Science.gov

Sample records for adjusted incidence rate

  1. A statistical test for the equality of differently adjusted incidence rate ratios.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Kurt; Pischon, Tobias; Schulz, Mandy; Schulze, Matthias B; Ray, Jennifer; Boeing, Heiner

    2008-03-01

    An incidence rate ratio (IRR) is a meaningful effect measure in epidemiology if it is adjusted for all important confounders. For evaluation of the impact of adjustment, adjusted IRRs should be compared with crude IRRs. The aim of this methodological study was to present a statistical approach for testing the equality of adjusted and crude IRRs and to derive a confidence interval for the ratio of the two IRRs. The method can be extended to compare two differently adjusted IRRs and, thus, to evaluate the effect of additional adjustment. The method runs immediately on existing software. To illustrate the application of this approach, the authors studied adjusted IRRs for two risk factors of type 2 diabetes using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study from 2005. The statistical method described may be helpful as an additional tool for analyzing epidemiologic cohort data and for interpreting results obtained from Cox regression models with adjustment for different covariates.

  2. Delay Adjusted Incidence

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  3. Development of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, W.; Schwartz, D. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Wilke, R. H. T.

    2010-03-01

    We report on the development of adjustable grazing incidence optics. We are developing bimorph mirrors for high resolution (sub-arc second) imaging. Bimorph mirrors consist of a thin layer of piezo-electric material deposited on the back surface of a thin (< 0.4 mm) thermally formed glass or electroplated metal segmented mirror. Voltage applied across the thickness of the piezo produces a strain in the plane of the mirror surface. The strain produces bending of the mirror similar to the bi-metallic effect. No reaction structure is necessary, which allows one to densely nest mirror shells for large effective area. A pixilated array of outer electrodes on the piezo material localizes the strain to the particular piezo "pixel.” Mirror figure errors are corrected (on-orbit) via induced localized deformations. We have successfully deposited a 1-micrometer thick layer of the piezo-electric material lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors, and mirror requirements. We discuss finite element modeling of bimorph mirrors. In particular, we focus on how a difference in mirror mounting affects the influence functions ( the induced deformations). We are also developing the use of electrostrictive adjusters for moderate resolution (a few arc second) imaging. Electroplated nickel/cobalt full shells are mounted together using the adjusters. The adjusters are arrayed axially and tangentially between shells, with their adjustable dimension in the radial direction. Each shell is adjusted and fixed in place during mirror assembly, starting with the innermost shell. We review finite element modeling of the adjustable optics and the application of the adjustment system to correct manufacturing errors. We discuss initial tests using electrostrictive adjusters to change the shape of flat mirror segments. This work is supported by NASA Contract NNX09AE87G and a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore

  4. Standardization of age-adjusted mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-02-01

    Because age is a significant variable in the occurrence and frequency of human disease, any comparison of disease or mortality rates, to be useful, must be age-specific or age-adjusted. Age-specific comparisons are not always appropriate or possible, however. A common method of eliminating the influence of age in comparing mortality rates from one community to another is to employ statistical methods of age-adjustment. While a variety of methods will accomplish this task, most are weighted averages of the age-specific rates. Two widely used adjustment procedures are direct and indirect age-adjustment.

  5. 39 CFR 3010.28 - Maximum size of unused rate adjustment authority rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum size of unused rate adjustment authority... REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.28 Maximum size of... of rate adjustments for any class in any 12-month period may not exceed the applicable...

  6. 39 CFR 3010.28 - Maximum size of unused rate adjustment authority rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum size of unused rate adjustment authority... REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.28 Maximum size of... of rate adjustments for any class in any 12-month period may not exceed the applicable...

  7. 39 CFR 3010.28 - Maximum size of unused rate adjustment authority rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum size of unused rate adjustment authority... REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.28 Maximum size of... of rate adjustments for any class in any 12-month period may not exceed the applicable...

  8. 76 FR 7883 - Postal Service Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... as a functionally equivalent agreement under the Inbound Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal... Service of Type 2 Rate Adjustment, and Notice of Filing Functionally Equivalent Agreement, January 31... Foreign Postal Operators 1 product and two functionally equivalent agreements, Strategic...

  9. First principles modeling of nonlinear incidence rates in seasonal epidemics.

    PubMed

    Ponciano, José M; Capistrán, Marcos A

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we used a general stochastic processes framework to derive from first principles the incidence rate function that characterizes epidemic models. We investigate a particular case, the Liu-Hethcote-van den Driessche's (LHD) incidence rate function, which results from modeling the number of successful transmission encounters as a pure birth process. This derivation also takes into account heterogeneity in the population with regard to the per individual transmission probability. We adjusted a deterministic SIRS model with both the classical and the LHD incidence rate functions to time series of the number of children infected with syncytial respiratory virus in Banjul, Gambia and Turku, Finland. We also adjusted a deterministic SEIR model with both incidence rate functions to the famous measles data sets from the UK cities of London and Birmingham. Two lines of evidence supported our conclusion that the model with the LHD incidence rate may very well be a better description of the seasonal epidemic processes studied here. First, our model was repeatedly selected as best according to two different information criteria and two different likelihood formulations. The second line of evidence is qualitative in nature: contrary to what the SIRS model with classical incidence rate predicts, the solution of the deterministic SIRS model with LHD incidence rate will reach either the disease free equilibrium or the endemic equilibrium depending on the initial conditions. These findings along with computer intensive simulations of the models' Poincaré map with environmental stochasticity contributed to attain a clear separation of the roles of the environmental forcing and the mechanics of the disease transmission in shaping seasonal epidemics dynamics.

  10. Risk adjustment for a children's capitation rate.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Manning, W G; Keeler, E B

    1993-01-01

    Few capitation arrangements vary premiums by a child's health characteristics, yielding an incentive to discriminate against children with predictably high expenditures from chronic diseases. In this article, we explore risk adjusters for the 35 percent of the variance in annual out-patient expenditure we find to be potentially predictable. Demographic factors such as age and gender only explain 5 percent of such variance; health status measures explain 25 percent, prior use and health status measures together explain 65 to 70 percent. The profit from risk selection falls less than proportionately with improved ability to adjust for risk. Partial capitation rates may be necessary to mitigate skimming and dumping.

  11. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis. We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20–99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population. A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17–2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57–3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36–1.51). The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies. PMID:27661041

  12. Adjustable flow rate controller for polymer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Kenneth M.

    1981-01-01

    An adjustable device for controlling the flow rate of polymer solutions which results in only little shearing of the polymer molecules, said device comprising an inlet manifold, an outlet manifold, a plurality of tubes capable of providing communication between said inlet and outlet manifolds, said tubes each having an internal diameter that is smaller than that of the inlet manifold and large enough to insure that viscosity of the polymer solution passing through each said tube will not be reduced more than about 25 percent, and a valve associated with each tube, said valve being capable of opening or closing communication in that tube between the inlet and outlet manifolds, each said valve when fully open having a diameter that is substantially at least as great as that of the tube with which it is associated.

  13. Age, Race and Regional Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates in Georgia between 2000 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701

  14. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9701... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate Ranges § 9701.322 Setting and adjusting rate ranges. (a) Within its sole and exclusive discretion, DHS...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9701... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate Ranges § 9701.322 Setting and adjusting rate ranges. (a) Within its sole and exclusive discretion, DHS...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9701... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate Ranges § 9701.322 Setting and adjusting rate ranges. (a) Within its sole and exclusive discretion, DHS...

  17. 5 CFR 9901.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9901... Increases § 9901.322 Setting and adjusting rate ranges. (a) Subject to § 9901.105, the Secretary may set and... factors. (b) The Secretary may determine the effective date of newly set or adjusted band rate...

  18. Incident light adjustable solar cell by periodic nanolens architecture

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ju-Hyung; Lee, Eunsongyi; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, Wayne A.; Kim, Joondong; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Zeng, Jinwei; Yi, Junsin; Kumar, M. Melvin David; Sun, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    Could nanostructures act as lenses to focus incident light for efficient utilization of photovoltaics? Is it possible, in order to avoid serious recombination loss, to realize periodic nanostructures in solar cells without direct etching in a light absorbing semiconductor? Here we propose and demonstrate a promising architecture to shape nanolenses on a planar semiconductor. Optically transparent and electrically conductive nanolenses simultaneously provide the optical benefit of modulating the incident light and the electrical advantage of supporting carrier transportation. A transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanolens was designed to focus the incident light-spectrum in focal lengths overlapping to a strong electric field region for high carrier collection efficiency. The ITO nanolens effectively broadens near-zero reflection and provides high tolerance to the incident light angles. We present a record high light-conversion efficiency of 16.0% for a periodic nanostructured Si solar cell. PMID:25371099

  19. The incidence of hip fracture in Shiraz, Iran: a promising rate comparing to previous studies.

    PubMed

    Maharlouei, N; Atefi, S; Namazi, H; Kazemifar, S; Soveid, M; Shahraki, H R; Farahmand, Z; Khodayari, M; Arab, P; Forouzan, F; Allamehzadeh, N; Fazilat, S; Khademolhosseini, S; Nafari, F; Lankarani, K B

    2017-03-16

    We evaluate the incidence of hip fracture in 50 years old or above in southwest of Iran. Age-adjusted incidence rates of hip fracture, standardized to the 2000 US white population, were 79.55 per 10(5) in total and 66.51 and 92.37 per 10(5) in male and female, respectively.

  20. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  1. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  2. 5 CFR 9901.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9901... NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Rate Ranges and General Salary Increases § 9901.322 Setting and adjusting rate ranges. (a) Subject to § 9901.105, the Secretary may set...

  3. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section 903.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern,...

  4. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section 903.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern,...

  5. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section 903.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern,...

  6. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  7. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  8. 5 CFR 536.305 - Adjusting an employee's retained rate when a pay schedule is adjusted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conversion under § 536.303(b) or any other simultaneous pay action. The retained rate adjustment under... new retained rate must be determined under the geographic conversion rule in § 536.303(b). (4... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjusting an employee's retained...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9701.322 Section 9701.322 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9701.322 Section 9701.322 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate...

  11. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  12. Shoulder Injury Incidence Rates in NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Foy, Millennia; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the astronaut shoulder injury rates began with an operational concern at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training. An astronaut suffered a shoulder injury during an NBL training run and commented that it was possibly due to a hardware issue. During the subsequent investigation, questions arose regarding the rate of shoulder injuries in recent years and over the entire history of the astronaut corps.

  13. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... announcement may be through direct contact with customers, at public meetings, by press release, by newspaper... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section 903.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation...

  14. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... announcement may be through direct contact with customers, at public meetings, by press release, by newspaper... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section 903.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation...

  15. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... attributable to the proposed energy or water conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present... proposed energy or water conservation measure....

  16. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... attributable to the proposed energy or water conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present... proposed energy or water conservation measure....

  17. 75 FR 455 - Adjustment of Cable Statutory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... United States Code, grants a statutory copyright license to cable television systems for the... Doc No: E9-30825] LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board [Docket No. 2010-1 CRB Cable Rate] Adjustment of Cable Statutory License Royalty Rates AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of...

  18. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adjustments. 154.403 Section 154.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate... computations supporting the allocation, segregated into reservation and usage amounts, where appropriate....

  19. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adjustments. 154.403 Section 154.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate... computations supporting the allocation, segregated into reservation and usage amounts, where appropriate....

  20. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adjustments. 154.403 Section 154.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate... computations supporting the allocation, segregated into reservation and usage amounts, where appropriate....

  1. The Impact of Financial Sophistication on Adjustable Rate Mortgage Ownership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hyrum; Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of a financial sophistication scale on adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) borrowing is explored. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis using recent data from the Survey of Consumer Finances reveal that ARM borrowing is driven by both the least and most financially sophisticated households but for different reasons. Less…

  2. 78 FR 649 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... Public Law 112-175, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. The rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5302(1)), as adjusted under 5 U.S... See Food Safety and Inspection Service See Rural Utilities Service NOTICES Agency...

  3. A gigawatt level repetitive rate adjustable magnetic pulse compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song; Gao, Jing-Ming; Yang, Han-Wu; Qian, Bao-Liang; Li, Ze-Xin

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a gigawatt level repetitive rate adjustable magnetic pulse compressor is investigated both numerically and experimentally. The device has advantages of high power level, high repetitive rate achievability, and long lifetime reliability. Importantly, dominate parameters including the saturation time, the peak voltage, and even the compression ratio can be potentially adjusted continuously and reliably, which significantly expands the applicable area of the device and generators based on it. Specifically, a two-stage adjustable magnetic pulse compressor, utilized for charging the pulse forming network of a high power pulse generator, is designed with different compression ratios of 25 and 18 through an optimized design process. Equivalent circuit analysis shows that the modification of compression ratio can be achieved by just changing the turn number of the winding. At the same time, increasing inductance of the grounded inductor will decrease the peak voltage and delay the charging process. Based on these analyses, an adjustable compressor was built and studied experimentally in both the single shot mode and repetitive rate mode. Pulses with peak voltage of 60 kV and energy per pulse of 360 J were obtained in the experiment. The rise times of the pulses were compressed from 25 μs to 1 μs and from 18 μs to 1 μs, respectively, at repetitive rate of 20 Hz with good repeatability. Experimental results show reasonable agreement with analyses.

  4. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  5. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Where the costs, revenues, rates, quantities, indices, load factors, percentages, or other numbers used... filing. (vi) Where a number is derived from another number by applying a load factor, percentage, or other adjusting factor not referenced in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, include workpapers and...

  6. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Where the costs, revenues, rates, quantities, indices, load factors, percentages, or other numbers used... filing. (vi) Where a number is derived from another number by applying a load factor, percentage, or other adjusting factor not referenced in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, include workpapers and...

  7. 24 CFR 203.49 - Eligibility of adjustable rate mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... most recent figure available before the date of mortgage loan origination. The current index figure shall be the most recent index figure available 30 days before the date of each interest rate adjustment... houses in federally impacted areas), 203.45 (graduated payment mortgages), or 203.47 (growing...

  8. 24 CFR 203.49 - Eligibility of adjustable rate mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... most recent figure available before the date of mortgage loan origination. The current index figure shall be the most recent index figure available 30 days before the date of each interest rate adjustment... houses in federally impacted areas), 203.45 (graduated payment mortgages), or 203.47 (growing...

  9. 24 CFR 203.49 - Eligibility of adjustable rate mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... most recent figure available before the date of mortgage loan origination. The current index figure shall be the most recent index figure available 30 days before the date of each interest rate adjustment... houses in federally impacted areas), 203.45 (graduated payment mortgages), or 203.47 (growing...

  10. 24 CFR 203.49 - Eligibility of adjustable rate mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... most recent figure available before the date of mortgage loan origination. The current index figure shall be the most recent index figure available 30 days before the date of each interest rate adjustment... houses in federally impacted areas), 203.45 (graduated payment mortgages), or 203.47 (growing...

  11. 24 CFR 203.49 - Eligibility of adjustable rate mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... most recent figure available before the date of mortgage loan origination. The current index figure shall be the most recent index figure available 30 days before the date of each interest rate adjustment... houses in federally impacted areas), 203.45 (graduated payment mortgages), or 203.47 (growing...

  12. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate. PMID:26971697

  13. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

  14. Rapid rise and subsequent decline in prostate cancer incidence rates for New Mexico, 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, F D; Welsh, D J; Hoffman, R M; Key, C R

    1995-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1980s, a large increase in incidence rates for prostate cancer occurred in association with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. In New Mexico, the increased screening was associated with earlier detection of cancers and decreased prostate cancer mortality, suggesting that PSA screening may be effective. PSA screening has become a controversial topic of public debate, and anecdotal reports from physicians indicated that prostate cancer screening practice patterns were changing in New Mexico. To assess whether PSA-associated trends in prostate cancer incidence were continuing, we examined incidence rates from 1989 to 1993 among men in New Mexico. From 1989 to 1992, age-adjusted rates increased substantially for non-Hispanic whites (77%), Hispanics (50%), and American Indians (27%). Although rates increased for all stages combined, incidence rates decreased for distant-stage disease, especially for non-Hispanic whites, indicating a continuing trend toward earlier detection. In 1993, incidence rates unexpectedly decreased from 203 to 158/100,000 in non-Hispanic whites, largely as a result of changes in rates in men over age 65 years. Although incidence rates decreased, the trend toward earlier detection was maintained for non-Hispanic whites. In contrast, among Hispanic and American Indians, rates did not change substantially between 1992 and 1993. Because the epidemic in prostate cancer was associated with increased PSA screening, it is likely that the trends for non-Hispanic whites are also related to PSA screening. We suggest that the decrease in rates and the continued stage shift are consistent with repeated screening of men in the population at risk.

  15. Incidence, prevalence, and hybrid approaches to calculating disability-adjusted life years

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    When disability-adjusted life years are used to measure the burden of disease on a population in a time interval, they can be calculated in several different ways: from an incidence, pure prevalence, or hybrid perspective. I show that these calculation methods are not equivalent and discuss some of the formal difficulties each method faces. I show that if we don’t discount the value of future health, there is a sense in which the choice of calculation method is a mere question of accounting. Such questions can be important, but they don’t raise deep theoretical concerns. If we do discount, however, choice of calculation method can change the relative burden attributed to different conditions over time. I conclude by recommending that studies involving disability-adjusted life years be explicit in noting what calculation method is being employed and in explaining why that calculation method has been chosen. PMID:22967055

  16. 5 CFR 9701.323 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with a rate range adjustment. 9701.323 Section 9701.323 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Adjusting Rate Ranges § 9701.323 Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment. (a) When a band rate range is adjusted under § 9701.322, employees covered by that band are eligible for...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.323 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with a rate range adjustment. 9701.323 Section 9701.323 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Adjusting Rate Ranges § 9701.323 Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment. (a) When a band rate range is adjusted under § 9701.322, employees covered by that band are eligible for...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.323 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with a rate range adjustment. 9701.323 Section 9701.323 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Adjusting Rate Ranges § 9701.323 Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment. (a) When a band rate range is adjusted under § 9701.322, employees covered by that band are eligible for...

  19. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  20. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  1. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  2. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  3. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  4. 39 CFR 3010.14 - Contents of notice of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Rate Adjustments for Rates of General Applicability (Type 1-A and 1-B Rate... costs; (7) A discussion that demonstrates how the planned rate adjustments are designed to help...

  5. Colorectal cancer incidence rates have decreased in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-11-01

    We analyzed colorectal cancer incidence data from the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, for the period 1985-2005. We carried out a trend analysis through a Joinpoint regression analysis, and summarized trends as annual percent change (APC) of the standardized (European standard) rates. Colorectal incidence rates increased until 1996 (APC=+1.4, 95% CI: 0.8-1.9), then decreased significantly (APC=-1.1, 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.4). The change was detected as statistically significant in the age group of 54+ years. Among younger individuals, we observed an increasing incidence until 2003. In the same geographical area, a colorectal screening programme has been active from 1982; it was initially based on guaiac faecal occult blood testing (GFOBT) and on immunological testing (IFOBT) since the mid 1990s. The decline in colorectal cancer incidence since 1996, in the whole population and especially among individuals older than 54 years, may suggest the effect of FOBT screening in terms of precancerous polyps removal.

  6. State-level Uterine Corpus Cancer Incidence Rates Corrected for Hysterectomy Prevalence, 2004-2008

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Rebecca L.; Devesa, Susan S.; Cokkinides, Vilma; Ma, Jiemin; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2012-01-01

    Background The interpretation of uterine cancer rates is hindered by the inclusion of women whose uterus has been surgically removed in the population at risk. Hysterectomy prevalence varies widely by state and race/ethnicity, exacerbating this issue. Methods We estimated hysterectomy-corrected, age-adjusted uterine corpus cancer incidence rates by race/ethnicity for 49 states and the District of Columbia during 2004-2008 using case counts obtained from population-based cancer registries; population data from the U.S. Census Bureau; and hysterectomy prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Corrected and uncorrected incidence rates were compared with regard to geographic and racial/ethnic disparity patterns and the association with obesity. Results Among non-Hispanic whites, uterine cancer incidence rates (per 100,000 woman-years) uncorrected for hysterectomy prevalence ranged from 17.1 in Louisiana to 32.1 in New Jersey, mirrored regional hysterectomy patterns, and were not correlated with obesity prevalence (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r = 0.06, two-sided p = 0.68). In comparison, hysterectomy-corrected rates were higher by 30% (District of Columbia) to more than 100% (Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, and Oklahoma), displayed no discernible geographic pattern, and were moderately associated with obesity (r = 0.37, two-sided p = 0.009). For most states, hysterectomy correction diminished or reversed the black/white deficit and accentuated the Hispanic/white deficit. Conclusion Failure to adjust uterine cancer incidence rates for hysterectomy prevalence distorts true geographic and racial patterns and substantially underestimates the disease burden, particularly for Southern states. Impact Correction for hysterectomy is necessary for the accurate evaluation of uterine cancer rates. PMID:23125334

  7. Ectopic pregnancies: rising incidence rates in Northern California.

    PubMed Central

    Shiono, P H; Harlap, S; Pellegrin, F

    1982-01-01

    In a population of about 300,000 Northern California women aged 15--44, the age-adjusted incidence of ectopic pregnancy rose from 55.5 to 84.2/100,000 women, 1972--1978. The ratio of ectopics to 1,000 deliveries-plus-spontaneous abortions rose from 9.4 to 14.8. The change occurred mainly in women under age 30, and was observed in seven of the eight hospitals in the area. There was no alteration in the frequency of hospitalized pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); salpingitis decreased over the years studied; and tubal sterilization events remained constant at around 0.9 per cent per year of women aged 15--44. PMID:7055319

  8. RATE-ADJUSTMENT ALGORITHM FOR AGGREGATE TCP CONGESTION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    P. TINNAKORNSRISUPHAP, ET AL

    2000-09-01

    The TCP congestion-control mechanism is an algorithm designed to probe the available bandwidth of the network path that TCP packets traverse. However, it is well-known that the TCP congestion-control mechanism does not perform well on networks with a large bandwidth-delay product due to the slow dynamics in adapting its congestion window, especially for short-lived flows. One promising solution to the problem is to aggregate and share the path information among TCP connections that traverse the same bottleneck path, i.e., Aggregate TCP. However, this paper shows via a queueing analysis of a generalized processor-sharing (GPS) queue with regularly-varying service time that a simple aggregation of local TCP connections together into a single aggregate TCP connection can result in a severe performance degradation. To prevent such a degradation, we introduce a rate-adjustment algorithm. Our simulation confirms that by utilizing our rate-adjustment algorithm on aggregate TCP, connections which would normally receive poor service achieve significant performance improvements without penalizing connections which already receive good service.

  9. Rates and risk factors for progression to incident dementia vary by age in a population cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ching-Wen; Snitz, Beth E.; Hughes, Tiffany F.; McDade, Eric; Chang, Chung-Chou H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate rate of progression from normal cognition or mild impairment to dementia, and to identify potential risk and protective factors for incident dementia, based on age at dementia onset in a prospective study of a population-based cohort (n = 1,982) aged 65 years and older. Methods: Following the cohort annually for up to 5 years, we estimated incidence of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ≥1) among individuals previously normal or mildly impaired (Clinical Dementia Rating 0 or 0.5). In the whole cohort, and also stratified by median onset age, we examined several vascular, metabolic, and inflammatory variables as potential risk factors for developing dementia, using interval-censored survival models. Results: Based on 67 incident cases of dementia, incidence rate (per 1,000 person-years) was 10.0 overall, 5.8 in those with median onset age of 87 years or younger, and 31.5 in those with onset age after 87 years. Adjusting for demographics, the risk of incident dementia with onset age of 87 years or younger (n = 33) was significantly increased by baseline smoking, stroke, low systolic blood pressure, and APOE*4 genotype, and reduced by current alcohol use. Among those with dementia with onset after 87 years (n = 34), no risk or protective factor was significant. Conclusion: Risk and protective factors were only found for incident dementia with onset before the median onset age of 87 years, and not for those with later onset. Either unexplored risk factors explain the continued increase in incidence with age, or unknown protective factors are allowing some individuals to delay onset into very old age. PMID:25471390

  10. Development Status of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics for 0.5 Arcsecond X-Ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Allured, Ryan; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Marquez, Vanessa; McMuldroch, Stuart; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Zhao, Rui

    2014-01-01

    We describe progress in the development of adjustable grazing incidence X-ray optics for 0.5 arcsec resolution cosmic X-ray imaging. To date, no optics technology is available to blend high resolution imaging like the Chandra X-ray Observatory, with square meter collecting area. Our approach to achieve these goals simultaneously is to directly deposit thin film piezoelectric actuators on the back surface of thin, lightweight Wolter-I or Wolter- Schwarschild mirror segments. The actuators are used to correct mirror figure errors due to fabrication, mounting and alignment, using calibration and a one-time figure adjustment on the ground. If necessary, it will also be possible to correct for residual gravity release and thermal effects on-orbit. In this paper we discuss our most recent results measuring influence functions of the piezoelectric actuators using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We describe accelerated and real-time lifetime testing of the piezoelectric material, and we also discuss changes to, and recent results of, our simulations of mirror correction.

  11. 39 CFR 3010.28 - Maximum size of Type 1-B rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum size of Type 1-B rate adjustments. 3010.28... DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Determining the Maximum Rate Adjustment § 3010.28 Maximum size of Type 1-B rate... used to make a Type 1-B rate adjustment for any class in any 12-month period may not exceed...

  12. Peer- and Self-Rated Correlates of a Teacher-Rated Typology of Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, William A., Jr.; Lease, A. Michele; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2007-01-01

    External correlates of a teacher-rated typology of child adjustment developed using the Behavior Assessment System for Children were examined. Participants included 377 elementary school children recruited from 26 classrooms in the southeastern United States. Multivariate analyses of variance and planned comparisons were used to determine whether…

  13. Injury Types and Incidence Rates in Precollegiate Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Saluan, Paul; Styron, Joseph; Ackley, J. Freeland; Prinzbach, Arianna; Billow, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Background: With childhood sports opportunities continuing to increase at an enormous rate along with participation starting at younger ages, the number of female participants in sports has increased in paramount fashion over the past few decades. A review of the current literature reveals a very small number of studies (<30) that document specific injuries suffered by competitive female gymnasts. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the incidence of various injuries and injury rates for different gymnast levels among young precollegiate female gymnasts over a 21-year period, from 1985 to 2005. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: This institutional review board–approved study retrospectively evaluated young, precollegiate female gymnasts over a 21-year period. Gymnasts were stratified into 1 of 4 competition levels based on the number of hours spent training. In addition to the frequency of injuries and hours trained, data collected on each gymnast included the following: age at the time of injury, body part injured, laterality of the injury, and diagnosis. Results: Over the 21-year period, 3681 new injuries were evaluated by a single physician. The injury incidence (2.155 per 1000 exposure hours) was slightly lower when compared with previously reported injury rates. There were 1,452,574 total exposure hours documented from training facility records. The injury rate per 1000 exposure hours was 2.859 for elite, 2.820 for high-level, 1.667 for intermediate, and 0.687 for novice gymnasts. The lower extremity was injured more often than the upper extremity (60.9% compared with 22.6% of total injuries). This difference was statistically significant across all levels. Conclusion: The injury incidence in this study was 2.155 per 1000 exposure hours. This was slightly lower when compared with previously reported injury rates. Although those studies only lasted 3 years or less, the injury rates can be directly compared because they are reported as

  14. 76 FR 26324 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Section 31 Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... adjustments to the fee rates applicable under Sections 31(b) and (c) of the Exchange Act shall take effect on... circumstances, to make a mid-year adjustment to the fee rates under Sections 31(b) and (c) of the Exchange Act... national securities exchange to pay the Commission a fee at a rate, as adjusted by our order pursuant...

  15. 37 CFR 255.3 - Adjustment of royalty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... further adjustment pursuant to paragraphs (i) through (m) of this section. (i) For every phonorecord made... thereof, whichever amount is larger, subject to further adjustment pursuant to paragraphs (l) through (m...) through (m) of this section. (b) For every phonorecord made and distributed on or after July 1, 1984,...

  16. Influence of birth rates and transmission rates on the global seasonality of rotavirus incidence.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Virginia E; Viboud, Cécile; Lopman, Ben A; Patel, Manish M; Parashar, Umesh D; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2011-11-07

    Rotavirus is a major cause of mortality in developing countries, and yet the dynamics of rotavirus in such settings are poorly understood. Rotavirus is typically less seasonal in the tropics, although recent observational studies have challenged the universality of this pattern. While numerous studies have examined the association between environmental factors and rotavirus incidence, here we explore the role of intrinsic factors. By fitting a mathematical model of rotavirus transmission dynamics to published age distributions of cases from 15 countries, we obtain estimates of local transmission rates. Model-predicted patterns of seasonal incidence based solely on differences in birth rates and transmission rates are significantly correlated with those observed (Spearman's ρ = 0.65, p < 0.05). We then examine seasonal patterns of rotavirus predicted across a range of different birth rates and transmission rates and explore how vaccination may impact these patterns. Our results suggest that the relative lack of rotavirus seasonality observed in many tropical countries may be due to the high birth rates and transmission rates typical of developing countries rather than being driven primarily by environmental conditions. While vaccination is expected to decrease the overall burden of disease, it may increase the degree of seasonal variation in the incidence of rotavirus in some settings.

  17. Adjustable Grazing Incidence X-ray Optics with 0.5 Arc Second Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul

    We seek to develop adjustable grazing incidence optics for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this development is thin, lightweight mirrors with angular resolution of 0.5 arc seconds, comparable to the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The new mirror design consists of thin segments of a Wolter-I grazing incidence mirror, with piezo-electric material deposited directly on the back surface of the mirror. Depositing a pattern of independently addressable electrodes on top of the piezoelectric material produces an array of independent piezo cells. Energizing a particular cell introduces a localized deformation in the mirror without the need for a reaction structure. By applying the appropriate voltage to the piezo cells, it is possible to correct mirror figure errors that result from mirror fabrication, gravity release, mounting, and thermal effects. Because the thin mirrors segments are lightweight, they can be densely nested to produce collecting area thirty times that of Chandra, on an affordably priced mission. This Supporting Technology program is a follow-on to an existing APRA program. In the existing program we demonstrated the first successful deposition of piezoelectric material on thermally formed glass substrates. We showed that the localized deformations produced by the piezo cells match finite element predictions, and the piezo cell adjustment range meets requirements necessary to achieve the desired figure correction. We have also shown through simulation that representative mirror figure errors can be corrected via modeled influence functions to achieve 0.5 arc sec imaging performance. This provides a firm foundation on which to develop further the technology. We will continue to optimize the deposition of thin piezoelectric films onto thermally formed glass and electroplated metal mirror segments to improve yield and manufacturability. We will deposit piezoelectric material onto conical mirror segments and demonstrate figure correction in agreement with prediction

  18. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of adjusted rates of pay. 38.3 Section 38.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.3 Administration of adjusted rates of pay. (a) An employee...

  19. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of adjusted rates of pay. 38.3 Section 38.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.3 Administration of adjusted rates of pay. (a) An employee...

  20. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of adjusted rates of pay. 38.3 Section 38.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.3 Administration of adjusted rates of pay. (a) An employee...

  1. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids... Payments to Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.308 Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids...) Data collection. To adjust for health status, CMS applies a risk factor based on data obtained...

  2. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids... Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.308 Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments... the determination of actuarial equivalence. (2) Risk adjustment: Health status—(i) Data collection....

  3. 25 CFR 166.408 - Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA... LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Rate Determination and Adjustment § 166.408 Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted...

  4. 25 CFR 166.408 - Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA... LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Rate Determination and Adjustment § 166.408 Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted...

  5. 5 CFR 535.105 - Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay... REGULATIONS CRITICAL POSITION PAY AUTHORITY § 535.105 Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay. (a) The rate... head of an agency may set pay initially at any amount up to the rate of pay for level II or level I...

  6. 37 CFR 255.3 - Adjustment of royalty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fraction thereof, whichever amount is larger, subject to further adjustment pursuant to paragraphs (b....85 cent per minute of playing time or fraction thereof, whichever amount is larger, subject to... embodied in the phonorecord shall be either 5.0 cents, or 0.95 cent per minute of playing time or...

  7. Demonization of Divorce: Prevalence Rates and Links to Postdivorce Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    The meaning-making process can be crucial to individuals as they adjust to their divorce. Demonization is a negative coping response (also known as spiritual struggle) that involves appraising someone or something as related to demonic forces. Individuals may cognitively frame a divorce as the work of Satan in order to understand suffering while…

  8. Adjusting for reverse causation to estimate the effect of obesity on mortality after incident heart failure in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The lower mortality rate of obese patients with heart failure (HF) has been partly attributed to reverse causation bias due to weight loss caused by disease. Using data about weight both before and after HF, this study aimed to adjust for reverse causation and examine the association of obesity both before and after HF with mortality. METHODS: Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 308 patients with data available from before and after the incidence of HF were included. Pre-morbid and post-morbid obesity were defined based on body mass index measurements at least three months before and after incident HF. The associations of pre-morbid and post-morbid obesity and weight change with survival after HF were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Pre-morbid obesity was associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 2.49) but post-morbid obesity was associated with increased survival (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.88). Adjusting for weight change due to disease as a confounder of the obesity-mortality relationship resulted in the absence of any significant associations between post-morbid obesity and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that controlling for reverse causality by adjusting for the confounder of weight change may remove or reverse the protective effect of obesity on mortality among patients with incident HF. PMID:27283142

  9. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Diarrheal Disease Associated with Norovirus, Sapovirus, and Astrovirus in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Shioda, Kayoko; Cosmas, Leonard; Audi, Allan; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Breiman, Robert F.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of mortality in Africa and worldwide. While the burden of rotavirus is well described, population-based rates of disease caused by norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus are lacking, particularly in developing countries. Methods Data on diarrhea cases were collected through a population-based surveillance platform including healthcare encounters and household visits in Kenya. We analyzed data from June 2007 to October 2008 in Lwak, a rural site in western Kenya, and from October 2006 to February 2009 in Kibera, an urban slum. Stool specimens from diarrhea cases of all ages who visited study clinics were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus by RT-PCR. Results Of 334 stool specimens from Lwak and 524 from Kibera, 85 (25%) and 159 (30%) were positive for norovirus, 13 (4%) and 31 (6%) for sapovirus, and 28 (8%) and 18 (3%) for astrovirus, respectively. Among norovirus-positive specimens, genogroup II predominated in both sites, detected in 74 (87%) in Lwak and 140 (88%) in Kibera. The adjusted community incidence per 100,000 person-years was the highest for norovirus (Lwak: 9,635; Kibera: 4,116), followed by astrovirus (Lwak: 3,051; Kibera: 440) and sapovirus (Lwak: 1,445; Kibera: 879). For all viruses, the adjusted incidence was higher among children aged <5 years (norovirus: 22,225 in Lwak and 17,511 in Kibera; sapovirus: 5,556 in Lwak and 4,378 in Kibera; astrovirus: 11,113 in Lwak and 2,814 in Kibera) compared to cases aged ≥5 years. Conclusion Although limited by a lack of controls, this is the first study to estimate the outpatient and community incidence rates of norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus across the age spectrum in Kenya, suggesting a substantial disease burden imposed by these viruses. By applying adjusted rates, we estimate approximately 2.8–3.3 million, 0.45–0.54 million, and 0.77–0.95 million people become ill with norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, respectively, every year in

  10. 12 CFR 747.1001 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation. (a) NCUA is required by the Federal Civil Penalties... adjust the maximum amount of each civil money penalty within its jurisdiction by the rate of...

  11. 10 CFR 903.17 - Informal public meetings for minor rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Informal public meetings for minor rate adjustments. 903.17 Section 903.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska,...

  12. 10 CFR 903.17 - Informal public meetings for minor rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Informal public meetings for minor rate adjustments. 903.17 Section 903.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska,...

  13. 10 CFR 903.17 - Informal public meetings for minor rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Informal public meetings for minor rate adjustments. 903.17 Section 903.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska,...

  14. 10 CFR 903.17 - Informal public meetings for minor rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Informal public meetings for minor rate adjustments. 903.17 Section 903.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska,...

  15. 77 FR 13663 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Mid-Year Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... take effect on April 1 of the fiscal year in which such rate applies. Therefore, the exchanges and the... Exchange Act requires the Commission to annually adjust the fee rates applicable under Sections 31(b) and... adjusting the fee rates applicable under Sections 31(b) and (c) of the Exchange Act. Specifically,...

  16. Standardization of Rates To Adjust for Differences in Enrollment Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard

    Community colleges must often analyze and report rates for outcomes, such as transfer to four-year colleges. A single, summary rate may be an invalid measure of its achievement in the transfer goal if the summary rate ignores the real difference in enrollment composition at different institutions. California's community colleges embody a very…

  17. 78 FR 77601 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    .../incident'' is a collision, derailment, fire, explosion, act of God, or other event involving the operation... collisions, derailments, fires, explosions, acts of God, and other events involving the operation of...

  18. 78 FR 80451 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Pay Systems. The rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined in 5 U.S.C... hereto and made a part hereof. Sec. 3. Certain Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Salaries. The rates of basic pay or salaries for the following offices and positions are set forth on the...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.102 - Adjustment of basic loan rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Marketing Assistance Loans... county marketing assistance loan rate. (2) For farm-stored commodities where the test weight discounts... schedule of discounts, the marketing assistance loan rate shall be reduced to 20 percent of the county...

  20. Incidence and case fatality rates of stroke subtypes in a multiethnic population: the South London Stroke Register

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, C; Rudd, A; Howard, R; Coshall, C; Stewart, J; Lawrence, E; Hajat, C; Hillen, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To identify sociodemographic differences in the incidence of the subtypes of first ever stroke in a multiethnic population. Methods: A prospective community stroke register (1995–8) was developed using multiple notification sources and pathological and clinical classifications of stroke. Standardisation of rates was to European and World populations and adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic status in multivariate analyses. A multiethnic population of 234 533 in south London, of whom 21% are black was studied. Results: A total of 1254 cases were registered. The average age of stroke was 71.7 years with black patients being 11.3 years younger than white patients (p<0.0001). The incidence rate/1000 population was 1.33 (crude) (95% CI 1.26 to 1.41), 1.28 (European adjusted) (95% CI 1.2 to 1.35) with a 2.18 (95% CI 1.86 to 2.56) (p<0.0001) age and sex adjusted incidence rate ratio in the black population. Radiological diagnosis was confirmatory in 1107 (88.3%) with 862 (68.7%) infarction, 168 (13.4%) primary intracerebral haemorrhage, and 77 (6.2%) subarachnoid haemorrhage. Of the cerebral infarction cases 189 (21.9%) were total anterior circulatory, 250 (29%) partial anterior, 141 (16.4%) posterior (POCI) and 282 (32.7%) lacunar infarcts. The black group had a significantly higher incidence of all subtypes of stroke except for POCI and unclassified strokes. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for men compared with women was 1.34 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.19 to 1.50; p<0.001). The IRR for manual versus non-manual occupations in those aged 35–64 years was 1.64 (95%CI 1.22 to 2.23; p<0.0001). There was a borderline significant increase in adjusted survival at 6 months in the black group 95% (CI 0.61 to 1.03, p=0.078) with a hazard ratio of 0.79 after adjustment and stratification. Conclusions: Although the black population is at increased risk of stroke and most subtypes of stroke, this is not translated into significant differences in survival

  1. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  2. 5 CFR 9901.312 - Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary. 9901.312 Section 9901.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES....312 Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary. (a) Subject to § 9901.105, the Secretary...

  3. 5 CFR 9901.312 - Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary. 9901.312 Section 9901.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES....312 Maximum rates of base salary and adjusted salary. (a) Subject to § 9901.105, the Secretary...

  4. Global Dynamics of a Parasite-Host Model with Nonlinear Incidence Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yilei

    The paper is concerned with the effect of a nonlinear incidence rate Sp Iq on dynamical behaviors of a parasite-host model. It is shown that the global attractor of the parasite-host model is an equilibrium if q = 1, which is similar to that of the parasite-host model with a nonlinear incidence rate of the fractional function (SI)/(S+I). However, when q is greater than one, more positive equilibria appear and limit cycles arise from Hopf bifurcations at the positive equilibria for the model with the incidence rate Sp Iq. It reveals that the nonlinear incidence rate of the exponential function Sp Iq for generic p and q can lead to more complicated and richer dynamics than the bilinear incidence rate or the fractional incidence rate for this model.

  5. 76 FR 72850 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 225 RIN 2130-ZA05 Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for... threshold of $9,500. Notice and Comment Procedures In this rule, FRA has recalculated the monetary reporting... DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures This rule has been evaluated in accordance with...

  6. 77 FR 71354 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 225 RIN 2130-ZA10 Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for... threshold of $9,900. ] Notice and Comment Procedures In this rule, FRA has recalculated the monetary... 12866 and 13563 and DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures This rule has been evaluated in...

  7. Prospective prediction of college adjustment using self- and informant-rated personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, John E; Puher, Meredith A; Cross, Nicole A

    2012-01-01

    Studies that relate normal personality traits to students' adjustment to college have relied heavily on self-rating methods, concurrent designs, and academic performance indicators as criteria. We conducted a prospective study of high school seniors with a follow-up assessment made near the end of their freshman year of college. Self-ratings of personality traits and college adjustment were obtained from 90 students using the revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) and the student adaptation to college questionnaire (SACQ; Baker & Siryk, 1989 ). Ratings of personality were also obtained from parents (n = 66) and same-sex peers from the college setting (n = 78) using the NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992 ). SACQ academic adjustment was correlated with conscientiousness ratings by all three sources and with openness ratings by parents and peers. SACQ Social Adjustment was correlated with self-ratings of neuroticism and peer ratings of extraversion. SACQ personal-emotional adjustment was correlated with self-ratings and parent ratings of neuroticism. Ratings by parents and peers showed significant incremental validity over self-ratings in the prediction of certain trait-adjustment relationships.

