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Sample records for adjusted generalized linear

  1. A General Linear Model Approach to Adjusting the Cumulative GPA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John W.

    A general linear model (GLM), using least-squares techniques, was used to develop a criterion measure to replace freshman year grade point average (GPA) in college admission predictive validity studies. Problems with the use of GPA include those associated with the combination of grades from different courses and disciplines into a single measure,…

  2. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-09-30

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  3. Methods to adjust for misclassification in the quantiles for the generalized linear model with measurement error in continuous exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Yun; Dieu Tapsoba, Jean De; Duggan, Catherine; Campbell, Kristin L; McTiernan, Anne

    2016-05-10

    In many biomedical studies, covariates of interest may be measured with errors. However, frequently in a regression analysis, the quantiles of the exposure variable are often used as the covariates in the regression analysis. Because of measurement errors in the continuous exposure variable, there could be misclassification in the quantiles for the exposure variable. Misclassification in the quantiles could lead to bias estimation in the association between the exposure variable and the outcome variable. Adjustment for misclassification will be challenging when the gold standard variables are not available. In this paper, we develop two regression calibration estimators to reduce bias in effect estimation. The first estimator is normal likelihood-based. The second estimator is linearization-based, and it provides a simple and practical correction. Finite sample performance is examined via a simulation study. We apply the methods to a four-arm randomized clinical trial that tested exercise and weight loss interventions in women aged 50-75years. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26593772

  4. General linear chirplet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Gang; Zhou, Yiqi

    2016-03-01

    Time-frequency (TF) analysis (TFA) method is an effective tool to characterize the time-varying feature of a signal, which has drawn many attentions in a fairly long period. With the development of TFA, many advanced methods are proposed, which can provide more precise TF results. However, some restrictions are introduced inevitably. In this paper, we introduce a novel TFA method, termed as general linear chirplet transform (GLCT), which can overcome some limitations existed in current TFA methods. In numerical and experimental validations, by comparing with current TFA methods, some advantages of GLCT are demonstrated, which consist of well-characterizing the signal of multi-component with distinct non-linear features, being independent to the mathematical model and initial TFA method, allowing for the reconstruction of the interested component, and being non-sensitivity to noise.

  5. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis

    2014-01-01

    This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  6. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2008-01-01

    We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work on generalized covariance analysis methods. This prior work allowed for partitioning of the state space into "solve-for" and "consider" parameters, allowed for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator s anchor time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the "variance sandpile" and the "sensitivity mosaic," and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  7. Quantization of general linear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.

    2011-03-15

    General linear electrodynamics allow for an arbitrary linear constitutive relation between the field strength 2-form and induction 2-form density if crucial hyperbolicity and energy conditions are satisfied, which render the theory predictive and physically interpretable. Taking into account the higher-order polynomial dispersion relation and associated causal structure of general linear electrodynamics, we carefully develop its Hamiltonian formulation from first principles. Canonical quantization of the resulting constrained system then results in a quantum vacuum which is sensitive to the constitutive tensor of the classical theory. As an application we calculate the Casimir effect in a birefringent linear optical medium.

  8. 26 CFR 1.481-1 - Adjustments in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments in general. 1.481-1 Section 1.481-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Adjustments § 1.481-1 Adjustments in general. (a)(1) Section 481 prescribes the... purposes of section 481, only the net dollar balance is to be taken into account. In the case of a...

  9. Generalized Linear Models in Family Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Generalized linear models (GLMs), as defined by J. A. Nelder and R. W. M. Wedderburn (1972), unify a class of regression models for categorical, discrete, and continuous response variables. As an extension of classical linear models, GLMs provide a common body of theory and methodology for some seemingly unrelated models and procedures, such as…

  10. 26 CFR 1.481-1 - Adjustments in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments in general. 1.481-1 Section 1.481-1...) INCOME TAXES Adjustments § 1.481-1 Adjustments in general. (a)(1) Section 481 prescribes the rules to be... purposes of section 481, only the net dollar balance is to be taken into account. In the case of a...

  11. 26 CFR 1.481-1 - Adjustments in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Adjustments § 1.481-1 Adjustments in general. (a)(1) Section 481 prescribes the... computed under a method of accounting different from that under which the taxable income was...

  12. 26 CFR 1.481-1 - Adjustments in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Adjustments § 1.481-1 Adjustments in general. (a)(1) Section 481 prescribes the... computed under a method of accounting different from that under which the taxable income was...

  13. Multiconlitron: a general piecewise linear classifier.

    PubMed

    Yujian, Li; Bo, Liu; Xinwu, Yang; Yaozong, Fu; Houjun, Li

    2011-02-01

    Based on the "convexly separable" concept, we present a solid geometric theory and a new general framework to design piecewise linear classifiers for two arbitrarily complicated nonintersecting classes by using a "multiconlitron," which is a union of multiple conlitrons that comprise a set of hyperplanes or linear functions surrounding a convex region for separating two convexly separable datasets. We propose a new iterative algorithm called the cross distance minimization algorithm (CDMA) to compute hard margin non-kernel support vector machines (SVMs) via the nearest point pair between two convex polytopes. Using CDMA, we derive two new algorithms, i.e., the support conlitron algorithm (SCA) and the support multiconlitron algorithm (SMA) to construct support conlitrons and support multiconlitrons, respectively, which are unique and can separate two classes by a maximum margin as in an SVM. Comparative experiments show that SMA can outperform linear SVM on many of the selected databases and provide similar results to radial basis function SVM on some of them, while SCA performs better than linear SVM on three out of four applicable databases. Other experiments show that SMA and SCA may be further improved to draw more potential in the new research direction of piecewise linear learning. PMID:21138800

  14. Identification of general linear mechanical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirlin, S. W.; Longman, R. W.; Juang, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    Previous work in identification theory has been concerned with the general first order time derivative form. Linear mechanical systems, a large and important class, naturally have a second order form. This paper utilizes this additional structural information for the purpose of identification. A realization is obtained from input-output data, and then knowledge of the system input, output, and inertia matrices is used to determine a set of linear equations whereby we identify the remaining unknown system matrices. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the number, type and placement of sensors and actuators are given which guarantee identificability, and less stringent conditions are given which guarantee generic identifiability. Both a priori identifiability and a posteriori identifiability are considered, i.e., identifiability being insured prior to obtaining data, and identifiability being assured with a given data set.

  15. On the order of general linear methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2009-09-01

    General linear (GL) methods are numerical algorithms used to solve ODEs. The standard order conditions analysis involves the GL matrix itself and a starting procedure; however, a finishing method (F) is required to extract the actual ODE solution. The standard order analysis and stability are sufficient for the convergence of any GL method. Nonetheless, using a simple GL scheme, we show that the order definition may be too restrictive. Specifically, the order for GL methods with low order intermediate components may be underestimated. In this note we explore the order conditions for GL schemes and propose a new definition for characterizing the order of GL methods, which is focused on the final result--the outcome of F--and can provide more effective algebraic order conditions.

  16. Adjusting for matching and covariates in linear discriminant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asafu-Adjei, Josephine K.; Sampson, Allan R.; Sweet, Robert A.; Lewis, David A.

    2013-01-01

    In studies that compare several diagnostic or treatment groups, subjects may not only be measured on a certain set of feature variables, but also be matched on a number of demographic characteristics and measured on additional covariates. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is sometimes used to identify which feature variables best discriminate among groups, while accounting for the dependencies among the feature variables. We present a new approach to LDA for multivariate normal data that accounts for the subject matching used in a particular study design, as well as covariates not used in the matching. Applications are given for post-mortem tissue data with the aim of comparing neurobiological characteristics of subjects with schizophrenia with those of normal controls, and for a post-mortem tissue primate study comparing brain biomarker measurements across three treatment groups. We also investigate the performance of our approach using a simulation study. PMID:23640791

  17. Designing a generalized soil-adjusted vegetation index (GESAVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilabert, M. A.; Gonzalez Piqueras, Jose; Garcia-Haro, Joan; Melia, J.

    1998-12-01

    Operational monitoring of vegetative cover by remote sensing currently involves the utilization of vegetation indices (VIs), most of them being functions of the reflectance in red (R) and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. A generalized soil-adjusted vegetation index (GESAVI), theoretically based on a simple vegetation canopy model, is introduced. It is defined in terms of the soil line parameters (A and B) as: GESAVI equals (NIR-BR-A)/(R + Z), where Z is related to the red reflectance at the cross point between the soil line and vegetation isolines. Z can be considered as a soil adjustment coefficient which let this new index be considered as belonging to the SAVI family. In order to analyze the GESAVI sensitivity to soil brightness and soil color, both high resolution reflectance data from two laboratory experiments and data obtained by applying a radiosity model to simulate heterogeneous vegetation canopy scenes were used. VIs (including GESAVI, NDVI, PVI and SAVI family VIs) were computed and their correlation with LAI for the different soil backgrounds was analyzed. Results confirmed the lower sensitivity of GESAVI to soil background in most of the cases, thus becoming the most efficient index. This good index performance results from the fact that the isolines in the NIR-R plane are neither parallel to the soil line (as required by the PVI) nor convergent at the origin (as required by the NDVI) but they converge somewhere between the origin and infinity in the region of negative values of both NIR and R. This convergence point is not necessarily situated on the bisectrix, as required by other SAVI family indices.

  18. On generalized hamming weighs for Galois ring linear codes

    SciTech Connect

    Ashikhmin, A.

    1997-08-01

    The definition of generalized Hamming weights (GHW) for linear codes over Galois rings is discussed. The properties of GHW for Galois ring linear codes are stated. Upper and existence bounds for GHW of Z{sub 4}-linear codes and a lower bound for GHW of the Kerdock code over Z{sub 4} are derived. GHW of some Z{sub 4}-linear codes are determined.

  19. Generalized Multicarrier CDMA: Unification and Linear Equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakis, Georgios B.; Anghel, Paul A.; Wang, Zhengdao

    2005-12-01

    Relying on block-symbol spreading and judicious design of user codes, this paper builds on the generalized multicarrier (GMC) quasisynchronous CDMA system that is capable of multiuser interference (MUI) elimination and intersymbol interference (ISI) suppression with guaranteed symbol recovery, regardless of the wireless frequency-selective channels. GMC-CDMA affords an all-digital unifying framework, which encompasses single-carrier and several multicarrier (MC) CDMA systems. Besides the unifying framework, it is shown that GMC-CDMA offers flexibility both in full load (maximum number of users allowed by the available bandwidth) and in reduced load settings. A novel blind channel estimation algorithm is also derived. Analytical evaluation and simulations illustrate the superior error performance and flexibility of uncoded GMC-CDMA over competing MC-CDMA alternatives especially in the presence of uplink multipath channels.

  20. Covariate-Adjusted Linear Mixed Effects Model with an Application to Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Danh V.; Şentürk, Damla; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Linear mixed effects (LME) models are useful for longitudinal data/repeated measurements. We propose a new class of covariate-adjusted LME models for longitudinal data that nonparametrically adjusts for a normalizing covariate. The proposed approach involves fitting a parametric LME model to the data after adjusting for the nonparametric effects of a baseline confounding covariate. In particular, the effect of the observable covariate on the response and predictors of the LME model is modeled nonparametrically via smooth unknown functions. In addition to covariate-adjusted estimation of fixed/population parameters and random effects, an estimation procedure for the variance components is also developed. Numerical properties of the proposed estimators are investigated with simulation studies. The consistency and convergence rates of the proposed estimators are also established. An application to a longitudinal data set on calcium absorption, accounting for baseline distortion from body mass index, illustrates the proposed methodology. PMID:19266053

  1. Centering, Scale Indeterminacy, and Differential Item Functioning Detection in Hierarchical Generalized Linear and Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong, Yuk Fai; Kamata, Akihito

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss and illustrate two centering and anchoring options available in differential item functioning (DIF) detection studies based on the hierarchical generalized linear and generalized linear mixed modeling frameworks. We compared and contrasted the assumptions of the two options, and examined the properties of their DIF…

  2. Non linear Least Squares(Levenberg-Marquardt algorithms) for geodetic adjustment and coordinates transformation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheloufi, N.; Kahlouche, S.; Lamara, R. Ait Ahmed

    2009-04-01

    The resolution of the MRE's (Multiple Regression Equations) is an important tool for fitting different geodetic network. Nevertheless, in different fields of engineering and earth science, certain cases need more accuracy; the ordinary least squares (linear least squares) prove to be limited. Thus, we have to use new numerical methods of resolution that can provide a great efficiency of polynomial modelisation. In geodesy the accuracy of coordinates determination and network adjustment is very important, that's why instead of being limited to the linear models, we have to apply the non linear least squares resolution for the transformation problem between geodetic systems. This need, appears especially in the case of Nord-Sahara datum (Algeria), on wich the linear models are not much appropriate, because of the lack of information about the geoid's undulation. In this paper, we have fixed as main aim, to carry out the importance of using non linear least squares to improve the quality of geodetic adjustment and coordinates transformation and even the extent of his use. The algorithms carried out concerned the application of two models: three dimensions (global transformation) and the two-dimension one (local transformation) over huge area (Algeria). We compute coordinates transformation parameters and their Rms by both of the ordinary least squares and new algorithms, then we perform a statistical analysis in order to compare on the one hand between the linear adjustment with its two variants (local and global) and the non linear one. In this context, a set of 16 benchmark, have been integrated to compute the transformation parameters (3D and 2D). Different non linear optimization algorithms (Newton algorithm, Steepest Descent, and Levenberg-Marquardt) have been implemented to solve transformation problem. Conclusions and recommendations are given with respect to the suitability, accuracy and efficiency of each method. Key words: MRE's, Nord Sahara, global

  3. Linear stability of general magnetically insulated electron flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swegle, J. A.; Mendel, C. W., Jr.; Seidel, D. B.; Quintenz, J. P.

    1984-03-01

    A linear stability theory for magnetically insulated systems was formulated by linearizing the general 3-D, time dependent theory of Mendel, Seidel, and Slut. It is found that, case of electron trajectories which are nearly laminar, with only small transverse motion, several suggestive simplifications occur in the eigenvalue equations.

  4. Linear stability of general magnetically insulated electron flow

    SciTech Connect

    Swegle, J.A.; Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Seidel, D.B.; Quintenz, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    We have formulated a linear stability theory for magnetically insulated systems by linearizing the general 3-D, time-dependent theory of Mendel, Seidel, and Slutz. In the physically interesting case of electron trajectories which are nearly laminar, with only small transverse motion, we have found that several suggestive simplifications occur in the eigenvalue equations.

  5. Adjustable Permanent Quadrupoles Using Rotating Magnet Material Rods for the Next Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    James T Volk et al.

    2001-09-24

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 132 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 135 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0-20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micrometer during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce estimated costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. All magnets have iron poles and use either Samarium Cobalt or Neodymium Iron to provide the magnetic fields. Two prototypes use rotating rods containing permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient. Gradient changes of 20% and center shifts of less than 20 microns have been measured. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnet prototype.

  6. Adaptive Error Estimation in Linearized Ocean General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chechelnitsky, Michael Y.

    1999-01-01

    representation error, i.e. the dominance of the mesoscale eddies in the T/P signal, which are not part of the 21 by 1" GCM. Therefore, the impact of the observations on the assimilation is very small even after the adjustment of the error statistics. This work demonstrates that simult&neous estimation of the model and measurement error statistics for data assimilation with global ocean data sets and linearized GCMs is possible. However, the error covariance estimation problem is in general highly underdetermined, much more so than the state estimation problem. In other words there exist a very large number of statistical models that can be made consistent with the available data. Therefore, methods for obtaining quantitative error estimates, powerful though they may be, cannot replace physical insight. Used in the right context, as a tool for guiding the choice of a small number of model error parameters, covariance matching can be a useful addition to the repertory of tools available to oceanographers.

  7. Linear equations in general purpose codes for stiff ODEs

    SciTech Connect

    Shampine, L. F.

    1980-02-01

    It is noted that it is possible to improve significantly the handling of linear problems in a general-purpose code with very little trouble to the user or change to the code. In such situations analytical evaluation of the Jacobian is a lot cheaper than numerical differencing. A slight change in the point at which the Jacobian is evaluated results in a more accurate Jacobian in linear problems. (RWR)

  8. Beam envelope calculations in general linear coupled lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Moses; Qin, Hong; Groening, Lars; Davidson, Ronald C.; Xiao, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The envelope equations and Twiss parameters (β and α) provide important bases for uncoupled linear beam dynamics. For sophisticated beam manipulations, however, coupling elements between two transverse planes are intentionally introduced. The recently developed generalized Courant-Snyder theory offers an effective way of describing the linear beam dynamics in such coupled systems with a remarkably similar mathematical structure to the original Courant-Snyder theory. In this work, we present numerical solutions to the symmetrized matrix envelope equation for β which removes the gauge freedom in the matrix envelope equation for w. Furthermore, we construct the transfer and beam matrices in terms of the generalized Twiss parameters, which enables calculation of the beam envelopes in arbitrary linear coupled systems.

  9. Beam envelope calculations in general linear coupled lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Moses; Qin, Hong; Groening, Lars; Xiao, Chen; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2015-01-15

    The envelope equations and Twiss parameters (β and α) provide important bases for uncoupled linear beam dynamics. For sophisticated beam manipulations, however, coupling elements between two transverse planes are intentionally introduced. The recently developed generalized Courant-Snyder theory offers an effective way of describing the linear beam dynamics in such coupled systems with a remarkably similar mathematical structure to the original Courant-Snyder theory. In this work, we present numerical solutions to the symmetrized matrix envelope equation for β which removes the gauge freedom in the matrix envelope equation for w. Furthermore, we construct the transfer and beam matrices in terms of the generalized Twiss parameters, which enables calculation of the beam envelopes in arbitrary linear coupled systems.

  10. Confidence Intervals for Assessing Heterogeneity in Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized linear mixed models are frequently applied to data with clustered categorical outcomes. The effect of clustering on the response is often difficult to practically assess partly because it is reported on a scale on which comparisons with regression parameters are difficult to make. This article proposes confidence intervals for…

  11. Location-scale cumulative odds models for ordinal data: a generalized non-linear model approach.

    PubMed

    Cox, C

    1995-06-15

    Proportional odds regression models for multinomial probabilities based on ordered categories have been generalized in two somewhat different directions. Models having scale as well as location parameters for adjustment of boundaries (on an unobservable, underlying continuum) between categories have been employed in the context of ROC analysis. Partial proportional odds models, having different regression adjustments for different multinomial categories, have also been proposed. This paper considers a synthesis and further generalization of these two families. With use of a number of examples, I discuss and illustrate properties of this extended family of models. Emphasis is on the computation of maximum likelihood estimates of parameters, asymptotic standard deviations, and goodness-of-fit statistics with use of non-linear regression programs in standard statistical software such as SAS. PMID:7667560

  12. The generalized sidelobe canceller based on quaternion widely linear processing.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jian-wu; Chang, Wen-xiu

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the problem of quaternion beamforming based on widely linear processing. First, a quaternion model of linear symmetric array with two-component electromagnetic (EM) vector sensors is presented. Based on array's quaternion model, we propose the general expression of a quaternion semiwidely linear (QSWL) beamformer. Unlike the complex widely linear beamformer, the QSWL beamformer is based on the simultaneous operation on the quaternion vector, which is composed of two jointly proper complex vectors, and its involution counterpart. Second, we propose a useful implementation of QSWL beamformer, that is, QSWL generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC), and derive the simple expressions of the weight vectors. The QSWL GSC consists of two-stage beamformers. By designing the weight vectors of two-stage beamformers, the interference is completely canceled in the output of QSWL GSC and the desired signal is not distorted. We derive the array's gain expression and analyze the performance of the QSWL GSC in the presence of one type of interference. The advantage of QSWL GSC is that the main beam can always point to the desired signal's direction and the robustness to DOA mismatch is improved. Finally, simulations are used to verify the performance of the proposed QSWL GSC. PMID:24955425

  13. Capsule deformation and orientation in general linear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatmary, Alex; Eggleton, Charles

    2010-11-01

    We considered the response of spherical and non-spherical capsules to general flows. (A capsule is an elastic membrane enclosing a fluid, immersed in fluid.) First, we established that nonspherical capsules align with the imposed irrotational linear flow; this means that initial orientation does not affect steady-state capsule deformation, so this steady-state deformation can be determined entirely by the capillary number and the type of flow. The type of flow is characterized by r: r=0 for axisymmetric flows, and r=1 for planar flows; intermediate values of r are combinations of planar and axisymmetric flow. By varying the capillary number and r, all irrotational linear Stokes flows can be generated. For the same capillary number, planar flows lead to more deformation than uniaxial or biaxial extensional flows. Deformation varies monotonically with r, so one can determine bounds on capsule deformation in general flow by only looking at uniaxial, biaxial, and planar flow. These results are applicable to spheres in all linear flows and to ellipsoids in irrotational linear flow.

  14. The Generalized Sidelobe Canceller Based on Quaternion Widely Linear Processing

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jian-wu; Chang, Wen-xiu

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the problem of quaternion beamforming based on widely linear processing. First, a quaternion model of linear symmetric array with two-component electromagnetic (EM) vector sensors is presented. Based on array's quaternion model, we propose the general expression of a quaternion semiwidely linear (QSWL) beamformer. Unlike the complex widely linear beamformer, the QSWL beamformer is based on the simultaneous operation on the quaternion vector, which is composed of two jointly proper complex vectors, and its involution counterpart. Second, we propose a useful implementation of QSWL beamformer, that is, QSWL generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC), and derive the simple expressions of the weight vectors. The QSWL GSC consists of two-stage beamformers. By designing the weight vectors of two-stage beamformers, the interference is completely canceled in the output of QSWL GSC and the desired signal is not distorted. We derive the array's gain expression and analyze the performance of the QSWL GSC in the presence of one type of interference. The advantage of QSWL GSC is that the main beam can always point to the desired signal's direction and the robustness to DOA mismatch is improved. Finally, simulations are used to verify the performance of the proposed QSWL GSC. PMID:24955425

  15. A consistent local linear estimator of the covariate adjusted correlation coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Danh V.; Şentürk, Damla

    2009-01-01

    Consider the correlation between two random variables (X, Y), both not directly observed. One only observes X̃ = φ1(U)X + φ2(U) and Ỹ = ψ1(U)Y + ψ2(U), where all four functions {φl(·),ψl(·), l = 1, 2} are unknown/unspecified smooth functions of an observable covariate U. We consider consistent estimation of the correlation between the unobserved variables X and Y, adjusted for the above general dual additive and multiplicative effects of U, based on the observed data (X̃, Ỹ, U). PMID:21720454

  16. Generalization of continuous-variable quantum cloning with linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Zehui; Guo, Juan; Gao, Jiangrui

    2006-05-01

    We propose an asymmetric quantum cloning scheme. Based on the proposal and experiment by Andersen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)], we generalize it to two asymmetric cases: quantum cloning with asymmetry between output clones and between quadrature variables. These optical implementations also employ linear elements and homodyne detection only. Finally, we also compare the utility of symmetric and asymmetric cloning in an analysis of a squeezed-state quantum key distribution protocol and find that the asymmetric one is more advantageous.

  17. Credibility analysis of risk classes by generalized linear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdemir, Ovgucan Karadag; Sucu, Meral

    2016-06-01

    In this paper generalized linear model (GLM) and credibility theory which are frequently used in nonlife insurance pricing are combined for reliability analysis. Using full credibility standard, GLM is associated with limited fluctuation credibility approach. Comparison criteria such as asymptotic variance and credibility probability are used to analyze the credibility of risk classes. An application is performed by using one-year claim frequency data of a Turkish insurance company and results of credible risk classes are interpreted.

  18. Clutter locus equation for more general linear array orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickel, Douglas L.

    2011-06-01

    The clutter locus is an important concept in space-time adaptive processing (STAP) for ground moving target indicator (GMTI) radar systems. The clutter locus defines the expected ground clutter location in the angle-Doppler domain. Typically in literature, the clutter locus is presented as a line, or even a set of ellipsoids, under certain assumptions about the geometry of the array. Most often, the array is assumed to be in the horizontal plane containing the velocity vector. This paper will give a more general 3-dimensional interpretation of the clutter locus for a general linear array orientation.

  19. Genetic parameters for racing records in trotters using linear and generalized linear models.

    PubMed

    Suontama, M; van der Werf, J H J; Juga, J; Ojala, M

    2012-09-01

    Heritability and repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated for trotting race records with linear and generalized linear models using 510,519 records on 17,792 Finnhorses and 513,161 records on 25,536 Standardbred trotters. Heritability and repeatability were estimated for single racing time and earnings traits with linear models, and logarithmic scale was used for racing time and fourth-root scale for earnings to correct for nonnormality. Generalized linear models with a gamma distribution were applied for single racing time and with a multinomial distribution for single earnings traits. In addition, genetic parameters for annual earnings were estimated with linear models on the observed and fourth-root scales. Racing success traits of single placings, winnings, breaking stride, and disqualifications were analyzed using generalized linear models with a binomial distribution. Estimates of heritability were greatest for racing time, which ranged from 0.32 to 0.34. Estimates of heritability were low for single earnings with all distributions, ranging from 0.01 to 0.09. Annual earnings were closer to normal distribution than single earnings. Heritability estimates were moderate for annual earnings on the fourth-root scale, 0.19 for Finnhorses and 0.27 for Standardbred trotters. Heritability estimates for binomial racing success variables ranged from 0.04 to 0.12, being greatest for winnings and least for breaking stride. Genetic correlations among racing traits were high, whereas phenotypic correlations were mainly low to moderate, except correlations between racing time and earnings were high. On the basis of a moderate heritability and moderate to high repeatability for racing time and annual earnings, selection of horses for these traits is effective when based on a few repeated records. Because of high genetic correlations, direct selection for racing time and annual earnings would also result in good genetic response in racing success

  20. A general linear model for MEG beamformer imaging.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Matthew J; Gibson, Andrew M; Hall, Stephen D; Furlong, Paul L; Barnes, Gareth R; Hillebrand, Arjan; Singh, Krish D; Holliday, Ian E; Francis, Sue T; Morris, Peter G

    2004-11-01

    A new general linear model (GLM) beamformer method is described for processing magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. A standard nonlinear beamformer is used to determine the time course of neuronal activation for each point in a predefined source space. A Hilbert transform gives the envelope of oscillatory activity at each location in any chosen frequency band (not necessary in the case of sustained (DC) fields), enabling the general linear model to be applied and a volumetric T statistic image to be determined. The new method is illustrated by a two-source simulation (sustained field and 20 Hz) and is shown to provide accurate localization. The method is also shown to locate accurately the increasing and decreasing gamma activities to the temporal and frontal lobes, respectively, in the case of a scintillating scotoma. The new method brings the advantages of the general linear model to the analysis of MEG data and should prove useful for the localization of changing patterns of activity across all frequency ranges including DC (sustained fields). PMID:15528094

  1. Linear spin-2 fields in most general backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Schmidt-May, Angnis; von Strauss, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    We derive the full perturbative equations of motion for the most general background solutions in ghost-free bimetric theory in its metric formulation. Clever field redefinitions at the level of fluctuations enable us to circumvent the problem of varying a square-root matrix appearing in the theory. This greatly simplifies the expressions for the linear variation of the bimetric interaction terms. We show that these field redefinitions exist and are uniquely invertible if and only if the variation of the square-root matrix itself has a unique solution, which is a requirement for the linearized theory to be well defined. As an application of our results we examine the constraint structure of ghost-free bimetric theory at the level of linear equations of motion for the first time. We identify a scalar combination of equations which is responsible for the absence of the Boulware-Deser ghost mode in the theory. The bimetric scalar constraint is in general not manifestly covariant in its nature. However, in the massive gravity limit the constraint assumes a covariant form when one of the interaction parameters is set to zero. For that case our analysis provides an alternative and almost trivial proof of the absence of the Boulware-Deser ghost. Our findings generalize previous results in the metric formulation of massive gravity and also agree with studies of its vielbein version.

  2. Obtaining General Relativity's N-body non-linear Lagrangian from iterative, linear algebraic scaling equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordtvedt, K.

    2015-11-01

    A local system of bodies in General Relativity whose exterior metric field asymptotically approaches the Minkowski metric effaces any effects of the matter distribution exterior to its Minkowski boundary condition. To enforce to all orders this property of gravity which appears to hold in nature, a method using linear algebraic scaling equations is developed which generates by an iterative process an N-body Lagrangian expansion for gravity's motion-independent potentials which fulfills exterior effacement along with needed metric potential expansions. Then additional properties of gravity - interior effacement and Lorentz time dilation and spatial contraction - produce additional iterative, linear algebraic equations for obtaining the full non-linear and motion-dependent N-body gravity Lagrangian potentials as well.

  3. Using Green's Functions to initialize and adjust a global, eddying ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brix, H.; Menemenlis, D.; Hill, C.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Jahn, O.; Wang, D.; Bowman, K.; Zhang, H.

    2015-11-01

    The NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Flux Project aims to attribute changes in the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide to spatially resolved fluxes by utilizing the full suite of NASA data, models, and assimilation capabilities. For the oceanic part of this project, we introduce ECCO2-Darwin, a new ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model based on combining the following pre-existing components: (i) a full-depth, eddying, global-ocean configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), (ii) an adjoint-method-based estimate of ocean circulation from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II (ECCO2) project, (iii) the MIT ecosystem model "Darwin", and (iv) a marine carbon chemistry model. Air-sea gas exchange coefficients and initial conditions of dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and oxygen are adjusted using a Green's Functions approach in order to optimize modeled air-sea CO2 fluxes. Data constraints include observations of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) for 2009-2010, global air-sea CO2 flux estimates, and the seasonal cycle of the Takahashi et al. (2009) Atlas. The model sensitivity experiments (or Green's Functions) include simulations that start from different initial conditions as well as experiments that perturb air-sea gas exchange parameters and the ratio of particulate inorganic to organic carbon. The Green's Functions approach yields a linear combination of these sensitivity experiments that minimizes model-data differences. The resulting initial conditions and gas exchange coefficients are then used to integrate the ECCO2-Darwin model forward. Despite the small number (six) of control parameters, the adjusted simulation is significantly closer to the data constraints (37% cost function reduction, i.e., reduction in the model-data difference, relative to the baseline simulation) and to independent observations (e.g., alkalinity). The adjusted air-sea gas

  4. Comparative Study of Algorithms for Automated Generalization of Linear Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimjon, S.; Gupta, P. K.; Sukhmani, R. S. G. S.

    2014-11-01

    Automated generalization, rooted from conventional cartography, has become an increasing concern in both geographic information system (GIS) and mapping fields. All geographic phenomenon and the processes are bound to the scale, as it is impossible for human being to observe the Earth and the processes in it without decreasing its scale. To get optimal results, cartographers and map-making agencies develop set of rules and constraints, however these rules are under consideration and topic for many researches up until recent days. Reducing map generating time and giving objectivity is possible by developing automated map generalization algorithms (McMaster and Shea, 1988). Modification of the scale traditionally is a manual process, which requires knowledge of the expert cartographer, and it depends on the experience of the user, which makes the process very subjective as every user may generate different map with same requirements. However, automating generalization based on the cartographic rules and constrains can give consistent result. Also, developing automated system for map generation is the demand of this rapid changing world. The research that we have conveyed considers only generalization of the roads, as it is one of the indispensable parts of a map. Dehradun city, Uttarakhand state of India was selected as a study area. The study carried out comparative study of the generalization software sets, operations and algorithms available currently, also considers advantages and drawbacks of the existing software used worldwide. Research concludes with the development of road network generalization tool and with the final generalized road map of the study area, which explores the use of open source python programming language and attempts to compare different road network generalization algorithms. Thus, the paper discusses the alternative solutions for automated generalization of linear objects using GIS-technologies. Research made on automated of road network

  5. Parametrizing linear generalized Langevin dynamics from explicit molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gottwald, Fabian; Karsten, Sven; Ivanov, Sergei D. Kühn, Oliver

    2015-06-28

    Fundamental understanding of complex dynamics in many-particle systems on the atomistic level is of utmost importance. Often the systems of interest are of macroscopic size but can be partitioned into a few important degrees of freedom which are treated most accurately and others which constitute a thermal bath. Particular attention in this respect attracts the linear generalized Langevin equation, which can be rigorously derived by means of a linear projection technique. Within this framework, a complicated interaction with the bath can be reduced to a single memory kernel. This memory kernel in turn is parametrized for a particular system studied, usually by means of time-domain methods based on explicit molecular dynamics data. Here, we discuss that this task is more naturally achieved in frequency domain and develop a Fourier-based parametrization method that outperforms its time-domain analogues. Very surprisingly, the widely used rigid bond method turns out to be inappropriate in general. Importantly, we show that the rigid bond approach leads to a systematic overestimation of relaxation times, unless the system under study consists of a harmonic bath bi-linearly coupled to the relevant degrees of freedom.

  6. Generalization of continuous-variable quantum cloning with linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai Zehui; Guo Juan; Gao Jiangrui

    2006-05-15

    We propose an asymmetric quantum cloning scheme. Based on the proposal and experiment by Andersen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)], we generalize it to two asymmetric cases: quantum cloning with asymmetry between output clones and between quadrature variables. These optical implementations also employ linear elements and homodyne detection only. Finally, we also compare the utility of symmetric and asymmetric cloning in an analysis of a squeezed-state quantum key distribution protocol and find that the asymmetric one is more advantageous.

  7. Generalized space and linear momentum operators in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Bruno G. da

    2014-06-15

    We propose a modification of a recently introduced generalized translation operator, by including a q-exponential factor, which implies in the definition of a Hermitian deformed linear momentum operator p{sup ^}{sub q}, and its canonically conjugate deformed position operator x{sup ^}{sub q}. A canonical transformation leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of a deformed phase space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space may be expressed in terms of the generalized dual q-derivative. A position-dependent mass confined in an infinite square potential well is shown as an instance. Uncertainty and correspondence principles are analyzed.

  8. General mirror pairs for gauged linear sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspinwall, Paul S.; Plesser, M. Ronen

    2015-11-01

    We carefully analyze the conditions for an abelian gauged linear σ-model to exhibit nontrivial IR behavior described by a nonsingular superconformal field theory determining a superstring vacuum. This is done without reference to a geometric phase, by associating singular behavior to a noncompact space of (semi-)classical vacua. We find that models determined by reflexive combinatorial data are nonsingular for generic values of their parameters. This condition has the pleasant feature that the mirror of a nonsingular gauged linear σ-model is another such model, but it is clearly too strong and we provide an example of a non-reflexive mirror pair. We discuss a weaker condition inspired by considering extremal transitions, which is also mirror symmetric and which we conjecture to be sufficient. We apply these ideas to extremal transitions and to understanding the way in which both Berglund-Hübsch mirror symmetry and the Vafa-Witten mirror orbifold with discrete torsion can be seen as special cases of the general combinatorial duality of gauged linear σ-models. In the former case we encounter an example showing that our weaker condition is still not necessary.

  9. Marginally specified generalized linear mixed models: a robust approach.

    PubMed

    Mills, J E; Field, C A; Dupuis, D J

    2002-12-01

    Longitudinal data modeling is complicated by the necessity to deal appropriately with the correlation between observations made on the same individual. Building on an earlier nonrobust version proposed by Heagerty (1999, Biometrics 55, 688-698), our robust marginally specified generalized linear mixed model (ROBMS-GLMM) provides an effective method for dealing with such data. This model is one of the first to allow both population-averaged and individual-specific inference. As well, it adopts the flexibility and interpretability of generalized linear mixed models for introducing dependence but builds a regression structure for the marginal mean, allowing valid application with time-dependent (exogenous) and time-independent covariates. These new estimators are obtained as solutions of a robustified likelihood equation involving Huber's least favorable distribution and a collection of weights. Huber's least favorable distribution produces estimates that are resistant to certain deviations from the random effects distributional assumptions. Innovative weighting strategies enable the ROBMS-GLMM to perform well when faced with outlying observations both in the response and covariates. We illustrate the methodology with an analysis of a prospective longitudinal study of laryngoscopic endotracheal intubation, a skill that numerous health-care professionals are expected to acquire. The principal goal of our research is to achieve robust inference in longitudinal analyses. PMID:12495126

  10. Optimization in generalized linear models: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Eliana Costa e.; Correia, Aldina; Lopes, Isabel Cristina

    2016-06-01

    The maximum likelihood method is usually chosen to estimate the regression parameters of Generalized Linear Models (GLM) and also for hypothesis testing and goodness of fit tests. The classical method for estimating GLM parameters is the Fisher scores. In this work we propose to compute the estimates of the parameters with two alternative methods: a derivative-based optimization method, namely the BFGS method which is one of the most popular of the quasi-Newton algorithms, and the PSwarm derivative-free optimization method that combines features of a pattern search optimization method with a global Particle Swarm scheme. As a case study we use a dataset of biological parameters (phytoplankton) and chemical and environmental parameters of the water column of a Portuguese reservoir. The results show that, for this dataset, BFGS and PSwarm methods provided a better fit, than Fisher scores method, and can be good alternatives for finding the estimates for the parameters of a GLM.

