uranium-plutonium solutions into spheres by internal gelation with conventional pellet fabrication techniques. In this manner, gel spheres could replace conventional powders as the feed material for pellet fabrication of nuclear fuels. Objective of the DIPRES feed program is to develop and qualify a process to produce mixed-oxide fuel pellets from gel spheres for fast breeder reactors. This process development includes both conversion and fabrication activities.

  16. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

  17. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... jaw muscles. Feeding Your Child with the Gravity Method Your provider will show you the best way ... the button. Feeding Your Child with the Syringe Method Your provider will teach you the best way ...

  18. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  19. Subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics in poultry feeds and their effects on weight gain, feed efficiency, and bacterial cholyltaurine hydrolase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Feighner, S D; Dashkevicz, M P

    1987-01-01

    A radiochemical method was developed to estimate cholyltaurine hydrolase potentials and rates of cholyltaurine hydrolysis in chicken intestinal homogenates. This method was used to monitor the effects of antibiotic feed additives on cholyltaurine hydrolase activity. Avoparcin, bacitracin methylenedisalisylic acid, efrotomycin, lincomycin, penicillin G procaine, and virginiamycin improved rate of weight gain and feed conversion of chicks and decreased cholyltaurine hydrolase activity in ileal homogenates relative to those of nonmedicated control birds. The results provided the first evidence that feeding selected antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels can affect bile acid-transforming enzymes in small-intestinal homogenates. The inverse relationship between growth performance and cholyltaurine hydrolase activity raises the possibility that specific inhibitors of this enzyme may promote weight gain and feed conversion in livestock and thereby reduce or eliminate the need for antibiotic feed additives. PMID:3566269

  20. Reducing GHG emissions through genetic improvement for feed efficiency: effects on economically important traits and enteric methane production.

    PubMed

    Basarab, J A; Beauchemin, K A; Baron, V S; Ominski, K H; Guan, L L; Miller, S P; Crowley, J J

    2013-06-01

    Genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI) is an indirect approach for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions in beef and dairy cattle. RFI is moderately heritable (0.26 to 0.43), moderately repeatable across diets (0.33 to 0.67) and independent of body size and production, and when adjusted for off-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFI fat) is also independent of body fatness in growing animals. It is highly dependent on accurate measurement of individual animal feed intake. Within-animal repeatability of feed intake is moderate (0.29 to 0.49) with distinctive diurnal patterns associated with cattle type, diet and genotype, necessitating the recording of feed intake for at least 35 days. In addition, direct measurement of enteric CH4 production will likely be more variable and expensive than measuring feed intake and if conducted should be expressed as CH4 production (g/animal per day) adjusted for body size, growth, body composition and dry matter intake (DMI) or as residual CH4 production. A further disadvantage of a direct CH4 phenotype is that the relationships of enteric CH4 production on other economically important traits are largely unknown. Selection for low RFI fat (efficient, -RFI fat) will result in cattle that consume less dry matter (DMI) and have an improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with high RFI fat cattle (inefficient; +RFI fat). Few antagonistic effects have been reported for the relationships of RFI fat on carcass and meat quality, fertility, cow lifetime productivity and adaptability to stress or extensive grazing conditions. Low RFI fat cattle also produce 15% to 25% less enteric CH4 than +RFI fat cattle, since DMI is positively related to enteric methane (CH4) production. In addition, lower DMI and feeding duration and frequency, and a different rumen bacterial profile that improves rumen fermentation in -RFI fat cattle may favor a 1% to 2% improvement in dry matter and CP digestibility compared with +RFI fat cattle. Rate

  1. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  2. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  3. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  4. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  5. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  6. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding ... drip chamber, roller clamp, and long tube) Extension set, for a Bard Button or MIC-KEY (this ...

  7. Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus size and feed conversion ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, of five size-classes were stocked into 20, 0.04-ha earthen ponds at a rate of 14,826 fish/ha. Mean initial weights for each size-class were 0.232, 0.458, 0.678, 0.911, and 1.10 kg/fish. Four ponds were randomly allotted to each treatment. A commercial 28% protei...

  8. Document Conversion Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovee, Donna

    1990-01-01

    Discusses digital imaging technology and examines document database conversion considerations. Two types of document imaging systems are described: (1) a work in process system, and (2) a storage and retrieval system. Conversion methodology is outlined, and a document conversion scenario is presented as a practical guide to conversion. (LRW)

  9. Attitudes of expectant fathers regarding breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Freed, G L; Fraley, J K; Schanler, R J

    1992-08-01

    Fathers participate in choosing the feeding method for their newborns. However they traditionally have not been included in most breast-feeding education programs. To examine expectant fathers' attitudes and knowledge regarding breast-feeding, we surveyed 268 men during the first session of their childbirth education classes at five private hospitals in Houston, Texas. The study population was 81% white, 8% black, and 6% hispanic. Ninety-seven percent (n = 259) of the total were married. Fifty-eight percent (n = 156) reported that their spouses planned to breast-feed exclusively; several significant differences existed between these men and those who reported plans for exclusive formula feeding. The breast-feeding group was more likely to believe breast-feeding is better for the baby (96% vs 62%; P less than .0001), helps with infant bonding (92% vs 53%; P less than .0001), and protects the infant from disease (79% vs 47% P less than .001). The breast-feeding group was also more likely to want their partner to breast-feed (90% vs 13%; P less than .0001) and to have respect for breast-feeding women (57% vs 16%; P less than .0001). Conversely, those in the formula feeding group were more likely to think breast-feeding is bad for breasts (52% vs 22%; P less than .01), makes breasts ugly (44% vs 23%; P less than .05), and interferes with sex (72% vs 24%; P less than .0001). The majority of both groups indicated breast-feeding was not acceptable in public (breast-feeding = 71%, formula feeding = 78%, P less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1641286

  10. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  11. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  12. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  13. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  14. Pashto Conversation Manual and Pashto Conversation Tapescript.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    This conversation manual and tapescript are part of a set of materials that have been developed to teach oral and written Afghan Pashto to English speakers. In addition to the conversation manual and tapescript, the set consists of a beginning textbook, an intermediate textbook, a reader, and a set of taped lessons that correlate with the…

  15. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Riley, D G; Hansen, G R; Johnson, D D; Myer, R O; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-12-01

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 581 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). They were randomly allocated to 24 pens each year by herd (Brooksville, Gainesville, Marianna, FL), sire group (A, 3/4 A 1/4 B, Brangus, 1/2 A 1/2 B, 1/4 A 3/4 B, and B), and sex (bull, heifer, and steer) in a GrowSafe automated feeding facility at Marianna. Calves were fed a concentrate diet during the 21-d adjustment and the 70-d trial periods. Individual feed intakes were recorded daily, and BW, chute scores, and exit velocities were recorded every 2 wk. Traits were phenotypic daily residual feed intake (RFI), mean daily feed intake (DFI), mean daily feed conversion ratio (FCR), and postweaning BW gain. Phenotypic RFI was computed as the difference between actual and expected feed intakes. Calves were assigned to 3 RFI groups: high (RFI greater than 0.9 kg of DM/d), low (RFI less than -0.9 kg of DM/d), and medium (RFI between mean +/- 0.9 kg of DM/d; SD = 1.8 kg of DM/d). The mixed model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd-year-pen), RFI group (except when trait was RFI), age of dam, sex of calf, age of calf, B fraction of calf, heterozygosity of calf, mean chute score, and mean exit velocity. Brahman fraction and heterozygosity of calf were nested within sex of calf for RFI and within RFI group for DFI, FCR, and postweaning BW gain. Random effects were sire and residual. Feed efficiency tended to improve (decreased RFI) as the B fraction increased. However, calves required larger amounts of feed per kilogram of BW gain (larger FCR) as the B fraction increased. Postweaning BW gain tended to decrease as the B fraction increased. Temperament traits were unimportant for all traits except exit velocity for DFI, suggesting perhaps a lack of

  16. Optimal feed temperature for an immobilized enzyme packed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Lin, S H

    1991-01-01

    Optimal feed temperature was determined for a nonisothermal immobilized enzymatic reaction with enzyme deactivation in a packed-bed reactor. The optimal feed temperature was obtained by maximizing the average substrate conversion over a given reaction period. Simulation showed the optimal feed temperature to be strongly dependent on the flow dispersion, the reaction activation energy, the corresponding enzyme inactivation energy and the heat of reaction. It was also observed that in a plug flow reactor the enzyme reaction generally exhibited a lower optimal feed temperature and higher substrate conversion than in a continuously stirred tank reactor. PMID:1366867

  17. The effect of reverse protein and low protein feeding regimens in the rearing period on pullet growth, subsequent performance, and liver and abdominal fat at end of lay.

    PubMed

    Maurice, D V; Hughes, B L; Jones, J E; Weber, J M

    1982-12-01

    Four brown egg strains were used to study the effect of rearing diets on growth and performance. The treatments were arranged in a 4 x 3 factorial with two replicates of 45 birds. The control diet was formulated and fed to National Research Council recommendations. Birds on reverse protein (RP) were fed diets with 13, 16, and 19% protein and those on low protein (LP) regimen received a 13.5% protein diet with amino acids adjusted on a megacalorie basis to approximate the control diet. At 20 weeks of age pullets were caged and fed a standard layer diet. Logistic curves were fitted to the growth data by a nonlinear least squares method and the parameters of each curve analyzed. No significant strain x diet interactions were observed. There were significant differences among strains in weight gain and feed intake. Dietary regimens had no significant effect on total gain and feed intake. However, diets significantly altered age at one-half maximum growth or inflection point (alpha) and mean growth rate (rho). Inflection point of the growth curve was significantly delayed in birds fed RP and LP diets. Although apparent conversion was not affected by diets, the partition coefficients at any time (t) for maintenance (beta mt) and gain (beta gt) were altered. Neither strain nor dietary regimens affected abdominal fat or organ weights at the end of the rearing period. No significant effect of rearing dietary regimens was detected in age at 50% production or peak production, feed conversion, feed intake, livability, liver fat, abdominal fat, or shell strength. The reverse-protein regimen significantly depressed egg weight. The results of the study indicate that 1) the rearing dietary regimens were adequate for strains of different body weight and egg output characteristics; 2) dietary alteration of growth curve parameters failed to influence production, feed intake, mortality, shell strength, livability, liver fat, or abdominal fat during the production period. PMID:6897679

  18. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  19. By-Product Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  20. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  1. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  2. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  3. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  4. Biotechnology of biomass conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers: An introduction to biomass crops; The microbiology of fermentation processes; The production of ethanol from biomass crops, such as sugar cane and rubbers; The energy of biomass conversion; and The economics of biomass conversion.

  5. Variation in Feeding Practices Following the Norwood Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Linda M.; Pike, Nancy A.; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara; Zak, Victor; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Young-Borkowski, Lisa; Clabby, Martha L.; Nelson, Kathryn N.; Ohye, Richard G.; Trainor, Bethany; Uzark, Karen; Rudd, Nancy; Bannister, Louise; Korsin, Rosalind; Cooper, David S.; Pizarro, Christian; Zyblewski, Sinai C.; Bartle, Bronwyn H.; Williams, Richard V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess variation in feeding practice at Norwood discharge, factors associated with tube feeding, and associations between site, feeding mode, and growth prior to stage II. Study design From May 2005 to July 2008, 555 subjects from 15 centers were enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial; 432 survivors with Norwood discharge feeding data were analyzed. Results Demographic and clinical variables were compared among 4 feeding modes: oral only (n=140), oral/tube (n=195), nasogastric tube (N-tube) only (n=40), and gastrostomy tube (G-tube) only (n=57). There was significant variation in feeding mode among sites (oral only 0–81% and G-tube only 0–56%, p<0.01). After adjusting for site, multivariable modeling showed G-tube feeding at discharge was associated with longer hospitalization, and N-tube feeding was associated with greater number of discharge medications (R2=0.65, p<0.01). After adjusting for site, mean pre-stage II weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) was significantly higher in the oral only group (−1.4) vs. the N-tube only (−2.2) and G-tube only (−2.1) groups (p=0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusions Feeding mode at Norwood discharge varied among sites. Prolonged hospitalization and greater number of medications at the time of Norwood discharge were associated with tube feeding. Infants exclusively fed orally had a higher WAZ pre-stage II than those fed exclusively by tube. Exploring strategies to prevent morbidities and promote oral feeding in this highest risk population is warranted. PMID:24210923

  6. Eating in "SINC": Safe Individualized Nipple-Feeding Competence, a Quality Improvement Project to Explore Infant-Driven Oral Feeding for Very Premature Infants Requiring Noninvasive Respiratory Support.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Stacey R; Kostecky, Linda L; Blachly, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    Oral feeding is a developmental task for all premature infants. often, independent nipple feeding is the last barrier to discharge home from the NICU. A relationship exists between consistent, infant-driven feeding management practices and improved feeding performance. Conversely, a random approach to feeding may contribute to poor short-term and long-term clinical outcomes. We report a quality improvement project that was undertaken across five NICUs in an urban setting. our aim was to safely initiate and advance nipple feeding for very preterm neonates (born at <32 weeks gestation) who had a respiratory morbidity requiring nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy. A novel algorithm entitled "eating in SINC: Safe individualized nipple-Feeding Competence" was developed. Safe individualized nipple-feeding competence involves the baby, the parents, and the health care team by using infant-driven strategies, common language, and developmentally appropriate goals while supporting fragile neonates to be skilled feeders. PMID:27461200

  7. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  8. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  9. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  10. Power conversion apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2012-02-07

    A power conversion apparatus includes an interfacing circuit that enables a current source inverter to operate from a voltage energy storage device (voltage source), such as a battery, ultracapacitor or fuel cell. The interfacing circuit, also referred to as a voltage-to-current converter, transforms the voltage source into a current source that feeds a DC current to a current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also provides means for controlling and maintaining a constant DC bus current that supplies the current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also enables the current source inverter to charge the voltage energy storage device, such as during dynamic braking of a hybrid electric vehicle, without the need of reversing the direction of the DC bus current.

  11. 77 FR 40387 - Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to adjust prices for several market dominant products... announcing its intent to adjust prices for several market dominant products within First-Class Mail...

  12. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-12-01

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  13. GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED CANAL (LEFT) INTERSECTION. LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  14. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  15. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  16. Is breast-feeding in infancy associated with adult longevity?

    PubMed Central

    Wingard, D L; Criqui, M H; Edelstein, S L; Tucker, J; Tomlinson-Keasey, C; Schwartz, J E; Friedman, H S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to determine whether breast-feeding is associated with increased longevity or cause-specific survival. METHODS. Teachers throughout California identified intellectually gifted children as part of a prospective study begun in the 1920s by Lewis Terman. Information on breast-feeding was available on 1170 subjects, who have been followed for more than 65 years. RESULTS. Survival analysis (Cox proportional hazards model) indicated that breast-feeding was associated with increased longevity, even after adjustment for age at baseline, birthweight, infant health, and childhood socioeconomic status, but only among men, and the association was not significant (P = .15). Neither cardiovascular disease nor cancer survival was significantly associated with duration of breast-feeding for either sex. Survival from deaths due to injuries was positively associated with breast-feeding after adjustment (P = .03) and demonstrated a clear gradient with duration, but only among men. CONCLUSIONS. Overall, the present study does not provide strong evidence that breast-feeding is associated with adult longevity. The reduced risk of death from injury may reflect chance, in that the association was significant only for men, or it may reflect psychosocial correlates of breast-feeding practices. PMID:8092371

  17. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. PMID:27174251

  18. Continuous feeding of low-dose APIs via periodic micro dosing.

    PubMed

    Besenhard, M O; Karkala, S K; Faulhammer, E; Fathollahi, S; Ramachandran, R; Khinast, J G

    2016-07-25

    Precise and effective feeding of small powder quantities remains a challenge in many fields, including pharmaceutical development and production. This paper demonstrates that a simple feeding principle can be applied to accomplish stable micro feeding (<100mg/s) and describes a gravimetric powder feeding system with a vibratory sieve mounted on a chute. Feeding was induced via vertical vibrations that can be adjusted within a broad range of frequencies and amplitudes. The feeding system was studied using different frequencies, amplitudes, sieves and powder properties. Feeding was characterized by means of a dynamic scale and high-speed camera recordings. The feeding system provided effective powder feeding even in a range of 1-2mg/s. It was shown that powder properties require special attention when the vibratory sieve-chute system operates at higher feed rates (or feeding times >30min), i.e., feeding at a higher throughput. A combination of discrete element method (DEM) simulations and compartment population balance model (PBM) was used to incorporate the proposed micro feed system into a continuous powder mixer (Gerike GCM250; Gerike Holding LTD., Regensdorf, Switzerland). It illustrates how oscillating feeding rates (the latter is a characteristic of the studied micro feeding system) affect the content uniformity of low dose blends, i.e., powder mixtures with a relatively low fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient. PMID:27210736

  19. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ``channeling`` which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates.

  20. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile tube also has a stem length). Note: NG and NJ tubes (that go through a person’s ... Immediate Action: • Discontinue feeding. • If you have an NG or NJ tube, and the tube is curled ...

  1. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  2. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  3. Method and apparatus for converting oil feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, L.E.; Henderson, G.O.; Palmeter, C.W.; Rice, W.M.

    1984-03-06

    Novel riser reactor design with associated multiple feed inlet means for contacting regenerated catalyst particles with low quality naphtha, C/sub 5/ minus wet gas product of hydrocarbon conversion and a residual oil feed comprising components boiling above about 1025/sup 0/ F. and comprising metal contaminants. Low quality naphtha from thermal cracking is charged either separately or in admixture with C/sub 5/ and lower boiling wet gas product of hydrocarbon conversion to the bottom portion of the riser conversion zone for contact with freshly regenerated zeolite cracking catalyst. The vaporous material thus charged conveys the regenerated catalyst at an acceptable velocity to an expanded section of the riser wherein residual oil is charged by a plurality of nozzle means penetrating the wall of the riser in the transition section to the expander user section. A suspension of hydrocarbon vapors and catalyst particles is then passed through the riser discharge for a desired contact time before separation by ballistic separation with a cup about the riser upper to the riser end.