  8. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine. PMID:25019265

  9. 5 CFR 9701.334 - Setting and adjusting locality and special rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Setting and adjusting locality and...) Within its sole and exclusive discretion, DHS may, after coordination with OPM, set and adjust locality and special rate supplements. In determining the amounts of the supplements, DHS and OPM may...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.334 - Setting and adjusting locality and special rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Setting and adjusting locality and...) Within its sole and exclusive discretion, DHS may, after coordination with OPM, set and adjust locality and special rate supplements. In determining the amounts of the supplements, DHS and OPM may...

  11. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  12. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  13. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  14. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  15. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  16. 78 FR 71501 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... Copyright Royalty Judges announce a cost of living adjustment (COLA) of 1% in the royalty rates satellite....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The satellite carrier compulsory license establishes a...

  17. The incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer: a four-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) and endometrial cancer (EC) in the Republic of Korea using national insurance claim data generated from 2009 to 2012. Materials and Methods Data that were generated from 2009 to 2012 were sourced from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Inpatients Sample database. The data from women who were assigned diagnosis codes representing EH or EC within 1 month of being assigned codes that corresponded to procedures that included endometrial biopsies and several types of gynecologic surgeries to obtain endometrial pathology samples, were selected for analysis. Results Data from 2,477,424 women were entered into the database between 2009 and 2012, and the data from 1,868 women with EH and 868 women with EC were extracted for analysis. The mean ages of the patients were 44.1 ± 0.4 years for those with EH and 52.7 ± 0.6 years for those with EC. The EH and EC incidence rates were 37 per 100,000 woman-years and 8 per 100,000 woman-years, respectively. The EH and EC incidence rates peaked when the women were in their late forties and fifties, respectively. Conclusions The EH and EC incidence rates determined in this study were somewhat lower than those determined from previous studies. Further studies are required that adjust the data for race, menopausal hormone therapy, and obesity. PMID:27635340

  18. Temporal changes in liver cancer incidence rates in Japan: accounting for death certificate inaccuracies and improving diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharp, G B; Cologne, J B; Fukuhara, T; Itakura, H; Yamamoto, M; Tokuoka, S

    2001-09-01

    Primary liver cancer (PLC) rates have risen dramatically during the past few decades in some regions, particularly in Japan, where PLC is now the third major cause of cancer death. PLC is one of the most difficult tumors to diagnose correctly, because (i) the liver is a frequent site of cancer metastasis and (ii) death from PLC is often attributed to cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis. Also, because the disease is often rapidly fatal, a large proportion of liver cancer cases are identified based on death certificates alone without confirmation by clinical records. Thus, worldwide differences in published incidence rates for this disease reflect regional or national differences in both the accuracy of death certificates and the sensitivity of diagnostic methods. By comparing death certificate causes of death with those based on pathology review, we were able to adjust 1958--1994 incidence rates for a large Japanese cohort for these errors. Although the death certificate false-positive error rate declined, the false-negative error rate remained high throughout the study. The introduction of improved liver cancer diagnostic methods in Japan in the early 1980s was associated with a sharp increase in PLC incidence. We conclude that errors in death certificate causes of death and changes in liver cancer diagnostic techniques have had an important impact on the reported incidence of this disease. Taking these factors into account, rates of hepatocellular carcinoma rose between 2.4- and 4.3-fold in our Japanese cohort from 1960 to 1985, peaked about 1993 and declined thereafter. Incidence rates of cholangiocarcinoma remained stable through 1987.

  19. Ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates in 17 cities, United States, 1991-2006.

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Gift, Thomas L; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Weinstock, Hillard S

    2014-04-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance can hinder gonorrhea prevention and control efforts. In this study, we analyzed historical ciprofloxacin resistance data and gonorrhea incidence data to examine the possible effect of antimicrobial drug resistance on gonorrhea incidence at the population level. We analyzed data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project and city-level gonorrhea incidence rates from surveillance data for 17 cities during 1991-2006. We found a strong positive association between ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates at the city level during this period. Their association was consistent with predictions of mathematical models in which resistance to treatment can increase gonorrhea incidence rates through factors such as increased duration of infection. These findings highlight the possibility of future increases in gonorrhea incidence caused by emerging cephalosporin resistance.

  20. 76 FR 590 - Adjustment or Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Making and Distributing Phonorecords

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... Copyright Royalty Board Adjustment or Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Making and Distributing Phonorecords AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice announcing commencement of proceeding with request for Petitions to Participate. SUMMARY: The Copyright Royalty Judges are...

  1. Soft Tissue Strain Rates in Side-Blast Incidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-02

    for Human Head Impacts. Proceedings ASME Biomechanics of Human Factors Conference. [22] Hannon P, Knapp K. 2006. Forensic Biomechanics. Lawyers...J, Song, B, Pintar, F, Yoganandan N, Chen W, Gennarelli TA. 2008. How to test brain and brain simulant at ballistic and blast strain rates. Rocky

  2. 5 CFR 535.105 - Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CRITICAL POSITION PAY AUTHORITY § 535.105 Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay. (a) The rate of basic pay for a critical position may not be less than the rate of basic pay, including any... be payable for the position. (b) If critical position pay authority is granted for a position,...

  3. 39 CFR 3010.12 - Contents of notice of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., including all relevant CPI-U values, are listed with citations to the original sources. (2) A schedule... input values, including current rates, new rates, and billing determinants, are listed with citations to... citations to the original sources. If new unused rate adjustment authority will be generated for a class...

  4. 39 CFR 3010.14 - Contents of notice of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... relevant CPI-U values are listed with citations to the original sources; (2) A schedule showing unused rate... including current rates, new rates, and billing determinants are listed with citations to the original... adjustment calculated as required by § 3010.26. All calculations are to be shown with citations to...

  5. 39 CFR 3010.14 - Contents of notice of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... relevant CPI-U values are listed with citations to the original sources; (2) A schedule showing unused rate... including current rates, new rates, and billing determinants are listed with citations to the original... adjustment calculated as required by § 3010.26. All calculations are to be shown with citations to...

  6. 39 CFR 3010.14 - Contents of notice of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... relevant CPI-U values are listed with citations to the original sources; (2) A schedule showing unused rate... including current rates, new rates, and billing determinants are listed with citations to the original... adjustment calculated as required by § 3010.26. All calculations are to be shown with citations to...

  7. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.

  8. Review and modelling of malaria crude incidence rate in a low incidence population, Illinois 1990 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Oyinade, Akinyede; Soyemi, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The highest risk of imported malaria in Illinois is associated with travel to countries of origin by immigrants to visit family and friends. We used Join point regression to analyze Malaria crude incidence rate (mCIR) trend from 1990 through 2013. We found join point regression a useful way to summarize mCIR trends because it connected the linear line segments over a fixed time interval (annual) and allowed characterization of the trends using the Annual Percent Change. PMID:28154622

  9. Comparison of age- and sex-specific incidence rate patterns of the leukemia complex in the cat and the dog.

    PubMed

    Schneider, R

    1983-05-01

    Data on cancer cases in cats and dogs were collected systematically by the Animal Neoplasm Registry of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, Calif., a population-based animal tumor registry. Etiologic relationships were evaluated on the basis of comparisons of age-specific, sex-specific, and age-neutered-specific incidence rate patterns of the leukemias. Age-adjusted annual incidence rates for all leukemias per 100,000 cats or dogs were 224.3 and 30.5, respectively. The cat had 6.1 times more malignant lymphomas and 15.7 times more myeloproliferative disease than the dog. Feline age-specific rates indicated a bimodal age pattern for all leukemias and for malignant lymphoma alone and a single early peak for myeloproliferative disease. In the dog, all age-specific patterns increased with age and peaked later in life. Feline sex-specific, age-adjusted rates showed that the neutered female was at lowest risk, followed by the neutered male, entire female, and entire male. In the dog, the neutered male was at lowest risk while the other three sex categories were clustered. However, the magnitude of expression within each species separately was the same for the neutered male, entire male, and entire female, but not for the neutered female. Neutering decreased the risk of leukemias in the female cat by approximately one-half but did not affect the risk of leukemias in the female dog.

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-31 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (Percentage Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction Wage Rate... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-31 Construction Wage Rate Requirements—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method). As prescribed in 22.407(f), insert the following clause: Construction Wage...

  11. 3 CFR 13561 - Executive Order 13561 of December 22, 2010. Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Executive Order 13561 of December 22, 2010. Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay 13561 Order 13561 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order... Executive Service. The ranges of rates of basic pay for senior executives in the Senior Executive...

  12. 10 CFR 903.17 - Informal public meetings for minor rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....17 Section 903.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area Power Administrations § 903.17 Informal public meetings for minor...

  13. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Retirement deductions and benefits; (2) Life insurance premiums and benefits; (3) Premium pay; (4) Severance... rate of pay begins on the effective date of the change in official duty station. (d) An adjusted rate... first day of the first pay period beginning on or after the date on which a change in the definition...

  14. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Retirement deductions and benefits; (2) Life insurance premiums and benefits; (3) Premium pay; (4) Severance... rate of pay begins on the effective date of the change in official duty station. (d) An adjusted rate... first day of the first pay period beginning on or after the date on which a change in the definition...

  15. Dynamics of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Hsien

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate. This type of nonlinear incidence can be used to describe the psychological effect of certain diseases spread in a contact network at high infective levels. We first find a threshold value for the transmission rate. This value completely determines the dynamics of the model and interestingly, the threshold is not dependent on the functional form of the nonlinear incidence rate. Furthermore, if the transmission rate is less than or equal to the threshold value, the disease will die out. Otherwise, it will be permanent. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the theoretical results. We also consider the effect of the nonlinear incidence on the epidemic dynamics.

  16. 12 CFR 622.61 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended. 622.61... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment... is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990,...

  17. 12 CFR 622.61 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended. 622.61... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment... is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990,...

  18. Trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in Slovakia between 1993 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Psota, Marek; Pekarciková, Jarmila; O'Mullane, Monica; Rusnák, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and especially coronary heart disease (CHD) are the main causes of death in the Slovak Republic (SR). The aim of this study is to explore trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in the whole Slovak population and in the population of working age between the years 1993 and 2009. A related indicator - potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to CHD--was calculated in the same period for males and females. Crude CHD mortality rates were age-adjusted using European standard population. The joinpoint Poisson regression was performed in order to find out the annual percentage change in trends. The age-adjusted CHD mortality rates decreased in the Slovak population and also in the population of working age. The change was significant only within the working-age sub-group. We found that partial diagnoses (myocardial infarction and chronic ischaemic heart disease) developed in the mirror-like manner. PYLL per 100,000 decreased during the observed period and the decline was more prominent in males. For further research we recommend to focus on several other issues, namely, to examine the validity of cause of death codes, to examine the development of mortality rates in selected age groups, to find out the cause of differential development of mortality rates in the Slovak Republic in comparison with the Czech Republic and Poland, and to explain the causes of decrease of the age-adjusted CHD mortality rates in younger age groups in Slovakia.

  19. Prostate cancer incidence rates have started to decrease in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Ciatto, Stefano; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has dramatically changed the epidemiology of prostate cancer. Growing incidence rates have been documented in almost all western countries following the increased usage of PSA screening. In the United States after a period of huge increase in incidence, rates have decreased to values lower than those of the pre-PSA era. Similar changes have been documented also in the area of the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, where prostate cancer incidence rates doubled from the early 1990s to 2003 and afterwards decreased. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a decline in prostate cancer incidence in Italy following the screening-related increase.

  20. Use of age-adjusted rates of suicide in time series studies in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2009-01-01

    Durkheim's modified theory of suicide was examined to explore how consistent it was in predicting Israeli rates of suicide from 1965 to 1997 when using age-adjusted rates rather than crude ones. In this time-series study, Israeli male and female rates of suicide increased and decreased, respectively, between 1965 and 1997. Conforming to Durkheim's modified theory, the Israeli male rate of suicide was lower in years when rates of marriage and birth are higher, while rates of suicide are higher in years when rates of divorce are higher, the opposite to that of Israeli women. The corrected regression coefficients suggest that the Israeli female rate of suicide remained lower in years when rate of divorce is higher, again the opposite suggested by Durkheim's modified theory. These results may indicate that divorce affects the mental health of Israeli women as suggested by their lower rate of suicide. Perhaps the "multiple roles held by Israeli females creates suicidogenic stress" and divorce provides some sense of stress relief, mentally speaking. The results were not as consistent with predictions suggested by Durkheim's modified theory of suicide as were rates from the United States for the same period nor were they consistent with rates based on "crude" suicide data. Thus, using age-adjusted rates of suicide had an influence on the prediction of the Israeli rate of suicide during this period.

  1. Statistics of hematologic malignancies in Korea: incidence, prevalence and survival rates from 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Eun-Hye; Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Joo Young; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Park, Byung-Kiu; Lee, Hyewon; Eom, Hyeon-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Background The nationwide statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea has not been reported yet. Methods The Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Korean Society of Hematology jointly investigated domestic incidence rates and prevalence of hematologic malignancies occurred between 1999 and 2008, and analyzed survival rates of patients who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2008. Data of hematologic malignancies from 1993 to 2008 were obtained from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Data base. The crude incidence rates, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates, annual percentage change of incidence, and prevalence from 1999-2008 were calculated. Survival rates for patients diagnosed in 1993-2008 were estimated. Results In 2008, a total of 8,006 cases of hematologic malignancies were occurred, which comprised 4.5% of all malignancies. In all genders, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and multiple myeloma were most frequent diseases. In terms of age, ages between 60 and 69 were most prevalent. From 1999 to 2008, the age-standardized incidence rates increased from 10.2 to 13.7, and the annual percentage change was 3.9%. The 5-year survival rate increased from 38.2% during 1993-1995 to 55.2% during 2004-2008. As of January 2009, number of patients with 10-year prevalence was 33,130, and with 5- to 10-year prevalence was 10,515. Conclusion This is the first nationwide statistical report of hematologic malignancies in Korea. It could be used as the basic information to help investigate epidemiologic characteristics, evaluate progress during the past years, and establish future strategies for hematologic malignancies. Periodic statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea should be continued. PMID:22479275

  2. Presumed Regional Incidence Rate of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Han, Daikwon; Kang, Sungchan; Song, Kyoung Jun; Cho, Sung-il

    2015-01-01

    The regional incidence rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) were traditionally calculated with the residential population as the denominator. The aim of this study was to estimate the true incidence rate of OHCA and to investigate characteristics of regions with overestimated and underestimated OHCA incidence rates. We used the national OHCA database from 2006 to 2010. The nighttime residential and daytime transient populations were investigated from the 2010 Census. The daytime population was calculated by adding the daytime influx of population to, and subtracting the daytime outflow from, the nighttime residential population. Conventional age-standardized incidence rates (CASRs) and daytime corrected age-standardized incidence rates (DASRs) for OHCA per 100,000 person-years were calculated in each county. A total of 97,291 OHCAs were eligible. The age-standardized incidence rates of OHCAs per 100,000 person-years were 34.6 (95% CI: 34.3-35.0) in the daytime and 24.8 (95% CI: 24.5-25.1) in the nighttime among males, and 14.9 (95% CI: 14.7-15.1) in the daytime, and 10.4 (95% CI: 10.2-10.6) in the nighttime among females. The difference between the CASR and DASR ranged from 35.4 to -11.6 in males and from 6.1 to -1.0 in females. Through the Bland-Altman plot analysis, we found the difference between the CASR and DASR increased as the average CASR and DASR increased as well as with the larger daytime transient population. The conventional incidence rate was overestimated in counties with many OHCA cases and in metropolitan cities with large daytime population influx and nighttime outflow, while it was underestimated in residential counties around metropolitan cities. PMID:26425035

  3. A cross-national analysis of the effects of methadone maintenance and needle and syringe program implementation on incidence rates of HIV in Europe from 1995 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Phillip L; McCullagh, Charlotte A

    2016-06-01

    Although many studies have found an association between harm reduction interventions and reductions in incidence rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, scant research explores the effects of harm reduction cross-nationally. This study used a year- and country-level fixed effects model to estimate the potential effects of needle-and-syringe programs (NSPs) and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) on incidence rates of HIV in the general population and among people who inject drugs (PWID), in a sample of 28 European nations. After adjusting for Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and total expenditures on healthcare, we identified significant associations between years of MMT and NSP implementation and lower incidence rates of HIV among PWID and the general population. In addition to years of implementation of NSP and MMT, the greater proportion of GDP spent on healthcare was associated with a decrease in logged incidence rates of HIV. The findings of this study suggest that MMT and NSP may reduce incidence rates of HIV among PWID cross-nationally. The current study opens a new avenue of exploration, which allows for a focus on countrywide policies and economic drivers of the epidemic. Moreover, it highlights the immense importance of the adoption of harm reduction programs as empirically-based health policy as well as the direct benefits that are accrued from public spending on healthcare on incidence rates of HIV within the general population and among subpopulations of PWID.

  4. Incidence rate of female breast cancer in urban Shijiazhuang in 2012 and modifiable risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Denggui; He, Yutong; Wei, Lizhen; Zhang, Nan; Li, Shumei; Wen, Xiaoduo; Yang, Yi; Wang, Guiying; Wang, Shijie; Geng, Cuizhi; Liu, Yunjiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is diagnosed more frequently among urban than rural women in China; however, the incidence among women in Shijiazhuang is unknown. Methods As registered Chinese citizens are entitled to complete public medical insurance coverage, the incidence rate was estimated using reimbursement records of first hospitalization. Results Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Shijiazhuang. The crude rate and age‐standardized incidence rates by China (ASRC) and world (ASRW) standards were 59.6, 48.5 and 45.5/100 000 in 2012. Mean age at diagnosis was 55.1 years. Incidence increased with age, peaking at 165.1 at 70–74. In comparison with urban women in other Chinese cities, incidence in Shijiazhuang was similar to Shanghai (ASRC 46.6) and Suzhou (ASRW 45). When compared with 31 other Chinese cities, Shijiazhuang ranked second highest behind Guangzhou (ASRW 46.6), and the ASRW correlated significantly with gross domestic product per capita among the 32 cities. The breast cancer ASRW in Shijiazhuang was 2.7 times the rate of 41 rural Chinese counties (17). When compared with GLOBOCAN 2012 data according to the Human Development Index, breast cancer incidence in Shijiazhuang matched countries with a high human development index (ASRW 45.2). Conclusion Breast cancer incidence in Shijiazhuang in 2012 was the highest in China, matching the rate in countries with high social economic development. This rate may continue to rise, parallel with urbanization, and may be associated with changing reproductive patterns and Westernization. Prevention methods need to be incorporated. PMID:27766774

  5. ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDING EQUIPMENT FOR SWIMMING POOLS. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NUMBER 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THE SCOPE OF THIS STANDARD COVERS ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDERS, WHETHER USED FOR SOLUTIONS, SLURRIES OR SOLIDS. IT ALSO INCLUDES AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT SUCH AS PUMPS, STRAINERS, TUBING CONNECTIONS, TANKS, INJECTION FITTINGS AND OTHER REQUIRED COMPONENTS. THE FEEDERS DESCRIBED ARE INTENDED TO BE DESIGNED AND USED SPECIFICALLY FOR CHEMICAL…

  6. 3 CFR 13635 - Executive Order 13635 of December 27, 2012. Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5302(1)), as adjusted under 5 U.S.... 3. Certain Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Salaries. The rates of basic pay or salaries for the... superseded as of the effective dates specified in section 7 of this order.Barack ObamaThe White...

  7. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417.594 Section 417.594 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS,...

  8. 78 FR 25515 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates I. Background Section 31... forecast ADS of 1.0178 x $252,666,501,426 = $257,167,513,594. Multiply this figure by the 20 trading days... figure by the 22 trading days in April 2013 to obtain a total dollar volume forecast of...

  9. 78 FR 52694 - Price Cap Rules for Certain Postal Rate Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Postal Service's Annual Compliance Report. Id. Valpak's concerns stem from the Postal Service's reporting... appear below the signature of this order. Section 3010.1 defines the terms ``annual limitation... rate adjustment authority may only be applied after applying the annual limitation. Section...

  10. The influence of weather conditions on the relative incident rate of fishing vessels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Pelot, Ronald P; Hilliard, Casey

    2009-07-01

    There is a long history of studying the relationship between weather and maritime activities. This article analyzes the link between relative incident rate (RIR) and general weather factors within certain gridded areas and time periods. The study area, which encompasses a broad extent of Atlantic Canadian waters, includes fishing incidents recorded by the Canadian Coast Guard from 1997 to 1999. Methodologies used for traffic track generation in a geographical information system and aggregation of all relevant weather data needed for the statistical analyses are presented. Ultimately, a regression tree was built to illustrate the relationship between incident rate and the following six weather factors: wave height; sea surface temperature; air temperature; ice concentration; fog presence; and precipitation. Results from the regression tree reveal that the RIR defined as (incident number per area-day)/(traffic amount per area-day) across grid cells with incidents, increases as the weather conditions deteriorate in a general way, and the concentration of ice has the biggest influence on the magnitude of incident rates for a given level of traffic exposure. The results from this analysis may assist administrators of maritime traffic, especially those associated with fishing activities, through a better understanding of the influence on RIR of certain weather conditions within given areas in specific time periods.

  11. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women.

  12. The effects of different rates of ascent on the incidence of altitude decompression sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. V.; Waligora, James M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of different rates of ascent on the incidence of altitude decompression sickness (DCS) was analyzed by a retrospective study on 14,123 man-flights involving direct ascent up to 38,000 ft altitude. The data were classified on the basis of altitude attained, denitrogenation at ground level, duration of stay at altitude, rest or exercise while at altitude, frequency of exercise at altitude, and ascent rates. This database was further divided on the basis of ascent rates into different groups from 1000 ft/min up to 53,000 ft/min. The database was analyzed using multiple correlation and regression methods, and the results of the analysis reveal that ascent rates influence the incidence of DCS in combination with the various factors mentioned above. Rate of ascent was not a significant predictor of DCS and showed a low, but significant multiple correlation (R=0.31) with the above factors. Further, the effects of rates below 2500 ft/min are significantly different from that of rates above 2500 ft/min on the incidence of symptoms (P=0.03) and forced descent (P=0.01). At rates above 2500 ft/min and up to 53,000 ft/min, the effects of ascent rates are not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) in the population examined while the effects of rates below 2500 ft/min are not clear.

  13. National Trends in Incidence Rates of Hospitalization for Stroke in Children With Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCavit, Timothy L.; Xuan, Lei; Zhang, Song; Flores, Glenn; Quinn, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The success of primary stroke prevention for children with sickle cell disease (SCD) throughout the United States is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to generate national incidence rates of hospitalization for stroke in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) before and after publication of the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP trial) in 1998. Procedure We performed a retrospective trend analysis of the 1993–2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Kids’ Inpatient Databases. Hospitalizations for SCD patients 0–18 years old with stroke were identified by ICD-9CM code. The primary outcome, the trend in annual incidence rate of hospitalization for stroke in children with SCD, was analyzed by linear regression. Incidence rates of hospitalization for stroke before and after 1998 were compared by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results From 1993 to 2009, 2,024 hospitalizations were identified for stroke. Using the mean annual incidence rate of hospitalization for stroke from 1993 to 1998 as the baseline, the rate decreased from 1993 to 2009 (point estimate = −0.022/100 patient years [95% CI, −0.039, −0.005], P = 0.027). The mean annual incidence rate of hospitalization stroke decreased by 45% from 0.51 per 100 patient years in 1993–1998 to 0.28 per 100 patient years in 1999–2009 (P = 0.008). Total hospital days and charges attributed to stroke also decreased by 45% and 24%, respectively. Conclusions After publication of the STOP trial and hydroxyurea licensure in 1998, the incidence of hospitalization for stroke in children with SCD decreased across the United States, suggesting that primary stroke prevention has been effective nationwide, but opportunity for improvement remains. PMID:23151905

  14. Burden of Type 2 Diabetes in Mexico: Past, Current and Future Prevalence and Incidence Rates

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. Methods We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960–2012), and birth-cohort (1920–1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010–2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Results Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65–68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57–59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960–2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7–22.5% by 2050, affecting 15–25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Conclusions Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. PMID:26546108

  15. Age-period-cohort analysis of hepatitis A incidence rates in Korea from 2002 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of hepatitis A in Korea from 2002 to 2012 using age-period-cohort analyses. METHODS We used claims data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation for the entire population. Census data from 2010 were used as the standard population. The incidence of hepatitis A was assumed to have a Poisson distribution, and the models and effects were evaluated using the intrinsic estimator method, the likelihood ratio, and the Akaike information criterion. RESULTS The incidence of hepatitis A gradually increased until 2007 (from 17.55 to 35.72 per 100,000 population) and peaked in 2009 (177.47 per 100,000 population). The highest incidence was observed among 27-29-year-old individuals when we omitted data from 2005 to 2007. From 2005 to 2007, the peak incidence was observed among 24-26-year-old individuals, followed by 27-29-year-olds. The best model fits were observed when the age-period-cohort variables were all considered at the same time for males, females, and the whole population. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of hepatitis A exhibited significant age-period-cohort effects; its incidence peaked in 2009 and was especially high among Koreans 20-39 years of age. These epidemiological patterns may help predict when high incidence rates of hepatitis A may occur in developing countries during their socioeconomic development. PMID:27703127

  16. Trends in Stage-Specific Incidence Rates for Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder in the United States: 1988 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Matthew E.; Smith, Angela B.; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Tyree, Seth; Kim, William Y.; Milowsky, Matthew I.; Pruthi, Raj S.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is notable for a striking heterogeneity of disease-specific risks. Among the approximately 75% of incident cases found to be superficial to the muscularis propria at the time of presentation (non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer), the risk of progression to the lethal phenotype of muscle-invasive disease is strongly associated with stage and grade of disease. Given the suggestion of an increasing percentage of low-risk cases in hospital-based registry data in recent years, the authors hypothesized that population-based data may reveal changes in the stage distribution of early-stage cases. METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data were used to examine trends for the stage-specific incidence of bladder cancer between 1988 and 2006, adjusted for age, race, and sex, using Joinpoint and nonparametric tests. RESULTS: The adjusted incidence rate of papillary noninvasive (Ta) predominantly low grade (77%) disease was found to increase from 5.52 to 9.09 per 100,000 population (P <.0001), with an average annual percentage change of +3.3. Over the same period, concomitant, albeit smaller, decreases were observed for flat in situ (Tis) and lamina propria-invasive (T1) disease (2.57 to 1.19 and 6.65 to 4.61 per 100,000 population [both P <.0001]; average annual percent change of −5.0 and −1.6, respectively). The trend was most dramatic among patients in the oldest age strata, suggesting a previously unappreciated cohort phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study should motivate further epidemiological investigations of differential associations of genetic and environmental factors with different bladder cancer phenotypes as well as further scrutiny of clinical practice guideline recommendations for the growing subgroup of predominantly older patients with lower-risk disease. PMID:24122346

  17. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  18. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  19. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  20. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  1. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  2. 75 FR 24757 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Adjustments to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Section 6(b...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... the fee rates under Sections 31(b) and (c) of the Exchange Act in fiscal years 2002 through 2011. II... 14(g)(5) of the Exchange Act require the Commission to adjust the fee rates under Sections 13(e) and... adjustment to the fee rates under Sections 13(e) and 14(g) of the Exchange Act. \\7\\ The annual...

  3. The global burden of injury: incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and time trends from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013

    PubMed Central

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Graetz, Nicholas; Bolliger, Ian; Naghavi, Mohsen; Higashi, Hideki; Mullany, Erin C; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Adofo, Koranteng; Alsharif, Ubai; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Barrero, Lope H; Bekele, Tolesa; Bose, Dipan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Derrett, Sarah; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Petrovich Ermakov, Sergey; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L; Gabbe, Belinda; Gosselin, Richard A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hijar, Martha; Hu, Guoqing; Jayaraman, Sudha P; Jiang, Guohong; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Chanda; Lecky, Fiona E; Leung, Ricky; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Majdan, Marek; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Meaney, Peter A; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Miller, Ted R; Mock, Charles N; Norman, Rosana E; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Refaat, Amany; Rojas-Rueda, David; Roy, Nobhojit; Schwebel, David C; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Skirbekk, Vegard; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Stein, Dan J; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Theadom, Alice M; Tran, Bach Xuan; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vavilala, Monica S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990 to 2013 for 26 causes of injury, globally, by region and by country. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the extensive GBD mortality database, corrections for ill-defined cause of death and the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on inpatient and outpatient data sets, 26 cause-of-injury and 47 nature-of-injury categories, and seven follow-up studies with patient-reported long-term outcome measures. Results In 2013, 973 million (uncertainty interval (UI) 942 to 993) people sustained injuries that warranted some type of healthcare and 4.8 million (UI 4.5 to 5.1) people died from injuries. Between 1990 and 2013 the global age-standardised injury DALY rate decreased by 31% (UI 26% to 35%). The rate of decline in DALY rates was significant for 22 cause-of-injury categories, including all the major injuries. Conclusions Injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. The decline in rates for almost all injuries is so prominent that it warrants a general statement that the world is becoming a safer place to live in. However, the patterns vary widely by cause, age, sex, region and time and there are still large improvements that need to be made. PMID:26635210

  4. Prevalence and Incidence Rates of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment No Dementia in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Mejia-Arango, Silvia; Gutierrez, Luis Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) in the Mexican population. Methods The MHAS study is a prospective panel study of health and aging in Mexico with 7,000 elders that represent 8 million subjects nationally. Using measurements of cognition and activities of daily living of dementia cases and CIND were identified at baseline and follow up. Overall incidence rates and specific rates for sex, age and education were calculated. Results Prevalence was 6.1% and 28.7% for dementia and CIND, respectively. Incidence rates were 27.3 per 1,000 person-years for dementia and 223 per 1,000 persons-year for CIND. Rates of dementia and CIND increased with advancing age and decreased with higher educational level; sex had a differential effect depending on the age strata. Hypertension, diabetes and depression were risk factors for dementia but not for CIND. Discussion These data provide estimates of prevalence and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment in the Mexican population for projection of future burden. PMID:21948770

  5. Progress estimating incidence rates of tumors and deformities in St. Louis River white sucker

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC) was listed for the Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) of Fish Tumors and Other Deformities without the benefit of histological information. Information on the fish tumor incidence rate is important for the future removal of the BUI. Two year...

  6. Relationship between entomological inoculation rate, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence rate, and incidence of malaria attack in rural Gabon.

    PubMed

    Elissa, N; Migot-Nabias, F; Luty, A; Renaut, A; Touré, F; Vaillant, M; Lawoko, M; Yangari, P; Mayombo, J; Lekoulou, F; Tshipamba, P; Moukagni, R; Millet, P; Deloron, P

    2003-03-01

    To assess the relationships between variations of Plasmodium falciparum transmission and those of peripheral parasitaemia prevalence or malaria attack incidence rates in regions with limited fluctuations of transmission, we conducted a follow-up in two Gabonese populations. Entomological surveys were carried out from May 1995 to April 1996 in Dienga, and from May 1998 to April 1999 in Benguia. In Dienga, malaria transmission was seasonal, being not detected during two 3-month periods. Mean entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was 0.28 infective bite/person/night. In Benguia, malaria transmission was perennial with seasonal fluctuations, mean EIR being 0.76 infective bite/person/night. In Dienga, 301 schoolchildren were followed from October 1995 to March 1996. Clinical malaria attack was defined as fever associated with >5000 parasites/microl of blood. P. falciparum prevalence varied from 28 to 42%, and monthly malaria attack incidence from 30 to 169 per thousand. In Benguia, the entire population (122 persons) was followed from November 1998 to April 1999. Prevalence varied from 22 to 50%, and monthly malaria attack incidence from 52 to 179 per thousand. In each area, entomological variations were not related to parasite prevalence, but preceded malaria attack incidence with 1- or 2-month time lag, corresponding to the pre-patency period that differs in the two populations, possibly according to differences in immunity related to parasite transmission.

  7. Trends in the Incidence Rates of Chronic Hepatitis B in Poland in the Years 2005 - 2013

    PubMed Central

    Stawinska-Witoszynska, Barbara; Zysnarska, Monika; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Wojtyła-Buciorab, Paulina; Krzyzaniak, Alicja; Wieckowska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of newly-diagnosed cases of chronic hepatitis is decisive for the overall incidence rate of hepatitis B observed in Poland. Objectives We aimed to determine the chronic hepatitis B incidence trends in Poland, taking into consideration the ages, genders, and environments of the patients. Methods The study is based on aggregated data from Polish descriptive epidemiological studies for the period of 2005 to 2013 (i.e., hepatitis B incidence numbers and ratios, including mixed HBV and HCV infections) as published in the annual bulletins Choroby zakazne i zatrucia w Polsce (Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland] drawn up by the laboratory for the monitoring and analysis of epidemiological status of the department of epidemiology at the national institute of public health - national institute of hygiene (NIPH-NIH). Poland, a central European country situated in the humid continental climate zone, is classified as a highly developed country. In the analyzed period, the Polish population consisted of about 38 million people, more than 19 million of whom were women, and more than 18 million of whom were men. Among European countries, Poland has the smallest number of national and ethnic minorities. For the purposes of epidemiological supervision, a special definition of acute hepatitis B was adopted in Poland in 2005, which facilitated separate registration of acute and chronic cases. Results A significantly increasing chronic hepatitis B incidence trend was observed in the population of Poland, with considerable increases in incidence rates for both men and women alike. The incidence rates for inhabitants of both urban and rural areas also showed an increasing tendency. Chronic hepatitis B occurred more frequently in men and in urban areas. For each of the five-year age groups encompassing patients between 20 and 54 years of age, the increase in the incidence rate proved to be significant. Conclusions The registered increase in the

  8. Statistical modelling of breast cancer incidence and mortality rates in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Robertson, C; Boyle, P

    1997-01-01

    The interpretation of time trends in disease rates can be facilitated using estimable contrasts from age-period-cohort models. Cohort and period trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality rates in Scotland were investigated using contrasts that measure the changes in the linear trends. These contrasts were compared with estimates obtained from mortality rates in the USA and Japan. A significant moderation of both breast cancer incidence and mortality rates was observed in Scotland, associated with cohorts of women born after the Second World War compared with women born between the two world wars. The moderation of breast cancer mortality among cohorts born after 1925 compared with cohorts born before 1925 that was observed in the USA and Japan was also observed in this study. This moderation is not present in the incidence rates. The relative decline in the risk of breast cancer seen in younger cohorts seems to be contradictory to the temporal pattern present among breast cancer risk factors. It may well be that the alteration of eating patterns as a result of rationing in the wartime and immediate post-war period, and the subsequent influence on certain breast cancer risk factors probably produced by such changes, may have had some influence on the development of healthier girls and women. Such speculation could be addressed in a well-designed epidemiological study. There have been no changes in the mortality rate trends with period in Scotland, although the changes in the incidence rate trends with period are consistent with an increase in registration coverage.

  9. Age-standardized incidence rates of primordial cyst (keratocyst) on the Witwatersrand.

    PubMed

    Rachanis, C C; Shear, M

    1978-11-01

    Cases of primordial cysts derived from the records of all the hospital pathology departments and private pathology practices on the Witwatersrand, were recorded for the 10-year period 1965-74. The population at risk (1970 census) was 974,390 Whites and 1,567,280 Blacks. Age-specific morbidity rates for each sex and race were calculated, as well as age-standardized incidence rates standardized against African, World and European standard populations. The age-standardized incidence rates for primordial cysts, standardized against a World standard population, per million per year are 0.61, 0, 4.86 and 3.50 for Black males and females and White males and females, respectively. In the population at risk, primordial cysts are much more common in Whites than in Blacks, the incidence being eight times higher in White males than in Black males. The present study confirms that there is a bimodal age distribution but with a higher incidence of the cyst in the age group 50-64 years than previously suspected. This may be either because a substantial number of cases remain undiagnosed for many years or because there are two groups of primordial cyst: one which is triggered in young patients and the other in older patients.

  10. Contrast material injection protocol with the flow rate adjusted to the heart rate for dual source CT coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaomei; Chen, Wenping; Li, Mei; Xu, Yi; Xu, Hai; Zhu, Yinsu; Wang, Dehang; Tang, Lijun

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effect on coronary arterial attenuations of contrast material flow rate adjusted to a patient's heart rate during dual source CT coronary angiography (DSCT-CCTA). A total of 296 consecutive patients (mean age: 58.7 years) undergoing DSCT-CCTA without previous coronary stent placement, bypass surgery, congenital or valvular heart disease were included. The image acquisition protocol was standardized (120 kV, 380 mAs) and retrospective electrocardiograph (ECG) gating was used. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups [flow rate: G1: dosage/16, G2: dosage/(scan time +8), G3: fixed flow rate]. The groups were compared with respect to the attenuations of the ascending aorta (AA) above coronary ostia, the left main coronary artery (LM), the proximal right coronary artery (RCA), the left anterior descending artery (LAD), the left circumflex artery (LCX), and the contrast to noise ratio of the LM (LM(CNR)) and the proximal RCA (RCA(CNR)). Correlations between heart rate and attenuation of the coronary arteries were evaluated in three groups with linear regression. There was no significant difference in the three groups among the mean attenuations of AA (P = 0.141), LM (P = 0.068), RCA (P = 0.284), LM(CNR) (P = 0.598) and RCA(CNR) (P = 0.546). The attenuations of the LAD and the LCX in group 1 were slightly higher than those in group 2 and 3 (P < 0.05). In group 1, the attenuations of the AA (P < 0.01), LM (P < 0.01), RCA (P < 0.01), LAD (P = 0.02) and LCX (P < 0.01) decreased, respectively, with an increasing heart rate. A similar finding was detected in group 3 (AA: P < 0.01, LM: P < 0.01, RCA: P < 0.01, LAD: P < 0.01 and LCX: P < 0.01). In contrast, the attenuations of the AA (P = 0.55), LM (P = 0.27), RCA (P = 0.77), LAD (P = 0.22) and LCX (P = 0.74) had no significant correlation with heart rate in group 2. In all three groups, LM(CNR) (P = 0.77, 0.69 and 0.73 respectively) and RCA(CNR) (P = 0.75, 0.39 and 0.61 respectively) had no

  11. Incidence and survival rates of ovarian cancer in low-income women in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Abuidris, Dafalla O.; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Elhaj, Ahmed M.; Eltayeb, Elgaylani Abdallah; Elsanousi, Mohamed; Ibnoof, Rehab S.; Mohammed, Sulma I.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecological cancer worldwide. Little is known about the disease in Sudan. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the incidence rate, age and stage at diagnosis, and median survival time of patients presenting at the National Cancer Institute-University of Gezira (NCI-UG), Sudan. Data were collected in a prospective study of women with ovarian cancer over a period of eleven years of follow-up (between 2000 and 2011). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the distribution of the demographics of the sample. The direct method was used to compute the age-standardized rate (ASR) using data from the 1966 and 2000 World Standard Populations (WSPs). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival functions and the median survival time. Log-rank tests were used to statistically compare between the survival functions. There were steady increases in ovarian cancer incidence rates between 2000 and 2009, with a slight decline noted in 2010 and 2011. The patients' age range was 9–90. The age-specific incidence rate increased greatly in women aged 55 years or older. The majority of the patients had stage III or IV disease. The annual ASR using WSPs 1966 and 2000 as standard populations were 3.3 and 3.7 per 100,000 women, respectively. The median survival time was 31 months (95% confidence interval, 19–43). The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 38%. In Sudan, ovarian cancer affects postmenopausal women, akin to what is reported in the developed world with high incidence rates. Presenting with advanced stage disease is the predominant factor that results in a short survival time for women. PMID:28105363

  12. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  13. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  14. 77 FR 73456 - Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge Policy)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Department of the Army Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge Policy...: Reference: TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy. Background: The following FRA policy applies to... increases in diesel fuel prices. Miscellaneous: A copy of the TR-12 FRA Policy can be accessed via the...

  15. Convergent Validity of the IPAT Children's Personality Questionnaire and Teacher's Ratings of the Adjustment of Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessing, Elise E.; Barbera, Linda

    1974-01-01

    The IPAT Children's Personality Questionnaire was administered to two samples of white American school children. Both samples were divided into well-adjusted and maladjusted subgroups on the basis of teacher ratings. The CPQ Neuroticism score and the teacher ratings of adjustment status yielded biserial correlations of 0.12 and 0.22. (Author)

  16. Convergent Validity of the IPAT Children's Personality Questionnaire and Teachers' Ratings of the Adjustment of Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessing, Elise E.; And Others

    The IPAT Children's Personality Questionnaire was administered to two samples of white, middle-class, suburban school children. Both samples were divided into well-adjusted and maladjusted subgroups on the basis of teacher ratings. The CPQ Neuroticism score and the teacher ratings of adjustment status yielded biserial correlations of .12 and .22,…

  17. A Multicountry Ecological Study of Cancer Incidence Rates in 2008 with Respect to Various Risk-Modifying Factors

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William B.