  11. The left invariant metric in the general linear group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruchow, E.; Larotonda, G.; Recht, L.; Varela, A.

    2014-12-01

    Left invariant metrics induced by the p-norms of the trace in the matrix algebra are studied on the general linear group. By means of the Euler-Lagrange equations, existence and uniqueness of extremal paths for the length functional are established, and regularity properties of these extremal paths are obtained. Minimizing paths in the group are shown to have a velocity with constant singular values and multiplicity. In several special cases, these geodesic paths are computed explicitly. In particular the Riemannian geodesics, corresponding to the case p = 2, are characterized as the product of two one-parameter groups. It is also shown that geodesics are one-parameter groups if and only if the initial velocity is a normal matrix. These results are further extended to the context of compact operators with p-summable spectrum, where a differential equation for the spectral projections of the velocity vector of an extremal path is obtained.

  12. Using parallel banded linear system solvers in generalized eigenvalue problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hong; Moss, William F.

    1993-01-01

    Subspace iteration is a reliable and cost effective method for solving positive definite banded symmetric generalized eigenproblems, especially in the case of large scale problems. This paper discusses an algorithm that makes use of two parallel banded solvers in subspace iteration. A shift is introduced to decompose the banded linear systems into relatively independent subsystems and to accelerate the iterations. With this shift, an eigenproblem is mapped efficiently into the memories of a multiprocessor and a high speed-up is obtained for parallel implementations. An optimal shift is a shift that balances total computation and communication costs. Under certain conditions, we show how to estimate an optimal shift analytically using the decay rate for the inverse of a banded matrix, and how to improve this estimate. Computational results on iPSC/2 and iPSC/860 multiprocessors are presented.

  13. General Linear Rf-Current Drive Calculation in Toroidal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. P.; Harvey, R. W.; Prater, R.

    2009-04-01

    A new general linear calculation of RF current drive has been implemented in the GENRAY all-frequencies RF ray tracing code. This is referred to as the ADJ-QL package, and is based on the Karney, et al. [1] relativistic Green function calculator, ADJ, generalized to non-circular plasmas in toroidal geometry, and coupled with full, bounce-averaged momentum-space RF quasilinear flux [2] expressions calculated at each point along the RF ray trajectories. This approach includes momentum conservation, polarization effects and the influence of trapped electrons. It is assumed that the electron distribution function remains close to a relativistic Maxwellian function. Within the bounds of these assumptions, small banana width, toroidal geometry and low collisionality, the calculation is applicable for all-frequencies RF electron current drive including electron cyclotron, lower hybrid, fast waves and electron Bernstein waves. GENRAY ADJ-QL calculations of the relativistic momentum-conserving current drive have been applied in several cases: benchmarking of electron cyclotron current drive in ITER against other code results; and electron Bernstein and high harmonic fast wave current drive in NSTX. The impacts of momentum conservation on the current drive are also shown for these cases.

  14. AN ADJUSTABLE NUTRIENT MARGIN OF SAFETY COMPARISON USING LINEAR AND STOCHASTIC PROGRAMMING IN AN EXCEL SPREADSHEET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stochastic/linear program Excel workbook was developed consisting of two worksheets illustrating linear and stochastic program approaches. Both approaches used the Excel Solver add-in. A published linear program problem served as an example for the ingredients, nutrients and costs and as a benchma...

  15. Nonparametric Covariate-Adjusted Association Tests Based on the Generalized Kendall’s Tau*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wensheng; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the risk factors for comorbidity is important in psychiatric research. Empirically, studies have shown that testing multiple, correlated traits simultaneously is more powerful than testing a single trait at a time in association analysis. Furthermore, for complex diseases, especially mental illnesses and behavioral disorders, the traits are often recorded in different scales such as dichotomous, ordinal and quantitative. In the absence of covariates, nonparametric association tests have been developed for multiple complex traits to study comorbidity. However, genetic studies generally contain measurements of some covariates that may affect the relationship between the risk factors of major interest (such as genes) and the outcomes. While it is relatively easy to adjust these covariates in a parametric model for quantitative traits, it is challenging for multiple complex traits with possibly different scales. In this article, we propose a nonparametric test for multiple complex traits that can adjust for covariate effects. The test aims to achieve an optimal scheme of adjustment by using a maximum statistic calculated from multiple adjusted test statistics. We derive the asymptotic null distribution of the maximum test statistic, and also propose a resampling approach, both of which can be used to assess the significance of our test. Simulations are conducted to compare the type I error and power of the nonparametric adjusted test to the unadjusted test and other existing adjusted tests. The empirical results suggest that our proposed test increases the power through adjustment for covariates when there exist environmental effects, and is more robust to model misspecifications than some existing parametric adjusted tests. We further demonstrate the advantage of our test by analyzing a data set on genetics of alcoholism. PMID:22745516

  16. 34 CFR 668.189 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for adjusting official cohort... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.189 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a)...

  17. 34 CFR 668.208 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for adjusting official cohort... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.208 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a) Remaining eligible. You...

  18. Spatial temporal disaggregation of daily rainfall from a generalized linear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segond, M.-L.; Onof, C.; Wheater, H. S.

    2006-12-01

    SummaryThis paper describes a methodology for continuous simulation of spatially-distributed hourly rainfall, based on observed data from a daily raingauge network. Generalized linear models (GLMs), which can represent the spatial and temporal non-stationarities of multi-site daily rainfall (Chandler, R.E., Wheater, H.S., 2002. Analysis of rainfall variability using generalised linear models: a case study from the west of Ireland. Water Resources Research, 38 (10), 1192. doi:10.1029/2001WR000906), are combined with a single-site disaggregation model based on Poisson cluster processes (Koutsoyiannis, D., Onof, C., 2001. Rainfall disaggregation using adjusting procedures on a Poisson cluster model. Journal of Hydrology 246, 109-122). The resulting sub-daily temporal profile is then applied linearly to all sites over the catchment to reproduce the spatially-varying daily totals. The method is tested for the River Lee catchment, UK, a tributary of the Thames covering an area of 1400 km 2. Twenty simulations of 12 years of hourly rainfall are generated at 20 sites and compared with the historical series. The proposed model preserves most standard statistics but has some limitations in the representation of extreme rainfall and the correlation structure. The method can be extended to sites within the modelled region not used in the model calibration.

  19. Linear and generalized linear models for the detection of QTL effects on within-subject variability

    PubMed Central

    Wittenburg, Dörte; Guiard, Volker; Liese, Friedrich; Reinsch, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    Summary Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) may affect not only the mean of a trait but also its variability. A special aspect is the variability between multiple measured traits of genotyped animals, such as the within-litter variance of piglet birth weights. The sample variance of repeated measurements is assigned as an observation for every genotyped individual. It is shown that the conditional distribution of the non-normally distributed trait can be approximated by a gamma distribution. To detect QTL effects in the daughter design, a generalized linear model with the identity link function is applied. Suitable test statistics are constructed to test the null hypothesis H0: No QTL with effect on the within-litter variance is segregating versus HA: There is a QTL with effect on the variability of birth weight within litter. Furthermore, estimates of the QTL effect and the QTL position are introduced and discussed. The efficiency of the presented tests is compared with a test based on weighted regression. The error probability of the first type as well as the power of QTL detection are discussed and compared for the different tests. PMID:18208630

  20. Correcting bias from the standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to an age-constant basis for beef calves.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D J; Kress, D D; Tess, M W; Burfening, P J

    1992-05-01

    Standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to a constant age has been shown to introduce bias in the adjusted weight due to nonlinear growth from birth to weaning of beef calves. Ten years of field records from the five strains of Beefbooster Cattle Alberta Ltd. seed stock herds were used to investigate the use of correction factors to adjust standard 180-d weight (WT180) for this bias. Statistical analyses were performed within strain and followed three steps: 1) the full data set was split into an estimation set (ES) and a validation set (VS), 2) WT180 from the ES was used to develop estimates of correction factors using a model including herd (H), year (YR), age of dam (DA), sex of calf (S), all two and three-way interactions, and any significant linear and quadratic covariates of calf age at weaning deviated from 180 d (DEVCA) and interactions between DEVCA and DA, S or DA x S, and 3) significant DEVCA coefficients were used to correct WT180 from the VS, then WT180 and the corrected weight (WTCOR) from the VS were analyzed with the same model as in Step 2 and significance of DEVCA terms were compared. Two types of data splitting were used. Adjusted R2 was calculated to describe the proportion of total variation of DEVCA terms explained for WT180 from the ES. The DEVCA terms explained .08 to 1.54% of the total variation for the five strains. Linear and quadratic correction factors were both positive and negative. Bias in WT180 from the ES within 180 +/- 35 d of age ranged from 2.8 to 21.7 kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1526901

  1. Connections between Generalizing and Justifying: Students' Reasoning with Linear Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Amy B.

    2007-01-01

    Research investigating algebra students' abilities to generalize and justify suggests that they experience difficulty in creating and using appropriate generalizations and proofs. Although the field has documented students' errors, less is known about what students do understand to be general and convincing. This study examines the ways in which…

  2. Generalizing a Categorization of Students' Interpretations of Linear Kinematics Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque…

  3. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  4. Generalized linear and generalized additive models in studies of species distributions: Setting the scene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guisan, A.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Hastie, T.

    2002-01-01

    An important statistical development of the last 30 years has been the advance in regression analysis provided by generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs). Here we introduce a series of papers prepared within the framework of an international workshop entitled: Advances in GLMs/GAMs modeling: from species distribution to environmental management, held in Riederalp, Switzerland, 6-11 August 2001. We first discuss some general uses of statistical models in ecology, as well as provide a short review of several key examples of the use of GLMs and GAMs in ecological modeling efforts. We next present an overview of GLMs and GAMs, and discuss some of their related statistics used for predictor selection, model diagnostics, and evaluation. Included is a discussion of several new approaches applicable to GLMs and GAMs, such as ridge regression, an alternative to stepwise selection of predictors, and methods for the identification of interactions by a combined use of regression trees and several other approaches. We close with an overview of the papers and how we feel they advance our understanding of their application to ecological modeling. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Generalizing a categorization of students' interpretations of linear kinematics graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque Country, Spain (University of the Basque Country). We discuss how we adapted the categorization to accommodate a much more diverse student cohort and explain how the prior knowledge of students may account for many differences in the prevalence of approaches and success rates. Although calculus-based physics students make fewer mistakes than algebra-based physics students, they encounter similar difficulties that are often related to incorrectly dividing two coordinates. We verified that a qualitative understanding of kinematics is an important but not sufficient condition for students to determine a correct value for the speed. When comparing responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs with responses to isomorphic questions on linear water level versus time graphs, we observed that the context of a question influences the approach students use. Neither qualitative understanding nor an ability to find the slope of a context-free graph proved to be a reliable predictor for the approach students use when they determine the instantaneous speed.

  6. Orientating layers with adjustable pretilt angles for liquid crystals deposited by a linear atmospheric pressure plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, Shih-Jie; Kou, Chwung-Shan; Hwang, Jennchang; Lee, Chein-Dhau; Lin, Wei-Cheng

    2013-06-15

    A method for controlling the pretilt angles of liquid crystals (LC) was developed. Hexamethyldisiloxane polymer films were first deposited on indium tin oxide coated glass plates using a linear atmospheric pressure plasma source. The films were subsequently treated with the rubbing method for LC alignment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were used to characterize the film composition, which could be varied to control the surface energy by adjusting the monomer feed rate and input power. The results of LC alignment experiments showed that the pretilt angle continuously increased from 0 Degree-Sign to 90 Degree-Sign with decreasing film surface energy.

  7. 45 CFR 153.365 - General oversight requirements for State-operated risk adjustment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS STANDARDS RELATED TO REINSURANCE, RISK CORRIDORS, AND RISK ADJUSTMENT UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT State Standards Related to the Risk Adjustment...

  8. Transferability of regional permafrost disturbance susceptibility modelling using generalized linear and generalized additive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudy, Ashley C. A.; Lamoureux, Scott F.; Treitz, Paul; van Ewijk, Karin Y.

    2016-07-01

    To effectively assess and mitigate risk of permafrost disturbance, disturbance-prone areas can be predicted through the application of susceptibility models. In this study we developed regional susceptibility models for permafrost disturbances using a field disturbance inventory to test the transferability of the model to a broader region in the Canadian High Arctic. Resulting maps of susceptibility were then used to explore the effect of terrain variables on the occurrence of disturbances within this region. To account for a large range of landscape characteristics, the model was calibrated using two locations: Sabine Peninsula, Melville Island, NU, and Fosheim Peninsula, Ellesmere Island, NU. Spatial patterns of disturbance were predicted with a generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized additive model (GAM), each calibrated using disturbed and randomized undisturbed locations from both locations and GIS-derived terrain predictor variables including slope, potential incoming solar radiation, wetness index, topographic position index, elevation, and distance to water. Each model was validated for the Sabine and Fosheim Peninsulas using independent data sets while the transferability of the model to an independent site was assessed at Cape Bounty, Melville Island, NU. The regional GLM and GAM validated well for both calibration sites (Sabine and Fosheim) with the area under the receiver operating curves (AUROC) > 0.79. Both models were applied directly to Cape Bounty without calibration and validated equally with AUROC's of 0.76; however, each model predicted disturbed and undisturbed samples differently. Additionally, the sensitivity of the transferred model was assessed using data sets with different sample sizes. Results indicated that models based on larger sample sizes transferred more consistently and captured the variability within the terrain attributes in the respective study areas. Terrain attributes associated with the initiation of disturbances were

  9. A generalization of the Nyquist stability criterion. [extension to multivariable linear feedback systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, P. K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a generalization of the Nyquist stability criterion to include general multivariable linear stationary systems subject to linear static and dynamic feedback. At the same time, a unifying proof is given for all known versions of the Nyquist criterion for finite dimensional systems.

  10. Item Purification in Differential Item Functioning Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    For this dissertation, four item purification procedures were implemented onto the generalized linear mixed model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, and the performance of these item purification procedures was investigated through a series of simulations. Among the four procedures, forward and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)…

  11. Computer analysis of general linear networks using digraphs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclenahan, J. O.; Chan, S.-P.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the application of digraphs in analyzing general electronic networks, and development of a computer program based on a particular digraph method developed by Chen. The Chen digraph method is a topological method for solution of networks and serves as a shortcut when hand calculations are required. The advantage offered by this method of analysis is that the results are in symbolic form. It is limited, however, by the size of network that may be handled. Usually hand calculations become too tedious for networks larger than about five nodes, depending on how many elements the network contains. Direct determinant expansion for a five-node network is a very tedious process also.

  12. Crossbreed evaluations in single-step genomic best linear unbiased predictor using adjusted realized relationship matrices.

    PubMed

    Lourenco, D A L; Tsuruta, S; Fragomeni, B O; Chen, C Y; Herring, W O; Misztal, I

    2016-03-01

    , except for , which was 1 percentage point less accurate. Accuracy of GEBV for number of stillborns in F1 was 0.5 for all tested genomic relationship matrices with no changes after tuning. We observed that genotyping F increased accuracies of GEBV for the same animals by up to 39% compared with having genotypes for only AA and BB. In crossbreed evaluations, accounting for breed-specific allele frequencies promoted changes in G that were not influential enough to improve accuracy of GEBV. Therefore, the best performance of ssGBLUP for crossbreed evaluations requires genotypes for pure- and crossbreeds and no breed-specific adjustments in the realized relationship matrix. PMID:27065253

  13. Is involvement in school bullying associated with general health and psychosocial adjustment outcomes in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, J F; Wallander, J; Sund, A M

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to examine prospectively associations between bullying involvement at 14-15 years of age and self-reported general health and psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood, at 26-27 years of age. A large representative sample (N=2,464) was recruited and assessed in two counties in Mid-Norway in 1998 (T1) and 1999/2000 (T2) when the respondents had a mean age of 13.7 and 14.9, respectively, leading to classification as being bullied, bully-victim, being aggressive toward others or non-involved. Information about general health and psychosocial adjustment was gathered at a follow-up in 2012 (T4) (N=1,266) with a respondent mean age of 27.2. Logistic regression and ANOVA analyses showed that groups involved in bullying of any type in adolescence had increased risk for lower education as young adults compared to those non-involved. The group aggressive toward others also had a higher risk of being unemployed and receiving any kind of social help. Compared with the non-involved, those being bullied and bully-victims had increased risk of poor general health and high levels of pain. Bully-victims and those aggressive toward others during adolescence subsequently had increased risk of tobacco use and lower job functioning than non-involved. Further, those being bullied and aggressive toward others had increased risk of illegal drug use. Relations to live-in spouse/partner were poorer among those being bullied. Involvement in bullying, either as victim or perpetrator, has significant social costs even 12 years after the bullying experience. Accordingly, it will be important to provide early intervention for those involved in bullying in adolescence. PMID:24972719

  14. General Adjustment of the Fundamental Gravity Network in Mexico, Preliminary Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avalos-Naranjo, D.; Pagiatakis, S. D.; Alvarado-Cortez, A.; Vanicek, P.; Santos, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The fundamental gravity network in Mexico is currently a set of 661 stations distributed in the country to serve as an absolute reference to local relative surveys. The National Institute of Statistics and Geography maintains a program that continuously adds new observations to the network thus increasing the robustness of its structure. This activity has led us to identification of stations with time-variable g value as well as stations with a systematic difference to the official IGSN71 solution. Following an approach to assemble in a single data set all the available observations, collected from the early 1960's to 2014, we make an effort to create a simultaneous adjustment of nearly 6600 relative ties by a generalized least squares scheme. At this time, a careful review of the conditions in which the surveys were made is the main challenge so as to assign proper weight to each observation. So far the first execution of the adjustment delivers a result that compares well to the IGSN71 solution (with a standard deviation of 0.171 mGal) and the time variations computed for some points are being verified against known effects of local or regional geodynamics.

  15. Introducing a system for automated control of rotation axes, collimator and laser adjustment for a medical linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Peter; Bergmann, Helmar; Stuecklschweiger, Georg; Guss, Helmuth

    2003-05-01

    Mechanical stability and precise adjustment of rotation axes, collimator and room lasers are essential for the success of radiotherapy and particularly stereotactic radiosurgery with a linear accelerator. Quality assurance procedures, at present mainly based on visual tests and radiographic film evaluations, should desirably be little time consuming and highly accurate. We present a method based on segmentation and analysis of digital images acquired with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) that meets these objectives. The method can be employed for routine quality assurance with a square field formed by the built-in collimator jaws as well as with a circular field using an external drill hole collimator. A number of tests, performed to evaluate accuracy and reproducibility of the algorithm, yielded very satisfying results. Studies performed over a period of 18 months prove the applicability of the inspected accelerator for stereotactic radiosurgery.

  16. Adjustment of highly non-linear redundant systems of equations using a numerical, topology-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltogianni, Vasso; Stiros, Stathis

    2012-11-01

    The adjustment of systems of highly non-linear, redundant equations, deriving from observations of certain geophysical processes and geodetic data cannot be based on conventional least-squares techniques, and is based on various numerical inversion techniques. Still these techniques lead to solutions trapped in local minima, to correlated estimates and to solution with poor error control. To overcome these problems, we propose an alternative numerical-topological approach inspired by lighthouse beacon navigation, usually used in 2-D, low-accuracy applications. In our approach, an m-dimensional grid G of points around the real solution (an m-dimensional vector) is at first specified. Then, for each equation an uncertainty is assigned to the corresponding measurement, and the sets of the grid points which satisfy the condition are detected. This process is repeated for all equations, and the common section A of the sets of grid points is defined. From this set of grid points, which define a space including the real solution, we compute its center of weight, which corresponds to an estimate of the solution, and its variance-covariance matrix. An optimal solution can be obtained through optimization of the uncertainty in each observation. The efficiency of the overall process was assessed in comparison with conventional least squares adjustment.

  17. Generalized functional linear models for gene-based case-control association studies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Lobach, Iryna; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Weeks, Daniel E; Xiong, Momiao

    2014-11-01

    By using functional data analysis techniques, we developed generalized functional linear models for testing association between a dichotomous trait and multiple genetic variants in a genetic region while adjusting for covariates. Both fixed and mixed effect models are developed and compared. Extensive simulations show that Rao's efficient score tests of the fixed effect models are very conservative since they generate lower type I errors than nominal levels, and global tests of the mixed effect models generate accurate type I errors. Furthermore, we found that the Rao's efficient score test statistics of the fixed effect models have higher power than the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified version (SKAT-O) in most cases when the causal variants are both rare and common. When the causal variants are all rare (i.e., minor allele frequencies less than 0.03), the Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests have similar or slightly lower power than SKAT and SKAT-O. In practice, it is not known whether rare variants or common variants in a gene region are disease related. All we can assume is that a combination of rare and common variants influences disease susceptibility. Thus, the improved performance of our models when the causal variants are both rare and common shows that the proposed models can be very useful in dissecting complex traits. We compare the performance of our methods with SKAT and SKAT-O on real neural tube defects and Hirschsprung's disease datasets. The Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests are more sensitive than SKAT and SKAT-O in the real data analysis. Our methods can be used in either gene-disease genome-wide/exome-wide association studies or candidate gene analyses. PMID:25203683

  18. An efficient method for generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingfeng; Liu, Sanyang

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical branch and bound algorithm for globally solving generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints. To solve the problem, a relaxation programming problem which is equivalent to a linear programming is proposed by utilizing a new two-phase relaxation technique. In the algorithm, lower and upper bounds are simultaneously obtained by solving some linear relaxation programming problems. Global convergence has been proved and results of some sample examples and a small random experiment show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient. PMID:27547676

  19. Consistent linearization of the element-independent corotational formulation for the structural analysis of general shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    A consistent linearization is provided for the element-dependent corotational formulation, providing the proper first and second variation of the strain energy. As a result, the warping problem that has plagued flat elements has been overcome, with beneficial effects carried over to linear solutions. True Newton quadratic convergence has been restored to the Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) code for conservative loading using the full corotational implementation. Some implications for general finite element analysis are discussed, including what effect the automatic frame invariance provided by this work might have on the development of new, improved elements.

  20. Meta-analysis of Complex Diseases at Gene Level with Generalized Functional Linear Models.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Chiu, Chi-Yang; Chen, Wei; Ren, Haobo; Li, Yun; Boehnke, Michael; Amos, Christopher I; Moore, Jason H; Xiong, Momiao

    2016-02-01

    We developed generalized functional linear models (GFLMs) to perform a meta-analysis of multiple case-control studies to evaluate the relationship of genetic data to dichotomous traits adjusting for covariates. Unlike the previously developed meta-analysis for sequence kernel association tests (MetaSKATs), which are based on mixed-effect models to make the contributions of major gene loci random, GFLMs are fixed models; i.e., genetic effects of multiple genetic variants are fixed. Based on GFLMs, we developed chi-squared-distributed Rao's efficient score test and likelihood-ratio test (LRT) statistics to test for an association between a complex dichotomous trait and multiple genetic variants. We then performed extensive simulations to evaluate the empirical type I error rates and power performance of the proposed tests. The Rao's efficient score test statistics of GFLMs are very conservative and have higher power than MetaSKATs when some causal variants are rare and some are common. When the causal variants are all rare [i.e., minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 0.03], the Rao's efficient score test statistics have similar or slightly lower power than MetaSKATs. The LRT statistics generate accurate type I error rates for homogeneous genetic-effect models and may inflate type I error rates for heterogeneous genetic-effect models owing to the large numbers of degrees of freedom and have similar or slightly higher power than the Rao's efficient score test statistics. GFLMs were applied to analyze genetic data of 22 gene regions of type 2 diabetes data from a meta-analysis of eight European studies and detected significant association for 18 genes (P < 3.10 × 10(-6)), tentative association for 2 genes (HHEX and HMGA2; P ≈ 10(-5)), and no association for 2 genes, while MetaSKATs detected none. In addition, the traditional additive-effect model detects association at gene HHEX. GFLMs and related tests can analyze rare or common variants or a combination of the two and

  1. Generalized Parameter-Adjusted Stochastic Resonance of Duffing Oscillator and Its Application to Weak-Signal Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Zhi-Hui; Leng, Yong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional Duffing oscillator which can produce stochastic resonance (SR) is studied in this paper. We introduce its SR mechanism and present a generalized parameter-adjusted SR (GPASR) model of this oscillator for the necessity of parameter adjustments. The Kramers rate is chosen as the theoretical basis to establish a judgmental function for judging the occurrence of SR in this model; and to analyze and summarize the parameter-adjusted rules under unmatched signal amplitude, frequency, and/or noise-intensity. Furthermore, we propose the weak-signal detection approach based on this GPASR model. Finally, we employ two practical examples to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in practical engineering application. PMID:26343671

  2. Toddlers' Adjustment to the Stress of Immunization in Function of Mothers' General and Specific Coping Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favez, N.; Reicherts, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess the relative influence of mothers' coping strategies in everyday life and mothers' specific coping acts on toddlers' adjustment behavior to pain and distress during a routine immunization. The population is 41 mothers with toddlers (23 girls, 18 boys; mean age, 22.7 months) undergoing a routine immunization in…

  3. Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents and Native American Indians: Factorial Validity Generalization for Ojibwe Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    Replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the "Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents" (ASCA; P.A. McDermott, N.C. Marston, & D.H. Stott, 1993) is reported for a sample of 183 Native American Indian (Ojibwe) children and adolescents from North Central Minnesota. The six ASCA core syndromes produced an identical two-factor…

  4. Structural Modeling of Measurement Error in Generalized Linear Models with Rasch Measures as Covariates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a structural analysis for generalized linear models when some explanatory variables are measured with error and the measurement error variance is a function of the true variables. The focus is on latent variables investigated on the basis of questionnaires and estimated using item response theory models. Latent variable…

  5. Regression Is a Univariate General Linear Model Subsuming Other Parametric Methods as Special Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Sherry

    Although the concept of the general linear model (GLM) has existed since the 1960s, other univariate analyses such as the t-test and the analysis of variance models have remained popular. The GLM produces an equation that minimizes the mean differences of independent variables as they are related to a dependent variable. From a computer printout…

  6. The Logic and Interpretation of Structure Coefficients in Multivariate General Linear Model Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Robin K.

    In General Linear Model (GLM) analyses, it is important to interpret structure coefficients, along with standardized weights, when evaluating variable contribution to observed effects. Although often used in canonical correlation analysis, structure coefficients are less frequently used in multiple regression and several other multivariate…

  7. Estimation of Complex Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Measurement and Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Minjeong

    2012-01-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) is technically challenging because of the intractable likelihoods that involve high dimensional integrations over random effects. The problem is magnified when the random effects have a crossed design and thus the data cannot be reduced to small independent clusters. A…

  8. Implementing general quantum measurements on linear optical and solid-state qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yukihiro; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2013-03-01

    We show a systematic construction for implementing general measurements on a single qubit, including both strong (or projection) and weak measurements. We mainly focus on linear optical qubits. The present approach is composed of simple and feasible elements, i.e., beam splitters, wave plates, and polarizing beam splitters. We show how the parameters characterizing the measurement operators are controlled by the linear optical elements. We also propose a method for the implementation of general measurements in solid-state qubits. Furthermore, we show an interesting application of the general measurements, i.e., entanglement amplification. YO is partially supported by the SPDR Program, RIKEN. SA and FN acknowledge ARO, NSF grant No. 0726909, JSPS-RFBR contract No. 12-02-92100, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S), MEXT Kakenhi on Quantum Cybernetics, and the JSPS via its FIRST program.

  9. Identifying Genetic Variants for Addiction via Propensity Score Adjusted Generalized Kendall's Tau.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Li, Ni; Zhang, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Identifying replicable genetic variants for addiction has been extremely challenging. Besides the common difficulties with genome-wide association studies (GWAS), environmental factors are known to be critical to addiction, and comorbidity is widely observed. Despite the importance of environmental factors and comorbidity for addiction study, few GWAS analyses adequately considered them due to the limitations of the existing statistical methods. Although parametric methods have been developed to adjust for covariates in association analysis, difficulties arise when the traits are multivariate because there is no ready-to-use model for them. Recent nonparametric development includes U-statistics to measure the phenotype-genotype association weighted by a similarity score of covariates. However, it is not clear how to optimize the similarity score. Therefore, we propose a semiparametric method to measure the association adjusted by covariates. In our approach, the nonparametric U-statistic is adjusted by parametric estimates of propensity scores using the idea of inverse probability weighting. The new measurement is shown to be asymptotically unbiased under our null hypothesis while the previous non-weighted and weighted ones are not. Simulation results show that our test improves power as opposed to the non-weighted and two other weighted U-statistic methods, and it is particularly powerful for detecting gene-environment interactions. Finally, we apply our proposed test to the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) to identify genetic variants for addiction. Novel genetic variants are found from our analysis, which warrant further investigation in the future. PMID:25382885

  10. Identifying Genetic Variants for Addiction via Propensity Score Adjusted Generalized Kendall’s Tau

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Li, Ni; Zhang, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Identifying replicable genetic variants for addiction has been extremely challenging. Besides the common difficulties with genome-wide association studies (GWAS), environmental factors are known to be critical to addiction, and comorbidity is widely observed. Despite the importance of environmental factors and comorbidity for addiction study, few GWAS analyses adequately considered them due to the limitations of the existing statistical methods. Although parametric methods have been developed to adjust for covariates in association analysis, difficulties arise when the traits are multivariate because there is no ready-to-use model for them. Recent nonparametric development includes U-statistics to measure the phenotype-genotype association weighted by a similarity score of covariates. However, it is not clear how to optimize the similarity score. Therefore, we propose a semiparametric method to measure the association adjusted by covariates. In our approach, the nonparametric U-statistic is adjusted by parametric estimates of propensity scores using the idea of inverse probability weighting. The new measurement is shown to be asymptotically unbiased under our null hypothesis while the previous non-weighted and weighted ones are not. Simulation results show that our test improves power as opposed to the non-weighted and two other weighted U-statistic methods, and it is particularly powerful for detecting gene-environment interactions. Finally, we apply our proposed test to the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) to identify genetic variants for addiction. Novel genetic variants are found from our analysis, which warrant further investigation in the future. PMID:25382885

  11. Appearance characterization of linear Lambertian objects, generalized photometric stereo, and illumination-invariant face recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shaohua Kevin; Aggarwal, Gaurav; Chellappa, Rama; Jacobs, David W

    2007-02-01

    Traditional photometric stereo algorithms employ a Lambertian reflectance model with a varying albedo field and involve the appearance of only one object. In this paper, we generalize photometric stereo algorithms to handle all appearances of all objects in a class, in particular the human face class, by making use of the linear Lambertian property. A linear Lambertian object is one which is linearly spanned by a set of basis objects and has a Lambertian surface. The linear property leads to a rank constraint and, consequently, a factorization of an observation matrix that consists of exemplar images of different objects (e.g., faces of different subjects) under different, unknown illuminations. Integrability and symmetry constraints are used to fully recover the subspace bases using a novel linearized algorithm that takes the varying albedo field into account. The effectiveness of the linear Lambertian property is further investigated by using it for the problem of illumination-invariant face recognition using just one image. Attached shadows are incorporated in the model by a careful treatment of the inherent nonlinearity in Lambert's law. This enables us to extend our algorithm to perform face recognition in the presence of multiple illumination sources. Experimental results using standard data sets are presented. PMID:17170477

  12. H∞ filtering of Markov jump linear systems with general transition probabilities and output quantization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mouquan; Park, Ju H

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses the H∞ filtering of continuous Markov jump linear systems with general transition probabilities and output quantization. S-procedure is employed to handle the adverse influence of the quantization and a new approach is developed to conquer the nonlinearity induced by uncertain and unknown transition probabilities. Then, sufficient conditions are presented to ensure the filtering error system to be stochastically stable with the prescribed performance requirement. Without specified structure imposed on introduced slack variables, a flexible filter design method is established in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by a numerical example. PMID:27129765

  13. Non-linear regime of the Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity in critical points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.

    2016-03-01

    The Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity (GMMG) theory is realized by adding the CS deformation term, the higher derivative deformation term, and an extra term to pure Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant. In the present paper we obtain exact solutions to the GMMG field equations in the non-linear regime of the model. GMMG model about AdS_3 space is conjectured to be dual to a 2-dimensional CFT. We study the theory in critical points corresponding to the central charges c_-=0 or c_+=0, in the non-linear regime. We show that AdS_3 wave solutions are present, and have logarithmic form in critical points. Then we study the AdS_3 non-linear deformation solution. Furthermore we obtain logarithmic deformation of extremal BTZ black hole. After that using Abbott-Deser-Tekin method we calculate the energy and angular momentum of these types of black hole solutions.

  14. Linear and nonlinear associations between general intelligence and personality in Project TALENT.

    PubMed

    Major, Jason T; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2014-04-01

    Research on the relations of personality traits to intelligence has primarily been concerned with linear associations. Yet, there are no a priori reasons why linear relations should be expected over nonlinear ones, which represent a much larger set of all possible associations. Using 2 techniques, quadratic and generalized additive models, we tested for linear and nonlinear associations of general intelligence (g) with 10 personality scales from Project TALENT (PT), a nationally representative sample of approximately 400,000 American high school students from 1960, divided into 4 grade samples (Flanagan et al., 1962). We departed from previous studies, including one with PT (Reeve, Meyer, & Bonaccio, 2006), by modeling latent quadratic effects directly, controlling the influence of the common factor in the personality scales, and assuming a direction of effect from g to personality. On the basis of the literature, we made 17 directional hypotheses for the linear and quadratic associations. Of these, 53% were supported in all 4 male grades and 58% in all 4 female grades. Quadratic associations explained substantive variance above and beyond linear effects (mean R² between 1.8% and 3.6%) for Sociability, Maturity, Vigor, and Leadership in males and Sociability, Maturity, and Tidiness in females; linear associations were predominant for other traits. We discuss how suited current theories of the personality-intelligence interface are to explain these associations, and how research on intellectually gifted samples may provide a unique way of understanding them. We conclude that nonlinear models can provide incremental detail regarding personality and intelligence associations. PMID:24660993

  15. Semiparametric Analysis of Heterogeneous Data Using Varying-Scale Generalized Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Minge; Simpson, Douglas G.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a class of heteroscedastic generalized linear regression models in which a subset of the regression parameters are rescaled nonparametrically, and develops efficient semiparametric inferences for the parametric components of the models. Such models provide a means to adapt for heterogeneity in the data due to varying exposures, varying levels of aggregation, and so on. The class of models considered includes generalized partially linear models and nonparametrically scaled link function models as special cases. We present an algorithm to estimate the scale function nonparametrically, and obtain asymptotic distribution theory for regression parameter estimates. In particular, we establish that the asymptotic covariance of the semiparametric estimator for the parametric part of the model achieves the semiparametric lower bound. We also describe bootstrap-based goodness-of-scale test. We illustrate the methodology with simulations, published data, and data from collaborative research on ultrasound safety. PMID:19444331

  16. 77 FR 28900 - Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance; General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ..., Michigan. The notice was published in the Federal Register on May 28, 2010 (75 FR 30070). The notice was..., Modern Engineering/Professional Services, General Physics Corporation, Entech, and Pinnacle Technical... Modern Engineering/Professional Services, General Physics Corporation, and Entech. At the request of...