  4. 31 CFR 358.15 - What happens if securities are adjusted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What happens if securities are...-ENTRY CONVERSION OF BEARER CORPORA AND DETACHED BEARER COUPONS § 358.15 What happens if securities are adjusted? (a) If we make an adjustment to all or part of the submitted securities, we will instruct...

  5. 31 CFR 358.15 - What happens if securities are adjusted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if securities are...-ENTRY CONVERSION OF BEARER CORPORA AND DETACHED BEARER COUPONS § 358.15 What happens if securities are adjusted? (a) If we make an adjustment to all or part of the submitted securities, we will instruct...

  6. Red Light Stimulates Feeding Motivation in Fish but Does Not Improve Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bovi, Thais S.; de Freitas, Renato H. A.; da Silva, Danielle F.; Delicio, Helton C.; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2013-01-01

    Nile tilapia fish were individually reared under similar light levels for 8 weeks under five colored light spectra (maximum wavelength absorbance): white (full light spectrum), blue (∼452 nm), green (∼516 nm), yellow (∼520 nm) or red (∼628 nm). The effects of light on feeding, latency to begin feeding, growth and feed conversion were measured during the last 4 weeks of the study (i.e., after acclimation). We found that red light stimulates feeding, as in humans, most likely by affecting central control centers, but the extra feeding is not converted into growth. PMID:23516606

  7. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  8. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  9. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  10. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  11. Role of thermochemical conversion in livestock waste-to-energy treatments: Obstacles and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrating thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies with current animal waste treatment practices can treat and reduce quantities of manure from consolidated animal feeding operations. Additionally, TCC technologies can produce value-added, renewable energy products. These products can meet hea...

  12. Conversing with Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    I/NET, Inc., is making the dream of natural human-computer conversation a practical reality. Through a combination of advanced artificial intelligence research and practical software design, I/NET has taken the complexity out of developing advanced, natural language interfaces. Conversational capabilities like pronoun resolution, anaphora and ellipsis processing, and dialog management that were once available only in the laboratory can now be brought to any application with any speech recognition system using I/NET s conversational engine middleware.

  13. Evaluation of Various Feeding Regimens in A Multiple-Batch Cropping System of Channel Catfish Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A four-year pond study was conducted to compare gross production, feed conversion, processing yield, and body composition of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fed once daily or every other day to satiation, or # 110 kg/ha per day in a multiple-batch cropping system. The greatest amount of feed fed...

  14. Effect of Melter-Feed-Makeup on Vitrification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Schweiger, M. J.; Humrickhouse, Carissa J.; Moody, Adam; Tate, Rachel M.; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Rodriguez, Carmen

    2009-09-02

    Increasing the rate of glass processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will allow shortening the life cycle of waste cleanup at the Hanford Site. While the WTP melters have approached the limit of increasing the rate of melting by enhancing the heat transfer rate from molten glass to the cold cap, a substantial improvement can still be achieved by accelerating the feed-to-glass conversion kinetics. This study investigates how the feed-to-glass conversion process responds to the feed makeup. By identifying the means of control of primary foam formation and silica grain dissolution, it provides data needed for a meaningful and economical design of large-scale experiments aimed at achieving faster melting.

  15. EFFECT OF MELTER-FEED-MAKEUP ON VITRIFICATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; SCHWEIGER MJ; HUMRICKHOUSE CJ; MOODY JA; TATE RM; TEGROTENHUIS NE; ARRIGONI BM; RODRIGUEZ CP

    2009-09-10

    Increasing the rate of glass processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will allow shortening the life cycle of waste cleanup at the Hanford Site. While the WTP melters have approached the limit of increasing the rate of melting by enhancing the heat transfer rate from molten glass to the cold cap, a substantial improvement can still be achieved by accelerating the feed-to-glass conversion kinetics. This study investigates how the feed-to-glass conversion process responds to the feed makeup. By identifying the means of control of primary foam formation and silica grain dissolution, it provides data needed for a meaningful and economical design of large-scale experiments aimed at achieving faster melting.

  16. Assessment of the suitability of food colouring materials as indicators of bacterial contamination of enteral feeds.

    PubMed

    Anderton, A

    1988-04-01

    The suitability of using food colouring materials in enteral feeds as indicators of bacterial contamination was examined. Experiments using Triosorbon, Clinifeed ISO or Vivonex Standard plus amaranth, carmoisine, ponceau 4R, sunset yellow FCF, tartrazine or erythrosine demonstrated that although the change in appearance of coloured feed could be linked with the presence of high numbers of bacteria in the feed, the converse was not always true. PMID:2899111

  17. Persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds manufactured in South China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Yu, Huan-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2009-05-13

    Persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in fish feeds (including trash fish and compound feed) manufactured in South China, were analyzed. PHHs were ubiquitous in fish feeds, with the concentrations of OCPs, PBDEs, and PCBs at the upper, mid, and lower levels of the global range. Trash fish generally contained higher concentrations of DDXs (sum of o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, -DDD, and -DDE and p,p'-DDMU), especially p,p'-DDT and low-brominated PBDEs, while compound feeds had higher concentrations of highly brominated BDEs, e.g., BDE-209. In addition, no concentration difference of HCHs and PCBs was found between trash fish and compound feeds. The habit of direct use of trash fish as fish feeds has induced the accumulation of DDXs in aquatic species in China, and trash fish collected in South China seemed to be slightly hazardous to wildlife because of the concentrations of DDXs. The results from the present study suggest that the use pattern of fish feeds in China may have to be adjusted to minimize contamination of fishery products and wildlife by PHHs. Use of compound feeds produced with controlled procedures should be encouraged, whereas that of trash fish should be restricted, at least for now. PMID:19326952

  18. Evaluation of feed and feeding regime on growth performance, flesh quality and fecal viscosity of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guoxiang; Liu, Ying; Li, Yong; Li, Xian; Wang, Shunkui

    2015-10-01

    The effects of different feeds and feeding regimes on growth performance, flesh quality and fecal viscosity of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) were investigated. Fish (initial body weight of 1677 g ± 157 g) were fed with four commercial feeds (Nosan salmon-NS, Aller gold-AG, Skretting salmon-SS and Han ye-HY) in two feeding regimes (80% and 100% satiation) for 78 d. The results showed that salmon specific growth ratio (SGR) and weight gain ratio (WGR) were significantly affected by feed type and feeding regime ( P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) varied between 0.93 and 3.40, which was significantly affected by feed type ( P < 0.05), and slightly improved with increased satiation degree. The activities of digestive enzymes including protease, lipase and amylase were also significantly affected by feed type and feeding regime ( P < 0.05), increasing with satiation degree. Flesh qualities for vitamin E, hydroxyproline (HYP), liquid loss and muscle pH among all groups showed significant differences ( P < 0.05), ranging from 26.67 to 29.67, while no obvious difference was found in flesh color. Fecal viscosity for different treatments showed no significant difference, though improvement was found in 100% satiation group. From present experiment, it was concluded that both feed type and feeding regime can affect the important quality attributes of Atlantic salmon.

  19. Common conversion factors.

    PubMed

    2001-05-01

    This appendix presents tables of some of the more common conversion factors for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales. PMID:18770653

  20. Assessment through Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Danling; Lamme, Linda L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents conversations with parents, teachers, and children around portfolios that provide a better picture of a child's growth and understanding than standardized test scores ever can. Concludes that the involvement of students, teachers, and parents in conversation about children's literacy development brings the potential of a common vision and…

  1. Marathi Conversational Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berntsen, Maxine; Nimbkar, Jai

    This volume is an elementary Marathi conversation text for adult learners of Marathi, both foreign and Indian. Designed to be used in conjunction with "Marathi Structural Patterns. Book One," the volume presents over 80 conversations that include material required in everyday situations. Each section contains basic and more difficult…

  2. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  3. NUCLEAR CONVERSION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-09-13

    A nuclear conversion apparatus is described which comprises a body of neutron moderator, tubes extending therethrough, uranium in the tubes, a fluid- circulating system associated with the tubes, a thorium-containing fluid coolant in the system and tubes, and means for withdrawing the fluid from the system and replacing it in the system whereby thorium conversion products may be recovered.

  4. Changing Our Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Mark

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a principal is inspired to change the conversations with students and staff members from discipline and deficit to hope and planning for future achievement. He wants conversations to be more about academic goals and decision making and less about discipline and random acceptance of postsecondary plans. He has asked all staff…

  5. Feed Me! Rethinking Traditional Modes of Library Access and Content Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchens, Chad; Clark, Jason

    2008-01-01

    At their core, XML feeds are content-delivery vehicles. This fact has not always been highlighted in library conversations surrounding RSS and ATOM. The authors have looked to extend the conversation by offering a proof of concept application using RSS as a means to deliver all types of library data: PDFs, docs, images, video--to people where and…

  6. Biochemical Conversion of Reduced Lignin Alfalfa Stems Into Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has potential utility as an energy crop for conversion to biofuels because it is already produced commercially, grows as a perennial, and the protein enriched leaves can be marketed for animal feed. In this paper, the biomass processing characteristics of the stem mater...

  7. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  8. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Rate Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances... On September 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed an exigent rate request with the Commission...

  9. Adjustable holder for transducer mounting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deotsch, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Positioning of acoustic sensor, strain gage, or similar transducer is facilitated by adjustable holder. Developed for installation on Space Shuttle, it includes springs for maintaining uniform load on transducer with adjustable threaded cap for precisely controlling position of sensor with respect to surrounding structure.

  10. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  11. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  12. Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons in ac nonequilibrium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Thanyachotpaiboon, K.; Chavadej; Caldwell, T.A.; Lobban, L.L.; Mallinson, R.G.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of plasma chemistry on the conversion of methane were studied using a dielectric barrier discharge reactor at ambient temperatures. A dielectric barrier discharge reactor generates a nonequilibrium plasma when a sufficiently high voltage is applied across the reactor`s electrodes. Methane molecules are activated at this temperature and coupled to form C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, and hydrogen. The study on the effect of voltage, residence time and third bodies on methane conversion and product selectivity shows that methane conversion initially increases with increasing voltage and residence time above the breakdown voltage, and product selectivities are essentially independent of the voltage. Production of hydrogen during the reaction limits olefin production. Methane conversion also increases when helium and ethane are in the feed stream. Helium and ethane both appear to be more easily activated than methane and enhance methane activation and conversion.

  13. Hybrid biothermal conversion of biomass to methane

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, V.J.; Novil, M.; Tarman, P.B.; Chynoweth, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    Combining biochemical and thermochemical gasification in the Biothermgas process results in an economic process with a higher conversion efficiency and a greater choice of feedstocks that can be processed than biological or thermochemical processes used separately. The biogasification component can receive high mositure feeds, can convert major portions of feed at low temperature and pressure, and can be used for methanation of synthesis gas. The thermochemical gasifier converts refractory organic residues from the anaerobic digesters and provides gases than can be used for heating, mixing, and simulating methanogenesis in the biological component. The operating parameters for gasification of Bermuda grass by the Biothermgas process and for gasification of municipal solid waste-sewage sludge blend by the Biothermgas process with biomethanation are reported.

  14. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nitrate using a solvent such as tributyl phosphate. Next, the uranyl nitrate is converted to UO3 either by... involved in this process are: process feed storage and adjustment, precipitation and solid/liquor... plutonium dioxide. Other processes can involve the precipitation of plutonium oxalate or plutonium...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... using a solvent such as tributyl phosphate. Next, the uranyl nitrate is converted to UO3 either by... involved in this process are: process feed storage and adjustment, precipitation and solid/liquor... plutonium dioxide. Other processes can involve the precipitation of plutonium oxalate or plutonium...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... using a solvent such as tributyl phosphate. Next, the uranyl nitrate is converted to UO3 either by... involved in this process are: process feed storage and adjustment, precipitation and solid/liquor... plutonium dioxide. Other processes can involve the precipitation of plutonium oxalate or plutonium...

  17. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  18. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  19. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  20. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  1. ASDC RSS Feeds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-08

    ... having to visit each one of them to see what's new. When you sign up, you receive breaking news on your computer as soon as it is released. How can I sign up? Select the link(s) above to view our "raw" RSS feed. In ...

  2. Feeding DDGS to Finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, aquaculture has been growing at a rapid pace (currently 8.5% per year) over the past two decades, and is recognized as the fastest growing food production sector of agriculture in the U.S. Growth of aquaculture and other industries (e.g., other monogastric and ruminant livestock feed appl...

  3. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. PMID:27041258

  4. Application of the HWVP measurement error model and feed test algorithms to pilot scale feed testing

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.L.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the feed preparation subsystem in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is to provide, for control of the properties of the slurry that are sent to the melter. The slurry properties are adjusted so that two classes of constraints are satisfied. Processability constraints guarantee that the process conditions required by the melter can be obtained. For example, there are processability constraints associated with electrical conductivity and viscosity. Acceptability constraints guarantee that the processed glass can be safely stored in a repository. An example of an acceptability constraint is the durability of the product glass. The primary control focus for satisfying both processability and acceptability constraints is the composition of the slurry. The primary mechanism for adjusting the composition of the slurry is mixing the waste slurry with frit of known composition. Spent frit from canister decontamination is also recycled by adding it to the melter feed. A number of processes in addition to mixing are used to condition the waste slurry prior to melting, including evaporation and the addition of formic acid. These processes also have an effect on the feed composition.

  5. Responsive Teaching through Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.

  6. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOEpatents

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  7. Conversion of solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, N. N.; Shilov, A. E.

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of current theoretical and experimental research related to the conversion and practical utilization of solar energy. Topics discussed include semiconductor photovoltaic cells, orbital solar power stations, chemical and biological methods of solar energy conversion, and solar energy applications. Papers are included on new theoretical models of solar cells and prospects for increasing their efficiency, metrology and optical studies of solar cells, and some problems related to the thermally induced deformations of large space structures.

  8. Conversational Flow Promotes Solidarity

    PubMed Central

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of “we-ness”. Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed. PMID:24265683

  9. Assessing Common Ground in Conversation: The Effect of Linguistic and Physical Co-Presence on Early Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galati, Alexia

    2009-01-01

    Speakers routinely adjust their behavior upon assessing the information they share in common with their conversational partners, but there remains controversy over when and how these adjustments happen. In this dissertation I address two debates regarding partner-specific adjustments: (a) whether they recruit the language processing system in a…

  10. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  11. Feeding gastrostomy. Assistant or assassin?

    PubMed

    Burtch, G D; Shatney, C H

    1985-04-01

    Following several deaths from pulmonary aspiration in severely ill or chronically debilitated patients receiving nasogastric tube feedings, a study was undertaken to determine the incidence of aspiration pneumonitis in patients with feeding gastrostomies. During a 15-month interval, 22 feeding gastrostomies and nine feeding jejunostomies were performed. In the former group, eight patients experienced aspiration pneumonitis, with two deaths. Six patients with Stamm gastrostomies and two patients with permanent mucosal-lined gastrostomies experienced pulmonary aspiration. In contrast, aspiration pneumonia did not occur in our small series of patients with feeding jejunostomies. The high incidence of pulmonary aspiration in patients with feeding gastrostomies strongly suggests that, for chronic enteral nutrition in patients who are unable to protect their airway, a feeding jejunostomy is preferable to a feeding gastrostomy. PMID:3920939

  12. Effect of feeding varying levels of groundnut haulms on feed intake and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ribadiya, N. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, S. S.; Garg, D. D.; Gadariya, M. R.; Karangiya, V. K.; Gajera, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate groundnut haulms (GNH) as alternate feed source by its incorporation and assessment in terms of feed intake and growth performance in the diets of broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates (n=60). Experimental Birds in group T1 were fed with conventional feed while birds in T2, T3, T4 were fed containing 2%, 4%, and 6% of GNH replacing maize and soyabean on iso-nitrogenous basis. Results: Feed intake increases significantly (p>0.05) with increasing level of GNH in the diets of experimental birds. Highest feed intake was recorded in T4 (6% GNH), followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). Birds fed GNH gained significantly (p<0.05) higher body weight than birds fed the control diet. Birds in T4 [6% GNH] gained highest body weight, followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) remained non-significant for all treatment groups. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study, it is concluded that supplementation of GNH can successfully replace costly ingredients like maize and soybean meal in the diets of broiler birds up to the level of 6 percent of concentrate mixture without any harmful effects on feed intake, growth and FCR. PMID:27047062

  13. Anticipatory physiological regulation in feeding biology

    PubMed Central

    Power, Michael L.; Schulkin, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Anticipatory physiological regulation is an adaptive strategy that enables animals to respond faster to physiologic and metabolic challenges. The cephalic phase responses are anticipatory responses that prepare animals to digest, absorb and metabolize nutrients. They enable the sensory aspects of the food to interact with the metabolic state of the animal to influence feeding behavior. The anticipatory digestive secretions and metabolic adjustments in response to food cues are key adaptations that affect digestive and metabolic efficiency and aid in controlling the resulting elevation of metabolic fuels in the blood. Cephalic phase responses enable digestion, metabolism and appetite to be regulated in a coordinated fashion. These responses have significant effects on meal size. For example, if the cephalic phase insulin response is blocked the result is poor glucose control and smaller meals. Cephalic phase responses also are linked to motivation to feed, and may play a more direct role in regulating meal size beyond the permissive one of ameliorating negative consequences of feeding. For example, the orexigenic peptide ghrelin appears to display a cephalic phase response, rising before expected meal times. This anticipatory ghrelin response increases appetite; interestingly it also enhances fat absorption, linking appetite with digestion and metabolism. PMID:18045735