    2013-01-01

    Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data) in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking), and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses). The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer), energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two), latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three), and per capita gross national product (five types). Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15–25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer. PMID:24379012

  18. Incidence and Mortality Rates of Disasters and Mass Casualty Incidents in Korea: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study, 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jin; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Seung Chul; Park, Ju Ok; Sung, Joohon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality rates of disasters and mass casualty incidents (MCIs) over the past 10 yr in the administrative system of Korea administrative system and to examine their relationship with population characteristics. This was a population-based cross-sectional study. We calculated the nationwide incidence, as well as the crude mortality and injury incidence rates, of disasters and MCIs. The data were collected from the administrative database of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and from provincial fire departments from January 2000 to December 2009. A total of 47,169 events were collected from the NEMA administrative database. Of these events, 115 and 3,079 cases were defined as disasters and MCIs that occurred in Korea, respectively. The incidence of technical disasters/MCIs was approximately 12.7 times greater than that of natural disasters/MCIs. Over the past 10 yr, the crude mortality rates for disasters and MCIs were 2.36 deaths per 100,000 persons and 6.78 deaths per 100,000 persons, respectively. The crude injury incidence rates for disasters and MCIs were 25.47 injuries per 100,000 persons and 152 injuries per 100,000 persons, respectively. The incidence and mortality of disasters/MCIs in Korea seem to be low compared to that of trend around the world. PMID:23678255

  19. Capture-recapture-adjusted prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes are related to social deprivation.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A A; Beeching, N J; Gill, G V; Bellis, M A

    1999-12-01

    We examined the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and social deprivation in one urban district in Liverpool from October 1995 to September 1996 inclusive. This area has a stable Caucasian population of 176, 682. Lists were made of all known diabetics attending six different medical points of contact during the year, and were condensed and aggregated to eliminate duplicates. From postcode data, each patient was assigned to residence in one of the 14 electoral wards in the district, for which demographic structure and standardized measures of social deprivation were known (Townsend index). The crude period prevalences of type 1 and type 2 diabetes were estimated for each ward. Crude prevalence data were then corrected by applying capture-recapture (CR) techniques to the different patient datasets to allow for undercount. The crude period prevalence (95%CI) of diabetes was 1.5% (1.4-1.5%), or 2585/176, 682. The mean age of people with diabetes was not significantly different between electoral wards. The crude period prevalence of type 2 diabetes within individual wards ranged from 0.4% (0.3-0.6%) in the least deprived area to 4.1% (3.6-4.6%) in the most deprived area. The corresponding range of CR-adjusted period prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes was from 3.2% (2.8-3.6%) to 6.7% (6.1-7.4%), and there was strong correlation between both crude and CR-adjusted prevalence and social deprivation in each ward (r=0.76, p<0.001 for crude; and r=0. 49, p<0.005 for CR-adjusted prevalence). There was no correlation between the crude or CR-adjusted period prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes and Townsend index (r=0.14, p=NS). This strong correlation between the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and social deprivation has important implications for the planning of health-care delivery.

  20. 78 FR 36231 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA-Disclosure of Adjustable Rate Mortgages...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Mortgages (ARMs) Rates AGENCY: Office of Single Family Program Development, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joanne Kuzma, Director, Office of Single Family Program Development... adjustable- rate mortgage ARM consistent with the disclosure requirements applicable to variable...

  1. Effect of cardiovascular prevention strategies on incident coronary disease hospitalisation rates in Spain; an ecological time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, María José; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Ortíz, Cristina; Galán, Iñaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the overall population impact of primary prevention strategies (promotion of healthy lifestyles, prevention of smoking and use of vascular risk drug therapy) of coronary disease in Spain. Design Ecological time series analysis, 1982–2009. Setting All public and private hospitals in Spain. Participants General population. Outcome Incident coronary disease hospitalisation as derived from official hospital discharge data. Methods Annual hospitalisation rates were modelled according to nationwide use of statins, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and antiplatelet drugs, and prevalences of smoking, obesity and overweight. Additive generalised models and mixed Poisson regression models were used for the purpose, taking year as the random-effect variable and adjusting for age, sex, prevalence of vascular risk factors and the number of hospital beds in intensive and coronary care units. Results Across 28 years and 671.5 million person-years of observation, there were 2 986 834 hospitalisations due to coronary disease; of these, 1 441 980 (48.28%) were classified as incident. Hospitalisation rates increased from 1982 to 1996, with an inflection point in 1997 and a subsequent 52% decrease until 2009. Prevalences of smoking, obesity, overweight and use of vascular risk drug therapy were significantly associated with hospitalisation rates (p<0.001): incidence rates ratios (95% CI) for the fourth versus the first quartile were 1.46 (1.42 to 1.50), 1.80 (1.78 to 1.83), 1.58 (1.55 to 1.60) and 0.57 (0.51 to 0.63), respectively. These variables accounted for 92% of interannual variability. Conclusions After decades of continuous rises, hospitalisation due to incident ischaemic heart disease has been cut by half, an achievement associated with the decline in smoking and the increase in vascular risk drug therapy. These results indicate that these two primary prevention strategies have been effective at a population level, thanks to an appropriate balance

  2. A nationwide study of asthma incidence rate and its determinants in Swedish pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Bröms, Kristina; Norbäck, Dan; Sundelin, Claes; Eriksson, Margaretha; Svärdsudd, Kurt

    2012-09-01

    While many studies on asthma prevalence have been published, the number of studies on asthma incidence in pre-school children is limited. In this project, a nationwide sample of pre-school children was followed with the aim of estimating cumulative 5-year asthma incidence and its determinants. Parents of 5,886 children 1-6 years of age, sampled from day-care centres in 62 municipalities all over Sweden, responded in 2002 to a baseline postal questionnaire with questions regarding symptoms indicating possible asthma or atopic conditions, and a number of other variables. In 2007, parents of 4,255 children responded to an almost identical follow-up questionnaire. Of these, the 3,715 children who were free from asthma at baseline constitute the study population for this report. A large number of potential baseline determinants for cumulative 5-year asthma incidence were identified. Of these, food allergy, rhinitis, incomplete asthma diagnosis criteria (wheezing last 12 months, and ever had asthma but no current symptoms), parental rhinitis, parental asthma, age, and eczema, in ranking order of importance, remained significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis. The asthma incidence rate was highly dependent on presence or absence of these variables, the average annual rate ranging from 2/1,000/year in 6-year-olds with no determinants to 154/1,000/year in 1-year-olds with all determinants, corresponding to 11/1,000/year based on the whole study population.

  3. p53 mutations associated with aging-related rise in cancer incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Richard B

    2013-08-01

    TP53's role as guardian of the genome diminishes with age, as the probability of mutation increases. Previous studies have shown an association between p53 gene mutations and cancer. However, the role of somatic TP53 mutations in the steep rise in cancer rates with aging has not been investigated at a population level. This relationship was quantified using the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) TP53 and GLOBOCAN cancer databases. The power function exponent of the cancer rate was calculated for 5-y age-standardized incidence or mortality rates for up to 25 cancer sites occurring in adults of median age 42 to 72 y. Linear regression analysis of the mean percentage of a cancer's TP53 mutations and the corresponding cancer exponent was conducted for four populations: worldwide, Japan, Western Europe, and the United States. Significant associations (P ≤ 0.05) were found for incidence rates but not mortality rates. Regardless of the population studied, positive associations were found for all cancer sites, with more significant associations for solid tumors, excluding the outlier prostate cancer or sex-related tumors. Worldwide and Japanese populations yielded P values as low as 0.002 and 0.005, respectively. For the United States, a significant association was apparent only when analysis utilized the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. This study found that TP53 mutations accounts for approximately one-quarter and one-third of the aging-related rise in the worldwide and Japanese incidence of all cancers, respectively. These significant associations between TP53 mutations and the rapid rise in cancer incidence with aging, considered with previously published literature, support a causal role for TP53 according to the Bradford-Hill criteria. However, questions remain concerning the contribution of TP53 mutations to neoplastic development and the role of factors such as genetic instability, obesity, and gene deficiencies other

  4. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Adjustment Proceeding (WP-07) : Administrator's Final Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) contains the decisions of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), based on the record compiled in this rate proceeding, with respect to the adoption of power rates for the three-year rate period commencing October 1, 2006, through September 30, 2009. This ''2007 Wholesale Power Rate Adjustment Proceeding'' is designed to establish replacement rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) for those that expire on September 30, 2006. This power rate case also establishes the General Transfer Agreement (GTA) Delivery Charge for the period of October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2009. BPA's Power Subscription Strategy and Record of Decision (Subscription Strategy), as well as other Agency processes, provide much of the policy context for this rate case and are described in Section 2. This ROD follows a full evidentiary hearing and briefing, including an Oral Argument before the BPA Administrator. Sections 3 through 18, including any appendices or attachments, present the issues raised by parties in this proceeding, the parties positions, BPA staff positions on the issues, BPA's evaluations of the positions, and the Administrator's decisions. Parties had the opportunity to file briefs on exceptions to the Draft ROD, before issuance of this Final Record of Decision.

  5. Bayesian adjustment for over-estimation and under-estimation of gastric cancer incidence across Iranian provinces

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nastaran; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza; Abadi, Alireza; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    AIM To correct the misclassification in registered gastric cancer incidence across Iranian provinces in cancer registry data. METHODS Gastric cancer data is extracted from Iranian annual of national cancer registration report 2008. A Bayesian method with beta prior is implemented to estimate the rate of misclassification in registering patient’s permanent residence in neighboring province. Each time two neighboring provinces with lower and higher than 100% expected coverage of cancer cases are selected to be entered in the model. The expected coverage of cancerous patient is reported by medical university of each province. It is assumed that some cancer cases from a province with a lower than 100% expected coverage are registered in their neighboring province with more than 100% expected coverage. RESULTS The condition was true for 21 provinces from a total of 30 provinces of Iran. It was estimated that 43% of gastric cancer cases of North and South Khorasan provinces in north-east of Iran was registered in Razavi Khorasan as the neighboring facilitate province; also 72% misclassification was estimated between Sistan and balochestan province and Razavi Khorasan. The misclassification rate was estimated to be 36% between West Azerbaijan province and East Azerbaijan province, 21% between Ardebil province and East Azerbaijan, 63% between Hormozgan province and Fars province, 8% between Chaharmahal and bakhtyari province and Isfahan province, 8% between Kogiloye and boyerahmad province and Isfahan, 43% Golestan province and Mazandaran province, 54% between Bushehr province and Khozestan province, 26% between Ilam province and Khuzestan province, 32% between Qazvin province and Tehran province (capital of Iran), 43% between Markazi province and Tehran, and 37% between Qom province and Tehran. CONCLUSION Policy makers should consider the regional misclassification in the time of programming for cancer control, prevention and resource allocation. PMID:28255430

  6. Radial and tangential gravity rates from GRACE in areas of glacial isostatic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Kurtenbach, Enrico; Kusche, Jürgen; Vermeersen, Bert

    2011-11-01

    In areas dominated by Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA), the free-air gravity anomaly rate can be converted to uplift rate to good approximation by using a simple spectral relation. We provide quantitative comparisons between gravity rates derived from monthly gravity field solutions (GFZ Potsdam, CSR Texas, IGG Bonn) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission with uplift rates measured by GPS in these areas. The band-limited gravity data from the GRACE satellite mission can be brought to very good agreement with the point data from GPS by using scaling factors derived from a GIA model (the root-mean-square of differences is 0.55 mm yr-1 for a maximum uplift rate signal of 10 mm yr-1). The root-mean-square of the differences between GRACE derived uplift rates and GPS derived uplift rates decreases with increasing GRACE time period to a level below the uncertainty that is expected from GRACE observations, GPS measurements and the conversion from gravity rate to uplift rate. With the current length of time-series (more than 8 yr) applying filters and a hydrology correction to the GRACE data does not reduce the root-mean-square of differences significantly. The smallest root-mean-square was obtained with the GFZ solution in Fennoscandia and with the CSR solution in North America. With radial gravity rates in excellent agreement with GPS uplift rates, more information on the GIA process can be extracted from GRACE gravity field solutions in the form of tangential gravity rates, which are equivalent to a rate of change in the deflection of the vertical scaled by the magnitude of gravity rate vector. Tangential gravity rates derived from GRACE point towards the centre of the previously glaciated area, and are largest in a location close to the centre of the former ice sheet. Forward modelling showed that present day tangential gravity rates have maximum sensitivity between the centre and edge of the former ice sheet, while radial gravity

  7. The optimization of incident angles of low-energy oxygen ion beams for increasing sputtering rate on silicon samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, T.; Yoshida, N.; Takahashi, M.; Tomita, M.

    2008-12-01

    In order to determine an appropriate incident angle of low-energy (350-eV) oxygen ion beam for achieving the highest sputtering rate without degradation of depth resolution in SIMS analysis, a delta-doped sample was analyzed with incident angles from 0° to 60° without oxygen bleeding. As a result, 45° incidence was found to be the best analytical condition, and it was confirmed that surface roughness did not occur on the sputtered surface at 100-nm depth by using AFM. By applying the optimized incident angle, sputtering rate becomes more than twice as high as that of the normal incident condition.

  8. Adjustable high-repetition-rate pulse trains in a passively-mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Fodil, Rachid; Amrani, Foued; Yang, Changxi; Kellou, Abdelhamid; Grelu, Ph.

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally investigate multipulse regimes obtained within a passively-mode-locked fiber laser that includes a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer. By adjusting the time delay imbalance of the MZ, ultrashort pulse trains at multi-GHz repetition rates are generated. We compare the observed dynamics with high-harmonic mode locking, and show that the multi-GHz pulse trains display an inherent instability, which has been overlooked. By using a recirculation loop containing the MZ, we demonstrate a significant improvement of the pulse train stability.

  9. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the people's Republic of China: incidence, treatment, and survival rates

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.N.

    1983-10-01

    The incidence, treatment regimens, and survival rates for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in China, one of the most common cancers in that country, are reviewed. Although treated almost exclusively with megavoltage photon therapy, in some cancer centers intracavitary radium insertions are used to increase the radiation dose to the primary tumor site. A histological study of these tumors shows that patients whose tumors are well-differentiated and contain an abundance of lymphocytes have the best prognosis.

  10. Total-body irradiation and cataract incidence: A randomized comparison of two instantaneous dose rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ozsahin, M.; Belkacemi, Y.; Pene, F.; Dominique, C.; Schwartz, L.H.; Uzal, C.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Gindrey-Vie, B.; Vitu-Loas, L.; Touboul, E. )

    1994-01-15

    To assess the influence of instantaneous total-body irradiation dose rate in hematological malignancies, the authors randomized 157 patients according to different instantaneous dose rates. Patients have undergone a total-body irradiation before bone-marrow transplantation according to two different techniques: Either in one fraction (1000 cGy given to the midplane at the level of L4, and 800 cGy to the lungs) or in six fractions (1200 cGy over 3 consecutive days to the midplane at the level of L4, and 900 cGy to the lungs). Patients were randomized according to two instantaneous dose rates, called LOW and HIGH, in single-dose (6 vs. 15 cGy/min) and fractionated (3 vs. 6 cGy/min) TBI groups; there were 77 cases for the LOW and 80 for the HIGH groups, with 57 patients receiving single-dose (28 LOW, 29 HIGH) and 100 patients receiving fractionated total-body irradiation (49 LOW, 51 HIGH). As of July 1992, 16 of 157 patients developed cataracts after 17 to 46 months, with an estimated incidence of 23% at 5 years. Four of 77 patients in the LOW group, 12 of 80 patients in the HIGH group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 12% and 34%, respectively. Ten of 57 patients in the single-dose group, and 6 of 100 patients in the fractionated group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 39% and 13%, respectively. When the subgroups were considered, in the single-dose group, 3 of 28 LOW patients, and 7 of 29 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 24% and 53%, respectively; in the fractionated group, 1 of 49 LOW patients, and 5 of 51 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 4% and 22%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of 5-year estimated cataract incidence between the patients receiving steroids and those not. The instantaneous dose rate was the only independent factor influencing the cataractogenesis. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The Relationship Between Monthdisease Incidence Rate and Climatic Factor of Classical Swine Fever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbin; Xu, Danning; Xiao, Jianhua; Zhang, Ru; Dong, Jing

    The Swine Fever is a kind of acute, highly infective epidemic disease of animals; it is name as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) by World animal Health organization. Meteorological factors such as temperature, air pressure and rainfall affect the epidemic of CSF significantly through intermediary agent and CSF viral directly. However there is significant difference among different region for mode of effects. Accordingly, the analyze must adopt different methods. The dependability between incidence rate each month of CSF and meteorological factors from 1999 to 2004 was analyzed in this paper. The function of meteorological factors on CSF was explored and internal law was expected to be discovered. The correlation between the incidence rate of Swine Fever and meteorological factors, thus the foundation analysis of the early warning and the decision-making was made, the result indicated that the incidence rate of CSF has negative correlation with temperature, rainfall, cloudage; relative humidity has positive correlation with disease; for air pressure, except average air pressure of one month, other air pressure factors have positive correlation with disease; for wind speed, except Difference among moths of wind speed and average temperature of one month. have positive correlation with disease, other wind speed factors has negative correlation with disease.

  12. Global stability and attractivity of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaodan; Liu, Lijun; Zhou, Wenshu

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we study the global stability and attractivity of the endemic equilibrium for a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate. The model was introduced in Li (2015). We prove that the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if α (a parameter of this model) is sufficiently large, and is globally attractive if the transmission rate λ satisfies λ/λc ∈(1 , 2 ] , where λc is the epidemic threshold. Some numerical experiments are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  13. Community water fluoridation predicts increase in age-adjusted incidence and prevalence of diabetes in 22 states from 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Kyle

    2016-10-01

    Community water fluoridation is considered a significant public health achievement of the 20th century. In this paper, the hypothesis that added water fluoridation has contributed to diabetes incidence and prevalence in the United States was investigated. Panel data from publicly available sources were used with population-averaged models to test the associations of added and natural fluoride on the outcomes at the county level in 22 states for the years 2005 and 2010. The findings suggest that a 1 mg increase in the county mean added fluoride significantly positively predicts a 0.23 per 1,000 person increase in age-adjusted diabetes incidence (P < 0.001), and a 0.17% increase in age-adjusted diabetes prevalence percent (P < 0.001), while natural fluoride concentration is significantly protective. For counties using fluorosilicic acid as the chemical additive, both outcomes were lower: by 0.45 per 1,000 persons (P < 0.001) and 0.33% (P < 0.001), respectively. These findings are adjusted for county-level and time-varying changes in per capita tap water consumption, poverty, year, population density, age-adjusted obesity and physical inactivity, and mean number of years since water fluoridation started. Sensitivity analyses revealed robust effects for both types of fluoride. Community water fluoridation is associated with epidemiological outcomes for diabetes.

  14. Community water fluoridation predicts increase in age-adjusted incidence and prevalence of diabetes in 22 states from 2005 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Fluegge, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Community water fluoridation is considered a significant public health achievement of the 20th century. In this paper, the hypothesis that added water fluoridation has contributed to diabetes incidence and prevalence in the United States was investigated. Panel data from publicly available sources were used with population-averaged models to test the associations of added and natural fluoride on the outcomes at the county level in 22 states for the years 2005 and 2010. The findings suggest that a 1 mg increase in the county mean added fluoride significantly positively predicts a 0.23 per 1,000 person increase in age-adjusted diabetes incidence (P < 0.001), and a 0.17% increase in age-adjusted diabetes prevalence percent (P < 0.001), while natural fluoride concentration is significantly protective. For counties using fluorosilicic acid as the chemical additive, both outcomes were lower: by 0.45 per 1,000 persons (P < 0.001) and 0.33% (P < 0.001), respectively. These findings are adjusted for county-level and time-varying changes in per capita tap water consumption, poverty, year, population density, age-adjusted obesity and physical inactivity, and mean number of years since water fluoridation started. Sensitivity analyses revealed robust effects for both types of fluoride. Community water fluoridation is associated with epidemiological outcomes for diabetes. PMID:27740551

  15. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Eckmanns, Tim; Abu Sin, Muna; Ducomble, Tanja; Harder, Thomas; Sixtensson, Madlen; Velasco, Edward; Weiß, Bettina; Kramarz, Piotr; Monnet, Dominique L.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.; Suetens, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011–2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs. Methods and Findings The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP), healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI), healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI). The burden of these HAIs was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Evidence relating to the disease progression pathway of each type of HAI was collected through systematic literature reviews, in order to estimate the risks attributable to HAIs. For each of the six HAIs, gender and age group prevalence from the ECDC PPS was converted into incidence rates by applying the Rhame and Sudderth formula. We adjusted for reduced life expectancy within the hospital population using three severity groups based on McCabe score data from the ECDC PPS. We estimated that 2,609,911 new cases of HAI occur every year in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA). The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was estimated at 501 DALYs per 100,000 general population each year in EU/EEA. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden and represented more than 60% of the total burden, with 169 and 145 DALYs per 100,000 total population, respectively. HA UTI, SSI, HA CDI, and HA primary BSI ranked as the third to sixth syndromes in terms of burden of disease

  16. Cancer incidence rates in the Kurdistan region/Iraq from 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ramadhan T; Abdulljabar, Rezvan; Saeed, Abdullah; Kittani, Sarwar Sadiq; Sulaiman, Hushyar M; Mohammed, Sami A; Rashid, Rekawt M; Hussein, Nawfal R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of gradual increase in incidence overall the world. Kurdistan Region in Iraq has been exposed to several carcinogenic hazards. There are few reports about the increased risk of cancer in different cities in Iraq. These reports did not cover Kurdistan region. The aim of this paper was to study cancer incidence and to identify possible risks of cancer in this region. Cancer registries from 9 hospitals in three cities of Kurdistan were used as a source of data. Information on these cases was subjected to careful verification regarding repetition, place of residence and other possible errors. Overall registered cases in 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 1444, 2081, 2356 respectively. 49% of registered cases were males and 51% were female. The Age Standardized Rate of cancer was 89.83/100 000 among male and 83.93/100 000 among female. The results showed major variation in incidence rates of different types of cancer in the three governorates of Kurdistan. Furthermore, there was evidence of increased risks of cancer in Kurdistan Region in Iraq. Hematological malignancies were the most common cancer among male (21.13% of all cancer in males) and second most common in female (18.8% of all cancer in female), only exceeded by breast cancer. To reach sound conclusions about extent and determinants of cancer in Kurdistan, enormous multi-spectrum efforts are now needed.

  17. Global stability of a transport-related infection model with general incidence rate in two heterogeneous cities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Liu, Xianning

    2014-12-01

    To further understand the effects of travel on disease spread, a transport-related infection model with general incidence rate in two heterogeneous cities is proposed and analyzed. Some analytical results on the global stability of equilibria (including disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium) are obtained. The explicit formula for the basic reproduction number R0 is derived and it is proved to be a threshold for disease spread. To reveal how incidence rate and travel rate influence the disease spread, effects of general incidence rate and travel rate on the dynamics of system are shown via numeric simulations.

  18. High Repetition Rate Grazing Incidence Pumped X-ray Laser operating at 18.9 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, R; Dunn, J; Patel, P K; Price, D F; Smith, R F; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2004-05-11

    We have demonstrated a 10 Hz Ni-like Mo X-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm with 150 mJ total pump energy by employing a novel pumping scheme. The grazing incidence scheme is described, where a picosecond pulse is incident at a grazing angle to a Mo plasma column produced by a slab target irradiated by a 200 ps laser pulse. This scheme uses refraction of the short pulse at a pre-determined electron density to increase absorption to pump a specific gain region. The high efficiency inherent to this scheme allows a reduction in the pump energy where 70 mJ long pulse energy and 80 mJ short pulse energy are sufficient to produce lasing at a 10 Hz repetition rate. Under these conditions and by optimizing the delay between the pulses, we achieve strong amplification and saturation for 4 mm long targets.

  19. Race Adjustment for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate Is Not Always Necessary

    PubMed Central

    Zanocco, Juliana A.; Nishida, Sonia K.; Passos, Michelle Tiveron; Pereira, Amélia Rodrigues; Silva, Marcelo S.; Pereira, Aparecido B.; Kirsztajn, Gianna Mastroianni

    2012-01-01

    Background Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is very important in clinical practice, although it is not adequately tested in different populations. We aimed at establishing the best eGFR formulas for a Brazilian population with emphasis on the need for race correction. Methods We evaluated 202 individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 42 without previously known renal lesions that were additionally screened by urinalysis. Serum creatinine and plasma clearance of iohexol were measured in all cases. GFR was estimated by the Mayo Clinic, abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formulas, and creatinine clearance was estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formula. Plasma clearance of iohexol was used as the gold standard for GFR determination and for the development of a Brazilian formula (BreGFR). Results Measured and estimated GFR were compared in 244 individuals, 57% female, with a mean age of 41 years (range 18–82). Estimates of intraclass correlation coefficients among the plasma clearance of iohexol and eGFR formulas were all significant (p < 0.001) and corresponded to the following scores: CG 0.730; obesity-adjusted CG 0.789; Mayo Clinic 0.804; MDRD 0.848; MDRD1 (without race adjustment) 0.846; CKD-EPI 0.869; CKD-EPI1 (without race adjustment) 0.876, and BreGFR 0.844. Conclusions All cited eGFR formulas showed a good correlation with the plasma clearance of iohexol in the healthy and diseased conditions. The formulas that best detected reduced eGFR were the BreGFR, CKD-EPI, and CKD-EPI1 formulas. Notably, the race correction included in the MDRD and CKD-EPI formulas was not necessary for this population, as it did not contribute to more accurate results. PMID:23243414

  20. Malaria Incidence Rates from Time Series of 2-Wave Panel Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H.

    2016-01-01

    Methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from a commonly occurring form of interval-censored longitudinal parasitological data—specifically, 2-wave panel data—was first proposed 40 years ago based on the theory of continuous-time homogeneous Markov Chains. Assumptions of the methodology were suitable for settings with high malaria transmission in the absence of control measures, but are violated in areas experiencing fast decline or that have achieved very low transmission. No further developments that can accommodate such violations have been put forth since then. We extend previous work and propose a new methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from 2-wave panel data, utilizing the class of 2-component mixtures of continuous-time Markov chains, representing two sub-populations with distinct behavior/attitude towards malaria prevention and treatment. Model identification, or even partial identification, requires context-specific a priori constraints on parameters. The method can be applied to scenarios of any transmission intensity. We provide an application utilizing data from Dar es Salaam, an area that experienced steady decline in malaria over almost five years after a larviciding intervention. We conducted sensitivity analysis to account for possible sampling variation in input data and model assumptions/parameters, and we considered differences in estimates due to submicroscopic infections. Results showed that, assuming defensible a priori constraints on model parameters, most of the uncertainty in the estimated incidence rates was due to sampling variation, not to partial identifiability of the mixture model for the case at hand. Differences between microscopy- and PCR-based rates depend on the transmission intensity. Leveraging on a method to estimate incidence rates from 2-wave panel data under any transmission intensity, and from the increasing availability of such data, there is an opportunity to foster further methodological

  1. Age-standardized incidence rates of ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst on the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shear, M; Singh, S

    1978-07-01

    Although a great deal is known about the incidence of cancer, including oral cancer, no such study has been done on odontogenic tumors and jaw cysts. There are therefore no standardized data which would allow for comparative incidences in different countries and between different groups. In the present study, cases of ameloblastomas and dentigerous cysts derived from the records of all the hospital pathology departments and private pathology practices on the Witwatersrand, were recorded for the 10-year period 1965--1974. The population at risk (1970 census) was 974,390 Whites and 1,567,280 Blacks. The annual incidence rates, standardized against the standard world population, for ameloblastomas per million population are 1.96, 1.20, 0.18 and 0.44 for Black males, females and White males, females, respectively. The equivalent four figures for dentigerous cysts are 1.18, 1.22, 9.92 and 7.26. These figures show that ameloblastoma is very much more common in Blacks than Whites in the population at risk. Conversely, dentigerous cysts are much more common in Whites. This makes it unlikely that dentigerous cysts predispose to ameloblastoma formation. These epidemiologic observations give rise to speculation as to whether some component of the South African Black diet or other environmental substance might possibly be an etiologic factor in ameloblastoma.

  2. Analysis of a novel stochastic SIRS epidemic model with two different saturated incidence rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zhengbo; Meng, Xinzhu; Lu, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with two different nonlinear incidence rates and double epidemic asymmetrical hypothesis, and we devote to develop a mathematical method to obtain the threshold of the stochastic epidemic model. We firstly investigate the boundness and extinction of the stochastic system. Furthermore, we use Ito's formula, the comparison theorem and some new inequalities techniques of stochastic differential systems to discuss persistence in mean of two diseases on three cases. The results indicate that stochastic fluctuations can suppress the disease outbreak. Finally, numerical simulations about different noise disturbance coefficients are carried out to illustrate the obtained theoretical results.

  3. Modelling the rate of change in a longitudinal study with missing data, adjusting for contact attempts.

    PubMed

    Akacha, Mouna; Hutton, Jane L

    2011-05-10

    The Collaborative Ankle Support Trial (CAST) is a longitudinal trial of treatments for severe ankle sprains in which interest lies in the rate of improvement, the effectiveness of reminders and potentially informative missingness. A model is proposed for continuous longitudinal data with non-ignorable or informative missingness, taking into account the nature of attempts made to contact initial non-responders. The model combines a non-linear mixed model for the outcome model with logistic regression models for the reminder processes. A sensitivity analysis is used to contrast this model with the traditional selection model, where we adjust for missingness by modelling the missingness process. The conclusions that recovery is slower, and less satisfactory with age and more rapid with below knee cast than with a tubular bandage do not alter materially across all models investigated. The results also suggest that phone calls are most effective in retrieving questionnaires.

  4. Contextual, Ecological and Organizational Variations in Risk-Adjusted COPD and Asthma Hospitalization Rates of Rural Medicare Beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Wan, Thomas T H; Lin, Yi-Ling; Ortiz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine what factors contributing to the variability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and asthma hospitalization rates when the influence of patient characteristics is being simultaneously considered by applying a risk adjustment method. A longitudinal analysis of COPD and asthma hospitalization of rural Medicare beneficiaries in 427 rural health clinics (RHCs) was conducted utilizing administrative data and inpatient and outpatient claims from Region 4. The repeated measures of risk-adjusted COPD and asthma admission rate were analyzed by growth curve modeling. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) method was used to identify the relevance of selected predictors in accounting for the variability in risk-adjusted admission rates for COPD and asthma. Both adjusted and unadjusted rates of COPD admission showed a slight decline from 2010 to 2013. The growth curve modeling showed the annual rates of change were gradually accentuated through time. GEE revealed that a moderate amount of variance (marginal R(2) = 0.66) in the risk-adjusted hospital admission rates for COPD and asthma was accounted for by contextual, ecological, and organizational variables. The contextual, ecological, and organizational factors are those associated with RHCs, not hospitals. We cannot infer how the variability in hospital practices in RHC service areas may have contributed to the disparities in admissions. Identification of RHCs with substantially higher rates than an average rate can portray the need for further enhancement of needed ambulatory or primary care services for the specific groups of RHCs. Because the risk-adjusted rates of hospitalization do not very by classification of rural area, future research should address the variation in a specific COPD and asthma condition of RHC patients. Risk-adjusted admission rates for COPD and asthma are influenced by the synergism of multiple contextual, ecological, and organizational factors

  5. 48 CFR 52.222-30 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction Wage Rate... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-30 Construction Wage Rate Requirements... clause: Construction Wage Rate Requirements—Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method)...

  6. Incidence Rates of Deliberate Self-Harm in Denmark 1994–2011

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Background: The validity and reliability of suicide statistics have been questioned and few nationwide studies of deliberate self-harm have been presented. Aim: To calculate rates of deliberate self-harm in Denmark in order to investigate trends and assess the reliability of hospital records. Method: A register study based on all individuals recorded with an episode of deliberate self-harm or probable deliberate self-harm in nationwide registers during 1994–2011. Results: A substantial difference in the rates of deliberate self-harm and probable deliberate self-harm was noted for both genders. The average incidence rate of deliberate self-harm for women and men was 130.7 (95% CI = 129.6–131.8) per 100,000 and 86.9 (95% CI = 86.0–87.8) per 100,000, respectively. The rates of deliberate self-harm for women increased from 137.6 (95% CI = 132.9–142.3) per 100,000 in 1994 to 152.7 (95% CI = 147.8–157.5) in 2011. For a subgroup of younger women aged 15–24 years, an almost threefold increase was observed, IRR = 2.5 (95% CI = 2.4–2.7). The most frequently used method was self-poisoning. Conclusion: The rates of deliberate self-harm and probable deliberate self-harm differed significantly. An increased incidence of deliberate self-harm among young Danish women was observed, despite detection bias. An improved registration procedure of suicidal behavior is needed. PMID:27278571

  7. Incidence Rate of Prediabetes Progression to Diabetes: Modeling an Optimum Target Group for Intervention.

    PubMed

    DeJesus, Ramona S; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Rutten, Lila J; Jacobson, Debra J; Wilson, Patrick M; St Sauver, Jennifer

    2016-09-30

    Thirty-seven percent of US adults have prediabetes. Various interventions can delay diabetes progression; however, the optimum target group for risk reduction is uncertain. This study estimated rate of progression to diabetes at 1 and 5 years among a cohort of patients from 3 primary care clinics and modeled the potential magnitude in diabetes incidence risk reduction of an intervention program among specific subgroups. Records of 106,821 empaneled patients in 2005 were reviewed. Generalized population attributable risk (PAR) statistics were calculated to estimate the impact of reducing fasting blood glucose on diabetes progression. Multiple intervention effects (varying levels of glucose reduction along with multiple adherence rates) were examined for those with baseline glucose from 110 to 119 mg/dL and ≥120 mg/dL. Ten percent of patients (n = 10,796) met criteria for prediabetes. The 1- and 5-year diabetes incidence rate was 38.6 and 40.24 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Age and obesity were independent predictors of increased progression rate. The generalized PAR for a 10-point reduction in the 110-119 mg/dL subgroup with 25% adherence was 7.6%. The generalized PAR for similar percent reduction and adherence level in patients with baseline glucose of ≥120 mg/dL was only 3.0%. Rate of progression to diabetes increased over time and with associated independent risk factors. Greater risk reduction in diabetes progression within the target population can be achieved when the intervention is successful in those with baseline glucose of 110-119 mg/dL. Modeling an optimum target group for a diabetes prevention intervention offers a novel and useful guide to planning and allocating resources in population health management.

  8. The End of the Hysterectomy Epidemic and Endometrial Cancer Incidence: What Are the Unintended Consequences of Declining Hysterectomy Rates?

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, Sarah M.; Minasian, Lori; Noone, Anne-Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Population-level cancer incidence rates are one measure to estimate the cancer burden. The goal is to provide information on trends to measure progress against cancer at the population level and identify emerging patterns signifying increased risk for additional research and intervention. Endometrial cancer is the most common of the gynecologic malignancies but capturing the incidence of disease among women at risk (i.e., women with a uterus) is challenging and not routinely published. Decreasing rates of hysterectomy increase the number of women at risk for disease, which should be reflected in the denominator of the incidence rate calculation. Furthermore, hysterectomy rates vary within the United States by multiple factors including geographic location, race, and ethnicity. Changing rates of hysterectomy are important to consider when looking at endometrial cancer trends. By correcting for hysterectomy when calculating incidence rates of cancers of the uterine corpus, many of the disparities that have been assumed for this disease are diminished. PMID:27148481

  9. A Distributed Transmission Rate Adjustment Algorithm in Heterogeneous CSMA/CA Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuanglong; Low, Kay Soon; Gunawan, Erry

    2015-01-01

    Distributed transmission rate tuning is important for a wide variety of IEEE 802.15.4 network applications such as industrial network control systems. Such systems often require each node to sustain certain throughput demand in order to guarantee the system performance. It is thus essential to determine a proper transmission rate that can meet the application requirement and compensate for network imperfections (e.g., packet loss). Such a tuning in a heterogeneous network is difficult due to the lack of modeling techniques that can deal with the heterogeneity of the network as well as the network traffic changes. In this paper, a distributed transmission rate tuning algorithm in a heterogeneous IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CA network is proposed. Each node uses the results of clear channel assessment (CCA) to estimate the busy channel probability. Then a mathematical framework is developed to estimate the on-going heterogeneous traffics using the busy channel probability at runtime. Finally a distributed algorithm is derived to tune the transmission rate of each node to accurately meet the throughput requirement. The algorithm does not require modifications on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer and it has been experimentally implemented and extensively tested using TelosB nodes with the TinyOS protocol stack. The results reveal that the algorithm is accurate and can satisfy the throughput demand. Compared with existing techniques, the algorithm is fully distributed and thus does not require any central coordination. With this property, it is able to adapt to traffic changes and re-adjust the transmission rate to the desired level, which cannot be achieved using the traditional modeling techniques. PMID:25822140

  10. 12 CFR 747.1001 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-410, 104 Stat. 890, as amended (28 U.S.C. 2461 note)) to... of inflation. 747.1001 Section 747.1001 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Inflation Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties § 747.1001 Adjustment...

  11. In situ growth rate measurements by normal-incidence reflectance during MOVPE growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, H.Q.; Breiland, W.G.; Hammons, B.E.; Chui, H.C.

    1996-05-01

    We present an in situ technique for monitoring metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy growth by normal-incidence reflectance. This technique is used to calibrate the growth rate periodically and to monitor the growth process routinely. It is not only a precise tool to measure the growth rate, but also very useful in identifying unusal problems during a growth run, such as depletion of source material, deterioration of surface morphology, and problems associated with an improper growht procedure. We will also present an excellent reproducibility ({+-}0.3% over a course of more than 100 runs) of the cavity wavelength of vertical-cavity surface emitting laser structures with periodic calibration by this in situ technique.

  12. Long-Term Ambient Residential Traffic–Related Exposures and Measurement Error–Adjusted Risk of Incident Lung Cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelman, Donna; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Schouten, Leo J.; van den Brandt, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Background The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently declared air pollution carcinogenic to humans. However, no study of air pollution and lung cancer to date has incorporated adjustment for exposure measurement error, and few have examined specific histological subtypes. Objectives Our aim was to assess the association of air pollution and incident lung cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer and the impact of measurement error on these associations. Methods The cohort was followed from 1986 through 2003, and 3,355 incident cases were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, for long-term exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black smoke (BS), PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm), and measures of roadway proximity and traffic volume, adjusted for potential confounders. Information from a previous validation study was used to correct the effect estimates for measurement error. Results We observed elevated risks of incident lung cancer with exposure to BS [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.32, per 10 μg/m3], NO2 (HR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.54, per 30 μg/m3), PM2.5 (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.47, per 10 μg/m3), and with measures of traffic at the baseline address. The exposures were positively associated with all lung cancer subtypes. After adjustment for measurement error, the HRs increased and the 95% CIs widened [HR = 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.39) for BS and HR = 1.37 (95% CI: 0.86, 2.17) for PM2.5]. Conclusions These findings add support to a growing body of literature on the effects of air pollution on lung cancer. In addition, they highlight variation in measurement error by pollutant and support the implementation of measurement error corrections when possible. Citation Hart JE, Spiegelman D, Beelen R, Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Schouten LJ, van den Brandt P. 2015. Long-term ambient residential traffic–related exposures and

  13. A higher incidence rate of acute coronary syndrome following radiation therapy in patients with breast cancer and a history of coronary artery diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yen-Chien; Chuang, Jen-Pin; Hsieh, Pi-Ching; Chiou, Meng-Jiun; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate whether patients with breast cancer and a history of cardiovascular diseases (CADs) are at an increased incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after receiving radiation therapy (RT). In Taiwan, 5828 patients who had a history of CAD were newly diagnosed of breast cancer and received mastectomy between 1999 and 2009. Among these patients, 1851 also received RT. The study cohort was prospectively followed to the end of 2010 for estimating the incidence of ACS in association with exposure to RT. A Cox proportional hazard model that was adjusted for covariates was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of ACS. Over the study period, the incident rates of ACS for RT and control patients were estimated at 1.51 and 1.77 per 100 person-years, respectively. Covariate-adjusted regression analysis indicated that the hazard of ACS significantly increased in RT patients at an adjusted HR of 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-1.87]. Both hypertension and diabetes significantly increased the hazard of ACS in this patient cohort, with adjusted HRs of 3.31 (95% CI 1.94-5.66) and 1.50 (95% CI 1.19-1.89), respectively. This 12-year follow-up study suggested excess of ACS events in association with RT exposure in patients with breast cancer who had a higher cardiovascular risk. In consideration of the benefit associated with RT, intensive cardiac care should be given to patients with breast cancer and high cardiovascular risk.