  17. Linear relations in microbial reaction systems: a general overview of their origin, form, and use.

    PubMed

    Noorman, H J; Heijnen, J J; Ch A M Luyben, K

    1991-09-01

    In microbial reaction systems, there are a number of linear relations among net conversion rates. These can be very useful in the analysis of experimental data. This article provides a general approach for the formation and application of the linear relations. Two type of system descriptions, one considering the biomass as a black box and the other based on metabolic pathways, are encountered. These are defined in a linear vector and matrix algebra framework. A correct a priori description can be obtained by three useful tests: the independency, consistency, and observability tests. The independency are different. The black box approach provides only conservations relations. They are derived from element, electrical charge, energy, and Gibbs energy balances. The metabolic approach provides, in addition to the conservation relations, metabolic and reaction relations. These result from component, energy, and Gibbs energy balances. Thus it is more attractive to use the metabolic description than the black box approach. A number of different types of linear relations given in the literature are reviewed. They are classified according to the different categories that result from the black box or the metabolic system description. Validation of hypotheses related to metabolic pathways can be supported by experimental validation of the linear metabolic relations. However, definite proof from biochemical evidence remains indispensable. PMID:18604879

  18. Application of the Hyper-Poisson Generalized Linear Model for Analyzing Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    PubMed

    Khazraee, S Hadi; Sáez-Castillo, Antonio Jose; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Lord, Dominique

    2015-05-01

    The hyper-Poisson distribution can handle both over- and underdispersion, and its generalized linear model formulation allows the dispersion of the distribution to be observation-specific and dependent on model covariates. This study's objective is to examine the potential applicability of a newly proposed generalized linear model framework for the hyper-Poisson distribution in analyzing motor vehicle crash count data. The hyper-Poisson generalized linear model was first fitted to intersection crash data from Toronto, characterized by overdispersion, and then to crash data from railway-highway crossings in Korea, characterized by underdispersion. The results of this study are promising. When fitted to the Toronto data set, the goodness-of-fit measures indicated that the hyper-Poisson model with a variable dispersion parameter provided a statistical fit as good as the traditional negative binomial model. The hyper-Poisson model was also successful in handling the underdispersed data from Korea; the model performed as well as the gamma probability model and the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model previously developed for the same data set. The advantages of the hyper-Poisson model studied in this article are noteworthy. Unlike the negative binomial model, which has difficulties in handling underdispersed data, the hyper-Poisson model can handle both over- and underdispersed crash data. Although not a major issue for the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model, the effect of each variable on the expected mean of crashes is easily interpretable in the case of this new model. PMID:25385093

  19. Accounting for Uncertainty in Confounder and Effect Modifier Selection when Estimating Average Causal Effects in Generalized Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Zigler, Corwin Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Summary Confounder selection and adjustment are essential elements of assessing the causal effect of an exposure or treatment in observational studies. Building upon work by Wang et al. (2012) and Lefebvre et al. (2014), we propose and evaluate a Bayesian method to estimate average causal effects in studies with a large number of potential confounders, relatively few observations, likely interactions between confounders and the exposure of interest, and uncertainty on which confounders and interaction terms should be included. Our method is applicable across all exposures and outcomes that can be handled through generalized linear models. In this general setting, estimation of the average causal effect is different from estimation of the exposure coefficient in the outcome model due to non-collapsibility. We implement a Bayesian bootstrap procedure to integrate over the distribution of potential confounders and to estimate the causal effect. Our method permits estimation of both the overall population causal effect and effects in specified subpopulations, providing clear characterization of heterogeneous exposure effects that may vary considerably across different covariate profiles. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in small sample size situations with 100 to 150 observations and 50 covariates. The method is applied to data on 15060 US Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with a malignant brain tumor between 2000 and 2009 to evaluate whether surgery reduces hospital readmissions within thirty days of diagnosis. PMID:25899155

  20. Unified Einstein-Virasoro Master Equation in the General Non-Linear Sigma Model

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, J. de; Halpern, M.B.

    1996-06-05

    The Virasoro master equation (VME) describes the general affine-Virasoro construction $T=L^abJ_aJ_b+iD^a \\dif J_a$ in the operator algebra of the WZW model, where $L^ab$ is the inverse inertia tensor and $D^a $ is the improvement vector. In this paper, we generalize this construction to find the general (one-loop) Virasoro construction in the operator algebra of the general non-linear sigma model. The result is a unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation which couples the spacetime spin-two field $L^ab$ to the background fields of the sigma model. For a particular solution $L_G^ab$, the unified system reduces to the canonical stress tensors and conventional Einstein equations of the sigma model, and the system reduces to the general affine-Virasoro construction and the VME when the sigma model is taken to be the WZW action. More generally, the unified system describes a space of conformal field theories which is presumably much larger than the sum of the general affine-Virasoro construction and the sigma model with its canonical stress tensors. We also discuss a number of algebraic and geometrical properties of the system, including its relation to an unsolved problem in the theory of $G$-structures on manifolds with torsion.

  1. Numerical study of fourth-order linearized compact schemes for generalized NLS equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hong-lin; Shi, Han-sheng; Zhao, Ying

    2014-08-01

    The fourth-order compact approximation for the spatial second-derivative and several linearized approaches, including the time-lagging method of Zhang et al. (1995), the local-extrapolation technique of Chang et al. (1999) and the recent scheme of Dahlby et al. (2009), are considered in constructing fourth-order linearized compact difference (FLCD) schemes for generalized NLS equations. By applying a new time-lagging linearized approach, we propose a symmetric fourth-order linearized compact difference (SFLCD) scheme, which is shown to be more robust in long-time simulations of plane wave, breather, periodic traveling-wave and solitary wave solutions. Numerical experiments suggest that the SFLCD scheme is a little more accurate than some other FLCD schemes and the split-step compact difference scheme of Dehghan and Taleei (2010). Compared with the time-splitting pseudospectral method of Bao et al. (2003), our SFLCD method is more suitable for oscillating solutions or the problems with a rapidly varying potential.

  2. Normality of raw data in general linear models: The most widespread myth in statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    In years of statistical consulting for ecologists and wildlife biologists, by far the most common misconception we have come across has been the one about normality in general linear models. These comprise a very large part of the statistical models used in ecology and include t tests, simple and multiple linear regression, polynomial regression, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA). There is a widely held belief that the normality assumption pertains to the raw data rather than to the model residuals. We suspect that this error may also occur in countless published studies, whenever the normality assumption is tested prior to analysis. This may lead to the use of nonparametric alternatives (if there are any), when parametric tests would indeed be appropriate, or to use of transformations of raw data, which may introduce hidden assumptions such as multiplicative effects on the natural scale in the case of log-transformed data. Our aim here is to dispel this myth. We very briefly describe relevant theory for two cases of general linear models to show that the residuals need to be normally distributed if tests requiring normality are to be used, such as t and F tests. We then give two examples demonstrating that the distribution of the response variable may be nonnormal, and yet the residuals are well behaved. We do not go into the issue of how to test normality; instead we display the distributions of response variables and residuals graphically.

  3. A general theory of linear cosmological perturbations: scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, Macarena; Baker, Tessa; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Noller, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    We present a method for parametrizing linear cosmological perturbations of theories of gravity, around homogeneous and isotropic backgrounds. The method is sufficiently general and systematic that it can be applied to theories with any degrees of freedom (DoFs) and arbitrary gauge symmetries. In this paper, we focus on scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories, invariant under linear coordinate transformations. In the case of scalar-tensor theories, we use our framework to recover the simple parametrizations of linearized Horndeski and ``Beyond Horndeski'' theories, and also find higher-derivative corrections. In the case of vector-tensor theories, we first construct the most general quadratic action for perturbations that leads to second-order equations of motion, which propagates two scalar DoFs. Then we specialize to the case in which the vector field is time-like (à la Einstein-Aether gravity), where the theory only propagates one scalar DoF. As a result, we identify the complete forms of the quadratic actions for perturbations, and the number of free parameters that need to be defined, to cosmologically characterize these two broad classes of theories.

  4. Psychosocial Experiences and Adjustment among Adult Swedes with Superior General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalnacke, Jannica; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, special needs of high-ability individuals have received little attention. For this purpose, adult Swedes with superior general mental ability (GMA; N = 302), defined by an IQ score greater than 130 on tests of abstract reasoning, answered a questionnaire regarding their views of themselves and their giftedness. The participants also…

  5. Applications of General Systems Theory to the Development of an Adjustable Tutorial Software Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Hans J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the construction of a model of computer-assisted instruction using a qualitative block diagram based on general systems theory (GST) as a framework. Subject matter representation is discussed, and appendices include system variables and system equations of the GST model, as well as an example of developing flexible courseware. (Contains…

  6. Generalized stochastic resonance in a linear fractional system with a random delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shi-Long

    2012-12-01

    The generalized stochastic resonance (GSR) phenomena in a linear fractional random-delayed system driven by a weak periodic signal and an additive noise are considered in this paper. A random delay is considered for a linear fractional Langevin equation to describe the intercellular signal transmission and material exchange processes in ion channels. By virtue of the small delay approximation and Laplace transformation, the analytical expression for the amplitude of the first-order steady state moment is obtained. The simulation results show that the amplitude curves as functions of different system parameters behave non-monotonically and exhibit typical characteristics of GSR phenomena. Furthermore, a physical explanation for all the GSR phenomena is given and the cooperative effects of random delay and the fractional memory are also discussed.

  7. The generalized Dirichlet-Neumann map for linear elliptic PDEs and its numerical implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifalakis, A. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Fulton, S. R.; Saridakis, Y. G.

    2008-09-01

    A new approach for analyzing boundary value problems for linear and for integrable nonlinear PDEs was introduced in Fokas [A unified transform method for solving linear and certain nonlinear PDEs, Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 53 (1997) 1411-1443]. For linear elliptic PDEs, an important aspect of this approach is the characterization of a generalized Dirichlet to Neumann map: given the derivative of the solution along a direction of an arbitrary angle to the boundary, the derivative of the solution perpendicularly to this direction is computed without solving on the interior of the domain. This is based on the analysis of the so-called global relation, an equation which couples known and unknown components of the derivative on the boundary and which is valid for all values of a complex parameter k. A collocation-type numerical method for solving the global relation for the Laplace equation in an arbitrary bounded convex polygon was introduced in Fulton et al. [An analytical method for linear elliptic PDEs and its numerical implementation, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 167 (2004) 465-483]. Here, by choosing a different set of the "collocation points" (values for k), we present a significant improvement of the results in Fulton et al. [An analytical method for linear elliptic PDEs and its numerical implementation, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 167 (2004) 465-483]. The new collocation points lead to well-conditioned collocation methods. Their combination with sine basis functions leads to a collocation matrix whose diagonal blocks are point diagonal matrices yielding efficient implementation of iterative methods; numerical experimentation suggests quadratic convergence. The choice of Chebyshev basis functions leads to higher order convergence, which for regular polygons appear to be exponential.

  8. Random generalized linear model: a highly accurate and interpretable ensemble predictor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ensemble predictors such as the random forest are known to have superior accuracy but their black-box predictions are difficult to interpret. In contrast, a generalized linear model (GLM) is very interpretable especially when forward feature selection is used to construct the model. However, forward feature selection tends to overfit the data and leads to low predictive accuracy. Therefore, it remains an important research goal to combine the advantages of ensemble predictors (high accuracy) with the advantages of forward regression modeling (interpretability). To address this goal several articles have explored GLM based ensemble predictors. Since limited evaluations suggested that these ensemble predictors were less accurate than alternative predictors, they have found little attention in the literature. Results Comprehensive evaluations involving hundreds of genomic data sets, the UCI machine learning benchmark data, and simulations are used to give GLM based ensemble predictors a new and careful look. A novel bootstrap aggregated (bagged) GLM predictor that incorporates several elements of randomness and instability (random subspace method, optional interaction terms, forward variable selection) often outperforms a host of alternative prediction methods including random forests and penalized regression models (ridge regression, elastic net, lasso). This random generalized linear model (RGLM) predictor provides variable importance measures that can be used to define a “thinned” ensemble predictor (involving few features) that retains excellent predictive accuracy. Conclusion RGLM is a state of the art predictor that shares the advantages of a random forest (excellent predictive accuracy, feature importance measures, out-of-bag estimates of accuracy) with those of a forward selected generalized linear model (interpretability). These methods are implemented in the freely available R software package randomGLM. PMID:23323760

  9. Robust root clustering for linear uncertain systems using generalized Lyapunov theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yedavalli, R. K.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to the problem of matrix root clustering in subregions of a complex plane for linear state space models with real parameter uncertainty. The nominal matrix root clustering theory of Gutman & Jury (1981) using the generalized Liapunov equation is extended to the perturbed matrix case, and bounds are derived on the perturbation to maintain root clustering inside a given region. The theory makes it possible to obtain an explicit relationship between the parameters of the root clustering region and the uncertainty range of the parameter space.

  10. Standard errors for EM estimates in generalized linear models with random effects.

    PubMed

    Friedl, H; Kauermann, G

    2000-09-01

    A procedure is derived for computing standard errors of EM estimates in generalized linear models with random effects. Quadrature formulas are used to approximate the integrals in the EM algorithm, where two different approaches are pursued, i.e., Gauss-Hermite quadrature in the case of Gaussian random effects and nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation for an unspecified random effect distribution. An approximation of the expected Fisher information matrix is derived from an expansion of the EM estimating equations. This allows for inferential arguments based on EM estimates, as demonstrated by an example and simulations. PMID:10985213

  11. Flexible analysis of digital PCR experiments using generalized linear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Vynck, Matthijs; Vandesompele, Jo; Nijs, Nele; Menten, Björn; De Ganck, Ariane; Thas, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    The use of digital PCR for quantification of nucleic acids is rapidly growing. A major drawback remains the lack of flexible data analysis tools. Published analysis approaches are either tailored to specific problem settings or fail to take into account sources of variability. We propose the generalized linear mixed models framework as a flexible tool for analyzing a wide range of experiments. We also introduce a method for estimating reference gene stability to improve accuracy and precision of copy number and relative expression estimates. We demonstrate the usefulness of the methodology on a complex experimental setup. PMID:27551671

  12. Photonic approach for microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution using birefringence effect in highly non-linear fiber.

    PubMed

    Feng, Danqi; Xie, Heng; Qian, Lifen; Bai, Qinhong; Sun, Junqiang

    2015-06-29

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel approach for microwave frequency measurement utilizing birefringence effect in the highly non-linear fiber (HNLF). A detailed theoretical analysis is presented to implement the adjustable measurement range and resolution. By stimulating a complementary polarization-domain interferometer pair in the HNLF, a mathematical expression that relates the microwave frequency and amplitude comparison function is developed. We carry out a proof-to-concept experiment. A frequency measurement range of 2.5-30 GHz with a measurement error within 0.5 GHz is achieved except 16-17.5 GHz. This method is all-optical and requires no high-speed electronic components. PMID:26191769

  13. On isocentre adjustment and quality control in linear accelerator based radiosurgery with circular collimators and room lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treuer, H.; Hoevels, M.; Luyken, K.; Gierich, A.; Kocher, M.; Müller, R.-P.; Sturm, V.

    2000-08-01

    We have developed a densitometric method for measuring the isocentric accuracy and the accuracy of marking the isocentre position for linear accelerator based radiosurgery with circular collimators and room lasers. Isocentric shots are used to determine the accuracy of marking the isocentre position with room lasers and star shots are used to determine the wobble of the gantry and table rotation movement, the effect of gantry sag, the stereotactic collimator alignment, and the minimal distance between gantry and table rotation axes. Since the method is based on densitometric measurements, beam spot stability is implicitly tested. The method developed is also suitable for quality assurance and has proved to be useful in optimizing isocentric accuracy. The method is simple to perform and only requires a film box and film scanner for instrumentation. Thus, the method has the potential to become widely available and may therefore be useful in standardizing the description of linear accelerator based radiosurgical systems.

  14. Digit Span is (mostly) related linearly to general intelligence: Every extra bit of span counts.

    PubMed

    Gignac, Gilles E; Weiss, Lawrence G

    2015-12-01

    Historically, Digit Span has been regarded as a relatively poor indicator of general intellectual functioning (g). In fact, Wechsler (1958) contended that beyond an average level of Digit Span performance, there was little benefit to possessing a greater memory span. Although Wechsler's position does not appear to have ever been tested empirically, it does appear to have become clinical lore. Consequently, the purpose of this investigation was to test Wechsler's contention on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition normative sample (N = 1,800; ages: 16 - 69). Based on linear and nonlinear contrast analyses of means, as well as linear and nonlinear bifactor model analyses, all 3 Digit Span indicators (LDSF, LDSB, and LDSS) were found to exhibit primarily linear associations with FSIQ/g. Thus, the commonly held position that Digit Span performance beyond an average level is not indicative of greater intellectual functioning was not supported. The results are discussed in light of the increasing evidence across multiple domains that memory span plays an important role in intellectual functioning. PMID:25774642

  15. Thermodynamic bounds and general properties of optimal efficiency and power in linear responses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2014-10-01

    We study the optimal exergy efficiency and power for thermodynamic systems with an Onsager-type "current-force" relationship describing the linear response to external influences. We derive, in analytic forms, the maximum efficiency and optimal efficiency for maximum power for a thermodynamic machine described by a N×N symmetric Onsager matrix with arbitrary integer N. The figure of merit is expressed in terms of the largest eigenvalue of the "coupling matrix" which is solely determined by the Onsager matrix. Some simple but general relationships between the power and efficiency at the conditions for (i) maximum efficiency and (ii) optimal efficiency for maximum power are obtained. We show how the second law of thermodynamics bounds the optimal efficiency and the Onsager matrix and relate those bounds together. The maximum power theorem (Jacobi's Law) is generalized to all thermodynamic machines with a symmetric Onsager matrix in the linear-response regime. We also discuss systems with an asymmetric Onsager matrix (such as systems under magnetic field) for a particular situation and we show that the reversible limit of efficiency can be reached at finite output power. Cooperative effects are found to improve the figure of merit significantly in systems with multiply cross-correlated responses. Application to example systems demonstrates that the theory is helpful in guiding the search for high performance materials and structures in energy researches. PMID:25375457

  16. Regionalization of Parameters of the Continuous Rainfall-Runoff model Based on Bayesian Generalized Linear Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Jeong; Kim, Ki-Young; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kwon, Hyun-Han

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that the appropriate simulation of natural streamflow at ungauged sites is one of the fundamental challenges to hydrology community. In particular, the key to reliable runoff simulation in ungauged basins is a reliable rainfall-runoff model and a parameter estimation. In general, parameter estimation in rainfall-runoff models is a complex issue due to an insufficient hydrologic data. This study aims to regionalize the parameters of the continuous rainfall-runoff model in conjunction with Bayesian statistical techniques to facilitate uncertainty analysis. First, this study uses the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo scheme for the Sacramento rainfall-runoff model that has been widely used around the world. The Sacramento model is calibrated against daily runoff observation, and thirteen parameters of the model are optimized as well as posterior distributor distributions for each parameter are derived. Second, we applied Bayesian generalized linear regression model to set of the parameters with basin characteristics (e.g. area and slope), to obtain a functional relationship between pairs of variables. The proposed model was validated in two gauged watersheds in accordance with the efficiency criteria such as the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, coefficient of efficiency, index of agreement and coefficient of correlation. The future study will be further focused on uncertainty analysis to fully incorporate propagation of the uncertainty into the regionalization framework. KEYWORDS: Ungauge, Parameter, Sacramento, Generalized linear model, Regionalization Acknowledgement This research was supported by a Grant (13SCIPA01) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) of Korea government and the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA).

  17. Lattice structure for generalized-support multidimensional linear phase perfect reconstruction filter bank.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xieping; Li, Bodong; Xiao, Fen

    2013-12-01

    Multidimensional linear phase perfect reconstruction filter bank (MDLPPRFB) can be designed and implemented via lattice structure. The lattice structure for the MDLPPRFB with filter support N(MΞ) has been published by Muramatsu , where M is the decimation matrix, Ξ is a positive integer diagonal matrix, and N(N) denotes the set of integer vectors in the fundamental parallelepiped of the matrix N. Obviously, if Ξ is chosen to be other positive diagonal matrices instead of only positive integer ones, the corresponding lattice structure would provide more choices of filter banks, offering better trade-off between filter support and filter performance. We call such resulted filter bank as generalized-support MDLPPRFB (GSMDLPPRFB). The lattice structure for GSMDLPPRFB, however, cannot be designed by simply generalizing the process that Muramatsu employed. Furthermore, the related theories to assist the design also become different from those used by Muramatsu . Such issues will be addressed in this paper. To guide the design of GSMDLPPRFB, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for a generalized-support multidimensional filter bank to be linear-phase. To determine the cases we can find a GSMDLPPRFB, the necessary conditions about the existence of it are proposed to be related with filter support and symmetry polarity (i.e., the number of symmetric filters ns and antisymmetric filters na). Based on a process (different from the one Muramatsu used) that combines several polyphase matrices to construct the starting block, one of the core building blocks of lattice structure, the lattice structure for GSMDLPPRFB is developed and shown to be minimal. Additionally, the result in this paper includes Muramatsu's as a special case. PMID:23974625

  18. The heritability of general cognitive ability increases linearly from childhood to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Haworth, C M A; Wright, M J; Luciano, M; Martin, N G; de Geus, E J C; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Bartels, M; Posthuma, D; Boomsma, D I; Davis, O S P; Kovas, Y; Corley, R P; Defries, J C; Hewitt, J K; Olson, R K; Rhea, S-A; Wadsworth, S J; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Thompson, L A; Hart, S A; Petrill, S A; Lubinski, D; Plomin, R

    2010-11-01

    Although common sense suggests that environmental influences increasingly account for individual differences in behavior as experiences accumulate during the course of life, this hypothesis has not previously been tested, in part because of the large sample sizes needed for an adequately powered analysis. Here we show for general cognitive ability that, to the contrary, genetic influence increases with age. The heritability of general cognitive ability increases significantly and linearly from 41% in childhood (9 years) to 55% in adolescence (12 years) and to 66% in young adulthood (17 years) in a sample of 11 000 pairs of twins from four countries, a larger sample than all previous studies combined. In addition to its far-reaching implications for neuroscience and molecular genetics, this finding suggests new ways of thinking about the interface between nature and nurture during the school years. Why, despite life's 'slings and arrows of outrageous fortune', do genetically driven differences increasingly account for differences in general cognitive ability? We suggest that the answer lies with genotype-environment correlation: as children grow up, they increasingly select, modify and even create their own experiences in part based on their genetic propensities. PMID:19488046

  19. A General Linear Relaxometry Model of R1 Using Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Martina F; Helms, Gunther; Lutti, Antoine; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The longitudinal relaxation rate (R1) measured in vivo depends on the local microstructural properties of the tissue, such as macromolecular, iron, and water content. Here, we use whole brain multiparametric in vivo data and a general linear relaxometry model to describe the dependence of R1 on these components. We explore a) the validity of having a single fixed set of model coefficients for the whole brain and b) the stability of the model coefficients in a large cohort. Methods Maps of magnetization transfer (MT) and effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) were used as surrogates for macromolecular and iron content, respectively. Spatial variations in these parameters reflected variations in underlying tissue microstructure. A linear model was applied to the whole brain, including gray/white matter and deep brain structures, to determine the global model coefficients. Synthetic R1 values were then calculated using these coefficients and compared with the measured R1 maps. Results The model's validity was demonstrated by correspondence between the synthetic and measured R1 values and by high stability of the model coefficients across a large cohort. Conclusion A single set of global coefficients can be used to relate R1, MT, and R2* across the whole brain. Our population study demonstrates the robustness and stability of the model. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Magn Reson Med 73:1309–1314, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24700606

  20. Linear stability of a generalized multi-anticipative car following model with time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoduy, D.

    2015-05-01

    In traffic flow, the multi-anticipative driving behavior describes the reaction of a vehicle to the driving behavior of many vehicles in front where as the time delay is defined as a physiological parameter reflecting the period of time between perceiving a stimulus of leading vehicles and performing a relevant action such as acceleration or deceleration. A lot of effort has been undertaken to understand the effects of either multi-anticipative driving behavior or time delays on traffic flow dynamics. This paper is a first attempt to analytically investigate the dynamics of a generalized class of car-following models with multi-anticipative driving behavior and different time delays associated with such multi-anticipations. To this end, this paper puts forwards to deriving the (long-wavelength) linear stability condition of such a car-following model and study how the combination of different choices of multi-anticipations and time delays affects the instabilities of traffic flow with respect to a small perturbation. It is found that the effect of delays and multi-anticipations are model-dependent, that is, the destabilization effect of delays is suppressed by the stabilization effect of multi-anticipations. Moreover, the weight factor reflecting the distribution of the driver's sensing to the relative gaps of leading vehicles is less sensitive to the linear stability condition of traffic flow than the weight factor for the relative speed of those leading vehicles.

  1. Model Averaging Methods for Weight Trimming in Generalized Linear Regression Models

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    In sample surveys where units have unequal probabilities of inclusion, associations between the inclusion probability and the statistic of interest can induce bias in unweighted estimates. This is true even in regression models, where the estimates of the population slope may be biased if the underlying mean model is misspecified or the sampling is nonignorable. Weights equal to the inverse of the probability of inclusion are often used to counteract this bias. Highly disproportional sample designs have highly variable weights; weight trimming reduces large weights to a maximum value, reducing variability but introducing bias. Most standard approaches are ad hoc in that they do not use the data to optimize bias-variance trade-offs. This article uses Bayesian model averaging to create “data driven” weight trimming estimators. We extend previous results for linear regression models (Elliott 2008) to generalized linear regression models, developing robust models that approximate fully-weighted estimators when bias correction is of greatest importance, and approximate unweighted estimators when variance reduction is critical. PMID:23275683

  2. Solving the Linear Balance Equation on the Globe as a Generalized Inverse Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Huei-Iin; Robertson, Franklin R.

    1999-01-01

    A generalized (pseudo) inverse technique was developed to facilitate a better understanding of the numerical effects of tropical singularities inherent in the spectral linear balance equation (LBE). Depending upon the truncation, various levels of determinancy are manifest. The traditional fully-determined (FD) systems give rise to a strong response, while the under-determined (UD) systems yield a weak response to the tropical singularities. The over-determined (OD) systems result in a modest response and a large residual in the tropics. The FD and OD systems can be alternatively solved by the iterative method. Differences in the solutions of an UD system exist between the inverse technique and the iterative method owing to the non- uniqueness of the problem. A realistic balanced wind was obtained by solving the principal components of the spectral LBE in terms of vorticity in an intermediate resolution. Improved solutions were achieved by including the singular-component solutions which best fit the observed wind data.

  3. Generalized Linear Models for Identifying Predictors of the Evolutionary Diffusion of Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Rachel; Magee, Daniel; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe; Scotch, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics and phylogeography models use viral sequence data to analyze spread of epidemics and pandemics. However, few of these models have included analytical methods for testing whether certain predictors such as population density, rates of disease migration, and climate are drivers of spatial spread. Understanding the specific factors that drive spatial diffusion of viruses is critical for targeting public health interventions and curbing spread. In this paper we describe the application and evaluation of a model that integrates demographic and environmental predictors with molecular sequence data. The approach parameterizes evolutionary spread of RNA viruses as a generalized linear model (GLM) within a Bayesian inference framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). We evaluate this approach by reconstructing the spread of H5N1 in Egypt while assessing the impact of individual predictors on evolutionary diffusion of the virus. PMID:25717395

  4. Generalized linear joint PP-PS inversion based on two constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Feng-Qi; Wang, Yan-Chun

    2016-03-01

    Conventional joint PP—PS inversion is based on approximations of the Zoeppritz equations and assumes constant VP/VS; therefore, the inversion precision and stability cannot satisfy current exploration requirements. We propose a joint PP—PS inversion method based on the exact Zoeppritz equations that combines Bayesian statistics and generalized linear inversion. A forward model based on the exact Zoeppritz equations is built to minimize the error of the approximations in the large-angle data, the prior distribution of the model parameters is added as a regularization item to decrease the ill-posed nature of the inversion, low-frequency constraints are introduced to stabilize the low-frequency data and improve robustness, and a fast algorithm is used to solve the objective function while minimizing the computational load. The proposed method has superior antinoising properties and well reproduces real data.

  5. Computing Confidence Bounds for Power and Sample Size of the General Linear Univariate Model

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Douglas J.; Muller, Keith E.

    2013-01-01

    The power of a test, the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis in favor of an alternative, may be computed using estimates of one or more distributional parameters. Statisticians frequently fix mean values and calculate power or sample size using a variance estimate from an existing study. Hence computed power becomes a random variable for a fixed sample size. Likewise, the sample size necessary to achieve a fixed power varies randomly. Standard statistical practice requires reporting uncertainty associated with such point estimates. Previous authors studied an asymptotically unbiased method of obtaining confidence intervals for noncentrality and power of the general linear univariate model in this setting. We provide exact confidence intervals for noncentrality, power, and sample size. Such confidence intervals, particularly one-sided intervals, help in planning a future study and in evaluating existing studies. PMID:24039272

  6. A Bayesian approach for inducing sparsity in generalized linear models with multi-category response

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The dimension and complexity of high-throughput gene expression data create many challenges for downstream analysis. Several approaches exist to reduce the number of variables with respect to small sample sizes. In this study, we utilized the Generalized Double Pareto (GDP) prior to induce sparsity in a Bayesian Generalized Linear Model (GLM) setting. The approach was evaluated using a publicly available microarray dataset containing 99 samples corresponding to four different prostate cancer subtypes. Results A hierarchical Sparse Bayesian GLM using GDP prior (SBGG) was developed to take into account the progressive nature of the response variable. We obtained an average overall classification accuracy between 82.5% and 94%, which was higher than Support Vector Machine, Random Forest or a Sparse Bayesian GLM using double exponential priors. Additionally, SBGG outperforms the other 3 methods in correctly identifying pre-metastatic stages of cancer progression, which can prove extremely valuable for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Importantly, using Geneset Cohesion Analysis Tool, we found that the top 100 genes produced by SBGG had an average functional cohesion p-value of 2.0E-4 compared to 0.007 to 0.131 produced by the other methods. Conclusions Using GDP in a Bayesian GLM model applied to cancer progression data results in better subclass prediction. In particular, the method identifies pre-metastatic stages of prostate cancer with substantially better accuracy and produces more functionally relevant gene sets. PMID:26423345

  7. Extracting H I cosmological signal with generalized needlet internal linear combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivari, L. C.; Remazeilles, M.; Dickinson, C.

    2016-03-01

    H I intensity mapping is a new observational technique to map fluctuations in the large-scale structure of matter using the 21 cm emission line of atomic hydrogen (H I). Sensitive H I intensity mapping experiments have the potential to detect Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at low redshifts (z ≲ 1) in order to constrain the properties of dark energy. Observations of the H I signal will be contaminated by instrumental noise and, more significantly, by astrophysical foregrounds, such as Galactic synchrotron emission, which is at least four orders of magnitude brighter than the H I signal. Foreground cleaning is recognized as one of the key challenges for future radio astronomy surveys. We study the ability of the Generalized Needlet Internal Linear Combination (GNILC) method to subtract radio foregrounds and to recover the cosmological H I signal for a general H I intensity mapping experiment. The GNILC method is a new technique that uses both frequency and spatial information to separate the components of the observed data. Our results show that the method is robust to the complexity of the foregrounds. For simulated radio observations including H I emission, Galactic synchrotron, Galactic free-free, radio sources, and 0.05 mK thermal noise, we find that the GNILC method can reconstruct the H I power spectrum for multipoles 30 < ℓ < 150 with 6 per cent accuracy on 50 per cent of the sky for a redshift z ˜ 0.25.

  8. Unification of the general non-linear sigma model and the Virasoro master equation

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, J. de; Halpern, M.B. |

    1997-06-01

    The Virasoro master equation describes a large set of conformal field theories known as the affine-Virasoro constructions, in the operator algebra (affinie Lie algebra) of the WZW model, while the einstein equations of the general non-linear sigma model describe another large set of conformal field theories. This talk summarizes recent work which unifies these two sets of conformal field theories, together with a presumable large class of new conformal field theories. The basic idea is to consider spin-two operators of the form L{sub ij}{partial_derivative}x{sup i}{partial_derivative}x{sup j} in the background of a general sigma model. The requirement that these operators satisfy the Virasoro algebra leads to a set of equations called the unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation, in which the spin-two spacetime field L{sub ij} cuples to the usual spacetime fields of the sigma model. The one-loop form of this unified system is presented, and some of its algebraic and geometric properties are discussed.

  9. SPARSE GENERALIZED FUNCTIONAL LINEAR MODEL FOR PREDICTING REMISSION STATUS OF DEPRESSION PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yashu; Nie, Zhi; Zhou, Jiayu; Farnum, Michael; Narayan, Vaibhav A; Wittenberg, Gayle; Ye, Jieping

    2014-01-01

    Complex diseases such as major depression affect people over time in complicated patterns. Longitudinal data analysis is thus crucial for understanding and prognosis of such diseases and has received considerable attention in the biomedical research community. Traditional classification and regression methods have been commonly applied in a simple (controlled) clinical setting with a small number of time points. However, these methods cannot be easily extended to the more general setting for longitudinal analysis, as they are not inherently built for time-dependent data. Functional regression, in contrast, is capable of identifying the relationship between features and outcomes along with time information by assuming features and/or outcomes as random functions over time rather than independent random variables. In this paper, we propose a novel sparse generalized functional linear model for the prediction of treatment remission status of the depression participants with longitudinal features. Compared to traditional functional regression models, our model enables high-dimensional learning, smoothness of functional coefficients, longitudinal feature selection and interpretable estimation of functional coefficients. Extensive experiments have been conducted on the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) data set and the results show that the proposed sparse functional regression method achieves significantly higher prediction power than existing approaches. PMID:24297562

  10. Generalized linear transport theory in dilute neutral gases and dispersion relation of sound waves.

    PubMed

    Bendib, A; Bendib-Kalache, K; Gombert, M M; Imadouchene, N

    2006-10-01

    The transport processes in dilute neutral gases are studied by using the kinetic equation with a collision relaxation model that meets all conservation requirements. The kinetic equation is solved keeping the whole anisotropic part of the distribution function with the use of the continued fractions. The conservative laws of the collision operator are taken into account with the projection operator techniques. The generalized heat flux and stress tensor are calculated in the linear approximation, as functions of the lower moments, i.e., the density, the flow velocity and the temperature. The results obtained are valid for arbitrary collision frequency nu with the respect to kv(t) and the characteristic frequency omega, where k(-1) is the characteristic length scale of the system and v(t) is the thermal velocity. The transport coefficients constitute accurate closure relations for the generalized hydrodynamic equations. An application to the dispersion and the attenuation of sound waves in the whole collisionality regime is presented. The results obtained are in very good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:17155048

  11. Characterization of linear diattenuator and retarders using a two-modulator generalized ellipsometer (2-MGE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellison, Gerald E., Jr.; Griffiths, C. Owen; Holcomb, David E.; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    2002-09-01

    The two-modulator generalized ellipsometer (2-MGE) is a spectroscopic polarization-sensitive optical instrument that is sensitive to both standard ellipsometric parameters from isotropic samples as well as cross polarization terms arising from anisotropic samples. In reflection mode, teh 2-MGE has been used to measure the complex dielectric functions of several uniaxial crystals, including TiO2, ZnO, and BiI3. The 2-MGE can also be used in the transmission mode, in which the complete Mueller matrix of a sample can be determined (using 4 zone measurements). If the sample is a linear diattenuator and retarder, then only a single zone is required to determine the sample retardation, diattenuation, the principal axis direction, and the depolarization. These measurements have been performed in two different modes: 1) Spectroscopic, where the current wavelength limits are 260 to 850 nm, and 2) Spatially resolved (Current resolution ~30-50 microns) at a single wavelength. The latter mode results in retardation, linear diattenuation, and principal axis direction "maps" of the sample. Two examples are examined in this paper. First, a simple Polaroid film polarizer is measured, where it is seen that the device behaves nearly ideally in its design wavelength range (visible), but acts more as a retarder in the infrared. Second, congruently grown LiNbO3 is examined under bias. These results show that there are significant variations in the electric field-Pockels coefficient product within the material. Spectroscopic measurements are used to determine the dispersion of the r22 Pockels coefficient.

  12. Development and validation of a general purpose linearization program for rigid aircraft models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Antoniewicz, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    A FORTRAN program that provides the user with a powerful and flexible tool for the linearization of aircraft models is discussed. The program LINEAR numerically determines a linear systems model using nonlinear equations of motion and a user-supplied, nonlinear aerodynamic model. The system model determined by LINEAR consists of matrices for both the state and observation equations. The program has been designed to allow easy selection and definition of the state, control, and observation variables to be used in a particular model. Also, included in the report is a comparison of linear and nonlinear models for a high performance aircraft.