  14. Parental control over feeding in infancy. Influence of infant weight, appetite and feeding method☆

    PubMed Central

    Fildes, Alison; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H.M.; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infancy is responsive to infant appetite and weight. Subjects and methods: Participants were 1920 mothers from the Gemini twin cohort, using one randomly selected child per family. Data come from questionnaires completed when the children were approximately 8 months. Mothers completed measures of ‘pressure’ and ‘restriction’, reported feeding method (breast- and bottle feeding), rated their infant's appetite during the first 3 months, provided health professional recorded weight measurements, and reported their concerns about their infant's weight. Logistic regression examined predictors of ‘pressure’ and ‘restriction’, adjusting for maternal demographics and BMI. Interactions between feeding method and control were also tested. Results: ‘Pressure’ was associated with lower birth weight (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65–0.97), greater concern about underweight (OR = 1.88, 1.29–2.75), and lower infant appetite (OR = 0.59, 0.47–0.75). ‘Restriction’ was associated with higher appetite (OR = 1.44, 1.09–1.89) and bottle feeding (OR = 2.86, 2.18–3.75). A significant interaction with feeding method indicated that infants with high appetites were more likely to be restricted only if they were bottle-fed (OR = 1.52, 1.13–2.04). Conclusion: Mothers vary in their levels of control over milk-feeding and this is partly responsive to the infant's characteristics. They tend to pressure infants who are lighter and have a smaller appetite, and restrict infants with larger appetites if they are bottle-fed. Guidance on infant feeding may be better received if it acknowledges that parents respond to infant characteristics in order to achieve

  15. Clogging of feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Perkins, A M

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating clotting ability of some formulas with intact protein and hydrolyzed protein sources in a series of buffers ranging from a pH of 1 thru 10. The following 10 products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure, Enrich, Osmolite, Pulmocare, Citrotein, Resource, Vivonex TEN, Vital, and Hepatic Acid II. Protein (10 and 20 g/liter) was added to Citrotein and Ensure Plus. All formulas were tested at full and some at half strength. Clotting occurred only in premixed intact protein formulas (Pulmocare, Ensure Plus, Osmolite, Enrich, Ensure) and in Resource. No clotting was observed for Citrotein (intact protein formula in powder form), Vital, Vivonex TEN, and Hepatic Aid II. Adding protein did not cause or increase clotting. In summary, clotting of some liquid formula diet appears to be an important factor causing possible gastric feeding tube occlusion. The following measures may help in preventing this problem: flushing before and after aspirating for gastric residuals to eliminate acid precipitation of formula in the feeding tube, advance the nasogastric feeding tube into the duodenum if possible, and avoid mixing these products with liquid medications having a pH value of 5.0 or less. PMID:3138452

  16. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Kailash; Doyle, Edward; Becker, Frederick

    1998-01-01

    Completely integrated thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power sources in the range of 100 to 500 watts are being developed. The technical approach taken in this project focuses on optimizing the integrated performance of the primary subsystems in order to yield high energy conversion efficiency and cost effectiveness. An important aspect of the approach is the use of a narrow band fibrous emitter radiating to a bandgap matched photovoltaic array to minimize thermal and optical recuperation requirements, as well as the non-recoverable heat losses. For the prototype system, fibrous ytterbia emitters radiating in a narrow band centered at 980 nm are matched with high efficiency silicon photoconverters. The integrated system includes a dielectric stack filter for optical energy recovery and a ceramic recuperator for thermal energy recovery. The prototype TPV system uses a rapid mix distributed fuel delivery system with controlled feeding of the fuel and heated air into a flame at the surface of the emitter. This makes it possible to operate at air preheat temperatures well above the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel thereby substantially increasing the system efficiency. The system has been operated with air preheat temperatures up to 1367 K and has produced a uniform narrow band radiation over the surface of the emitter with this approach. The design of the system is described and test data for the system and some of the key components are presented. The results from a system model, which show the impact of various parameters on system performance, are also discussed.

  17. Dual wire weld feed proportioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

  18. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  19. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  20. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  1. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  2. Color space conversion for linear color grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dah-Jye

    2000-10-01

    Color grading is an important process for various industries such as food processing, fruit and vegetable grading, etc. Quality and price are often determined by the color of product. For example, darker red color for apples means higher price. In color machine vision applications, image is acquired with a color CCD camera that outputs color information in three channels, red, gree, and blue. When grading color, these three primary colors must be processed to determine the color level for separation. A very popular color space conversion technique for color image processing is RGB-to-HSI, where HSI represents hue, saturation, and intensity, respectively. However, the conversion result is still 3D information that makes determining color grades very difficult. A new color space conversion technique that can be implemented for high-speed real-time processing for color grading is introduced in this paper. Depending on the application, different color space conversion equations must be used. The result of this technique is a simple one-dimensional array that represents different color levels. This linear array makes linear color grading adjustment possible.

  3. Isomolybdate conversion coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating solution and process forms a stable and corrosion-resistant layer on metal substrates or layers or, more preferably, on a boehmite layer or other base conversion coating. The conversion coating process involves contacting the substrate, layer or coating with an aqueous alkali metal isomolybdate solution in order to convert the surface of the substrate, layer or coating to a stable conversion coating. The aqueous alkali metal molybdates are selected from sodium molybdate (Na.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), lithium molybdate (Li.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), potassium molybdate (K.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), or combinations thereof, with the most preferred alkali metal molybdate being sodium molybdate. The concentration of alkali metal molybdates in the solution is preferably less than 5% by weight. In addition to the alkali metal molybdates, the conversion coating solution may include alkaline metal passivators selected from lithium nitrate (LiNO.sub.3), sodium nitrate (NaNO.sub.3), ammonia nitrate (NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3), and combinations thereof; lithium chloride, potassium hexafluorozirconate (K.sub.2 ZrF.sub.6) or potassium hexafluorotitanate (K.sub.2 TiF.sub.6).

  4. Laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of laser energy to other, more useful, forms is an important element of any space power transmission system employing lasers. In general the user, at the receiving sight, will require the energy in a form other than laser radiation. In particular, conversion to rocket power and electricity are considered to be two major areas where one must consider various conversion techniques. Three systems (photovoltaic cells, MHD generators, and gas turbines) have been identified as the laser-to-electricity conversion systems that appear to meet most of the criteria for a space-based system. The laser thruster also shows considerable promise as a space propulsion system. At this time one cannot predict which of the three laser-to-electric converters will be best suited to particular mission needs. All three systems have some particular advantages, as well as disadvantages. It would be prudent to continue research on all three systems, as well as the laser rocket thruster. Research on novel energy conversion systems, such as the optical rectenna and the reverse free-electron laser, should continue due to their potential for high payoff.

  5. Current trends in infant feeding.

    PubMed

    van der Elst, C W; Pick, W; Isaacs, S; Malan, A F

    1989-10-21

    This study examined aspects of newborn feeding in a maternity hospital and also investigated feeding practices during the first 6 months of life. Four hundred and fifty mothers were interviewed while in the maternity hospital. The majority (93%) had booked for their confinement and had attended antenatal clinics regularly. Most had had early contact with the baby at birth and stated that they thought breast-milk was best for the baby. Despite this only 54.6% had given breast-milk as the first feed and only 10% had done so within the first hour. Most mothers (54%) stated that they preferred a timed feeding routine to demand-feeding, while 86% planned to give water between feeds. The majority indicated they would change to formula feeds should they experience problems with breast-feeding. A follow-up visit of 78 mothers 6 months later showed that 50% breast-fed exclusively for 3 - 4 months and 23% for 6 - 7 months. When feeding problems occurred only 27% of the mothers utilised the local authority baby clinic for help. The main reasons given for stopping breast-feeds were insufficient milk, the need for employment and feeding problems. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2799597

  6. Direct conversion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  7. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massier, Paul F.; Bankston, C. P.; Williams, R.; Underwood, M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Fabris, G.

    1989-12-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal Magnetohydrodynamic Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1989 through December 31, 1989. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (nitinol heat engines); and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  8. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  9. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  10. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massier, Paul F.; Bankston, C. P.; Williams, R.; Underwood, M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Fabris, G.

    1989-01-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal Magnetohydrodynamic Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1989 through December 31, 1989. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (nitinol heat engines); and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  11. Frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A frequency conversion system comprises first and second gain sources providing first and second frequency radiation outputs where the second gain source receives as input the output of the first gain source and, further, the second gain source comprises a Raman or Brillouin gain fiber for wave shifting a portion of the radiation of the first frequency output into second frequency radiation output to provided a combined output of first and second frequencies. Powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  12. Digital optical conversion module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1988-07-01

    A digital optical conversion module is used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  13. Feedstock handling and processing effects on biochemical conversion to biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Inman; Nick Nagle; Jacob Jacobson; Erin Searcy; Allison Ray

    2001-10-01

    Abating the dependence of the United States on foreign oil by reducing oil consumption and increasing biofuels usage will have far-reaching global effects. These include reduced greenhouse gas emissions and an increased demand for biofuel feedstocks. To support this increased demand, cellulosic feedstock production and conversion to biofuels (e.g. ethanol, butanol) is being aggressively researched. Thus far, research has primarily focused on optimizing feedstock production and ethanol conversion, with less attention given to the feedstock supply chain required to meet cost, quality, and quantity goals. This supply chain comprises a series of unit operations from feedstock harvest to feeding the conversion process. Our objectives in this review are (i) to summarize the peer-reviewed literature on harvest-to-reactor throat variables affecting feedstock composition and conversion to ethanol; (ii) to identify knowledge gaps; and (iii) to recommend future steps.

  14. The SOFFI Reference Guides: Text, Algorithms, and Appendices: A Manualized Method for Quality Bottle Feedings

    PubMed Central

    Philbin, M. Kathleen; Ross, Erin Sundseth

    2014-01-01

    The Support of Oral Feeding for Fragile Infants (SOFFI) method of bottle feeding rests on quality evidence along with implementation details drawn from clinical experience. To be clear, the SOFFI Method is not focused on the amount of food taken in but on the conduct of the feeding and the development of competent infant feeding behavior that, consequently, assures the intake of food necessary for growth. The unique contribution of the SOFFI method is the systematic organization of scientific findings into clinically sound, easily followed algorithms and a manualized Reference Guide for the assessments, decisions, and actions of a good quality feeding. A good quality feeding is defined by a stable, self-regulated infant and a caregiver who sensitively (responsively) adjusts to the infant’s physiology and behavior to realize a feeding experience in which the infant remains comfortable and competent while using feeding abilities achieved to that point. The SOFFI Reference Guide and Algorithms begin with pre-feeding adjustments of the environment and follow step by step through a feeding with observations of specific infant behavior, decisions based on that behavior, and specific actions to safeguard emerging abilities and the quality of the experience. An important aspect the SOFFI Reference Guide and Algorithms is the clarity about pausing and stopping the feeding based on the infant’s physiology and behavior rather than based on the amount ingested. The specificity of each observation, decision, and action enables nurses at all levels of experience to provide quality feedings based on scientific rationale and, therefore, to assist parents in learning to feed their infants successfully. The theoretical framework and scientific basis of the SOFFI method are found in Ross and Philbin (2011).1 PMID:22071621

  15. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  16. Direct Conversion Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

  17. Accessory apartment conversion programs.

    PubMed

    Retsinas, J; Retsinas, N P

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, state housing finance agencies have joined with state units on aging to develop programs to help the frail, elderly homeowner. Under an accessory apartment conversion program, a low-income homeowner will borrow money at a reduced interest rate to underwrite conversion of excess space into a rental apartment. The tenant will provide additional income as well as, ideally, certain kinds of personal assistance and a friendly presence. To date, few elderly clients have used this option. The initial rationale for the program is explained as are plausible reasons for the fact that it has not met expectations. PMID:10186784

  18. ADEPT: Efficient Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    ADEPT Project: In today’s increasingly electrified world, power conversion—the process of converting electricity between different currents, voltage levels, and frequencies—forms a vital link between the electronic devices we use every day and the sources of power required to run them. The 14 projects that make up ARPA-E’s ADEPT Project, short for “Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,” are paving the way for more energy efficient power conversion and advancing the basic building blocks of power conversion: circuits, transistors, inductors, transformers, and capacitors.

  19. Sustainable production of green feed from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Landau, Miron V; Vidruk, Roxana; Herskowitz, Moti

    2014-03-01

    Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form hydrocarbons was conducted on two iron-based catalysts, prepared according to procedures described in the literature, and on a new iron spinel catalyst. The CO2 conversion measured in a packed-bed reactor was limited to about 60% because of excessive amounts of water produced in this process. Switching to a system of three packed-bed reactors in series with interim removal of water and condensed hydrocarbons increased CO2 conversion to as much as 89%. The pure spinel catalyst displayed a significantly higher activity and selectivity than those of the other iron catalysts. This process produces a product called green feed, which is similar in composition to the product of a high-temperature, iron-based Fischer–Tropsch process from syngas. The green feed can be readily converted into renewable fuels by well-established technologies. PMID:24678062

  20. Energy conversion in polyelectrolyte hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Erbas, Aykut; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    Energy conversion and storage have been an active field of research in nanotechnology parallel to recent interests towards renewable energy. Polyelectrolyte (PE) hydrogels have attracted considerable attention in this field due to their mechanical flexibility and stimuli-responsive properties. Ideally, when a hydrogel is deformed, applied mechanical work can be converted into electrostatic, elastic and steric-interaction energies. In this talk, we discuss the results of our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of PE hydrogels. We demonstrate that, on deformation, hydrogels adjust their deformed state predominantly by altering electrostatic interactions between their charged groups rather than excluded-volume and bond energies. This is due to the hydrogel's inherent tendency to preserve electro-neutrality in its interior, in combination with correlations imposed by backbone charges. Our findings are valid for a wide range of compression ratios and ionic strengths. The electrostatic-energy alterations that we observe in our MD simulations may induce pH or redox-potential changes inside the hydrogels. The resulting energetic difference can be harvested, for instance, analogously to a Carnot engine, or facilitated for sensor applications. Center for Bio-inspired Energy Science (CBES).

  1. Final RQ adjustments rule issued

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    On June 12, 1995, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its long awaited final rule adjusting certain reportable quantities (RQs) for hazardous substances under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The rule: revises the table of hazardous substances to add 47 individual Clean Air Act (CAA) hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); adjustments their statutory one-pound RQs; adds five other CAA HAPs that are categories of substances and assigns no RQ to the categories; and adjusts RQs for 11 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed hazardous wastes. EPA made conforming changes to the Clean Water Act table of hazardous substances and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) table of extremely hazardous substances. The rule became effective July 12, 1995.

  2. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  3. Hydrocracker feeds olefin unit

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, A.G.

    1986-11-01

    An ethylene plant integrated with a selective hydrocracker in a complex refinery can give an attractive payout, bearing in mind that results depend on the refinery's configuration and business environment. Feedstock and operating conditions are more flexible from only a moderate investment, particularly that to modify the steam cracker. Total product upgrading is high. Low grade vacuum-flashed distillates passed through a selective hydrocracker produce hydrogenated residue (hydrowax) having a value close to a naphtha as a feed to a steam cracker. The technology and economics of the concept are confirmed in a large industrial installations.

  4. Ontogenetic differences in the feeding biomechanics of oviparous and viviparous caecilians (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Caecilians have a unique dual jaw-closing system in that jaw closure is driven by the ancestral jaw-closing muscles (mm. levatores mandibulae) plus a secondarily recruited hyobranchial muscle (m. interhyoideus posterior). There is a variety of feeding habits (suction feeding, skin feeding, intrauterine scraping, and biting) during ontogeny that relate to reproductive modes in different caecilian species. This study examines the cranial biomechanics of caecilians in the suction-feeding larva of Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis, in the embryo and juvenile of the skin-feeding Boulengerula taitana, and in a newborn of the intrauterine feeder Typhlonectes natans. A lever arm model was applied to calculate effective mechanical advantages of jaw-closing muscles over gape angles and to predict total bite force in developing caecilians. In I. cf. kohtaoensis, Notable differences were found in the larval jaw-closing system compared to that of the adult. The suction-feeding larva of I. cf. kohtaoensis has comparatively large mm. levatores mandibulae that insert with an acute muscle fiber angle to the lower jaw and a m. interhyoideus posterior that has its optimal leverage at small gape angles. Conversely, the skin-feeding juvenile of B. taitana and the neonate T. natans are very similar in the feeding parameters considered herein compared to adult caecilians. Some ontogenetic variation in the feeding system of B. taitana before the onset of feeding was present. This study contributes to our understanding of the functional demands that feeding habits put on the development of cranial structures. PMID:20952171

  5. Adjustable spacer with rotational lock

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, M.L.

    1984-02-28

    A spacing apparatus for tubing conduit in a subterranean well, normally for use with an electric component with a longitudinally extending external electrical cable, permits irrotational adjustment of the length of the tubing conduit. The spacing apparatus comprises telescoping members which are keyed to prevent rotation therebetween. A threaded member, longitudinally fixed relative to one longitudinal member, normally engages threads extending substantially along the entire length of the other telescoping member. Movement of a retaining sleeve permits disengagement of the threaded segments which ratchet along the threads during telescoping movement. The length of the conduit can thus be irrotationally adjusted to remove slack from the electrical cable.

  6. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  7. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  8. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF VITREOUS STATE LABORATORY AY102/C106 AND AZ102 HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER FEED SIMULANTS (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E

    2005-03-31

    The objective of this task is to characterize and report specified physical properties and pH of simulant high level waste (HLW) melter feeds (MF) processed through the scaled melters at Vitreous State Laboratories (VSL). The HLW MF simulants characterized are VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) AY102/C106 precipitated hydroxide processed sludge blended with glass former chemicals at VSL to make melter feed. The physical properties and pH were characterized using the methods stated in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) characterization procedure (Ref. 7).