  14. Estimated glomerular filtration rate within the normal or mildly impaired range and incident non-valvular atrial fibrillation: Results from a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Alon; Haim, Moti; Hoshen, Moshe; Balicer, Ran D; Reges, Orna; Leibowitz, Morton; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Hasdai, David

    2017-01-01

    Background Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, in particular in the significant renal impairment range (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), is associated with incident atrial fibrillation. This association is less established within the normal or mildly impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate range. Methods Using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) estimated glomerular filtration rate formula, we identified ambulatory adults (>22 years old) without rheumatic heart disease or prosthetic valves and with 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)rate<130 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in their index visit, for incident, newly-diagnosed atrial fibrillation. We analyzed cohorts with and without prior cardiovascular disease. Results Over a mean follow-up of 104 months and >10 m patient-years of follow-up (∼75% <60 years old, ∼57% females), >65,000 individuals had ≥1 atrial fibrillation event (incident atrial fibrillation rate 5.1% and 5.8% excluding or including prior cardiovascular disease, or 49 and 55 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively). In both cohorts, individuals with versus without incident atrial fibrillation had lower mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (∼83 versus 95 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, overall a 10 ml/min/1.73 m(2) decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate was independently associated with a mean increase in incident atrial fibrillation of 1.5% and 2.4% in the cohorts excluding or including prior cardiovascular disease, respectively ( p < 0.001 for both). However, a graded association between lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and atrial fibrillation was observed in the 90-130 ml/min/1.73 m(2) range, whereas a blunted association was observed in the 60-90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) range. Conclusion Within the 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2 )< estimated glomerular filtration rate

  15. Apparently-Different Clearance Rates from Cohort Studies of Mycoplasma genitalium Are Consistent after Accounting for Incidence of Infection, Recurrent Infection, and Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Smieszek, Timo; White, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a potentially major cause of urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and increased HIV risk. A better understanding of its natural history is crucial to informing control policy. Two extensive cohort studies (students in London, UK; Ugandan sex workers) suggest very different clearance rates; we aimed to understand the reasons and obtain improved estimates by making maximal use of the data from the studies. As M. genitalium is a sexually-transmitted infectious disease, we developed a model for time-to-event analysis that incorporates the processes of (re)infection and clearance, and fitted to data from the two cohort studies to estimate incidence and clearance rates under different scenarios of sexual partnership dynamics and study design (including sample handling and associated test sensitivity). In the London students, the estimated clearance rate is 0.80p.a. (mean duration 15 months), with incidence 1.31%-3.93%p.a. Without adjusting for study design, corresponding estimates from the Ugandan data are 3.44p.a. (mean duration 3.5 months) and 58%p.a. Apparent differences in clearance rates are probably mostly due to lower testing sensitivity in the Uganda study due to differences in sample handling, with 'true' clearance rates being similar, and adjusted incidence in Uganda being 28%p.a. Some differences are perhaps due to the sex workers having more-frequent antibiotic treatment, whilst reinfection within ongoing sexual partnerships might have caused some of the apparently-persistent infection in the London students. More information on partnership dynamics would inform more accurate estimates of natural-history parameters. Detailed studies in men are also required. PMID:26910762

  16. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Subsite-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Kevin A.; Sherman, Recinda L.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Lin, Ge; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Boscoe, Francis P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N = 278,097) were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum), sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12–1.17) and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05–1.08). Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20–1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10–1.18) and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity. PMID:25165475

  17. Falling Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria Death Rate among Adults despite Rising Incidence, Sabah, Malaysia, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Rajahram, Giri S; Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J; Menon, Jayaram; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    Deaths from Plasmodium knowlesi malaria have been linked to delayed parenteral treatment. In Malaysia, early intravenous artesunate is now recommended for all severe malaria cases. We describe P. knowlesi fatalities in Sabah, Malaysia, during 2012-2014 and report species-specific fatality rates based on 2010-2014 case notifications. Sixteen malaria-associated deaths (caused by PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi [7], P. falciparum [7], and P. vivax [1] and microscopy-diagnosed "P. malariae" [1]) were reported during 2012-2014. Six patients with severe P. knowlesi malaria received intravenous artesunate at hospital admission. For persons ≥15 years of age, overall fatality rates during 2010-2014 were 3.4, 4.2, and 1.0 deaths/1,000 P. knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax notifications, respectively; P. knowlesi-associated fatality rates fell from 9.2 to 1.6 deaths/1,000 notifications. No P. knowlesi-associated deaths occurred among children, despite 373 notified cases. Although P. knowlesi malaria incidence is rising, the notification-fatality rate has decreased, likely due to improved use of intravenous artesunate.

  18. Evaluation of incidence rates in pre-clinical studies using a Williams-type procedure.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Ludwig A; Sill, Martin; Schaarschmidt, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of dose-response relationships is a common problem in pre-clinical studies. For example, proportions such as mortality rates and histopathological findings are of particular interest in repeated toxicity studies. Commonly applied designs consist of an untreated control group and several, possibly unequally spaced, dosage groups. The Williams test can be formulated as a multiple contrast test and is a powerful option to evaluate such data. In this paper, we consider simultaneous inference for Williams-type multiple contrasts when the response variable is binomial and sample sizes are only moderate. Approximate simultaneous confidence limits can be constructed using the quantiles of a multivariate normal distribution taking the correlation into account. Alternatively, multiplicity-adjusted p-values can be calculated as well. A simulation study shows that a simple correction based on adding pseudo observations leads to acceptable performance for moderate sample sizes, such as 40 per group. In addition, the calculation of adjusted p-values and approximate power is presented. Finally, the proposed methods are applied to example data from two toxicological studies; the methods are available in an R-package.

  19. Running Backwards: Consequences of Current HIV Incidence Rates for the Next Generation of Black MSM in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Derrick D.; Herrick, A. L.; Coulter, Robert W. S.; Friedman, M. Reuel; Mills, Thomas C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Stall, Ron D.

    2015-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately impacted by HIV. To better understand this public health problem, we reviewed the literature to calculate an estimate of HIV incidence among Black MSM. We used this rate to model HIV prevalence over time within a simulated cohort, which we subsequently compared to prevalence from community-based samples. We searched all databases accessible through PubMed, and Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections abstracts for HIV incidence estimates among Black MSM. Summary HIV incidence rates and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Using the average incidence rate, we modeled HIV prevalence within a simulated cohort of Black MSM (who were all HIV-negative at the start) from ages 18 through 40. Based on five incidence rates totaling 2898 Black MSM, the weighted mean incidence was 4.16 % per year (95 % CI 2.76–5.56). Using this annual incidence rate, our model predicted that 39.94 % of Black MSM within the simulated cohort would be HIV-positive by age 30, and 60.73 % by 40. Projections were similar to HIV prevalence found in community-based samples of Black MSM. High HIV prevalence will persist across the life-course among Black MSM, unless effective prevention and treatment efforts are increased to substantially reduce HIV transmission among this underserved and marginalized population. PMID:26267251

  20. Monthly Incidence Rates of Abusive Encounters for Canadian Family Physicians by Patients and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje (Bo); Hamilton, Ryan; Tatemichi, Sue; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Lemire, Francine; Manca, Donna; Ramsden, Vivian R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to examine the monthly incidence rates of abusive encounters for family physicians in Canada. Methods. A 7-page cross-sectional survey. Results. Of the entire study sample (N = 720), 29% of the physicians reported having experienced an abusive event in the last month by a patient or patient family member. Abusive incidents were classified as minor, major, or severe. Of the physician participants who reported having been abused, all reported having experienced a minor event, 26% a major, and 8% a severe event. Of the physicians who experienced an abusive event, 55% were not aware of any policies to protect them, 76% did not seek help, and 64% did not report the abusive event. Conclusion. Family physicians are subjected to significant amounts of abuse in their day-to-day practices. Few physicians are aware of workplace policies that could protect them, and fewer report abusive encounters. Physicians would benefit from increased awareness of institutional policies that can protect them against abusive patients and their families and from the development of a national policy. PMID:22332007

  1. 39 CFR 3010.13 - Proceedings for Type 1-A and Type 1-B rate adjustment filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... rate adjustments are found consistent with applicable law by the Commission, they may take effect... with applicable law by the Commission, the Postal Service will submit an amended notice of rate... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proceedings for Type 1-A and Type 1-B...

  2. 76 FR 63538 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2011... sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the... dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by the Licensing...

  3. 75 FR 53565 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2010... sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the... dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by the Licensing...

  4. 78 FR 46491 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for...: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing... for certain dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by...

  5. 77 FR 51681 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for...: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing... for certain dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by...

  6. Global stability for delay SIR and SEIR epidemic models with nonlinear incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Ma, Wanbiao; Wei, Daijun

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, based on SIR and SEIR epidemic models with a general nonlinear incidence rate, we incorporate time delays into the ordinary differential equation models. In particular, we consider two delay differential equation models in which delays are caused (i) by the latency of the infection in a vector, and (ii) by the latent period in an infected host. By constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals and using the Lyapunov-LaSalle invariance principle, we prove the global stability of the endemic equilibrium and the disease-free equilibrium for time delays of any length in each model. Our results show that the global properties of equilibria also only depend on the basic reproductive number and that the latent period in a vector does not affect the stability, but the latent period in an infected host plays a positive role to control disease development.

  7. Computational Modelling and Optimal Control of Ebola Virus Disease with non-Linear Incidence Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaidza, I.; Makinde, O. D.; Okosun, O. K.

    2017-03-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa has exposed the need to connect modellers and those with relevant data as pivotal to better understanding of how the disease spreads and quantifying the effects of possible interventions. In this paper, we model and analyse the Ebola virus disease with non-linear incidence rate. The epidemic model created is used to describe how the Ebola virus could potentially evolve in a population. We perform an uncertainty analysis of the basic reproductive number R 0 to quantify its sensitivity to other disease-related parameters. We also analyse the sensitivity of the final epidemic size to the time control interventions (education, vaccination, quarantine and safe handling) and provide the cost effective combination of the interventions.

  8. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  9. A Web Tool for Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Philip S.; Check, David P.; Anderson, William F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis can inform registry-based studies of cancer incidence and mortality, but concerns about statistical identifiability and interpretability, as well as the learning curves of statistical software packages, have limited its uptake. METHODS We implemented a panel of easy-to-interpret estimable APC functions and corresponding Wald tests in R code that can be accessed through a user-friendly web tool. RESULTS Input data for the web tool consist of age-specific numbers of events and person-years over time, in the form of a rate matrix of paired columns. Output functions include model-based estimators of cross-sectional and longitudinal age-specific rates; period and cohort rate ratios that incorporate the overall annual percentage change (net drift); and estimators of the age-specific annual percentage change (local drifts). The web tool includes built-in examples for teaching and demonstration. User data can be input from a Microsoft Excel worksheet or by uploading a comma-separated-value (csv) file. Model outputs can be saved in a variety of formats including R and Excel. CONCLUSIONS APC methodology can now be carried out through a freely-available user-friendly web tool. The tool can be accessed at http://analysistools.nci.nih.gov/apc/. IMPACT The web tool can help cancer surveillance researchers make important discoveries about emerging cancer trends and patterns. PMID:25146089

  10. Use of GRACE determined secular gravity rates for glacial isostatic adjustment studies in North-America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Wu, Patrick; Sideris, Michael G.; Shum, C. K.

    2008-10-01

    Monthly geopotential spherical harmonic coefficients from the GRACE satellite mission are used to determine their usefulness and limitations for studying glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in North-America. Secular gravity rates are estimated by unweighted least-squares estimation using release 4 coefficients from August 2002 to August 2007 provided by the Center for Space Research (CSR), University of Texas. Smoothing is required to suppress short wavelength noise, in addition to filtering to diminish geographically correlated errors, as shown in previous studies. Optimal cut-off degrees and orders are determined for the destriping filter to maximize the signal to noise ratio. The halfwidth of the Gaussian filter is shown to significantly affect the sensitivity of the GRACE data (with respect to upper mantle viscosity and ice loading history). Therefore, the halfwidth should be selected based on the desired sensitivity. It is shown that increase in water storage in an area south west of Hudson Bay, from the summer of 2003 to the summer of 2006, contributes up to half of the maximum estimated gravity rate. Hydrology models differ in the predictions of the secular change in water storage, therefore even 4-year trend estimates are influenced by the uncertainty in water storage changes. Land ice melting in Greenland and Alaska has a non-negligible contribution, up to one-fourth of the maximum gravity rate. The estimated secular gravity rate shows two distinct peaks that can possibly be due to two domes in the former Pleistocene ice cover: west and south east of Hudson Bay. With a limited number of models, a better fit is obtained with models that use the ICE-3G model compared to the ICE-5G model. However, the uncertainty in interannual variations in hydrology models is too large to constrain the ice loading history with the current data span. For future work in which GRACE will be used to constrain ice loading history and the Earth's radial viscosity profile, it is

  11. Adjusted and unadjusted energy usage rates both determine body fat and plasma leptin in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J A; Rahman, S; Saint-Preux, S; Owen, D R; Boozer, C N

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between plasma leptin and energy usage have yielded contradictory findings. The present study was therefore conducted to clearly distinguish and measure the energy usage rate and the energy usage rate adjusted for a surrogate of metabolically active tissue mass. We investigated the simultaneous relationships between these two measures of energy usage, leptin, and body fat in 21-month-old adult male Fischer 344 rats on three different long-term dietary regimens: (1) continuous ad libitum feeding (Ad-lib); (2) ad libitum feeding until early adulthood, and then continuous 60% caloric restriction (CR); and (3) ad libitum feeding until early adulthood, then 60% caloric restriction until 16 months, and then ad libitum feeding for 5 months (CR/Ad-lib). Two versions of the daily usage rate were measured: daily dietary caloric intake (DCI), and daily energy expenditure (EE) based on indirect calorimetry. Two versions of the metabolically active tissue mass were also measured: fat-free mass (FFM), and the sum of the weight of the heart, brain, liver, and kidneys. Energy usage rates were adjusted for these measures of metabolically active tissue mass to yield measures of the energy metabolic rate. Correlation, regression, and path analyses showed that both the energy usage rate and adjusted energy usage rate played important independent roles in determining body fat and plasma leptin, but only after multivariate techniques were used to account for the simultaneous interactions between variables. Increases in the energy usage rate were associated with increases in body fat and the adjusted energy usage rate. Increases in the adjusted energy usage rate were associated with decreases in body fat and plasma leptin. These findings suggest that differences in subjects adjusted energy usage rate could explain some of the apparently contradictory findings concerning the relationship between energy usage and plasma leptin in previously published

  12. Low incidence of flexion-type supracondylar humerus fractures but high rate of complications

    PubMed Central

    Kuoppala, Eira; Parviainen, Roope; Pokka, Tytti; Sirviö, Minna; Serlo, Willy; Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common type of elbow fracture in children. A small proportion of them are flexion-type fractures. We analyzed their current incidence, injury history, clinical and radiographic findings, treatment, and outcomes. Patients and methods We performed a population-based study, including all children <16 years of age. Radiographs were re-analyzed to include only flexion-type supracondylar fractures. Medical records were reviewed and outcomes were evaluated at a mean of 9 years after the injury. In addition, we performed a systematic literature review of all papers published on the topic since 1990 and compared the results with the findings of the current study. Results During the study period, the rate of flexion-type fractures was 1.2% (7 out of 606 supracondylar humeral fractures). The mean annual incidence was 0.8 per 105. 4 fractures were multidirectionally unstable, according to the Gartland-Wilkins classification. All but 1 were operatively treated. Reduced range of motion, changed carrying angle, and ulnar nerve irritation were the most frequent short-term complications. Finally, in the long-term follow-up, mean carrying angle was 50% more in injured elbows (21°) than in uninjured elbows (14°). 4 patients of the 7 achieved a satisfactory long-term outcome according to Flynn’s criteria. Interpretation Supracondylar humeral flexion-type fractures are rare. They are usually severe injuries, often resulting in short-term and long-term complications regardless of the original surgical fixation used. PMID:27168001

  13. Correlation between heart rate variability and pulmonary function adjusted by confounding factors in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Bianchim, M S; Sperandio, E F; Martinhão, G S; Matheus, A C; Lauria, V T; da Silva, R P; Spadari, R C; Gagliardi, A R T; Arantes, R L; Romiti, M; Dourado, V Z

    2016-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system maintains homeostasis, which is the state of balance in the body. That balance can be determined simply and noninvasively by evaluating heart rate variability (HRV). However, independently of autonomic control of the heart, HRV can be influenced by other factors, such as respiratory parameters. Little is known about the relationship between HRV and spirometric indices. In this study, our objective was to determine whether HRV correlates with spirometric indices in adults without cardiopulmonary disease, considering the main confounders (e.g., smoking and physical inactivity). In a sample of 119 asymptomatic adults (age 20-80 years), we evaluated forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). We evaluated resting HRV indices within a 5-min window in the middle of a 10-min recording period, thereafter analyzing time and frequency domains. To evaluate daily physical activity, we instructed participants to use a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as <150 min/week of moderate to intense physical activity. We found that FVC and FEV1, respectively, correlated significantly with the following aspects of the RR interval: standard deviation of the RR intervals (r =0.31 and 0.35), low-frequency component (r =0.38 and 0.40), and Poincaré plot SD2 (r =0.34 and 0.36). Multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical inactivity, and cardiovascular risk, identified the SD2 and dyslipidemia as independent predictors of FVC and FEV1 (R2=0.125 and 0.180, respectively, for both). We conclude that pulmonary function is influenced by autonomic control of cardiovascular function, independently of the main confounders.

  14. A Software Tool for Estimation of Burden of Infectious Diseases in Europe Using Incidence-Based Disability Adjusted Life Years

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Daniel; Mangen, Marie-Josee J.; Plass, Dietrich; McDonald, Scott A.; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Maringhini, Guido; Pini, Alessandro; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.

    2017-01-01

    The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology poses a challenge. The aim of the Burden of Communicable Disease in Europe (BCoDE) project is to summarize the impact of communicable disease in the European Union and European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MS). To meet this goal, a user-friendly software tool (BCoDE toolkit), was developed. This stand-alone application, written in C++, is open-access and freely available for download from the website of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). With the BCoDE toolkit, one can calculate DALYs by simply entering the age group- and sex-specific number of cases for one or more of selected sets of 32 communicable diseases (CDs) and 6 healthcare associated infections (HAIs). Disease progression models (i.e., outcome trees) for these communicable diseases were created following a thorough literature review of their disease progression pathway. The BCoDE toolkit runs Monte Carlo simulations of the input parameters and provides disease-specific results, including 95% uncertainty intervals, and permits comparisons between the different disease models entered. Results can be displayed as mean and median overall DALYs, DALYs per 100,000 population, and DALYs related to mortality vs. disability. Visualization options summarize complex epidemiological data, with the goal of improving communication and knowledge transfer for decision-making. PMID:28107447

  15. Incidence rates of specific histological types of lung cancer in Singapore Chinese dialect groups, and their aetiological significance.

    PubMed

    Law, C H; Day, N E; Shanmugaratnam, K

    1976-03-15

    Significant differences in the incidence levels of lung cancer have been observed among major Chinese dialect groups or communities (Kokkien, Teochew and Cantonese) in Singapore. Among males, the incidence rate is highest in the Hokkiens (age-standardized incidence rate per 100,000 persons per year in Hokkien 67.8, Teochew 55.3, Cantonese 54.0) and among females, it is highest in the Cantonese (Hokkien 12.4, Teochew 12.8, Cantonese 27.2). The present investigation was undertaken to determine the incidence rates of each of the main histological types of lung cancer in the Chinese population and to determine whether there are any correlations between histological patterns and the dialect group differentials that may be of aetiological significance. During the period 1968-1972, a total of 1,747 cases of lung cancer (1,285 males and 462 females) were reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry. It proved possible to type the neoplasms histologically in 476 males (37.0%) and 154 females (33.3%). Age-standardized rates by histological type were computed on the assumption that those histologically typed were a representative sample of all lung cancers. This study shows that Hokkien males have a significantly higher incidence rate of epidermoid carcinoma than the other dialect groups (Hokkien 36.1, Teochew 21.1, Cantonese 17.3). The Cantonese females have significantly higher incidence rates of both epidermoid carcinoma (Hokkien 3.7, Teochew 2.3, Cantonese 5.9) and adenocarcinoma (Hokkien 4.6, Teochew 3.6, Cantonese 11.9). Various sources of bias in studied of this type were examined; it is concluded that the differences in the histologic-specific incidence rates of lung cancer among the various Chinese dialect groups in Singapore are real and not artefactual. The significance of these findings in relation to possible aetiological factors is discussed.

  16. Regions of High Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Low Bystander CPR Rates in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Straney, Lahn D.; Bray, Janet E.; Beck, Ben; Finn, Judith; Bernard, Stephen; Dyson, Kylie; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health issue and research has shown that large regional variation in outcomes exists. Of the interventions associated with survival, the provision of bystander CPR is one of the most important modifiable factors. The aim of this study is to identify census areas with high incidence of OHCA and low rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia Methods We conducted an observational study using prospectively collected population-based OHCA data from the state of Victoria in Australia. Using ArcGIS (ArcMap 10.0), we linked the location of the arrest using the dispatch coordinates (longitude and latitude) to Victorian Local Government Areas (LGAs). We used Bayesian hierarchical models with random effects on each LGA to provide shrunken estimates of the rates of bystander CPR and the incidence rates. Results Over the study period there were 31,019 adult OHCA attended, of which 21,436 (69.1%) cases were of presumed cardiac etiology. Significant variation in the incidence of OHCA among LGAs was observed. There was a 3 fold difference in the incidence rate between the lowest and highest LGAs, ranging from 38.5 to 115.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The overall rate of bystander CPR for bystander witnessed OHCAs was 62.4%, with the rate increasing from 56.4% in 2008–2010 to 68.6% in 2010–2013. There was a 25.1% absolute difference in bystander CPR rates between the highest and lowest LGAs. Conclusion Significant regional variation in OHCA incidence and bystander CPR rates exists throughout Victoria. Regions with high incidence and low bystander CPR participation can be identified and would make suitable targets for interventions to improve CPR participation rates. PMID:26447844

  17. Identifying Differences Between Biochemical Failure and Cure: Incidence Rates and Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank A.; Shah, Chirag; Kestin, Larry; Ghilezan, Mihai; Krauss, Daniel; Ye Hong; Brabbins, Donald; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    2011-11-15

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer were evaluated to estimate the length of time required to document biochemical cure (BC) after treatment and the variables associated with long-term treatment efficacy. Patients and Methods: 2,100 patients received RT alone for localized prostate carcinoma (external-beam RT, n = 1,504; brachytherapy alone, n = 241; or brachytherapy + pelvic radiation, n = 355). The median external-beam dose was 68.4 Gy, and the median follow-up time was 8.6 years. Biochemical failure (BF) was defined according to the Phoenix definition. Results: Biochemical failure was experienced by 685 patients (32.6%). The median times to BF for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 6.0, 5.6, and 4.5 years respectively (p < 0.001). The average annual incidence rates of BF for years 1-5, 5-10,11-15, and 16-20 in low-risk patients were 2.0%, 2.0%, 0.3%, and 0.06% (p < 0.001); for intermediate-risk patients, 4%, 3%, 0.3%, and 0% (p < 0.001); and for high-risk patients, 10.0%, 5.0%, 0.3%, and 0.3% (p < 0.001). After 5 years of treatment, 36.9% of all patients experienced BF. The percentage of total failures occurring during years 1-5, 5-10, 11-15, and 16-20 were 48.7%, 43.5%, 6.5%, and 1.3% for low-risk patients; 64.0%, 32.2%, 3.8%, and 0% for intermediate-risk patients; and 71.9%, 25.9%, 1.1%, and 1.1% for high-risk patients, respectively. Increasing time to nadir was associated with increased time to BF. On multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with 10-year BC included prostate-specific antigen nadir and time to nadir. Conclusions: The incidence rates for BF did not plateau until later than 10 years after treatment, suggesting that extended follow-up time is required to monitor patients after treatment. Prostate-specific antigen nadir and time to nadir have the strongest association with long-term BC.

  18. [Hereditary deafness in Kirov oblast: estimation of the incidence rate and DNA diagnosis in children].

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, R A; Osetrova, A A; Sharonova, E I

    2012-04-01

    Genetic analysis of hereditary deafness (HD) has been performed in the city of Kirov and ten rural districts of Kirov oblast (administrative region). The analysis employed the methods used in audiology, medical genetic counseling, and DNA diagnosis. Deafness has been established to be hereditary in 143 children from 100 unrelated families. The incidence rates of isolated and syndromic HDs in the period studied (1995-2001) have been estimated at 1.25 and 0.36 per 1000 newborns, respectively, the total incidence rate of all HD forms being 1.61 per 1000 newborns (1 case per 621 newborns). DNA analysis for the detection of seven frequent mutations in the genes GJB2 (the 35delG, 167delT, 235delC, and M34T mutations), GJB6 (the del(GJB6-D13S1854) and del(GJB6-D13S1830) mutations), and TMC1 (the R34X mutation) has been performed in families with isolated neurosensory deafness. Molecular genetic analysis has detected mutations in 51 children (48.6%); in 54 children (51.4%), no mutations have been found. The following genotypes have been identified in children with HD: 35delG/35delG in 32 probands (30.5%), 35delG/+ in 16 probands (15.2%), 35delG/235delC in 1 proband (0.95%), M34T/+ in 1 proband (0.95%), and M34T/35delG in 1 proband (0.95%). The 167delT mutation has not been found. The frequency of the 35delG mutation in the GJB2 gene has been estimated to be 39.05%. In the group with a family history of HD, mutations have been found in 66.7% of patients; in the group without a family history of HD, in 37.5% of patients. No mutation has been found in the GJB6 or TMC1 gene. Molecular genetic analysis has been performed in a family with clinically diagnosed Treacher Collins-Franceschetti syndrome. Sequencing has been used to find the 748-69C>T polymorphism in intron 6 (in the homozygous state) and the 3635C>G mutation in exon 23 leading to the substitution of glycine for alanine at position 1176 of the amino acid sequence (Ala1176Gly, in the heterozygous state), which have not

  19. Incidence Rates of Fish Tumors and Deformities in the St. Louis River Area of Concern: A Preliminary Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine the current incidence rate of fish tumors and deformities in the St. Louis River and compare that to the rate in a relatively unimpaired waterbody on Lake Superior. These data are necessary to remove the “Fish Tumors and Deformities” Benef...

  20. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  1. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  2. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  3. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  4. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  5. Measuring water accumulation rates using GRACE data in areas experiencing glacial isostatic adjustment: The Nelson River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, A.; Huang, J.; Kamp, G.; Henton, J.; Mazzotti, S.; James, T. S.; Courtier, N.; Barr, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite-derived total water storage can be obscured by glacial isostatic adjustment. In order to solve this problem for the Nelson River drainage basin in Canada, a gravity rate map from 110 months (June 2002 to October 2011) of GRACE gravity data was corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment using an independent gravity rate map derived from updated GPS vertical velocities. The GPS-based map was converted to equivalent gravity rate using a transfer function developed from GPS and absolute-g data at colocated sites. The corrected GRACE gravity rate map revealed a major positive anomaly within the drainage basin, which was independently shown by hydrological data to be due to changes in water storage. The anomaly represents a cumulative increase at its center of about 340 mm of water, reflecting a progression from extreme drought to extremely wet conditions.

  6. Dynamics of a Delayed HIV-1 Infection Model with Saturation Incidence Rate and CTL Immune Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ting; Liu, Haihong; Xu, Chenglin; Yan, Fang

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a five-dimensional virus model incorporating saturation incidence rate, CTL immune response and three time delays which represent the latent period, virus production period and immune response delay, respectively. We begin this model by proving the positivity and boundedness of the solutions. Our model admits three possible equilibrium solutions, namely the infection-free equilibrium E0, the infectious equilibrium without immune response E1 and the infectious equilibrium with immune response E2. Moreover, by analyzing corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of each of the feasible equilibria and the existence of Hopf bifurcation at the equilibrium point E2 are established, respectively. Further, by using fluctuation lemma and suitable Lyapunov functionals, it is shown that E0 is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproductive numbers for viral infection R0 is less than unity. When the basic reproductive numbers for immune response R1 is less than unity and R0 is greater than unity, the equilibrium point E1 is globally asymptotically stable. Finally, some numerical simulations are carried out for illustrating the theoretical results.

  7. Incidence rate of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on conventional and organic Canadian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Levison, L J; Miller-Cushon, E K; Tucker, A L; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Barkema, H W; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a common and costly production disease on dairy farms. In Canada, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) has been determined for conventionally managed dairy farms; however, no studies to date have assessed rates in organically managed systems. The objectives of this observational study were (1) to determine the producer-reported IRCM and predominant pathogen types on conventional and organic dairy farms in Southern Ontario, Canada, and (2) to evaluate the association of both mean overall IRCM and pathogen-specific IRCM with management system, housing type, and pasture access. Data from 59 dairy farms in Southern Ontario, Canada, distributed across conventional (n=41) and organic management (n=18) systems, were collected from April 2011 to May 2012. In addition to management system, farms were categorized by housing method (loose or tie-stall) and pasture access for lactating cows. Participating producers identified and collected samples from 936 cases of clinical mastitis. The most frequently isolated mastitis pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Bacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The IRCM was higher on conventional farms than organic (23.7 vs. 13.2 cases per 100 cow-years) and was not associated with housing type (loose or tie-stall), pasture access, or herd-average milk yield. Bulk tank somatic cell count tended to be lower on conventional farms than organic (222,000 vs. 272,000 cells/mL). Pathogen-specific IRCM attributed to Staph. aureus, Bacillus spp., and E. coli was greater on conventional than organic farms, but was not associated with housing or any other factors. In conclusion, organic management was associated with reduced overall and pathogen-specific IRCM.

  8. Are tumor incidence rates from chronic bioassays telling us what we need to know about carcinogens?

    PubMed

    Gaylor, David W

    2005-03-01

    Chronic bioassays for over 500 chemicals have been conducted under the auspices of the National Cancer Institute and/or the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to screen chemicals for carcinogenicity, providing a wealth of information about bioassays. Typically, chemicals are administered for two years to both sexes in each of one strain of rats and mice generally at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), MTD/2, MTD/4 (in recent years), as well as unexposed control animals. In an attempt to ascertain the sensitivity of this bioassay to detect animal carcinogens tested at the MTD for the current experimental design, the false negative rate (failure to detect increased tumor rates) was investigated. This was accomplished by examining the tumor incidences from over 150 NTP bioassays and estimating the probability that a statistically significant (P0.01) dose-response trend would be obtained at one or more tissue sites in either sex of rats or mice if 200, rather than 50, animals were used per dose group. This provides an estimate of the proportion of chemicals that were not declared high-dose animal carcinogens due to the limited sample size of 50 animals per species-sex-dose group. In this series of chemicals tested, 97/156 (62%) were identified by the NTP to show some or clear evidence of carcinogenicity. With an increase of the number of animals per dose group from 50 to 200, it is estimated that 92% of these chemicals would show statistically significant (P0.01) dose-response trends at one or more tissue sites in either sex of rats or mice. Many of these chemicals are not genotoxic. Some chemicals had no structural alerts for carcinogenicity, but were tested because of potentially high human exposure. This analysis suggests that almost all of the chemicals selected would produce a statistically significant increase in tumor incidence at the MTD with larger sample sizes. Hence, this MTD bioassay screen is not distinguishing between true carcinogens and non

  9. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi

  10. A direct algorithm for convective adjustment of the vertical temperature profile for an arbitrary critical lapse rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akmaev, Rashid A.

    1991-01-01

    An efficient direct algorithm of convective adjustment for an arbitrary critical value of the vertical temperature lapse rate gamma is proposed. The algorithm provides an exact and unique solution of a standard convective adjustment problem for models with temperature specified either on nonuniformly spaced levels or for layers of different thicknesses in pressure, sigma, or other vertical coordinate related to pressure. The algorithm may be recommended for use either directly in atmospheric models not explicitly including a hydrologic cycle with prescribed gamma, or as a part of more complicated parameterizations of moist convection, where gamma may be calculated depending on relative humidity.

  11. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... specialized MA plans for special needs individuals. (i) Application of payment rules. For plan year 2011 and... plan described in this paragraph is a fully integrated dual-eligible special needs plan, as defined at.... (6) Improvements to risk adjustment for special needs individuals with chronic health...

  12. 76 FR 74703 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The COLA.... Telephone: (202) 707-7658. Email: crb@loc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The satellite carrier...

  13. 77 FR 70373 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The COLA.... Telephone: (202) 707-7658. Email: crb@loc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The satellite carrier...

  14. 75 FR 75624 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The COLA... INFORMATION: The satellite carrier compulsory license establishes a statutory copyright licensing scheme...

  15. Long-term survival rates of gravity-assisted, adjustable differential pressure valves in infants with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Anna-Felicitas; Schulz, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment.

  16. Association of Increased Urinary Albumin With Risk of Incident Clinical Fracture and Rate of Hip Bone Loss: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study.

    PubMed

    Fink, Howard A; Vo, Tien N; Langsetmo, Lisa; Barzilay, Joshua I; Cauley, Jane A; Schousboe, John T; Orwoll, Eric S; Canales, Muna T; Ishani, Areef; Lane, Nancy E; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2016-12-24

    Prior studies suggest that increased urine albumin is associated with a heightened fracture risk in women, but results in men are unclear. We used data from Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS), a prospective cohort study of community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years, to evaluate the association of increased urine albumin with subsequent fractures and annualized rate of hip bone loss. We calculated albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) from urine collected at the 2003-2005 visit. Subsequent clinical fractures were ascertained from triannual questionnaires and centrally adjudicated by review of radiographic reports. Total hip BMD was measured by DXA at the 2003-2005 visit and again an average of 3.5 years later. We estimated risk of incident clinical fracture using Cox proportional hazards models, and annualized BMD change using ANCOVA. Of 2982 men with calculable ACR, 9.4% had ACR ≥30 mg/g (albuminuria) and 1.0% had ACR ≥300 mg/g (macroalbuminuria). During a mean of 8.7 years of follow-up, 20.0% of men had an incident clinical fracture. In multivariate-adjusted models, neither higher ACR quintile (p for trend 0.75) nor albuminuria (HR versus no albuminuria, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.20) was associated with increased risk of incident clinical fracture. Increased urine albumin had a borderline significant, multivariate-adjusted, positive association with rate of total hip bone loss when modeled in ACR quintiles (p = 0.06), but not when modeled as albuminuria versus no albuminuria. Macroalbuminuria was associated with a higher rate of annualized hip bone loss compared to no albuminuria (-1.8% more annualized loss than in men with ACR <30 mg/g; p < 0.001), but the limited prevalence of macroalbuminuria precluded reliable estimates of its fracture associations. In these community-dwelling older men, we found no association between urine albumin levels and risk of incident clinical fracture, but found a borderline significant, positive association with rate of hip

  17. Greater Heart Rate Responses to Acute Stress Are Associated with Better Post-Error Adjustment in Special Police Cadets

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Yuan, Yi; Buchanan, Tony W.; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    High-stress jobs require both appropriate physiological regulation and behavioral adjustment to meet the demands of emergencies. Here, we investigated the relationship between the autonomic stress response and behavioral adjustment after errors in special police cadets. Sixty-eight healthy male special police cadets were randomly assigned to perform a first-time walk on an aerial rope bridge to induce stress responses or a walk on a cushion on the ground serving as a control condition. Subsequently, the participants completed a Go/No-go task to assess behavioral adjustment after false alarm responses. Heart rate measurements and subjective reports confirmed that stress responses were successfully elicited by the aerial rope bridge task in the stress group. In addition, greater heart rate increases during the rope bridge task were positively correlated with post-error slowing and had a trend of negative correlation with post-error miss rate increase in the subsequent Go/No-go task. These results suggested that stronger autonomic stress responses are related to better post-error adjustment under acute stress in this highly selected population and demonstrate that, under certain conditions, individuals with high-stress jobs might show cognitive benefits from a stronger physiological stress response. PMID:27428280

  18. Geographic Variation of the Incidence Rate of Lower Limb Amputation in Australia from 2007-12

    PubMed Central

    Fortington, Lauren V.; Akram, Muhammad; Erbas, Bircan; Kohler, Friedbert

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, little is known about how the incidence rate (IR) of lower limb amputation (LLA) varies across the country. While studies in other economically developed countries have shown considerable geographic variation in the IR-LLA, mostly these have not considered whether the effect of common risk factors are the same across regions. Mapping variation of the IR-LLA, and the effect of common risk factors, is an important first step to focus research into areas of greatest need and support the development of regional specific hypotheses for in-depth examination. The aim of this study was to describe the geographic variation in the IR-LLA across Australia and understand whether the effect of common risk factors was the same across regions. Using hospital episode data from the Australian National Hospital Morbidity database and Australian Bureau of Statistics, the all-cause crude and age-standardised IR-LLA in males and females were calculated for the nation and each state and territory. Generalised Linear Models were developed to understand which factors influenced geographic variation in the crude IR-LLA. While the crude and age-standardised IR-LLA in males and females were similar in most states and territories, they were higher in the Northern Territory. The effect of older age, being male and the presence of type 2 diabetes was associated with an increase of IR-LLA in most states and territories. In the Northern Territory, the younger age at amputation confounded the effect of sex and type 2 diabetes. There are likely to be many factors not included in this investigation, such as Indigenous status, that may explain part of the variation in the IR-LLA not captured in our models. Further research is needed to identify regional- and population- specific factors that could be modified to reduce the IR-LLA in all states and territories of Australia. PMID:28118408

  19. A trend analysis of breast cancer incidence rates in the United States from 2000 to 2009 shows a recent increase.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ningqi; Huo, Dezheng

    2013-04-01

    Recent reports have shown that the breast cancer incidence rate in the US stabilized after a sharp reduction in 2002 and 2003. It is important to continue monitoring breast cancer incidence rates according to age group, race/ethnicity, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and tumor stage. Age-standardized breast cancer incidence rates were calculated using data from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 18 registries from 2000 to 2009, for 677,774 female breast cancer patients aged 20 and above. Jointpoint regression models were used to fit a series of joined straight lines on a log scale to annual age-standardized rates. The incidence rates of all breast cancer significantly increased for non-Hispanic blacks from 2005 to 2009 (annual percentage change, APC = 2.0 %, p = 0.01) and Asian/Pacific Islanders from 2000 to 2009 (APC = 1.2 %, p = 0.02). Since 2004, incidence rates in women aged 40-49 years significantly increased for most racial/ethnic groups (overall APC = 1.1 %, p = 0.001). The incidence rate of carcinoma in situ significantly increased in all racial/ethnic groups, with an APC range from 2.3 to 3.0 % (p < 0.005). The localized breast cancer incidence significantly increased in non-Hispanic blacks (APC = 1.3 %, p = 0.004) and Asians (APC = 1.2 %, p = 0.03). ER-positive breast cancer significantly increased in almost all age/race sub-groups after 2005 (APC by race: non-Hispanic whites 1.5 %, non-Hispanic blacks 4.3 %, Asian/Pacific Islanders 1.7 %, and Hispanics 1.8 %; all p values <0.05), while ER-negative breast cancer decreased in most sub-groups (APC by race: non-Hispanic whites-3.9 %, non-Hispanic blacks-3.7 %, Asian/Pacific Islanders-1.5 %, and Hispanics-4.3 %; all p values <0.05). Recently the incidence of breast cancer appears to be increasing in certain subgroups, including ER-positive, early-stage breast cancers, in particular among non-Hispanic blacks and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Further studies are

  20. Rating the Relevance of QUORUM-Selected ASRS Incident Narratives to a "Controlled Flight into Terrain" Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Statler, Irving C.

    1998-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to identify commercial aviation incidents that are relevant to a "controlled flight into terrain" (CFIT) accident using a NASA-developed text processing method. The QUORUM method was used to rate 67820 incident narratives, virtually all of the narratives in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, according to their relevance to two official reports on the crash of American Airlines Flight 965 near Cali, Colombia in December 1995. For comparison with QUORUM's ratings, three experienced ASRS analysts read the reports of the crash and independently rated the relevance of the 100 narratives that were most highly rated by QUORUM, as well as 100 narratives randomly selected from the database. Eighty-four of 100 QUORUM-selected narratives were rated as relevant to the Cali accident by one or more of the analysts. The relevant incidents involved a variety of factors, including, over-reliance on automation, confusion and changes during descent/approach, terrain avoidance, and operations in foreign airspace. In addition, the QUORUM collection of incidents was found to be significantly more relevant than the random collection.

  1. Adjusting for temporal change in trophic position results in reduced rates of contaminant decline.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Craig E; Weseloh, D V Chip

    2006-09-15

    The development of ecological tracers to track the flow of energy and nutrients through food webs has provided new insights into the factors that are important in regulating diet composition in wildlife. The Great Lakes Herring Gull Monitoring Program has provided information regarding temporal trends in levels of bioaccumulative contaminants since the early 1970s. In recent years, data from this program have also been generated to examine ecological changes in the Great Lakes. Because the contaminants that are evaluated as part of this program biomagnify, food is the primary determinant of contaminant concentrations in the eggs that are analyzed annually. Fluctuations in diet composition could affect the interpretation of temporal trends by affecting exposure to contaminants. Retrospective analyses involving ecological tracers, i.e., stable nitrogen isotopes and fatty acids, have shown temporal change in the diets of Great Lakes herring gulls at some monitoring colonies. These dietary differences have led to temporal variation in the trophic position of herring gulls. Given that higher trophic level organisms incur greater exposure to biomagnifying contaminants, it is necessary to adjust for these temporal changes in trophic position to get an accurate indication of how contaminant burdens are changing within the Great Lakes ecosystem. Here, we outline a method to adjust for temporal changes in indicator species trophic position and discuss how these adjustments affect the interpretation of contaminant temporal trend monitoring data.

  2. Short-term heat stress exposure limits based on wet bulb globe temperature adjusted for clothing and metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Thomas E; Ashley, Candi D

    2009-10-01

    Most heat stress exposure assessments based on wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) consider the environmental conditions, metabolic demands, and clothing requirements, and the exposure limit is for extended work periods (e.g., a typical workday). The U.S. Navy physiological heat exposure limit (PHEL) curves and rational models of heat stress also consider time as a job risk factor so that there is a limiting time for exposures above a conventional WBGT exposure limit. The PHEL charts have not been examined for different clothing and the rational models require personal computers. The current study examined the role of clothing in short-term (time limited) exposures and proposed a relationship between a Safe Exposure Time and WBGT adjusted for clothing and metabolic rate. Twelve participants worked at a metabolic rate of 380 W in three clothing ensembles [clothing adjustment factors]: (1) work clothes (0 degrees C-WBGT), (2) NexGen microporous coveralls (2.5 degrees C-WBGT), and (2) vapor-barrier coveralls (6.5 degrees C-WBGT) at five levels of heat stress (approximately at the clothing adjusted TLV plus 7.0, 8.0, 9.5, 11.5 and 15.0 degrees C-WBGT). The combinations of metabolic rate, clothing, and environment were selected in anticipation that the participants would reach a physiological limit in less than 120 min. WBGT-based clothing adjustment factors were used to account for different clothing ensembles, and no differences were found for ensemble, which meant that the clothing adjustment factor can be used in WBGT-based time limited exposures. An equation was proposed to recommend a Safe Exposure Time for exposures under 120 min. The recommended times were longer than the PHEL times or times from a rational model of heat stress.