  13. Efficient analysis of Q-level nested hierarchical general linear models given ignorable missing data.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yongyun; Raudenbush, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    This article extends single-level missing data methods to efficient estimation of a Q-level nested hierarchical general linear model given ignorable missing data with a general missing pattern at any of the Q levels. The key idea is to reexpress a desired hierarchical model as the joint distribution of all variables including the outcome that are subject to missingness, conditional on all of the covariates that are completely observed and to estimate the joint model under normal theory. The unconstrained joint model, however, identifies extraneous parameters that are not of interest in subsequent analysis of the hierarchical model and that rapidly multiply as the number of levels, the number of variables subject to missingness, and the number of random coefficients grow. Therefore, the joint model may be extremely high dimensional and difficult to estimate well unless constraints are imposed to avoid the proliferation of extraneous covariance components at each level. Furthermore, the over-identified hierarchical model may produce considerably biased inferences. The challenge is to represent the constraints within the framework of the Q-level model in a way that is uniform without regard to Q; in a way that facilitates efficient computation for any number of Q levels; and also in a way that produces unbiased and efficient analysis of the hierarchical model. Our approach yields Q-step recursive estimation and imputation procedures whose qth-step computation involves only level-q data given higher-level computation components. We illustrate the approach with a study of the growth in body mass index analyzing a national sample of elementary school children. PMID:24077621

  14. Generalized Jeans' Escape of Pick-Up Ions in Quasi-Linear Relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2011-01-01

    Jeans escape is a well-validated formulation of upper atmospheric escape that we have generalized to estimate plasma escape from ionospheres. It involves the computation of the parts of particle velocity space that are unbound by the gravitational potential at the exobase, followed by a calculation of the flux carried by such unbound particles as they escape from the potential well. To generalize this approach for ions, we superposed an electrostatic ambipolar potential and a centrifugal potential, for motions across and along a divergent magnetic field. We then considered how the presence of superthermal electrons, produced by precipitating auroral primary electrons, controls the ambipolar potential. We also showed that the centrifugal potential plays a small role in controlling the mass escape flux from the terrestrial ionosphere. We then applied the transverse ion velocity distribution produced when ions, picked up by supersonic (i.e., auroral) ionospheric convection, relax via quasi-linear diffusion, as estimated for cometary comas [1]. The results provide a theoretical basis for observed ion escape response to electromagnetic and kinetic energy sources. They also suggest that super-sonic but sub-Alfvenic flow, with ion pick-up, is a unique and important regime of ion-neutral coupling, in which plasma wave-particle interactions are driven by ion-neutral collisions at densities for which the collision frequency falls near or below the gyro-frequency. As another possible illustration of this process, the heliopause ribbon discovered by the IBEX mission involves interactions between the solar wind ions and the interstellar neutral gas, in a regime that may be analogous [2].

  15. The overlooked potential of Generalized Linear Models in astronomy-II: Gamma regression and photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; de Souza, R. S.; Krone-Martins, A.; Cameron, E.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Hilbe, J.

    2015-04-01

    Machine learning techniques offer a precious tool box for use within astronomy to solve problems involving so-called big data. They provide a means to make accurate predictions about a particular system without prior knowledge of the underlying physical processes of the data. In this article, and the companion papers of this series, we present the set of Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) as a fast alternative method for tackling general astronomical problems, including the ones related to the machine learning paradigm. To demonstrate the applicability of GLMs to inherently positive and continuous physical observables, we explore their use in estimating the photometric redshifts of galaxies from their multi-wavelength photometry. Using the gamma family with a log link function we predict redshifts from the PHoto-z Accuracy Testing simulated catalogue and a subset of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey from Data Release 10. We obtain fits that result in catastrophic outlier rates as low as ∼1% for simulated and ∼2% for real data. Moreover, we can easily obtain such levels of precision within a matter of seconds on a normal desktop computer and with training sets that contain merely thousands of galaxies. Our software is made publicly available as a user-friendly package developed in Python, R and via an interactive web application. This software allows users to apply a set of GLMs to their own photometric catalogues and generates publication quality plots with minimum effort. By facilitating their ease of use to the astronomical community, this paper series aims to make GLMs widely known and to encourage their implementation in future large-scale projects, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  16. MGMRES: A generalization of GMRES for solving large sparse nonsymmetric linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.M.; Chen, J.Y.

    1994-12-31

    The authors are concerned with the solution of the linear system (1): Au = b, where A is a real square nonsingular matrix which is large, sparse and non-symmetric. They consider the use of Krylov subspace methods. They first choose an initial approximation u{sup (0)} to the solution {bar u} = A{sup {minus}1}B of (1). They also choose an auxiliary matrix Z which is nonsingular. For n = 1,2,{hor_ellipsis} they determine u{sup (n)} such that u{sup (n)} {minus} u{sup (0)}{epsilon}K{sub n}(r{sup (0)},A) where K{sub n}(r{sup (0)},A) is the (Krylov) subspace spanned by the Krylov vectors r{sup (0)}, Ar{sup (0)}, {hor_ellipsis}, A{sup n{minus}1}r{sup 0} and where r{sup (0)} = b{minus}Au{sup (0)}. If ZA is SPD they also require that (u{sup (n)}{minus}{bar u}, ZA(u{sup (n)}{minus}{bar u})) be minimized. If, on the other hand, ZA is not SPD, then they require that the Galerkin condition, (Zr{sup n}, v) = 0, be satisfied for all v{epsilon}K{sub n}(r{sup (0)}, A) where r{sup n} = b{minus}Au{sup (n)}. In this paper the authors consider a generalization of GMRES. This generalized method, which they refer to as `MGMRES`, is very similar to GMRES except that they let Z = A{sup T}Y where Y is a nonsingular matrix which is symmetric by not necessarily SPD.

  17. Applications of multivariate modeling to neuroimaging group analysis: A comprehensive alternative to univariate general linear model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Adleman, Nancy E.; Saad, Ziad S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Cox, RobertW.

    2014-01-01

    All neuroimaging packages can handle group analysis with t-tests or general linear modeling (GLM). However, they are quite hamstrung when there are multiple within-subject factors or when quantitative covariates are involved in the presence of a within-subject factor. In addition, sphericity is typically assumed for the variance–covariance structure when there are more than two levels in a within-subject factor. To overcome such limitations in the traditional AN(C)OVA and GLM, we adopt a multivariate modeling (MVM) approach to analyzing neuroimaging data at the group level with the following advantages: a) there is no limit on the number of factors as long as sample sizes are deemed appropriate; b) quantitative covariates can be analyzed together with within- subject factors; c) when a within-subject factor is involved, three testing methodologies are provided: traditional univariate testing (UVT)with sphericity assumption (UVT-UC) and with correction when the assumption is violated (UVT-SC), and within-subject multivariate testing (MVT-WS); d) to correct for sphericity violation at the voxel level, we propose a hybrid testing (HT) approach that achieves equal or higher power via combining traditional sphericity correction methods (Greenhouse–Geisser and Huynh–Feldt) with MVT-WS. PMID:24954281

  18. Developing a methodology to predict PM10 concentrations in urban areas using generalized linear models.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J M; Teodoro, F; Cerdeira, R; Coelho, L M R; Kumar, Prashant; Carvalho, M G

    2016-09-01

    A methodology to predict PM10 concentrations in urban outdoor environments is developed based on the generalized linear models (GLMs). The methodology is based on the relationship developed between atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants (i.e. CO, NO2, NOx, VOCs, SO2) and meteorological variables (i.e. ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH) and wind speed) for a city (Barreiro) of Portugal. The model uses air pollution and meteorological data from the Portuguese monitoring air quality station networks. The developed GLM considers PM10 concentrations as a dependent variable, and both the gaseous pollutants and meteorological variables as explanatory independent variables. A logarithmic link function was considered with a Poisson probability distribution. Particular attention was given to cases with air temperatures both below and above 25°C. The best performance for modelled results against the measured data was achieved for the model with values of air temperature above 25°C compared with the model considering all ranges of air temperatures and with the model considering only temperature below 25°C. The model was also tested with similar data from another Portuguese city, Oporto, and results found to behave similarly. It is concluded that this model and the methodology could be adopted for other cities to predict PM10 concentrations when these data are not available by measurements from air quality monitoring stations or other acquisition means. PMID:26839052

  19. Maximal freedom at minimum cost: linear large-scale structure in general modifications of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, Emilio; Sawicki, Ignacy E-mail: ignacy.sawicki@outlook.com

    2014-07-01

    We present a turnkey solution, ready for implementation in numerical codes, for the study of linear structure formation in general scalar-tensor models involving a single universally coupled scalar field. We show that the totality of cosmological information on the gravitational sector can be compressed — without any redundancy — into five independent and arbitrary functions of time only and one constant. These describe physical properties of the universe: the observable background expansion history, fractional matter density today, and four functions of time describing the properties of the dark energy. We show that two of those dark-energy property functions control the existence of anisotropic stress, the other two — dark-energy clustering, both of which are can be scale-dependent. All these properties can in principle be measured, but no information on the underlying theory of acceleration beyond this can be obtained. We present a translation between popular models of late-time acceleration (e.g. perfect fluids, f(R), kinetic gravity braiding, galileons), as well as the effective field theory framework, and our formulation. In this way, implementing this formulation numerically would give a single tool which could consistently test the majority of models of late-time acceleration heretofore proposed.

  20. Master equation solutions in the linear regime of characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño M., C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2015-12-01

    From the field equations in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity, Bishop, for a Schwarzschild's background, and Mädler, for a Minkowski's background, were able to show that it is possible to derive a fourth order ordinary differential equation, called master equation, for the J metric variable of the Bondi-Sachs metric. Once β , another Bondi-Sachs potential, is obtained from the field equations, and J is obtained from the master equation, the other metric variables are solved integrating directly the rest of the field equations. In the past, the master equation was solved for the first multipolar terms, for both the Minkowski's and Schwarzschild's backgrounds. Also, Mädler recently reported a generalisation of the exact solutions to the linearised field equations when a Minkowski's background is considered, expressing the master equation family of solutions for the vacuum in terms of Bessel's functions of the first and the second kind. Here, we report new solutions to the master equation for any multipolar moment l , with and without matter sources in terms only of the first kind Bessel's functions for the Minkowski, and in terms of the Confluent Heun's functions (Generalised Hypergeometric) for radiative (nonradiative) case in the Schwarzschild's background. We particularize our families of solutions for the known cases for l =2 reported previously in the literature and find complete agreement, showing the robustness of our results.

  1. The overlooked potential of Generalized Linear Models in astronomy, I: Binomial regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Cameron, E.; Killedar, M.; Hilbe, J.; Vilalta, R.; Maio, U.; Biffi, V.; Ciardi, B.; Riggs, J. D.

    2015-09-01

    Revealing hidden patterns in astronomical data is often the path to fundamental scientific breakthroughs; meanwhile the complexity of scientific enquiry increases as more subtle relationships are sought. Contemporary data analysis problems often elude the capabilities of classical statistical techniques, suggesting the use of cutting edge statistical methods. In this light, astronomers have overlooked a whole family of statistical techniques for exploratory data analysis and robust regression, the so-called Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). In this paper-the first in a series aimed at illustrating the power of these methods in astronomical applications-we elucidate the potential of a particular class of GLMs for handling binary/binomial data, the so-called logit and probit regression techniques, from both a maximum likelihood and a Bayesian perspective. As a case in point, we present the use of these GLMs to explore the conditions of star formation activity and metal enrichment in primordial minihaloes from cosmological hydro-simulations including detailed chemistry, gas physics, and stellar feedback. We predict that for a dark mini-halo with metallicity ≈ 1.3 × 10-4Z⨀, an increase of 1.2 × 10-2 in the gas molecular fraction, increases the probability of star formation occurrence by a factor of 75%. Finally, we highlight the use of receiver operating characteristic curves as a diagnostic for binary classifiers, and ultimately we use these to demonstrate the competitive predictive performance of GLMs against the popular technique of artificial neural networks.

  2. Statistical Methods for Quality Control of Steel Coils Manufacturing Process using Generalized Linear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Díaz, J. Carlos

    2009-11-01

    Fault detection and diagnosis is an important problem in process engineering. Process equipments are subject to malfunctions during operation. Galvanized steel is a value added product, furnishing effective performance by combining the corrosion resistance of zinc with the strength and formability of steel. Fault detection and diagnosis is an important problem in continuous hot dip galvanizing and the increasingly stringent quality requirements in automotive industry has also demanded ongoing efforts in process control to make the process more robust. When faults occur, they change the relationship among these observed variables. This work compares different statistical regression models proposed in the literature for estimating the quality of galvanized steel coils on the basis of short time histories. Data for 26 batches were available. Five variables were selected for monitoring the process: the steel strip velocity, four bath temperatures and bath level. The entire data consisting of 48 galvanized steel coils was divided into sets. The first training data set was 25 conforming coils and the second data set was 23 nonconforming coils. Logistic regression is a modeling tool in which the dependent variable is categorical. In most applications, the dependent variable is binary. The results show that the logistic generalized linear models do provide good estimates of quality coils and can be useful for quality control in manufacturing process.

  3. A general parallel sparse-blocked matrix multiply for linear scaling SCF theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challacombe, Matt

    2000-06-01

    A general approach to the parallel sparse-blocked matrix-matrix multiply is developed in the context of linear scaling self-consistent-field (SCF) theory. The data-parallel message passing method uses non-blocking communication to overlap computation and communication. The space filling curve heuristic is used to achieve data locality for sparse matrix elements that decay with “separation”. Load balance is achieved by solving the bin packing problem for blocks with variable size.With this new method as the kernel, parallel performance of the simplified density matrix minimization (SDMM) for solution of the SCF equations is investigated for RHF/6-31G ∗∗ water clusters and RHF/3-21G estane globules. Sustained rates above 5.7 GFLOPS for the SDMM have been achieved for (H 2 O) 200 with 95 Origin 2000 processors. Scalability is found to be limited by load imbalance, which increases with decreasing granularity, due primarily to the inhomogeneous distribution of variable block sizes.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Linear Elastic Cracked Structures Using Generalized Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Mahendra Kumar; Rajagopal, Amirtham

    2014-09-01

    In this work, a sensitivity analysis of linear elastic cracked structures using two-scale Generalized Finite Element Method (GFEM) is presented. The method is based on computation of material derivatives, mutual potential energies, and direct differentiation. In a computational setting, the discrete form of the mutual potential energy release rate is simple and easy to calculate, as it only requires the multiplication of the displacement vectors and stiffness sensitivity matrices. By judiciously choosing the velocity field, the method only requires displacement response in a sub-domain close to the crack tip, thus making the method computationally efficient. The method thus requires an exact computation of displacement response in a sub-domain close to the crack tip. To this end, in this study we have used a two-scale GFEM for sensitivity analysis. GFEM is based on the enrichment of the classical finite element approximation. These enrichment functions incorporate the discontinuity response in the domain. Three numerical examples which comprise mode-I and mixed mode deformations are presented to evaluate the accuracy of the fracture parameters calculated by the proposed method.

  5. Fast inference in generalized linear models via expected log-likelihoods

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Alexandro D.; Paninski, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Generalized linear models play an essential role in a wide variety of statistical applications. This paper discusses an approximation of the likelihood in these models that can greatly facilitate computation. The basic idea is to replace a sum that appears in the exact log-likelihood by an expectation over the model covariates; the resulting “expected log-likelihood” can in many cases be computed significantly faster than the exact log-likelihood. In many neuroscience experiments the distribution over model covariates is controlled by the experimenter and the expected log-likelihood approximation becomes particularly useful; for example, estimators based on maximizing this expected log-likelihood (or a penalized version thereof) can often be obtained with orders of magnitude computational savings compared to the exact maximum likelihood estimators. A risk analysis establishes that these maximum EL estimators often come with little cost in accuracy (and in some cases even improved accuracy) compared to standard maximum likelihood estimates. Finally, we find that these methods can significantly decrease the computation time of marginal likelihood calculations for model selection and of Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for sampling from the posterior parameter distribution. We illustrate our results by applying these methods to a computationally-challenging dataset of neural spike trains obtained via large-scale multi-electrode recordings in the primate retina. PMID:23832289

  6. Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models

    SciTech Connect

    Yock, Adam D. Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Rao, Arvind; Dong, Lei; Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S.; Court, Laurence E.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: −11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: −7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: −6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: −1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: −11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography

  7. An assessment of estimation methods for generalized linear mixed models with binary outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Capanu, Marinela; Gönen, Mithat; Begg, Colin B.

    2013-01-01

    Two main classes of methodology have been developed for addressing the analytical intractability of generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs): likelihood-based methods and Bayesian methods. Likelihood-based methods such as the penalized quasi-likelihood approach have been shown to produce biased estimates especially for binary clustered data with small clusters sizes. More recent methods using adaptive Gaussian quadrature perform well but can be overwhelmed by problems with large numbers of random effects, and efficient algorithms to better handle these situations have not yet been integrated in standard statistical packages. Bayesian methods, though they have good frequentist properties when the model is correct, are known to be computationally intensive and also require specialized code, limiting their use in practice. In this article we introduce a modification of the hybrid approach of Capanu and Begg [1] as a bridge between the likelihood-based and Bayesian approaches by employing Bayesian estimation for the variance components followed by Laplacian estimation for the regression coefficients. We investigate its performance as well as that of several likelihood-based methods in the setting of GLMMs with binary outcomes. We apply the methods to three datasets and conduct simulations to illustrate their properties. Simulation results indicate that for moderate to large numbers of observations per random effect, adaptive Gaussian quadrature and the Laplacian approximation are very accurate, with adaptive Gaussian quadrature preferable as the number of observations per random effect increases. The hybrid approach is overall similar to the Laplace method, and it can be superior for data with very sparse random effects. PMID:23839712

  8. Use of generalized linear models and digital data in a forest inventory of Northern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moisen, G.G.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Forest inventories, like those conducted by the Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) in the Rocky Mountain Region, are under increased pressure to produce better information at reduced costs. Here we describe our efforts in Utah to merge satellite-based information with forest inventory data for the purposes of reducing the costs of estimates of forest population totals and providing spatial depiction of forest resources. We illustrate how generalized linear models can be used to construct approximately unbiased and efficient estimates of population totals while providing a mechanism for prediction in space for mapping of forest structure. We model forest type and timber volume of five tree species groups as functions of a variety of predictor variables in the northern Utah mountains. Predictor variables include elevation, aspect, slope, geographic coordinates, as well as vegetation cover types based on satellite data from both the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Thematic Mapper (TM) platforms. We examine the relative precision of estimates of area by forest type and mean cubic-foot volumes under six different models, including the traditional double sampling for stratification strategy. Only very small gains in precision were realized through the use of expensive photointerpreted or TM-based data for stratification, while models based on topography and spatial coordinates alone were competitive. We also compare the predictive capability of the models through various map accuracy measures. The models including the TM-based vegetation performed best overall, while topography and spatial coordinates alone provided substantial information at very low cost.

  9. Assessing the Tangent Linear Behaviour of Common Tracer Transport Schemes and Their Use in a Linearised Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Kent, James

    2015-01-01

    The linearity of a selection of common advection schemes is tested and examined with a view to their use in the tangent linear and adjoint versions of an atmospheric general circulation model. The schemes are tested within a simple offline one-dimensional periodic domain as well as using a simplified and complete configuration of the linearised version of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5). All schemes which prevent the development of negative values and preserve the shape of the solution are confirmed to have nonlinear behaviour. The piecewise parabolic method (PPM) with certain flux limiters, including that used by default in GEOS-5, is found to support linear growth near the shocks. This property can cause the rapid development of unrealistically large perturbations within the tangent linear and adjoint models. It is shown that these schemes with flux limiters should not be used within the linearised version of a transport scheme. The results from tests using GEOS-5 show that the current default scheme (a version of PPM) is not suitable for the tangent linear and adjoint model, and that using a linear third-order scheme for the linearised model produces better behaviour. Using the third-order scheme for the linearised model improves the correlations between the linear and non-linear perturbation trajectories for cloud liquid water and cloud liquid ice in GEOS-5.

  10. The British Sign Language Versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R.; Kendal, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS).…

  11. Steady-state response attenuation of a linear oscillator-nonlinear absorber system by using an adjustable-length pendulum in series: Numerical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, R. P.; Sun, C.; Dick, A. J.; Nagarajaiah, S.

    2015-05-01

    Response attenuation of a linear primary structure (PS)-nonlinear tuned mass damper (NTMD) dynamic system with and without an adaptive-length pendulum tuned mass damper (ALPTMD) in a series configuration is studied by using numerical and experimental methods. In the PS-NTMD system, coexisting high and low amplitude solutions are observed in the experiment, validating previous numerical efforts. In order to eliminate the potentially dangerous high amplitude solutions, a series ALPTMD with a mass multiple orders of magnitude smaller than the PS is added to the NTMD. The ALPTMD is used in order to represent the steady-state behavior of a smart tuned mass damper (STMD). In the experiment, the length of the pendulum is adjusted such that its natural frequency matches the dominant frequency of the harmonic ground motions. In the present study, the proposed ALPTMD can be locked so that it is unable to oscillate and influence the dynamics of the system in order to obtain the benefits provided by the NTMD. The experimental data show good qualitative agreement with numerical predictions computed with parameter continuation and time integration methods. Activation of the ALPTMD can successfully prevent the transition of the response from the low amplitude solution to the high amplitude solution or return the response from the high amplitude solution to the low amplitude solution, thereby protecting the PS.

  12. ALDO: A radiation-tolerant, low-noise, adjustable low drop-out linear regulator in 0.35 μm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we present ALDO, an adjustable low drop-out linear regulator designed in AMS 0.35 μm CMOS technology. It is specifically tailored for use in the upgraded LHCb RICH detector in order to improve the power supply noise for the front end readout chip (CLARO). ALDO is designed with radiation-tolerant solutions such as an all-MOS band-gap voltage reference and layout techniques aiming to make it able to operate in harsh environments like High Energy Physics accelerators. It is capable of driving up to 200 mA while keeping an adequate power supply filtering capability in a very wide frequency range from 10 Hz up to 100 MHz. This property allows us to suppress the noise and high frequency spikes that could be generated by a DC/DC regulator, for example. ALDO also shows a very low noise of 11.6 μV RMS in the same frequency range. Its output is protected with over-current and short detection circuits for a safe integration in tightly packed environments. Design solutions and measurements of the first prototype are presented.

  13. General methods for determining the linear stability of coronal magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, I. J. D.; Sneyd, A. D.; Mcclymont, A. N.

    1988-01-01

    A time integration of a linearized plasma equation of motion has been performed to calculate the ideal linear stability of arbitrary three-dimensional magnetic fields. The convergence rates of the explicit and implicit power methods employed are speeded up by using sequences of cyclic shifts. Growth rates are obtained for Gold-Hoyle force-free equilibria, and the corkscrew-kink instability is found to be very weak.

  14. The elastostatic plane strain mode I crack tip stress and displacement fields in a generalized linear neo-Hookean elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begley, Matthew R.; Creton, Costantino; McMeeking, Robert M.

    2015-11-01

    A general asymptotic plane strain crack tip stress field is constructed for linear versions of neo-Hookean materials, which spans a wide variety of special cases including incompressible Mooney elastomers, the compressible Blatz-Ko elastomer, several cases of the Ogden constitutive law and a new result for a compressible linear neo-Hookean material. The nominal stress field has dominant terms that have a square root singularity with respect to the distance of material points from the crack tip in the undeformed reference configuration. At second order, there is a uniform tension parallel to the crack. The associated displacement field in plane strain at leading order has dependence proportional to the square root of the same coordinate. The relationship between the amplitude of the crack tip singularity (a stress intensity factor) and the plane strain energy release rate is outlined for the general linear material, with simplified relationships presented for notable special cases.

  15. On the dynamics of canopy resistance: Generalized linear estimation and relationships with primary micrometeorological variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmak, Suat; Mutiibwa, Denis

    2010-08-01

    The 1-D and single layer combination-based energy balance Penman-Monteith (PM) model has limitations in practical application due to the lack of canopy resistance (rc) data for different vegetation surfaces. rc could be estimated by inversion of the PM model if the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) rate is known, but this approach has its own set of issues. Instead, an empirical method of estimating rc is suggested in this study. We investigated the relationships between primary micrometeorological parameters and rc and developed seven models to estimate rc for a nonstressed maize canopy on an hourly time step using a generalized-linear modeling approach. The most complex rc model uses net radiation (Rn), air temperature (Ta), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), relative humidity (RH), wind speed at 3 m (u3), aerodynamic resistance (ra), leaf area index (LAI), and solar zenith angle (Θ). The simplest model requires Rn, Ta, and RH. We present the practical implementation of all models via experimental validation using scaled up rc data obtained from the dynamic diffusion porometer-measured leaf stomatal resistance through an extensive field campaign in 2006. For further validation, we estimated ETa by solving the PM model using the modeled rc from all seven models and compared the PM ETa estimates with the Bowen ratio energy balance system (BREBS)-measured ETa for an independent data set in 2005. The relationships between hourly rc versus Ta, RH, VPD, Rn, incoming shortwave radiation (Rs), u3, wind direction, LAI, Θ, and ra were presented and discussed. We demonstrated the negative impact of exclusion of LAI when modeling rc, whereas exclusion of ra and Θ did not impact the performance of the rc models. Compared to the calibration results, the validation root mean square difference between observed and modeled rc increased by 5 s m-1 for all rc models developed, ranging from 9.9 s m-1 for the most complex model to 22.8 s m-1 for the simplest model, as compared with the

  16. Applications of multivariate modeling to neuroimaging group analysis: a comprehensive alternative to univariate general linear model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Adleman, Nancy E; Saad, Ziad S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Cox, Robert W

    2014-10-01

    All neuroimaging packages can handle group analysis with t-tests or general linear modeling (GLM). However, they are quite hamstrung when there are multiple within-subject factors or when quantitative covariates are involved in the presence of a within-subject factor. In addition, sphericity is typically assumed for the variance-covariance structure when there are more than two levels in a within-subject factor. To overcome such limitations in the traditional AN(C)OVA and GLM, we adopt a multivariate modeling (MVM) approach to analyzing neuroimaging data at the group level with the following advantages: a) there is no limit on the number of factors as long as sample sizes are deemed appropriate; b) quantitative covariates can be analyzed together with within-subject factors; c) when a within-subject factor is involved, three testing methodologies are provided: traditional univariate testing (UVT) with sphericity assumption (UVT-UC) and with correction when the assumption is violated (UVT-SC), and within-subject multivariate testing (MVT-WS); d) to correct for sphericity violation at the voxel level, we propose a hybrid testing (HT) approach that achieves equal or higher power via combining traditional sphericity correction methods (Greenhouse-Geisser and Huynh-Feldt) with MVT-WS. To validate the MVM methodology, we performed simulations to assess the controllability for false positives and power achievement. A real FMRI dataset was analyzed to demonstrate the capability of the MVM approach. The methodology has been implemented into an open source program 3dMVM in AFNI, and all the statistical tests can be performed through symbolic coding with variable names instead of the tedious process of dummy coding. Our data indicates that the severity of sphericity violation varies substantially across brain regions. The differences among various modeling methodologies were addressed through direct comparisons between the MVM approach and some of the GLM implementations in

  17. Reversibility of a quantum channel: General conditions and their applications to Bosonic linear channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2013-11-15

    The method of complementary channel for analysis of reversibility (sufficiency) of a quantum channel with respect to families of input states (pure states for the most part) are considered and applied to Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channels, in particular, to Bosonic Gaussian channels. The obtained reversibility conditions for Bosonic linear channels have clear physical interpretation and their sufficiency is also shown by explicit construction of reversing channels. The method of complementary channel gives possibility to prove necessity of these conditions and to describe all reversed families of pure states in the Schrodinger representation. Some applications in quantum information theory are considered. Conditions for existence of discrete classical-quantum subchannels and of completely depolarizing subchannels of a Bosonic linear channel are presented.

  18. Comparing Regression Coefficients between Nested Linear Models for Clustered Data with Generalized Estimating Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jun; Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Harel, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Comparing regression coefficients between models when one model is nested within another is of great practical interest when two explanations of a given phenomenon are specified as linear models. The statistical problem is whether the coefficients associated with a given set of covariates change significantly when other covariates are added into…

  19. Generalization of the relaxation method for the inverse solution of nonlinear and linear transfer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, M. T.

    1977-01-01

    A mapping transformation is derived for the inverse solution of nonlinear and linear integral equations of the types encountered in remote sounding studies. The method is applied to the solution of specific problems for the determination of the thermal and composition structure of planetary atmospheres from a knowledge of their upwelling radiance.

  20. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties in Spherical Quantum Dots: Generalized Hulthén Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyeaju, M. C.; Idiodi, J. O. A.; Ikot, A. N.; Solaimani, M.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we studied the optical properties of spherical quantum dots confined in Hulthén potential with the appropriate centrifugal term included. The approximate solution of the bound state and wave functions were obtained from the Schrödinger wave equation by applying the factorization method. Also, we have used the density matrix formalism to investigate the linear and third-order nonlinear absorption coefficient and refractive index changes.

  1. Generalized linear Boltzmann equation, describing non-classical particle transport, and related asymptotic solutions for small mean free paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukolaine, Sergey A.

    2016-05-01

    In classical kinetic models a particle free path distribution is exponential, but this is more likely to be an exception than a rule. In this paper we derive a generalized linear Boltzmann equation (GLBE) for a general free path distribution in the framework of Alt's model. In the case that the free path distribution has at least first and second finite moments we construct an asymptotic solution to the initial value problem for the GLBE for small mean free paths. In the special case of the one-speed transport problem the asymptotic solution results in a diffusion approximation to the GLBE.

  2. Use of a generalized linear model to evaluate range forage production estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, John E.; Joyce, Linda A.

    1986-05-01

    Interdisciplinary teams have been used in federal land planning and in the private sector to reach consensus on the environmental impact of management. When a large data base is constructed, verifiability of the accuracy of the coded estimates and the underlying assumptions becomes a problem. A mechanism is provided by the use of a linear statistical model to evaluate production coefficients in terms of errors in coding and underlying assumptions. The technique can be used to evaluate other intuitive models depicting natural resource production in relation to prescribed variables, such as site factors or secondary succession.

  3. A General Method for Solving Systems of Non-Linear Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The method of steepest descent is modified so that accelerated convergence is achieved near a root. It is assumed that the function of interest can be approximated near a root by a quadratic form. An eigenvector of the quadratic form is found by evaluating the function and its gradient at an arbitrary point and another suitably selected point. The terminal point of the eigenvector is chosen to lie on the line segment joining the two points. The terminal point found lies on an axis of the quadratic form. The selection of a suitable step size at this point leads directly to the root in the direction of steepest descent in a single step. Newton's root finding method not infrequently diverges if the starting point is far from the root. However, the current method in these regions merely reverts to the method of steepest descent with an adaptive step size. The current method's performance should match that of the Levenberg-Marquardt root finding method since they both share the ability to converge from a starting point far from the root and both exhibit quadratic convergence near a root. The Levenberg-Marquardt method requires storage for coefficients of linear equations. The current method which does not require the solution of linear equations requires more time for additional function and gradient evaluations. The classic trade off of time for space separates the two methods.

  4. A substructure coupling procedure applicable to general linear time-invariant dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howsman, T. G.; Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A substructure synthesis procedure applicable to structural systems containing general nonconservative terms is presented. In their final form, the nonself-adjoint substructure equations of motion are cast in state vector form through the use of a variational principle. A reduced-order mode for each substructure is implemented by representing the substructure as a combination of a small number of Ritz vectors. For the method presented, the substructure Ritz vectors are identified as a truncated set of substructure eigenmodes, which are typically complex, along with a set of generalized real attachment modes. The formation of the generalized attachment modes does not require any knowledge of the substructure flexible modes; hence, only the eigenmodes used explicitly as Ritz vectors need to be extracted from the substructure eigenproblem. An example problem is presented to illustrate the method.

  5. The Exact Solution for Linear Thermoelastic Axisymmetric Deformations of Generally Laminated Circular Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Schultz, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed exact solution is presented for laminated-composite circular cylinders with general wall construction and that undergo axisymmetric deformations. The overall solution is formulated in a general, systematic way and is based on the solution of a single fourth-order, nonhomogeneous ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients in which the radial displacement is the dependent variable. Moreover, the effects of general anisotropy are included and positive-definiteness of the strain energy is used to define uniquely the form of the basis functions spanning the solution space of the ordinary differential equation. Loading conditions are considered that include axisymmetric edge loads, surface tractions, and temperature fields. Likewise, all possible axisymmetric boundary conditions are considered. Results are presented for five examples that demonstrate a wide range of behavior for specially orthotropic and fully anisotropic cylinders.

  6. A substructure coupling procedure applicable to general linear time-invariant dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howsman, T. G.; Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A substructure synthesis procedure applicable to structural systems containing general nonconservative terms is presented. In their final form, the non-self-adjoint substructure equations of motion are cast in state vector form through the use of a variational principle. A reduced-order model for each substructure is implemented by representing the substructure as a combination of a small number of Ritz vectors. For the method presented, the substructure Ritz vectors are identified as a truncated set of substructure eigenmodes, which are typically complex, along with a set of generalized real attachment modes. The formation of the generalized attachment modes does not require any knowledge of the substructure flexible modes; hence, only the eigenmodes used explicitly as Ritz vectors need to be extracted from the substructure eigenproblem. An example problem is presented to illustrate the method.

  7. Quasi-Linear Parameter Varying Representation of General Aircraft Dynamics Over Non-Trim Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob

    2007-01-01

    For applying linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis and analysis to a nonlinear system, it is required that a nonlinear system be represented in the form of an LPV model. In this paper, a new representation method is developed to construct an LPV model from a nonlinear mathematical model without the restriction that an operating point must be in the neighborhood of equilibrium points. An LPV model constructed by the new method preserves local stabilities of the original nonlinear system at "frozen" scheduling parameters and also represents the original nonlinear dynamics of a system over a non-trim region. An LPV model of the motion of FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Subscale Experimental Research) is constructed by the new method.

  8. Iterative solution of general sparse linear systems on clusters of workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Gen-Ching; Saad, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Solving sparse irregularly structured linear systems on parallel platforms poses several challenges. First, sparsity makes it difficult to exploit data locality, whether in a distributed or shared memory environment. A second, perhaps more serious challenge, is to find efficient ways to precondition the system. Preconditioning techniques which have a large degree of parallelism, such as multicolor SSOR, often have a slower rate of convergence than their sequential counterparts. Finally, a number of other computational kernels such as inner products could ruin any gains gained from parallel speed-ups, and this is especially true on workstation clusters where start-up times may be high. In this paper we discuss these issues and report on our experience with PSPARSLIB, an on-going project for building a library of parallel iterative sparse matrix solvers.

  9. Enhanced multi-level block ILU preconditioning strategies for general sparse linear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Yousef; Zhang, Jun

    2001-05-01

    This paper introduces several strategies to deal with pivot blocks in multi-level block incomplete LU factorization (BILUM) preconditioning techniques. These techniques are aimed at increasing the robustness and controlling the amount of fill-ins of BILUM for solving large sparse linear systems when large-size blocks are used to form block-independent set. Techniques proposed in this paper include double-dropping strategies, approximate singular-value decomposition, variable size blocks and use of an arrowhead block submatrix. We point out the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies and discuss their efficient implementations. Numerical experiments are conducted to show the usefulness of the new techniques in dealing with hard-to-solve problems arising from computational fluid dynamics. In addition, we discuss the relation between multi-level ILU preconditioning methods and algebraic multi-level methods.

  10. FIDDLE: A Computer Code for Finite Difference Development of Linear Elasticity in Generalized Curvilinear Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Upender K.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical solver based on finite-difference solution of three-dimensional elastodynamic equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates has been developed and used to generate data such as radial and tangential stresses over various gear component geometries under rotation. The geometries considered are an annulus, a thin annular disk, and a thin solid disk. The solution is based on first principles and does not involve lumped parameter or distributed parameter systems approach. The elastodynamic equations in the velocity-stress formulation that are considered here have been used in the solution of problems of geophysics where non-rotating Cartesian grids are considered. For arbitrary geometries, these equations along with the appropriate boundary conditions have been cast in generalized curvilinear coordinates in the present study.

  11. Generalized linear stability of non-inertial rimming flow in a rotating horizontal cylinder.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Himanshu; Tiwari, Naveen

    2015-10-01

    The stability of a thin film of viscous liquid inside a horizontally rotating cylinder is studied using modal and non-modal analysis. The equation governing the film thickness is derived within lubrication approximation and up to first order in aspect ratio (average film thickness to radius of the cylinder). Effect of gravity, viscous stress and capillary pressure are considered in the model. Steady base profiles are computed in the parameter space of interest that are uniform in the axial direction. A linear stability analysis is performed on these base profiles to study their stability to axial perturbations. The destabilizing behavior of aspect ratio and surface tension is demonstrated which is attributed to capillary instability. The transient growth that gives maximum amplification of any initial disturbance and the pseudospectra of the stability operator are computed. These computations reveal weak effect of non-normality of the operator and the results of eigenvalue analysis are recovered after a brief transient period. Results from nonlinear simulations are also presented which also confirm the validity of the modal analysis for the flow considered in this study. PMID:26496740

  12. Stability and bifurcation analysis of oscillators with piecewise-linear characteristics - A general approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noah, S. T.; Kim, Y. B.