  9. AGRP neurons are sufficient to orchestrate feeding behavior rapidly and without training

    PubMed Central

    Aponte, Yexica; Atasoy, Deniz; Sternson, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Two intermingled hypothalamic neuron populations, specified by expression of agouti-related peptide (AGRP) or pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), positively and negatively influence feeding behavior respectively, possibly by reciprocally regulating downstream melanocortin receptors. However, the sufficiency of these neurons to control behavior, and the relationship of their activity to the magnitude and dynamics of feeding are unknown. To measure this, we used channelrhodopsin-2 for cell type-specific photostimulation. Activation of only 800 AGRP neurons in mice evoked voracious feeding within minutes. The behavioral response increased with photoexcitable neuron number, photostimulation frequency, and stimulus duration. Conversely, POMC neuron stimulation reduced food intake and body weight, which required melanocortin receptor signaling. However, AGRP neuron-mediated feeding was not dependent on suppressing this melanocortin pathway, indicating that AGRP neurons directly engage feeding circuits. Furthermore, feeding was evoked selectively over drinking without training or prior photostimulus exposure, which suggests that AGRP neurons serve a dedicated role coordinating this complex behavior. PMID:21209617

  10. Catalyst increases COS conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Goodboy, K.P.

    1985-02-18

    Increasingly stringent air quality legislation is placing greater emphasis on conversion of COS and CS/sub 2/ in Claus plants for the maximum sulfur recovery. Overall sulfur recovery goals are dependent upon outstanding service from the Claus catalyst in each reactor because catalyst activity is a major factor influencing plant performance. Today's catalyst are much improved over those used 10 years ago for the Claus (H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/) reaction. Recent technical efforts have focused on the conversion of COS and CS/sub 2/. These carbon-sulfur compounds can account for as much as 50% of the sulfur going to the incinerator, which essentially converts all remaining sulfur species to SO/sub 2/ for atmospheric dispersion. Previously, the mechanism of Claus COS conversion, i.e., hydrolysis or oxidation by SO/sub 2/, was studied and the conclusion was that oxidation by SO/sub 2/ appears to be the predominate mode of COS conversion on sulfated alumina catalysts.

  11. Mechanochemical Energy Conversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the thermodynamics of macromolecular systems, including theories and experiments of cyclic energy conversion with rubber and collagen as working substances. Indicates that an early introduction into the concept of chemical potential and solution thermodynamics is made possible through the study of the cyclic processes. (CC)

  12. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  13. Leadership is a conversation.

    PubMed

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate. PMID:22741420

  14. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  15. National conversion pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, D.; Nichols, F.; Lily, A.

    1994-12-31

    Manufacturing Sciences Corporation (MSC) has undertaken a project from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to convert buildings that are currently contaminated at Rocky Flats into buildings that are capable of producing commercial products. This conversion project is called the National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP). The mission of the NCPP is to explore and demonstrate at the Rocky Flats site the feasibility of economic conversion at DOE facilities. This project was officially started on April 1 with the signing of a Cooperative Assistance Agreement between MSC and the DOE. The NCPP was jointly announced by Roy Romer, Governor of the State of Colorado; Mark Silverman, Manager of the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Office; Jack McGraw, Activity Administrator for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8; and Tom Looby, Director of the Office of Environment from the Colorado Department of Health. On March 25, 1994, Hazel O`Leary, the Secretary of the DOE, toured the site of the NCPP and heartily endorsed the project as an example of how the DOE and commercial industry can jointly accomplish the conversion and cleanup of government facilities into productive commercial ventures.

  16. Economics of Grassland Conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we provide an overview of economic factors that contribute to changes in grassland area including the relative profitability of crop and livestock production, effects of land productivity, and effects of conversion costs. We also identify other potential socio-economic influences on gr...

  17. Electromechanical Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text on electromechanical energy conversion (motors and generators) was developed under contract with the U.S. Office of Education as Number 12 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended to be used in conjunction with other materials and with other short texts in the series. (DH)

  18. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  19. A Conversation about Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.; Mao, Minnie Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of the Lindau Meeting, we present a dialogue between a Nobel laureate and a young researcher. This interchange started online, where it continues to unfold. Here is a digest of this conversation, which has developed across time and space.

  20. Teaching Conversation with Trivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a rationale for utilizing trivia to teach conversation. Shows how trivia-based materials fit into communicative language teaching approaches and provides examples of trivia-based activities and explains how to use them in the classroom. (Author/VWL)

  1. Conversational Involvement and Loneliness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of conversational involvement and loneliness among college students. Found that lonely participants in this study had lower rates of talkativeness, interruptions, and attention than the nonlonely; they were also perceived as less involved and less interpersonally attractive. (PD)

  2. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  3. Solar energy conversion.

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.

    2008-03-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces

  4. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Nelson, Lee O.; Detering, Brent A.

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  5. Four GABAergic interneurons impose feeding restraint in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Allan-Hermann; Kvello, Pal; Mann, Kevin; Cheung, Samantha K.; Gordon, Michael D.; Wang, Liming; Scott, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Feeding is dynamically regulated by the palatability of the food source and the physiological needs of the animal. How consumption is controlled by external sensory cues and internal metabolic state remains under intense investigation. Here, we identify four GABAergic interneurons in the Drosophila brain that establish a central feeding threshold which is required to inhibit consumption. Inactivation of these cells results in indiscriminate and excessive intake of all compounds, independent of taste quality or nutritional state. Conversely, acute activation of these neurons suppresses consumption of water and nutrients. The output from these neurons is required to gate activity in motor neurons that control meal initiation and consumption. Thus, our study reveals a new layer of inhibitory control in feeding circuits that is required to suppress a latent state of unrestricted and non-selective consumption. PMID:24991960

  6. Applications of adjustable speed drives. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning types and applications of adjustable speed drives (ASD). Uses in heat pumps, fans, compressors, electric motors, boiler feed systems, and power transmission are described. Coverage includes AC-DC motors, induction motors, and brushless electric motors. Energy cost savings are also examined. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Catalytic conversion of pyrolysis gasoline and toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Syunyakova, Z.F.; Valitov, R.B.; Shmelev, A.S.; Mazitov, M.F.; Faskhutdinova, R.A.; Sokolova, G.P.

    1984-11-01

    A basic process for production of benzene from petroleum, along with catalytic reforming, is processing of liquid pyrolysis products and toluene. The conversion of pyrolysis gasoline and toluene on an iron-chromium oxide catalyst in a medium of steam and hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was investigated. Catalytic conversion of the pyrolysis gasoline was carried out in a medium of steam in a gradientless spherical reactor made of Kh23N18T steel under the following conditions: temperature 750 to 840/sup 0/C; steam pyrolysis gasoline weight ratio 1:1; pyrolysis gasoline feed rate 1 g per g catalyst per hour; experiment time 1 hour; catalyst volume 8 cm/sup 3/. Hydrodealkylation of toluene was also studied with the goal of producing benzene. In contrast to the conversion of pyrolysis gasoline in a medium of steam, hydrodealkylation was accomplished in a medium of steam and hydrogen. The preliminary tests showed that higher selectivity for formation of benzene is achieved in the presence of hydrogen. 11 references, 4 tables.

  8. Visual adjustments to temporal blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilson, Aaron C.; Mizokami, Yoko; Webster, Michael A.

    2005-10-01

    After observers have adapted to an edge that is spatially blurred or sharpened, a focused edge appears too sharp or blurred, respectively. These adjustments to blur may play an important role in calibrating spatial sensitivity. We examined whether similar adjustments influence the perception of temporal edges, by measuring the appearance of a step change in the luminance of a uniform field after adapting to blurred or sharpened transitions. Stimuli were square-wave alternations (at 1 to 8 Hz) filtered by changing the slope of the amplitude spectrum. A two-alternative-forced-choice task was used to adjust the slope until it appeared as a step change, or until it matched the perceived transitions in a reference stimulus. Observers could accurately set the waveform to a square wave, but only at the slower alternation rates. However, these settings were strongly biased by prior adaptation to filtered stimuli, or when the stimuli were viewed within temporally filtered surrounds. Control experiments suggest that the latter induction effects result directly from the temporal blur and are not simply a consequence of brightness induction in the fields. These results suggest that adaptation and induction adjust visual coding so that images are focused not only in space but also in time.

  9. Self-Adjusting Fluency Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Presents a rationale and methodology for a self-adjusting "fluency sensitive" approach to working with children who exhibit overt speech-fluency interruptions and a minimal amount of avoidance behavior. The approach emphasizes repeated experiences of volitional increases and decreases in loudness and pauses. Case examples demonstrate how several…

  10. Adjustable Walker for the Handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Front legs adjust at touch of lever for use on stairs or ramps. Spring loaded legs extend when lever is depressed by user. Legs lock in position when lever is released. Lever mounted on either side of walker or on both sides, so legs operated independently.

  11. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  12. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  13. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  14. ENHANCEMENT OF METHANE CONVERSION USING ELECTRIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard G. Mallinson; Lance L. Lobban

    2000-05-01

    This report summarizes the conditions and results of this multifaceted program. Detailed experimental descriptions and results and discussion can be found in the publications cited in the Appendix. The goal of this project is the development of novel, economical, processes for the conversion of natural gas to more valuable projects such as synthesis gas or direct conversion to methanol, ethylene and other organic oxygenates or higher hydrocarbons. The methodologies of the project are to investigate and develop low temperature electric discharges and electric discharge-enhanced catalysis for carrying out these conversions. With the electric discharge-enhanced conversion, the operating temperatures are expected to be far below those currently required for such processes as oxidative coupling, thereby allowing for a higher degree of catalytic selectivity while maintaining high activity. In the case of low temperature discharges, the conversion is carried out at ambient temperature, trading high temperature thermal energy for electric energy as the driving force for conversion. The low operating temperatures remove thermodynamic constraints on the product distribution due to the non-equilibrium nature of the low temperature plasma. This also removes the requirements of large thermal masses that need very large-scale operation to maximize efficiency that is the characteristic of current technologies, including high temperature plasma processes. This potentially allows much smaller scale processes to be efficient. Additionally, a gas conversion process that is electrically driven provides an internal use for excess power generated by proposed Fischer Tropsch gas-to-liquids processes and can increase their internal thermal efficiency and reduce capital costs. This project has studied three primary types of low temperature plasma reactor and operating conditions. The organization of this program is shown schematically in the report. Typical small scale laboratory reactor

  15. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  16. Method for direct conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons to liquids

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2006-03-07

    A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.

  17. Organic and Nonorganic Feeding Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Feeding is one of the most important interactions between caregiver and child in the first few years of life and even later on in handicapped children. Feeding disorders can present as food refusal or low quantity of food intake due to behavioral issues or underlying organic conditions. This situation concerns mostly infants and children below 6 years of age; however, feeding problems can appear also later on in life. Feeding disorders are a concern for over 10-25% of parents of otherwise healthy children below 3 years of age, but only 1-5% of infants and toddlers suffer from severe feeding problems resulting in failure to thrive. In case of premature infants or neurologically disabled children, this rate is much higher. Feeding disorders may appear as an isolated problem, mainly due to negative behaviors during feeding, or as a concomitant disorder with an underlying organic disease or structural anomaly. The newest classification also includes the feeding style presented by the caregiver (responsive, controlling, indulgent or neglectful) as a separate cause of feeding disorders. PMID:26226993

  18. How to Feed Cleft Patient?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saima Yunus

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cleft lip and palate patients have all rights like other normal individuals, to enjoy the benefits of nourishment. Knowledge has to be there about the different feeding positions like straddle, dancer hand position along with the use of specially designed bottles and nipples. Parent's should be trained about the correct positions of feeding, in extreme of the cases in which parents are not able to follow these instructions, feeding obturators can be given. How to cite this article: Jindal MK, Khan SY. How to Feed Cleft Patient? Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):100-103. PMID:25206201

  19. Automatic feed system for ultrasonic machining

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus for ultrasonic machining in which feeding of a tool assembly holding a machining tool toward a workpiece is accomplished automatically. In ultrasonic machining, a tool located just above a workpiece and vibrating in a vertical direction imparts vertical movement to particles of abrasive material which then remove material from the workpiece. The tool does not contact the workpiece. Apparatus for moving the tool assembly vertically is provided such that it operates with a relatively small amount of friction. Adjustable counterbalance means is provided which allows the tool to be immobilized in its vertical travel. A downward force, termed overbalance force, is applied to the tool assembly. The overbalance force causes the tool to move toward the workpiece as material is removed from the workpiece.

  20. Misaligned feeding impairs memories

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O’Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09460.001 PMID:26652002

  1. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  2. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  3. Feeding a future world.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of future prospects for feeding the world's growing population. The discussion focuses on obstacles such as limited agricultural land, degraded soil and water, and water shortages. The evidence suggests that sustainability is declining, especially in poor, food-deficit countries with growing populations. The world is segregated into the haves, the poor have-nots, and the rich have-nots. North America, Europe, and Australia have enough cropland to feed their populations. The poor have-nots are located mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, 7 countries each in the Middle East and Latin America, 6 in Oceania, and the rest in Central and South Asia. The poor have-nots amount to 3 billion out of 6 billion total population. The rich have-nots include countries such as Japan and Singapore, plus China, Indonesia, Peru, Chile, and Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. The rich have-nots must import food. The world grain harvest is no longer tripling. Per person yields have declined. Increasing food productivity must rely on existing lands. The size of family farms has declined. Almost 2 billion hectares of crop and grazing land is degraded. Yields from irrigated land that are 33% of world food supply have declined. In 1990, 28 countries with 335 million people faced chronic water shortages or scarcity. Water is being polluted. Fish stocks are being depleted. Genetic diversity is being lost. In 182 food deficit countries, population growth must be slowed, and agriculture must be sustainable. Food is neither produced nor consumed equitably. Malnutrition is caused by poverty. Food security cannot be achieved if land and water become increasingly degraded or lost. PMID:12348766

  4. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  5. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  6. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  7. Cultural Adjustment and the Puerto Rican.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    This review of the literature on cultural adjustment is divided into four sections: the nature of cultural adjustment; acculturation as a model of cultural adjustment; psychological responses to acculturation; and a model of cultural adjustment developed by the author as a result of his immigration from Puerto Rico to the United States mainland.…

  8. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  9. Wind energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  10. Movement Coordination during Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V.; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S.; Munhall, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers’ perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189

  11. Frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Laser diode pumped mid-IR wavelength sources include at least one high power, near-IR wavelength, injection and/or sources wherein one or both of such sources may be tunable providing a pump wave output beam to a quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) device. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Wavelength tuning of at least one of the sources advantageously provides the ability for optimizing pump or injection wavelengths to match the QPM properties of the NFM device enabling a broad range of mid-IR wavelength selectivity. Also, pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  12. Catalytic conversions of chlorodecalin

    SciTech Connect

    Takhistov, U.V.; Kovyazin, V.E.

    1985-10-01

    This paper studies catalytic conversions of chlorinated decahydronaphthalene (chlorodecalin), since the introduction of chlorine into the hydrocarbon molecule would facilitate formation of the original carbonium ion required for conversion to adamantane. Analysis of the fractions obtained showed that two main products are formed: the tricyclic hydrocarbon C/sub 10/H/sub 16/ and the bicyclic hydrocarbon C/sub 10/H/sub 16/. Therefore, the C/sub 10/H/sub 17/ cation formed by removal of chlorine from chlorodecalin, C/sub 10/H/sub 17/CI, undergoes changes in two directions: addition of hydride ions from other chlorodecalin molecules to form Decalin, and loss of a proton to give a tricyclic system of the adamantane weries and its isomer. Introduction of a substituent (chlorine) into the Decalin molecule made it possible to conduct the process at low temperatures.

  13. Praxis conversion utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.M.; Greenwood, J.R.; Shapiro, R.

    1981-12-02

    The Praxis Conversion Utilities are a set of Praxis routines which convert data objects to/from Ascii strings. For instance, the AsciiInteger function converts an array of characters to an integer value. These routines are implemented as a consistent set of utilities with complete control over the various formatting options and fill characters. Most of the parameters for each routine are optional such that they are easy to invoke for standard cases, yet allowing the detailed control when necessary.

  14. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massier, P. F.; Bankston, C. P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L. D.

    1988-12-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown.

  15. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massier, P. F.; Bankston, C. P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L. D.

    1988-01-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown.

  16. Mining machine with adjustable jib

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.

    1987-05-26

    A mining machine is described having a pair of crawler tracks, a means for individually driving each of the crawler tracks, a frame mounted on the crawler tracks, an elongated jib carrying a sprocket at each end, an endless cutting chain supported on the sprockets, cutters and loading flights mounted on the endless cutting chain, and means on the frame supporting the elongated jib. The means support the elongated jib consisting of a bridge on the frame, at least one scissors linkage pivotally mounted on the bridge, and arm having a first end attached to the scissors linkage, a front plate mounted on the second end of the arm and means adjustably mounting the elongated jib on the front plate. The means adjustably mount the elongated jib on the front plate including a first means for rotating the elongated jib between a vertical position and a horizontal position.

  17. Interface Circuit for Vibration Energy Harvesting with Adjustable Bias Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J.; Lefeuvre, E.; Mathias, H.; Costa, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a new interface circuit for electrostatic vibration energy harvesting with adjustable bias voltage. An electronic switch is used to modify the circuit configuration so that the harvested energy increases the voltage across a biasing capacitor. Decrease of this biasing capacitor voltage occurs naturally due to the circuit imperfections. Such a control of the bias voltage enables to adjust the amount of energy converted by the variable capacitor on each cycle. This feature can be used to optimize the mechanical damping induced by the energy conversion process in order to maximize the harvested power. Another feature of this interface circuit is that it is capable to get high bias voltage whatever the battery voltage with low energy loss.

  18. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite. PMID:17567838

  19. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann

  20. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: I. Production traits and gut microbiota characteristics.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Achard, C S; Zemb, O; Molette, C; Gidenne, T; Larzul, C; Ruesche, J; Tircazes, A; Segura, M; Bouchez, T; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Balmisse, E; Garreau, H; Gilbert, H

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding (-20% of voluntary intake). The first objective of this study was to evaluate, after 9 generations of selection, the direct and correlated responses to selection on production traits in the 2 lines for traits recorded during growth. Second, applying the 2 feeding conditions used for selection to both selected lines plus the control unselected line (generation 0, G0) in a 2 × 3 factorial trial, the line performances were compared and the gut microbiota of the lines was characterized. The correlated responses in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were remarkably equivalent in both selected lines (-2.74 genetic σ) but correlated responses in other traits were notably different. In the ConsoResidual line, selection for decreased RFI resulted in a small negative correlated response in BW at 63 d old (BW63) and in a null response in ADG. In the ADGrestrict line, on the contrary, the correlated response in BW63 was substantial (+1.59 σ). The 2 selected lines had a FCR reduced by 0.2 point compared with the G0 line, and the same difference was found in both feeding regimens ( < 0.001). Indeed, selection on ADG would lead to heavier animals with no significant reduction of feed costs, whereas selection on RFI leads to lower feed costs and no increase of animal BW under ad libitum feeding. Altogether, our results do not suggest any genotype × environment interaction in the response to feeding regimens. The intestinal microbial communities from efficient rabbits differed from their unselected counterparts in terms of fermentation end products and microbial phylotypes, suggesting a central role of these microbes in the better feed efficiency of the rabbits. PMID:26812310

  1. Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

    Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

  2. Feed analyses and their interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance of the assays, analytical variability of the analyses, and whether a feed is suit...