  3. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Stefano; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Curti, Stefania; Cooke, Robin MT; Bena, Antonella; de Giacomi, Giovanna; dell'Omo, Marco; Fateh-Moghadam, Pirous; Melani, Carla; Biocca, Marco; Buiatti, Eva; Campo, Giuseppe; Zanardi, Francesca; Violante, Francesco S

    2008-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Methods Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million) over 3–6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare). Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1) codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence) on regional databases; 2) demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the χscore test) age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for married/unmarried men and women. Results Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall). Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57–1.60) in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40–1.45) in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2–3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts). Conclusion This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population. PMID:18957090

  4. Predictive Power of Incidents Reporting Rate and Its Dimensions by Job Stress among Workers’ Isfahan Steel Company

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, F; Samavatyan, H; Pourabdian, S; Jafari, E

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is long-term interest in the effects of stress on health, due to the strain that it places on individuals which can lead to an increased risk of disease. The present study examined degree of perceived job stress related to incidents reporting rate and its dimensions among workers’ Isfahan Steel Company. Methods: A self-administered anonymous was distributed to 189 workers. The survey included demographic factors, incidents reporting rate and its components (physical symptoms, psychological symptoms and accidents) and the Job Stress Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by multivariate (MANOVA) and correlation techniques. Results: 1) there was internal significant correlation between perceived job stress with incident reporting rate as well as with its two components namely physical symptoms and psychological symptoms; 2) there was not a significant relationship between perceived job stress and accident; 2) In multivariate analysis, perceived job stress respectively about 12%, 18% and 19% of the variance of variables of incidents reporting rate, physical and psychological symptoms significantly predicted (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Perceived job stress influences to physical and psychological symptoms. Therefore, decreasing job stress can be important to prevent the development of stress-related diseases and to promote workers health. PMID:23113092

  5. [Seasonality of rotavirus infection in Venezuela: relationship between monthly rotavirus incidence and rainfall rates].

    PubMed

    González Chávez, Rosabel

    2015-09-01

    In general, it has been reported that rotavirus infection was detected year round in tropical countries. However, studies in Venezuela and Brazil suggest a seasonal behavior of the infection. On the other hand, some studies link infection with climatic variables such as rainfall. This study analyzes the pattern of behavior of the rotavirus infection in Carabobo-Venezuela (2001-2005), associates the seasonality of the infection with rainfall, and according to the seasonal pattern, estimates the age of greatest risk for infection. The analysis of the rotavirus temporal series and accumulated precipitation was performed with the software SPSS. The infection showed two periods: high incidence (November-April) and low incidence (May-October). Accumulated precipitation presents an opposite behavior. The highest frequency of events (73.8% 573/779) for those born in the period with a low incidence of the virus was recorded at an earlier age (mean age 6.5 +/- 2.0 months) when compared with those born in the station of high incidence (63.5% 568/870, mean age 11.7 +/- 2.2 months). Seasonality of the infection and the inverse relationship between virus incidence and rainfall was demonstrated. In addition, it was found that the period of birth determines the age and risk of infection. This information generated during the preaccine period will be helpful to measure the impact of the vaccine against the rotavirus.

  6. 75 FR 78690 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2012-2013 Proposed Transmission Rate Adjustments Public Hearing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...-Point (PTP) service. Network Integration Transmission (NT-12) rate--The NT rate applies to customers taking network integration service under the Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT) and allows customers... rate that applies to customers taking point-to-point service on BPA's network facilities under the...

  7. The Effect of High Rates of Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections on HIV Incidence in a Cohort of Black and White Men Who Have Sex with Men in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Colleen F; Vaughan, Adam S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis H; Salazar, Laura F; Frew, Paula M; Cooper, Hannah L F; Diclemente, Ralph; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2015-06-01

    Data reporting sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence rates among HIV-negative U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM) are lacking. In addition, it is difficult to analyze the effect of STI on HIV acquisition given that sexual risk behaviors confound the relationship between bacterial STIs and incident HIV. The InvolveMENt study was a longitudinal cohort of black and white HIV-negative, sexually active MSM in Atlanta who underwent routine screening for STI and HIV and completed behavioral questionnaires. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for urethral and rectal Chlamydia (CT), gonorrhea (GC), and syphilis, stratified by race. Propensity-score-weighted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of STI on HIV incidence and calculate the population attributable fraction (PAF) for STI. We included 562 HIV-negative MSM with 843 person-years of follow-up in this analysis. High incidence rates were documented for all STIs, particularly among black MSM. Having a rectal STI was significantly associated with subsequent HIV incidence in adjusted analyses (aHR 2.7; 95% CI 1.2, 6.4) that controlled for behavioral risk factors associated with STI and HIV using propensity score weights. The PAF for rectal STI was 14.6 (95% CI 6.8, 31.4). The high incidence of STIs among Atlanta MSM and the association of rectal STI with HIV acquisition after controlling for behavioral risk underscore the importance of routine screening and treatment for STIs among sexually active MSM. Our data support targeting intensive HIV prevention interventions, such as preexposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP), for Atlanta MSM diagnosed with rectal STIs.

  8. Age-standardized Incidence Rates for Leukemia Associated with Consanguineous Marriages in 68 Countries, an Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage that defines as a union between biologically related persons has a variety of known deleterious correlations with factors that affect public health within human populations. To investigate the association between the mean of inbreeding coefficient (α) and incidence of leukemia, the present ecological study on 68 countries was carried out. Statistical analysis showed that the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia positively correlated with log10GNI per capita (r=0.699, df=66, P<0.001) and negatively correlated with log10α (r=−0.609, df=66, P<0.001). Controlling log10GNI per capita, a significant negative correlation between log10α and the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia was observed (r=−0.392, df=65, P=0.001). The countries were stratified according to their annual GNI per capita, low and high-income countries with GNI per capita less than and more than 10,000$, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that in high-income countries, after controlling for log10GNI per capita, the correlation between the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia and log10α was still significant (r=−0.600, df=36, P<0.001). It should be noted that there was no significant association between the age-standardized mortality rate due to leukemia and log10α (P>0.05). The present finding indicates that the rate of leukemia, age-standardized for incidence, is lower in countries with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. PMID:25960855

  9. Tuberculosis incidence rate and risk factors among HIV-infected adults with access to antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Enju; MAKUBI, Abel; DRAIN, Paul; SPIEGELMAN, Donna; SANDO, David; LI, Nan; CHALAMILLA, Guerino; SUDFELD, Christopher R.; HERTZMARK, Ellen; FAWZI, Wafaie W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence rate and risk factors of tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected adults accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Tanzania. Design A prospective observational study among HIV-infected adults attending 47 HIV clinics in Dar es Salaam. Methods We estimated TB incidence rates among HIV-infected patients prior to and after ART initiation. We used Cox proportional hazard regressions to determine the predictors of incident TB among HIV-infected adults enrolled in the HIV care and treatment program. Results We assessed 67,686 patients for a median follow-up period of 24 (interquartile range: 8–49) months; 7,602 patients were diagnosed with active TB. The TB incidence rate was 7.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 7.6–8.2)/100 person-years prior to ART initiation, and 4.4(95%CI, 4.2–4.4)/100 person-years for patients receiving ART. In multivariate analyses, patients on ART in the first 3 months had a 57% higher risk of TB (Hazard Ratio:1.57, 95%CI:1.47–1.68) compared to those not on ART, but the risk significantly decreased with increasing duration of ART. Risk factors for incident TB included being male, having low body mass index or middle upper arm circumference, lower CD4 cell count, and advanced WHO disease stage. There was seasonal variation for incident TB, with higher risk observed following the rainy seasons (May, June, and November). Conclusion In TB endemic regions, HIV-infected patients initiating ART, particularly males and those with poor nutritional status, should be closely monitored for active TB in the months following ART initiation. In addition to increasing the access to ART, interventions should be considered to improve nutritional status among HIV-infected patients. PMID:26091295

  10. 75 FR 7580 - Proposed Rate Adjustment for Kerr-Philpott System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... and approved Rate Schedules VA-1-A, VA-2-A, VA-3-A, VA-4-A, CP&L-1-A, CP&L-2-A, CP&L-3-A, CP&L-4-A, AP... arrangement with the Government and for providing a transmission arrangement. Rate Schedule CP&L-1-B Available... Carolinas). Rate Schedule CP&L-2-B Available to public bodies and cooperatives in North Carolina to...

  11. Incidence rate of thyroid cancer in Neuquén (2001-2012).

    PubMed

    Cohen Sabban, Marcos Alejandro; Palmero, Cintia; Bertrand, Beatriz; Aiello, Ana; Ghiglioni, Amalia; Mac Donell, Maria Celina; Croci, Cecilia; Cabaeiro, Patricia; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan

    2014-11-01

    During the past decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) has been reported worldwide. In Argentina there is no national cancer registry, and its incidence has therefore not been established. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of TC in the province of Neuquén and to compare it to that reported in the literature. The medical records of 229 patients admitted over a period of 12 years (2001 to 2012) were used for data analysis. Tumor size, age, sex, and histological type were evaluated. The study period was divided into four three-year periods, and differences in each of these features were analyzed. We found an incidence of 4.72/100,000 inhabitants/year, and almost all patients had papillary TC. TC was five times more common in females as compared to males (7.78 and 1.55 respectively). Mean tumor size was 22.2 ± 1.1 mm. Tumor size was significantly greater in men (31.8 ± 3.7 mm) than in women (20.4 ± 1.0 mm). When grouped by three-year periods, a higher number of cases was found in the last one (47, 49, 49 and 84 respectively). As regards tumor distribution by size, there was a significant decrease in mean tumor size in the fourth period and an increase in the proportion of tumors <10mm. We report an increase in TC incidence in the Argentinean province of Neuquén which is similar to the overall increase reported in the international literature.

  12. Estimating the incidence reporting rates of new influenza pandemics at an early stage using travel data from the source country.

    PubMed

    Chong, K C; Fong, H F; Zee, C Y

    2014-05-01

    During the surveillance of influenza pandemics, underreported data are a public health challenge that complicates the understanding of pandemic threats and can undermine mitigation efforts. We propose a method to estimate incidence reporting rates at early stages of new influenza pandemics using 2009 pandemic H1N1 as an example. Routine surveillance data and statistics of travellers arriving from Mexico were used. Our method incorporates changes in reporting rates such as linearly increasing trends due to the enhanced surveillance. From our results, the reporting rate was estimated at 0·46% during early stages of the pandemic in Mexico. We estimated cumulative incidence in the Mexican population to be 0·7% compared to 0·003% reported by officials in Mexico at the end of April. This method could be useful in estimation of actual cases during new influenza pandemics for policy makers to better determine appropriate control measures.

  13. 3 CFR 13641 - Executive Order 13641 of April 5, 2013. Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Appropriations Act, 2013 (Public Law 113-6), the rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as... hereof. Sec. 3. Certain Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Salaries. The rates of basic pay or salaries... specified in section 7 of this order.Barack ObamaThe White House, April 5, 2013. ED11AP13.002...

  14. 3 CFR 13594 - Executive Order 13594 of December 19, 2011. Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(Public Law 111-322; December 22, 2010), the rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems... hereof. Sec. 3. Certain Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Salaries. The rates of basic pay or salaries... Order Superseded. Executive Order 13561 of December 22, 2010, is superseded.Barack ObamaThe White...

  15. 3 CFR 13655 - Executive Order 13655 of December 23, 2013. Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. The rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as... Salaries. The rates of basic pay or salaries for the following offices and positions are set forth on the... specified in section 7 of this order.Barack ObamaThe White House, December 23, 2013. ED31DE13.195...

  16. 75 FR 53198 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... (collectively, the ``Copyright Owners'') and DIRECTV, Inc., DISH Network, LLC, and National Programming Service... proceeding and a significant interest in the outcome of that proceeding objects under clause (II... related to the programming on such stream. (b) Rates--(1) Private home viewing. The rates applicable...

  17. 75 FR 39891 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Owners'') and DIRECTV, Inc., DISH Network, LLC, and National Programming Service, LLC (collectively, the... proceeding and a significant interest in the outcome of that proceeding objects under clause ] (II).'' Any... programming on such stream. (b) Rates. (1) Private home viewing. The rates applicable to Satellite...

  18. Comparison of hurricane exposure methods and associations with county fetal death rates, adjusting for environmental quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse effects of hurricanes are increasing as coastal populations grow and events become more severe. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy can influence fetal death rates through mechanisms related to healthcare, infrastructure disruption, nutrition, and injury. Estimation of hu...

  19. Surveillance Length and Validity of Benchmarks for Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Incidence Rates in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Fontela, Patricia S.; Quach, Caroline; Buckeridge, David; Pai, Madukhar; Platt, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Several national and regional central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) surveillance programs do not require continuous hospital participation. We evaluated the effect of different hospital participation requirements on the validity of annual CLABSI incidence rate benchmarks for intensive care units (ICUs). Methods We estimated the annual pooled CLABSI incidence rates for both a real regional (<100 ICUs) and a simulated national (600 ICUs) surveillance program, which were used as a reference for the simulations. We simulated scenarios where the annual surveillance participation was randomly or non-randomly reduced. Each scenario's annual pooled CLABSI incidence rate was estimated and compared to the reference rates in terms of validity, bias, and proportion of simulation iterations that presented valid estimates (ideal if≥90%). Results All random scenarios generated valid CLABSI incidence rates estimates (bias −0.37 to 0.07 CLABSI/1000 CVC-days), while non-random scenarios presented a wide range of valid estimates (0 to 100%) and higher bias (−2.18 to 1.27 CLABSI/1000 CVC-days). In random scenarios, the higher the number of participating ICUs, the shorter the participation required to generate ≥90% valid replicates. While participation requirements in a countrywide program ranged from 3 to 13 surveillance blocks (1 block = 28 days), requirements for a regional program ranged from 9 to 13 blocks. Conclusions Based on the results of our model of national CLABSI reporting, the shortening of participation requirements may be suitable for nationwide ICU CLABSI surveillance programs if participation months are randomly chosen. However, our regional models showed that regional programs should opt for continuous participation to avoid biased benchmarks. PMID:22586480

  20. Using a detailed uncertainty analysis to adjust mapped rates of forest disturbance derived from Landsat time series data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Stehman, S.; Huang, C.; Healey, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest ecosystem process models require spatially and temporally detailed disturbance data to accurately predict fluxes of carbon or changes in biodiversity over time. A variety of new mapping algorithms using dense Landsat time series show great promise for providing disturbance characterizations at an annual time step. These algorithms provide unprecedented detail with respect to timing, magnitude, and duration of individual disturbance events, and causal agent. But all maps have error and disturbance maps in particular can have significant omission error because many disturbances are relatively subtle. Because disturbance, although ubiquitous, can be a relatively rare event spatially in any given year, omission errors can have a great impact on mapped rates. Using a high quality reference disturbance dataset, it is possible to not only characterize map errors but also to adjust mapped disturbance rates to provide unbiased rate estimates with confidence intervals. We present results from a national-level disturbance mapping project (the North American Forest Dynamics project) based on the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) with annual Landsat time series and uncertainty analyses that consist of three basic components: response design, statistical design, and analyses. The response design describes the reference data collection, in terms of the tool used (TimeSync), a formal description of interpretations, and the approach for data collection. The statistical design defines the selection of plot samples to be interpreted, whether stratification is used, and the sample size. Analyses involve derivation of standard agreement matrices between the map and the reference data, and use of inclusion probabilities and post-stratification to adjust mapped disturbance rates. Because for NAFD we use annual time series, both mapped and adjusted rates are provided at an annual time step from ~1985-present. Preliminary evaluations indicate that VCT captures most of the higher

  1. Incidence of Second Malignancies in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Hamm, Jeremy; Jiang, Wei Ning; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; Lapointe, Vince; Kahnamelli, Adam; McKenzie, Michael; Miller, Stacy; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the second malignancy incidence in prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy (BT) relative to radical prostatectomy (RP) and to compare both groups with the cancer incidence in the general population. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 2418 patients were treated with Iodine 125 prostate BT monotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency, and 4015 referred patients were treated with RP. Cancer incidence was compared with the age-matched general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Pelvic malignancies included invasive and noninvasive bladder cancer and rectal cancer. Cox multivariable analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates to determine whether treatment (RP vs BT) was associated with second malignancy risk. Results: The median age at BT was 66 years and at RP 62 years. The SIR comparing BT patients with the general population was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.22) for second malignancy and was 1.53 (95% CI 1.12-2.04) for pelvic malignancy. The SIR comparing RP patients with the general population was 1.11 (95% CI 0.98-1.25) for second malignancy and was 1.11 (95% CI 0.82-1.48) for pelvic malignancy. On multivariable analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05) and smoking (HR 1.65) were associated with increased second malignancy risk (P<.0001). Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased second malignancy risk relative to BT (HR 0.90, P=.43), even when excluding patients who received postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy (HR 1.13, P=.25). Older age (HR 1.09, P<.0001) and smoking (HR 2.17, P=.0009) were associated with increased pelvic malignancy risk. Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased pelvic malignancy risk compared with BT (HR 0.57, P=.082), even when excluding postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy patients (HR 0.87, P=.56). Conclusions: After adjustment for covariates, BT patients did not have an increased second

  2. 75 FR 8730 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; FHA- Disclosure of Adjustable Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; FHA- Disclosure of... applicable to variable rate mortgages secured by a principal dwelling under TILA. Regulation Z,'' at 15...

  3. 78 FR 48374 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2014 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... consideration to the public interest and the costs of providing the services.'' 46 U.S.C. 9303(f). Rates must be... pilotage systems that has existed since 2008. Based on historic traffic levels, we believe this weighting... for pilotage services, giving consideration to the public interest and the costs of providing...

  4. 77 FR 45539 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2013 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... public interest and the costs of providing the services.'' Rates must be established or reviewed and... 1 Area 2 Reported expenses for 2010 St. Lawrence Total River Lake Ontario Pilot Costs: Other pilotage costs: Pilot subsistence/Travel $212,715 $167,880 $380,595 License insurance 23,880 18,847...

  5. Automatic learning rate adjustment for self-supervising autonomous robot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arras, Michael K.; Protzel, Peter W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    Described is an application in which an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) controls the positioning of a robot arm with five degrees of freedom by using visual feedback provided by two cameras. This application and the specific ANN model, local liner maps, are based on the work of Ritter, Martinetz, and Schulten. We extended their approach by generating a filtered, average positioning error from the continuous camera feedback and by coupling the learning rate to this error. When the network learns to position the arm, the positioning error decreases and so does the learning rate until the system stabilizes at a minimum error and learning rate. This abolishes the need for a predetermined cooling schedule. The automatic cooling procedure results in a closed loop control with no distinction between a learning phase and a production phase. If the positioning error suddenly starts to increase due to an internal failure such as a broken joint, or an environmental change such as a camera moving, the learning rate increases accordingly. Thus, learning is automatically activated and the network adapts to the new condition after which the error decreases again and learning is 'shut off'. The automatic cooling is therefore a prerequisite for the autonomy and the fault tolerance of the system.

  6. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary. PMID:26133134

  7. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-06-30

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary.

  8. The Impact of Extreme-Risk Cases on Hospitals’ Risk-Adjusted Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Mortality Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Matthew W.; Brennan, J. Matthew; Ho, Kalon K.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Messenger, John C.; Weaver, W. Douglas; Dai, David; Peterson, Eric D.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The goal of this study was to examine the calibration of a validated risk-adjustment model in very high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cases and assess whether sites’ case mix affects their performance ratings. BACKGROUND There are concerns that treating PCI patients with particularly high-risk features such as cardiogenic shock or prior cardiac arrest may adversely impact hospital performance ratings. However, there is little investigation on the validity of these concerns. METHODS We examined 624,286 PCI procedures from 1,168 sites that participated in the CathPCI Registry in 2010. Procedural risk was estimated using the recently published Version 4 National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) PCI risk-adjusted mortality (RAM) model. We calculated observed/expected mortality using several risk classification methods, and simulated hospital performance after combining their highest risk cases over 2 years into a single year. RESULTS In 2010, crude in-hospital PCI mortality was 1.4%. The NCDR model was generally well calibrated among high risk, however there was slight overprediction of risk in extreme cases. Hospitals treating the highest overall expected risk PCI patients or those treating the top 20% of high-risk cases had lower (better) RAM ratings than centers treating lower-risk cases (1.25% vs. 1.51%). The observed/expected ratio for top-risk quintile versus low-risk quintile was 0.91 (0.87 to 0.96) versus 1.10 (1.03 to 1.17). Combining all the high-risk patients over a 2-year period into a single year also did not negatively impact the site’s RAM ratings. CONCLUSIONS Evaluation of a contemporary sample of PCI cases across the United States showed no evidence that treating high-risk PCI cases adversely affects hospital RAM rates. PMID:25499301

  9. Genetic parameters of body weight and ascites in broilers: effect of different incidence rates of ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpanah, J; Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N; Shadparvar, A A; Pakdel, A

    2017-02-01

    1. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of incidence rate (5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 50%) of ascites syndrome on the expression of genetic characteristics for body weight at 5 weeks of age (BW5) and AS and to compare different methods of genetic parameter estimation for these traits. 2. Based on stochastic simulation, a population with discrete generations was created in which random mating was used for 10 generations. Two methods of restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling were used for the estimation of genetic parameters. A bivariate model including maternal effects was used. The root mean square error for direct heritabilities was also calculated. 3. The results showed that when incidence rates of ascites increased from 5% to 30%, the heritability of AS increased from 0.013 and 0.005 to 0.110 and 0.162 for linear and threshold models, respectively. 4. Maternal effects were significant for both BW5 and AS. Genetic correlations were decreased by increasing incidence rates of ascites in the population from 0.678 and 0.587 at 5% level of ascites to 0.393 and -0.260 at 50% occurrence for linear and threshold models, respectively. 5. The RMSE of direct heritability from true values for BW5 was greater based on a linear-threshold model compared with the linear model of analysis (0.0092 vs. 0.0015). The RMSE of direct heritability from true values for AS was greater based on a linear-linear model (1.21 vs. 1.14). 6. In order to rank birds for ascites incidence, it is recommended to use a threshold model because it resulted in higher heritability estimates compared with the linear model and that BW5 could be one of the main components of selection goals.

  10. Incidence and mutation rates of Huntington's disease in Spain: experience of 9 years of direct genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Arroyo, M; Moreno, S; Valiente, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prior to the discovery of the Huntington's disease (HD) mutation, the prevalence, incidence, and new mutation rates for this disease were based on the presence of progressive choreic movements and a positive family history. Objective: To evaluate the uptake of the HD genetic analysis in Spain, and to provide additional information on the epidemiology of this disease from the experience of 9 years of direct genetic testing. Methods: From 1994 to 2002, CAG repeat length was determined in 317 patients with symptoms compatible with HD. In all cases, demographic, clinical, and family data were carefully reviewed. Results: HD diagnosis (CAG repeat length ⩾36) was confirmed in 166 (52%) symptomatic cases. Of these, 76 (45.8%) reported a positive family history and in 21 cases (12.7%) family history was negative. New mutation events were genetically proven in three families and highly suspected in another, estimating that the minimum new mutation rate for HD in our population is >4%, with a potential mutation rate of 8%. More than 16% of all HD cases had late onset (>59 years) of symptoms, and in three quarters of these the family history was negative. The incidence rate for the autonomous communities of Navarra and the Basque country, based on the number of newly diagnosed cases by genetic testing, was 4.7 per million per year. Conclusions: Direct HD genetic testing shows that the incidence and mutation rates of the disease are 2–3 times higher than previously reported. We also demonstrated the relevance of CAG repeat length assessment in diagnosing patients with late onset of symptoms and negative family history for HD. PMID:15716522

  11. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jian, Wen-Shan; Lee, Peisan; Iqbal, Usman; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The issue of whether cell phone usage can contribute toward the development of brain tumors has recently been reignited with the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans in a WHO report. To our knowledge, this is the largest study reporting on the incidence and mortality of malignant brain tumors after long-term use of the cell phone by more than 23 million users. A population-based study was carried out the numbers of cell phone users were collected from the official statistics provided by the National Communication Commission. According to National Cancer Registry, there were 4 incidences and 4 deaths due to malignant neoplasms in Taiwan during the period 2000-2009. The 10 years of observational data show that the intensive user rate of cell phones has had no significant effect on the incidence rate or on the mortality of malignant brain tumors in Taiwan. In conclusion, we do not detect any correlation between the morbidity/mortality of malignant brain tumors and cell phone use in Taiwan. We thus urge international agencies to publish only confirmatory reports with more applicable conclusions in public. This will help spare the public from unnecessary worries.

  12. Correlation of West Nile Virus Incidence in Donated Blood with West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease Rates, United States, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Betsem, Edouard; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Stramer, Susan L.; Shaz, Beth; Sayers, Merlyn; LeParc, German; Custer, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across the United States. We aggregated blood donor data from 2010–2012 and then calculated the incidence of WNV RNA–positive donations and compared the incidence with neuroinvasive disease (NID) case data from the ArboNET surveillance system. Of 10,107,853 donations, 640 were confirmed positive. The seasonal WNV incidence rate per 100,000 persons was 33.4 (95% CI 22–45) in 2010, 25.7 (95% CI 15–34) in 2011, and 119.9 (95% CI 98–141) in 2012. NID to blood donor ratios were 1 in 164 (95% CI 152–178) in 2010, 1 in 158 (95% CI 145–174) in 2011, and 1 in 131 (95% CI 127–136) in 2012. We updated estimates of the ratio of NID to WNV infection rates, demonstrating stable disease penetrance over the study period. Blood donor WNV RNA screening is a valuable public health tool for WNV surveillance. PMID:27935796

  13. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas outlined in this study should

  14. High-Repetition-Rate Grazing-Incidence Pumped X-Ray Laser Operating at 18.9 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, R.; Dunn, J.; Patel, P. K.; Price, D. F.; Smith, R. F.; Shlyaptsev, V. N.

    2005-03-01

    We have demonstrated a 10 Hz Ni-like Mo x-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm with 150 mJ total pump energy by employing a novel pumping scheme. The grazing-incidence scheme is described, where a picosecond pulse is incident at a grazing angle to a Mo plasma column produced by a slab target irradiated by a 200 ps laser pulse. This scheme uses refraction of the short pulse at a predetermined electron density to increase absorption to pump a specific gain region. The higher coupling efficiency inherent to this scheme allows a reduction in the pump energy where 70 mJ long pulse energy and 80 mJ short pulse energy are sufficient to produce lasing at a 10 Hz repetition rate. Under these conditions and by optimizing the delay between the pulses, we achieve strong amplification and close to saturation for 4 mm long targets.

  15. The use of estimated glomerular filtration rate for dose adjustment of medications in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Elinder, Carl-Gustaf; Bárány, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof

    2014-07-01

    Adverse drug effects as a consequence of inappropriate dosage are a common cause of hospitalization among the elderly. Older individuals are at a particular risk of overdosing because their kidney function decreases with advancing age and the elderly are often prescribed several pharmaceutical drugs. In addition, serum creatinine levels decrease owing to a reduction in muscle mass with age. Therefore, drug dosing based on the serum creatinine level only, instead of using assessment of the renal function, may result in overdosing of frail elderly patients. Renal function, i.e., the glomerular filtration rate can, with simple formulas, be estimated from analysis of creatinine and/or plasma cystatin C (eGFR). Such estimations performed with modern and validated formulas, as a rule present renal function normalized to the body surface area (mL/min/1.73 m(2)). A good estimation of how much the normal dosing interval should be prolonged, or the dose reduced, to obtain a desired plasma concentration of drugs that are mainly eliminated by glomerular filtration can be obtained by calculating the ratio between the patient's eGFR and the normal renal function (about 90-125 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Increased knowledge and use of eGFR by prescribing physicians will reduce the risk of overdosing drugs in the elderly.

  16. Uric acid: association with rate of renal function decline and time until start of dialysis in incident pre-dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) hyperuricemia is common. Evidence that hyperuricemia might also play a causal role in vascular disease, hypertension and progression of CKD is accumulating. Therefore, we studied the association between baseline uric acid (UA) levels and the rate of decline in renal function and time until start of dialysis in pre-dialysis patients. Methods Data from the PREPARE-2 study were used. The PREPARE-2 study is an observational prospective cohort study including incident pre-dialysis patients with CKD stages IV-V in the years between 2004 and 2011. Patients were followed for a median of 14.9 months until start of dialysis, kidney transplantation, death, or censoring. Main outcomes were the change in the rate of decline in renal function (measured as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)) estimated using linear mixed models, and time until start of dialysis estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results In this analysis 131 patients were included with a baseline UA level (mean (standard deviation (SD)) of 8.0 (1.79) mg/dl) and a mean decline in renal function of -1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), -2.01; -1.22) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. The change in decline in GFR associated with a unit increase in UA at baseline was -0.14 (95% CI -0.61;0.33, p = 0.55) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. Adjusted for demography, comorbidities, diet, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, proteinuria, diuretic and/or allopurinol usage the change in decline in eGFR did not change. The hazard ratio (HR) for starting dialysis for each mg/dl increase in UA at baseline was 1.08 (95% CI, 0.94;1.24, p = 0.27). After adjustment for the same confounders the HR became significant at 1.26 (95% CI, 1.06;1.49, p = 0.01), indicating an earlier start of dialysis with higher levels of UA. Conclusion Although high UA levels are not associated with an accelerated decline in renal function, a high serum UA level in incident pre

  17. Time trends (1998-2007) in brain cancer incidence rates in relation to mobile phone use in England.

    PubMed

    de Vocht, Frank; Burstyn, Igor; Cherrie, John W

    2011-07-01

    Mobile phone use in the United Kingdom and other countries has risen steeply since the early 1990's when the first digital mobile phones were introduced. There is an ongoing controversy about whether radio frequency (RF) exposure from mobile phones increases the risk of brain cancer. However, given the widespread use and nearly two decades elapsing since mobile phones were introduced, an association should have produced a noticeable increase in the incidence of brain cancer by now. Trends in rates of newly diagnosed brain cancer cases in England between 1998 and 2007 were examined. There were no time trends in overall incidence of brain cancers for either gender, or any specific age group. Systematic increases in rates for cancers of the temporal lobe in men (0.04 new cases/year) and women (0.02/year) were observed, along with decreases in the rates of cancers of the parietal lobe (-0.03/year), cerebrum (-0.02/year) and cerebellum (-0.01/year) in men only. The increased use of mobile phones between 1985 and 2003 has not led to a noticeable change in the incidence of brain cancer in England between 1998 and 2007. The observed increase in the rate of cancers in the temporal lobe, if caused by mobile phone use, would constitute <1 additional case per 100,000 people in that period. These data do not indicate a pressing need to implement a precautionary principle by means of population-wide interventions to reduce RF exposure from mobile phones.

  18. Updated fracture incidence rates for the US version of FRAX (registered trademark)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of results produced by the US version of FRAX (trademarked) indicates that this tool overestimates the likelihood of major osteoporotic fracture. In an attempt to correct this, we updated underlying baseline fracture rates for the model. We used US hospital discharge data from 2006 to ca...

  19. Tracing the incidence of X-ray AGN and their distribution of accretion rates across the galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, James; Coil, Alison; Georgakakis, Antonis; Nandra, Kirpal

    2016-08-01

    X-ray selection provides a powerful method of identifying AGN across a variety of host galaxies and with a wide range of accretion rates. However, careful consideration of the underlying selection biases are vital to reveal the true underlying distribution of accretion rates and determine how the incidence of AGN is related to the properties of the galaxies that host them. I will present new measurements of the distribution of specific accretion rates (scaled relative to the total host galaxy mass, roughly tracing the Eddington ratio) within both star-forming and quiescent galaxy populations. We combine near-infrared selected samples of galaxies from the CANDELS/3D-HST and UltraVISTA surveys with deep Chandra X-ray data and use an advanced Bayesian technique to constrain the underlying distribution of specific accretion rates as a function of stellar mass and redshift. Our results reveal a broad distribution of accretion rates (reflecting long-term variability in the level of AGN fuelling) in both galaxy types. The probability of a star-forming galaxy hosting an AGN (above a fixed specific accretion rate) has a strong stellar mass dependence - revealing an intrinsically higher incidence of AGN in massive star-forming galaxies - and undergoes a stellar-mass-dependent evolution with redshift. The probability of a quiescent galaxy hosting an AGN is generally lower but does not depend on stellar mass and evolves differently with redshift. These results provide vital insights into the relationship between the growth of black hole and the physical properties of their host galaxies.

  20. Prior event rate ratio adjustment for hidden confounding in observational studies of treatment effectiveness: a pairwise Cox likelihood approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan Xuan; Henley, William Edward

    2016-12-10

    Observational studies provide a rich source of information for assessing effectiveness of treatment interventions in many situations where it is not ethical or practical to perform randomized controlled trials. However, such studies are prone to bias from hidden (unmeasured) confounding. A promising approach to identifying and reducing the impact of unmeasured confounding is prior event rate ratio (PERR) adjustment, a quasi-experimental analytic method proposed in the context of electronic medical record database studies. In this paper, we present a statistical framework for using a pairwise approach to PERR adjustment that removes bias inherent in the original PERR method. A flexible pairwise Cox likelihood function is derived and used to demonstrate the consistency of the simple and convenient alternative PERR (PERR-ALT) estimator. We show how to estimate standard errors and confidence intervals for treatment effect estimates based on the observed information and provide R code to illustrate how to implement the method. Assumptions required for the pairwise approach (as well as PERR) are clarified, and the consequences of model misspecification are explored. Our results confirm the need for researchers to consider carefully the suitability of the method in the context of each problem. Extensions of the pairwise likelihood to more complex designs involving time-varying covariates or more than two periods are considered. We illustrate the application of the method using data from a longitudinal cohort study of enzyme replacement therapy for lysosomal storage disorders. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates by Histological Type in 1975–2008: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Fukuaki Lee; Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality is important for the evaluation of cancer control activities. We investigated recent trends in age-standardized incidence rates by histological type of lung cancer in Osaka, Japan. Methods Cancer incidence data for 1975–2008 were obtained from the Osaka Cancer Registry. Lung cancer mortality data with population data in Osaka during 1975–2012 were obtained from vital statistics. We examined trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for all histological types and age-standardized incidence rates by histological type and age group using a joinpoint regression model. Results The age-standardized incidence rate of lung cancer levelled off or slightly increased from 1975–2008, with an annual percentage change of 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%–0.4%) for males and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9%–1.3%) for females, and the mortality rate decreased by 0.9% (95% CI, 1.2%–0.7%) for males and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.8%–0.3%) for females. The incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) and small cell carcinoma (SMC) significantly decreased for both genders, whereas that of adenocarcinoma (ADC) significantly increased among almost all age groups in both genders. Conclusions The incidence rates of SQC and SMC decreased with the decline in smoking prevalence, which probably explains the change in trends in the incidence rates of lung cancer from the mid-1980s. However, the reason for the increase in ADC remains unclear. Therefore, trends in incidence rates of lung cancer should be carefully monitored, especially for ADC, and the associations between ADC and its possible risk factors should be studied. PMID:27150013

  2. Global stability for an HIV-1 infection model with Beddington-DeAngelis incidence rate and CTL immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Cuifang; Huang, Lihong; Yuan, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an HIV-1 infection model with Beddington-DeAngelis incidence rate and CTL immune response is investigated. One main feature of this model is that an eclipse stage for the infected cells is included and a portion of these cells is reverted to uninfected cells. We derive the basic reproduction number R1 and the immune response reproduction number R2 for the HIV-1 infection model. By constructing Lyapunov functions, the global stabilities for the equilibria have been analyzed.

  3. Ultraviolet B Irradiance and Incidence Rates of Bladder Cancer in 174 Countries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Schistosoma hemato- bium is highly prevalent in Egypt, 35 and chronic infection with it has been shown to substantially increase risk of bladder cancer ...rates of bladder cancer in a few European countries may be due in part to the extremely high prevalence of cigarette smok- ing in those countries in the...Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin D. GLOHOCAN 2002: cancer inci- dence, mortality and prevalence worldwide. IARC Cancer Base No.5. version 2.0. www

  4. Multiple confidence intervals for selected parameters adjusted for the false coverage rate in monotone dose-response microarray experiments.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jianan; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Shkedy, Ziv

    2016-12-26

    Benjamini and Yekutieli () introduced the concept of the false coverage-statement rate (FCR) to account for selection when the confidence intervals (CIs) are constructed only for the selected parameters. Dose-response analysis in dose-response microarray experiments is conducted only for genes having monotone dose-response relationship, which is a selection problem. In this paper, we consider multiple CIs for the mean gene expression difference between the highest dose and control in monotone dose-response microarray experiments for selected parameters adjusted for the FCR. A simulation study is conducted to study the performance of the method proposed. The method is applied to a real dose-response microarray experiment with 16, 998 genes for illustration.

  5. The incidence and mortality rates of neuroblastoma cases before and after the cessation of the mass screening program in Japan: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Takafumi; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Katanoda, Kota; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Ito, Yuri; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2017-02-01

    In 2003, Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare halted the neuroblastoma (NB) mass screening program, running since 1985. This study aimed to examine whether NB incidence and mortality changed before and after the program halted. This is a descriptive population-based study. We used data from the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project, Vital Statistics of Japan, and Japanese CANcer Survival Information for Society (J-CANSIS). Incidence rate, cumulative incidence rate, mortality rate, cumulative mortality rate, and relative 5-year survival for NB were calculated. Children were divided into two birth cohort groups, consisting of children born before, or after the cessation of the NB mass screening program. We compared the two cohorts, with regards to the cumulative incidence and mortality rates at 5 years old. The incidence rate was lower after the cessation of the NB mass screening program. There was no substantial change in the mortality rate, and no significant variation in the relative 5-year survival between groups. The cumulative incidence rate in the latter cohort was significantly lower than that in the former cohort (rate ratio: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.25-0.61, p < 0.001). No significant difference in the cumulative mortality rate between the two cohorts was observed (rate ratio: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.80-1.22, p = 0.93). The NB incidence rate decreased markedly and the mortality rate did not substantially change after the cessation of the NB mass screening program. The NB mass screening program probably caused overdiagnosis, and its effectiveness was not clear.

  6. INCIDENCE OF ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA

    PubMed Central

    REED, Susan D.; NEWTON, Katherine M.; CLINTON, Walter L.; EPPLEIN, Meira; GARCIA, Rochelle; ALLISON, Kimberly; VOIGT, Lynda F.; Weiss, Noel S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Estimate age-specific incidence of endometrial hyperplasia: simple, complex, and atypical, in order of increasing likelihood of progression to carcinoma. Study design Women ages 18–90 years with endometrial pathology specimens (1985–2003) at a large integrated health plan were identified using automated data. Incidence rates were obtained by dividing the number of cases by the estimated number of female health plan enrollees who retained a uterus. Results Endometrial hyperplasia peak incidence was: simple-142/100,000 woman-years, complex-213/100,000 woman-years, both in the early 50s; and atypical-56/100,000 woman-years in the early 60s. Age-adjusted incidence decreased over the study period, especially for atypical hyperplasia. Conclusions Endometrial hyperplasia incidence without and with atypia peaks in the early postmenopausal years and in the early 60s, respectively. Given that some cases of endometrial hyperplasia likely go undiagnosed, the figures provided should be viewed as minimum estimates of the true incidence. PMID:19393600

  7. Incidence Rate of Post-Intubation Tracheal Stenosis in Patients Admitted to Five Intensive Care Units in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farzanegan, Roya; Farzanegan, Behrooz; Zangi, Mahdi; Golestani Eraghi, Majid; Noorbakhsh, Shahram; Doozandeh Tabarestani, Neda; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam

    2016-01-01

    Background Tracheal stenosis is one of the worst complications associated with endotracheal intubation and it is the most common reason for reconstructive airway surgeries. Due to various local risk factors, the incidence rate of tracheal stenosis may vary in different countries. In order to estimate the incidence rate of post-intubation tracheal stenosis (PITS) in patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), a follow-up study was planned. As there was no similar methodological model in the literature, a feasibility step was also designed to examine the whole project and to enhance the follow-up rate. Objectives To estimate the PITS incidence rate in patients admitted to ICUs, as well as to evaluate the feasibility of the study. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted in five hospitals in two provinces (Tehran and Arak) of Iran from November 2011 to March 2013. All patients admitted to ICUs who underwent more than 24 hours of endotracheal intubation were included. Upon their discharge from the ICUs, the patients received oral and written educational materials intended to ensure a more successful follow-up. The patients were asked to come back for follow-up three months after their extubation, or sooner in case of any symptoms developing. Those with dyspnea or stridor underwent a bronchoscopy. The asymptomatic patients were given a spirometry and then they underwent a bronchoscopy if the flow-volume loop suggested airway stenosis. Results Some seventy-three patients (70% men) were included in the study. Multiple trauma secondary to motor vehicle accidents (52%) was the most common cause of intubation. Follow-ups were completed in only 14 (19.2%, CI = 0.109 - 0.300) patients. One patient (7%, CI = 0.007 - 0.288) developed symptomatic tracheal stenosis that was confirmed by bronchoscopy. The barriers to a successful follow-up were assessed on three levels: ineffective oral education upon discharge, improper usage of educational materials, and

  8. Modeling the influence of incident angle and deposition rate on a nanostructure grown by oblique angle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun-Dar; Dong, Yu-Wei

    2017-02-01

    In this study, numerical approaches were applied to theoretically investigate the influence of process parameters, such as the incident angle and the deposition rate, on the nanostructural formation of thin films by oblique angle deposition (OAD). A continuum model was first developed, and the atomic diffusion, shadowing effect and steering effect were incorporated in the formation mechanisms of the surface morphology and nanostructure of the deposited films. A characteristic morphology of columnar nanorods corresponding to an OAD was well reproduced through this kinetic model. With the increase of the incident angle, the shadowing effect played a significant role in the columnar structures and the ratio of the surface area to volume was raised, implying a high level of voids in the nanostructures. When the deposition rate decreased, the porosity was notably suppressed due to the atomic diffusion in the growth process. These simulation results coincide well with many experimental observations. With the manipulation of the numerical simulations, the underlying mechanisms of the morphological formation during OAD were revealed, which also provided plentiful information to stimulate the process designs for manufacturing advanced materials.

  9. Risk factors and geographical heterogeneity in unintentional home injuries incidence rate: new evidence based on Multiscopo survey in Italy.