    1991-01-01

    A general approach is developed for determining the periodic solutions and their stability of nonlinear oscillators with piecewise-smooth characteristics. A modified harmonic balance/Fourier transform procedure is devised for the analysis. The procedure avoids certain numerical differentiation employed previously in determining the periodic solutions, therefore enhancing the reliability and efficiency of the method. Stability of the solutions is determined via perturbations of their state variables. The method is applied to a forced oscillator interacting with a stop of finite stiffness. Flip and fold bifurcations are found to occur. This led to the identification of parameter ranges in which chaotic response occurred.

  13. Linear response to perturbation of nonexponential renewal process: A generalized master equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I. M.

    2006-06-01

    The work by Barbi, Bologna, and Grigolini [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 220601 (2005)] discusses a response to alternating external field of a non-Markovian two-state system, where the waiting time between the two attempted changes of state follows a power law. It introduced a new instrument for description of such situations based on a stochastic master equation with reset. In the present Brief Report we provide an alternative description of the situation within the framework of a generalized master equation. The results of our analytical approach are corroborated by direct numerical simulations of the system.

  14. A generalized method of converting CT image to PET linear attenuation coefficient distribution in PET/CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Wu, Li-Wei; Wei, Le; Gao, Juan; Sun, Cui-Li; Chai, Pei; Li, Dao-Wu

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of attenuation correction in positron emission tomography scanners depends mainly on deriving the reliable 511-keV linear attenuation coefficient distribution in the scanned objects. In the PET/CT system, the linear attenuation distribution is usually obtained from the intensities of the CT image. However, the intensities of the CT image relate to the attenuation of photons in an energy range of 40 keV-140 keV. Before implementing PET attenuation correction, the intensities of CT images must be transformed into the PET 511-keV linear attenuation coefficients. However, the CT scan parameters can affect the effective energy of CT X-ray photons and thus affect the intensities of the CT image. Therefore, for PET/CT attenuation correction, it is crucial to determine the conversion curve with a given set of CT scan parameters and convert the CT image into a PET linear attenuation coefficient distribution. A generalized method is proposed for converting a CT image into a PET linear attenuation coefficient distribution. Instead of some parameter-dependent phantom calibration experiments, the conversion curve is calculated directly by employing the consistency conditions to yield the most consistent attenuation map with the measured PET data. The method is evaluated with phantom experiments and small animal experiments. In phantom studies, the estimated conversion curve fits the true attenuation coefficients accurately, and accurate PET attenuation maps are obtained by the estimated conversion curves and provide nearly the same correction results as the true attenuation map. In small animal studies, a more complicated attenuation distribution of the mouse is obtained successfully to remove the attenuation artifact and improve the PET image contrast efficiently.

  15. Linear models of coregionalization for multivariate lattice data: a general framework for coregionalized multivariate CAR models.

    PubMed

    MacNab, Ying C

    2016-09-20

    We present a general coregionalization framework for developing coregionalized multivariate Gaussian conditional autoregressive (cMCAR) models for Bayesian analysis of multivariate lattice data in general and multivariate disease mapping data in particular. This framework is inclusive of cMCARs that facilitate flexible modelling of spatially structured symmetric or asymmetric cross-variable local interactions, allowing a wide range of separable or non-separable covariance structures, and symmetric or asymmetric cross-covariances, to be modelled. We present a brief overview of established univariate Gaussian conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for univariate lattice data and develop coregionalized multivariate extensions. Classes of cMCARs are presented by formulating precision structures. The resulting conditional properties of the multivariate spatial models are established, which cast new light on cMCARs with richly structured covariances and cross-covariances of different spatial ranges. The related methods are illustrated via an in-depth Bayesian analysis of a Minnesota county-level cancer data set. We also bring a new dimension to the traditional enterprize of Bayesian disease mapping: estimating and mapping covariances and cross-covariances of the underlying disease risks. Maps of covariances and cross-covariances bring to light spatial characterizations of the cMCARs and inform on spatial risk associations between areas and diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27091685

  16. Point particle binary system with components of different masses in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño M, C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2016-05-01

    A study of binary systems composed of two point particles with different masses in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity with a Minkowski background is provided. The present paper generalizes a previous study by Bishop et al. The boundary conditions at the world tubes generated by the particles's orbits are explored, where the metric variables are decomposed in spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The power lost by the emission of gravitational waves is computed using the Bondi News function. The power found is the well-known result obtained by Peters and Mathews using a different approach. This agreement validates the approach considered here. Several multipole term contributions to the gravitational radiation field are also shown.

  17. Biohybrid Control of General Linear Systems Using the Adaptive Filter Model of Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Emma D.; Assaf, Tareq; Pearson, Martin J.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Dean, Paul; Anderson, Sean R.; Porrill, John

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive filter model of the cerebellar microcircuit has been successfully applied to biological motor control problems, such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), and to sensory processing problems, such as the adaptive cancelation of reafferent noise. It has also been successfully applied to problems in robotics, such as adaptive camera stabilization and sensor noise cancelation. In previous applications to inverse control problems, the algorithm was applied to the velocity control of a plant dominated by viscous and elastic elements. Naive application of the adaptive filter model to the displacement (as opposed to velocity) control of this plant results in unstable learning and control. To be more generally useful in engineering problems, it is essential to remove this restriction to enable the stable control of plants of any order. We address this problem here by developing a biohybrid model reference adaptive control (MRAC) scheme, which stabilizes the control algorithm for strictly proper plants. We evaluate the performance of this novel cerebellar-inspired algorithm with MRAC scheme in the experimental control of a dielectric electroactive polymer, a class of artificial muscle. The results show that the augmented cerebellar algorithm is able to accurately control the displacement response of the artificial muscle. The proposed solution not only greatly extends the practical applicability of the cerebellar-inspired algorithm, but may also shed light on cerebellar involvement in a wider range of biological control tasks. PMID:26257638

  18. A generalized linear mixed model for longitudinal binary data with a marginal logit link function

    PubMed Central

    Parzen, Michael; Ghosh, Souparno; Lipsitz, Stuart; Sinha, Debajyoti; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Mallick, Bani K.; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Longitudinal studies of a binary outcome are common in the health, social, and behavioral sciences. In general, a feature of random effects logistic regression models for longitudinal binary data is that the marginal functional form, when integrated over the distribution of the random effects, is no longer of logistic form. Recently, Wang and Louis (2003) proposed a random intercept model in the clustered binary data setting where the marginal model has a logistic form. An acknowledged limitation of their model is that it allows only a single random effect that varies from cluster to cluster. In this paper, we propose a modification of their model to handle longitudinal data, allowing separate, but correlated, random intercepts at each measurement occasion. The proposed model allows for a flexible correlation structure among the random intercepts, where the correlations can be interpreted in terms of Kendall’s τ. For example, the marginal correlations among the repeated binary outcomes can decline with increasing time separation, while the model retains the property of having matching conditional and marginal logit link functions. Finally, the proposed method is used to analyze data from a longitudinal study designed to monitor cardiac abnormalities in children born to HIV-infected women. PMID:21532998

  19. Generalized Uncertainty Quantification for Linear Inverse Problems in X-ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Michael James

    2014-04-25

    In industrial and engineering applications, X-ray radiography has attained wide use as a data collection protocol for the assessment of material properties in cases where direct observation is not possible. The direct measurement of nuclear materials, particularly when they are under explosive or implosive loading, is not feasible, and radiography can serve as a useful tool for obtaining indirect measurements. In such experiments, high energy X-rays are pulsed through a scene containing material of interest, and a detector records a radiograph by measuring the radiation that is not attenuated in the scene. One approach to the analysis of these radiographs is to model the imaging system as an operator that acts upon the object being imaged to produce a radiograph. In this model, the goal is to solve an inverse problem to reconstruct the values of interest in the object, which are typically material properties such as density or areal density. The primary objective in this work is to provide quantitative solutions with uncertainty estimates for three separate applications in X-ray radiography: deconvolution, Abel inversion, and radiation spot shape reconstruction. For each problem, we introduce a new hierarchical Bayesian model for determining a posterior distribution on the unknowns and develop efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for sampling from the posterior. A Poisson likelihood, based on a noise model for photon counts at the detector, is combined with a prior tailored to each application: an edge-localizing prior for deconvolution; a smoothing prior with non-negativity constraints for spot reconstruction; and a full covariance sampling prior based on a Wishart hyperprior for Abel inversion. After developing our methods in a general setting, we demonstrate each model on both synthetically generated datasets, including those from a well known radiation transport code, and real high energy radiographs taken at two U. S. Department of Energy

  20. Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Binary Data: Are Matching Results from Penalized Quasi-Likelihood and Numerical Integration Less Biased?

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Andrea; Platt, Robert; Atherton, Juli

    2014-01-01

    Background Over time, adaptive Gaussian Hermite quadrature (QUAD) has become the preferred method for estimating generalized linear mixed models with binary outcomes. However, penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) is still used frequently. In this work, we systematically evaluated whether matching results from PQL and QUAD indicate less bias in estimated regression coefficients and variance parameters via simulation. Methods We performed a simulation study in which we varied the size of the data set, probability of the outcome, variance of the random effect, number of clusters and number of subjects per cluster, etc. We estimated bias in the regression coefficients, odds ratios and variance parameters as estimated via PQL and QUAD. We ascertained if similarity of estimated regression coefficients, odds ratios and variance parameters predicted less bias. Results Overall, we found that the absolute percent bias of the odds ratio estimated via PQL or QUAD increased as the PQL- and QUAD-estimated odds ratios became more discrepant, though results varied markedly depending on the characteristics of the dataset Conclusions Given how markedly results varied depending on data set characteristics, specifying a rule above which indicated biased results proved impossible. This work suggests that comparing results from generalized linear mixed models estimated via PQL and QUAD is a worthwhile exercise for regression coefficients and variance components obtained via QUAD, in situations where PQL is known to give reasonable results. PMID:24416249

  1. Application of a generalized linear mixed model to analyze mixture toxicity: survival of brown trout affected by copper and zinc.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Brinkman, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    Increased concerns about the toxicity of chemical mixtures have led to greater emphasis on analyzing the interactions among the mixture components based on observed effects. The authors applied a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to analyze survival of brown trout (Salmo trutta) acutely exposed to metal mixtures that contained copper and zinc. Compared with dominant conventional approaches based on an assumption of concentration addition and the concentration of a chemical that causes x% effect (ECx), the GLMM approach has 2 major advantages. First, binary response variables such as survival can be modeled without any transformations, and thus sample size can be taken into consideration. Second, the importance of the chemical interaction can be tested in a simple statistical manner. Through this application, the authors investigated whether the estimated concentration of the 2 metals binding to humic acid, which is assumed to be a proxy of nonspecific biotic ligand sites, provided a better prediction of survival effects than dissolved and free-ion concentrations of metals. The results suggest that the estimated concentration of metals binding to humic acid is a better predictor of survival effects, and thus the metal competition at the ligands could be an important mechanism responsible for effects of metal mixtures. Application of the GLMM (and the generalized linear model) presents an alternative or complementary approach to analyzing mixture toxicity. PMID:25524054

  2. Adjusting for small-sample non-normality of design event estimators under a generalized Pareto distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkar, Fahim; El Adlouni, Salah-Eddine

    2015-11-01

    The generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) is a widely used frequency model for fitting extremes in hydrology, especially to fit exceedances over a threshold in the peaks-over-threshold (POT) modeling of floods or other extreme hydrological phenomena. A key goal in fitting frequency distributions to data is to allow the estimation of distribution quantiles, which in hydrology are often used as "design events". The maximum likelihood (ML) method is a recommended method for fitting the GPD to data. To provide a measure of the statistical error involved in the estimation of design events, confidence intervals for quantiles (CIQs) have to be calculated. Hydrologists have traditionally used large-sample theory to construct such CIQs, but it is shown in the present study that this leads to inaccurate results for quantiles in the right-tail of a GPD. An improvement is therefore proposed for these classically obtained CIQs under a GPD model fitted by ML. The conventional and proposed approaches are compared through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, and the resulting recommendations are put to use in a hydrological application.

  3. A re-formulation of generalized linear mixed models to fit family data in genetic association studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; He, Peng; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Wang, Xujing; Ghosh, Soumitra; Laud, Purushottam

    2015-01-01

    The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) is a useful tool for modeling genetic correlation among family data in genetic association studies. However, when dealing with families of varied sizes and diverse genetic relatedness, the GLMM has a special correlation structure which often makes it difficult to be specified using standard statistical software. In this study, we propose a Cholesky decomposition based re-formulation of the GLMM so that the re-formulated GLMM can be specified conveniently via “proc nlmixed” and “proc glimmix” in SAS, or OpenBUGS via R package BRugs. Performances of these procedures in fitting the re-formulated GLMM are examined through simulation studies. We also apply this re-formulated GLMM to analyze a real data set from Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC). PMID:25873936

  4. Fuzzy C-mean clustering on kinetic parameter estimation with generalized linear least square algorithm in SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hon-Chit; Wen, Lingfeng; Eberl, Stefan; Feng, Dagan

    2006-03-01

    Dynamic Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has the potential to quantitatively estimate physiological parameters by fitting compartment models to the tracer kinetics. The generalized linear least square method (GLLS) is an efficient method to estimate unbiased kinetic parameters and parametric images. However, due to the low sensitivity of SPECT, noisy data can cause voxel-wise parameter estimation by GLLS to fail. Fuzzy C-Mean (FCM) clustering and modified FCM, which also utilizes information from the immediate neighboring voxels, are proposed to improve the voxel-wise parameter estimation of GLLS. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to generate dynamic SPECT data with different noise levels and processed by general and modified FCM clustering. Parametric images were estimated by Logan and Yokoi graphical analysis and GLLS. The influx rate (K I), volume of distribution (V d) were estimated for the cerebellum, thalamus and frontal cortex. Our results show that (1) FCM reduces the bias and improves the reliability of parameter estimates for noisy data, (2) GLLS provides estimates of micro parameters (K I-k 4) as well as macro parameters, such as volume of distribution (Vd) and binding potential (BP I & BP II) and (3) FCM clustering incorporating neighboring voxel information does not improve the parameter estimates, but improves noise in the parametric images. These findings indicated that it is desirable for pre-segmentation with traditional FCM clustering to generate voxel-wise parametric images with GLLS from dynamic SPECT data.

  5. Jamming and percolation in generalized models of random sequential adsorption of linear k -mers on a square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebovka, Nikolai I.; Tarasevich, Yuri Yu.; Dubinin, Dmitri O.; Laptev, Valeri V.; Vygornitskii, Nikolai V.

    2015-12-01

    The jamming and percolation for two generalized models of random sequential adsorption (RSA) of linear k -mers (particles occupying k adjacent sites) on a square lattice are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The classical RSA model assumes the absence of overlapping of the new incoming particle with the previously deposited ones. The first model is a generalized variant of the RSA model for both k -mers and a lattice with defects. Some of the occupying k adjacent sites are considered as insulating and some of the lattice sites are occupied by defects (impurities). For this model even a small concentration of defects can inhibit percolation for relatively long k -mers. The second model is the cooperative sequential adsorption one where, for each new k -mer, only a restricted number of lateral contacts z with previously deposited k -mers is allowed. Deposition occurs in the case when z ≤(1 -d ) zm where zm=2 (k +1 ) is the maximum numbers of the contacts of k -mer, and d is the fraction of forbidden contacts. Percolation is observed only at some interval kmin≤k ≤kmax where the values kmin and kmax depend upon the fraction of forbidden contacts d . The value kmax decreases as d increases. A logarithmic dependence of the type log10(kmax) =a +b d , where a =4.04 ±0.22 ,b =-4.93 ±0.57 , is obtained.

  6. A revised linear ozone photochemistry parameterization for use in transport and general circulation models: multi-annual simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariolle, D.; Teyssèdre, H.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the validation of a linear parameterization of the ozone photochemistry for use in upper tropospheric and stratospheric studies. The present work extends a previously developed scheme by improving the 2D model used to derive the coefficients of the parameterization. The chemical reaction rates are updated from a compilation that includes recent laboratory works. Furthermore, the polar ozone destruction due to heterogeneous reactions at the surface of the polar stratospheric clouds is taken into account as a function of the stratospheric temperature and the total chlorine content. Two versions of the parameterization are tested. The first one only requires the resolution of a continuity equation for the time evolution of the ozone mixing ratio, the second one uses one additional equation for a cold tracer. The parameterization has been introduced into the chemical transport model MOCAGE. The model is integrated with wind and temperature fields from the ECMWF operational analyses over the period 2000-2004. Overall, the results show a very good agreement between the modelled ozone distribution and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data and the "in-situ" vertical soundings. During the course of the integration the model does not show any drift and the biases are generally small. The model also reproduces fairly well the polar ozone variability, with notably the formation of "ozone holes" in the southern hemisphere with amplitudes and seasonal evolutions that follow the dynamics and time evolution of the polar vortex. The introduction of the cold tracer further improves the model simulation by allowing additional ozone destruction inside air masses exported from the high to the mid-latitudes, and by maintaining low ozone contents inside the polar vortex of the southern hemisphere over longer periods in spring time. It is concluded that for the study of climatic scenarios or the assimilation of ozone data, the present

  7. Jamming and percolation in generalized models of random sequential adsorption of linear k-mers on a square lattice.

    PubMed

    Lebovka, Nikolai I; Tarasevich, Yuri Yu; Dubinin, Dmitri O; Laptev, Valeri V; Vygornitskii, Nikolai V

    2015-12-01

    The jamming and percolation for two generalized models of random sequential adsorption (RSA) of linear k-mers (particles occupying k adjacent sites) on a square lattice are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The classical RSA model assumes the absence of overlapping of the new incoming particle with the previously deposited ones. The first model is a generalized variant of the RSA model for both k-mers and a lattice with defects. Some of the occupying k adjacent sites are considered as insulating and some of the lattice sites are occupied by defects (impurities). For this model even a small concentration of defects can inhibit percolation for relatively long k-mers. The second model is the cooperative sequential adsorption one where, for each new k-mer, only a restricted number of lateral contacts z with previously deposited k-mers is allowed. Deposition occurs in the case when z≤(1-d)z(m) where z(m)=2(k+1) is the maximum numbers of the contacts of k-mer, and d is the fraction of forbidden contacts. Percolation is observed only at some interval k(min)≤k≤k(max) where the values k(min) and k(max) depend upon the fraction of forbidden contacts d. The value k(max) decreases as d increases. A logarithmic dependence of the type log(10)(k(max))=a+bd, where a=4.04±0.22,b=-4.93±0.57, is obtained. PMID:26764641

  8. The overlooked potential of generalized linear models in astronomy - III. Bayesian negative binomial regression and globular cluster populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Hilbe, J. M.; Buelens, B.; Riggs, J. D.; Cameron, E.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Chies-Santos, A. L.; Killedar, M.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the third in a series illustrating the power of generalized linear models (GLMs) for the astronomical community, we elucidate the potential of the class of GLMs which handles count data. The size of a galaxy's globular cluster (GC) population (NGC) is a prolonged puzzle in the astronomical literature. It falls in the category of count data analysis, yet it is usually modelled as if it were a continuous response variable. We have developed a Bayesian negative binomial regression model to study the connection between NGC and the following galaxy properties: central black hole mass, dynamical bulge mass, bulge velocity dispersion and absolute visual magnitude. The methodology introduced herein naturally accounts for heteroscedasticity, intrinsic scatter, errors in measurements in both axes (either discrete or continuous) and allows modelling the population of GCs on their natural scale as a non-negative integer variable. Prediction intervals of 99 per cent around the trend for expected NGC comfortably envelope the data, notably including the Milky Way, which has hitherto been considered a problematic outlier. Finally, we demonstrate how random intercept models can incorporate information of each particular galaxy morphological type. Bayesian variable selection methodology allows for automatically identifying galaxy types with different productions of GCs, suggesting that on average S0 galaxies have a GC population 35 per cent smaller than other types with similar brightness.

  9. Depth-compensated diffuse optical tomography enhanced by general linear model analysis and an anatomical atlas of human head.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli

    2014-01-15

    One of the main challenges in functional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is to accurately recover the depth of brain activation, which is even more essential when differentiating true brain signals from task-evoked artifacts in the scalp. Recently, we developed a depth-compensated algorithm (DCA) to minimize the depth localization error in DOT. However, the semi-infinite model that was used in DCA deviated significantly from the realistic human head anatomy. In the present work, we incorporated depth-compensated DOT (DC-DOT) with a standard anatomical atlas of human head. Computer simulations and human measurements of sensorimotor activation were conducted to examine and prove the depth specificity and quantification accuracy of brain atlas-based DC-DOT. In addition, node-wise statistical analysis based on the general linear model (GLM) was also implemented and performed in this study, showing the robustness of DC-DOT that can accurately identify brain activation at the correct depth for functional brain imaging, even when co-existing with superficial artifacts. PMID:23859922

  10. Misconceptions in the use of the General Linear Model applied to functional MRI: a tutorial for junior neuro-imagers

    PubMed Central

    Pernet, Cyril R.

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial presents several misconceptions related to the use the General Linear Model (GLM) in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The goal is not to present mathematical proofs but to educate using examples and computer code (in Matlab). In particular, I address issues related to (1) model parameterization (modeling baseline or null events) and scaling of the design matrix; (2) hemodynamic modeling using basis functions, and (3) computing percentage signal change. Using a simple controlled block design and an alternating block design, I first show why “baseline” should not be modeled (model over-parameterization), and how this affects effect sizes. I also show that, depending on what is tested; over-parameterization does not necessarily impact upon statistical results. Next, using a simple periodic vs. random event related design, I show how the hemodynamic model (hemodynamic function only or using derivatives) can affects parameter estimates, as well as detail the role of orthogonalization. I then relate the above results to the computation of percentage signal change. Finally, I discuss how these issues affect group analyses and give some recommendations. PMID:24478622

  11. Automatic optimal filament segmentation with sub-pixel accuracy using generalized linear models and B-spline level-sets.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xun; Geyer, Veikko F; Bowne-Anderson, Hugo; Howard, Jonathon; Sbalzarini, Ivo F

    2016-08-01

    Biological filaments, such as actin filaments, microtubules, and cilia, are often imaged using different light-microscopy techniques. Reconstructing the filament curve from the acquired images constitutes the filament segmentation problem. Since filaments have lower dimensionality than the image itself, there is an inherent trade-off between tracing the filament with sub-pixel accuracy and avoiding noise artifacts. Here, we present a globally optimal filament segmentation method based on B-spline vector level-sets and a generalized linear model for the pixel intensity statistics. We show that the resulting optimization problem is convex and can hence be solved with global optimality. We introduce a simple and efficient algorithm to compute such optimal filament segmentations, and provide an open-source implementation as an ImageJ/Fiji plugin. We further derive an information-theoretic lower bound on the filament segmentation error, quantifying how well an algorithm could possibly do given the information in the image. We show that our algorithm asymptotically reaches this bound in the spline coefficients. We validate our method in comprehensive benchmarks, compare with other methods, and show applications from fluorescence, phase-contrast, and dark-field microscopy. PMID:27104582

  12. Towards obtaining spatiotemporally precise responses to continuous sensory stimuli in humans: a general linear modeling approach to EEG.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Nuno R; Whelan, Robert; Foxe, John J; Lalor, Edmund C

    2014-08-15

    Noninvasive investigation of human sensory processing with high temporal resolution typically involves repeatedly presenting discrete stimuli and extracting an average event-related response from scalp recorded neuroelectric or neuromagnetic signals. While this approach is and has been extremely useful, it suffers from two drawbacks: a lack of naturalness in terms of the stimulus and a lack of precision in terms of the cortical response generators. Here we show that a linear modeling approach that exploits functional specialization in sensory systems can be used to rapidly obtain spatiotemporally precise responses to complex sensory stimuli using electroencephalography (EEG). We demonstrate the method by example through the controlled modulation of the contrast and coherent motion of visual stimuli. Regressing the data against these modulation signals produces spatially focal, highly temporally resolved response measures that are suggestive of specific activation of visual areas V1 and V6, respectively, based on their onset latency, their topographic distribution and the estimated location of their sources. We discuss our approach by comparing it with fMRI/MRI informed source analysis methods and, in doing so, we provide novel information on the timing of coherent motion processing in human V6. Generalizing such an approach has the potential to facilitate the rapid, inexpensive spatiotemporal localization of higher perceptual functions in behaving humans. PMID:24736185

  13. Multisite multivariate modeling of daily precipitation and temperature in the Canadian Prairie Provinces using generalized linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asong, Zilefac E.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.

    2016-02-01

    Based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework, a multisite stochastic modelling approach is developed using daily observations of precipitation and minimum and maximum temperatures from 120 sites located across the Canadian Prairie Provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Temperature is modeled using a two-stage normal-heteroscedastic model by fitting mean and variance components separately. Likewise, precipitation occurrence and conditional precipitation intensity processes are modeled separately. The relationship between precipitation and temperature is accounted for by using transformations of precipitation as covariates to predict temperature fields. Large scale atmospheric covariates from the National Center for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis-I, teleconnection indices, geographical site attributes, and observed precipitation and temperature records are used to calibrate these models for the 1971-2000 period. Validation of the developed models is performed on both pre- and post-calibration period data. Results of the study indicate that the developed models are able to capture spatiotemporal characteristics of observed precipitation and temperature fields, such as inter-site and inter-variable correlation structure, and systematic regional variations present in observed sequences. A number of simulated weather statistics ranging from seasonal means to characteristics of temperature and precipitation extremes and some of the commonly used climate indices are also found to be in close agreement with those derived from observed data. This GLM-based modelling approach will be developed further for multisite statistical downscaling of Global Climate Model outputs to explore climate variability and change in this region of Canada.

  14. Projected changes in precipitation and temperature over the Canadian Prairie Provinces using the Generalized Linear Model statistical downscaling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asong, Z. E.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a multisite multivariate statistical downscaling approach based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework is developed to downscale daily observations of precipitation and minimum and maximum temperatures from 120 sites located across the Canadian Prairie Provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. First, large scale atmospheric covariates from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis-I, teleconnection indices, geographical site attributes, and observed precipitation and temperature records are used to calibrate GLMs for the 1971-2000 period. Then the calibrated models are used to generate daily sequences of precipitation and temperature for the 1962-2005 historical (conditioned on NCEP predictors), and future period (2006-2100) using outputs from five CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5) Earth System Models corresponding to Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP): RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. The results indicate that the fitted GLMs are able to capture spatiotemporal characteristics of observed precipitation and temperature fields. According to the downscaled future climate, mean precipitation is projected to increase in summer and decrease in winter while minimum temperature is expected to warm faster than the maximum temperature. Climate extremes are projected to intensify with increased radiative forcing.

  15. General characterization of Tityus fasciolatus scorpion venom. Molecular identification of toxins and localization of linear B-cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Mendes, T M; Guimarães-Okamoto, P T C; Machado-de-Avila, R A; Oliveira, D; Melo, M M; Lobato, Z I; Kalapothakis, E; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2015-06-01

    This communication describes the general characteristics of the venom from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus fasciolatus, which is an endemic species found in the central Brazil (States of Goiás and Minas Gerais), being responsible for sting accidents in this area. The soluble venom obtained from this scorpion is toxic to mice being the LD50 is 2.984 mg/kg (subcutaneally). SDS-PAGE of the soluble venom resulted in 10 fractions ranged in size from 6 to 10-80 kDa. Sheep were employed for anti-T. fasciolatus venom serum production. Western blotting analysis showed that most of these venom proteins are immunogenic. T. fasciolatus anti-venom revealed consistent cross-reactivity with venom antigens from Tityus serrulatus. Using known primers for T. serrulatus toxins, we have identified three toxins sequences from T. fasciolatus venom. Linear epitopes of these toxins were localized and fifty-five overlapping pentadecapeptides covering complete amino acid sequence of the three toxins were synthesized in cellulose membrane (spot-synthesis technique). The epitopes were located on the 3D structures and some important residues for structure/function were identified. PMID:25817000

  16. Nested generalized linear mixed model with ordinal response: Simulation and application on poverty data in Java Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyaningsih, Yekti; Saefuddin, Asep; Notodiputro, Khairil A.; Wigena, Aji H.

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this research is to build a nested generalized linear mixed model using an ordinal response variable with some covariates. There are three main jobs in this paper, i.e. parameters estimation procedure, simulation, and implementation of the model for the real data. At the part of parameters estimation procedure, concepts of threshold, nested random effect, and computational algorithm are described. The simulations data are built for 3 conditions to know the effect of different parameter values of random effect distributions. The last job is the implementation of the model for the data about poverty in 9 districts of Java Island. The districts are Kuningan, Karawang, and Majalengka chose randomly in West Java; Temanggung, Boyolali, and Cilacap from Central Java; and Blitar, Ngawi, and Jember from East Java. The covariates in this model are province, number of bad nutrition cases, number of farmer families, and number of health personnel. In this modeling, all covariates are grouped as ordinal scale. Unit observation in this research is sub-district (kecamatan) nested in district, and districts (kabupaten) are nested in province. For the result of simulation, ARB (Absolute Relative Bias) and RRMSE (Relative Root of mean square errors) scale is used. They show that prov parameters have the highest bias, but more stable RRMSE in all conditions. The simulation design needs to be improved by adding other condition, such as higher correlation between covariates. Furthermore, as the result of the model implementation for the data, only number of farmer family and number of medical personnel have significant contributions to the level of poverty in Central Java and East Java province, and only district 2 (Karawang) of province 1 (West Java) has different random effect from the others. The source of the data is PODES (Potensi Desa) 2008 from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik).

  17. A revised linear ozone photochemistry parameterization for use in transport and general circulation models: multi-annual simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariolle, D.; Teyssèdre, H.

    2007-05-01

    This article describes the validation of a linear parameterization of the ozone photochemistry for use in upper tropospheric and stratospheric studies. The present work extends a previously developed scheme by improving the 2-D model used to derive the coefficients of the parameterization. The chemical reaction rates are updated from a compilation that includes recent laboratory work. Furthermore, the polar ozone destruction due to heterogeneous reactions at the surface of the polar stratospheric clouds is taken into account as a function of the stratospheric temperature and the total chlorine content. Two versions of the parameterization are tested. The first one only requires the solution of a continuity equation for the time evolution of the ozone mixing ratio, the second one uses one additional equation for a cold tracer. The parameterization has been introduced into the chemical transport model MOCAGE. The model is integrated with wind and temperature fields from the ECMWF operational analyses over the period 2000-2004. Overall, the results from the two versions show a very good agreement between the modelled ozone distribution and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data and the "in-situ" vertical soundings. During the course of the integration the model does not show any drift and the biases are generally small, of the order of 10%. The model also reproduces fairly well the polar ozone variability, notably the formation of "ozone holes" in the Southern Hemisphere with amplitudes and a seasonal evolution that follow the dynamics and time evolution of the polar vortex. The introduction of the cold tracer further improves the model simulation by allowing additional ozone destruction inside air masses exported from the high to the mid-latitudes, and by maintaining low ozone content inside the polar vortex of the Southern Hemisphere over longer periods in spring time. It is concluded that for the study of climate scenarios or the assimilation of

  18. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  19. Applicability/evaluation of flux based representations for linear/higher order elements for heat transfer in structures - Generalized gamma(T)-family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namburu, R. R.; Tamma, K. K.

    1991-01-01

    The applicability and evaluation of a generalized gamma(T) family of flux-based representations are examined for two different thermal analysis formulations for structures and materials which exhibit no phase change effects. The so-called H-theta and theta forms are demonstrated for numerous test models and linear and higher-order elements. The results show that the theta form with flux-based representations is generally superior to traditional approaches.

  20. Symposium on General Linear Model Approach to the Analysis of Experimental Data in Educational Research (Athens, Georgia, June 29-July 1, 1967). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashaw, W. L., Ed.; Findley, Warren G., Ed.

    This volume contains the five major addresses and subsequent discussion from the Symposium on the General Linear Models Approach to the Analysis of Experimental Data in Educational Research, which was held in 1967 in Athens, Georgia. The symposium was designed to produce systematic information, including new methodology, for dissemination to the…

  1. Developing a Measure of General Academic Ability: An Application of Maximal Reliability and Optimal Linear Combination to High School Students' Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Raykov, Tenko; AL-Qataee, Abdullah Ali

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with developing a measure of general academic ability (GAA) for high school graduates who apply to colleges, as well as with the identification of optimal weights of the GAA indicators in a linear combination that yields a composite score with maximal reliability and maximal predictive validity, employing the framework of…

  2. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  3. A generating set direct search augmented Lagrangian algorithm for optimization with a combination of general and linear constraints.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Robert Michael (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Torczon, Virginia Joanne (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2006-08-01

    We consider the solution of nonlinear programs in the case where derivatives of the objective function and nonlinear constraints are unavailable. To solve such problems, we propose an adaptation of a method due to Conn, Gould, Sartenaer, and Toint that proceeds by approximately minimizing a succession of linearly constrained augmented Lagrangians. Our modification is to use a derivative-free generating set direct search algorithm to solve the linearly constrained subproblems. The stopping criterion proposed by Conn, Gould, Sartenaer and Toint for the approximate solution of the subproblems requires explicit knowledge of derivatives. Such information is presumed absent in the generating set search method we employ. Instead, we show that stationarity results for linearly constrained generating set search methods provide a derivative-free stopping criterion, based on a step-length control parameter, that is sufficient to preserve the convergence properties of the original augmented Lagrangian algorithm.

  4. Cadmium-hazard mapping using a general linear regression model (Irr-Cad) for rapid risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Robert W; Noble, Andrew D; Pongsakul, P; Sukreeyapongse, O; Chinabut, N

    2009-02-01

    Research undertaken over the last 40 years has identified the irrefutable relationship between the long-term consumption of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated rice and human Cd disease. In order to protect public health and livelihood security, the ability to accurately and rapidly determine spatial Cd contamination is of high priority. During 2001-2004, a General Linear Regression Model Irr-Cad was developed to predict the spatial distribution of soil Cd in a Cd/Zn co-contaminated cascading irrigated rice-based system in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand (Longitude E 98 degrees 59'-E 98 degrees 63' and Latitude N 16 degrees 67'-16 degrees 66'). The results indicate that Irr-Cad accounted for 98% of the variance in mean Field Order total soil Cd. Preliminary validation indicated that Irr-Cad 'predicted' mean Field Order total soil Cd, was significantly (p < 0.001) correlated (R (2) = 0.92) with 'observed' mean Field Order total soil Cd values. Field Order is determined by a given field's proximity to primary outlets from in-field irrigation channels and subsequent inter-field irrigation flows. This in turn determines Field Order in Irrigation Sequence (Field Order(IS)). Mean Field Order total soil Cd represents the mean total soil Cd (aqua regia-digested) for a given Field Order(IS). In 2004-2005, Irr-Cad was utilized to evaluate the spatial distribution of total soil Cd in a 'high-risk' area of Mae Sot District. Secondary validation on six randomly selected field groups verified that Irr-Cad predicted mean Field Order total soil Cd and was significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with the observed mean Field Order total soil Cd with R (2) values ranging from 0.89 to 0.97. The practical applicability of Irr-Cad is in its minimal input requirements, namely the classification of fields in terms of Field Order(IS), strategic sampling of all primary fields and laboratory based determination of total soil Cd (T-Cd(P)) and the use of a weighed coefficient for Cd (Coeff

  5. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  6. ELAS: A general-purpose computer program for the equilibrium problems of linear structures. Volume 2: Documentation of the program. [subroutines and flow charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, S.

    1969-01-01

    A general purpose digital computer program for the in-core solution of linear equilibrium problems of structural mechanics is documented. The program requires minimum input for the description of the problem. The solution is obtained by means of the displacement method and the finite element technique. Almost any geometry and structure may be handled because of the availability of linear, triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, hexahedral, conical, triangular torus, and quadrilateral torus elements. The assumption of piecewise linear deflection distribution insures monotonic convergence of the deflections from the stiffer side with decreasing mesh size. The stresses are provided by the best-fit strain tensors in the least squares at the mesh points where the deflections are given. The selection of local coordinate systems whenever necessary is automatic. The core memory is used by means of dynamic memory allocation, an optional mesh-point relabelling scheme and imposition of the boundary conditions during the assembly time.

  7. Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Fang; Rongsheng, Wu

    2002-09-01

    Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow is examined in detail with a linear shallow water model. The initial unbalanced flow considered first falls tinder two classes. The first is similar to that adopted by Gill and is here referred to as a mass imbalance model, for the flow is initially motionless but with a sea surface displacement. The other is the same as that considered by Rossby and is referred to as a momentum imbalance model since there is only a velocity perturbation in the initial field. The significant feature of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment for the above two extreme models is that although the energy conversion ratio has a large case-to-case variability for different initial conditions, its value is bounded below by 0 and above by 1 / 2. Based on the discussion of the above extreme models, the energetics of adjustment for an arbitrary initial condition is investigated. It is found that the characteristics of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment mentioned above are also applicable to adjustment of the general unbalanced flow under the condition that the energy conversion ratio is redefined as the conversion ratio between the change of kinetic energy and potential energy of the deviational fields.