  3. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  4. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed. PMID:18991902

  5. Antenna of adjustable bandwidth based on a pentagonal array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Vera-Dimas, J. G.; Cabello Ruiz, R.; García-García, O.; Escobedo-Alatorre, J.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Varona, J.; Vargas-Bernal, R.

    2011-09-01

    Antenna characteristics are chosen according to the features determined by the systems where they will be used. While some systems require a very narrow bandwidth, others may operate with a much wider bandwidth. Some techniques used for increasing the bandwidth of a given antenna have considered mechanical adjustment of the air layer thickness, with the consequent change on the effective permittivity and performance. Some other systems consider a suitable choice of feeding techniques and impedance matching network. However, approaches for reducing the bandwidth have not received the same level of attention. Narrow bandwidth antennas are of particular interest in security and surveillance systems. In this work we present a technique, based on the design of a pentagonal antenna array, which allows for adjusting the bandwidth in either direction. The array is formed by an inner patch designed at the desired operating frequency of the system and a gap coupled external ring centered at a different frequency (lower or very near the operating frequency), which determines the potential bandwidth increment or decrement. The feed point is located on the inner patch. As a proof-of-concept, this work offers a tuning range that goes from -40% of the center frequency up to +50% of the center operating frequency of the patch antenna. The single patch antenna of this work was designed and simulated at an operating frequency of 4.9 GHz on RT/Duroid 5880.

  6. Breast feeding: success or failure.

    PubMed

    Houston, M J

    1981-11-01

    Awareness of the important role of breast feeding in child health and the reproductive cycle, which is well documented elsewhere, necessitates an examination of the changing practice of breast feeding. This paper reviews these changing practices both in Western and developing societies, examines the problems which lead to lactation failure, and looks at factors related to success in breast feeding. In the light of the need for practical help for successful breast feeding. the present system of support both in hospital and at home is then discussed. An alternative system of structured home support for post-natal women, which has been shown to increase the success rate of breast feeding, is outlined. The way in which this system acts is discussed and the implications for both mothers and health staff are considered. PMID:6915047

  7. A History of Infant Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  8. Crucial Conversations about America's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John C.; Protheroe, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    It's up to school leaders to shift the momentum away from conversations based on misperceptions and toward those that study critical issues about school improvement. "Crucial Conversations About America's Schools" talks about how to do this and provides examples of how to reframe conversations on the hot-button but important topics of…

  9. The Personal Enjoyment of Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Paul W.

    Conversation reminds us that we are not alone, that shared language is the opportunity to try on our many masks to see how many of them we can do without. The variety of pleasures accrued from conversation--"layers of pleasure"--deepen only as they move away from the individual orbits into the circle of mutual experience. When conversation is…

  10. High Level Waste Feed Certification in Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Thien, Micheal G.; Wells, Beric E.; Adamson, Duane J.

    2010-03-01

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE’s River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (1 million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing of HLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch to batch operational adjustments that reduces operating efficiency and has the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

  11. Interfacing anthropology and epidemiology: the Bedouin Arab Infant Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Hundt, G A; Forman, M R

    1993-04-01

    This paper encapsulates a 10 year effort of multi-disciplinary research on the relationship between infant feeding, growth, and morbidity among the Negev Bedouin Arabs of Israel as they underwent a transition from semi-nomadism to urban settlement. The research team was multi-disciplinary including a nutritional epidemiologist and an anthropologist who both came to the study with previous experience in interdisciplinary work. The specific study objectives were (1) a description of infant feeding practices among Negev Bedouin Arab women at various stages of settlement, (2) an examination of the trend in these infant feeding practices, (3) a comparison of the extent to which different infant feeding practices are related to infant morbidity and growth after adjustment for exposure to social change and other covariates. The data collection took place in 1981-83 and the analysis from 1984-88. In this paper, two areas of the study are discussed in depth: the duration of exclusive breast feeding during the practice of the traditional postpartum 40 day rest period, and the development of a culture-specific scale of socioeconomic status. Through these examples, we highlight the use of ethnographic data and the merging of epidemiology and anthropology from hypothesis generation through data collection, data analysis and interpretation. PMID:8480241

  12. The forty-day rest period and infant feeding practices among Negev Bedouin Arab women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Forman, M R; Hundt, G L; Towne, D; Graubard, B; Sullivan, B; Berendes, H W; Sarov, B; Naggan, L

    1990-03-01

    Four hundred and twelve Bedouin Arab women were interviewed within 48 hours of delivering a newborn in 1982 and two months later to examine the effect of social support during the forty-day postpartum rest period on the incidence of exclusive breast feeding at two months. Whereas the distribution of infant feeding practices at two months did not differ among women with and without support during the "forty days," the number of days of help during the "forty days" was significantly associated with type of feeding at two months. The longer the duration of help, the greater were the odds of maintaining exclusive breast feeding after adjustment for covariates by multinomial logistic regression analysis. The association between duration of help and infant feeding practices at two months was modified by the interview month and the feeding practices of the respondents' primary social supports. More respondents with infants who reached two months of age in May and June were exclusively breast feeding than respondents with infants who reached two months in the hot, dry months of July and August. Also, respondents with sisters-in-law who breast fed alone or in combination with the bottle were feeding their infants in the same way after adjustment for covariates. Given the beneficial effects of breast feeding on infant health and development, these findings identify potential avenues of intervention for programs promoting breast feeding. PMID:2233170

  13. Feed Structure For Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A novel feed structure, for an antenna having a resonant electric field structure, comprising a patch element, an integrated circuit attached to the patch element, at least one inner conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the integrated circuit on a first end of the at least one inner conductor, wherein the at least one inner conductor extends through and is not electrically connected to the patch element, and wherein the at least one inner conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the at least one inner conductor, and an outer conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the patch element on a first end of the outer conductor, wherein the outer conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the outer conductor, and wherein the outer conductor concentrically surrounds the at least one inner conductor from the second end of the at least one inner conductor available for electrical connectivity to the first end of the outer conductor terminating at the patch element.

  14. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  15. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  16. Feeding At-Risk Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Mata B.

    1989-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists working with infants or toddlers with feeding problems should obtain a feeding history, conduct an assessment of feeding practices, set appropriate preliminary and long-range goals, and investigate treatment options and appropriate feeding techniques. Feeding techniques for premature, neurologically impaired, Down…

  17. Feed intake limitation strategies for the growing rabbit: effect on feeding behaviour, welfare, performance, digestive physiology and health: a review.

    PubMed

    Gidenne, T; Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to present the different effects produced by a post-weaning intake limitation strategy on the growing rabbit, now largely used by French professional rabbit breeders. Although a quantitative feed restriction leads to slower growth, feed conversion (FC) is improved, particularly when the rabbits are again fed freely, as compensatory growth occurs. This better FC or the healthy rabbit is because of better digestion resulting from slower passage through the intestine, whereas the digestive physiology is slightly modified (morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, fermentation pattern, microbiota). Meat quality and carcass characteristics are not greatly affected by feed restriction, except for a lower dressing-out percentage. One of the main advantages of limiting post-weaning intake of the rabbit is to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate due to digestive disorders (particularly epizootic rabbit enteropathy syndrome). The consequences for animal welfare are debatable, as feed restriction probably leads to hunger, but it reduces the incidence of digestive troubles after weaning. However, the growing rabbit adapts very well to an intake limitation strategy, without any aggressive behaviour for congener. In conclusion, restriction strategies could improve profitability of rabbit breeding, but they should be adapted to any specific breeding situation, according to the national market, feed prices, etc. PMID:23031513

  18. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    PubMed

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. PMID:26910772

  19. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  20. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  1. Solar photothermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, L. D.

    A solar photothermophotovoltaic (PTPV) process for solar energy conversion is proposed in which concentrated solar radiation impinges on a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell with a back surface reflector. The above band-gap blackbody radiation is converted into electricity, while the below band-gap radiation is reflected back to the blackbody. Computer modeling has shown the PTPV system to be much less sensitive to parasitic losses than a comparable TPV system, and to operate at a significantly lower blackbody absorber/emitter temperature. PTPV efficiency is also shown to be as much as 50 percent higher than that for a comparable photovoltaic system.

  2. Banana meal for feeding pigs: digestive utilization, growth performance and feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Renaudeau, D; Brochain, J; Giorgi, M; Bocage, B; Hery, M; Crantor, E; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Archimède, H

    2014-04-01

    The main objective of the present work was to determine the nutritional value and the strategies of using green banana meal (BM) in growing pigs. Two trials involving a total of 96 growing pigs were designed to study the effect of the harvest stage on the nutritional and energy values of BM (trial 1) and to evaluate the consequence of feeding gradual levels of BM on growth performance and feeding behavior in growing pigs (trial 2). In trial 1, the digestive utilization of three diets including 40% BM were compared with a control (C) soybean meal-corn diet in two batches of 12 pigs. BM was obtained from fruits harvested at 750 degrees-days (DD; early harvesting stage), 900 DD (normal harvesting stage) and 1150 DD (late harvesting stage). In trial 2, 72 Large White pigs were grouped in pens of nine animals and were given ad libitum access to one of the four dietary treatments (two pens/diet) differing from the rate of inclusion of 900 DD BM (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%). The estimated energy apparent digestibility coefficients of BM increased with the harvest stage (75.5%, 80.7% and 83.2% for BM at 750, 900 and 1150 DD, respectively). Digestible energy and metabolizable energy values were higher for BM at 1150 DD (13.56 and 13.05 MJ/kg DM, respectively) than at 900 DD (13.11 and 12.75 MJ/kg DM, respectively) or at 750 DD (12.00 and 11.75 MJ/kg DM, respectively). In trial 2, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected (P>0.05) by the rate of BM inclusion (822 g/day and 2.75 kg/kg on average, respectively). Feed intake and feeding behavior parameters were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments except for the rate of feed ingestion with a lower value for the diet with 40% of BM (27.4 v. 32.2 g/min on average; P<0.01) when compared with the other diets. Results of this study indicate that the energy value of BM increases with the harvest stage and that BM can be incorporated up to 60% in growing finishing pig diets. PMID:24528838

  3. Correlates of household seismic hazard adjustment adoption.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M K; Whitney, D J

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the relationships of self-reported adoption of 12 seismic hazard adjustments (pre-impact actions to reduce danger to persons and property) with respondents' demographic characteristics, perceived risk, perceived hazard knowledge, perceived protection responsibility, and perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments. Consistent with theoretical predictions, perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments differentiated among the adjustments and had stronger correlations with adoption than any of the other predictors. These results identify the adjustments and attributes that emergency managers should address to have the greatest impact on improving household adjustment to earthquake hazard. PMID:10795335

  4. Novel Phased Array Scanning Employing A Single Feed Without Using Individual Phase Shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2012-01-01

    Phased arrays afford many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy, and most of all costly. The high cost mainly originates from the complex feeding structure. This paper proposes a novel feeding scheme to eliminate all phase shifters and achieve scanning via one-dimensional motion. Beam scanning is achieved via a series fed array incorporating feeding transmission lines whose wave velocity can be mechanically adjusted. Along with the line design, ideal element impedances to be used in conjunction with the line are derived. Practical designs are shown which achieve scanning to +/-30deg from boresight. Finally, a prototype is fabricated and measured, demonstrating the concept.

  5. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  6. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for assistance, under the DOE's Industrial Visitor Exchange Program. Pr. Heinz Heinemann (Catalysis), Dr. John Apps (Geochemistry) and Dr. Robert Fulton (Mechanical Engineering) have expressed interest in supporting our request. Pr. Heinemann's recent results on the conversion of Petroleum Coke residues into CO2 and H2 mixtures using highly basic metal oxides catalysts, similar to ours, are very encouraging regarding the possibility of converting the Coke residue on our catalyst into Syngas in the Regenerator/riser, as proposed. To minimize Coke formation in the vapor phase, by the Plasmapyrolytic Methane Conversion reactions, the experimental data of H. Drost et al. (Ref. 12) have been reviewed. Work is underway to design equipment for the safe and non-polluting disposal of the two gaseous product streams of the flow loop. 2 refs.

  7. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  8. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  9. Direct somatic lineage conversion.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Koji; Haag, Daniel; Wernig, Marius

    2015-10-19

    The predominant view of embryonic development and cell differentiation has been that rigid and even irreversible epigenetic marks are laid down along the path of cell specialization ensuring the proper silencing of unrelated lineage programmes. This model made the prediction that specialized cell types are stable and cannot be redirected into other lineages. Accordingly, early attempts to change the identity of somatic cells had little success and was limited to conversions between closely related cell types. Nuclear transplantation experiments demonstrated, however, that specialized cells even from adult mammals can be reprogrammed into a totipotent state. The discovery that a small combination of transcription factors can reprogramme cells to pluripotency without the need of oocytes further supported the view that these epigenetic barriers can be overcome much easier than assumed, but the extent of this flexibility was still unclear. When we showed that a differentiated mesodermal cell can be directly converted to a differentiated ectodermal cell without a pluripotent intermediate, it was suggested that in principle any cell type could be converted into any other cell type. Indeed, the work of several groups in recent years has provided many more examples of direct somatic lineage conversions. Today, the question is not anymore whether a specific cell type can be generated by direct reprogramming but how it can be induced. PMID:26416679

  10. Conversion program in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, E.B.

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  11. Micromechanical power conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noworolski, J. Mark

    A new concept in power conversion, based on electromechanical energy storage, is developed. Mechanical energy storage using Silicon offers a 2 order of magnitude improvement in volumetric energy storage density over conventional approaches using magnetic components. Two broad classes of electromechanical power converter topologies are introduced and analyzed: resonant and boost. Both are shown to scale well to smaller electromechanical device dimensions. A novel self-aligned micromachined polysilicon on nitride (SAMPSON) process flow was developed to fabricate mumechanical devices suitable for the boost conversion function. The process utility includes simplified fabrication of conventional surface micromachined resonators. Calculations showed that well-designed boost converters can achieve step-up factors in excess of 10 while using only a single mumechanical device. Boost converter tests utilizing discrete devices and the fabricated mumechanical elements demonstrated a step-up factor of 1.7. Measurements conducted on representative test devices indicate that power densities an order of magnitude higher than those in conventional power converters are attainable.

  12. Mode conversion in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) can convert to much shorter wavelength modes such as ion Bernstein waves (IBW) and ion cyclotron waves (ICW) [1]. These modes are potentially useful for plasma control through the generation of localized currents and sheared flows. As part of the SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions project, the AORSA global-wave solver [2] has been ported to the new, dual-core Cray XT-3 (Jaguar) at ORNL where it demonstrates excellent scaling with the number of processors. Preliminary calculations using 4096 processors have allowed the first full-wave simulations of mode conversion in ITER. Mode conversion from the fast wave to the ICW is observed in mixtures of deuterium, tritium and helium3 at 53 MHz. The resulting flow velocity and electric field shear will be calculated. [1] F.W. Perkins, Nucl. Fusion 17, 1197 (1977). [2] E.F. Jaeger, L.A. Berry, J.R. Myra, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 195001-1 (2003).

  13. Feeding the future.

    PubMed

    Bender, W; Smith, M

    1997-03-01

    This article discusses the unequal distribution of food within and among countries of the world, poverty as the main cause of hunger, the patterns of population growth, and future prospects. The evidence reveals the potential for reaching limits of agricultural expansion. Widespread environmental destruction suggests that agricultural lands are declining. Current production patterns may not be sustainable. "Population growth is the single largest determinant of future needs." Farmers of the world's poorest regions must produce food to meet the needs of a doubled population by 2050. The 1996 World Food Summit urged that agricultural policies emphasize environmentally sustainable production methods and a wider variety of crops that would include sorghum and millet. In the early 1990s, 40% of Africa's population was food-energy deficient. Africa has some of the highest population growth rates. Fertility stands at about 6 children/woman. Even with reduced fertility, the African population is expected to double to 22% of world population by 2050. The East Asian population, which is dominated by China, is expected to reach 2.2 billion by 2050. South Asia includes some of the poorest and most densely populated countries; its population is expected to reach 2.2-3.3 billion by 2050. 43% of the malnourished population during 1990-92 lived in sub-Saharan Africa, 22% lived in South Asia, 16% lived in East and Southeast Asia, 15% lived in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 12% lived in the Near East and North Africa. The proportions of underweight children included 58% in South Asia, 30% in sub-Saharan Africa, 25% in the Near East and North Africa, 24% in East and Southeast Asia, and 12% in Latin America and the Caribbean. If everyone adopted a vegetarian diet and no food were wasted, there would be enough food to feed 10 billion people. Malnourishment has the harshest effects on children, rural populations, the growing urban poor, and victims of natural disasters. PMID

  14. Infant feeding in India.

    PubMed

    1984-09-15

    The report of a survey organized by the Nutrition Foundation of India indicated that, although breastfeeding is the traditional standard of infant nutrition in India, good infant feeding practices depend on education provided by health services. Interviews with 4926 mothers with infants under 1 year indicated that over 97% motherrs suckle their infants, and 75% or more in most centers are still breastfeeding when the infant is 1 year old. At age 5 months 30-40% of infants are fed entirely from the breast; at age 1, 5-10% were getting no other food. Of the very small number of mothers who never breastfed their infants, most belonged to the highest income group. Causes of lactation failure in India and other countries seem to be social and psychological and not physiological. Most Indian babies grow well at first, but by the age of 6 months are growth retarded. Growth retardation may be caused by insufficient breast milk and repeated gastrointestinal and respiratory infections associated with poor hygiene and abject poverty, both more prevalent in Calcutta than in Bombay and Madras. Because of risk of infection, dietary supplements should be given to the mother (rather than to the infant) during the 1st 6 months of lactation. Traditional cow and buffalo milk was the main supplement given to 1955 of infants surveyed, but 1531 were given commerical milk formulas. Commercial milk was used mainly by the wealthy in big cities but some was used in rural areas, where some of the poorest mothers spend 10% of family income on commerical milk. It is important that fresh animal milk be made available to the poor at reasonable prices. Indian mothers are reluctant to give older infants any normal family foods except cereals. Manuals should be prepared for use by health workers to teach practical nutrition education in different regions. PMID:6147646

  15. Infant feeding practices and obesity.

    PubMed

    Himes, J H

    1979-08-01

    Selected assumptions regarding associations between artificial feeding and infantile obesity are examined. Although some artificial baby foods (desserts, meats, egg yolks) have considerably greater caloric density than breast milk, a large class of baby foods and most milks and formulas are comparable to breast milk in caloric density. The intake of infant foods seems to be related more to caloric density than volume. Modern day artificial feeding in developed countries tends to produce larger weight gains than breast feeding, although no good data exist to evaluate the composition of these weight gains. Many more data from well planned studies are needed to fully elucidate possible mechanisms of infantile obesity. PMID:458075

  16. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ... use too. If your baby needs surgery after breast-feeding has been established, you can pump your breasts ...