    PubMed

    Snidero, Silvia; Rahim, Yousif; Berchialla, Paola; Gregori, Dario

    2007-12-01

    Home injuries together, with road traffic accidents, are estimated to be the third cause of death in Italy (Arokiasamy and Krishnan 1994). However, as in most other countries, in Italy there is a lack of information on home injuries and on how differences in geographical patterns may influence the scope and magnitude of this phenomenon. By analysing a multipurpose large survey (Multiscopo) carried out annually, geographical heterogeneity in home injuries incidence rate can be investigated. The aim of this study is the assessment of possible differences in geographical patterns among the Italian regions making use of a re-analysis of Multiscopo home injury data. The study results show that Italian regions differ greatly in the number of home injuries. The geographical heterogeneity may be due to the unemployment rate and the incidence of poverty that is greater in the Southern and Insular regions than in other zones. Other socio-economic variables such as alcohol consumption can increase the risk of injury in the home. To prevent them it could be useful to organize campaigns aimed at increasing the awareness among people about this problem.

  10. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Norovirus in the Community and Presenting to Primary Healthcare Facilities in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Sarah J.; Donaldson, Anna L.; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Tam, Clarence C.

    2016-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study and a study of primary-healthcare consultations, we had a rare opportunity to estimate age-specific rates of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease in the United Kingdom. Rates in children aged <5 years were significantly higher than those for other age groups in the community (142.6 cases per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval {CI}, 99.8–203.9] vs 37.6 [95% CI, 31.5–44.7]) and those for individuals presenting to primary healthcare (14.4 cases per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 8.5–24.5] vs 1.4 [95% CI, .9–2.0]). Robust incidence estimates are crucial for vaccination policy makers. This study emphasises the impact of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease, especially in children aged <5 years. PMID:26744427

  11. The Rate of Epistaxis Incidence in New-Generation Anticoagulants and Perioperative Approach in Otorhinolaryngological Practices.

    PubMed

    Gökdoğan, Ozan; Akyildiz, Ilker; Sayin, Begum Yetis; Okutucu, Sercan; Tanalp, Ali Cevat; Arslan, Necmi

    2017-03-01

    Nose bleeding is a common situation seen in otorhinolaryngological practices. One of the greatest risk factors in nose bleeding is the use of anticoagulant medicine. With the medicine developed in recent years, the risk of nose bleeding due to the frequent use of anticoagulant and antiagregant is gradually increasing.The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of especially new-generation anticoagulants on nose bleeding. In addition, the use and complications of new-generation anticoagulants and antiagregants have been compiled in light of information obtained from the literature.Three hundred forty patients whose follow-up is conducted by the cardiology department and who use oral antithrombocytic medicine have been included in the study. It has been determined that 15% of these patients use new-generation oral anticoagulants (Rivaroksaban, apiksaban, dabigatran, danaparoid) and the other patients are treated with conventional antithrombocytic treatment (Aspirin, Warfarin, Enoksaparin sodium). The rate of nose bleeding in patients who use classical anticoagulants has been observed to be 28%. In 30 of these patients who had nose bleeding, while cauterization and buffering by otorhinolaryngology specialists, major intervention has not been necessary for any of the patients. While bleeding has been observed in 26% of the patients who use new-generation anticoagulants, bleeding that required operational intervention has taken place in 2 patients. Bleedings have been stopped surgically through a large number of cauterization and buffering.While the new-generation anticoagulants cause lower rate of bleeding, it has been observed that controlling these bleedings is more difficult.

  12. Severe maternal morbidity from direct obstetric causes in West Africa: incidence and case fatality rates.

    PubMed Central

    Prual, A.; Bouvier-Colle, M. H.; de Bernis, L.; Bréart, G.

    2000-01-01

    Data on maternal morbidity make it possible to assess how many women are likely to need essential obstetric care, and permit the organization, monitoring and evaluation of safe motherhood programmes. In the present paper we propose operational definitions of severe maternal morbidity and report the frequency of such morbidity as revealed in a population-based survey of a cohort of 20,326 pregnant women in six West African countries. The methodology and questionnaires were the same in all areas. Each pregnant woman had four contacts with the obstetric survey team: at inclusion, between 32 and 36 weeks of amenorrhoea, during delivery and 60 days postpartum. Direct obstetric causes of severe morbidity were observed in 1215 women (6.17 cases per 100 live births). This ratio varied significantly between areas, from 3.01% in Bamako to 9.05% in Saint-Louis. The main direct causes of severe maternal morbidity were: haemorrhage (3.05 per 100 live births); obstructed labour (2.05 per 100), 23 cases of which involved uterine rupture (0.12 per 100); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (0.64 per 100), 38 cases of which involved eclampsia (0.19 per 100); and sepsis (0.09 per 100). Other direct obstetric causes accounted for 12.2% of cases. Case fatality rates were very high for sepsis (33.3%), uterine rupture (30.4%) and eclampsia (18.4%); those for haemorrhage varied from 1.9% for antepartum or peripartum haemorrhage to 3.7% for abruptio placentae. Thus at least 3-9% of pregnant women required essential obstetric care. The high case fatality rates of several complications reflected a poor quality of obstetric care. PMID:10859853

  13. Centenarian Rates and Life Expectancy Related to the Death Rates of Multiple Sclerosis, Asthma, and Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Children.

    PubMed

    Lens-Pechakova, Lilia S

    2016-02-01

    The autoimmune diseases are among the 10 leading causes of death for women and the number two cause of chronic illness in America as well as a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Patients of some autoimmune diseases have shown a shorter life span and are a model of accelerated immunosenescence. Conversely, centenarians are used as a model of successful aging and have shown several immune parameters that are better preserved and lower levels of autoantibodies. The study reported here focused on clarifying the connection between longevity and some autoimmune and allergic diseases in 29 developed Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, because multidisciplinary analyses of the accelerated or delayed aging data could show a distinct relationship pattern, help to identify common factors, and determine new important factors that contribute to longevity and healthy aging. The relationships between the mortality rates data of multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), asthma, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) from one side and centenarian rates (two sets) as well as life expectancy data from the other side were assessed using regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients. The data obtained correspond to an inverse linear correlation with different degrees of linearity. This is the first observation of a clear tendency of diminishing centenarian rates or life expectancy in countries having higher death rates of asthma, MS, and RA and a higher incidence of T1D in children. The conclusion is that most probably there are common mechanistic pathways and factors affecting the above diseases and at the same time but in the opposite direction the processes of longevity. Further study, comparing genetic data, mechanistic pathways, and other factors connected to autoimmune diseases with those of longevity could clarify the processes involved, so as to promote longevity and limit the expansion of those

  14. How Elephant Seals (Mirounga leonina) Adjust Their Fine Scale Horizontal Movement and Diving Behaviour in Relation to Prey Encounter Rate

    PubMed Central

    Jouma’a, Joffrey; Picard, Baptiste; Guinet, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diving behaviour of diving predators in relation to concomitant prey distribution could have major practical applications in conservation biology by allowing the assessment of how changes in fine scale prey distribution impact foraging efficiency and ultimately population dynamics. The southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina, hereafter SES), the largest phocid, is a major predator of the southern ocean feeding on myctophids and cephalopods. Because of its large size it can carry bio-loggers with minimal disturbance. Moreover, it has great diving abilities and a wide foraging habitat. Thus, the SES is a well suited model species to study predator diving behaviour and the distribution of ecologically important prey species in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we examined how SESs adjust their diving behaviour and horizontal movements in response to fine scale prey encounter densities using high resolution accelerometers, magnetometers, pressure sensors and GPS loggers. When high prey encounter rates were encountered, animals responded by (1) diving and returning to the surface with steeper angles, reducing the duration of transit dive phases (thus improving dive efficiency), and (2) exhibiting more horizontally and vertically sinuous bottom phases. In these cases, the distance travelled horizontally at the surface was reduced. This behaviour is likely to counteract horizontal displacement from water currents, as they try to remain within favourable prey patches. The prey encounter rate at the bottom of dives decreased with increasing diving depth, suggesting a combined effect of decreased accessibility and prey density with increasing depth. Prey encounter rate also decreased when the bottom phases of dives were spread across larger vertical extents of the water column. This result suggests that the vertical aggregation of prey can regulate prey density, and as a consequence impact the foraging success of SESs. To our knowledge, this is one of

  15. Running Head: Control and Adjustment of the Rate of Photosynthesis Above Present CO{sub 2} Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J. Timothy

    1996-12-01

    The adjustment of photosynthesis to different environmental conditions and especially to elevated CO{sub 2} is often characterized in terms of changes in the processes that establish (limit) the net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate. At slightly above present ambient pCO{sub 2} light-saturated photosynthetic responses to CO{sub 2} depart limitation by the catalytic capacity of tissue rubisco content. An hypothesis attributing this departure to limited thylakoid reaction/electron transport capacity is widely accepted, although we find no experimental evidence in the literature supporting this proposition.. The results of several tests point to the conclusion that the capacity of the thyiakoid reactions cannot be generally responsible for the deviation from rubisco limitation. This conclusion leaves a significant gap in the interpretation of gas exchange responses to CO{sub 2}. Since the inputs to the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (CO{sub 2} and photon-capture/electron-transport products) do not limit photosynthesis on the shoulder of the A=f(c{sub i}) curve, the control of photosynthesis can be characterized as: due to feedback. Several characteristics of gas exchange and fluorescence that occur when steady-states in this region are perturbed by changes in CO{sub 2} or O{sub 2} suggest significant regulation by conditions other than directly by substrate RuBP levels. A strong candidate to explain these responses is the triose-phosphate flux/ inorganic phosphate regulatory sequence, although not all of the gas exchange characteristics expected with ''TPU-limitation'' are present (e.g. oxygen-insensitive photosynthesis). Interest in nitrogen allocation between rubisco and light capture/electron transport as the basis for photosynthetic adjustment to elevated CO{sub 2} may need to be reconsidered as a result of these findings. Contributors to the feedback regulation of photosynthesis (which may include sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose bisphosphatase activities

  16. Improving preemptive transplant education to increase living donation rates: reaching patients earlier in their disease adjustment process.

    PubMed

    Hays, Rebecca; Waterman, Amy D

    2008-12-01

    Patients who receive a preemptive kidney transplant before starting dialysis avoid the medical complications related to dialysis and have the highest graft success and lowest mortality rates. Because only 2.5% of incident patients receive kidney transplants preemptively, improved psychosocial education may assist more patients in accessing preemptive transplant. This article outlines (1) unique psychosocial issues affecting patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4 (glomerular filtration rates > 20 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and (2) how an educational program about preemptive living donor transplant should be designed and administered to increase access to this treatment option. Early referral patients may be overwhelmed in coping with and learning about their disease and, therefore, not ready to make a treatment decision, or they may be highly motivated to obtain a transplant to avoid dialysis and return to a normal life. An education program that defines the quality-of-life and health benefits possible with early transplant is outlined. The program is focused on minimizing the disruption of starting 2 treatment techniques and maximizing early transplant health, graft survival, employability, and retention of insurance coverage. Once the benefits of preemptive living donor transplant are outlined, educators can focus on demystifying the living donor evaluation process and assisting interested patients in planning how to find a living donor. To reach all patients, especially racial minorities, education about preemptive transplant should be available in primary-care physicians' and community nephrologists' offices, at dialysis centers, and through other kidney organizations.

  17. The Incidence Rate and Economic Burden of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in a Working-Age Population

    PubMed Central

    Broulette, Jonah; Yu, Holly; Pyenson, Bruce; Iwasaki, Kosuke; Sato, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently associated with the very young and the elderly but is a largely underrecognized burden among working-age adults. Although the burden of CAP among the elderly has been established, there are limited data on the economic burden of CAP in the employed population. Objective To assess the economic impact of CAP in US working-age adults from an employer perspective by estimating the incidence rate and costs of healthcare, sick time, and short-term disability for this patient population. Methods This retrospective cohort study is based on data from 2 Truven Health Analytics databases. The study population consisted of commercially insured active employees aged 18 to 64 years, early retirees aged <65 years, and adult dependents of both cohorts. CAP was identified using medical claims with pneumonia diagnosis codes during the 2009 calendar year. Incidence rate, episode level, and annual costs were stratified by age and by risk based on the presence of comorbidities. Descriptive statistics were used to compare healthcare (ie, medical and pharmacy) costs, sick time, and short-term disability costs between the cohorts with and without CAP. Linear regression was used to estimate the average annual incremental healthcare cost in employed patients with inpatient or outpatient CAP versus individuals without CAP. Results Study eligibility was met by 12,502,017 employed individuals, including 123,920 with CAP and 12,378,097 without CAP; the overall incidence rate of CAP was 10.6 per 1000 person-years. Among individuals with and without CAP, the costs of healthcare, sick time, and short-term disability increased with advancing age and with higher risk status. The mean annual healthcare costs were $20,961 for patients with CAP and $3783 for individuals without CAP. Overall, the mean costs of sick time and short-term disability were $1129 and $1016, respectively, in active employees with CAP, and $853 and $322, respectively

  18. Comparison of Age- Standard Incidence Rate Trends of Gynecologic and Breast Cancer in Iran and Other Countries

    PubMed Central

    ARAB, Maliheh; NOGHABAEI, Giti

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Female cancer, especially breast and gynecologic cancers are considered multistage disease, highly influenced by risk and protective factors and/or screening preventive modalities. Consequences of all these factors result in the trend of change over time. Methods In this comparative study, based on data of national cancer registry of Iran 2004 published by Iranian Ministry of Health, age — standard incidence rate (ASR) according to the world population was calculated in all reported gynecologic and breast cancers. Source of all subjects are pathologic based. In the next step, the calculated ASR of Iran and those of the other countries in 2004 were compared to GLOBOCAN ASR reports of 2008. Results In Iran ASR of breast cancer 2004 (24.93) changed to 18.4 in 2008. Ovarian cancer ASR of 2004, 3.07 was 3.1 in 2008. Endometrial cancer ASR in 2004 (2.29) was 1.7 in 2008. Cervical cancer ASR of 1.71 in 2004 was 2.2 in 2008. Conclusions In Iran incidence trend of breast and endometrium are decreasing in the same direction of USA and Australia. Increasing trend of ovary and cervix ASR in Iran is in the inverse direction of USA and Australia which are decreasing. Future studies to find out the same trend or any changes, might develop these findings and improve consequent practical decisions based on results of this study and complementary future studies. PMID:26060699

  19. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita; Moonsamy, Suri; Abbai, Nathlee Samantha; Wand, Handan

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002–2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR) were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old), unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole. PMID:27104835

  20. Global Stability of Delayed Viral Infection Models with Nonlinear Antibody and CTL Immune Responses and General Incidence Rate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical behaviors for a five-dimensional viral infection model with three delays which describes the interactions of antibody, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses, and nonlinear incidence rate are investigated. The threshold values for viral infection, antibody response, CTL immune response, CTL immune competition, and antibody competition, respectively, are established. Under certain assumptions, the threshold value conditions on the global stability of the infection-free, immune-free, antibody response, CTL immune response, and interior equilibria are proved by using the Lyapunov functionals method, respectively. Immune delay as a bifurcation parameter is further investigated. The numerical simulations are performed in order to illustrate the dynamical behavior of the model. PMID:28115980

  1. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  2. Quality of drinking water and high incidence rate of esophageal cancer in Golestan province of Iran: a probable link.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Najmeddin, Ali; Rahmani, Farah; Malekzadeh, Ahad

    2012-02-01

    Golestan province in north Iran is known to be a high-risk area for esophageal cancer (EC). Of a long list of multiple risk factors, this study focuses on a possible link between the epidemiologic patterns of EC and the anomalous concentration of some ions and elements in the drinking water sources. A total of 183 samples from 45 villages covering a wide range of EC mortality rates are collected and analyzed. The results demonstrate that NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Sb, and Sr exceed the recommended maximum concentration level (MCL) in drinking water. This is more prominent in the villages with high esophageal cancer mortality rate, suggesting a possible link between EC incidence and water quality. Se concentration in drinking water increases from low to the high EC areas, a finding contrary to the expected trend. It is concluded that Se deficiency does not play a major role in the etiology of EC in the Golestan province. The statistical results obtained from Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests along with cluster analysis are consistent with the observed trend of EC mortality rate in Golestan province.

  3. TACImager: a high frame rate 320 x 256 SPAD time to amplitude converter array with adjustable time zoom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Neil; Parmesan, Luca; Dutton, Neale A. W.; Calder, Neil J.; Henderson, Robert K.

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) in the form of high-resolution imaging pixel arrays are used in 3D cameras, motion-tracking, biomedical and time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) applications. Rapid spatial and temporal zoom onto objects of interest is an attractive feature. We present here novel high-speed time-zoom functionality achieved with the digital readout mode of the TACImager, a 256 x 256 TCSPC image sensor array based on sample and hold Time to Amplitude Converter (TAC) pixels. A column-parallel flash Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC) is implemented in the TACImager to support fast digital readout, allowing per-pixel, 3-bin TCSPC histogramming at frame rates of 4 kfps. New results related to this high-speed mode of operation are presented. The TACImager utilises a global ramp voltage as a timing reference, allowing time-zoom to be achieved through dynamic adjustment of comparator voltages, ramp offset voltages and ramp waveforms. We demonstrate the influence of fixed pattern noise in the pixels and column parallel ADCs on the results.

  4. Changes in Echocardiographic Parameters According to the Rate of Residual Renal Function Decline in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyang Mo; Doh, Fa Mee; Kim, Chan Ho; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Eun Jin; Han, Jae Hyun; Han, Ji Suk; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Residual renal function (RRF) is associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy as well as all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, no studies have yet examined the serial changes in echocardiographic findings according to the rate of RRF decline in incident dialysis patients. A total of 81 patients who started peritoneal dialysis (PD) between 2005 and 2012 at Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea, and who underwent baseline and follow-up echocardiography within the first year of PD were recruited. Patients were dichotomized into “faster” and “slower” RRF decline groups according to the median values of RRF decline slope (−1.60 mL/min/y/1.73 m2). Baseline RRF and echocardiographic parameters were comparable between the 2 groups. During the first year of PD, there were no significant changes in LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), left atrial volume index (LAVI), or LV mass index (LVMI) in the “faster” RRT decline group, while these indices decreased in the “slower” RRT decline group. The rate of RRF decline was a significant determinant of 1-year changes in LVEDVI, LAVI, and LVMI. The linear mixed model further confirmed that there were significant differences in the changes in LVEDVI, LAVI, and LVMI between the 2 groups (P = 0.047, 0.048, and 0.001, respectively). During a mean follow-up duration of 31.9 months, 4 (4.9%) patients died. Compared with the “slower” RRF decline group, CV composite (20.29/100 vs 7.18/100 patient-years [PY], P = 0.098), technique failure (18.80/100 vs 4.19/100 PY, P = 0.006), and PD peritonitis (15.73/100 vs 4.95/100 PY, P = 0.064) developed more frequently in patients with “faster” RRF decline rate. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, patients with “faster” RRF decline rate showed 4.82-, 4.44-, and 7.37-fold higher risks, respectively, for each clinical outcome. Preservation of RRF is important for

  5. Incidence rate of type 2 diabetes is >50% lower in GrassrootsHealth cohort with median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 41 ng/ml than in NHANES cohort with median of 22 ng/ml.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, S L; Baggerly, L L; French, C B; Heaney, R P; Gorham, E D; Holick, M F; Scragg, R; Garland, C F

    2016-01-01

    Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. This study compared incidence rates of type 2 diabetes among participants aged ≥20 years in two U.S. cohorts with markedly different median 25(OH)D concentrations. The median 25(OH)D concentration in the GrassrootsHealth (GRH) cohort was 41 ng/ml (N=4933) while in the 2005-6 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) it was 22 ng/ml (N=4078) (P<0.0001). The adjusted annual incidence rate of type 2 diabetes was 3.7 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval=1.9, 6.6) in the GRH cohort, compared to 9.3 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval=6.7, 12.6) in NHANES. In the NHANES cohort, the lowest 25(OH)D tertiles (<17, 17-24 ng/ml) had higher odds of developing diabetes than the highest tertile (OR: 4.9, P=0.02 and 4.8, P=0.01 respectively), adjusting for covariates. Differences in demographics and methods may have limited comparability. Raising serum 25(OH)D may be a useful tool for reducing risk of diabetes in the population.

  6. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  7. Comparison of the Postoperative Incidence Rate of Capsular Contracture among Different Breast Implants: A Cumulative Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Fuqiang; Gao, Yang; Yuan, Xi; Fan, Dongli

    2015-01-01

    Background A large number of clinical studies have reported that the different materials used in breast implants were a possible cause of the different incidence rates of capsular contracture observed in patients after implantation. However, this theory lacks comprehensive support from evidence-based medicine, and considerable controversy remains. Objectives In this study, a cumulative systematic review examined breast augmentation that used implants with textured or smooth surfaces to analyze the effects of these two types of implants on the occurrence of postoperative capsular contracture. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of literature databases, including PubMed and EMBASE, for clinical reports on the incidence of capsular contracture after the implantation of breast prostheses. We performed a cumulative meta-analysis on the incidence of capsular contracture in order from small to large sample sizes and conducted subgroup analyses according to the prosthetic material used, the implant pocket placement, the incision type and the duration of follow-up. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used as the final pooled statistics. Results This meta-analysis included 16 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two retrospective studies. The cumulative comparison of textured and smooth breast implants showed statistical significance at 2.13 (95% CI, 1.18-3.86) when the fourth study was entered into the analysis. With the inclusion of more reports, the final results indicated that smooth breast implants were more likely to be associated with capsular contracture, with statistical significance at 3.10 (95% CI, 2.23-4.33). In the subgroup analyses, the subgroups based on implant materials included the silicone implant group and the saline implant group, with significant pooled statistical levels of 4.05 (95% CI, 1.97-8.31) and 3.12 (95% CI, 2.19-4.42), respectively. According to implant pocket placement, a subglandular group and a submuscular

  8. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Rate* for Suicide,(†) by Sex - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 1975-2015.

    PubMed

    2017-03-17

    There was an overall decline of 24% in the age-adjusted suicide rate from 1977 (13.7 per 100,000) to 2000 (10.4). The rate increased in most years from 2000 to 2015. The 2015  suicide rate (13.3) was 28% higher than in 2000. The rates for males and females  followed the overall pattern; however, the rate for males was approximately 3-5 times higher than the rate for females throughout the study period.

  9. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-09-16

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations.

  10. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis: A 5-year nationwide population-based study in a country with an intermediate tuberculosis burden.

    PubMed

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis.We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20-99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population.A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17-2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57-3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36-1.51).The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies.

  11. Large-Amplitude, High-Rate Roll Oscillations of a 65 deg Delta Wing at High Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Schiff, Lewis B.

    2000-01-01

    The IAR/WL 65 deg delta wing experimental results provide both detail pressure measurements and a wide range of flow conditions covering from simple attached flow, through fully developed vortex and vortex burst flow, up to fully-stalled flow at very high incidence. Thus, the Computational Unsteady Aerodynamics researchers can use it at different level of validating the corresponding code. In this section a range of CFD results are provided for the 65 deg delta wing at selected flow conditions. The time-dependent, three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are used to numerically simulate the unsteady vertical flow. Two sting angles and two large- amplitude, high-rate, forced-roll motions and a damped free-to-roll motion are presented. The free-to-roll motion is computed by coupling the time-dependent RANS equations to the flight dynamic equation of motion. The computed results are compared with experimental pressures, forces, moments and roll angle time history. In addition, surface and off-surface flow particle streaks are also presented.

  12. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  13. A Case for Adjusting Subjectively Rated Scores in the Advanced Placement Tests. Program Statistics Research. Technical Report No. 94-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    A case is presented for adjusting the scores for free response items in the Advanced Placement (AP) tests. Using information about the rating process from the reliability studies, administrations of the AP test for three subject areas, psychology, computer science, and English language and composition, are analyzed. In the reliability studies, 299…

  14. 42 CFR 484.220 - Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and area wage levels. 484.220 Section 484.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  15. 42 CFR 484.220 - Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and area wage levels. 484.220 Section 484.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  16. Adjustment for gas exchange threshold enhances precision of heart rate-derived VO2 estimates during heavy exercise.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, Robert W; Symons, J David; Taylor, Julie E; Eisenman, Patricia A; White, Andrea T

    2008-02-01

    Overestimates of oxygen uptake (VO2) are derived from the heart rate reserve-VO2 reserve (HRR-VO2R) model. We tested the hypothesis that adjusting for differences above and below gas exchange threshold (HRR-GET model) would tighten the precision of HR-derived VO2 estimates during heavy exercise. Seven men and 7 women of various VO2 max levels, on 2 separate days, cycled for 6 min at intensities equal to power at GET, 15% the difference between GET and VO2 max (15% above), and at 30% above GET. A second bout at 15% above GET (15% above (bout 2)) after 3 min of recovery was performed to assess estimates during interval training. Actual VO2 was compared with estimates derived from the HRR-VO2R and the HRR-GET. VO2 values were summed over the 6 min duration of data collection (6 min LO2) and compared with Bland-Altman plots. HRR-VO2R yielded 6 min LO2 (+/-2 SD) overestimates of 2.0 (+/-2.5), 1.9 (+/-2.7), and 1.3 (+/-3.3) for GET, 15% over, and 30% over, respectively, whereas corresponding 6 min LO2 difference values for the HRR-GET model were -0.42 (+/-1.6), -0.23 (+/-1.1), and -0.55 (+/-1.8), respectively. For 15% above (bout 2), the 6 min LO2 difference for HRR-VO2R was 1.8 (+/-2.9), whereas the difference for HRR-GET was 0.17 (+/-1.4). The 6 min LO2 values relative to the subjects' VO2 max did not vary (r=0.05 to 0.36); therefore, fitness level did not affect estimates. Sex did not affect accuracy of either estimate model (sex X estimate model interaction, p>0.95). We observed accurate estimates from the HRR-GET model during heavy exercise.

  17. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013): an analysis of population-based data in relation to socioeconomic changes

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Tomasz; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Nieweglowska, Dorota; Ludwin, Artur; Czerw, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC), corpus uteri cancer (CUC), and ovarian cancer (OC) in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes. Materials and methods Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013) were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013) were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Results A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21), with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93) was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74). After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49), as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). Conclusion After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in mortality rate was observed for BC and OC predominantly at the end of the study period, while for CUC, after a long decreasing mortality trend, a significant increase was observed. PMID:27660470

  18. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  19. True rise in anaphylaxis incidence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Byung-Keun; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The incidence trend of anaphylaxis in Asia is not well investigated. The aim of this study is to estimate the entire population-based incidence of anaphylaxis in Korea using a nationwide administrative database. Data over a 7-year period (2008–2014) was obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database which covers 97.9% of the entire Korean population. Using diagnosis codes from the International Classification of Diseases-10 for anaphylaxis (T78.0, T78.2, T80.5, and T88.6), we identified the annual number of patients who had visited any hospital with a primary diagnosis of anaphylaxis. Incidence rates were calculated using the population distribution data of all NHI beneficiaries. The incidence of anaphylaxis in Korea was 32.19 episodes per 100,000 person-years in 2014, which nearly doubled from 2008 (16.02 episodes per 100,000 person-years). The incidence of anaphylaxis increased continuously throughout these years regardless of gender and age groups (P for trend < 0.001). Female was significantly less predisposed than male (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confident interval [CI], 0.66–0.72; P < 0.001). The incidence was the lowest in 0 to 19 age group and the highest in 40 to 69 age group (adjusted OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 2.29–2.54; P < 0.001). In conclusion, we report the increasing time trend of anaphylaxis incidence rates using nationwide claims database for the first time in Asia. PMID:28151851

  20. Trends in the annual incidence rates of narcotics felons arrested over the last 30 years in metropolitan Bursa, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akgoz, Semra; Akkaya, Cengiz; Berkay, Fugen; Turkmen, Nursel; Kan, Ismet; Kirli, Selcuk

    2007-07-01

    Illegal substance use is a serious problem all over the world. In order to effectively combat substance abuse it is important that both the particular features of drug users and the culture-specific risk factors that go along with drug abuse be identified. The present study was carried out in Bursa, Turkey, in order to document annual changes in the frequency of felons arrested of narcotics offenses and to establish the socio-demographics of these narcotics felons. Among the 2,230 narcotics felons reviewed, 24.3% had been charged with drug dealing but not consumption (profit-driven felons [PDFs]), 19.0% were narcotics felons charged with both dealing and consumption ([hard core drug users HCDUs]), and 56.7% were narcotics felons charged only with consumption and possession (not so hard core drug users [NHCDUs]). The NHCDUs were younger (< 30 years) than both the HCDUs and PDFs, while most of the PDFs and HCDUs were married. Despite the fact that the male/female ratio of the Bursa population was nearly 1:1 for the past 30 years, 93.0%, 95.0% and 96.0% of the PDFs, HCDUs, and NHCDUs, respectively, were male. It was also found that the most commonly used illicit substance in Bursa over this period of time was cannabis. Over the course of the 30-year period examined, the annual incidence rate of narcotics felons arrested increased from 0.4257 per 10,000 to 1.2389 per 10,000. Determining the socio-demographic characteristics of HCDUs and NHCDUs would be useful in preventing substance use before substance users become addicted.

  1. Time Trends over 16 Years in Incidence-Rates of Autism Spectrum Disorders across the Lifespan Based on Nationwide Danish Register Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated time trends and associated factors of incidence rates of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan from 1995 to 2010, using data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. First time diagnosis of childhood autism, atypical autism, Asperger's syndrome, or pervasive developmental…

  2. Sex differences in the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases in Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, and a comparison with other rates published worldwide.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2016-09-01

    Many skin and skin-related diseases affect the sexes unequally, with attendant implications for public health and resource allocation. To evaluate better the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases affecting males vs. females, we reviewed published population-based epidemiology studies of skin disorders performed utilizing Rochester Epidemiology Project data. Females had a higher incidence of the following diseases: connective tissue diseases (scleroderma, morphea, dermatomyositis, primary Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus [not in all studies]), pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, condyloma acuminatum, hidradenitis suppurativa, herpes zoster (except in children), erythromelalgia, venous stasis syndrome, and venous ulcers. Males had a higher incidence of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, basal cell carcinoma (exception, females aged ≤40 years), squamous cell carcinoma, and lentigo maligna. Incidence rates were equal in males and females for cutaneous malignant melanoma (exception, higher in females aged 18-39 years), lower-extremity cellulitis, cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, Behçet disease, delusional infestation, alopecia areata, and bullous pemphigoid. Many of the population-based sex-specific incidence rates of skin and skin-related diseases derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project are strikingly different from those estimated elsewhere. In general, females are more commonly affected by skin and skin-related diseases. The reasons for this imbalance remain to be determined and are likely multifactorial.

  3. Are sociodemographic characteristics associated with spatial variation in the incidence of OHCA and bystander CPR rates? A population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Janet E; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background Rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have been shown to vary considerably in Victoria. We examined the extent to which this variation could be explained by the sociodemographic and population health characteristics of the region. Methods Using the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry, we extracted OHCA cases occurring between 2011 and 2013. We restricted the calculation of bystander CPR rates to those arrests that were witnessed by a bystander. To estimate the level of variation between Victorian local government areas (LGAs), we used a two-stage modelling approach using random-effects modelling. Results Between 2011 and 2013, there were 15 830 adult OHCA in Victoria. Incidence rates varied across the state between 41.9 to 104.0 cases/100 000 population. The proportion of the population over 65, socioeconomic status, smoking prevalence and education level were significant predictors of incidence in the multivariable model, explaining 93.9% of the variation in incidence among LGAs. Estimates of bystander CPR rates for bystander witnessed arrests varied from 62.7% to 73.2%. Only population density was a significant predictor of rates in a multivariable model, explaining 73% of the variation in the odds of receiving bystander CPR among LGAs. Conclusions Our results show that the regional characteristics which underlie the variation seen in rates of bystander CPR may be region specific and may require study in smaller areas. However, characteristics associated with high incidence and low bystander CPR rates can be identified and will help to target regions and inform local interventions to increase bystander CPR rates. PMID:27821597

  4. Derivation of effective penetration depth of femtosecond laser pulses in metal from ablation rate dependence on laser fluence, incidence angle, and polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiro; Hashida, Masaki; Nishii, Takaya; Inoue, Shunsuke; Sakabe, Shuji

    2015-01-05

    Ablation rate dependence on laser fluence for copper subjected to oblique femtosecond laser irradiation has been determined experimentally in order to investigate processing induced by oblique irradiation. A difference of ablation rate between p-polarized and s-polarized oblique irradiation is clearly observed. Effective penetration depth is defined to explain the ablation rate dependence instead of using optical penetration depth, which is treated as a key value for determining the ablation rate in conventional theory. The effective penetration depth for copper is presented in simple formulas as a function of laser incidence angle for each polarization.

  5. 48 CFR 252.216-7008 - Economic price adjustment-wage rates or material prices controlled by a foreign government...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-wage rates or material prices controlled by a foreign government-representation. 252.216-7008 Section... Clauses 252.216-7008 Economic price adjustment—wage rates or material prices controlled by a foreign... Adjustment—Wage Rates or Material Prices Controlled by a Foreign Government—Representation (MAR 2012) (a)...

  6. Age-specific and age-standardised incidence rates for intraoral squamous cell carcinoma in blacks on the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Altini, M; Kola, A H

    1985-12-01

    All new cases of intraoral squamous cell carcinoma which occurred in Blacks resident on the Witwatersrand during the 10-yr period 1971-80 were traced by examining the records of all the hospital pathology departments in this area. The population at risk at the mid-point of the study (1975) was calculated from the National Population Censuses of 1970 and 1980, and consisted of 1125960 men and 880269 women. Age-specific incidence rates and age-standardised incidence rates were calculated for each intraoral site for men and women. In the latter calculation a standard World population was used. All rates are expressed as average number of cases per 100000 population per annum. The age-specific incidence rates and age-standardised incidence rates (in brackets) for men and women respectively are: tongue, 1.43 and 0.26 (2.69 and 0.41); gingiva and alveolar ridge, 0.04 and 0.01 (0.07 and 0.01); floor of mouth, 0.87 and 0.22 (1.64 and 0.38); buccal mucosa, 0.05 and 0.04 (0.13 and 0.05); hard and soft palate, 0.34 and 0.05 (0.63 and 0.08). There appears to have been an increase in the incidence of intraoral cancer in Black South Africans since the first survey in 1953-55, which can probably be ascribed to the urbanization process. In Europe, North America and in other population groups in South Africa, the palate is least frequently affected. In contrast, in Black South Africans lesions of the palate are much more common, being less frequent only than tongue and floor of mouth lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Test facility for advanced electric adjustable frequency drives and generators of typical industrial ratings. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    A test facility has been developed, for electric adjustable-speed motors and variable-speed generators, that is unique in US universities in terms of its range (5 to 300 hp currently with 0.1 to 1,000 hp final capability) and flexibility (standard NEMA frame and novel geometry machines can be accommodated). The basic facility was constructed with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute. The instrumentation obtained under this DOE grant has been integrated into the facility which was completed in Fall 1997. The facility has already provided useful studies for DOE, EPRI, as well as several West Coast industries and electric energy utilities.

  8. Adjustable Nyquist-rate System for Single-Bit Sigma-Delta ADC with Alternative FIR Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Vincent; Dadouche, Foudil; Berviller, Hervé

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new smart and compact system dedicated to control the output sampling frequency of an analogue-to-digital converters (ADC) based on single-bit sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulator. This system dramatically improves the spectral analysis capabilities of power network analysers (power meters) by adjusting the ADC's sampling frequency to the input signal's fundamental frequency with a few parts per million accuracy. The trade-off between straightforwardness and performance that motivated the choice of the ADC's architecture are preliminary discussed. It particularly comes along with design considerations of an ultra-steep direct-form FIR that is optimised in terms of size and operating speed. Thanks to compact standard VHDL language description, the architecture of the proposed system is particularly suitable for application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) implementation-oriented low-power and low-cost power meter applications. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) prototyping and experimental results validate the adjustable sampling frequency concept. They also show that the system can perform better in terms of implementation and power capabilities compared to dedicated IP resources.

  9. Incidence rates and deaths of tuberculosis in HIV-negative patients in the United States and Germany as analyzed by new predictive model for infection.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yudong; Ding, Fan; Suo, Siqingaowa; Bu, Ri-e; Zarlenga, Dante S; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    Incidence and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) have been decreasing worldwide. Given that TB is a cosmopolitan disease, proper surveillance and evaluation are critical for controlling dissemination. Herein, mathematical modeling was performed in order to: 1) demonstrate a correlation between the incidence of TB in HIV-free patients in the US and Germany, and their corresponding mortality rates; 2) show the utility of the newly developed D-R algorithm for analyzing and predicting the incidence of TB in both countries; and 3) inform us on population death rates due to TB in HIV-negative patients. Using data published by the World Health Organization between 1990 and 2009, the relationship between incidence and mortality that could not be ascribed to HIV infection was evaluated. Using linear, quadratic and cubic curves, we found that a cubic function provided the best fit with the data in both the US (Y = 2.3588+2.2459X+61.1639X(2)-60.104X(3)) and Germany (Y = 1.9271+9.4967X+18.3824X(2)-10.350X(3)) where the correlation coefficient (R) between incidence and mortality was 0.995 and 0.993, respectively. Second, we demonstrated that fitted curves using the D-R model were equal to or better than those generated using the GM(1,1) algorithm as exemplified in the relative values for Sum of Squares of Error, Relative Standard Error, Mean Absolute Deviation, Average Relative Error, and Mean Absolute Percentage Error. Finally, future trends using both the D-R and the classic GM(1,1) models predicted a continued decline in infection and mortality rates of TB in HIV-negative patients rates extending to 2015 assuming no changes to diagnosis or treatment regimens are enacted.

  10. A poly(glycerol sebacate)-coated mesoporous bioactive glass scaffold with adjustable mechanical strength, degradation rate, controlled-release and cell behavior for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan; Yang, Kai; Tang, Wei; Liu, Yutong; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-07-01

    Various requirements in the field of tissue engineering have motivated the development of three-dimensional scaffold with adjustable physicochemical properties and biological functions. A series of multiparameter-adjustable mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds with uncrosslinked poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) coating was prepared in this article. MBG scaffold was prepared by a modified F127/PU co-templating process and then PGS was coated by a simple adsorption and lyophilization process. Through controlling macropore parameters and PGS coating amount, the mechanical strength, degradation rate, controlled-release and cell behavior of the composite scaffold could be modulated in a wide range. PGS coating successfully endowed MBG scaffold with improved toughness and adjustable mechanical strength covering the bearing range of trabecular bone (2-12MPa). Multilevel degradation rate of the scaffold and controlled-release rate of protein from mesopore could be achieved, with little impact on the protein activity owing to an "ultralow-solvent" coating and "nano-cavity entrapment" immobilization method. In vitro studies indicated that PGS coating promoted cell attachment and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting the osteogenic induction capacity of MBG substrate. These results first provide strong evidence that uncrosslinked PGS might also yield extraordinary achievements in traditional MBG scaffold. With the multiparameter adjustability, the composite MBG/PGS scaffolds would have a hopeful prospect in bone tissue engineering. The design considerations and coating method of this study can also be extended to other ceramic-based artificial scaffolds and are expected to provide new thoughts on development of future tissue engineering materials.

  11. Racial and Gender Disparities in Incidence of Lung and Bronchus Cancer in the United States: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Mohammad A.; Kengwoung-Keumo, Jean-Jacques; Oates, Gabriela R.; Guemmegne, Juliette T.; Akinlawon, Akinola; Ekadi, Green; Fouad, Mona N.; Singh, Karan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain population groups in the United States carry a disproportionate burden of cancer. This work models and analyzes the dynamics of lung and bronchus cancer age-adjusted incidence rates by race (White and Black), gender (male and female), and prevalence of daily smoking in 38 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and across eight U.S. geographic regions from 1999 to 2012. Methods Data, obtained from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Section of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reflect approximately 77% of the U.S. population and constitute a representative sample for making inferences about incidence rates in lung and bronchus cancer (henceforth lung cancer). A longitudinal linear mixed-effects model was used to study lung cancer incidence rates and to estimate incidence rate as a function of time, race, gender, and prevalence of daily smoking. Results Between 1999 and 2012, age-adjusted incidence rates in lung cancer have decreased in all states and regions. However, racial and gender disparities remain. Whites continue to have lower age-adjusted incidence rates for this cancer than Blacks in all states and in five of the eight U.S. geographic regions. Disparities in incidence rates between Black and White men are significantly larger than those between Black and White women, with Black men having the highest incidence rate of all subgroups. Assuming that lung cancer incidence rates remain within reasonable range, the model predicts that the gender gap in the incidence rate for Whites would disappear by mid-2018, and for Blacks by 2026. However, the racial gap in lung cancer incidence rates among Black and White males will remain. Among all geographic regions, the Mid-South has the highest overall lung cancer incidence rate and the highest incidence rate for Whites, while the Midwest has the highest incidence rate for Blacks. Between 1999 and 2012, there was a downward trend in the prevalence of daily smokers in both genders. However, males

  12. 48 CFR 252.216-7003 - Economic price adjustment-wage rates or material prices controlled by a foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-wage rates or material prices controlled by a foreign government. 252.216-7003 Section 252.216-7003... Economic price adjustment—wage rates or material prices controlled by a foreign government. As prescribed... Prices Controlled by a Foreign Government (MAR 2012) (a) As represented by the Contractor in its...

  13. 48 CFR 252.216-7003 - Economic price adjustment-wage rates or material prices controlled by a foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Economic price adjustment—wage rates or material prices controlled by a foreign government. As prescribed in 216.203-4-70(c), use the following clause: Economic Price Adjustment—Wage Rates or Material Prices... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic price...

  14. 76 FR 5811 - Adjusted Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP) Rate for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Assistance Percentage Rates for Federal Matching Shares for Medicaid and Title IV-E Foster Care, Adoption... of the ARRA provides for a temporary increase in FMAP rates for Medicaid and title IV-E Foster Care... (including Foster Care, Adoption Assistance and Guardianship Assistance programs) only to the extent of...