  8. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  9. Non-linear oscillation of inter-connected satellites system under the combined influence of the solar radiation pressure and dissipative force of general nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Narayan, A.

    2001-06-01

    The non-linear oscillation of inter-connected satellites system about its equilibrium position in the neighabourhood of main resonance ??=3D 1, under the combined effects of the solar radiation pressure and the dissipative forces of general nature has been discussed. It is found that the oscillation of the system gets disturbed when the frequency of the natural oscillation approaches the resonance frequency.

  10. Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) on Riemannian Manifolds with Applications to Statistical Analysis of Diffusion Weighted Images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunwoo J.; Adluru, Nagesh; Collins, Maxwell D.; Chung, Moo K.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Davidson, Richard J.; Singh, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Linear regression is a parametric model which is ubiquitous in scientific analysis. The classical setup where the observations and responses, i.e., (xi, yi) pairs, are Euclidean is well studied. The setting where yi is manifold valued is a topic of much interest, motivated by applications in shape analysis, topic modeling, and medical imaging. Recent work gives strategies for max-margin classifiers, principal components analysis, and dictionary learning on certain types of manifolds. For parametric regression specifically, results within the last year provide mechanisms to regress one real-valued parameter, xi ∈ R, against a manifold-valued variable, yi ∈ . We seek to substantially extend the operating range of such methods by deriving schemes for multivariate multiple linear regression —a manifold-valued dependent variable against multiple independent variables, i.e., f : Rn → . Our variational algorithm efficiently solves for multiple geodesic bases on the manifold concurrently via gradient updates. This allows us to answer questions such as: what is the relationship of the measurement at voxel y to disease when conditioned on age and gender. We show applications to statistical analysis of diffusion weighted images, which give rise to regression tasks on the manifold GL(n)/O(n) for diffusion tensor images (DTI) and the Hilbert unit sphere for orientation distribution functions (ODF) from high angular resolution acquisition. The companion open-source code is available on nitrc.org/projects/riem_mglm. PMID:25580070

  11. The method of realizing the three-dimension positioning based on linear CCD sensor in general DSP chip.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Wen, Qiuting

    2008-01-01

    Optical positioning system is an important part in the computer aided surgery system. Under the previous research of the three linear CCD positioning system prototype, this paper proposed a new way to implement three-dimensional coordinates reconstruction of a marker in the digital signal processor while not in a computer as before. And the experiments were designed to calculate the markers' three dimensional coordinates in the DSP chip and the computer respectively, the results of the three dimensional coordinates' reconstruction showed that the calculation precision in DSP chip and the computer had no difference within 0.01mm error limit. Furthermore, the method that the three dimensional coordinates' reconstruction implemented in the DSP chip can improve the stability of the optical positioning system, and to the greatest extent to increase the calculation independent of hardware, while not depend on computer processing as before. PMID:19163161

  12. Wronskian solutions of the T-, Q- and Y-systems related to infinite dimensional unitarizable modules of the general linear superalgebra gl (M | N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Zengo

    2013-05-01

    In [1] (Z. Tsuboi, Nucl. Phys. B 826 (2010) 399, arxiv:arXiv:0906.2039), we proposed Wronskian-like solutions of the T-system for [ M , N ]-hook of the general linear superalgebra gl (M | N). We have generalized these Wronskian-like solutions to the ones for the general T-hook, which is a union of [M1 ,N1 ]-hook and [M2 ,N2 ]-hook (M =M1 +M2, N =N1 +N2). These solutions are related to Weyl-type supercharacter formulas of infinite dimensional unitarizable modules of gl (M | N). Our solutions also include a Wronskian-like solution discussed in [2] (N. Gromov, V. Kazakov, S. Leurent, Z. Tsuboi, JHEP 1101 (2011) 155, arxiv:arXiv:1010.2720) in relation to the AdS5 /CFT4 spectral problem.

  13. Systematic wave-equation finite difference time domain formulations for modeling electromagnetic wave-propagation in general linear and nonlinear dispersive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Omar

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, systematic wave-equation finite difference time domain (WE-FDTD) formulations are presented for modeling electromagnetic wave-propagation in linear and nonlinear dispersive materials. In the proposed formulations, the complex conjugate pole residue (CCPR) pairs model is adopted in deriving a unified dispersive WE-FDTD algorithm that allows modeling different dispersive materials, such as Debye, Drude and Lorentz, in the same manner with the minimal additional auxiliary variables. Moreover, the proposed formulations are incorporated with the wave-equation perfectly matched layer (WE-PML) to construct a material independent mesh truncating technique that can be used for modeling general frequency-dependent open region problems. Several numerical examples involving linear and nonlinear dispersive materials are included to show the validity of the proposed formulations.

  14. Direct Linearization and Adjoint Approaches to Evaluation of Atmospheric Weighting Functions and Surface Partial Derivatives: General Principles, Synergy and Areas of Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustino, Eugene A.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the observable radiances as functions of atmospheric parameters and of surface parameters; the mathematics of atmospheric weighting functions (WFs) and surface partial derivatives (PDs) are presented; and the equation of the forward radiative transfer (RT) problem is presented. For non-scattering atmospheres this can be done analytically, and all WFs and PDs can be computed analytically using the direct linearization approach. For scattering atmospheres, in general case, the solution of the forward RT problem can be obtained only numerically, but we need only two numerical solutions: one of the forward RT problem and one of the adjoint RT problem to compute all WFs and PDs we can think of. In this presentation we discuss applications of both the linearization and adjoint approaches

  15. Polynomial approximation of functions of matrices and its application to the solution of a general system of linear equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tal-Ezer, Hillel

    1987-01-01

    During the process of solving a mathematical model numerically, there is often a need to operate on a vector v by an operator which can be expressed as f(A) while A is NxN matrix (ex: exp(A), sin(A), A sup -1). Except for very simple matrices, it is impractical to construct the matrix f(A) explicitly. Usually an approximation to it is used. In the present research, an algorithm is developed which uses a polynomial approximation to f(A). It is reduced to a problem of approximating f(z) by a polynomial in z while z belongs to the domain D in the complex plane which includes all the eigenvalues of A. This problem of approximation is approached by interpolating the function f(z) in a certain set of points which is known to have some maximal properties. The approximation thus achieved is almost best. Implementing the algorithm to some practical problem is described. Since a solution to a linear system Ax = b is x= A sup -1 b, an iterative solution to it can be regarded as a polynomial approximation to f(A) = A sup -1. Implementing the algorithm in this case is also described.

  16. A general approach to the localization of antigenic determinants of a linear type in proteins of unknown primary structure.

    PubMed

    Beresten, S F; Rubikaite, B I; Kisselev, L L

    1988-10-26

    A method is proposed which permits the localization of antigenic determinants of a linear type on the polypeptide chain of a protein molecule of unknown primary structure. An antigen modified with maleic anhydride at the amino-terminal groups and at the epsilon-NH2 groups of lysine residues was subjected to partial enzymic digestion, so that the antigenic protein had, on average, less than one cleavage site per polypeptide chain. The resultant ends were labeled with 125I-labeled Bolton and Hunter reagent and the maleic group removed. The detection of the two larger labeled fragments (a longer one which still could bind to a monoclonal antibody and a shorter one which was incapable of binding) made it possible to determine the distance from the antigenic determinant to the C-terminus of the polypeptide chain. The position of the antigenic determinant could be established in more detail using partial chemical degradation of the original antigen using information about the maximal length of a fragment which has lost its ability to interact with the monoclonal antibody. The method has been applied to bovine tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (EC 6.1.1.2). PMID:2459255

  17. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  18. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: General implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-11-14

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute.

  19. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: general implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy.

    PubMed

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Frisch, Michael J; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-11-14

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute. PMID:25399133

  20. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  1. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  2. Exact power series solutions of the structure equations of the general relativistic isotropic fluid stars with linear barotropic and polytropic equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, T.; Mak, M. K.

    2016-09-01

    Obtaining exact solutions of the spherically symmetric general relativistic gravitational field equations describing the interior structure of an isotropic fluid sphere is a long standing problem in theoretical and mathematical physics. The usual approach to this problem consists mainly in the numerical investigation of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff and of the mass continuity equations, which describes the hydrostatic stability of the dense stars. In the present paper we introduce an alternative approach for the study of the relativistic fluid sphere, based on the relativistic mass equation, obtained by eliminating the energy density in the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. Despite its apparent complexity, the relativistic mass equation can be solved exactly by using a power series representation for the mass, and the Cauchy convolution for infinite power series. We obtain exact series solutions for general relativistic dense astrophysical objects described by the linear barotropic and the polytropic equations of state, respectively. For the polytropic case we obtain the exact power series solution corresponding to arbitrary values of the polytropic index n. The explicit form of the solution is presented for the polytropic index n=1, and for the indexes n=1/2 and n=1/5, respectively. The case of n=3 is also considered. In each case the exact power series solution is compared with the exact numerical solutions, which are reproduced by the power series solutions truncated to seven terms only. The power series representations of the geometric and physical properties of the linear barotropic and polytropic stars are also obtained.

  3. A comparative evaluation of methods of adjusting GPA for differences in grade assignment practices.

    PubMed

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Bassiri, Dina; Schulz, E Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Numerous methods have been proposed for constructing an adjusted grade point average (adjusted-GPA) that controls for differences in grading standards across college courses and departments. Compared to the raw GPA, adjusted-GPA measures are generally more predictable from preadmissions variables, such as standardized tests and high school achievement. Relative rankings of students on adjusted-GPA measures are also more consistent with their relative standings within courses. This study compared the performance of 4 polytomous IRT and 3 linear models for constructing adjusted-GPA measures. Unlike previous studies, the regression weights of predictor variables and the course parameter estimates used to compute adjusted-GPA were cross-validated. Adjusted-GPA retained noticeable advantages over raw GPA on cross-validation. The largest advantages were seen in the multiple correlation of adjusted-GPA with preadmission variables, when adjusted-GPA was constructed with the rating scale and partial credit IRT models. The cross-validity of adjusted-GPA was the weakest with the graded response model. PMID:12700432

  4. Generalized Vibrational Perturbation Theory for Rotovibrational Energies of Linear, Symmetric and Asymmetric Tops: Theory, Approximations, and Automated Approaches to Deal with Medium-to-Large Molecular Systems

    PubMed Central

    Piccardo, Matteo; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Models going beyond the rigid-rotor and the harmonic oscillator levels are mandatory for providing accurate theoretical predictions for several spectroscopic properties. Different strategies have been devised for this purpose. Among them, the treatment by perturbation theory of the molecular Hamiltonian after its expansion in power series of products of vibrational and rotational operators, also referred to as vibrational perturbation theory (VPT), is particularly appealing for its computational efficiency to treat medium-to-large systems. Moreover, generalized (GVPT) strategies combining the use of perturbative and variational formalisms can be adopted to further improve the accuracy of the results, with the first approach used for weakly coupled terms, and the second one to handle tightly coupled ones. In this context, the GVPT formulation for asymmetric, symmetric, and linear tops is revisited and fully generalized to both minima and first-order saddle points of the molecular potential energy surface. The computational strategies and approximations that can be adopted in dealing with GVPT computations are pointed out, with a particular attention devoted to the treatment of symmetry and degeneracies. A number of tests and applications are discussed, to show the possibilities of the developments, as regards both the variety of treatable systems and eligible methods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26345131

  5. Evaluation of cavity occurrence in the Maynardville Limestone and the Copper Ridge Dolomite at the Y-12 Plant using logistic and general linear models

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.A.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1994-11-01

    Several waste disposal sites are located on or adjacent to the karstic Maynardville Limestone (Cmn) and the Copper Ridge Dolomite (Ccr) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These formations receive contaminants in groundwaters from nearby disposal sites, which can be transported quite rapidly due to the karst flow system. In order to evaluate transport processes through the karst aquifer, the solutional aspects of the formations must be characterized. As one component of this characterization effort, statistical analyses were conducted on the data related to cavities in order to determine if a suitable model could be identified that is capable of predicting the probability of cavity size or distribution in locations for which drilling data are not available. Existing data on the locations (East, North coordinates), depths (and elevations), and sizes of known conduits and other water zones were used in the analyses. Two different models were constructed in the attempt to predict the distribution of cavities in the vicinity of the Y-12 Plant: General Linear Models (GLM), and Logistic Regression Models (LOG). Each of the models attempted was very sensitive to the data set used. Models based on subsets of the full data set were found to do an inadequate job of predicting the behavior of the full data set. The fact that the Ccr and Cmn data sets differ significantly is not surprising considering the hydrogeology of the two formations differs. Flow in the Cmn is generally at elevations between 600 and 950 ft and is dominantly strike parallel through submerged, partially mud-filled cavities with sizes up to 40 ft, but more typically less than 5 ft. Recognized flow in the Ccr is generally above 950 ft elevation, with flow both parallel and perpendicular to geologic strike through conduits, which tend to be large than those on the Cnm, and are often not fully saturated at the shallower depths.

  6. 38 CFR 10.0 - Adjusted service pay entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adjusted service pay... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.0 Adjusted service pay entitlements. A veteran entitled to adjusted service pay is one whose adjusted service credit does not amount to more than $50 as...

  7. 38 CFR 10.0 - Adjusted service pay entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adjusted service pay... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.0 Adjusted service pay entitlements. A veteran entitled to adjusted service pay is one whose adjusted service credit does not amount to more than $50 as...

  8. Exact solutions of the Liénard- and generalized Liénard-type ordinary nonlinear differential equations obtained by deforming the phase space coordinates of the linear harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Shi-Dong

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the connection between the linear harmonic oscillator equation and some classes of second order nonlinear ordinary differential equations of Li\\'enard and generalized Li\\'enard type, which physically describe important oscillator systems. By using a method inspired by quantum mechanics, and which consist on the deformation of the phase space coordinates of the harmonic oscillator, we generalize the equation of motion of the classical linear harmonic oscillator to several classes of strongly non-linear differential equations. The first integrals, and a number of exact solutions of the corresponding equations are explicitly obtained. The devised method can be further generalized to derive explicit general solutions of nonlinear second order differential equations unrelated to the harmonic oscillator. Applications of the obtained results for the study of the travelling wave solutions of the reaction-convection-diffusion equations, and of the large amplitude free vibrations of a uniform cantilever beam are also presented.

  9. Using generalized linear models to estimate selectivity from short-term recoveries of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: Effects of gear, fate, and regulation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Hightower, J.E.; Burdick, S.M.; Paramore, L.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Pollock, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the selectivity patterns of various fishing gears is a critical component of fisheries stock assessment due to the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from most gears. We used short-term recoveries (n = 3587) of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus to directly estimate age- and length-based selectivity patterns using generalized linear models. The most parsimonious models were selected using AIC, and standard deviations were estimated using simulations. Selectivity of red drum was dependent upon the regulation period in which the fish was caught, the gear used to catch the fish (i.e., hook-and-line, gill nets, pound nets), and the fate of the fish upon recovery (i.e., harvested or released); models including all first-order interactions between main effects outperformed models without interactions. Selectivity of harvested fish was generally dome-shaped and shifted toward larger, older fish in response to regulation changes. Selectivity of caught-and-released red drum was highest on the youngest and smallest fish in the early and middle regulation periods, but increased on larger, legal-sized fish in the late regulation period. These results suggest that catch-and-release mortality has consistently been high for small, young red drum, but has recently become more common in larger, older fish. This method of estimating selectivity from short-term tag recoveries is valuable because it is simpler than full tag-return models, and may be more robust because yearly fishing and natural mortality rates do not need to be modeled and estimated. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Using generalized linear models to estimate selectivity from short-term recoveries of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: Effects of gear, fate, and regulation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Paramore, Lee M.; Buckel, Jeffrey A.; Pollock, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the selectivity patterns of various fishing gears is a critical component of fisheries stock assessment due to the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from most gears. We used short-term recoveries (n = 3587) of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus to directly estimate age- and length-based selectivity patterns using generalized linear models. The most parsimonious models were selected using AIC, and standard deviations were estimated using simulations. Selectivity of red drum was dependent upon the regulation period in which the fish was caught, the gear used to catch the fish (i.e., hook-and-line, gill nets, pound nets), and the fate of the fish upon recovery (i.e., harvested or released); models including all first-order interactions between main effects outperformed models without interactions. Selectivity of harvested fish was generally dome-shaped and shifted toward larger, older fish in response to regulation changes. Selectivity of caught-and-released red drum was highest on the youngest and smallest fish in the early and middle regulation periods, but increased on larger, legal-sized fish in the late regulation period. These results suggest that catch-and-release mortality has consistently been high for small, young red drum, but has recently become more common in larger, older fish. This method of estimating selectivity from short-term tag recoveries is valuable because it is simpler than full tag-return models, and may be more robust because yearly fishing and natural mortality rates do not need to be modeled and estimated.

  11. On using a generalized linear model to downscale daily precipitation for the center of Portugal: an analysis of trends and extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulquério, Mário; Garrett, Pedro; Santos, Filipe Duarte; Cruz, Maria João

    2015-04-01

    Portugal is on a climate change hot spot region, where precipitation is expected to decrease with important impacts regarding future water availability. As one of the European countries affected more by droughts in the last decades, it is important to assess how future precipitation regimes will change in order to study its impacts on water resources. Due to the coarse scale of global circulation models, it is often needed to downscale climate variables to the regional or local scale using statistical and/or dynamical techniques. In this study, we tested the use of a generalized linear model, as implemented in the program GLIMCLIM, to downscale precipitation for the center of Portugal where the Tagus basin is located. An analysis of the method performance is done as well as an evaluation of future precipitation trends and extremes for the twenty-first century. Additionally, we perform the first analysis of the evolution of droughts in climate change scenarios by the Standardized Precipitation Index in the study area. Results show that GLIMCLIM is able to capture the precipitation's interannual variation and seasonality correctly. However, summer precipitation is considerably overestimated. Additionally, precipitation extremes are in general well recovered, but high daily rainfall may be overestimated, and dry spell lengths are not correctly recovered by the model. Downscaled projections show a reduction in precipitation between 19 and 28 % at the end of the century. Results indicate that precipitation extremes will decrease and the magnitude of droughts can increase up to three times in relation to the 1961-1990 period which can have strong ecological, social, and economic impacts.

  12. Bayesian inference for generalized linear mixed models with predictors subject to detection limits: an approach that leverages information from auxiliary variables.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yu Ryan; Wang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-05-10

    This paper is motivated from a retrospective study of the impact of vitamin D deficiency on the clinical outcomes for critically ill patients in multi-center critical care units. The primary predictors of interest, vitamin D2 and D3 levels, are censored at a known detection limit. Within the context of generalized linear mixed models, we investigate statistical methods to handle multiple censored predictors in the presence of auxiliary variables. A Bayesian joint modeling approach is proposed to fit the complex heterogeneous multi-center data, in which the data information is fully used to estimate parameters of interest. Efficient Monte Carlo Markov chain algorithms are specifically developed depending on the nature of the response. Simulation studies demonstrate the outperformance of the proposed Bayesian approach over other existing methods. An application to the data set from the vitamin D deficiency study is presented. Possible extensions of the method regarding the absence of auxiliary variables, semiparametric models, as well as the type of censoring are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26643287

  13. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  14. Resistors Improve Ramp Linearity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    Simple modification to bootstrap ramp generator gives more linear output over longer sweep times. New circuit adds just two resistors, one of which is adjustable. Modification cancels nonlinearities due to variations in load on charging capacitor and due to changes in charging current as the voltage across capacitor increases.

  15. Multitemporal Modelling of Socio-Economic Wildfire Drivers in Central Spain between the 1980s and the 2000s: Comparing Generalized Linear Models to Machine Learning Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Lara; Gómez, Israel; Martínez-Vega, Javier; Echavarría, Pilar; Riaño, David; Martín, M. Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The socio-economic factors are of key importance during all phases of wildfire management that include prevention, suppression and restoration. However, modeling these factors, at the proper spatial and temporal scale to understand fire regimes is still challenging. This study analyses socio-economic drivers of wildfire occurrence in central Spain. This site represents a good example of how human activities play a key role over wildfires in the European Mediterranean basin. Generalized Linear Models (GLM) and machine learning Maximum Entropy models (Maxent) predicted wildfire occurrence in the 1980s and also in the 2000s to identify changes between each period in the socio-economic drivers affecting wildfire occurrence. GLM base their estimation on wildfire presence-absence observations whereas Maxent on wildfire presence-only. According to indicators like sensitivity or commission error Maxent outperformed GLM in both periods. It achieved a sensitivity of 38.9% and a commission error of 43.9% for the 1980s, and 67.3% and 17.9% for the 2000s. Instead, GLM obtained 23.33, 64.97, 9.41 and 18.34%, respectively. However GLM performed steadier than Maxent in terms of the overall fit. Both models explained wildfires from predictors such as population density and Wildland Urban Interface (WUI), but differed in their relative contribution. As a result of the urban sprawl and an abandonment of rural areas, predictors like WUI and distance to roads increased their contribution to both models in the 2000s, whereas Forest-Grassland Interface (FGI) influence decreased. This study demonstrates that human component can be modelled with a spatio-temporal dimension to integrate it into wildfire risk assessment. PMID:27557113

  16. Multitemporal Modelling of Socio-Economic Wildfire Drivers in Central Spain between the 1980s and the 2000s: Comparing Generalized Linear Models to Machine Learning Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Lara; Gómez, Israel; Martínez-Vega, Javier; Echavarría, Pilar; Riaño, David; Martín, M Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The socio-economic factors are of key importance during all phases of wildfire management that include prevention, suppression and restoration. However, modeling these factors, at the proper spatial and temporal scale to understand fire regimes is still challenging. This study analyses socio-economic drivers of wildfire occurrence in central Spain. This site represents a good example of how human activities play a key role over wildfires in the European Mediterranean basin. Generalized Linear Models (GLM) and machine learning Maximum Entropy models (Maxent) predicted wildfire occurrence in the 1980s and also in the 2000s to identify changes between each period in the socio-economic drivers affecting wildfire occurrence. GLM base their estimation on wildfire presence-absence observations whereas Maxent on wildfire presence-only. According to indicators like sensitivity or commission error Maxent outperformed GLM in both periods. It achieved a sensitivity of 38.9% and a commission error of 43.9% for the 1980s, and 67.3% and 17.9% for the 2000s. Instead, GLM obtained 23.33, 64.97, 9.41 and 18.34%, respectively. However GLM performed steadier than Maxent in terms of the overall fit. Both models explained wildfires from predictors such as population density and Wildland Urban Interface (WUI), but differed in their relative contribution. As a result of the urban sprawl and an abandonment of rural areas, predictors like WUI and distance to roads increased their contribution to both models in the 2000s, whereas Forest-Grassland Interface (FGI) influence decreased. This study demonstrates that human component can be modelled with a spatio-temporal dimension to integrate it into wildfire risk assessment. PMID:27557113

  17. A semiparametric negative binomial generalized linear model for modeling over-dispersed count data with a heavy tail: Characteristics and applications to crash data.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Mohammadali; Lord, Dominique; Dhavala, Soma Sekhar; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Crash data can often be characterized by over-dispersion, heavy (long) tail and many observations with the value zero. Over the last few years, a small number of researchers have started developing and applying novel and innovative multi-parameter models to analyze such data. These multi-parameter models have been proposed for overcoming the limitations of the traditional negative binomial (NB) model, which cannot handle this kind of data efficiently. The research documented in this paper continues the work related to multi-parameter models. The objective of this paper is to document the development and application of a flexible NB generalized linear model with randomly distributed mixed effects characterized by the Dirichlet process (NB-DP) to model crash data. The objective of the study was accomplished using two datasets. The new model was compared to the NB and the recently introduced model based on the mixture of the NB and Lindley (NB-L) distributions. Overall, the research study shows that the NB-DP model offers a better performance than the NB model once data are over-dispersed and have a heavy tail. The NB-DP performed better than the NB-L when the dataset has a heavy tail, but a smaller percentage of zeros. However, both models performed similarly when the dataset contained a large amount of zeros. In addition to a greater flexibility, the NB-DP provides a clustering by-product that allows the safety analyst to better understand the characteristics of the data, such as the identification of outliers and sources of dispersion. PMID:26945472

  18. Estimating correlation by using a general linear mixed model: evaluation of the relationship between the concentration of HIV-1 RNA in blood and semen.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Helms, Ronald W; Sen, Pranab K; Cohen, Myron S

    2003-05-15

    Estimating the correlation coefficient between two outcome variables is one of the most important aspects of epidemiological and clinical research. A simple Pearson's correlation coefficient method is usually employed when there are complete independent data points for both outcome variables. However, researchers often deal with correlated observations in a longitudinal setting with missing values where a simple Pearson's correlation coefficient method cannot be used. General linear mixed models (GLMM) techniques were used to estimate correlation coefficients in a longitudinal data set with missing values. A random regression mixed model with unstructured covariance matrix was employed to estimate correlation coefficients between concentrations of HIV-1 RNA in blood and seminal plasma. The effects of CD4 count and antiretroviral therapy were also examined. We used data sets from three different centres (650 samples from 238 patients) where blood and seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations were collected from patients; 137 samples from 90 different patients without antiviral therapy and 513 samples from 148 patients receiving therapy were considered for analysis. We found no significant correlation between blood and semen HIV-1 RNA concentration in the absence of antiviral therapy. However, a moderate correlation between blood and semen HIV-1 RNA was observed among subjects with lower CD4 counts receiving therapy. Our findings confirm and extend the idea that the concentrations of HIV-1 in semen often differ from the HIV-1 concentration in blood. Antiretroviral therapy administered to subjects with low CD4 counts result in sufficient concomitant reduction of HIV-1 in blood and semen so as to improve the correlation between these compartments. These results have important implications for studies related to the sexual transmission of HIV, and development of HIV prevention strategies. PMID:12704609

  19. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  20. Techniques and applications of adjustable sutures.

    PubMed

    Fells, P

    1987-02-01

    The 'rediscovery' of adjustable sutures some 10 years ago has given the ophthalmic surgeon much more confidence in his ability to correct strabismus. Three methods of use are described: during surgery under general anaesthesia with adjustment during the operation using the 'springback' test to centralise the eye; during surgery under general anaesthesia and subsequent adjustment under local anaesthesia using the patient's subjective responses to obtain optimal positioning; and performance of the operation and adjustment under topical local anaesthesia in one procedure. Full details are given of each technique and the indications for their application to particular problems are discussed. PMID:3297111

  1. To adjust or not to adjust for baseline when analyzing repeated binary responses? The case of complete data when treatment comparison at study end is of interest.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Honghua; Kulkarni, Pandurang M; Mallinckrodt, Craig H; Shurzinske, Linda; Molenberghs, Geert; Lipkovich, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of adjusting for baseline covariates are not as straightforward with repeated binary responses as with continuous response variables. Therefore, in this study, we compared different methods for analyzing repeated binary data through simulations when the outcome at the study endpoint is of interest. Methods compared included chi-square, Fisher's exact test, covariate adjusted/unadjusted logistic regression (Adj.logit/Unadj.logit), covariate adjusted/unadjusted generalized estimating equations (Adj.GEE/Unadj.GEE), covariate adjusted/unadjusted generalized linear mixed model (Adj.GLMM/Unadj.GLMM). All these methods preserved the type I error close to the nominal level. Covariate adjusted methods improved power compared with the unadjusted methods because of the increased treatment effect estimates, especially when the correlation between the baseline and outcome was strong, even though there was an apparent increase in standard errors. Results of the Chi-squared test were identical to those for the unadjusted logistic regression. Fisher's exact test was the most conservative test regarding the type I error rate and also with the lowest power. Without missing data, there was no gain in using a repeated measures approach over a simple logistic regression at the final time point. Analysis of results from five phase III diabetes trials of the same compound was consistent with the simulation findings. Therefore, covariate adjusted analysis is recommended for repeated binary data when the study endpoint is of interest. PMID:25866149

  2. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in enteric Escherichia coli from domestic pets and assessment of associated risk markers using a generalized linear mixed model.

    PubMed

    Leite-Martins, Liliana R; Mahú, Maria I M; Costa, Ana L; Mendes, Angelo; Lopes, Elisabete; Mendonça, Denisa M V; Niza-Ribeiro, João J R; de Matos, Augusto J F; da Costa, Paulo Martins

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global public health problem, which is caused by the use of antimicrobials in both human and animal medical practice. The objectives of the present cross-sectional study were as follows: (1) to determine the prevalence of resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from the feces of pets from the Porto region of Portugal against 19 antimicrobial agents and (2) to assess the individual, clinical and environmental characteristics associated with each pet as risk markers for the AMR of the E. coli isolates. From September 2009 to May 2012, rectal swabs were collected from pets selected using a systematic random procedure from the ordinary population of animals attending the Veterinary Hospital of Porto University. A total of 78 dogs and 22 cats were sampled with the objective of isolating E. coli. The animals' owners, who allowed the collection of fecal samples from their pets, answered a questionnaire to collect information about the markers that could influence the AMR of the enteric E. coli. Chromocult tryptone bile X-glucuronide agar was used for E. coli isolation, and the disk diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility. The data were analyzed using a multilevel, univariable and multivariable generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Several (49.7%) of the 396 isolates obtained in this study were multidrug-resistant. The E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to the antimicrobial agent's ampicillin (51.3%), cephalothin (46.7%), tetracycline (45.2%) and streptomycin (43.4%). Previous quinolone treatment was the main risk marker for the presence of AMR for 12 (ampicillin, cephalothin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and aztreonam) of the 15 antimicrobials assessed. Coprophagic habits were also positively associated with an increased risk of AMR for six drugs, ampicillin, amoxicillin

  3. CALMAR: A New Versatile Code Library for Adjustment from Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, G.; Fausser, C.; Destouches, C.; Thiollay, N.

    2016-02-01

    CALMAR, a new library for adjustment has been developed. This code performs simultaneous shape and level adjustment of an initial prior spectrum from measured reactions rates of activation foils. It is written in C++ using the ROOT data analysis framework,with all linear algebra classes. STAYSL code has also been reimplemented in this library. Use of the code is very flexible : stand-alone, inside a C++ code, or driven by scripts. Validation and test cases are under progress. Theses cases will be included in the code package that will be available to the community. Future development are discussed. The code should support the new Generalized Nuclear Data (GND) format. This new format has many advantages compared to ENDF.

  4. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  5. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  6. 38 CFR 10.0 - Adjusted service pay entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adjusted service pay entitlements. 10.0 Section 10.0 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.0 Adjusted service pay entitlements. A veteran entitled...

  7. 38 CFR 10.0 - Adjusted service pay entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adjusted service pay entitlements. 10.0 Section 10.0 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.0 Adjusted service pay entitlements. A veteran entitled...

  8. Electrical characterization of special purpose linear microcircuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulpinski, J. S.; Simonsen, T.; Carrozza, L.; Mossman, R.; Dunn, J.

    1980-05-01

    This report covers the work performed by General Electric Ordnance Systems pertaining to the electrical characterization and specification of linear microcircuits. The period of report is August 1978 to December 1979. This technical report is divided into chapters covering specific device types with electrical characterization results. The following device types/families were characterized Adjustable Positive Voltage Regulators, Adjustable Negative Voltage Regulators. Precision B1 Fet Op Amps, Multiple B1 Fet Op Amps, 12 Bit A/D Converters, 12 Bit D/A Converters, Precision Voltage References, and Precision Sample/Hold Amplifiers. Data obtained during device characterization is published in handbook form obtainable under separate cover from this document. Samples of data sheets, histograms, and plots, are included in this report, however.

  9. Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, G H; Gelvin, B R; Hartman, S E

    1993-08-01

    Simple ratios in which a measurement variable is divided by a size variable are commonly used but known to be inadequate for eliminating size correlations from morphometric data. Deficiencies in the simple ratio can be alleviated by incorporating regression coefficients describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables. Recommendations have included: 1) subtracting the regression intercept to force the bivariate relationship through the origin (intercept-adjusted ratios); 2) exponentiating either the measurement or the size variable using an allometry coefficient to achieve linearity (allometrically adjusted ratios); or 3) both subtracting the intercept and exponentiating (fully adjusted ratios). These three strategies for deriving size-adjusted ratios imply different data models for describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables (i.e., the linear, simple allometric, and full allometric models, respectively). Algebraic rearrangement of the equation associated with each data model leads to a correctly formulated adjusted ratio whose expected value is constant (i.e., size correlation is eliminated). Alternatively, simple algebra can be used to derive an expected value function for assessing whether any proposed ratio formula is effective in eliminating size correlations. Some published ratio adjustments were incorrectly formulated as indicated by expected values that remain a function of size after ratio transformation. Regression coefficients incorporated into adjusted ratios must be estimated using least-squares regression of the measurement variable on the size variable. Use of parameters estimated by any other regression technique (e.g., major axis or reduced major axis) results in residual correlations between size and the adjusted measurement variable. Correctly formulated adjusted ratios, whose parameters are estimated by least-squares methods, do control for size correlations. The size-adjusted

  10. 45 CFR 84.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 84.44 Section 84.44 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 84.44 Academic adjustments. (a)...

  11. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  12. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  13. Vietnamese Amerasians: Psychosocial Adjustment and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on Amerasians and offers suggestions for directions in psychotherapy. Provides a brief chronology of Amerasian emigration and associated psychological issues, followed by a discussion of myths and generalizations about Amerasians, research findings, and adjustment issues. (RJM)

  14. Assessing adult adjustment to relationship separation: the Psychological Adjustment to Separation Test (PAST).

    PubMed

    Sweeper, Susie; Halford, Kim

    2006-12-01

    Relationship separation is associated with substantial adult adjustment problems. The Psychological Adjustment to Separation Test (PAST) was developed as a self-report measure of 3 key dimensions of separation adjustment problems: lonely negativity, ex-partner attachment and coparenting conflict. Two independent samples (n = 219 and n = 169, respectively) of recently separated adults, 60% of whom had children, completed the PAST and other measures of general adjustment. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a replicable 3-factor structure, with each factor showing satisfactory test-retest and internal reliability and good convergent and discriminant validity. The PAST meets initial criteria for a potentially useful new measure of adult separation adjustment. PMID:17176198

  15. Radiation phantom with humanoid shape and adjustable thickness

    DOEpatents

    Lehmann, Joerg; Levy, Joshua; Stern, Robin L.; Siantar, Christine Hartmann; Goldberg, Zelanna

    2006-12-19

    A radiation phantom comprising a body with a general humanoid shape and at least a portion having an adjustable thickness. In one embodiment, the portion with an adjustable thickness comprises at least one tissue-equivalent slice.

  16. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  17. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  18. Adjustment as process and outcome: Measuring adjustment to HIV in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Martin, Faith; Russell, Steve; Seeley, Janet

    2016-05-01

    'Adjustment' in health refers to both processes and outcomes. Its measurement and conceptualisation in African cultures is limited. In total, 263 people living with HIV and receiving anti-retroviral therapy in clinics in Uganda completed a translated Mental Adjustment to HIV Scale, depression items from the Hopkins checklist and demographic questions. Factor analysis revealed four Mental Adjustment to HIV factors of active coping, cognitive-social adjustment, hopelessness and denial/avoidance. Correlations with depression supported the Mental Adjustment to HIV's validity and the importance of active adjustment, while the role of cognitive adjustment was unclear. Factors were process or outcome focussed, suggesting a need for theory-based measures in general. PMID:25030794

  19. Linear Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkiewicz, T. A.; Newby, N. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of linear collisions between two or three objects is related to a junior-level course in analytical mechanics. The theoretical discussion uses a geometrical approach that treats elastic and inelastic collisions from a unified point of view. Experiments with a linear air track are described. (Author/TS)

  20. How to calculate linear absorption spectra with lifetime broadening using fewest switches surface hopping trajectories: A simple generalization of ground-state Kubo theory

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Andrew S.; Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2014-07-07

    In this paper, we develop a surface hopping approach for calculating linear absorption spectra using ensembles of classical trajectories propagated on both the ground and excited potential energy surfaces. We demonstrate that our method allows the dipole-dipole correlation function to be determined exactly for the model problem of two shifted, uncoupled harmonic potentials with the same harmonic frequency. For systems where nonadiabatic dynamics and electronic relaxation are present, preliminary results show that our method produces spectra in better agreement with the results of exact quantum dynamics calculations than spectra obtained using the standard ground-state Kubo formalism. As such, our proposed surface hopping approach should find immediate use for modeling condensed phase spectra, especially for expensive calculations using ab initio potential energy surfaces.