  17. Effects of temperature and feeding frequency on ingestion and growth for rare minnow.

    PubMed

    Wu, Benli; Luo, Si; Wang, Jianwei

    2015-03-01

    Water temperature and feeding frequency are two important components in feeding strategy that directly affect the growth and physiology of fishes. The rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) has been cultured for decades in the laboratory as an experimental fish and is widely used in environmental science research. An 8-week factorial feeding experiment was conducted on juvenile rare minnows to investigate the interaction between water temperature (ambient, 20, 24, 28°C) and feeding frequency (one, two, three meals per day) on growth performance, feed utilization, gut evacuation and adaptability to variable environmental conditions. Groups fed three times a day at 28°C attained the maximum final body weight, followed by those fed two times a day at 24°C. There was an obvious curvilinear relationship between specific growth rate and temperature. Increased temperature significantly promoted food consumption and growth rate, but there were no benefits on growth by feeding multiple times at temperatures of 18°C or lower. Temperature and feeding frequency also affected gut evacuation rates: high temperature and frequency lead to fast evacuation. These results show that the optimal temperature and feeding frequency for rare minnow is 24°C and two meals a day for maximal growth, feeding efficiency, and daily management. The findings also suggest that the rare minnow has the ability to rapidly adapt to changing culture conditions by adjusting physiological activities in the short term. PMID:25542891

  18. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between growth and feed intake curves and feed efficiency and amino acid requirements in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Saintilan, R; Brossard, L; Vautier, B; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of feed efficiency in pigs has been achieved essentially by increasing lean growth rate, which resulted in lower feed intake (FI). The objective was to evaluate the impact of strategies for improving feed efficiency on the dynamics of FI and growth in growing pigs to revisit nutrient recommendations and strategies for feed efficiency improvement. In 2010, three BWs, at 35±2, 63±9 and 107±7 kg, and daily FI during this period were recorded in three French test stations on 379 Large White and 327 French Landrace from maternal pig populations and 215 Large White from a sire population. Individual growth and FI model parameters were obtained with the InraPorc® software and individual nutrient requirements were computed. The model parameters were explored according to feed efficiency as measured by residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR). Animals were separated in groups of better feed efficiency (RFI- or FCR-), medium feed efficiency and poor feed efficiency. Second, genetic relationships between feed efficiency and model parameters were estimated. Despite similar average daily gains (ADG) during the test for all RFI groups, RFI- pigs had a lower initial growth rate and a higher final growth rate compared with other pigs. The same initial growth rate was found for all FCR groups, but FCR- pigs had significantly higher final growth rates than other pigs, resulting in significantly different ADG. Dynamic of FI also differed between RFI or FCR groups. The calculated digestible lysine requirements, expressed in g/MJ net energy (NE), showed the same trends for RFI or FCR groups: the average requirements for the 25% most efficient animals were 13% higher than that of the 25% least efficient animals during the whole test, reaching 0.90 to 0.95 g/MJ NE at the beginning of the test, which is slightly greater than usual feed recommendations for growing pigs. Model parameters were moderately heritable (0.30±0.13 to 0.56±0.13), except for the

  19. Effects of genotype and stocking density on broiler performance under three feeding regimes.

    PubMed

    Ligaraba, Tshililo Joyce; Benyi, Kow; Baloyi, Joseph Jumu

    2016-08-01

    Ross 308 and Cobb Avian 48 broilers were used in a 49-day study. The effects of genotype, stocking density, and limited-time feeding on growth performance and carcass characteristics were investigated. Overall, Ross consumed more feed, gained more body weight, and was heavier at marketing age than Cobb. Ross also had a higher drumstick percentage, but the percentages of the other carcass parts were similar in the two genotypes. Birds reared at the stocking density of 30 kg BW/m(2) gained more body weight and were heavier at marketing than those raised at 40 kg BW/m(2), but both groups consumed similar quantities of feed and had similar carcass percentages. Neither genotype nor stocking density influenced feed conversion ratio and mortality rate, but genotype x stocking density interaction significantly affected feed consumption and mortality rate. The feed-restricted birds consumed less feed, gained less weight, were lighter at market age, and had lower percentages of breast, neck, and heart than the full-fed birds. Feed restriction also significantly lowered mortality rate but had insignificant effects on feed conversion ratio and percentages of carcass, breast, back, drumstick, neck, wing, gizzard, heart, liver, and abdominal fat. For profitable poultry production in the tropics and subtropics, it is recommended that Ross 308 raised at the stocking density of 30 kg BW/m(2) and subjected to 10-h daily feed removal from 7 to 35 days of age in a 49-day production period be considered. PMID:27221242

  20. Adjusting the Contour of Reflector Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Giebler, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Postfabrication adjustment of contour of panels for reflector, such as parabolic reflector for radio antennas, possible with simple mechanism consisting of threaded stud, two nuts, and flexure. Contours adjusted manually.

  1. 48 CFR 1450.103 - Contract adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract adjustments. 1450.103 Section 1450.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT... Contract adjustments....

  2. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  3. Breast feeding pattern in neonates.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S P; Sharma, V K; Kumar, V

    1994-09-01

    The present study comprised 100 mothers of newborn babies with regard to their belief and practices about lactation. A vast majority (98.2%) of the mothers were breast feeding, 87.9% mothers used prelacteal feeds of one sort or the other. Only 0.5% breast fed their babies within 6 hours and nearly 50% started after 48 hours. Colostrum was discarded by 82.9% of mother and nearly 73% wanted to continue breast feeding beyond 1 year. The age of weaning preferred was after 1 year by 91%. Only 24.7% mothers had undergone antenatal check ups. Hence, much needs to be done with regards to proper antenatal care and advice to discourage wrong and harmful feeding practices. PMID:7883365

  4. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  5. 76 FR 4395 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Postal Service Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to establish price adjustments for all market... with the Commission announcing price adjustments, effective April 17, 2011, affecting all...

  6. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  7. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  8. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  9. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  10. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  11. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  12. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  13. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  14. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  15. Adjustment to College in Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine college adjustment in students reporting an ADHD diagnosis and the effect of medication treatment on students' adjustment. Method: 1,648 first-semester freshmen attending a public and a private university completed a Web-based survey to examine their adjustment to college. Results: Compared with 200 randomly selected control…

  16. Dimensions of Adjustment among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra

    1998-01-01

    Examines academic, social, and personal-emotional adjustment, as well as institutional attachment for women (N=198) attending a predominantly white coeducational research university. Significant main effects were found on academic achievement for year in college. Students differed on personal-emotional adjustment by race. Academic adjustment and…

  17. Laser plasmadynamic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1976-01-01

    The generation of electrons ions by interacting an intense laser beam with cesium vapor is considered. Theoretical calculation shows that the conversion efficiency is as high as 40 percent if the entire photon energy is utilized in ionizing the cesium vapor that is generated initially by the incoming laser beam. An output voltage is expected to be generated across two electrodes, one of which is the liquid cesium, by keeping the other electrode at a different work function. Evaluation of the laser plasmadynamic (LPD) converter was performed using pulsed ruby and Nd-glass lasers. Although the results obtained to date indicate an efficiency smaller than that of theoretical predictions, an unoptimized LPD converter did demonstrate the capability of converting laser energy at large power levels. The limitations in the performance may by due to converter geometry, the types of lasers used, and other limitations inherent to the cesium plasma.

  18. Optomechanical down-conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeblacher, Simon; Hofer, Sebastian; Wieczorek, Witlef; Vanner, Michael; Hammerer, Klemens; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2011-03-01

    One of the central interactions in quantum optics is two-mode squeezing, also known as down-conversion. It has been used in a multitude of pioneering experiments to demonstrate non-classical states of light and it is at the heart of generating quantum entanglement in optical fields. Here we demonstrate first experimental results towards the optomechanical analogue, in which an optical and a mechanical mode interact via a two-mode squeezing operation. In addition, we make use of the fact that large optomechanical coupling strengths provide access to an interaction regime beyond the rotating wave approximation. This allows for simultaneous cooling of the mechanical mode, which will eventually enable the preparation of pure initial mechanical states and is hence an important precondition to achieve the envisioned optomechanical entanglement.

  19. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, J. L.; LaPointe, M. A.; Ganguly, A. K.

    1999-05-07

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250-350 kV, 20-30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself.

  20. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, J.L.; LaPointe, M.A.; Ganguly, A.K.; LaPointe, M.A.

    1999-05-01

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250{endash}350 kV, 20{endash}30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Automated FORTRAN conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aharonian, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    The most pratical solution to the conversion of FORTRAN to other programming languages which STO and a few others have adopted, uses an intermediate language that is easy to translate FORTRAN into, and allows for source codes in other languages to be generated automatically. The intermediate language is the union of all other programming languages (and the trick is to create a useful union) with some extensions that reflect the nature of the algorithms. The benefits of this approach are many. First the original FORTRAN program has to be rewritten only once, and then only parts of the program: most FORTRAN code passes through without and change (i.e., assignment and simple IF statements). Software tools are provided to ease this initial translation. Once in the intermediate language, the algorithm can then be obtained in any other language automatically. An example of a subroutine from the Rispack library in ten different languages is given.

  2. Power conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  3. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  4. Storage and feeding of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenike, A. W.; Carson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reliable feeding of coal from storage bins to process requires the knowledge of the behavior of coal during flow. The study of the flow of bulk solids was undertaken in the 1950's and led to the development of flow ability testing equipment and of the Mass Flow concept of design for reliable flow. The theory has since been expanded to two-phase, solids-gas system, and has found world wide application in the design of storage and feeding systems.

  5. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  6. Feeding the Monster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  7. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  8. 24 CFR 882.123 - Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section 23 monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing Annual Adjustment Factor (24 CFR part 888) most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion of Section 23 Units to... Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 882.123 Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section...

  9. Effects of Social Cognitive Demand on Theory of Mind in Conversations of Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byom, Lindsey J.; Turkstra, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: A requisite skill for successful conversation is the ability to adjust one's language according to contextual factors. Aims: This study examined one aspect of language use in context--the use of mental-state terms, i.e. words that communicate thoughts, beliefs or feelings--in conversations between adult males with and without traumatic…

  10. COOPERATION MAINTAINED BY FITNESS ADJUSTMENT

    PubMed Central

    TAYLOR, CHRISTINE; CHEN, JANET; IWASA, YOH

    2008-01-01

    Questions Whether or not cooperation can be enhanced if players with a performance higher than the mean are forced to pay an additional cost in each generation? Mathematical Methods Analysis of replicator dynamics with mutation. The ESS distribution of cooperation level is obtained. Key Assumptions Players engage in cooperative dilemma game, and at the end of each generation, those with higher performance than the mean are forced to pay additional cost. Conclusions Without mutation, the entire population eventually conforms to a single cooperation level determined by the initial composition of the population. With mutation, there is an equilibrium distribution of cooperation level, which has a peak at an intermediate level of cooperation. Whether it is institutionalized such as tax or just a social custom, fitness adjustment based ultimately on people’s emtion of “envy” is able to maintain cooperation. PMID:19079742

  11. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-11-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  12. Vehicle conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    The alternative fuels considered are compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and methanol; vehicles were required to operate in a hybrid or dual-fuel gasoline/alternative fuel mode. Economic feasibility was determined by comparing the costs of continued use of gasoline fuel with the use of alternative fuel and retrofitted equipment. Differences in the amounts of future expenditures are adjusted by means of a total life-cycle costing. All fuels studied are technically feasible to allow a retrofit conversion to hybrid gasoline/alternative fuel operation except for methanol. Conversion to LPG is not recommended for vehicles with more than 100,000 km (60,000 miles) of prior use. Methanol conversion is not recommended for vehicles with more than 50,00 km (30,000 miles).

  13. Influence of chick hatch time and access to feed on broiler muscle development.

    PubMed

    Powell, D J; Velleman, S G; Cowieson, A J; Singh, M; Muir, W I

    2016-06-01

    The effect of hatch time and the timing of access to feed on growth rate and breast muscle development was assessed in Ross 308 broiler chickens. Chicks were removed from the incubator upon hatching, and classified as early (EH), midterm (MH), or late (LH) hatchers, based on the duration of their incubation. Feed and water were available either immediately at hatch, or 24 h after the conclusion of the hatch period. Hatchling body weight was uniform regardless of hatch time. Subsequently, bodyweight was increased in EH compared to LH birds following immediate access to feed, until 7 d in female, and 14 d in male birds. Relative breast weight was increased until 28 d in birds with immediate access to feed, and also EH and MH birds regardless of access to feed. Pectoralis major muscle morphology and expression of the myogenic regulatory factors myogenic determination factor 1 (MYOD1) and myogenin, and the proteoglycans syndecan-4, glypican-1, and decorin were measured. Myogenin and glypican-1 stimulate satellite cell (SC) differentiation. Glypican-1 expression was unaffected by treatment. A late increase in myogenin expression was observed in MH birds with delayed access to feed, and all LH birds. Syndecan-4 and MYOD1, expressed in proliferating SC, and decorin, which stimulates satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, were variably upregulated in the first wk posthatch in the same birds. These data suggest SC were activated and proliferating, but had reduced differentiation in later hatching and feed deprived birds. Conversely, EH birds with immediate access to feed had maximal myofiber width at 7 d, while fiber width was increased in birds with immediate access to feed compared to those with delayed access to feed through 40 d of age. These results demonstrate that delaying chick access to feed for 24 h upon removal from the incubator will impair muscle growth. Additionally, hatch time influences muscle development, with accelerated muscle growth in EH and

  14. Adjustable wideband reflective converter based on cut-wire metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linbo; Zhou, Peiheng; Chen, Haiyan; Lu, Haipeng; Xie, Jianliang; Deng, Longjiang

    2015-10-01

    We present the design, analysis, and measurement of a broadband reflective converter using a cut-wire (CW) metasurface. Based on the characteristics of LC resonances, the proposed reflective converter can rotate a linearly polarized (LP) wave into its cross-polarized wave at three resonance frequencies, or convert the LP wave to a circularly polarized (CP) wave at two other resonance frequencies. Furthermore, the broad-band properties of the polarization conversion can be sustained when the incident wave is a CP wave. The polarization states can be adjusted easily by changing the length and width of the CW. The measured results show that a polarization conversion ratio (PCR) over 85% can be achieved from 6.16 GHz to 16.56 GHz for both LP and CP incident waves. The origin of the polarization conversion is interpreted by the theory of microwave antennas, with equivalent impedance and electromagnetic (EM) field distributions. With its simple geometry and multiple broad frequency bands, the proposed converter has potential applications in the area of selective polarization control.

  15. Dust suppression in swine feed using soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Mankell, K O; Janni, K A; Walker, R D; Wilson, M E; Pettigrew, J E; Jacobson, L D; Wilcke, W F

    1995-04-01

    Dust generation from swine feed (corn-soybean meal diet) treated with soybean oil was investigated using a cement mixer in a plywood box. Airborne total dust concentrations in the box were measured gravimetrically using a vacuum pump and filters while 12-kg feed samples were constantly mixed. The treatment factors were soybean oil concentration (0, 1, and 3%), corn bulk density (normal, 730 kg/m3 and low, 600 kg/m3), time of oil addition (before vs after grinding the corn), and storage time (0, 7, and 14 d). The feed was a mixture of soybean meal, base mix, and adjusted amounts of ground corn and soybean oil. Adding soybean oil after grinding at 1 and 3% levels to feed made with normal-bulk density corn suppressed total dust generation (3.39 and .99 mg/m3, respectively) (P < .001) compared with the no oil treatment (29.1 mg/m3). The 3% soybean oil treatment suppressed dust generation (.99 mg/m3) more than the 1% soybean oil treatment (3.39 mg/m3) (P < .001). Adding soybean oil after grinding the corn suppressed dust generation more than adding the oil to the corn before grinding for every oil level (P < .001). More dust was generated by feed made from low-bulk density corn than by feed made with normal-bulk density corn at every oil level (P < .001). There was no evidence of any storage time or treatment x storage time interactions. PMID:7628976

  16. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hady, Doaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding) appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF) is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%). The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0%) and mother's/mother in law's advice (58.3%). The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father's education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education. PMID:24895560

  17. Residual feed intake: a nutritional tool for genetic improvement.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Sarmento, José Lindenberg Rocha; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Paula, Ney Rômulo Oliveira; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; do Rêgo, Wagner Martins Fontes

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this bibliographical study was to provide information about residual feed intake (RFI), a new criterion used in the selection of beef cattle for growth rate, food ingestion, and feed efficiency. RFI is calculated as the difference between real consumption and the quantity of food an animal is expected to eat based on its mean live weight and rate of weight gain. In studies of RFI, many speculations are made among researchers about the reliability of this criterion. However, there is a high genetic correlation with characteristics related to post-weaning consumption and maturity, indicating that the biological processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in young animals are similar to the processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in animals of greater age. In contrast to feed conversion, selection based on RFI seems to select for lower rates of consumption and lower animal maintenance requirements without changing adult weight or weight gain. Therefore, we conclude that the data indicate that there are extraordinary benefits to be gained from changing the goals of selection from increased weight gain to improved nutritional efficiency. Given the importance of animal production for economic development in Brazil choosing the best selection goals for livestock improvement is essential. To include an index of feed efficiency in future goals would be desirable, and RFI may play a part in this if economic methods of implementation can be developed. PMID:24174268

  18. [The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding].