  15. External Validation of a Case-Mix Adjustment Model for the Standardized Reporting of 30-Day Stroke Mortality Rates in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ping; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, Yongjun; Wang, Xianwei; Liu, Liping; Ji, Ruijun; Meng, Xia; Jing, Jing; Tong, Xu; Guo, Li; Wang, Yilong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose A case-mix adjustment model has been developed and externally validated, demonstrating promise. However, the model has not been thoroughly tested among populations in China. In our study, we evaluated the performance of the model in Chinese patients with acute stroke. Methods The case-mix adjustment model A includes items on age, presence of atrial fibrillation on admission, National Institutes of Health Stroke Severity Scale (NIHSS) score on admission, and stroke type. Model B is similar to Model A but includes only the consciousness component of the NIHSS score. Both model A and B were evaluated to predict 30-day mortality rates in 13,948 patients with acute stroke from the China National Stroke Registry. The discrimination of the models was quantified by c-statistic. Calibration was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results The c-statistic of model A in our external validation cohort was 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.79–0.82), and the c-statistic of model B was 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.81–0.84). Excellent calibration was reported in the two models with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (0.892 for model A, p<0.001; 0.927 for model B, p = 0.008). Conclusions The case-mix adjustment model could be used to effectively predict 30-day mortality rates in Chinese patients with acute stroke. PMID:27846282

  16. Injury prevention target groups in soccer: injury characteristics and incidence rates in male junior and senior players.

    PubMed

    Schmikli, Sandor L; de Vries, Wouter R; Inklaar, Han; Backx, Frank J G

    2011-05-01

    To identify target groups for injury prevention in male amateur soccer players under 35 years of age. A computer-assisted telephone survey with a 12-month recall period for injuries in a representative sample of Dutch citizens from the Injuries and Physical Activity Netherlands (IPAN)-database. A comparison of the volume of soccer injuries, the incidence and the need for medical attention per level of exposure and age category. The incidence in seniors was twice that of juniors (17.5% versus 8.1%; odds ratio (OR=2.4). In juniors the overall incidence was lowest in the category with the least amount of soccer exposure time (0-3 h: 2.9%; 3-5 h: 13.0%; 5+ h: 12.3%). A comparable result was found in seniors: (0-3 h: 12.0%; 3-5 h: 21.6%; 5+ h: 21.5%). Within each level of soccer exposure, a different incidence was found in juniors and seniors (0-3 h: OR=4.6; 3-5 h: OR=1.8; 5+ h: OR=1.9). Ankle, knee and upper leg injuries were most common (59.9%). Contusions, strains and sprains dominated (78.1%). Body region and type of injuries were similar in both age categories. Medical treatment for injuries was equally necessary in both age groups. Senior male amateur soccer players and particularly the more skilled seniors (involved in soccer at least 3 h per week), should be primarily targeted for studies on injury risk factors and prevention programs.

  17. Risk factors associated with the incidence rate of clinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Msami, H M

    2007-05-01

    Smallholder dairy herds around the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania supply 86% of raw milk consumed by the city dwellers. Previous studies have indicated that clinical mastitis is an important disease affecting smallholder dairy cows and an 18-month questionnaire-based longitudinal field-study was conducted between July 2003 and March 2005 to elucidate risk factors associated with the incidence. A total of 6057 quarter-level observations from 317 lactating cows on 87 randomly selected smallholder dairy herds were analysed at the quarter and cow level using logistic and Poisson regression models, respectively. At the quarter level, the average incidence rate of clinical mastitis was 38.4 cases per 100 quarter-years at risk whereas at the cow level the incidence rate was 43.3 cases per 100 cow-years at risk. The incidence was significantly (P< or =0.001) associated with cow factors (body condition score, parity, stage of lactation, and udder consistency), housing (floor type) conditions and milking (cow and udder preparation) practices. It was concluded that the extrapolation of the classic ten-point mastitis control plan into smallholder dairy herds should be undertaken cautiously. An integrated approach to dairy extension should focus more on the creation of mastitis awareness among smallholder producers and on the improvement of animal nutrition and reproduction indices-factors that may also have a direct impact on milk yield.

  18. Anal human papillomavirus in HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men: incidence and clearance rates, duration of infection, and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Donà, M G; Vescio, M F; Latini, A; Giglio, A; Moretto, D; Frasca, M; Benevolo, M; Rollo, F; Colafigli, M; Cristaudo, A; Giuliani, M

    2016-12-01

    Little is known regarding the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We aimed to evaluate incidence and clearance rates, their risk factors, and duration of anal HPV infection in HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM). A longitudinal study was conducted. Anal samples were analysed using the Linear Array HPV Genotyping test. Incidence and clearance rates, and corresponding risk factors, were estimated using a two-state Markov model. Overall, 155 MSM (median age 33.4 years) attending the largest sexually transmitted infection (STI) centre in Rome, Italy, were followed for a median of 12.2 months (Q1-Q3: 7.0-18.1). Incidence and clearance rates for any HPV were 85.6 (95% CI: 58.4-125.4) and 35.6 (95% CI: 24.7-51.5) × 1000 person-months, respectively; the median duration of infection was 9.4 months (Q1-Q3: 7.5-12.1). Receptive anal sex emerged as the only risk factor for the acquisition of any HPV (Hazard Ratio, HR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.16-6.06). The incidence rates for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic types were 42.3 (95% CI: 29.2-61.4) and 29.2 (95% CI: 19.5-43.7) × 1000 person-months, respectively (p = 0.13); their clearance rates were 62.9 (95% CI: 45.1-87.7) and 65.7 (95% CI: 47.4-91.0) × 1000 person-months, respectively (p = 0.83). HPV16 showed the lowest clearance rate among carcinogenic types (59.7 × 1000 person-months), and a duration of infection of 16.8 months. In conclusion, a higher incidence rate was observed for carcinogenic compared to non-carcinogenic HPV types, although the difference was not significant. HPV16 emerged as the type with the longest duration of infection and the lowest clearance rate among carcinogenic types.

  19. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Loebner, Keith T. K. Underwood, Thomas C.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2015-06-15

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated.

  20. 5 CFR 9701.337 - Treatment of employees whose rate of pay falls below the minimum adjusted rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Treatment of employees whose rate of pay... a result of that rating, DHS must— (1) If the employee demonstrates performance that meets or... action procedures established in subpart F of this part. (b) If DHS fails to initiate a removal...

  1. Relationship of Self-Rated Health to Stroke Incidence and Mortality in Older Individuals with and without a History of Stroke: A Longitudinal Study of the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing (CFAS) Population

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nahal; van der Linde, Rianne; Parker, Richard; Savva, George; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Brayne, Carol; Mant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been associated with increased risk of death and poor health outcomes even after adjusting for confounders. However its’ relationship with disease-specific mortality and morbidity has been less studied. SRH may also be particularly predictive of health outcomes in those with pre-existing conditions. We studied whether SRH predicts new stroke in older people who have never had a stroke, or a recurrence in those with a prior history of stroke. Methods MRC CFAS I is a multicentre cohort study of a population representative sample of people in their 65th year and older. A comprehensive interview at baseline included questions about presence of stroke, self-rated health and functional disability. Follow-up at 2 years included self-report of stroke and stroke death obtained from death certificates. Multiple logistical regression determined odds of stroke at 2 years adjusting for confounders including disability and health behaviours. Survival analysis was performed until June 2014 with follow-up for up to 13 years. Results 11,957 participants were included, of whom 11,181 (93.8%) had no history of stroke and 776 (6.2%) one or more previous strokes. Fewer with no history of stroke reported poor SRH than those with stroke (5 versus 21%). In those with no history of stroke, poor self-rated health predicted stroke incidence (OR 1.5 (1.1–1.9)), but not stroke mortality (OR 1.2 (0.8–1.9)) at 2 years nor for up to 13 years (OR 1.2(0.9–1.7)). In those with a history of stroke, self-rated health did not predict stroke incidence (OR 0.9(0.6–1.4)), stroke mortality (OR 1.1(0.5–2.5)), or survival (OR 1.1(0.6–2.1)). Conclusions Poor self-rated health predicts risk of stroke at 2 years but not stroke mortality among the older population without a previous history of stroke. SRH may be helpful in predicting who may be at risk of developing a stroke in the near future. PMID:26928666

  2. Constipation and Incident CKD.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-04-01

    Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope <-10, -10 to <-5, and -5 to <-1 versus -1 to <0 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.20; 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.09; and 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.03, respectively). More severe constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  3. 77 FR 66966 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2014-2015 Proposed Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments; Public Hearing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... customers with Contract High Water Mark (CHWM) contracts from proposing changes to the TRM's ratesetting... Water Mark (RHWM) Process Under the Tiered Rate Methodology (TRM), BPA has established FY 2014-2015... service to their load above high water mark. About 75 percent of BPA's power revenues are paid under...

  4. 76 FR 32204 - Adjusted Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP) Rates for the Second and Third Quarters of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Foster Care, Adoption Assistance and Guardianship Assistance programs. AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... of the ARRA provides for a temporary increase in FMAP rates for Medicaid and title ] IV-E Foster Care... available for expenditures under part E of title IV of the Act (including Foster Care, Adoption...

  5. Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Alghamdi, Mansour M; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32), followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07), and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69) than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men). Conclusion A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the highest incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases. Finally, Jouf had the highest changes in crude incidence rate and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of NHL among Saudi men. PMID:25028562

  6. Incidence of herpes zoster, 1997-2002.

    PubMed Central

    Mullooly, J. P.; Riedlinger, K.; Chun, C.; Weinmann, S.; Houston, H.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated age-specific herpes zoster (HZ) incidence rates in the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Health Plan (KPNW) during 1997-2002 and tested for secular trends and differences between residents of two states with different varicella vaccine coverage rates. The cumulative proportions of 2-year-olds vaccinated increased from 35% in 1997 to 85% in 2002 in Oregon, and from 25% in 1997 to 82% in 2002 in Washington. Age-specific HZ incidence rates in KPNW during 1997-2002 were compared with published rates in the Harvard Community Health Plan (HCHP) during 1990-1992. The overall HZ incidence rate in KPNW during 1997-2002 (369/100,000 person-years) was slightly higher than HCHP's 1990-1992 rate when adjusted for age differences. For children 6-14 years old, KPNW's rates (182 for females, 123 for males) were more than three times HCHP's rates (54 for females, 39 for males). This increase appears to be associated with increased exposure of children to oral corticosteroids. The percentage of KPNW children exposed to oral corticosteroids increased from 2.2% in 1991 to 3.6% in 2002. Oregon residents had slightly higher steroid exposure rates during 1997-2002 than Washington residents. There were significant increases in HZ incidence rates in Oregon and Washington during 1997-2002 among children aged 10-17 years, associated with increased exposure to oral steroids. PMID:15816149

  7. Habits of sun exposure and risk of malignant melanoma: an analysis of incidence rates in Norway 1955-1977 by cohort, sex, age, and primary tumor site

    SciTech Connect

    Magnus, K.

    1981-11-15

    Incidence data on malignant melanoma of the skin in Norway from 1955-1977, comprising a total of 5108 new cases, were analyzed according to cohort, sex, age, and primary tumor site. A continuous increase in incidence of approximately 7% per year was observed for both sexes during the study period. For trunk and lower limb melanomas, the increase and cohort variations in incidence were much greater than for face and neck melanoma. A difference between these site groups was also observed in the shape of the cohort curves of age-specific rates. This indicated that the trend in carcinogenic exposure through life was different for the face--neck and the trunk--lower limb. For the generations born 1930-1949, the incidence of malignant melanoma per area unit of skin was greater for the trunk and lower limb than for the face--neck. It is suggested that not only the cumulated dose, but also the intensity of solar radiation may be significant in the cause of malignant melanoma.

  8. Incidence, prevalence, and occurrence rate of infection among adults hospitalized after traumatic brain injury: study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection occurs commonly among patients hospitalized after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and has been associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay and an elevated risk of poor neurological outcome and mortality. However, as many relevant published studies to date have varied in the type and severity of TBI among included patients as well as in their design (randomized versus non-randomized), risk of bias, and setting (hospital ward versus intensive care unit), their reported estimates of infection occurrence vary considerably. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate the incidence, prevalence, and occurrence rate of infection among patients hospitalized after TBI. Methods/Design We will search electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) from their first available date as well as personal files, reference lists of included articles, and conference proceedings. Two investigators will independently screen titles and abstracts and select cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and randomized controlled trials involving adults hospitalized after TBI that reported estimates of cumulative incidence, incidence rate, prevalence, or occurrence rate of infection for inclusion in the systematic review. These investigators will also independently extract data and assess risk of bias. We will exclude studies with fewer than ten patients; experimental groups allocated to treatment with antibiotics, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, barbiturates, or hypothermia; and studies focused on military/combat-related TBI. Pooled estimates of cumulative incidence, incidence rate, prevalence, and occurrence rate will be calculated using random effects models. We will also calculate I2 and Cochran

  9. Statistical methods to adjust for date and age misreporting to improve estimates of vital rates in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Pullum, T W

    1991-02-01

    Misreporting of dates and ages poses serious difficulties for the estimation of the age distribution and birth and death rates in many developing countries. The pervasiveness of these problems is illustrated with data from a well-designed on-going survey in Pakistan, the Pakistan Demographic Survey. Methods for reconciling discrepancies, based on the assumptions of constant misreporting and survivorship patterns, are presented. The reasoning behind these methods could be applied much more generally. Research into the cultural interpretations of age and dates, and the nature of possible biases, is called for.

  10. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries. PMID:27336001

  11. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    PubMed

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  12. An age adjustment of very young children of India, 1981 and reappraisal of fertility and mortality rates--A model approach.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, B K

    1986-01-01

    Several approaches were made by actuaries and demographers to correct and smooth the Indian age distribution with special emphasis on population in age group 0-4 at different points of time. The present analysis conceives the life table stationary population (using the West Model) as 'reference standard'. 2 parameters were estimated from a regression equation using the proportion of population in age groups 5-14 and 60-plus as independent variables and that in 0-4 as the dependent variable. The corrected census proportions in age group 0-4 obtained from the regression model under certain assumptions for the 14 major states and India seem to be consistent and to have slightly lower values than those of the 1971 adjusted data. Moreover, unadjusted and adjusted proportions in 5-14 and 60 plus do not show any significant difference between the predicted values. Using the corrected population aged 0-4 years, the average annual birth and death rates during the 5 year period preceeding the 1981 census have been estimated for those 14 states and India as well. The estimated birth rates so obtained were further adjusted using an appropriate factor from the West Model and Indian life table survival ratios. The final estimates seem to be consistent, except for a few, and to have slightly higher values than those of earlier estimates. As the present analysis is based on a 5% sample and confined to only 14 states, it is proposed to study the same for all the states and India in greater detail using full count data on age distribution and actul life tables as and when available.

  13. Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; Dohal, Ahlam A; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR), and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling. Results A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001) in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83), followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82), and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98). The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years) and 1.71 + (0.09× years), respectively. Conclusion We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women. PMID:25028565

  14. Effect of low /sup 60/Co dose rates on sister chromatid exchange incidence in the benthic worm. Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-10-13

    The usefulness of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as a measure of low-level radiation effect was examined in a benthic marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Larvae were exposed to /sup 60/Co radiation for 12 to 24 h at total doses ranging from 0.5 to 309 R and at dose rates from 0.04 to 13 R/h. Animals exposed at intermediate dose rates (0.5, 0.6, 1.25, 2.0, and 2.5 R/h) had SCE frequencies per chromosome about twice that of those receiving no radiation (controls), whereas those exposed at the higher dose rates (7.0 and 13 R/h) had SCE frequencies lower than the controls. Animals exposed at the lower dose rates (0.04 and 0.1 R/h) had lower SCE frequencies than those exposed at intermediate dose rates (and higher SCE frequencies than controls). The length of chromosome pair number one differed among metaphase spreads and was used as an index of chromosome condensation in a given metaphase. Because there is a possibility that chromosome morphology may affect the ability to resolve SCEs, morphology will be monitored in future studies. A preliminary experiment was performed to assess the effects of 2.2 and 11.5 R/h for 24 h on growth and development. Larvae observed at 6 and 17 d after irradiation did not have significantly different numbers of abnormal larvae or survival rates.

  15. Modelling idiopathic Parkinson disease as a complex illness can inform incidence rate in healthy adults: the PR EDIGT score.

    PubMed

    Schlossmacher, Michael G; Tomlinson, Julianna J; Santos, Goncalo; Shutinoski, Bojan; Brown, Earl G; Manuel, Douglas; Mestre, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    Fifty-five years after the concept of dopamine replacement therapy was introduced, Parkinson disease (PD) remains an incurable neurological disorder. To date, no disease-modifying therapeutic has been approved. The inability to predict PD incidence risk in healthy adults is seen as a limitation in drug development, because by the time of clinical diagnosis ≥ 60% of dopamine neurons have been lost. We have designed an incidence prediction model founded on the concept that the pathogenesis of PD is similar to that of many disorders observed in ageing humans, i.e. a complex, multifactorial disease. Our model considers five factors to determine cumulative incidence rates for PD in healthy adults: (i) DNA variants that alter susceptibility (D), e.g. carrying a LRRK2 or GBA risk allele; (ii) Exposure history to select environmental factors including xenobiotics (E); (iii) Gene-environment interactions that initiate pathological tissue responses (I), e.g. a rise in ROS levels, misprocessing of amyloidogenic proteins (foremost, α-synuclein) and dysregulated inflammation; (iv) sex (or gender; G); and importantly, (v) time (T) encompassing ageing-related changes, latency of illness and propagation of disease. We propose that cumulative incidence rates for PD (PR ) can be calculated in healthy adults, using the formula: PR (%) = (E + D + I) × G × T. Here, we demonstrate six case scenarios leading to young-onset parkinsonism (n = 3) and late-onset PD (n = 3). Further development and validation of this prediction model and its scoring system promise to improve subject recruitment in future intervention trials. Such efforts will be aimed at disease prevention through targeted selection of healthy individuals with a higher prediction score for developing PD in the future and at disease modification in subjects that already manifest prodromal signs.

  16. Power law incidence rate in epidemic models. Comment on: "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Linda J. S.

    2016-09-01

    Dr. Chowell and colleagues emphasize the importance of considering a variety of modeling approaches to characterize the growth of an epidemic during the early stages [1]. A fit of data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak to models indicates sub-exponential growth, in contrast to the classic, homogeneous-mixing SIR model with exponential growth. With incidence rate βSI / N and S approximately equal to the total population size N, the number of new infections in an SIR epidemic model grows exponentially as in the differential equation,

  17. Rate of phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue complex formation in acidic persulfate digested sample matrix for total dissolved phosphorus determination: importance of post-digestion pH adjustment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2008-10-19

    Acidic persulfate oxidation is one of the most common procedures used to digest dissolved organic phosphorus compounds in water samples for total dissolved phosphorus determination. It has been reported that the rates of phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue complex formation were significantly reduced in the digested sample matrix. This study revealed that the intermediate products of persulfate oxidation, not the slight change in pH, cause the slowdown of color formation. This effect can be remedied by adjusting digested samples pH to a near neural to decompose the intermediate products. No disturbing effects of chlorine on the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue formation in seawater were observed. It is noted that the modification of mixed reagent recipe cannot provide near neutral pH for the decomposition of the intermediate products of persulfate oxidation. This study provides experimental evidence not only to support the recommendation made in APHA standard methods that the pH of the digested sample must be adjusted to within a narrow range of sample, but also to improve the understanding of role of residue from persulfate decomposition on the subsequent phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue formation.

  18. HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethnicity, and Sex, United States, 2008–2012 The graph above shows age-adjusted incidence rates for HPV- ... were diagnosed with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. This graph was adapted from Viens LJ, Henley SJ, Watson ...

  19. Experimental investigation and theoretical analysis of pulse repetition rate adjustable deep ultraviolet picosecond radiation by second harmonic generation in KBe2BO3F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhi; Zhang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Shenjin; Wang, Zhimin; Yang, Feng; Xu, Fengliang; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Zhang, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan

    2014-06-01

    We reported on an experimental investigation and theoretical analysis of pulse repetition rate (PRR) adjustable deep ultraviolet (DUV) picosecond (ps) radiation by second harmonic generation (SHG) in KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF) crystal. Third harmonic radiation at 355 nm of a ps Nd:YVO4 laser output with PRR of 200 kHz-1 MHz was employed as the pump source. The dependence of the 177.3 nm output power on the 355 nm pump power was measured at different PRRs, and the maximum 177.3 nm average output power of 695 μW was obtained at the PRR of 200 kHz. The measured data agreed well with the results of the ps KBBF SHG theoretical simulations. Using simulations, the pulse width and the spectral bandwidth of the generated radiation at 177.3 nm were estimated to be 5.88 ps and 7.84 pm, respectively.

  20. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Service in Response to Commission Order No. 1059, September 26, 2013 (Exigent Request). See also Docket...,'' is ``premised on the recent recession as an exigent event.'' Id. at 1, 2. In Order No. 1059, the..., December 20, 2011, at 6 (Order No. 1059). If the Postal Service wishes to pursue its Exigent Request,...

  1. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M; Dinesen, Peter T

    2016-10-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the attacks were followed by an immediate 16% increase in the incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. This surge dissipated approximately a year after 9/11. In contrast, no similar increases were found for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack; it also extends to people far away and without immediate relation to it.

  2. Influence of anatomical subsite on the incidence of microsatellite instability, and KRAS and BRAF mutation rates in patients with colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Benedix, Frank; Meyer, Frank; Kube, Rainer; Kropf, Siegfried; Kuester, Doerthe; Lippert, Hans; Roessner, Albert; Krüger, Sabine

    2012-10-15

    There is a growing amount of data supporting the concept that cancers originating from the proximal and distal colon are distinct clinicopathological entities. The incidence of MSI and BRAF mutation is strongly associated with right sided tumor location, whereas there are conflicting results for KRAS mutation rates. However, to date, no data exist whether and to what extent defined colonic subsites influence MSI status, KRAS and BRAF mutation rates. We selected primary colon cancer from 171 patients operated on at our institution between 2007 and 2010. BRAF, KRAS mutation rates and microsatellite instability were determined and correlated with clinicopathological features and tumor location. MSI-h cancers were significantly associated with poor histological grade but a lower rate of distant metastases. KRAS-mutated tumors were linked to lower T-stage and better differentiation. Colon carcinomas with BRAF mutation were significantly associated with distant metastatic spread and poor histological grade. Furthermore, we found that MSI-h status, KRAS and BRAF mutation rates varied remarkably among the colonic subsites irrespective of right- and left-sided origin, respectively. The results of the current study provide further evidence that a simple classification into right- and left-sided colon carcinoma does not represent the complexity of this tumor entity.

  3. MRI-detection rate and incidence of lumbar bleeding sources in 190 patients with non-aneurysmal SAH

    PubMed Central

    Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Brawanski, Nina; Platz, Johannes; Bruder, Markus; Senft, Christian; Marquardt, Gerhard; Seifert, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Background Up to 15% of all spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) have a non-aneurysmal SAH (NASAH). The evaluation of SAH patients with negative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is sometimes a diagnostic challenge. Our goal in this study was to reassess the yield of standard MR-imaging of the complete spinal axis to rule out spinal bleeding sources in patients with NASAH. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the spinal MRI findings in 190 patients with spontaneous NASAH, containing perimesencephalic (PM) and non-perimesencephalic (NPM) SAH, diagnosed by computer tomography (CT) and/or lumbar puncture (LP), and negative 2nd DSA. Results 190 NASAH patients were included in the study, divided into PM-SAH (n = 87; 46%) and NPM-SAH (n = 103; 54%). Overall, 23 (22%) patients had a CT negative SAH, diagnosed by positive LP. MR-imaging of the spinal axis detected two patients with lumbar ependymoma (n = 2; 1,05%). Both patients complained of radicular sciatic pain. The detection rate raised up to 25%, if only patients with radicular sciatic pain received an MRI. Conclusion Routine radiological investigation of the complete spinal axis in NASAH patients is expensive and can not be recommended for standard procedure. However, patients with clinical signs of low-back/sciatic pain should be worked up for a spinal pathology. PMID:28369075

  4. The incidence rate of thyroid cancer among women in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Almalki, Shaia S; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2015-06-01

    This study provides a descriptive epidemiological data of thyroid cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR) and the age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) stratified by the region and year of diagnosis. This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi thyroid cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were applied using descriptive statistics with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. A total of 2,930 cases were recorded in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR at 9.43 per 100,000 women, followed by Tabuk at 7.11 and eastern region at 6.5, while Jazan and Jouf had the lowest average ASIRs at 1.97 and at 2.72, respectively. The region of Qassim recorded the greatest changes of ASIR at 5.5 per 100,000 women from 2001 to 2008. There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, Tabuk and eastern region were the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. While, Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Finally, the region of Qassim had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of thyroid cancer disease among Saudi women.

  5. Improving teacher-child relationship quality and teacher-rated behavioral adjustment amongst externalizing preschoolers: effects of a two-component intervention.

    PubMed

    Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Wouters, Sofie; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Colpin, Hilde

    2015-02-01

    The school-based Playing-2-gether is a 12-week intervention with two components aimed at decreasing child externalizing behavior through improving teacher-child interactions. The first component is rooted in attachment theory and aimed at enhancing teacher-child relationship quality, and the second is based on learning theory and aimed at improving teachers' behavior management. In this three-wave randomized study, effects of Playing-2-gether on the teacher-child relationship quality and on teacher-rated child behavioral adjustment were investigated. To this aim, 175 dyads consisting of male preschoolers with relatively high levels of externalizing problem behavior and their teachers were randomly assigned to Playing-2-gether (n = 89) or an education-as-usual control condition (n = 86). Teacher-rated questionnaires were collected at pre-test, after the first intervention component, and at post-test. At post-test, the intervention group showed a larger decrease in teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems, and child hyperactivity/inattention. Supplementary analyses showed that all positive effects were already visible after the first intervention component and that teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention did not further reduce during the second component. In addition, an increase in closeness was found following the first component, but subsequently disappeared at post-test.

  6. Use of Glucose Rate of Change Arrows to Adjust Insulin Therapy Among Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes Who Use Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Pettus, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study was performed to understand and to compare differences in utilization of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and the rate of change (ROC) arrow to adjust insulin therapy among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), comparing those treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) with those treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Research Design and Methods: We surveyed 222 T1D individuals who regularly used real-time CGM to obtain information about general CGM use and response to glucose ROC arrows in managing their diabetes. Results: The survey was completed by 222 T1D individuals. Respondents included CSII (n = 166) and MDI (n = 56) users. MDI and CSII respondents reported similar substantial increases in correction dosages (from 220 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL) in response to increasing glucose (one ROC arrow up: rising 2–3 mg/dL/min): +120% and +108%, respectively (P = 0.13). MDI and CSII respondents reported similar substantial increases in correction dosages in response to rapidly increasing glucose (two arrows up: rising >3 mg/dL/min): +146% and +138%, respectively (P = 0.72). When correcting from 220 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL, MDI respondents reported larger correction dosage reductions than CSII respondents in response to decreasing glucose (one ROC down arrow: decreasing 2–3 mg/dL/min) and rapidly decreasing glucose (two ROC down arrows: decreasing >3 mg/dL/min): −50% versus −37%, respectively (P = 0.024) and −52% versus 38%, respectively (P = 0.034). Similar between-group differences were observed in mealtime dosage adjustments. Conclusions: CGM users often rely on ROC information when determining insulin doses and tend to make larger changes than current recommendations suggest regardless of insulin delivery method. PMID:26784128

  7. Age and double product (systolic blood pressure x heart rate) reserve-adjusted modification of the Duke Treadmill Score nomogram in men.

    PubMed

    Sadrzadeh Rafie, Amir H; Dewey, Frederick E; Sungar, Gannon W; Ashley, Euan A; Hadley, David; Myers, Jonathan; Froelicher, Victor F

    2008-11-15

    The Duke Treadmill Score (DTS) is an established clinical tool for risk stratification. Our aim was to determine if other variables could improve the prognostic power of the DTS and if so, to modify the DTS nomogram. From a total of 1,959 patients referred for exercise testing at the Palo Alto VA Medical Center from 1997 to 2006 (a mean follow-up of 5.4 years), we studied 1,759 male veterans (age 57 +/- 12 years) free of heart failure. Double product (DP) was calculated by multiplying systolic blood pressure and heart rate; variables and their products were subtracted to obtain the differences between at rest and maximal exercise (reserve) and recovery. Of all the hemodynamic measurements, DP reserve was the strongest predictor of cardiovascular death (CVD) (Wald Z-score -3.84, p <0.001) after adjustment for potential confounders. When the components of DTS were entered in the Cox hazard model with DP reserve and age, only DP reserve and age were chosen (p <0.00001). Using the Cox coefficients, a score calculated by [age - DTS - 3 x (DP reserve/1,000)] yielded an area under the curve of 0.84 compared with 0.76 for the DTS. Using this equation, a nomogram was constructed by adding age and DP reserve to the original DTS nomogram improving estimation of annual CVD. In conclusion, we propose an age and DP reserve-adjusted DTS nomogram that improves the prognostic estimates of average annual CVD over the DTS alone.

  8. Measles incidence rate and a phylogenetic study of contemporary genotype H1 measles strains in China: is an improved measles vaccine needed?

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingwei; Zheng, Jingtong; Huang, Honglan; Hu, Yu; Bian, Jiang; Xu, Deqi; Li, Fan

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of measles in China has increased over the last decade. To evaluate the genetic variation of measles strains, 16 measles wild-type virus strains were isolated from 14 vaccinated cases and 2 nonvaccinated cases in Jilin Province during 2005-2006, and their nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes were amplified by RT-PCR. The amplified products were sequenced and compared with the Edmonston virus and the existing vaccine strains (Changchun-47 and Shanghai-191). The results showed that the variation rate between the vaccine and wild-type strains was 9.8-12.0% in the N gene and 5.9-6.9% in the H gene, respectively. In addition, cross-neutralization assays revealed that although sera obtained from infants following primary vaccination effectively neutralized vaccine strains, the capacity in neutralizing H1 wild-type measles virus isolates was decreased fourfold. Antigenic ratios testing revealed that the antigenic relatedness between wild-type measles viruses and existing vaccine strains was notably low. These data suggest that the increased incidence of measles in Jilin Province may be attributed to the antigenic drift between wild-type and vaccine strains. Our findings strengthen the recommendation of supplemental immunization with existing vaccines and also strongly suggest a need for developing new vaccines to better control measles virus outbreaks.

  9. Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanqi; Feng, Hao; Liu, Fulai

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the comparative effects of reduced irrigation regimes--partial root-zone drying (PRD) and conventional deficit irrigation (DI)--on the incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under three Ca-fertilization rates: 0, 100, and 200mg Ca kg(-1) soil (denoted Ca0, Ca1, and Ca2, respectively). The plants were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and treated with PRD and DI during early flowering to the fruit maturity stage. The results showed that, in comparison with DI treatment, PRD significantly reduced BER incidence. A greater xylem sap abscisic acid concentration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher plant water status in the PRD in relation to the DI plants might have contributed to the increased fruit Ca uptake, and could have reduced BER development in tomato fruits. Therefore, under conditions with limited freshwater resources, application of PRD irrigation could be a promising approach for saving water and for preventing BER development in tomatoes.

  10. Age-specific bone tumour incidence rates are governed by stem cell exhaustion influencing the supply and demand of progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Richard B

    2014-07-01

    Knudson's carcinogenic model, which simulates incidence rates for retinoblastoma, provides compelling evidence for a two-stage mutational process. However, for more complex cancers, existing multistage models are less convincing. To fill this gap, I hypothesize that neoplasms preferentially arise when stem cell exhaustion creates a short supply of progenitor cells at ages of high proliferative demand. To test this hypothesis, published datasets were employed to model the age distribution of osteochondroma, a benign lesion, and osteosarcoma, a malignant one. The supply of chondrogenic stem-like cells in femur growth plates of children and adolescents was evaluated and compared with the progenitor cell demand of longitudinal bone growth. Similarly, the supply of osteoprogenitor cells from birth to old age was compared with the demands of bone formation. Results show that progenitor cell demand-to-supply ratios are a good risk indicator, exhibiting similar trends to the unimodal and bimodal age distributions of osteochondroma and osteosarcoma, respectively. The hypothesis also helps explain Peto's paradox and the finding that taller individuals are more prone to cancers and have shorter lifespans. The hypothesis was tested, in the manner of Knudson, by its ability to convincingly explain and demonstrate, for the first time, a bone tumour's bimodal age-incidence curve.

  11. Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanqi; Feng, Hao; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the comparative effects of reduced irrigation regimes—partial root-zone drying (PRD) and conventional deficit irrigation (DI)—on the incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under three Ca-fertilization rates: 0, 100, and 200mg Ca kg–1 soil (denoted Ca0, Ca1, and Ca2, respectively). The plants were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and treated with PRD and DI during early flowering to the fruit maturity stage. The results showed that, in comparison with DI treatment, PRD significantly reduced BER incidence. A greater xylem sap abscisic acid concentration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher plant water status in the PRD in relation to the DI plants might have contributed to the increased fruit Ca uptake, and could have reduced BER development in tomato fruits. Therefore, under conditions with limited freshwater resources, application of PRD irrigation could be a promising approach for saving water and for preventing BER development in tomatoes. PMID:23530128

  12. Chiropractic Adjustment

    MedlinePlus

    ... structural alignment and improve your body's physical function. Low back pain, neck pain and headache are the most common ... treated. Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only ...

  13. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from other people Skipped heartbeats and other physical complaints Trembling or twitching To have adjustment disorder, you ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  14. The use of deer vehicle accidents as a proxy for measuring the degree of interaction between human and deer populations and its correlation with the incidence rate of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Wiznia, Daniel H; Christos, Paul J; LaBonte, Andrew M

    2013-04-01

    The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut's Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors' study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted.

  15. The Use of Deer Vehicle Accidents as a Proxy for Measuring the Degree of Interaction Between Human and Deer Populations and Its Correlation With the Incidence Rate of Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wiznia, Daniel H.; Christos, Paul J.; LaBonte, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut’s Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors’ study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

  16. Abundance, biting behaviour and parous rate of anopheline mosquito species in relation to malaria incidence in gold-mining areas of southern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J E; Rubio-Palis, Y; Páez, E; Pérez, E; Sánchez, V

    2007-12-01

    A longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in five localities of southern Venezuela between January 1999 and April 2000 to determine the abundance, biting behaviour and parity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to climate variables and malaria incidence. A total of 3685 female anopheline mosquitoes, representing six species, were collected. The most abundant species were Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (60.7%) and Anopheles darlingi Root (35.1%), which together represented 95.8% of the total anophelines collected. Abundance and species distribution varied by locality. Malaria prevalence varied from 12.5 to 21.4 cases per 1000 population. Transmission occurred throughout the year; the annual parasite index (API) for the study period was 813.0 cases per 1000 population, with a range of 71.6-2492 per 1000 population, depending on locality. Plasmodium vivax (Grassi & Feletti) (Coccidia: Plasmodiidae) accounted for 78.6% of cases, Plasmodium falciparum (Welch) for 21.4% and mixed infections (Pv+Pf) for < 0.1%. Anopheles marajoara and An. darlingi were more abundant during the rainy season (April-September). There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05) between mosquito abundance and rainfall. Correlations between malaria incidence by parasite species and mosquito abundance were not significant (P > 0.05). Monthly parous rates were similar for An. marajoara and An. darlingi throughout the year, with two peaks that coincided with the dry-rainy transition period and the period of less rain. Peaks in the incidence of malaria cases were observed 1 month after major peaks in biting rates of parous anophelines. Anopheles darlingi engages in biting activity throughout the night, with two minor peaks at 23.00-00.00 hours and 03.00-04.00 hours. Anopheles marajoara has a different pattern, with a biting peak at 19.00-21.00 hours and 76.6% of biting occurring before midnight. Although both vectors bite indoors and outdoors

  17. Utilizing United States Coast Guard data to calculate incidence rates and identify risk factors for occupational fishing injuries in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Day, Emily Ruth; Lefkowitz, Daniel K; Marshall, Elizabeth G; Hovinga, Mary

    2010-10-01

    Commercial fishing has high rates of work-related injury and death and needs preventive strategies. Work-related fatal and nonfatal injury rates for New Jersey (NJ) commercial fishermen who suffered unintentional traumatic injuries from 2001 to 2007 are calculated using data from the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Marine Safety and Pollution Database and estimated denominator data. Fatalities were compared to those ascertained by the NJ Fatality Assessment Control and Evaluation (FACE) surveillance system. For the study years, 225 nonfatal injuries and 31 fatal injuries were reported. Among nonfatal injuries, the causes by frequency were fall onto surface, crushed between objects, struck by moving object, line handling/caught in lines, collision with fixed objects, fall into water, and other noncontact injuries. The distribution of fatal injuries differed, with the most frequent cause as crushed between objects. Falls into water and several noncontact injuries accounted for most of the other fatalities. The large majority (96%) of nonfatal injuries were contact injuries, whereas only 68% of fatalities were classified as contact. The overall incidence rate of nonfatal injuries was 1188 per 100,000 full-time equivalents (FTEs) per year. The rate varied considerably by year, from a low of 286 per 100,000 FTEs in 2001 and 2007 to 3806 per 100,000 FTEs in 2003. The overall occupational fatality rate over the period 2001-2007 was 164 per 100,000 FTEs per year. These results can aid in targeting the commercial fishing industry for injury prevention strategies and interventions, especially for falls, crushing injuries, and drownings.

  18. Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in a Multicenter Cohort of HIV-Positive Patients in Spain 2004–2011: Increasing Rates of HCV Diagnosis but Not of HCV Seroconversions

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Monge Corella, Susana; Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Félix; Blanco, José Ramón; Santos, Ignacio; del Romero, Jorge; Segura, Ferrán; Portilla, Joaquín; Guillén, Santiago Moreno; del Amo, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We aim to describe rates and risk factors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) diagnoses, follow-up HCV testing and HCV seroconversion from 2004–2011 in a cohort of HIV-positive persons in Spain. Methods CoRIS is a multicentre, open and prospective cohort recruiting adult HIV-positive patients naïve to antiretroviral therapy. We analysed patients with at least one negative and one follow-up HCV serology. Incidence Rates (IR) were calculated and multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted Rates Ratios (aIRR). Results Of 2112 subjects, 53 HCV diagnoses were observed, IR = 0.93/100py (95%CI: 0.7–1.2). IR increased from 0.88 in 2004–05 to 1.36 in 2010–11 (aIRR = 1.55; 95%CI: 0.37–6.55). In men who have sex with men (MSM) from 0.76 to 1.10 (aIRR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.31–6.82); in heterosexual (HTX) subjects from 1.19 to 1.28 (aIRR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.11–10.24). HCV seroconversion rates decreased from 1.77 to 0.65 (aIRR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.12–1.11); in MSM from 1.06 to 0.49 (aIRR = 0.46; 95%CI: 0.09–2.31); in HTX from 2.55 to 0.59 (aIRR = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.06–0.98). HCV infection risk was higher for injecting drug users (IDU) compared to HTX (aIRR = 9.63;95%CI: 2.9–32.2); among MSM, for subjects aged 40–50 compared to 30 or less (IRR = 3.21; 95%CI: 1.7–6.2); and among HTX, for female sex (aIRR = 2.35; 95%CI: 1.03–5.34) and <200 CD4-count (aIRR = 2.39; 95%CI: 0.83–6.89). Conclusion We report increases in HCV diagnoses rates which seem secondary to intensification of HCV follow-up testing but not to rises in HCV infection rates. HCV IR is higher in IDU. In MSM, HCV IR increases with age. Among HTX, HCV IR is higher in women and in subjects with impaired immunological situation. PMID:25549224

  19. Beta2-microglobulin is a better predictor of treatment-free survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia if adjusted according to glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Julio; Pratt, Guy; Phillips, Neil; Briones, Javier; Fegan, Chris; Nomdedeu, Josep; Pepper, Chris; Aventin, Anna; Ayats, Ramon; Brunet, Salut; Martino, Rodrigo; Valcarcel, David; Milligan, Donald; Sierra, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    Even in the era of newer and sophisticated prognostic markers, beta(2)-microglobulin (B2M) remains a simple but very powerful predictor of treatment-free survival (TFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). However, B2M levels are heavily influenced by the patient's glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and this study aimed to evaluate whether GFR-adjusted B2M (GFR-B2M) had improved prognostic value compared to unadjusted B2M in a cohort of over 450 consecutive CLL patients from two separate institutions. Multivariate analysis identified a significantly shorter TFS in patients who were ZAP-70 + (P < 0.001), with increased GFR-B2M (P < 0.001), and del(11q) or del(17p) as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH; P < 0.001). When OS was evaluated by multivariate analysis, age 65 years or older (P < 0.001) and poor risk FISH abnormalities (P < 0.001) had a confirmed adverse prognostic impact, but the predictive value of GFR-B2M was lost in the validation analysis. In all survival models, B2M did not attain independent significance unless GFR-B2M was eliminated from the analysis. In conclusion, GFR-B2M is a better predictor of TFS than unadjusted B2M in CLL patients.

  20. Probability versus representativeness in infancy: can infants use naïve physics to adjust population base rates in probabilistic inference?