  1. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  2. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  3. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole.

  4. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.; Silva, L.L.

    1988-05-10

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole. 6 figs.

  5. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  6. Resonance Parameter Adjustment Based on Integral Experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sobes, Vladimir; Leal, Luiz; Arbanas, Goran; Forget, Benoit

    2016-06-02

    Our project seeks to allow coupling of differential and integral data evaluation in a continuous-energy framework and to use the generalized linear least-squares (GLLS) methodology in the TSURFER module of the SCALE code package to update the parameters of a resolved resonance region evaluation. We recognize that the GLLS methodology in TSURFER is identical to the mathematical description of a Bayesian update in SAMMY, the SAMINT code was created to use the mathematical machinery of SAMMY to update resolved resonance parameters based on integral data. Traditionally, SAMMY used differential experimental data to adjust nuclear data parameters. Integral experimental data, suchmore » as in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments Project, remain a tool for validation of completed nuclear data evaluations. SAMINT extracts information from integral benchmarks to aid the nuclear data evaluation process. Later, integral data can be used to resolve any remaining ambiguity between differential data sets, highlight troublesome energy regions, determine key nuclear data parameters for integral benchmark calculations, and improve the nuclear data covariance matrix evaluation. Moreover, SAMINT is not intended to bias nuclear data toward specific integral experiments but should be used to supplement the evaluation of differential experimental data. Using GLLS ensures proper weight is given to the differential data.« less

  7. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  8. 12 CFR 925.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 925.22 Section... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required...

  9. 12 CFR 1263.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 1263.22 Section... Stock Requirements § 1263.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to hold. (b)(1)...

  10. 78 FR 56868 - Adjustment of Indemnification for Inflation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Secretary of Labor. DOE's initial adjustment increased the indemnification amount to $11.961 billion, 74 FR... Adjustment of Indemnification for Inflation AGENCY: Office of General Counsel, U.S Department of Energy... requires an inflation adjustment of the indemnification amount at least once during each 5- year...

  11. 49 CFR 1022.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 1022... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 1022.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Board shall, immediately, and at...

  12. 49 CFR 1022.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 1022... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 1022.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Board shall, immediately, and at...

  13. 33 CFR 27.3 - Penalty Adjustment Table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty Adjustment Table. 27.3 Section 27.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 27.3 Penalty Adjustment Table. Table 1 identifies the statutes administered by the Coast Guard...

  14. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  15. How should risk adjustment data be collected?

    PubMed

    Kessler, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Risk adjustment has broad general application and is a key part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Yet, little has been written on how data required to support risk adjustment should be collected. This paper offers analytical support for a distributed approach, in which insurers retain possession of claims but pass on summary statistics to the risk adjustment authority as needed. It shows that distributed approaches function as well as or better than centralized ones-where insurers submit raw claims data to the risk adjustment authority-in terms of the goals of risk adjustment. In particular, it shows how distributed data analysis can be used to calibrate risk adjustment models and calculate payments, both in theory and in practice--drawing on the experience of distributed models in other contexts. In addition, it explains how distributed methods support other goals of the ACA, and can support projects requiring data aggregation more generally. It concludes that states should seriously consider distributed methods to implement their risk adjustment programs. PMID:22931020

  16. 5 CFR 531.244 - Adjusting a GM employee's rate at the time of an annual pay adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjusting a GM employee's rate at the time of an annual pay adjustment. 531.244 Section 531.244 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Special Rules for Gm Employees § 531.244 Adjusting...

  17. Modelling and mapping spatio-temporal trends of heavy metal accumulation in moss and natural surface soil monitored 1990-2010 throughout Norway by multivariate generalized linear models and geostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Stefan; Hertel, Anne; Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried; Steinnes, Eiliv; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle

    2014-12-01

    Objective. This study explores the statistical relations between the accumulation of heavy metals in moss and natural surface soil and potential influencing factors such as atmospheric deposition by use of multivariate regression-kriging and generalized linear models. Based on data collected in 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 throughout Norway the statistical correlation of a set of potential predictors (elevation, precipitation, density of different land uses, population density, physical properties of soil) with concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury and lead in moss and natural surface soil (response variables), respectively, were evaluated. Spatio-temporal trends were estimated by applying generalized linear models and geostatistics on spatial data covering Norway. The resulting maps were used to investigate to what extent the HM concentrations in moss and natural surface soil are correlated. Results. From a set of ten potential predictor variables the modelled atmospheric deposition showed the highest correlation with heavy metals concentrations in moss and natural surface soil. Density of various land uses in a 5 km radius reveal significant correlations with lead and cadmium concentration in moss and mercury concentration in natural surface soil. Elevation also appeared as a relevant factor for accumulation of lead and mercury in moss and cadmium in natural surface soil respectively. Precipitation was found to be a significant factor for cadmium in moss and mercury in natural surface soil. The integrated use of multivariate generalized linear models and kriging interpolation enabled creating heavy metals maps at a high level of spatial resolution. The spatial patterns of cadmium and lead concentrations in moss and natural surface soil in 1995 and 2005 are similar. The heavy metals concentrations in moss and natural surface soil are correlated significantly with high coefficients for lead, medium for cadmium and moderate for mercury. From 1995 up to 2010 the

  18. General theory for multiple input-output perturbations in complex molecular systems. 1. Linear QSPR electronegativity models in physical, organic, and medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Gómez-SanJuan, Asier; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    In general perturbation methods starts with a known exact solution of a problem and add "small" variation terms in order to approach to a solution for a related problem without known exact solution. Perturbation theory has been widely used in almost all areas of science. Bhor's quantum model, Heisenberg's matrix mechanincs, Feyman diagrams, and Poincare's chaos model or "butterfly effect" in complex systems are examples of perturbation theories. On the other hand, the study of Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) in molecular complex systems is an ideal area for the application of perturbation theory. There are several problems with exact experimental solutions (new chemical reactions, physicochemical properties, drug activity and distribution, metabolic networks, etc.) in public databases like CHEMBL. However, in all these cases, we have an even larger list of related problems without known solutions. We need to know the change in all these properties after a perturbation of initial boundary conditions. It means, when we test large sets of similar, but different, compounds and/or chemical reactions under the slightly different conditions (temperature, time, solvents, enzymes, assays, protein targets, tissues, partition systems, organisms, etc.). However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no QSPR general-purpose perturbation theory to solve this problem. In this work, firstly we review general aspects and applications of both perturbation theory and QSPR models. Secondly, we formulate a general-purpose perturbation theory for multiple-boundary QSPR problems. Last, we develop three new QSPR-Perturbation theory models. The first model classify correctly >100,000 pairs of intra-molecular carbolithiations with 75-95% of Accuracy (Ac), Sensitivity (Sn), and Specificity (Sp). The model predicts probabilities of variations in the yield and enantiomeric excess of reactions due to at least one perturbation in boundary conditions (solvent, temperature

  19. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite. PMID:17567838

  20. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  1. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  2. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  3. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  4. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  5. Romanticism and Marital Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.

    1972-01-01

    It is concluded that romanticism does not appear to be harmful to marriage relationships in particular or the family system in general, and is therefore not generally dysfunctional in our society. (Author)

  6. Linear quantum feedback networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, J. E.; Gohm, R.; Yanagisawa, M.

    2008-12-01

    The mathematical theory of quantum feedback networks has recently been developed [J. Gough and M. R. James, e-print arXiv:0804.3442v2] for general open quantum dynamical systems interacting with bosonic input fields. In this article we show, for the special case of linear dynamical Markovian systems with instantaneous feedback connections, that the transfer functions can be deduced and agree with the algebraic rules obtained in the nonlinear case. Using these rules, we derive the transfer functions for linear quantum systems in series, in cascade, and in feedback arrangements mediated by beam splitter devices.

  7. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  8. Linear Programming Problems for Generalized Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thipwiwatpotjana, Phantipa

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty occurs when there is more than one realization that can represent an information. This dissertation concerns merely discrete realizations of an uncertainty. Different interpretations of an uncertainty and their relationships are addressed when the uncertainty is not a probability of each realization. A well known model that can handle…

  9. 45 CFR 84.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 84.44 Section 84.44 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... with manual impairments, and other similar services and actions. Recipients need not provide...

  10. 45 CFR 84.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 84.44 Section 84.44 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... with manual impairments, and other similar services and actions. Recipients need not provide...

  11. Parenting Practices, Child Adjustment, and Family Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Fowler, Frieda

    2002-01-01

    Uses data from the National Survey of Families and Households to test the generality of the links between parenting practices and child outcomes. Parents' reports of support, monitoring, and harsh punishment were associated in the expected direction with parents' reports of children's adjustment, school grades, and behavior problems, and with…

  12. 14 CFR Appendix - Example of SIFL Adjustment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Example of SIFL Adjustment Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs Treatment of deferred Federal income taxes for rate purposes. Pt. 399, Subpt....

  13. 14 CFR Appendix - Example of SIFL Adjustment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Example of SIFL Adjustment Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs Treatment of deferred Federal income taxes for rate purposes. Pt. 399, Subpt....

  14. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Liska, Donald J.; Schamaun, Roger G.; Clark, Donald C.; Potter, R. Christopher; Frank, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  15. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

    1980-03-11

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  16. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    clones (P. trichocurpa Torr. & Gray x P: deltoides Bartr., TD and P. deltoides x P. nigra L., DN), we determined the TD clone, which was more productive during the first three years, had slightly lower osmotic potential than the DN clone, and also indicated a small osmotic adjustment compared with the DN hybrid. However, the productivity differences were negligible by the fifth growing season. In a separate study with several P. deltoides clones, we did not observe a consistent relationship between growth and osmotic adjustment. Some clones that had low osmotic potential and osmotic adjustment were as productive as another clone that had high osmotic potential. The least productive clone also had low osmotic potential and osmotic adjustment. The absence of a correlation may have been partly due to the fact that all clones were capable of osmotic adjustment and had low osmotic potential. In a study involving an inbred three-generation TD F{sub 2} pedigree (family 331), we did not observe a correlation between relative growth rate and osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. However, when clones that exhibited osmotic adjustment were analyzed, there was a negative correlation between growth and osmotic potential, indicating clones with lower osmotic potential were more productive. This was observed only in clones that were exposed to drought. Although the absolute osmotic potential varied by growing environment, the relative ranking among progenies remains generally the same, suggesting that osmotic potential is genetically controlled. We have identified a quantitative trait locus for osmotic potential in another three-generation TD F{sub 2} pedigree (family 822). Unlike the many studies in agricultural crops, most of the forest tree studies were not based on plants exposed to severe stress to determine the role of osmotic adjustment. Future studies should consider using clones that are known to be productive but have contrasting osmotic adjustment capability as well as

  17. Linear Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds

    These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Multiple comparisons for survival data with propensity score adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hong; Lu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the practical problem in clinical and observational studies where multiple treatment or prognostic groups are compared and the observed survival data are subject to right censoring. Two possible formulations of multiple comparisons are suggested. Multiple Comparisons with a Control (MCC) compare every other group to a control group with respect to survival outcomes, for determining which groups are associated with lower risk than the control. Multiple Comparisons with the Best (MCB) compare each group to the truly minimum risk group and identify the groups that are either with the minimum risk or the practically minimum risk. To make a causal statement, potential confounding effects need to be adjusted in the comparisons. Propensity score based adjustment is popular in causal inference and can effectively reduce the confounding bias. Based on a propensity-score-stratified Cox proportional hazards model, the approaches of MCC test and MCB simultaneous confidence intervals for general linear models with normal error outcome are extended to survival outcome. This paper specifies the assumptions for causal inference on survival outcomes within a potential outcome framework, develops testing procedures for multiple comparisons and provides simultaneous confidence intervals. The proposed methods are applied to two real data sets from cancer studies for illustration, and a simulation study is also presented. PMID:25663729

  19. Generalized Parabolas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dan; Hartman, Gregory; Gibson, Caleb

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore the consequences of modifying the common definition of a parabola by considering the locus of all points equidistant from a focus and (not necessarily linear) directrix. The resulting derived curves, which we call "generalized parabolas," are often quite beautiful and possess many interesting properties. We show that…

  20. Optical Scanner for Linear Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkel, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Optical scanner instantaneously reads contiguous lines forming scene or target in object plane. Reading active or passive and scans, continuous or discrete. Scans essentially linear with scan angle and symmetric about axial ray. Nominal focal error, resulting from curvature of scan, well within Rayleigh limit. Scanner specifically designed to be fully compatible with general requirements of linear arrays.

  1. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  2. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  3. Risk-Adjusted Models for Adverse Obstetric Outcomes and Variation in Risk Adjusted Outcomes Across Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Bailit, Jennifer L.; Grobman, William A.; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Spong, Catherine Y.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Thorp, John M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Caritis, Steve N.; Shubert, Phillip J.; Tita, Alan T. N.; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J.; Blackwell, Sean C.; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Van Dorsten, J. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulatory bodies and insurers evaluate hospital quality using obstetrical outcomes, however meaningful comparisons should take pre-existing patient characteristics into account. Furthermore, if risk-adjusted outcomes are consistent within a hospital, fewer measures and resources would be needed to assess obstetrical quality. Our objective was to establish risk-adjusted models for five obstetric outcomes and assess hospital performance across these outcomes. Study Design A cohort study of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals in the United States between March 2008 and February 2011. Hospitals were ranked according to their unadjusted and risk-adjusted frequency of venous thromboembolism, postpartum hemorrhage, peripartum infection, severe perineal laceration, and a composite neonatal adverse outcome. Correlations between hospital risk-adjusted outcome frequencies were assessed. Results Venous thromboembolism occurred too infrequently (0.03%, 95% CI 0.02% – 0.04%) for meaningful assessment. Other outcomes occurred frequently enough for assessment (postpartum hemorrhage 2.29% (95% CI 2.20–2.38), peripartum infection 5.06% (95% CI 4.93–5.19), severe perineal laceration at spontaneous vaginal delivery 2.16% (95% CI 2.06–2.27), neonatal composite 2.73% (95% CI 2.63–2.84)). Although there was high concordance between unadjusted and adjusted hospital rankings, several individual hospitals had an adjusted rank that was substantially different (as much as 12 rank tiers) than their unadjusted rank. None of the correlations between hospital adjusted outcome frequencies was significant. For example, the hospital with the lowest adjusted frequency of peripartum infection had the highest adjusted frequency of severe perineal laceration. Conclusions Evaluations based on a single risk-adjusted outcome cannot be generalized to overall hospital obstetric performance. PMID:23891630

  4. 38 CFR 10.2 - Evidence required of loss, destruction or mutilation of adjusted service certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., destruction or mutilation of adjusted service certificate. 10.2 Section 10.2 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.2... an adjusted service certificate issued pursuant to the provisions of section 501 of the World...

  5. 38 CFR 10.2 - Evidence required of loss, destruction or mutilation of adjusted service certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., destruction or mutilation of adjusted service certificate. 10.2 Section 10.2 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.2... an adjusted service certificate issued pursuant to the provisions of section 501 of the World...

  6. 42 CFR 419.43 - Adjustments to national program payment and beneficiary copayment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Payment adjustment for certain cancer hospitals.—(1) General rule. CMS provides for a payment adjustment... (PCR) before the cancer hospital payment adjustment (as determined by the Secretary at cost report...-cost ratio (PCR) before the cancer hospital payment adjustment (as determined by the Secretary at...

  7. 42 CFR 419.43 - Adjustments to national program payment and beneficiary copayment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Payment adjustment for certain cancer hospitals—(1) General rule. CMS provides for a payment adjustment... (PCR) before the cancer hospital payment adjustment (as determined by the Secretary at cost report...-cost ratio (PCR) before the cancer hospital payment adjustment (as determined by the Secretary at...

  8. 42 CFR 419.43 - Adjustments to national program payment and beneficiary copayment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Payment adjustment for certain cancer hospitals.—(1) General rule. CMS provides for a payment adjustment... (PCR) before the cancer hospital payment adjustment (as determined by the Secretary at cost report...-cost ratio (PCR) before the cancer hospital payment adjustment (as determined by the Secretary at...

  9. 77 FR 40387 - Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to adjust prices for several market dominant products... announcing its intent to adjust prices for several market dominant products within First-Class Mail...

  10. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  11. 26 CFR 1.1502-78 - Tentative carryback adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tentative carryback adjustments. 1.1502-78 Section 1.1502-78 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Administrative Provisions and Other Rules § 1.1502-78 Tentative carryback adjustments. (a) General...

  12. 8 CFR 1280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-410, 104 Stat. 890, as amended by the...

  13. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.53 Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  14. 34 CFR 668.191 - New data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.191 New data adjustments. (a) Eligibility. You may request a new data adjustment for your most recent cohort of borrowers, used to calculate your most recent official cohort default rate, if— (1) A comparison of the...

  15. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.53 Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  16. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.53 Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  17. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.53 Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  18. 8 CFR 1280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... penalties inflation adjustment. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 74630, December 1, 2011. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  19. 8 CFR 1280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-410, 104 Stat. 890, as amended by the...

  20. 45 CFR 92.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 92.51 Section 92.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM...-the-Grant Requirements § 92.51 Later disallowances and adjustments. The closeout of a grant does...

  1. 26 CFR 1.6655-3 - Adjusted seasonal installment method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjusted seasonal installment method. 1.6655-3 Section 1.6655-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Penalties § 1.6655-3 Adjusted seasonal installment method. (a) In general. In the case of any...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6655-3 - Adjusted seasonal installment method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjusted seasonal installment method. 1.6655-3 Section 1.6655-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Penalties § 1.6655-3 Adjusted seasonal installment method. (a) In general. In the case of any...

  3. 47 CFR 1.1117 - Adjustments to charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments to charges. 1.1117 Section 1.1117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1117 Adjustments to charges. (a) The Schedule of Charges established by §§ 1.1102 through 1.1109 of...

  4. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  5. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  6. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  7. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  8. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  9. 50 CFR 665.18 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Framework adjustments to management measures. 665.18 Section 665.18 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC General § 665.18 Framework adjustments...

  10. 22 CFR 1423.11 - Settlement or adjustment of issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Settlement or adjustment of issues. 1423.11... LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS § 1423.11 Settlement or adjustment of issues. general settlement policy (a... Director with whom the charge was filed, for consideration, all facts and arguments concerning offers...

  11. 34 CFR 668.191 - New data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New data adjustments. 668.191 Section 668.191 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.191 New data adjustments. (a) Eligibility....

  12. Gender Identity and Adjustment in Black, Hispanic, and White Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Brooke C.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Perry, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years).…

  13. New schemes in the adjustment of bendable, elliptical mirrors using a long trace profiler

    SciTech Connect

    Rah, S.

    1997-08-01

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP), an instrument for measuring the slope profile of long X-ray mirrors, has been used for adjusting bendable mirrors. Often an elliptical profile is desired for the mirror surface, since many synchrotron applications involve imaging a point source to a point image. Several techniques have been used in the past for adjusting the profile measured in height or slope of a bendable mirror. Underwood et al. have used collimated X-rays for achieving desired surface shape for bent glass optics. Non linear curve fitting using the simplex algorithm was later used to determine the best fit ellipse to the surface under test. A more recent method uses a combination of least squares polynomial fitting to the measured slope function in order to enable rapid adjustment to the desired shape. The mirror has mechanical adjustments corresponding to the first and second order terms of the desired slope polynomial, which correspond to defocus and coma, respectively. The higher order terms are realized by shaping the width of the mirror to produce the optimal elliptical surface when bent. The difference between desired and measured surface slope profiles allows us to make methodical adjustments to the bendable mirror based on changes in the signs and magnitudes of the polynomial coefficients. This technique gives rapid convergence to the desired shape of the measured surface, even when we have no information about the bender, other than the desired shape of the optical surface. Nonlinear curve fitting can be used at the end of the process for fine adjustments, and to determine the over all best fit parameters of the surface. This technique could be generalized to other shapes such as toroids.

  14. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-3 Section 1.9001-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  15. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-3 Section 1.9001-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  16. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-2 Section 1.9001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  17. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-2 Section 1.9001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  18. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-2 Section 1.9001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations §...

  19. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-3 Section 1.9001-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations §...

  20. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-2 Section 1.9001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  1. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-2 Section 1.9001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  2. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-3 Section 1.9001-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  3. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-3 Section 1.9001-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  4. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  5. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Roger

    1995-01-01

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets.

  6. A GLM Post-processor to Adjust Ensemble Forecast Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemann, M.; Day, G. N.; Schaake, J. C.; Draijer, S.; Wang, L.

    2011-12-01

    The skill of hydrologic ensemble forecasts has improved in the last years through a better understanding of climate variability, better climate forecasts and new data assimilation techniques. Having been extensively utilized for probabilistic water supply forecasting, interest is developing to utilize these forecasts in operational decision making. Hydrologic ensemble forecast members typically have inherent biases in flow timing and volume caused by (1) structural errors in the models used, (2) systematic errors in the data used to calibrate those models, (3) uncertain initial hydrologic conditions, and (4) uncertainties in the forcing datasets. Furthermore, hydrologic models have often not been developed for operational decision points and ensemble forecasts are thus not always available where needed. A statistical post-processor can be used to address these issues. The post-processor should (1) correct for systematic biases in flow timing and volume, (2) preserve the skill of the available raw forecasts, (3) preserve spatial and temporal correlation as well as the uncertainty in the forecasted flow data, (4) produce adjusted forecast ensembles that represent the variability of the observed hydrograph to be predicted, and (5) preserve individual forecast traces as equally likely. The post-processor should also allow for the translation of available ensemble forecasts to hydrologically similar locations where forecasts are not available. This paper introduces an ensemble post-processor (EPP) developed in support of New York City water supply operations. The EPP employs a general linear model (GLM) to (1) adjust available ensemble forecast traces and (2) create new ensembles for (nearby) locations where only historic flow observations are available. The EPP is calibrated by developing daily and aggregated statistical relationships form historical flow observations and model simulations. These are then used in operation to obtain the conditional probability density

  7. Sparse linear programming subprogram

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R.J.; Hiebert, K.L.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes a subprogram, SPLP(), for solving linear programming problems. The package of subprogram units comprising SPLP() is written in Fortran 77. The subprogram SPLP() is intended for problems involving at most a few thousand constraints and variables. The subprograms are written to take advantage of sparsity in the constraint matrix. A very general problem statement is accepted by SPLP(). It allows upper, lower, or no bounds on the variables. Both the primal and dual solutions are returned as output parameters. The package has many optional features. Among them is the ability to save partial results and then use them to continue the computation at a later time.

  8. Identification of Relevant Phytochemical Constituents for Characterization and Authentication of Tomatoes by General Linear Model Linked to Automatic Interaction Detection (GLM-AID) and Artificial Neural Network Models (ANNs)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Suárez, Marcos; Astray Dopazo, Gonzalo; Larios López, Dina; Espinosa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    There are a large number of tomato cultivars with a wide range of morphological, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics. Many factors are known to affect the nutrient content of tomato cultivars. A complete understanding of the effect of these factors would require an exhaustive experimental design, multidisciplinary scientific approach and a suitable statistical method. Some multivariate analytical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Factor Analysis (FA) have been widely applied in order to search for patterns in the behaviour and reduce the dimensionality of a data set by a new set of uncorrelated latent variables. However, in some cases it is not useful to replace the original variables with these latent variables. In this study, Automatic Interaction Detection (AID) algorithm and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were applied as alternative to the PCA, AF and other multivariate analytical techniques in order to identify the relevant phytochemical constituents for characterization and authentication of tomatoes. To prove the feasibility of AID algorithm and ANN models to achieve the purpose of this study, both methods were applied on a data set with twenty five chemical parameters analysed on 167 tomato samples from Tenerife (Spain). Each tomato sample was defined by three factors: cultivar, agricultural practice and harvest date. General Linear Model linked to AID (GLM-AID) tree-structured was organized into 3 levels according to the number of factors. p-Coumaric acid was the compound the allowed to distinguish the tomato samples according to the day of harvest. More than one chemical parameter was necessary to distinguish among different agricultural practices and among the tomato cultivars. Several ANN models, with 25 and 10 input variables, for the prediction of cultivar, agricultural practice and harvest date, were developed. Finally, the models with 10 input variables were chosen with fit’s goodness between 44 and

  9. Linear capacitive displacement sensor with frequency readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsch, Klaus

    1987-01-01

    A simple, inherently linear technique for measuring changes in the separation of the mirrors of an optical cavity is reported. The capacitor, made up of the reflective metallic coatings, is part of a feedback loop which adjusts the frequency of an oscillator to be proportional to the mirror separation. A linearity of 0.2 percent full scale was achieved for separations up to 0.5 mm with a resolution of 10 nm.

  10. Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

  11. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Rate Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances... On September 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed an exigent rate request with the Commission...

  12. Adjustable holder for transducer mounting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deotsch, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Positioning of acoustic sensor, strain gage, or similar transducer is facilitated by adjustable holder. Developed for installation on Space Shuttle, it includes springs for maintaining uniform load on transducer with adjustable threaded cap for precisely controlling position of sensor with respect to surrounding structure.

  13. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  14. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  15. ALPS: A Linear Program Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferencz, Donald C.; Viterna, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    ALPS is a computer program which can be used to solve general linear program (optimization) problems. ALPS was designed for those who have minimal linear programming (LP) knowledge and features a menu-driven scheme to guide the user through the process of creating and solving LP formulations. Once created, the problems can be edited and stored in standard DOS ASCII files to provide portability to various word processors or even other linear programming packages. Unlike many math-oriented LP solvers, ALPS contains an LP parser that reads through the LP formulation and reports several types of errors to the user. ALPS provides a large amount of solution data which is often useful in problem solving. In addition to pure linear programs, ALPS can solve for integer, mixed integer, and binary type problems. Pure linear programs are solved with the revised simplex method. Integer or mixed integer programs are solved initially with the revised simplex, and the completed using the branch-and-bound technique. Binary programs are solved with the method of implicit enumeration. This manual describes how to use ALPS to create, edit, and solve linear programming problems. Instructions for installing ALPS on a PC compatible computer are included in the appendices along with a general introduction to linear programming. A programmers guide is also included for assistance in modifying and maintaining the program.

  16. Generalized Fibonacci photon sieves.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong

    2015-08-20

    We successfully extend the standard Fibonacci zone plates with two on-axis foci to the generalized Fibonacci photon sieves (GFiPS) with multiple on-axis foci. We also propose the direct and inverse design methods based on the characteristic roots of the recursion relation of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. By switching the transparent and opaque zones, according to the generalized Fibonacci sequences, we not only realize adjustable multifocal distances but also fulfill the adjustable compression ratio of focal spots in different directions. PMID:26368763

  17. 7 CFR 1580.101 - General statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FARMERS § 1580.101 General statement. This part provides regulations for the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers program as authorized by...

  18. 7 CFR 1580.101 - General statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FARMERS § 1580.101 General statement. This part provides regulations for the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers program as authorized by...

  19. 7 CFR 1580.101 - General statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FARMERS § 1580.101 General statement. This part provides regulations for the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers program as authorized by...

  20. 28 CFR 85.1 - In general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... document fraud are addressed in 28 CFR 68.52. ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 85.1 In general. (a) In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  1. 28 CFR 85.1 - In general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... document fraud are addressed in 28 CFR 68.52. ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 85.1 In general. (a) In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  2. 28 CFR 85.1 - In general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... document fraud are addressed in 28 CFR 68.52. ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 85.1 In general. (a) In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  3. 28 CFR 85.1 - In general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... document fraud are addressed in 28 CFR 68.52. ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 85.1 In general. (a) In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  4. 28 CFR 85.1 - In general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... document fraud are addressed in 28 CFR 68.52. ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 85.1 In general. (a) In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  5. LRGS: Linear Regression by Gibbs Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantz, Adam B.

    2016-02-01

    LRGS (Linear Regression by Gibbs Sampling) implements a Gibbs sampler to solve the problem of multivariate linear regression with uncertainties in all measured quantities and intrinsic scatter. LRGS extends an algorithm by Kelly (2007) that used Gibbs sampling for performing linear regression in fairly general cases in two ways: generalizing the procedure for multiple response variables, and modeling the prior distribution of covariates using a Dirichlet process.

  6. 77 FR 41808 - General Dynamics Itronix Corporation, a Subsidiary of General Dynamics Corporation, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration General Dynamics Itronix Corporation, a Subsidiary of General Dynamics... Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of General Dynamics Itronix Corporation, a subsidiary of General Dynamics Corporation, Sunrise, Florida. The determination was issued on...

  7. OREGANO_VE: a new parallelised 3D solver for the general (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic problem: validation and application to the calculation of surface deformation in the earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Houseman, Gregory; Hamling, Ian; Postek, Elek

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new parallelized 3-D numerical code, OREGANO_VE, for the solution of the general visco-elastic problem in a rectangular block domain. The mechanical equilibrium equation is solved using the finite element method for a (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic rheology. Time-dependent displacement and/or traction boundary conditions can be applied. Matrix assembly is based on a tetrahedral element defined by 4 vertex nodes and 6 nodes located at the midpoints of the edges, and within which displacement is described by a quadratic interpolation function. For evaluating viscoelastic relaxation, an explicit time-stepping algorithm (Zienkiewicz and Cormeau, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 8, 821-845, 1974) is employed. We test the accurate implementation of the OREGANO_VE by comparing numerical and analytic (or semi-analytic half-space) solutions to different problems in a range of applications: (1) equilibration of stress in a constant density layer after gravity is switched on at t = 0 tests the implementation of spatially variable viscosity and non-Newtonian viscosity; (2) displacement of the welded interface between two blocks of differing viscosity tests the implementation of viscosity discontinuities, (3) displacement of the upper surface of a layer under applied normal load tests the implementation of time-dependent surface tractions (4) visco-elastic response to dyke intrusion (compared with the solution in a half-space) tests the implementation of all aspects. In each case, the accuracy of the code is validated subject to use of a sufficiently small time step, providing assurance that the OREGANO_VE code can be applied to a range of visco-elastic relaxation processes in three dimensions, including post-seismic deformation and post-glacial uplift. The OREGANO_VE code includes a capability for representation of prescribed fault slip on an internal fault. The surface displacement associated with large earthquakes can be detected by some geodetic observations

  8. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  9. Adjusting for unmeasured confounding due to either of two crossed factors with a logistic regression model.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Brumback, Babette A; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar

    2016-08-15

    Motivated by an investigation of the effect of surface water temperature on the presence of Vibrio cholerae in water samples collected from different fixed surface water monitoring sites in Haiti in different months, we investigated methods to adjust for unmeasured confounding due to either of the two crossed factors site and month. In the process, we extended previous methods that adjust for unmeasured confounding due to one nesting factor (such as site, which nests the water samples from different months) to the case of two crossed factors. First, we developed a conditional pseudolikelihood estimator that eliminates fixed effects for the levels of each of the crossed factors from the estimating equation. Using the theory of U-Statistics for independent but non-identically distributed vectors, we show that our estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal, but that its variance depends on the nuisance parameters and thus cannot be easily estimated. Consequently, we apply our estimator in conjunction with a permutation test, and we investigate use of the pigeonhole bootstrap and the jackknife for constructing confidence intervals. We also incorporate our estimator into a diagnostic test for a logistic mixed model with crossed random effects and no unmeasured confounding. For comparison, we investigate between-within models extended to two crossed factors. These generalized linear mixed models include covariate means for each level of each factor in order to adjust for the unmeasured confounding. We conduct simulation studies, and we apply the methods to the Haitian data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26892025

  10. 7 CFR 400.405 - Agent and loss adjuster responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agent and loss adjuster responsibilities. 400.405 Section 400.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS General Administrative Regulations; Collection and Storage of...

  11. 37 CFR 1.703 - Period of adjustment of patent term due to examination delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Period of adjustment of patent term due to examination delay. 1.703 Section 1.703 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term Adjustment...

  12. 37 CFR 1.704 - Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term. 1.704 Section 1.704 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term Adjustment of Patent...

  13. 37 CFR 1.704 - Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term. 1.704 Section 1.704 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term Adjustment of Patent...

  14. 37 CFR 1.704 - Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term. 1.704 Section 1.704 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term Adjustment of Patent...

  15. 17 CFR 143.8 - Inflation-adjusted civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inflation-adjusted civil... JURISDICTION General Provisions § 143.8 Inflation-adjusted civil monetary penalties. (a) Unless otherwise amended by an act of Congress, the inflation-adjusted maximum civil monetary penalty for each violation...

  16. 16 CFR 1.98 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts. 1.98 Section 1.98 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Civil Penalty Adjustments Under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as Amended by the...

  17. 16 CFR 1.98 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts. 1.98 Section 1.98 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Civil Penalty Adjustments Under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as Amended by the...

  18. 39 CFR 3010.2 - Types of rate adjustments for market dominant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of rate adjustments for market dominant... FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS General Provisions § 3010.2 Types of rate adjustments for market dominant products. (a) There are four types of rate adjustments for market dominant products. A Type 1-A...

  19. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  20. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  1. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  2. Permanent multipole magnets with adjustable strength

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.

    1983-03-01

    Preceded by a short discussion of the motives for using permanent magnets in accelerators, a new type of permanent magnet for use in accelerators is presented. The basic design and most important properties of a quadrupole will be described that uses both steel and permanent magnet material. The field gradient produced by this magnet can be adjusted without changing any other aspect of the field produced by this quadrupole. The generalization of this concept to produce other multipole fields, or combination of multipole fields, will also be presented.

  3. Risk adjustment: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Newhouse, J P

    1998-01-01

    Risk adjustment is intended to minimize selection of patients or enrollees in health plans. Current efforts generally are recognized as inadequate, but improvement is difficult. The greatest short-term gain will come from introducing diagnostic information, though outpatient diagnosis data are unreliable. Initial efforts may use inpatient data, but this creates incentives to hospitalize people. Even exploiting diagnosis information leaves substantial imperfections. Partial capitation, common in behavioral health, reduces incentives to select patients and stent on services, but current policy resists it, perhaps because policymakers misinterpret the lesson of the Prospective Payment System. Theoretically, not paying plans more for providing additional services is optimal only if consumers are well informed. PMID:9719781

  4. Linearly Forced Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, T. S.

    2003-01-01

    Stationary isotropic turbulence is often studied numerically by adding a forcing term to the Navier-Stokes equation. This is usually done for the purpose of achieving higher Reynolds number and longer statistics than is possible for isotropic decaying turbulence. It is generally accepted that forcing the Navier-Stokes equation at low wave number does not influence the small scale statistics of the flow provided that there is wide separation between the largest and smallest scales. It will be shown, however, that the spectral width of the forcing has a noticeable effect on inertial range statistics. A case will be made here for using a broader form of forcing in order to compare computed isotropic stationary turbulence with (decaying) grid turbulence. It is shown that using a forcing function which is directly proportional to the velocity has physical meaning and gives results which are closer to both homogeneous and non-homogeneous turbulence. Section 1 presents a four part series of motivations for linear forcing. Section 2 puts linear forcing to a numerical test with a pseudospectral computation.

  5. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, R.

    1995-01-17

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets. 3 figures.

  6. Non Linear Conjugate Gradient

    2006-11-17

    Software that simulates and inverts electromagnetic field data for subsurface electrical properties (electrical conductivity) of geological media. The software treats data produced by a time harmonic source field excitation arising from the following antenna geometery: loops and grounded bipoles, as well as point electric and magnetic dioples. The inversion process is carried out using a non-linear conjugate gradient optimization scheme, which minimizes the misfit between field data and model data using a least squares criteria.more » The software is an upgrade from the code NLCGCS_MP ver 1.0. The upgrade includes the following components: Incorporation of new 1 D field sourcing routines to more accurately simulate the 3D electromagnetic field for arbitrary geologic& media, treatment for generalized finite length transmitting antenna geometry (antennas with vertical and horizontal component directions). In addition, the software has been upgraded to treat transverse anisotropy in electrical conductivity.« less

  7. Fast Censored Linear Regression

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, YIJIAN

    2013-01-01

    Weighted log-rank estimating function has become a standard estimation method for the censored linear regression model, or the accelerated failure time model. Well established statistically, the estimator defined as a consistent root has, however, rather poor computational properties because the estimating function is neither continuous nor, in general, monotone. We propose a computationally efficient estimator through an asymptotics-guided Newton algorithm, in which censored quantile regression methods are tailored to yield an initial consistent estimate and a consistent derivative estimate of the limiting estimating function. We also develop fast interval estimation with a new proposal for sandwich variance estimation. The proposed estimator is asymptotically equivalent to the consistent root estimator and barely distinguishable in samples of practical size. However, computation time is typically reduced by two to three orders of magnitude for point estimation alone. Illustrations with clinical applications are provided. PMID:24347802

  8. Injunctive and Descriptive Peer Group Norms and the Academic Adjustment of Rural Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Schmid, Lorrie; Farmer, Thomas W.; Locke, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    This study integrates diverse literatures on peer group influence by conceptualizing and examining the relationship of peer group injunctive norms to the academic adjustment of a large and ethnically diverse sample of rural early adolescents' academic adjustment. Results of three-level hierarchical linear modeling indicated that peer groups were…

  9. Generalized Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Skrondal, Anders; Pickles, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A unifying framework for generalized multilevel structural equation modeling is introduced. The models in the framework, called generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM), combine features of generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) and structural equation models (SEM) and consist of a response model and a structural model for the latent…

  10. Pulse shape adjustment for the SLC damping ring kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.; Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Fischer, H.; Gough, D.