    PubMed

    Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats. PMID:18457178

  19. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, David S.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  20. How the pilidium larva feeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

  1. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. PMID:22748607

  2. Growth and Feed Efficiency of Channel × Blue Catfish Hybrids Stocked at Various Densities and Fed Once or Twice Daily in Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking density and feeding frequency on the growth, net yield, and feed conversion of hybrid catfish (female channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish I. furcatus). In experiment 1, hybrid catfish fingerlings with a mean initi...

  3. Effects of increased feeding frequency on growth of hybrid bluegill in ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sager, C.R.; Winkelman, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Increased feeding frequency has been used in aquaculture to increase growth and food conversion efficiency, and recent laboratory studies have indicated that feeding frequency could be used to reduce the size variation within groups of hybrid bluegills (F1: male bluegill Lepomis macrochirus x female green sunfish L. cyanellus). Our experiment evaluated the growth of pond-reared hybrid bluegills fed equal amounts of food either once or four times per day. We were particularly interested in reducing the size variation and increasing the percentage of harvestable-size fish (???110 g). After 194 d, there was no significant effect of feeding frequency on growth, food conversion efficiency, size variation, or percentage of harvestable-size fish.

  4. Feed your head: neurodevelopmental control of feeding and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel A; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  5. Feed Your Head: Neurodevelopmental Control of Feeding and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel A.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  6. Chiropractic management of breast-feeding difficulties: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Holleman, Annique C.; Nee, John; Knaap, Simone F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to discuss a chiropractic case of management and resolution of breast-feeding difficulties. Clinical Features The case involves an 8-day-old baby unable to breast-feed since 4 days old. Initial examination revealed cervical, cranial, and sacral restrictions. She was diagnosed with craniocervical syndrome by a doctor of chiropractic. Intervention and Outcome Following history and examination, the infant received gentle chiropractic manipulation based on clinical findings. Immediate improvement and complete resolution of the nursing problems were observed after 3 treatments over 14 days. Conclusion The results of this case suggest that neuromusculoskeletal dysfunction may influence the ability of an infant to suckle successfully and that intervention via chiropractic adjustments may result in improving the infant's ability to suckle efficiently. PMID:22014911

  7. Challenges and opportunities for photochemists on the verge of solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Chu, Cheng-Che; Bassani, Dario M

    2008-05-01

    Has photochemistry missed the boat on solar energy conversion? Certainly not, but it is time to reach out and make a difference if we do not want to have to choose between feeding our families or our thirst for fuel. Compared to other initiatives, such as biofuels or nuclear fusion, direct conversion of solar energy into electricity or fuels is lagging behind in terms of funding, and this is slowing progress on overcoming critical bottlenecks. This perspective outlines some of the key fundamental issues in solar energy conversion based on organic photovoltaic devices or artificial photosynthesis where being a photochemist can make a difference. PMID:18465006

  8. Optimization of regimes for the feed of highly concentrated culm-anthracite coal dust for burning in a TPP-210A boiler

    SciTech Connect

    L.V. Golyshev; G.A. Dovgoteles

    2007-05-15

    Results are presented for regime adjustment of feed systems for a TPP-210A boiler for the burning of highly concentrated culm-anthracite coal dust. As compared with nonoptimal regimes, optimal regimes of high-concentration-feed systems improve the economy of the boiler by 1.7% on average.

  9. PDB to AMPL Conversion

    2002-09-01

    PDB to AMPL Conversion was written to convert protein data base files to AMPL files. The protein data bases on the internet contain a wealth of information about the structue and makeup of proteins. Each file contains information derived by one or more experiments and contains information on how the experiment waw performed, the amino acid building blocks of each chain, and often the three-dimensional structure of the protein extracted from the experiments. The waymore » a protein folds determines much about its function. Thus, studying the three-dimensional structure of the protein is of great interest. Analysing the contact maps is one way to examine the structure. A contact map is a graph which has a linear back bone of amino acids for nodes (i.e., adjacent amino acids are always connected) and vertices between non-adjacent nodes if they are close enough to be considered in contact. If the graphs are similar then the folds of the protein and their function should also be similar. This software extracts the contact maps from a protein data base file and puts in into AMPL data format. This format is designed for use in AMPL, a programming language for simplifying linear programming formulations.« less

  10. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  11. Static Scale Conversion (SSC)

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-19

    The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.

  12. Microbial conversion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to describe in detail the degradation of coals by fungi and microbes, to expand the range of applicability of the process to include new microbes and other coal types, to identify the means by which biosolubilization of coal is accomplished, and to explore means to enhance the rates and extent of coal bioconversion. The project was initiated in a response to the discovery by Dr. Martin Cohen at the University of Hartford, of a fungal strain of Coriolus versicolor that would render a solid coal substance, leonardite, into a liquid product. The project has identified the principal agent of leonardite solubilization as a powerful metal chelator, most likely a fungal-produced siderophore. Another nonlaccase enzyme has also been identified as a unique biosolubilizing agent produced by C. versicolor. Assays were developed for the quantitative determination of biological coal conversion, and for the determination of potency of biosolubilizing agent. Screening studies uncovered several microbial organisms capable of coal biodegradation, and led to the discovery that prolonged heating in air at the moderate temperature of 150{degree}C allowed the biodegradation of Illinois {number sign}6 coal to material soluble in dilute base. Chemical studies showed that leonardite biosolubilization was accompanied by relatively small change in composition, while solubilization of Illinois {number sign}6 coal involves considerable oxidation of the coal. 24 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Static Scale Conversion (SSC)

    2007-01-19

    The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle inmore » motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.« less

  14. GPU color space conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Patrick; Vondran, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Tetrahedral interpolation is commonly used to implement continuous color space conversions from sparse 3D and 4D lookup tables. We investigate the implementation and optimization of tetrahedral interpolation algorithms for GPUs, and compare to the best known CPU implementations as well as to a well known GPU-based trilinear implementation. We show that a 500 NVIDIA GTX-580 GPU is 3x faster than a 1000 Intel Core i7 980X CPU for 3D interpolation, and 9x faster for 4D interpolation. Performance-relevant GPU attributes are explored including thread scheduling, local memory characteristics, global memory hierarchy, and cache behaviors. We consider existing tetrahedral interpolation algorithms and tune based on the structure and branching capabilities of current GPUs. Global memory performance is improved by reordering and expanding the lookup table to ensure optimal access behaviors. Per multiprocessor local memory is exploited to implement optimally coalesced global memory accesses, and local memory addressing is optimized to minimize bank conflicts. We explore the impacts of lookup table density upon computation and memory access costs. Also presented are CPU-based 3D and 4D interpolators, using SSE vector operations that are faster than any previously published solution.

  15. The convenience of breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Tompson, M

    1971-08-01

    Immediately after delivery when the baby is put to breast, the simplicity of breast feeding becomes apparent. There is no concern about the milk not agreeing with the baby, and if he is kept with his mother so she can feed him on demand, the baby will probably gain more weight than if he were on formula. The mother's milk is always right and is always there. Traveling is convenient if clothes are worn that make discreet nursing possible; a 2-piece outfit such as a blouse and a skirt works well. A rest room or a dressing room can also be used for nursing privacy. A diaper or little blanket thrown over the baby can be a casual cover-up if needed. The nursing mother has no bottles to carry around and no fears of running out of supplies. A study by Spock found that mothers of twins who were breast feeding were better organized than those who were bottle feeding. Although the breast feeding mother is tied down to being a mother of her baby, she grows in discovery of her importance to her baby. Weaning is a gradual process. As the baby nurses less, the mother's milk supply decreases. Even after a baby has been weaned, he might need an occasional nursing to assuage a trying experience like a bump or an illness. PMID:4935488

  16. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)—carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

  17. Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.

    PubMed

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

  18. Record Conversion at Oregon State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Deane

    1985-01-01

    Describes the conversion of card catalog records at William Jasper Kerr Library, Oregon State University, to an online system. Discussion covers the use of OCLC and student assistants, procedures and specifications, and problems associated with massive retrospective conversion needs and uncertain budget allocations. Eight sources are recommended.…

  19. Career Conversations in Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittendorff, Kariene; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine career conversations between teachers and students in competence-based vocational education in the Netherlands. A total of 32 career conversations were observed and analysed with respect to four elements: content, teacher activities, student activities and relationship. Results showed that career…

  20. Children's Understanding of Conversational Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Daniel J.; Camras, Linda A.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the development of awareness of conversational principles in preschool, first-, and third-grade children by presenting them with short stories ending with a verbal statement by a story character. Results suggest that children's understanding of conversational principles improves considerably between preschool and first grade.…

  1. Faculty Meetings: Hidden Conversational Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    In the everydayness of faculty meetings, collegial conversations mirror distinctive dynamics and practices, which either enhance or undercut organizational effectiveness. A cluster of conversational practices affect how colleagues connect, engage, interact, and influence others during faculty meetings in diverse educational settings. The…

  2. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  3. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  4. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Doran, Carolina; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  5. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, Claire; Couture, Toby D.; Cory, Karlynn S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.

  6. Variable feed rate mechanism for fluidized bed asbestos generators

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.G.; Gearhart, J.M.; Lippmann, M.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive dust feed mechanism has been designed for use with a two-phase fluidized bed generator (FBG). The mechanism is especially useful for generating asbestos aerosols, but may be used with other dusts as well. Using this system, a steady state concentration (39.1 fibers/cc > 5 ..mu..m in length +/- 6.2%) of asbestos aerosol was maintained in an inhalation chamber for five hours. In addition, FBG output concentration was easily adjusted and quickly equilibrated (within 10 minutes). The system provides a good technique for generating asbestos aerosols for day-long animal exposures.

  7. Beta-carotene conversion to vitamin A decreases as the dietary dose increases in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that high doses of B-carotene limit its conversion to vitamin A, yet this effect has not been well established in humans. A feeding study was conducted in which volunteers consumed two doses of deuterium labeled B-carotene on two occasions, with B-carotene and vitamin A respon...

  8. Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Wingfield, Jr., Robert C.; Braslaw, Jacob; Gealer, Roy L.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weight olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

  9. Studying the conversion of coals and sludges in superheated steam flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, A. R.; Alekseev, M. V.; Sorokin, A. L.; Pribaturin, N. A.; Kagakin, E. I.; Shevyrev, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Results from work on experimentally studying and numerically simulating gasification of lowgrade coals and wastes generated from the coal-mining industry by means of steam conversion are presented. The mass concentrations of the gas phase components H2 and CO obtained at different values of the steam flowrate-to-initial material feed ratio are determined from the calculation results.

  10. Beyond ketonization: selective conversion of carboxylic acids to olefins over balanced Lewis acid-base pairs.

    PubMed

    Baylon, Rebecca A L; Sun, Junming; Martin, Kevin J; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Wang, Yong

    2016-04-11

    We report the direct conversion of mixed carboxylic acids to C-C olefins with up to 60 mol% carbon yield through cascade (cross) ketonization, (cross) aldolization and self-deoxygenation reactions. Co-feeding hydrogen provides an additional ketone hydrogenation/dehydration pathway to a wider range of olefins. PMID:26898532

  11. Enhancing alfalfa conversion efficiencies for sugar recovery and ethanol production by altering lignin composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has potential utility as an energy crop for conversion to biofuels because it is already produced commercially, grows as a perennial, increases soil nitrogen, and the protein enriched leaves can be marketed as a co-product for animal feed. In this paper, the biomass proc...

  12. Conversion of carbon dioxide to value-added chemicals in atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulussen, Sabine; Verheyde, Bert; Tu, Xin; De Bie, Christophe; Martens, Tom; Petrovic, Dragana; Bogaerts, Annemie; Sels, Bert

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work consists of the evaluation of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges for the conversion of greenhouse gases into useful compounds. Therefore, pure CO2 feed flows are administered to the discharge zone at varying discharge frequency, power input, gas temperature and feed flow rates, aiming at the formation of CO and O2. The discharge obtained in CO2 is characterized as a filamentary mode with a microdischarge zone in each half cycle of the applied voltage. It is shown that the most important parameter affecting the CO2-conversion levels is the gas flow rate. At low flow rates, both the conversion and the CO-yield are significantly higher. In addition, also an increase in the gas temperature and the power input give rise to higher conversion levels, although the effect on the CO-yield is limited. The optimum discharge frequency depends on the power input level and it cannot be unambiguously stated that higher frequencies give rise to increased conversion levels. A maximum CO2 conversion of 30% is achieved at a flow rate of 0.05 L min-1, a power density of 14.75 W cm-3 and a frequency of 60 kHz. The most energy efficient conversions are achieved at a flow rate of 0.2 L min-1, a power density of 11 W cm-3 and a discharge frequency of 30 kHz.

  13. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-01-01

    The design and performance of the following coplanar waveguide (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and printed dipole arrays is presented: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW (GCPW)/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  14. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following coplanar waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  15. Apparatus for continuous feed material melting

    DOEpatents

    Surma, Jeffrey E.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention is a melter housing having a pretreat chamber heated with a feed material heater that is partially isolated from a melter chamber. The method of the present invention has the steps of introducing feed material into a pretreat chamber and heating the feed material to a softening temperature of the feed material, and passing the pretreated feed material to a melter chamber.

  16. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following Coplanar Waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/Microstrip Line feed; (2) CPW/Balanced Stripline feed; (3) CPW/Slotline feed; (4) Grounded CPW/Balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/Slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  17. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-09-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following coplanar waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  18. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-08-01

    The design and performance of the following coplanar waveguide (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and printed dipole arrays is presented: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW (GCPW)/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  19. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-09-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following Coplanar Waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/Microstrip Line feed; (2) CPW/Balanced Stripline feed; (3) CPW/Slotline feed; (4) Grounded CPW/Balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/Slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  20. Breast Feeding in Kingston, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally M.; Back, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out on 300 Kingston infants born at the University Hospital of the West Indies. The method of milk feeding and the reasons given by the mothers for beginning bottle feeding were recorded. Other factors influencing the incidence of breast feeding were examined. Complementing in hospital, maternal employment, improving socio-economic status, advertising, and general misinformation were considered important. A higher incidence of gastro-enteritis was found in the first 4 months of life among partly or wholly bottle-fed babies than among breast-fed babies. Weight increments were calculated for the first 3 months of life. A higher proportion of infants with increments in the lowest 25% were bottle fed than those infants with increments in the remaining 75%. PMID:5464065

  1. [Promotion program for breast feeding in Poland. II. Analysis of the breast feeding situation in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mikiel-Kostyra, K

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of breast-feeding situation in Poland was based on three kinds of nation-wide surveys conducted in 1988: newborn feeding and breast feeding routines in maternity wards epidemiology of breast-feeding and other feeding methods in first six months of infant life KAP study among MCH professionals The major findings of the surveys were: conflicting with lactation maternity wards routines especially: very initiation of breast-feeding, administration of liquids and formulas, rigid feeding schedule, separation of newborns from the mothers too early supplantation of breast-feeding lack of current breast-feeding knowledge among MCH professionals. PMID:8359714

  2. Cell Biology Symposium: genetics of feed efficiency in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Berry, D P; Crowley, J J

    2013-04-01

    Increasing food production for the growing human population off a constraining land base will require greater efficiency of production. Genetic improvement of feed efficiency in cattle, which is cumulative and permanent, is one likely vehicle to achieving efficiency gains. The objective of this review is to summarize genetic parameters for feed efficiency traits in dairy and beef cattle and also to address some of the misconceptions associated with feed efficiency in these sectors, as well as discuss the potential use of feed efficiency in breeding programs. A meta-analysis of up to 39 scientific publications in growing cattle clearly showed that genetic variation in feed efficiency exists with a pooled heritability for residual feed intake (RFI) and feed conversion efficiency of 0.33 ± 0.01 (range of 0.07 to 0.62) and 0.23 ± 0.01 (range of 0.06 to 0.46), respectively. Heritability estimates for feed efficiency in cows were lower; a meta-analysis of up to 11 estimates revealed heritability estimates for gross feed efficiency and RFI of 0.06 ± 0.010 and 0.04 ± 0.008, respectively. Meta-analysis of genetic correlations between feed intake, feed efficiency and other performance traits are presented, and selection index theory is used to calculate the proportion of genetic variation in feed intake that can be explained by easy to measure, and often already collected, data. A large proportion of the genetic variation in feed intake could be explained in both growing animals and lactating animals using up to 5 predictor traits, including BW, growth rate, milk yield, body composition, and linear type traits reflecting body size and muscularity. Knowledge of genetic merit for feed intake can be used, along with estimates of genetic merit for energy sinks, to calculate genetic merit for feed efficiency. Therefore, the marginal benefit of collecting actual feed intake data, using the genetic parameters used in this study, appears to be low. There is now sufficient

  3. Static feed water electrolysis module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  4. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  5. Feeding behavior, ruminal fermentation, and performance of pregnant beef cows differing in phenotypic residual feed intake offered grass silage.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; Fahey, A G; McGee, M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) and performance with feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation variables in pregnant beef cows offered a grass silage diet. Individual grass silage DMI (dry matter digestibility = 666 g/kg) was recorded on 47 gestating (mean gestation d 166, SD = 26 d) Simmental and Simmental × Holstein-Friesian beef cows for a period of 80 d. Cow BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth, visual muscular score, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and feeding behavior were measured. Phenotypic RFI was calculated as actual DMI minus expected DMI. Expected DMI was computed for each animal by regressing DMI on conceptus-adjusted mean BW(0.75) and ADG over an 80-d period. Within breed, cows were ranked by RFI into low (efficient), medium, or high groups. Overall mean (SD) values for DMI (kg/d), RFI, initial conceptus-adjusted BW, and conceptus-adjusted ADG were 8.41 (1.09) kg/d, 0.01 (0.13) kg/d, 646 (70) kg, and -0.07 (0.32) kg, respectively. High-RFI cows ate 25% and 8% more than low- and medium-RFI cows, respectively. Live weight and ADG were not correlated (P > 0.05), and DMI was positively correlated (r = 0.80; P < 0.001) with RFI. The low- and high-RFI groups had similar (P > 0.05) BW, ADG, BCS, visual muscular scores, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, calf birth weight, and calving difficulty scores. All ultrasonic fat and muscle depth measurements were similar (P > 0.05) for low- and high-RFI cows except for back fat thickness change, where low-RFI cows gained less fat (P < 0.05) than high-RFI cows. Low-RFI cows had greater pH and lower ammonia concentrations in ruminal fluid compared to their high-RFI contemporaries. Low-RFI cows had fewer (P < 0.001) daily feeding events, but these were of longer (P < 0.001) duration (min·feed event(-1)·d(-1)). Despite this, total daily duration of feeding was shorter (P < 0.001; min/d) for low- compared to high-RFI cows. High

  6. The external Q factor of a dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio frequency cavities: theoretical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Dai, J; Belomestnykh, S; Ben-Zvi, I; Xu, Wencan

    2013-11-01

    We propose a theoretical model based on network analysis to study the external quality factor (Q factor) of dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. Specifically, we apply our model to the dual-feed 704 MHz half-cell SRF gun for Brookhaven National Laboratory's prototype Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). The calculations show that the external Q factor of this dual-feed system is adjustable from 10(4) to 10(9) provided that the adjustment range of a phase shifter covers 0°-360°. With a period of 360°, the external Q factor of the coupling system changes periodically with the phase difference between the two coupling arms. When the RF phase of both coupling arms is adjusted simultaneously in the same direction, the external Q factor of the system also changes periodically, but with a period of 180°. PMID:24289393

  7. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, O.M.

    1987-11-10

    An improved process for converting all natural gas hydrocarbon components with carbon numbers of 1 to 4 into liquid hydrocarbons with carbon numbers equal to or greater than 5, and into a hydrogen-rich gaseous by-product which is described comprising the following steps: A. Splitting the natural gas feed into a rich gas stream comprising C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons and a lean gas stream comprising C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/ hydrocarbons; B. Catalytically converting the rich gas stream in a catalytic bed reactor in which the gas-suspended solid phase is a catalyst maintained at a temperature not exceeding 600/sup 0/C.; Separating the gaseous effluent from the catalytic bed reactor into (1) a hydrogen-rich stream; (2) a lean gas stream comprising hydrogen, C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/ hydrocarbons, (3) a rich gas stream comprising C/sub 2/ and C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons and (4) a liquid product stream comprising C/sub 5/ + hydrocarbons; D. Pre-heating all lean gas streams, including recycle, in a furnace; E. Transferring the catalyst into a short residence time reactor; F. Reacting an ionized plasma derived from the hydrogen stream with the pre-heated lean gas stream; G. Separating the gas-solid stream resulting from the reaction into a spent catalyst phase stream and a gaseous effluent stream; H. Separating the gaseous effluent stream from the disengagement means into four streams; I. Regenerating the spent catalyst stream in a regenerator by combustion of the carbon build-up on the spent catalyst in an oxidizing gas stream; J. Transferring the regenerated catalyst back into the catalytic bed reactor and into the short residence time reactor; K. Recycling all rich gas streams obtained in steps C and H back to the catalytic bed reactor; L. Recycling the lean gas stream obtained in step H back to the pre-heating furnace of step D.

  8. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  9. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  10. Asian immigrant settlement and adjustment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, S; Kee, P; Dang, T; Shu, J

    1994-01-01

    "This article provides a broad assessment of the settlement and adjustment of people born in the many countries of Asia who are resident in Australia, based on recently available data from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It examines some indicators of economic adjustment such as performance in the labor market, and some indicators of social adjustment, such as acquisition of English language proficiency." PMID:12289777

  11. Oral contraception, parity, breast feeding, and severity of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, C; Picot, M C; Bologna, C; Sany, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of breast feeding, use of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP), and parity on rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: One hundred and seventy six women with RA were compared with 145 control subjects; all had at least one child. RA patients were classified as having severe (n = 82) or mild disease (n = 89) according to clinical joint evaluation, radiological score, biological inflammation, and the presence of HLA-DR1 or -DR4 alleles. RESULTS: The mean age of RA patients was 58 years, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of RA was 46 years. The mean time between onset of RA and the first birth was 23.6 (SD 3.8) years. The OCP user rates were 33% in the RA group and 47.6% in the control group (p < 0.02). OCP use was related to the mother's year of birth. The relative risk for developing RA was 0.598 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.1) in women who had used OCP for more than five years compared with those who had never used OCPs. In contrast, the age at which the first pregnancy occurred, the number of children breast fed, and the duration of breast feeding were comparable in RA patients and healthy subjects. Among the RA patients, parity, duration of breast feeding, and the number of breast fed children were significantly increased in those with severe disease. Having more than three children increased the risk of developing severe disease 4.8-fold when adjusted for age and OCP use. Forty six percent of women with severe RA had a history of breast feeding duration greater than six months before disease onset, compared with 26% of patients with mild disease (p < 0.008). Having more than three breast fed children increased the risk of poor disease prognosis 3.7-fold. In contrast, OCP use had a protective role in the course of RA (44% of RA patients with mild disease were OCP users, compared with 21.7% of those with severe RA; p < 0.001). Among those using OCP for more than five years, the relative risk of developing severe

  12. Rate adjusters for Medicare under capitation

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.

    1986-01-01

    This article addresses three issues related to capitation. First, the average adjusted per capita cost (AAPCC) fluctuates with the mix of risks in the fee-for-service system. More sensitive adjusters in the AAPCC are needed. Second, the AAPCC, as now estimated, exhibits large geographic variance; so-called shrinkage estimators may help. Third, the AAPCC requires new adjusters to yield more homogeneous risk classes. Otherwise, the portion of the Medicare population under capitation may experience access problems at alternative delivery systems: Until such adjusters are developed, it seems better to rely upon a blend of capitation and fee-for-service than the present AAPCC. PMID:10311926

  13. Techniques and applications of adjustable sutures.

    PubMed

    Fells, P

    1987-02-01

    The 'rediscovery' of adjustable sutures some 10 years ago has given the ophthalmic surgeon much more confidence in his ability to correct strabismus. Three methods of use are described: during surgery under general anaesthesia with adjustment during the operation using the 'springback' test to centralise the eye; during surgery under general anaesthesia and subsequent adjustment under local anaesthesia using the patient's subjective responses to obtain optimal positioning; and performance of the operation and adjustment under topical local anaesthesia in one procedure. Full details are given of each technique and the indications for their application to particular problems are discussed. PMID:3297111

  14. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  15. Effect of feed consumption levels on growth performance and carcass composition during the force-feeding period in foie gras production of male Mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Wen, Z G; Jiang, Y; Tang, J; Xie, M; Yang, P L; Hou, S S

    2016-09-01

    In order to avoid excess feed consumption during the force-feeding period in foie gras production, a dose-response experiment with seven feed consumption levels (450, 540, 630, 720, 810, 900, 990 g/day per bird) was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed consumption levels on growth performance and carcass composition of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age. One-day-old Mule ducklings (sterile and artificial hybrid of male Albatre Muscovy duck and female Pekin duck were fed a two-phase commercial diets for ad libitum intake from hatching to 91 days of age, followed by graded feeding levels of a corn diet by force-feeding from 91 to 102 days of age. Fifty-six 91-day-old male Mule ducks with similar BW were randomly assigned to seven treatments, with eight birds per treatment. Birds were housed in individual pens. At 102 days of age, final BW was measured and BW gain and feed conversion ratio of ducks from each treatment were calculated from day 91 to 102, and then all ducks were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of skin with subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat, breast meat (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), leg meat (including thigh and drum stick), and liver. Significant differences in BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were observed among the treatments (P<0.001). According to the broken-line regression analysis, the optimal feed consumption levels of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age for maximum BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were 217, 227 and 216 g feed/kg BW0.75·per day, respectively. PMID:26948181

  16. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light–matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the

  17. Research note: Maxiban effects on heat-distressed broiler growth rate and feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wiernusz, C J; Teeter, R G

    1991-10-01

    One study was conducted utilizing 192 male broilers, at 4 to 7 wk posthatching, to evaluate a narasin-nicarbazin drug combination (Maxiban) for effects on bird growth rate, feed efficiency, and survivability during cycling ambient temperature (24 to 35 C) distress. Maxiban did not impact (P greater than .1) live weight gain, but reduced (P less than .05) gain:feed ratio (unadjusted for mortality), from .29 for controls to .21 as bird survivability declined (P less than .05) from 87.5 to 69.8%. Adjusting feed efficiency by adding the gain of birds dying of heat prostration to that for birds surviving the experiment resulted in feed efficiency for Maxiban-supplemented birds being similar (P = .48) to birds not consuming Maxiban. Under the conditions of the present study, Maxiban increased the mortality rate of male broilers exposed to cycling ambient temperature of 24 to 35 C during 4 to 7 wk posthatching. PMID:1956862

  18. Energy conversion and storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemical and chemical engineering principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels; (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy storage; (4) characterization of complex chemical processes; and (5) the application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, and advanced methods of analysis. The following five areas are discussed: electrochemical energy storage and conversion; microstructured materials; biotechnology; fossil fuels; and high temperature superconducting processing. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  20. Complete feeds-intensive systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most commercially cultivated fish are raised in high-density culture systems where the assumption is that the contribution of natural foods to the nutrition of the fish is insignificant. Thus, intensively cultured fish must be fed a nutritionally complete feed. A short section on the concept and im...

  1. Feeding DDGS to other animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is true that historically DDGS has primarily been fed to beef, dairy, swine, and poultry animals. It also appears to be a viable ingredient for aquafeeds. But it should be appropriate as a feed ingredient for other animals as well. To date, however, there have been only a few published studies...

  2. Sibling feeding behavior: Mothers as role models during mealtimes.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Rana H; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-01-01

    Siblings may act as caregivers and role models during mealtimes, and develop caregiving skills by observing and imitating the behavior of their mothers. The objective of this study was to examine the association between maternal feeding behaviors and encouragements to eat delivered from the sibling to the index child during mealtimes. Index children aged 4-8 years (n = 69) were videotaped while eating a routine evening meal at home with one sibling present. Encouragements to eat delivered from the sibling to the index child were coded from the videotapes. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to examine the association of maternal Pressure to Eat, Restriction, Monitoring, Verbal Direction, and Coercion with number of encouragements to eat delivered from the sibling to the index child. Models were adjusted for index child's age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and maternal education. Results showed that maternal Pressure to Eat (Rate Ratio (RR): 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 1.69), Restriction (RR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.60), Verbal Direction (RR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.68, 2.47), and Coercion (RR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.92) were each positively associated with the number of encouragements to eat delivered from the sibling to the index child. Maternal Monitoring was not associated with the number of encouragements to eat delivered from the sibling to the index child (RR: 0.92, 97% CI: 0.78, 1.09). Findings suggest that maternal behavior during mealtimes may affect the index child indirectly by shaping the behavior of siblings. Since controlling feeding behaviors have been associated with greater child obesity risk, future studies may evaluate the compounded effect of experiencing controlling feeding behaviors from both mothers and siblings. PMID:26585632

  3. Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, G H; Gelvin, B R; Hartman, S E

    1993-08-01

    Simple ratios in which a measurement variable is divided by a size variable are commonly used but known to be inadequate for eliminating size correlations from morphometric data. Deficiencies in the simple ratio can be alleviated by incorporating regression coefficients describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables. Recommendations have included: 1) subtracting the regression intercept to force the bivariate relationship through the origin (intercept-adjusted ratios); 2) exponentiating either the measurement or the size variable using an allometry coefficient to achieve linearity (allometrically adjusted ratios); or 3) both subtracting the intercept and exponentiating (fully adjusted ratios). These three strategies for deriving size-adjusted ratios imply different data models for describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables (i.e., the linear, simple allometric, and full allometric models, respectively). Algebraic rearrangement of the equation associated with each data model leads to a correctly formulated adjusted ratio whose expected value is constant (i.e., size correlation is eliminated). Alternatively, simple algebra can be used to derive an expected value function for assessing whether any proposed ratio formula is effective in eliminating size correlations. Some published ratio adjustments were incorrectly formulated as indicated by expected values that remain a function of size after ratio transformation. Regression coefficients incorporated into adjusted ratios must be estimated using least-squares regression of the measurement variable on the size variable. Use of parameters estimated by any other regression technique (e.g., major axis or reduced major axis) results in residual correlations between size and the adjusted measurement variable. Correctly formulated adjusted ratios, whose parameters are estimated by least-squares methods, do control for size correlations. The size-adjusted

  4. Child feeding and human rights

    PubMed Central

    Kent, George

    2006-01-01

    Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together. PMID:17176464

  5. The Association between Cesarean Delivery on Maternal Request and Method of Newborn Feeding in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinxue; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yinghui; Li, Yangmei; Li, Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Background Cesarean delivery has increased significantly during the last decades. This study aimed to investigate the association between planned mode of delivery and method of feeding. Methodology/Principal Findings A cohort was created retrospectively using data from a population-based maternal and child health surveillance system, which covers 27 study sites in China from 1993 to 2006. The cohort consisted of 431,704 women for analysis, including 22,462 women with planned cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) and 409,242 women with planned vaginal delivery (VD). Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between mode of delivery and method of feeding adjusting for selected covariates. In this cohort, 398,176 (92.2%) women exclusively breastfed their baby, 28,798 (6.7%) women chose mixed feeding, and 4,730 (1.1%) women chose formula feeding before hospital discharge. Women who planned CDMR were less likely to exclusively breastfeed and more likely to formula feed their babies than those who planned VD. After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratios were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81–0.89) for exclusive breastfeeding and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45–1.79) for formula feeding. Associations between planned mode of delivery and method of feeding in the south, north, rural and urban areas yielded similar results. Conclusion This study demonstrated that planned CDMR was associated with a lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding and a higher rate of formula feeding in a low-risk Chinese population. PMID:22624019

  6. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  7. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  8. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  9. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  10. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  11. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  12. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    PubMed

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior PMID:23833841

  13. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    DOEpatents

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  14. 7 CFR 718.110 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments. 718.110 Section 718.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.110 Adjustments. (a) The farm operator or other...

  15. 7 CFR 718.110 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustments. 718.110 Section 718.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.110 Adjustments. (a) The farm operator or other...

  16. 7 CFR 718.110 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustments. 718.110 Section 718.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.110 Adjustments. (a) The farm operator or other...

  17. 45 CFR 84.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 84.44 Section 84.44 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 84.44 Academic adjustments. (a)...

  18. 22 CFR 142.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Academic adjustments. 142.44 Section 142.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 142.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A...

  19. Family Adjustment Measure: Scale Construction and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daire, Andrew P.; Dominguez, Vanessa N.; Carlson, Ryan G.; Case-Pease, Jenene

    2014-01-01

    We administered the Family Adjustment Measure to 368 parents of children with special needs to identify positive adjustment. We randomly split the sample to conduct exploratory factor analysis ("n" = 194) and confirmatory factor analysis ("n" = 174). Results indicated four possible subscales and that explain 51% of the variance.

  20. Marital Adjustment among Housestaff and New Attorneys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spendlove, David C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study, involving 116 housestaff physicians, 106 new attorneys, and the spouses of both groups, identified the factors that significantly affected their marital adjustments. No differences were found. The most important factor associated with adjustment was perceived level of emotional support from one's spouse. (Author/MLW)

  1. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  2. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati

    2014-01-01

    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  3. Adjustable Optical Mount Is More Rigid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Bill G.; Coombs, David S.; Jones, Irby W.; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Improved mount for lens or mirror in laser offers rigidity similar to that of nonadjustable optical mount. In comparison with older adjustable optical mounts, this one less susceptible to movements and distortions caused by vibrations and by thermal expansions and contractions. Mount contains neither adjustment rods (which grow or shrink as temperature varies) nor springs (which transmit vibrations to mounted optic).

  4. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  5. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  6. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  7. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  8. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  9. 14 CFR 254.6 - Periodic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Periodic adjustments. 254.6 Section 254.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DOMESTIC BAGGAGE LIABILITY § 254.6 Periodic adjustments. The Department of Transportation...

  10. Affect and Status Dimensions of Marital Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Beth L.; Joseph Lowman

    1975-01-01

    The interactions of 10 maritally adjusted and 10 maladjusted couples were compared using a coding system based on the Leary circumplex. Major findings are (1) adjusted couples communicated more affection and submission than did maladjusted ones, (2) all couples were more likely to show complementary sequencing patterns with some interesting…

  11. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  12. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  13. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  14. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  15. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  16. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  17. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  18. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  19. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  20. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  1. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  2. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  3. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  4. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  5. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  6. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  7. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  8. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  9. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  10. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  11. 7 CFR 15b.32 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 15b.32 Section 15b.32 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 15b.32 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient...

  12. A Digital Game for International Students' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisadi, Maryam; Chua, Alton Y. K; Keong, Lee Chu

    2013-01-01

    Although digital games have been developed for various subject areas, little attention has been focused on using digital games to address international students' adjustment issues. For this reason, this paper endeavors to explore the use of a digital game in facilitating international students acquire adjustment-related information. Specifically,…

  13. Marital Adjustment Correlates in Young Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Samuel D.

    The Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Scale was administered to 35 Caucasian, Protestant couples who were married an average of nine years, largely middle class, and lived in Knoxville, Tennessee. Significant correlates of marital adjustment were organized into groups of similar variables. Correlate groups that were the same for the husband and…

  14. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  15. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  16. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  17. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  18. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  19. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  20. 34 CFR 104.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Academic adjustments. 104.44 Section 104.44 Education... Postsecondary Education § 104.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...