    1991-05-01

    The difficulties with damping ring kickers that prevented operation of the SLAC Linear Collider in full multiple bunch mode have been overcome by shaping the current pulse to compensate for imperfections in the magnets. The risetime was improved by a peaking capacitor, with a tunable inductor to provide a locally flat pulse. The pulse was flattened by an adjustable droop inductor. Fine adjustment was provided by pulse forming line tuners driven by stepping motors. Further risetime improvement will be obtained by a saturating ferrite pulse sharpener. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Speaking rate adjustment across changes in talker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Rochelle S.; Sawusch, James R.

    2002-05-01

    Individuals vary their speaking rate, and listeners use the speaking rate of precursor sentences to adjust for these changes [Kidd (1989)]. Recent work has suggested that speaking rate adjustment may not always be limited to speech from a single talker (Sawusch and Newman, 2000). When a talker change occurs in the midst of a vowel, the durations of both portions of the vowel influence perception of the rate-based contrast. In the present experiments, we examined the effect of talker change on rate normalization for precursor phrases. A male talker produced the sentence, I heard him say the word-at one of three different speaking rates. A female talker then produced a nonword containing a duration-based contrast. We examined whether the male talker's speaking rate would influence perception of the female talker's speech. The results were somewhat surprising. The speaking rate of the first talker did influence perception of the contrast in the second talker. However, the effect was a U-shaped function of speaking rate, rather than the linear function typically demonstrated in the single-voice condition. Several follow-up studies replicated this basic pattern. Implications of this finding for studies of rate normalization will be discussed.

  12. A nanoscale linear-to-linear motion converter of graphene.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chunchun; Guo, Zhengrong; Zhang, Hongwei; Chang, Tienchong

    2016-08-14

    Motion conversion plays an irreplaceable role in a variety of machinery. Although many macroscopic motion converters have been widely used, it remains a challenge to convert motion at the nanoscale. Here we propose a nanoscale linear-to-linear motion converter, made of a flake-substrate system of graphene, which can convert the out-of-plane motion of the substrate into the in-plane motion of the flake. The curvature gradient induced van der Waals potential gradient between the flake and the substrate provides the driving force to achieve motion conversion. The proposed motion converter may have general implications for the design of nanomachinery and nanosensors. PMID:27335206

  13. A nanoscale linear-to-linear motion converter of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Chunchun; Guo, Zhengrong; Zhang, Hongwei; Chang, Tienchong

    2016-07-01

    Motion conversion plays an irreplaceable role in a variety of machinery. Although many macroscopic motion converters have been widely used, it remains a challenge to convert motion at the nanoscale. Here we propose a nanoscale linear-to-linear motion converter, made of a flake-substrate system of graphene, which can convert the out-of-plane motion of the substrate into the in-plane motion of the flake. The curvature gradient induced van der Waals potential gradient between the flake and the substrate provides the driving force to achieve motion conversion. The proposed motion converter may have general implications for the design of nanomachinery and nanosensors.

  14. Final RQ adjustments rule issued

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    On June 12, 1995, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its long awaited final rule adjusting certain reportable quantities (RQs) for hazardous substances under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The rule: revises the table of hazardous substances to add 47 individual Clean Air Act (CAA) hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); adjustments their statutory one-pound RQs; adds five other CAA HAPs that are categories of substances and assigns no RQ to the categories; and adjusts RQs for 11 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed hazardous wastes. EPA made conforming changes to the Clean Water Act table of hazardous substances and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) table of extremely hazardous substances. The rule became effective July 12, 1995.

  15. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  16. Adjustable spacer with rotational lock

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, M.L.

    1984-02-28

    A spacing apparatus for tubing conduit in a subterranean well, normally for use with an electric component with a longitudinally extending external electrical cable, permits irrotational adjustment of the length of the tubing conduit. The spacing apparatus comprises telescoping members which are keyed to prevent rotation therebetween. A threaded member, longitudinally fixed relative to one longitudinal member, normally engages threads extending substantially along the entire length of the other telescoping member. Movement of a retaining sleeve permits disengagement of the threaded segments which ratchet along the threads during telescoping movement. The length of the conduit can thus be irrotationally adjusted to remove slack from the electrical cable.

  17. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  18. Adjustable mount for electro-optic transducers in an evacuated cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (Inventor); Haynes, David P. (Inventor); Jones, Howard C. (Inventor); Jones, Irby W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention is an adjustable mount for positioning an electro-optic transducer in an evacuated cryogenic environment. Electro-optic transducers are used in this manner as high sensitivity detectors of gas emission lines of spectroscopic analysis. The mount is made up of an adjusting mechanism and a transducer mount. The adjusting mechanism provided five degrees of freedom, linear adjustments and angular adjustments. The mount allows the use of an internal lens to focus energy on the transducer element thereby improving the efficiency of the detection device. Further, the transducer mount, although attached to the adjusting mechanism, is isolated thermally such that a cryogenic environment can be maintained at the transducer while the adjusting mechanism remains at room temperature. Radiation shields also are incorporated to further reduce heat flow to the transducer location.

  19. [Parental attitude and adjustment to childhood epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Ju, S H; Chang, P F; Chen, Y J; Huang, C C; Tsai, J J

    1990-01-01

    Parental attitude and adjustment were examined in 20 epileptic children (ages 6.8-16.6 yrs), using semi-structured interview. The results indicated that parental understandings of epilepsy were generally poor and incorrect. Fifteen (75%) of 20 parents had their own interpretations of causality and 19 (95%) had unrealistic hope for early and complete cure. Parents tended to overprotect and overrestrict their children. Sixteen (80%) concealed the illness for fear of social prejudice, therefore the social support systems were generally poorly utilized. As in other chronic diseases, all parents went through feelings of shock, denial, anger, guilt, fear, anxiety and depression. Family relationships were not affected much, however, poor communications were commonly found between parents and children. Thirteen (65%) parents never talked to their children about epilepsy. We concluded that parents of epileptic children showed negative attitudes toward their children and had difficulties in their psychosocial adjustment probably related to social stigmata and misunderstanding of the illness. Therefore, communication between physician and parents in both medical and psychosocial aspects should be encouraged. PMID:2275364

  20. Preconditioned quantum linear system algorithm.

    PubMed

    Clader, B D; Jacobs, B C; Sprouse, C R

    2013-06-21

    We describe a quantum algorithm that generalizes the quantum linear system algorithm [Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150502 (2009)] to arbitrary problem specifications. We develop a state preparation routine that can initialize generic states, show how simple ancilla measurements can be used to calculate many quantities of interest, and integrate a quantum-compatible preconditioner that greatly expands the number of problems that can achieve exponential speedup over classical linear systems solvers. To demonstrate the algorithm's applicability, we show how it can be used to compute the electromagnetic scattering cross section of an arbitrary target exponentially faster than the best classical algorithm. PMID:23829722

  1. 40 CFR 86.1603 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certified to meet the appropriate high-altitude emission standards. (2) High-altitude adjustment... the general public. EPA encourages manufacturers to notify vehicle owners in high-altitude areas of the availability of high-altitude adjustments. (g) If altitude adjustments are performed according...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1603 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... certified to meet the appropriate high-altitude emission standards. (2) High-altitude adjustment... the general public. EPA encourages manufacturers to notify vehicle owners in high-altitude areas of the availability of high-altitude adjustments. (g) If altitude adjustments are performed according...

  3. Visual adjustments to temporal blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilson, Aaron C.; Mizokami, Yoko; Webster, Michael A.

    2005-10-01

    After observers have adapted to an edge that is spatially blurred or sharpened, a focused edge appears too sharp or blurred, respectively. These adjustments to blur may play an important role in calibrating spatial sensitivity. We examined whether similar adjustments influence the perception of temporal edges, by measuring the appearance of a step change in the luminance of a uniform field after adapting to blurred or sharpened transitions. Stimuli were square-wave alternations (at 1 to 8 Hz) filtered by changing the slope of the amplitude spectrum. A two-alternative-forced-choice task was used to adjust the slope until it appeared as a step change, or until it matched the perceived transitions in a reference stimulus. Observers could accurately set the waveform to a square wave, but only at the slower alternation rates. However, these settings were strongly biased by prior adaptation to filtered stimuli, or when the stimuli were viewed within temporally filtered surrounds. Control experiments suggest that the latter induction effects result directly from the temporal blur and are not simply a consequence of brightness induction in the fields. These results suggest that adaptation and induction adjust visual coding so that images are focused not only in space but also in time.

  4. Self-Adjusting Fluency Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Presents a rationale and methodology for a self-adjusting "fluency sensitive" approach to working with children who exhibit overt speech-fluency interruptions and a minimal amount of avoidance behavior. The approach emphasizes repeated experiences of volitional increases and decreases in loudness and pauses. Case examples demonstrate how several…

  5. Adjustable Walker for the Handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Front legs adjust at touch of lever for use on stairs or ramps. Spring loaded legs extend when lever is depressed by user. Legs lock in position when lever is released. Lever mounted on either side of walker or on both sides, so legs operated independently.

  6. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  7. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  8. Breadth of Extracurricular Participation and Adolescent Adjustment Among African-American and European-American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the linear and nonlinear relations between breadth of extracurricular participation in 11th grade and developmental outcomes at 11th grade and 1 year after high school in an economically diverse sample of African-American and European-American youth. In general, controlling for demographic factors, children's motivation, and the dependent variable measured 3 years earlier, breadth was positively associated with indicators of academic adjustment at 11th grade and at 1 year after high school. In addition, for the three academic outcomes (i.e., grades, educational expectations, and educational status) the nonlinear function was significant; at high levels of involvement the well-being of youth leveled off or declined slightly. In addition, breadth of participation at 11th grade predicted lower internalizing behavior, externalizing behavior, alcohol use, and marijuana use at 11th grade. Finally, the total number of extracurricular activities at 11th grade was associated with civic engagement 2 years later. PMID:22837637

  9. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Payments to... years before 2004. (c) Risk adjustment—(1) General rule. CMS will adjust the payment amounts under § 422...) General rule. For 2011 and subsequent years, for purposes of the adjustment under paragraph (c)(1) of...

  10. 26 CFR 1.415(d)-1 - Cost-of-living adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amounts under section 215(i)(2)(A) of the Social Security Act, Public Law 92-336 (86 Stat. 406), as... immediately before the adjustment. (6) Safe harbor for periodic adjustments to distributions—(i) General rule... Reconciliation Act of 2001 (115 Stat. 38), Public Law 107-16 (EGTRRA), is first effective (generally, the...

  11. Adjustment Issues Affecting Employment for Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Anastasia Dimun; Lucas, Margaretha S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes major issues, including culture shock and loss of status, that affect general adjustment of immigrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union who are resettling in the United States. Issues that affect career and employment adjustment are described and the interrelatedness of general and career issues is explored. (Contains 39…

  12. Performance of An Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, S.C.; DeHart, T.E.; Kangas, K.W.; Spencer, C.M.; Volk, J.T.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    An adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole suitable for use in Next Linear Collider has been built and tested. The pole length is 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) is 68.7 Tesla. This paper describes measurements of strength, magnetic CL and field quality made using an air bearing rotating coil system. The magnetic CL stability during -20% strength adjustment proposed for beam based alignment was < 0.2 microns. Strength hysteresis was negligible. Thermal expansion of quadrupole and measurement parts caused a repeatable and easily compensated change in the vertical magnetic CL. Calibration procedures as well as CL measurements made over a wider tuning range of 100% to 20% in strength useful for a wide range of applications will be described. The impact of eddy currents in the steel poles on the magnetic field during strength adjustments will be reported.

  13. Gender identity and adjustment in black, Hispanic, and white preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Corby, Brooke C; Hodges, Ernest V E; Perry, David G

    2007-01-01

    The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years). Relations between gender identity and adjustment varied across ethnic/racial groups, indicating that S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's model requires amendment. It is suggested that the implications of gender identity for adjustment depend on the particular meanings that a child attaches to gender (e.g., the specific attributes the child regards as desirable for each sex); these meanings may vary across and within ethnic/racial groups. Cross-ethnic/racial investigation can aid theory building by pointing to constructs that are neglected in research with a single ethnic/racial group but that are crucial components of basic developmental processes. PMID:17201524

  14. Belos Block Linear Solvers Package

    2004-03-01

    Belos is an extensible and interoperable framework for large-scale, iterative methods for solving systems of linear equations with multiple right-hand sides. The motivation for this framework is to provide a generic interface to a collection of algorithms for solving large-scale linear systems. Belos is interoperable because both the matrix and vectors are considered to be opaque objects--only knowledge of the matrix and vectors via elementary operations is necessary. An implementation of Balos is accomplished viamore » the use of interfaces. One of the goals of Belos is to allow the user flexibility in specifying the data representation for the matrix and vectors and so leverage any existing software investment. The algorithms that will be included in package are Krylov-based linear solvers, like Block GMRES (Generalized Minimal RESidual) and Block CG (Conjugate-Gradient).« less

  15. A Constrained Linear Estimator for Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Dana, Jason; Budescu, David V.

    2010-01-01

    "Improper linear models" (see Dawes, Am. Psychol. 34:571-582, "1979"), such as equal weighting, have garnered interest as alternatives to standard regression models. We analyze the general circumstances under which these models perform well by recasting a class of "improper" linear models as "proper" statistical models with a single predictor. We…

  16. Linear Logistic Test Modeling with R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya; Kubinger, Klaus D.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper gives a general introduction to the linear logistic test model (Fischer, 1973), an extension of the Rasch model with linear constraints on item parameters, along with eRm (an R package to estimate different types of Rasch models; Mair, Hatzinger, & Mair, 2014) functions to estimate the model and interpret its parameters. The…

  17. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  18. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  19. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  20. Cultural Adjustment and the Puerto Rican.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    This review of the literature on cultural adjustment is divided into four sections: the nature of cultural adjustment; acculturation as a model of cultural adjustment; psychological responses to acculturation; and a model of cultural adjustment developed by the author as a result of his immigration from Puerto Rico to the United States mainland.…

  1. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  2. Generalized Fibonacci photon sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong

    2015-08-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  3. A linear programming manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  4. Linear integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, T.

    This book is intended to be used as a textbook in a one-semester course at a variety of levels. Because of self-study features incorporated, it may also be used by practicing electronic engineers as a formal and thorough introduction to the subject. The distinction between linear and digital integrated circuits is discussed, taking into account digital and linear signal characteristics, linear and digital integrated circuit characteristics, the definitions for linear and digital circuits, applications of digital and linear integrated circuits, aspects of fabrication, packaging, and classification and numbering. Operational amplifiers are considered along with linear integrated circuit (LIC) power requirements and power supplies, voltage and current regulators, linear amplifiers, linear integrated circuit oscillators, wave-shaping circuits, active filters, DA and AD converters, demodulators, comparators, instrument amplifiers, current difference amplifiers, analog circuits and devices, and aspects of troubleshooting.

  5. Mining machine with adjustable jib

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.

    1987-05-26

    A mining machine is described having a pair of crawler tracks, a means for individually driving each of the crawler tracks, a frame mounted on the crawler tracks, an elongated jib carrying a sprocket at each end, an endless cutting chain supported on the sprockets, cutters and loading flights mounted on the endless cutting chain, and means on the frame supporting the elongated jib. The means support the elongated jib consisting of a bridge on the frame, at least one scissors linkage pivotally mounted on the bridge, and arm having a first end attached to the scissors linkage, a front plate mounted on the second end of the arm and means adjustably mounting the elongated jib on the front plate. The means adjustably mount the elongated jib on the front plate including a first means for rotating the elongated jib between a vertical position and a horizontal position.

  6. Linear-Algebra Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  7. Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Dennis D.

    2015-07-07

    A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.

  8. On Solving Non-Autonomous Linear Difference Equations with Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Saris, Raghib M.

    2006-01-01

    An explicit formula is established for the general solution of the homogeneous non-autonomous linear difference equation. The formula developed is then used to characterize globally periodic linear difference equations with constant coefficients.

  9. 34 CFR 668.210 - New data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New data adjustments. 668.210 Section 668.210 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.210 New...

  10. 34 CFR 668.210 - New data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New data adjustments. 668.210 Section 668.210 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.210 New...

  11. 34 CFR 668.210 - New data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New data adjustments. 668.210 Section 668.210 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.210 New...

  12. 34 CFR 668.210 - New data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New data adjustments. 668.210 Section 668.210 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.210 New...

  13. 34 CFR 668.210 - New data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New data adjustments. 668.210 Section 668.210 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.210 New...

  14. The Social Adjustment of Blind Students in Different Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandell, John M.; Streeter, Larry

    1977-01-01

    Compared were general personality traits and social-emotional adjustment in dating relationships among three sub-populations (from public, residential, or a combination of public and residential school settings) of young blind adults (n=75) and a sighted control group (n=25). (SBH)

  15. 26 CFR 1.556-2 - Adjustments to taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....556-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.556-2 Adjustments to taxable income. (a) Taxes—(1) General rule. (i) In computing undistributed foreign personal holding...

  16. 26 CFR 1.556-2 - Adjustments to taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....556-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.556-2 Adjustments to taxable income. (a) Taxes—(1) General rule. (i) In computing undistributed foreign personal holding...

  17. 26 CFR 1.556-2 - Adjustments to taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....556-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.556-2 Adjustments to taxable income. (a) Taxes—(1) General rule. (i) In computing undistributed foreign personal holding...

  18. Exploring the Adjustment Problems among International Graduate Students in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Stephanie; Salzman, Michael; Yang, Cheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Due to the advance of technology, the American society has become more diverse. A huge population of international students in the U.S. faces unique issues. According to the existing literature, the top-rated anxieties international student faces are generally caused by language anxiety, cultural adjustments, and learning differences and barriers.…

  19. Guidelines for the Development of Adjustment Services in Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard J.; Sawyer, Horace W.

    The State guide provides rehabilitation personnel with guidelines for structuring and implementing adjustment programs to prepare clients to become more adequately functioning community members. Part 1 discusses objectives, general techniques, and learning/motivation principles. Appropriate techniques include: individual counseling, group…

  20. 7 CFR 1980.348 - Adjusted annual income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.348 Adjusted annual income....

  1. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employee's child who is under 16 years old or disabled before age 22; (4) Months in which a DIB O/M benefit... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of age reduction. 229.51 Section... age reduction. (a) General. If an age reduced employee or spouse overall minimum benefit is not...

  2. 24 CFR 200.16 - Project mortgage adjustments and reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Project mortgage adjustments and reductions. 200.16 Section 200.16 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  3. 24 CFR 200.16 - Project mortgage adjustments and reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Project mortgage adjustments and reductions. 200.16 Section 200.16 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1833-01 - Adjustable parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adjustable parameters. 86.1833-01 Section 86.1833-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air...

  5. New Student Supports, Problems and Perceptions in Initial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoughton, Darla; Wanchick, Jean

    This study sought to evaluate the impact of orientation, general levels of adjustment, differences between orientation attending and non-attending students, and differences between faculty and student academic performance evaluations for freshmen at Slippery Rock University in Pennsylvania during the crucial first six weeks on campus. From a pool…

  6. Religion and Spirituality in Adjustment Following Bereavement: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortmann, Jennifer H.; Park, Crystal L.

    2008-01-01

    Surprisingly little research has examined the widely held assumption that religion and spirituality are generally helpful in adjusting to bereavement. A systematic literature search located 73 empirical articles that examined religion/spirituality in the context of bereavement. The authors describe the multidimensional nature of…

  7. Adjustment Disorders as a Stress-Related Disorder: A Longitudinal Study of the Associations among Stress, Resources, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Mierke, Annett; Danzer, Gerhard; Klapp, Burghard F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adjustment disorders are re-conceptualized in the DSM-5 as a stress-related disorder; however, besides the impact of an identifiable stressor, the specification of a stress concept, remains unclear. This study is the first to examine an existing stress-model from the general population, in patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders, using a longitudinal design. Methods The study sample consisted of 108 patients consecutively admitted for adjustment disorders. Associations of stress perception, emotional distress, resources, and mental health were measured at three time points: the outpatients’ presentation, admission for inpatient treatment, and discharge from the hospital. To evaluate a longitudinal stress model of ADs, we examined whether stress at admission predicted mental health at each of the three time points using multiple linear regressions and structural equation modeling. A series of repeated-measures one-way analyses of variance (rANOVAs) was performed to assess change over time. Results Significant within-participant changes from baseline were observed between hospital admission and discharge with regard to mental health, stress perception, and emotional distress (p<0.001). Stress perception explained nearly half of the total variance (44%) of mental health at baseline; the adjusted R2 increased (0.48), taking emotional distress (i.e., depressive symptoms) into account. The best predictor of mental health at discharge was the level of emotional distress (i.e., anxiety level) at baseline (β = −0.23, R2corr = 0.56, p<0.001). With a CFI of 0.86 and an NFI of 0.86, the fit indices did not allow for acceptance of the stress-model (Cmin/df = 15.26; RMSEA = 0.21). Conclusions Stress perception is an important predictor in adjustment disorders, and mental health-related treatment goals are dependent on and significantly impacted by stress perception and emotional distress. PMID:24825165

  8. Metric-Adjusted Skew Information: Convexity and Restricted Forms of Superadditivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liang; Hansen, Frank

    2010-07-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 < p ≤ 2 of the WYD-information is a special case of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information.

  9. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  10. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  11. Correlates of household seismic hazard adjustment adoption.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M K; Whitney, D J

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the relationships of self-reported adoption of 12 seismic hazard adjustments (pre-impact actions to reduce danger to persons and property) with respondents' demographic characteristics, perceived risk, perceived hazard knowledge, perceived protection responsibility, and perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments. Consistent with theoretical predictions, perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments differentiated among the adjustments and had stronger correlations with adoption than any of the other predictors. These results identify the adjustments and attributes that emergency managers should address to have the greatest impact on improving household adjustment to earthquake hazard. PMID:10795335

  12. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  13. Linear collider: a preview

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  14. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-06-06

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line. 2 figs.

  15. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line.

  16. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  17. Equity flotation cost adjustments in utilities' cost of service

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, H. Jr.; Hass, J.E.

    1984-03-01

    Recovery of the unavoidable costs of issuing new shares of stock is generally agreed to be appropriate in determining utility revenue requirements. This article suggests that the methods by which that is usually accomplished are of questionable accuracy. The conventional practice of adjusting the allowed rate of return on common equity is examined, and an improved adjustment formulation is presented. Acknowledging that application of the formula remains subject to considerable error, however, the authors propose yet another solution. Capitalization of flotation costs as intangible assets is suggested as a way of more accurately factoring such expenses into tariff determinations. 6 references.

  18. Adjusting the Contour of Reflector Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Giebler, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Postfabrication adjustment of contour of panels for reflector, such as parabolic reflector for radio antennas, possible with simple mechanism consisting of threaded stud, two nuts, and flexure. Contours adjusted manually.

  19. 48 CFR 1450.103 - Contract adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract adjustments. 1450.103 Section 1450.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT... Contract adjustments....

  20. Child adjustment in joint-custody versus sole-custody arrangements: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Bauserman, Robert

    2002-03-01

    The author meta-analyzed studies comparing child adjustment in joint physical or joint legal custody with sole-custody settings, including comparisons with paternal custody and intact families where possible. Children in joint physical or legal custody were better adjusted than children in sole-custody settings, but no different from those in intact families. More positive adjustment of joint-custody children held for separate comparisons of general adjustment, family relationships, self-esteem, emotional and behavioral adjustment, and divorce-specific adjustment. Joint-custody parents reported less current and past conflict than did sole-custody parents, but this did not explain the better adjustment of joint-custody children. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that joint custody can be advantageous for children in some cases, possibly by facilitating ongoing positive involvement with both parents. PMID:11915414

  1. 38 CFR 10.4 - Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service certificate while in possession of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service certificate while in possession of Department of Veterans Affairs. 10.4... Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.4 Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service...

  2. 38 CFR 10.4 - Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service certificate while in possession of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service certificate while in possession of Department of Veterans Affairs. 10.4... Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.4 Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service...

  3. 38 CFR 10.4 - Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service certificate while in possession of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service certificate while in possession of Department of Veterans Affairs. 10.4... Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.4 Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service...

  4. 38 CFR 10.4 - Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service certificate while in possession of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service certificate while in possession of Department of Veterans Affairs. 10.4... Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.4 Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service...

  5. 38 CFR 10.4 - Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service certificate while in possession of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service certificate while in possession of Department of Veterans Affairs. 10.4... Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.4 Loss, destruction, or mutilation of adjusted service...

  6. 26 CFR 1.56-0 - Table of contents to § 1.56-1, adjustment for book income of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... book income of corporations. 1.56-0 Section 1.56-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE..., adjustment for book income of corporations. (a) Computation of the book income adjustment. (1) In general. (2) Taxpayers subject to the book income adjustment. (3) Consolidated returns. (4) Examples. (b) Adjusted...

  7. 26 CFR 1.56-0 - Table of contents to § 1.56-1, adjustment for book income of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... book income of corporations. 1.56-0 Section 1.56-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE..., adjustment for book income of corporations. (a) Computation of the book income adjustment. (1) In general. (2) Taxpayers subject to the book income adjustment. (3) Consolidated returns. (4) Examples. (b) Adjusted...

  8. 26 CFR 1.56-0 - Table of contents to § 1.56-1, adjustment for book income of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... book income of corporations. 1.56-0 Section 1.56-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE..., adjustment for book income of corporations. (a) Computation of the book income adjustment. (1) In general. (2) Taxpayers subject to the book income adjustment. (3) Consolidated returns. (4) Examples. (b) Adjusted...

  9. 76 FR 4395 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Postal Service Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to establish price adjustments for all market... with the Commission announcing price adjustments, effective April 17, 2011, affecting all...

  10. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  11. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  12. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  13. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  14. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  15. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  16. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  17. Adjustment to College in Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine college adjustment in students reporting an ADHD diagnosis and the effect of medication treatment on students' adjustment. Method: 1,648 first-semester freshmen attending a public and a private university completed a Web-based survey to examine their adjustment to college. Results: Compared with 200 randomly selected control…

  18. Dimensions of Adjustment among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra

    1998-01-01

    Examines academic, social, and personal-emotional adjustment, as well as institutional attachment for women (N=198) attending a predominantly white coeducational research university. Significant main effects were found on academic achievement for year in college. Students differed on personal-emotional adjustment by race. Academic adjustment and…

  19. Powerful Electromechanical Linear Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John R.; Myers, William N.

    1994-01-01

    Powerful electromechanical linear actuator designed to replace hydraulic actuator that provides incremental linear movements to large object and holds its position against heavy loads. Electromechanical actuator cleaner and simpler, and needs less maintenance. Two principal innovative features that distinguish new actuator are use of shaft-angle resolver as source of position feedback to electronic control subsystem and antibacklash gearing arrangement.

  20. SLAC Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.

    1985-12-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The status of the machine and the detectors are discussed and an overview is given of the physics which can be done at this new facility. Some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built are given.

  1. Linear Equations: Equivalence = Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The ability to solve linear equations sets students up for success in many areas of mathematics and other disciplines requiring formula manipulations. There are many reasons why solving linear equations is a challenging skill for students to master. One major barrier for students is the inability to interpret the equals sign as anything other than…

  2. Linearly polarized fiber amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kliner, Dahv A.; Koplow, Jeffery P.

    2004-11-30

    Optically pumped rare-earth-doped polarizing fibers exhibit significantly higher gain for one linear polarization state than for the orthogonal state. Such a fiber can be used to construct a single-polarization fiber laser, amplifier, or amplified-spontaneous-emission (ASE) source without the need for additional optical components to obtain stable, linearly polarized operation.

  3. Linear regression in astronomy. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, Gutti J.

    1992-01-01

    A wide variety of least-squares linear regression procedures used in observational astronomy, particularly investigations of the cosmic distance scale, are presented and discussed. The classes of linear models considered are (1) unweighted regression lines, with bootstrap and jackknife resampling; (2) regression solutions when measurement error, in one or both variables, dominates the scatter; (3) methods to apply a calibration line to new data; (4) truncated regression models, which apply to flux-limited data sets; and (5) censored regression models, which apply when nondetections are present. For the calibration problem we develop two new procedures: a formula for the intercept offset between two parallel data sets, which propagates slope errors from one regression to the other; and a generalization of the Working-Hotelling confidence bands to nonstandard least-squares lines. They can provide improved error analysis for Faber-Jackson, Tully-Fisher, and similar cosmic distance scale relations.

  4. Linear models: permutation methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    Permutation tests (see Permutation Based Inference) for the linear model have applications in behavioral studies when traditional parametric assumptions about the error term in a linear model are not tenable. Improved validity of Type I error rates can be achieved with properly constructed permutation tests. Perhaps more importantly, increased statistical power, improved robustness to effects of outliers, and detection of alternative distributional differences can be achieved by coupling permutation inference with alternative linear model estimators. For example, it is well-known that estimates of the mean in linear model are extremely sensitive to even a single outlying value of the dependent variable compared to estimates of the median [7, 19]. Traditionally, linear modeling focused on estimating changes in the center of distributions (means or medians). However, quantile regression allows distributional changes to be estimated in all or any selected part of a distribution or responses, providing a more complete statistical picture that has relevance to many biological questions [6]...

  5. Linear force device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, John P.

    1988-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a mechanical force actuator which is lightweight and manipulatable and utilizes linear motion for push or pull forces while maintaining a constant overall length. The mechanical force producing mechanism comprises a linear actuator mechanism and a linear motion shaft mounted parallel to one another. The linear motion shaft is connected to a stationary or fixed housing and to a movable housing where the movable housing is mechanically actuated through actuator mechanism by either manual means or motor means. The housings are adapted to releasably receive a variety of jaw or pulling elements adapted for clamping or prying action. The stationary housing is adapted to be pivotally mounted to permit an angular position of the housing to allow the tool to adapt to skewed interfaces. The actuator mechanisms is operated by a gear train to obtain linear motion of the actuator mechanism.

  6. COOPERATION MAINTAINED BY FITNESS ADJUSTMENT

    PubMed Central

    TAYLOR, CHRISTINE; CHEN, JANET; IWASA, YOH

    2008-01-01

    Questions Whether or not cooperation can be enhanced if players with a performance higher than the mean are forced to pay an additional cost in each generation? Mathematical Methods Analysis of replicator dynamics with mutation. The ESS distribution of cooperation level is obtained. Key Assumptions Players engage in cooperative dilemma game, and at the end of each generation, those with higher performance than the mean are forced to pay additional cost. Conclusions Without mutation, the entire population eventually conforms to a single cooperation level determined by the initial composition of the population. With mutation, there is an equilibrium distribution of cooperation level, which has a peak at an intermediate level of cooperation. Whether it is institutionalized such as tax or just a social custom, fitness adjustment based ultimately on people’s emtion of “envy” is able to maintain cooperation. PMID:19079742

  7. The dyadic adjustment of female-to-male transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Fleming, M; MacGowan, B; Costos, D

    1985-02-01

    Dyadic adjustment, sexual activities, and marital stability in the relationships of female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses were examined. Participants were 22 female-to-male transsexuals who had undergone some form of surgery to alter their anatomical sex, their spouses, and a control group of married or cohabitating nontranssexual men and women. Participants were administered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and additional items to assess quantitatively their marital relationships. The transsexuals and their spouses were also asked open-ended interview questions concerning marital and life adjustments. Generally, the transsexuals and their spouses reported good and mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships that are in many ways comparable to those of the matched control group. These findings lend support to the previous clinical interview studies that have reported that female-to-male transsexuals form stable and enduring intimate relationships. PMID:3977583

  8. Simulation of singing qualities governed by lower vocal tract adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2003-04-01

    In previous meetings, voice qualities such as pressed, ring, yawn, and twang were discussed in a speech context. It was shown that these qualities have unique spectral characteristics brought about by combinations of glottal and lower vocal tract adjustments (the epilarynx tube and the pharynx). Yawn has a wide glottis, a wide epilarynx tube, and a wide pharynx. On the contrary, twang has a general narrowing of all these airway sections. Ring has a wide pharynx and a relatively narrow epilarynx tube. A pressed voice is primary laryngeal, with a narrowed glottis. In this presentation, similar adjustments are made for singing with a voice simulator that controls vocal tract area functions and glottal flow pulses by rules. Results suggest that various singing styles, such as country-western, opera, or pop, may in part be characterized by these unique combinations of source and filter adjustments.

  9. A Navigational Analysis of Linear and Non-Linear Hypermedia Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard H.; Balestra, Joel; Davis, Miles

    The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive model for the analysis of hypermap navigation patterns through a comparison of navigation patterns associated with a traditional linear interface versus a non-linear "hypermap" interface. Twenty-six general psychology university students studied material on bipolar…

  10. Adjustment Disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Adjustment Disorder is a condition strongly tied to acute and chronic stress. Despite clinical suggestion of a large prevalence in the general population and the high frequency of its diagnosis in the clinical settings, there has been relatively little research reported and, consequently, very few hints about its treatments. Methods the authors gathered old and current information on the epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidity, treatment and outcome of adjustment disorder by a systematic review of essays published on PUBMED. Results After a first glance at its historical definition and its definition in the DSM and ICD systems, the problem of distinguishing AD from other mood and anxiety disorders, the difficulty in the definition of stress and the implied concept of 'vulnerability' are considered. Comorbidity of AD with other conditions, and outcome of AD are then analyzed. This review also highlights recent data about trends in the use of antidepressant drugs, evidence on their efficacy and the use of psychotherapies. Conclusion AD is a very common diagnosis in clinical practice, but we still lack data about its rightful clinical entity. This may be caused by a difficulty in facing, with a purely descriptive methods, a "pathogenic label", based on a stressful event, for which a subjective impact has to be considered. We lack efficacy surveys concerning treatment. The use of psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants, in AD with anxious or depressed mood is not properly supported and should be avoided, while the usefulness of psychotherapies is more solidly supported by clinical evidence. To better determine the correct course of therapy, randomized-controlled trials, even for the combined use of drugs and psychotherapies, are needed vitally, especially for the resistant forms of AD. PMID:19558652

  11. 47 CFR 61.47 - Adjustments to the SBI; pricing bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 61.47, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjustments to the SBI; pricing bands. 61.47... (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.47 Adjustments to the SBI; pricing bands. (a)...

  12. 47 CFR 61.47 - Adjustments to the SBI; pricing bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... this section. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 61.47, see the List of CFR... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments to the SBI; pricing bands. 61.47... (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.47 Adjustments to the SBI; pricing bands. (a)...

  13. 47 CFR 61.47 - Adjustments to the SBI; pricing bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 61.47, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjustments to the SBI; pricing bands. 61.47... (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.47 Adjustments to the SBI; pricing bands. (a)...

  14. 26 CFR 1.52-2 - Adjustments for acquisitions and dispositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Adjustments for acquisitions and dispositions. 1.52-2 Section 1.52-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Tax Surcharge § 1.52-2 Adjustments for acquisitions and dispositions. (a) General rule. The provisions in this section only apply to...

  15. 40 CFR 1036.610 - Innovative technology credits and adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the provisions of 40 CFR 86.1866-12(d)(3). However, we will generally not seek public comment on... adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. 1036.610 Section 1036.610 Protection of Environment... adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (a) You may ask us to apply the provisions of this...

  16. 40 CFR 1036.610 - Innovative technology credits and adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the provisions of 40 CFR 86.1866-12(d)(3). However, we will generally not seek public comment on... adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. 1036.610 Section 1036.610 Protection of Environment... adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (a) You may ask us to apply the provisions of this...

  17. 40 CFR 1036.610 - Innovative technology credits and adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the provisions of 40 CFR 86.1866-12(d)(3). However, we will generally not seek public comment on... adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. 1036.610 Section 1036.610 Protection of Environment... adjustments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (a) You may ask us to apply the provisions of this...

  18. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  19. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  20. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...