    PubMed

    Denison, Stephanie; Trikutam, Pallavi; Xu, Fei

    2014-08-01

    A rich tradition in developmental psychology explores physical reasoning in infancy. However, no research to date has investigated whether infants can reason about physical objects that behave probabilistically, rather than deterministically. Physical events are often quite variable, in that similar-looking objects can be placed in similar contexts with different outcomes. Can infants rapidly acquire probabilistic physical knowledge, such as some leaves fall and some glasses break by simply observing the statistical regularity with which objects behave and apply that knowledge in subsequent reasoning? We taught 11-month-old infants physical constraints on objects and asked them to reason about the probability of different outcomes when objects were drawn from a large distribution. Infants could have reasoned either by using the perceptual similarity between the samples and larger distributions or by applying physical rules to adjust base rates and estimate the probabilities. Infants learned the physical constraints quickly and used them to estimate probabilities, rather than relying on similarity, a version of the representativeness heuristic. These results indicate that infants can rapidly and flexibly acquire physical knowledge about objects following very brief exposure and apply it in subsequent reasoning.

  1. The rate and pattern of bed incision and bank adjustment on the Colorado River in Glen Canyon downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, 1956-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grams, P.E.; Schmidt, J.C.; Topping, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 transformed the Colorado River by reducing the magnitude and duration of spring floods, increasing the magnitude of base flows, and trapping fine sediment delivered from the upper watershed. These changes caused the channel downstream in Glen Canyon to incise, armor, and narrow. This study synthesizes over 45 yr of channel-change measurements and demonstrates that the rate and style of channel adjustment are directly related to both natural processes associated with sediment deficit and human decisions about dam operations. Although bed lowering in lower Glen Canyon began when the first cofferdam was installed in 1959, most incision occurred in 1965 in conjunction with 14 pulsed high flows that scoured an average of 2.6 m of sediment from the center of the channel. The average grain size of bed material has increased from 0.25 mm in 1956 to over 20 mm in 1999. The magnitude of incision at riffles decreases with distance downstream from the dam, while the magnitude of sediment evacuation from pools is spatially variable and extends farther downstream. Analysis of bed-material mobility indicates that the increase in bed-material grain size and reduction in reach-average gradient are consistent with the transformation of an adjustable-bed alluvial river to a channel with a stable bed that is rarely mobilized. Decreased magnitude of peak discharges in the post-dam regime coupled with channel incision and the associated downward shifts of stage-discharge relations have caused sandbar and terrace erosion and the transformation of previously active sandbars and gravel bars to abandoned deposits that are no longer inundated. Erosion has been concentrated in a few pre-dam terraces that eroded rapidly for brief periods and have since stabilized. The abundance of abandoned deposits decreases downstream in conjunction with decreasing magnitude of shift in the stage-discharge relations. In the downstream part of the study area where riffles

  2. Incidence of vestibular schwannomas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kshettry, Varun R; Hsieh, Jason K; Ostrom, Quinn T; Kruchko, Carol; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-09-01

    There is a paucity of population-based data evaluating the incidence of vestibular schwannomas according to age, gender, race, and ethnicity. Such data are necessary to assess the burden of vestibular schwannomas on varying populations and to inform future research and healthcare planning. The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, which contains the largest aggregation of population-based data on the incidence of primary central nervous system tumors in the US, was used. Age-adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR) of vestibular schwannomas from 2004 to 2010 were calculated by age at diagnosis, gender, race, and ethnicity. Annual percent change (APC) was calculated using Joinpoint to characterize temporal trends. From 2004 to 2010, there were 23,729 newly diagnosed vestibular schwannomas in the US; overall incidence was 1.09 per 100,000 population. Incidence was stable over time (APC -0.41 %, 95 % confidence interval -3.4, 2.7). Incidence increased with age to a peak of 2.93 per 100,000 in the 65-74 year old age group. Overall, there was no difference in incidence by gender. Compared to Whites, incidence was highest in Asian Pacific Islanders (IRR 1.37, p < 0.001) and lowest in African Americans (IRR 0.36, p < 0.001). Incidence was lower in Hispanics than non-Hispanics (IRR 0.69, p < 0.001). Over 3300 vestibular schwannomas are diagnosed per year in the US and incidence is 1.09 per 100,000 population. Incidence increases with age up to the 65-74 year old age group. Incidence is higher in Asian Pacific Islanders and lower in African Americans and Hispanics.

  3. A Systematic Review of the Incidence, Risk Factors and Case Fatality Rates of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) Disease in Africa (1966 to 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Uche, Ifeanyi Valentine; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2017-01-01

    This study systematically reviews the literature on the occurrence, incidence and case fatality rate (CFR) of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Africa from 1966 to 2014. Data on the burden of iNTS disease in Africa are sparse and generally have not been aggregated, making it difficult to describe the epidemiology that is needed to inform the development and implementation of effective prevention and control policies. This study involved a comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase databases. It documents the geographical spread of iNTS disease over time in Africa, and describes its reported incidence, risk factors and CFR. We found that Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) have been reported as a cause of bacteraemia in 33 out of 54 African countries, spanning the five geographical regions of Africa, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa since 1966. Our review indicates that NTS have been responsible for up to 39% of community acquired blood stream infections in sub-Saharan Africa with an average CFR of 19%. Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis are the major serovars implicated and together have been responsible for 91%% of the cases of iNTS disease, (where serotype was determined), reported in Africa. The study confirms that iNTS disease is more prevalent amongst Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals, infants, and young children with malaria, anaemia and malnutrition. In conclusion, iNTS disease is a substantial cause of community-acquired bacteraemia in Africa. Given the high morbidity and mortality of iNTS disease in Africa, it is important to develop effective prevention and control strategies including vaccination. PMID:28056035

  4. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group.

  5. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-08-12

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase).

  6. Increasing Incidence of Enteropathy-associated T Cell Lymphoma in the United States (1973-2008)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaiha, Reem Z.; Lebwohl, Ben; Reimers, Laura; Bhagat, Govind; Green, Peter H.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL) is a rare lymphoma subtype that is strongly associated with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disease triggered by the ingestion of gluten. Since CD rates are increasing in the U.S., we sought to determine whether the incidence rates of EATL are increasing as well. Method We identified primary, pathologically confirmed lymphoma cases from the SEER database registries from 1973 to 2008. To ensure capture of all cases of EATL, we included the following lymphoma subtypes, limited to the small bowel: non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NOS) T-cell, Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (NOS), and enteropathy type T-cell lymphoma, and calculated their age and sex-adjusted incidence rates over time. Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results We identified 161 small bowel lymphomas diagnosed between 1973 and 2008. The overall age and sex-adjusted annual incidence for all bowel lymphomas was 0.016 per 100,000, which increased over the study period from 0.006 to 0.024 per 100,000. These tumors were most common in males (age-adjusted incidence rate= 0.021 per 100,000) with the highest incidence rate in Hispanics (age-adjusted incidence rate =0.033 per 100,000). The median overall survival was 7 months. There was no difference in survival by race/ethnicity (p=0.09), or gender (P= 0.06). Conclusion Our results indicate a significant increase in the incidence of EATL in the U.S., which could reflect the increasing seroprevalence of CD and better recognition of rare types of T-cell lymphomas. The incidence may continue to rise given the large ratio of undiagnosed-to-diagnosed individuals with CD in the U.S. PMID:22169928

  7. Intracerebral hemorrhage mortality is not changing despite declining incidence

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Smith, Melinda A.; Brown, Devin L.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Meurer, William J.; Burke, James F.; Adelman, Eric E.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine trends in incidence and mortality of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a rigorous population-based study. Methods: We identified all cases of spontaneous ICH in a South Texas community from 2000 to 2010 using rigorous case ascertainment methods within the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project. Yearly population counts were determined from the US Census, and deaths were determined from state and national databases. Age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted incidence was estimated for each year with Poisson regression, and a linear trend over time was investigated. Trends in 30-day case fatality and long-term mortality (censored at 3 years) were estimated with log-binomial or Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics, stroke severity, and comorbid disease. Results: A total of 734 cases of ICH were included. The age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted ICH annual incidence rate was 5.21 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.36, 6.24) in 2000 and 4.30 per 10,000 (95% CI 3.21, 5.76) in 2010. The estimated 10-year change in demographic-adjusted ICH annual incidence rate was −31% (95% CI −47%, −11%). Yearly demographic-adjusted 30-day case fatality ranged from 28.3% (95% CI 19.9%, 40.3%) in 2006 to 46.5% (95% CI 35.5, 60.8) in 2008. There was no change in ICH case fatality or long-term mortality over time. Conclusions: ICH incidence decreased over the past decade, but case fatality and long-term mortality were unchanged. This suggests that primary prevention efforts may be improving over time, but more work is needed to improve ICH treatment and reduce the risk of death. PMID:24838789

  8. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  9. Incidence rates of treatment-emergent adverse events and related hospitalization are reduced with azacitidine compared with conventional care regimens in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Seymour, John F; Döhner, Hartmut; Minden, Mark D; Stone, Richard; Gambini, Dominique; Dougherty, Donna; Beach, C L; Weaver, Jerry; Dombret, Hervé

    2017-06-01

    Relative risks of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and related hospitalization is most accurate when accounting for treatment exposure. AZA-AML-001 showed azacitidine (AZA) prolonged overall survival versus conventional care regimens (CCR) in older patients (≥65 years) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by 3.9 months. Preselection of CCR before study randomization allows evaluation of AZA safety in patient subgroups with similar clinical features. Within preselection groups, AZA exposure was greater than each CCR. Incidence rates (IRs; numbers of events normalized for drug exposure time) of hospitalizations and days in hospital for TEAEs per patient-year of exposure were to varying degrees lower with AZA versus each CCR. Overall survival was significantly prolonged with AZA versus best supportive care (BSC) in AZA-AML-001; this analysis showed 55% and 41% reductions in IRs of TEAE-related hospitalization and days in hospital, respectively, with AZA versus BSC. Older patients with AML unable to tolerate intensive therapy should be offered active low-intensity treatment.

  10. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  11. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  12. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  13. Incidence of transient global amnesia in Merano, province of Bolzano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Nardone, Raffaele

    2014-12-01

    Few community-based studies determined the incidence of transient global amnesia (TGA), with annual incidence rates between 2.9 and 10.4/100,000. Data on sex distribution of TGA are discrepant. Aim of this study was to determine the incidence of TGA in Merano, province of Bolzano, Northern Italy. Cases were identified from hospital discharge diagnoses of all the Departments of the general hospital of Merano and neighboring towns. Patients fulfilling internationally accepted diagnostic criteria for TGA and residing in Merano were included. Crude, age- and sex-specific incidence rates were computed. The overall annual crude incidence rate of TGA was 9.6/100,000 inhabitants (9.5 % confidence interval 6.7-13.3), 10.1/100,000 for men and 8.9/100,000 for women (p < 0.001). After adjustment by the direct method to the European population, the annual incidence rate was 6.4/100,000. The incidence rate of TGA in Merano, Italy, does not differ from that reported in Turku, Finland and Belluno, Italy. This study confirms that this benign syndrome is relatively common and occurs mainly in elderly patients. However, the higher male predominance in TGA incidence rates contrasts with previous epidemiological studies. Further, prospective incidence studies should therefore be conducted to further clarify sex predominance in TGA.

  14. Incidence of Menkes disease.

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, T; Kleijer, W J; Horn, N

    1991-02-01

    We have calculated the incidence of Menkes disease for Denmark, France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and West Germany, based on known Menkes patients born during the time period 1976-87. Considering live-born Menkes patients, the combined incidence for these five countries is 1 Menkes patient per 298,000 live-born babies. If the number of affected aborted fetuses are taken into account, the incidence is 1 Menkes per 254,000 live-born babies. This incidence, which is 2-4 times lower than earlier published incidence figures, places Menkes disease as an extremely rare disease. The mutation rate for Menkes disease is estimated to be 1.96 x 10(-6), based on the number of isolated Menkes cases born during the time period 1976-87 and the total number of newborn males during this time.

  15. Incidence of knee cartilage surgery in Norway, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Engen, Cathrine Nørstad; Årøen, Asbjørn; Engebretsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Objective A systematic and long-term data collection on the treatment of focal cartilage defects (FCDs) of the knee is needed. This can be achieved through the foundation of a National Knee Cartilage Defect Registry. The aim of this study was to establish the nationwide burden of knee cartilage surgery, defined as knee surgery in patients with an FCD. We also aimed to identify any geographical differences in incidence rates, patient demographics or trends within this type of surgery. Setting A population-based study with retrospective identification of patients undergoing knee cartilage surgery in Norway through a mandatory public health database from 2008 to 2011. Participants We identified all patients undergoing cartilage surgery, or other knee surgery in patients with an FCD. All eligible surgeries were assessed for inclusion on the basis of certain types of ICD-10 and NOMESKO Classification of Surgical Procedures codes. Primary and secondary outcome measures The variables were diagnostic and surgical codes, geographic location of the performing hospital, age and sex of the patients. Yearly incidence and incidence rates were calculated. Age-adjusted incidences for risk ratios and ORs between geographical areas were also calculated. Results A total of 10 830 cases of knee cartilage surgery were identified, with slight but significant decreases from 2008 to 2011 (p<0.0003). The national incidence rate was 56/100 000 inhabitants and varied between regions, counties and hospitals. More than 50% of the procedures were palliative and nearly 400 yearly procedures were reparative or restorative. Conclusions Knee cartilage surgery is common in Norway, counting 2500 annual cases with an age-adjusted incidence rate of 68.8/100 000 inhabitants. There are significant geographical variations in incidence and trends of surgery and in trends between public and private hospitals. We suggest that a national surveillance system would be beneficial for the future evaluation

  16. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  17. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  18. Blazhko effect in the Galactic bulge fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars - I. Incidence rate and differences between modulated and non-modulated stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudil, Z.; Skarka, M.

    2017-04-01

    We present the first paper of a series focused on the Blazhko effect in RR Lyrae type stars pulsating in the fundamental mode that are located in the Galactic bulge. A comprehensive overview of the incidence rate and light-curve characteristics of the Blazhko stars is given. We analysed 8282 stars having the best quality data in the OGLE-IV survey, and found that at least 40.3 per cent of the stars show modulation of their light curves. The number of Blazhko stars we identified is 3341, which is the largest sample ever studied, implying that these are the most relevant statistical results currently available. Using combined data sets with OGLE-III observations, we found that 50 per cent of the stars that show unresolved peaks close to the main component in OGLE-IV are actually Blazhko stars with extremely long periods. Blazhko stars with modulation occur preferentially among RR Lyrae stars with shorter pulsation periods in the Galactic bulge. Fourier amplitude and phase coefficients based on the mean light curves appear to be substantially lower for Blazhko stars than for stars with an unmodulated light curve on average. We derived new relations for the compatibility parameter Dm in the I passband and relations that allow for differentiating modulated and non-modulated stars easily based on R31, ϕ21 and ϕ31. Photometric metallicities, intrinsic colours and absolute magnitudes computed using empirical relations are the same for Blazhko and non-modulated stars in the Galactic bulge, suggesting there is no correlation between the occurrence of the Blazhko effect and these parameters.

  19. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  20. Incidence and Variation of Discrepancies in Recording Chronic Conditions in Australian Hospital Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M.; Stubbs, Joanne M.; Guevarra, Veth M.; Hill, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic data routinely collected for hospital admitted patients and used for case-mix adjustment in care provider comparisons and reimbursement are prone to biases. We aim to measure discrepancies, variations and associated factors in recorded chronic morbidities for hospital admitted patients in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Of all admissions between July 2010 and June 2014 in all NSW public and private acute hospitals, admissions with over 24 hours stay and one or more of the chronic conditions of diabetes, smoking, hepatitis, HIV, and hypertension were included. The incidence of a non-recorded chronic condition in an admission occurring after the first admission with a recorded chronic condition (index admission) was considered as a discrepancy. Poisson models were employed to (i) derive adjusted discrepancy incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) accounting for patient, admission, comorbidity and hospital characteristics and (ii) quantify variation in rates among hospitals. The discrepancy incidence rate was highest for hypertension (51% of 262,664 admissions), followed by hepatitis (37% of 12,107), smoking (33% of 548,965), HIV (27% of 1500) and diabetes (19% of 228,687). Adjusted rates for all conditions declined over the four-year period; with the sharpest drop of over 80% for diabetes (47.7% in 2010 vs. 7.3% in 2014), and 20% to 55% for the other conditions. Discrepancies were more common in private hospitals and smaller public hospitals. Inter-hospital differences were responsible for 1% (HIV) to 9.4% (smoking) of variation in adjusted discrepancy incidences, with an increasing trend for diabetes and HIV. Chronic conditions are recorded inconsistently in hospital administrative datasets, and hospitals contribute to the discrepancies. Adjustment for patterns and stratification in risk adjustments; and furthermore longitudinal accumulation of clinical data at patient level, refinement of clinical coding systems and standardisation of comorbidity

  1. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G.; Johnson, Jay R.; Miller, Federick W.; Matteson, Eric L.; Crowson, C. S.; Gabriel, S. E.

    2015-05-15

    Our objective was to examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: We used data from patients with GCA (1950-2004) and RA (1955-2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. Results: The correlation of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0-1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5-7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4-5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8-11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. Conclusions: AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4-5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. Lastly, the link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases.

  2. Capping risk adjustment?

    PubMed

    Eugster, Patrick; Sennhauser, Michèle; Zweifel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    When premiums are community-rated, risk adjustment (RA) serves to mitigate competitive insurers' incentive to select favorable risks. However, unless fully prospective, it also undermines their incentives for efficiency. By capping its volume, one may try to counteract this tendency, exposing insurers to some financial risk. This in term runs counter the quest to refine the RA formula, which would increase RA volume. Specifically, the adjuster, "Hospitalization or living in a nursing home during the previous year" will be added in Switzerland starting 2012. This paper investigates how to minimize the opportunity cost of capping RA in terms of increased incentives for risk selection.

  3. International patterns and trends in thyroid cancer incidence, 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Han, Xuesong; Ward, Mary H.; Sjodin, Andreas; Zhang, Yaqun; Bai, Yana; Zhu, Cairong; Guo, Grace L.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Yawei

    2009-01-01

    During the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in many parts of the world. To date, no study has compared trends in thyroid cancer incidence across continents. We examined incidence data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) over the 30-year period 1973–2002 from 19 populations in the Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Thyroid cancer rates have increased from 1973–1977 to 1998–2002 for most of the populations except for Sweden, in which the incidence rates decreased about 18% for both males and females. The average increase was 48.0% among males and 66.7% among females. More recently, the age-adjusted international thyroid cancer incidence rates from 1998–2002 varied 5-fold by geographic region for males and nearly 10-fold for females by geographic region. Considerable variation in thyroid cancer incidence was present for every continent but Africa, in which the incidence rates were generally low. Our analysis of published CI5 data suggests that thyroid cancer rates increased between 1973 and 2002 in most populations worldwide and that the increase does not appear to be restricted to a particular region of the world or by the underlying rates of thyroid cancer. PMID:19016336

  4. Cervical cancer: incidence and survival in migrants within Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Borràs, J M; Sánchez, V; Moreno, V; Izquierdo, A; Viladiu, P

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--This study examined the incidence of cervical cancer and survival rates according to migrant experience of women from different regions of Spain to Girona, Catalonia (Spain). DESIGN--Using data from the population based cancer registry of Girona for the period 1980-89, crude and age adjusted incidence rates were calculated for local-born and first generation migrants from other Spanish regions. The age standardised rate ratio (SRR) was calculated and Cox's regression model was used to adjust survival according to migrant status for age and stage at diagnosis. MAIN RESULTS--The incidence of cervical cancer was significantly higher in first generation Spanish migrants compared with locally born women (SRR: 2.02; 95% CI 1.40:2.92). The stage at diagnosis was more advanced among migrants. Survival probability was significantly associated with stage at diagnosis, but age and region of birth were not. CONCLUSIONS--Migrants from the southern Spanish regions show a twofold excess in the incidence of cervical cancer compared with the Girona-born female population. Cases of cervical cancer in migrants are diagnosed at a more advanced stage and as a consequence have a poorer prognosis. PMID:7798043

  5. Incidence of prostate cancer in Lithuania after introduction of the Early Prostate Cancer Detection Programme.

    PubMed

    Smailyte, G; Aleknaviciene, B

    2012-12-01

    In Lithuania, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is offered to healthy asymptomatic men as a screening test in the population-based Early Prostate Cancer Detection Programme (EPCDP). The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of prostate cancer before and after introduction of the EPCDP in Lithuania. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality data from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry were analysed for the period 1990-2008. Age-specific incidence and mortality data were adjusted to the European Standard Population. There have been extraordinary changes in the incidence of prostate cancer in Lithuania following introduction of the EPCDP, and there is strong evidence that these changes are the result of increased detection rates, especially in men of screening age. Further observation of changes in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Lithuania may help to determine the extent to which PSA testing at the population level influences incidence and mortality in the general population.

  6. Persistent Ischemic Stroke Disparities despite Declining Incidence in Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Smith, Melinda A.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Brown, Devin L.; Zahuranec, Darin B.; Garcia, Nelda; Kerber, Kevin A.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Meurer, William J.; Burke, James F.; Adelman, Eric E.; Baek, Jonggyu; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine trends in ischemic stroke incidence among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Methods We performed population-based stroke surveillance from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010 in Corpus Christi, Texas. Ischemic stroke patients 45 years and older were ascertained from potential sources, and charts were abstracted. Neurologists validated cases based on source documentation blinded to ethnicity and age. Crude and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted annual incidence was calculated for first ever completed ischemic stroke. Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted ischemic stroke rates, rate ratios, and trends. Results There were 2,604 ischemic strokes in Mexican Americans and 2,042 in non-Hispanic whites. The rate ratios (Mexican American:non-Hispanic white) were 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.67–2.25), 1.50 (95% CI = 1.35– 1.67), and 1.00 (95% CI = 0.90–1.11) among those aged 45 to 59, 60 to 74, and 75 years and older, respectively, and 1.34 (95% CI = 1.23–1.46) when adjusted for age. Ischemic stroke incidence declined during the study period by 35.9% (95% CI = 25.9–44.5). The decline was limited to those aged ≥60 years, and happened in both ethnic groups similarly (p > 0.10), implying that the disparities seen in the 45- to 74-year age group persist unabated. Interpretation Ischemic stroke incidence rates have declined dramatically in the past decade in both ethnic groups for those aged ≥60 years. However, the disparity between Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke rates persists in those <75 years of age. Although the decline in stroke is encouraging, additional prevention efforts targeting young Mexican Americans are warranted. PMID:23868398

  7. Increasing Incidence in Relapsing-Remitting MS and High Rates among Young Women in Finland: A Thirty-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Sumelahti, Marja-Liisa; Holmberg, Markus H. A.; Murtonen, Annukka; Huhtala, Heini; Elovaara, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Object. Gender and disease course specific incidences were studied in high- and medium-risk regions of MS in Finland. Methods. Age- and gender-specific incidences with 95% CIs were calculated in 10-year periods from 1981 to 2010. Poser diagnostic criteria were used and compared with the McDonald criteria from 2001 to 2010. Association between age and diagnostic delay over time was assessed by using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results. 1419 (89%) RRMS and 198 (11%) PPMS cases were included. RRMS incidence increased with the female to male ratio (F/M) from 4,2/105 (F/M 1.9) to 9,7 (2.3), while that of PPMS decreased from 1,2 (1.6) to 0,7 (1.2). The use of McDonald criteria did not change the conclusion. The decreasing diagnostic delay and age at diagnosis in RRMS were associated within the 10-year periods and contrasted those in PPMS. Increasing female risk in RRMS was observed in the high-risk region. Conclusion. Increasing RRMS incidence and high female ratios shown in each age group indicate gender-specific influences acting already from childhood. A more precise definition of the risk factors and their action in MS is needed to provide a better understanding of underlying pathological processes and a rationale for the development of new preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:25431672

  8. Incidence rates and deaths of tuberculosis in HIV-negative patients in the United States and Germany as analyzed by new predictive model for infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incidence and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) have been decreasing worldwide. Given that TB is a cosmopolitan disease, proper surveillance and evaluation are critical for controlling dissemination. Herein, mathematical modeling was performed in order to: 1) demonstrate a correlation between the i...

  9. Incidence of CNS tumors in Appalachian children.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Luo, Alice; Durbin, Eric B; Lycan, Ellen; Tucker, Thomas; Chen, Quan; Horbinski, Craig; Villano, John L

    2017-03-11

    Determine whether the risk of astrocytomas in Appalachian children is higher than the national average. We compared the incidence of pediatric brain tumors in Appalachia versus non-Appalachia regions, covering years 2000-2011. The North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collects population-based data from 55 cancer registries throughout U.S. and Canada. All invasive primary (i.e. non-metastatic tumors), with age at diagnosis 0-19 years old, were included. Nearly 27,000 and 2200 central nervous system (CNS) tumors from non-Appalachia and Appalachia, respectively comprise the cohorts. Age-adjusted incidence rates of each main brain tumor subtype were compared. The incidence rate of pediatric CNS tumors was 8% higher in Appalachia, 3.31 [95% CI 3.17-3.45] versus non-Appalachia, 3.06, [95% CI 3.02-3.09] for the years 2001-2011, all rates are per 100,000 population. Astrocytomas accounted for the majority of this difference, with the rate being 16% higher in Appalachian children, 1.77, [95% CI 1.67-1.87] versus non-Appalachian children, 1.52, [95% CI 1.50-1.55]. Among astrocytomas, World Health Organization (WHO) grade I astrocytomas were 41% higher in Appalachia, 0.63 [95% CI 0.56-0.70] versus non-Appalachia 0.44 [95% CI 0.43-0.46] for the years 2004-2011. This is the first study to demonstrate that Appalachian children are at greater risk of CNS neoplasms, and that much of this difference is in WHO grade I astrocytomas, 41% more common. The cause of this increased incidence is unknown and we discuss the importance of this in relation to genetic and environmental findings in Appalachia.

  10. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence in a Healthcare Area.

    PubMed

    Molina, Antonio J; García-Martínez, Lidia; Zapata-Alvarado, Julio; Alonso-Orcajo, Nieves; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends in the incidence of lung cancer in the Leon Healthcare Area. All cases of cancer among residents of the Leon healthcare catchment area listed in the hospital-based tumor registry of the Centro Asistencial Universitario de Leon (CAULE) between 1996 and 2010 were included. Gross incidence rates over 3-year intervals were calculated and adjusted for the worldwide and European populations. A total of 2,491 cases were included. In men, incidence adjusted for the European population rose from 40.1 new cases per 100,000 population (1996-1998) to 61.8 (2005-2007), and then fell to 54.6 (2008-2010). In women, incidence tripled from 3.0 (1996-1998) to 9.2 new cases per 100,000 (2008-2010). Although lung cancer is an avoidable disease, it is a serious problem in the Leon Healthcare Area. Of particular concern is the rising incidence among women.

  11. Poverty and childhood cancer incidence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pan, I-Jen; Daniels, Julie L; Zhu, Kangmin

    2010-07-01

    This study examined socioeconomic differentials in cancer incidence rates during 2000-2005 among children aged 0-19 in the United States. The data on childhood cancers, which were classified by the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, Third Edition (ICCC-3), were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. The socioeconomic status of residential area at diagnosis was estimated by county-level poverty rate in Census 2000, i.e., percentage of persons in the county living below the national poverty thresholds. Counties were categorized as low-, medium-, and high-poverty areas when the poverty rates were <10, 10-19.99, and 20% or higher, respectively. The results showed that medium- and high-poverty counties had lower age-adjusted incidence rates than low-poverty counties for total childhood cancers combined, central nervous system neoplasms (ICCC group III), neuroblastoma (group IV), renal tumors (group VI), and other malignant epithelial neoplasms and malignant melanomas (group XI). When the data were stratified by race, these associations were observed among whites, but not blacks. For leukemia (group I), poor counties had higher incidence rates than affluent counties for whites, but lower rates for blacks. This ecologic study provides perspective on area socioeconomic variations in childhood cancer incidence that warrants further research.

  12. Cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Different publications show an increased incidence of neoplasms in renal transplant patients. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of cancer in the recipients of renal transplants performed in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) during the period 1981–2007. Methods/Design During the study period 1967 kidney transplants were performed, corresponding to 1710 patients. Patients with neoplasms prior to the transplant will be excluded (n = 38). A follow-up study was carried out in order to estimate cancer incidence after transplantation. For each patient, information included donor and recipient characteristics, patients and graft survival and cancer incidence after transplantation. Incident cancer is considered as new cases of cancer after the transplant with anatomopathological confirmation. Their location will be classified according to the ICD-9. The analysis will be calculated using the indirect standardisation method. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in the Spanish general population will be obtained from the Carlos III Health Institute, the National Epidemiology Centre of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Crude first, second and third-year post-transplantation cancer incidence rates will be calculated for male and female recipients. The number of cases of cancer at each site will be calculated from data in the clinical records. The expected number of cancers will be calculated from data supplied by the Carlos III Health Institute. For each tumour location we will estimate the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using sex-specific cancer incidence rates, by dividing the incidence rate for the transplant patients by the rate of the general population. The 95% confidence intervals of the SIRs and their associated p-values will be calculated by assuming that the observed cancers follow a Poisson distribution. Stratified analysis will be performed to examine the variation in the SIRs with sex and length of follow-up. Competing

  13. [Critical incidents].

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, D

    2005-03-01

    In medicine real severe mishaps are rare. On the other hand critical incidents are frequent. Anonymous critical incident reporting systems allow us to learn from these mishaps. This learning process will make our daily clinical work safer Unfortunately, before these systems can be used efficiently our professional culture has to be changed. Everyone in medicine has to admit that errors do occur to see the need for an open discussion. If we really want to learn from errors, we cannot punish the individual, who reported his or her mistake. The interest is primarily in what has happened and why it has happened and not who has committed this mistake. The cause for critical incidents in medicine is in over 80% the human factor Poor communication, work under enormous stress, conflicts and hierarchies are the main cause. This has been known for many years, therefore have already 15 years ago high-tech industries, like e.g. aviation, started to invest in special courses on team training. Medicine is a typical profession were until now only the individual performance decided about the professional career Communication, conflict management, stress management, decision making, risk management, team and team resource management were subjects that have never been taught during our preor postgraduate education. These points are the most important ones for an optimal teamwork. A multimodular course designed together with Swissair (Human Aspect Development medical, HADmedical) helps to cover, as in aviation, the soft factor and behavioural education in medicine and to prepare professionals in health care to work as a real team.

  14. Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial–temporal models☆

    PubMed Central

    Alegana, Victor A.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wright, Jim A.; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

    2013-01-01

    As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

  15. Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial-temporal models.

    PubMed

    Alegana, Victor A; Atkinson, Peter M; Wright, Jim A; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2013-12-01

    As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination.

  16. Incidence analyses of bladder cancer in the Nile delta region of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Soliman, Amr S; Ismail, Kadry; Hablas, Ahmed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A; Ramadan, Mohamed; Omar, Hoda G; Nriagu, Jerome; Wilson, Mark L

    2009-10-01

    Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy among Egyptian males and previously has been attributed to Schistosoma infection, a major risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recently, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) incidence has been increasing while SCC has declined. To investigate this shift, we analyzed the geographical patterns of all bladder cancers cases recorded in Egypt's Gharbiah Population-Based Cancer Registry from 1999 through 2002. Data on tumor grade, stage, and morphology, as well as smoking, community of residence, age and sex, were collected on 1209 bladder cancer cases. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for males, females, and the total population for the eight administrative Districts and 316 communities in Gharbiah. Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using Poisson Regression. The male age-adjusted incidence rate (IR) in Gharbiah Province was 13.65/100,000 person years (PY). The District of Kotour had the highest age-adjusted IR 28.96/100,000 among males. The District of Kotour also had the highest IRR among all Districts, IRR=2.15 95% CI (1.72, 2.70). Kotour's capital city had the highest bladder cancer incidence among the 316 communities (IR=73.11/100,000 PY). Future studies on sources and types of environmental pollution and exposures in relation to the spatial patterns of bladder cancer, particularly in Kotour District, may improve our understating of risk factors for bladder cancer in the region.

  17. Incidence analyses of bladder cancer in the Nile delta region of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Fedewa, Stacey A.; Soliman, Amr S.; Ismail, Kadry; Hablas, Ahmed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.; Ramadan, Mohamed; Omar, Hoda G.; Nriagu, Jerome; Wilson, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy among Egyptian males and previously has been attributed to Schistosoma infection, a major risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recently, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) incidence has been increasing while SCC has declined. To investigate this shift, we analyzed the geographical patterns of all bladder cancers cases recorded in Egypt’s Gharbiah Population-Based Cancer Registry from 1999 through 2002. Data on tumor grade, stage, and morphology, as well as smoking, community of residence, age and sex, were collected on 1,209 bladder cancer cases. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for males, females, and the total population for the eight administrative Districts and 316 communities in Gharbiah. Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were computed using Poisson Regression. The male age-adjusted incidence rate (IR) in Gharbiah Province was 13.65/100,000 person years (PY). The District of Kotour had the highest age-adjusted IR 28.96/100,000 among males. The District of Kotour also had the highest IRR among all Districts, IRR=2.15 95% CI (1.72, 2.70). Kotour’s capital city had the highest bladder cancer incidence among the 316 communities (IR=73.11/100,000 PY). Future studies on sources and types of environmental pollution and exposures in relation to the spatial patterns of bladder cancer, particularly in Kotour District, may improve our understating of risk factors for bladder cancer in the region. PMID:19762298

  18. The incidence of basal cell carcinoma in Croatia: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Jurakić Toncić, Ruzica; Ledić-Drvar, Daniela; Marasović, Dujomir; Puizina-Ivić, Neira; Cabrijan, Leo; Bradamante, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. The age-specific incidence rate and age-standardized incidence rate were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants according to the latest population census in Croatia from 2001. In the study period, there were 7,244 BCC cases (3,519 men and 3,725 women) in Croatia. The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 54.9 for men and 53.9 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 33.6 for men and 24.5 for women. The head and neck were almost exclusive localizations of BCC. The highest BCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. The incidence of BCC was high in both littoral and inland counties of Croatia. Study results will serve as reference figures on studying the trend of BCC incidence in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years.

  19. Cancer incidence among Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah (United States) 1971-85.

    PubMed

    Lyon, J L; Gardner, K; Gress, R E

    1994-03-01

    We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 by religion (Mormon, non-Mormon) for Utah (United States) using the 49,182 cancer cases occurring between 1971-85. For all causes of cancer, the rate in Utah for male members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons) was about 24 percent less than the comparable US rate. There was a 50-percent lower rate of cancers associated with cigarette smoking among LDS men. Non-LDS (NLDS) men in Utah experienced an incidence of smoking-associated cancers slightly higher than other US men. LDS men had an incidence of those cancers not associated with smoking slightly lower than US men, and NLDS men had a 40-percent higher rate than US men because of higher rates of melanoma and cancers of the lip and prostate gland. LDS women had an all-sites cancer rate 24 percent below the comparable US rate, and a 60-percent lower rate of smoking-associated cancers. The incidence of cancer not associated with smoking was 20 percent lower for LDS women compared with US women and was the result of lower rates of cancers of the colon, breast, and uterine cervix. NLDS women had a 13-percent higher incidence of cancers not associated with smoking because of higher rates of cancers of the lip and breast.

  20. A crossover adjustment for improving sea surface height mapping from in-situ high rate ship-borne GNSS data using PPP technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinyun; Dong, Zhenghua; Tan, Zhengguang; Liu, Xin; Chen, Chuanfa; Hwang, Cheinway

    2016-08-01

    Ship-borne global navigation satellite system (GNSS) technique can overcome the weakness of satellite altimetry and tide gauge in measuring sea surface heights (SSHs) over coastal seas. Ship-borne GNSS technique can be used to calibrate SSHs determined by the satellite altimetry and tide gauge. The ship-borne GNSS data are processed with the single-epoch precise point positioning (PPP) method to estimate SSHs which are filtered by the Gaussian filter to weaken and/or remove effects of sea wind and wave field. Tidal corrections are also taken into consideration to improve SSHs. One crossover adjustment method is put forward to calculate the bias and drift along the ship route and assess the accuracy of SSHs. We processed the in-situ ship-borne GPS data over the offshore sea around Keelung to compute precisely SSHs with the single-epoch PPP. Statistical results of SSH differences of crossover points indicate that the root mean squares error of SSHs determined by the ship-borne GPS is up to level of 12.9 cm over the offshore sea ~30 km far away to land.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Mitochondrial Lineages in Cities with Distinct Dengue Incidence Rates Suggests Complex Population Dynamics of the Dengue Vector in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes-Dueñez, Jeiczon; Arboleda, Sair; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4), Chikungunya and yellow fever virus to humans. Previous population genetic studies have revealed a particular genetic structure among the vector populations in the Americas that suggests differences in the ability to transmit DENV. In Colombia, despite its high epidemiologic importance, the genetic population structure and the phylogeographic depiction of Ae. aegypti, as well as its relationship with the epidemiologic landscapes in cities with heterogeneous incidence levels, remains unknown. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis with the aim of determining the genetic structure and phylogeography of Colombian populations of Ae. aegypti among cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to DENV. Methods/Findings Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (COI) - NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were sequenced and analyzed from 341 adult mosquitoes collected during 2012 and 2013 in the Colombian cities of Bello, Riohacha and Villavicencio, which exhibit low, medium and high levels of incidence of DENV, respectively. The results demonstrated a low genetic differentiation over time and a high genetic structure between the cities due to changes in the frequency of two highly supported genetic groups. The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello and in only one sampling from Riohacha. Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time and space in these cities. Conclusions Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is

  2. Brain and central nervous system cancer incidence in navarre (Spain), 1973-2008 and projections for 2014.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, J; Román, E San; Burgui, R; Guevara, M; Moreno-Iribas, C; Urbina, M J; Ardanaz, E

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have pointed out Navarre as one of the regions of Spain with the highest incidence rates of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancer. Trend analysis for cancer incidence rates for long periods of time, might help determining risk factors as well as, assessing prevention actions involved in this disease. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of brain and CNS cancer using data from the population-based cancer registry of Navarre, (Spain) during the period 1973-2008 and provide forecast figures up to-2014. Crude and age-standardized (world population) incidence rates of brain cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated by the direct method separately by gender, area (Pamplona and others), and age-groups. Penalized splines for smoothing rates in the temporal dimensions were applied in order to estimate and forecast cancer incidence rates. Age-adjusted incidence rates showed an increase over the study and forecast periods in both sexes more marked in women than in men. Higher incidence rates were observed in men compared with women but the differences became smaller with time. The increase was due to the rise of rates in the oldest age groups since the rates for younger age groups remained stable or decreased over time. As the entire aetiology of brain and other CNS cancer is not still clear, keep promoting healthful lifestyles for cancer primary prevention among the whole population is necessary.

  3. An index of unhealthy lifestyle is associated with coronary heart disease mortality rates for small areas in England after adjustment for deprivation.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, P; Allender, S; Rayner, M; Goldacre, M

    2011-03-01

    Indices of socio-economic deprivation are often used as a proxy for differences in the health behaviours of populations within small areas, but these indices are a measure of the economic environment rather than the health environment. Sets of synthetic estimates of the ward-level prevalence of low fruit and vegetable consumption, obesity, raised blood pressure, raised cholesterol and smoking were combined to develop an index of unhealthy lifestyle. Multi-level regression models showed that this index described about 50% of the large-scale geographic variation in CHD mortality rates in England, and substantially adds to the ability of an index of deprivation to explain geographic variations in CHD mortality rates.

  4. Controlling Type I Error Rate in Evaluating Differential Item Functioning for Four DIF Methods: Use of Three Procedures for Adjustment of Multiple Item Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihye

    2010-01-01

    In DIF studies, a Type I error refers to the mistake of identifying non-DIF items as DIF items, and a Type I error rate refers to the proportion of Type I errors in a simulation study. The possibility of making a Type I error in DIF studies is always present and high possibility of making such an error can weaken the validity of the assessment.…

  5. Incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia, 1968--1977.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R W; Kannan Kutty, M; Dharmalingam, S K; Ponnudurai, J R

    1979-10-01

    A record of all known cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia is complete for 10 years from 1968 to 1977. Special efforts in case-finding were made in the State of Selangor where conditions are optimal. Age-adjusted incidence rates among Chinese males and females were 16.5 and 7.2 per 100,000, among Malay males and females 2.3 and 0.7 and among Indian males, 1.0. There were no significant changes in incidence rates over the 10-year period for sex and ethnic groups, or for Chinese subethnic groups. In Chinese subethnic groups, rates were highest among Cantonese, moderate among Khek and lowest among Hokkien and Teochiu. Standardized incidence ratios using Selangor as the standard population indicate considerable under-reporting in the less urban states of Malaysia, particularly among females. In Selangor, incidence rates were similar for urban and rural residents, but the frequency of cases was higher among Chinese working in industry and living in poor neighbourhoods.

  6. Sudden cardiac death rate in an area characterized by high incidence of coronary artery disease and low hardness of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, D; Dini, F L; Azzarelli, A; Giaconi, A; Volterrani, C; Lunardi, M

    1995-02-01

    From January 1992 to January 1993 the incidence of sudden cardiac death among the population of the Media Valle del Serchio area (Tuscany, Italy), composed of a population of 35,000, was found to be twice that of the European average; 32 cases have been reported over this period in that area (9 per 10,000 in the examined year), with a male/female (M/F) ratio of 2.5:1 (23 M, 9 F). In Italy the mean incidence of sudden death was calculated as 6/10,000 and in Europe 5/10,000. In the examined population hypertension was the coronary risk factor present most frequently (87%). A previous diagnosis of coronary artery disease was documented in 21 cases (66%); 5 of these exhibited previous myocardial infarction and 3 previous myocardial infarction associated with left ventricular heart failure. In 7 subjects no previous cardiovascular disorders were discovered. Prodromal symptoms had been reported in 20 cases (62%), which included chest pain in 8 and dyspnea in 8. In the examined geographic area a high prevalence of coronary artery disease was verified through the records of the Public Health Service, which documents the main causes of mortality in Tuscany, and through the hospitalization data and the services provided for ischemic heart disease at the local coronary care unit compared with the national average. Moreover, research was accomplished on physical and chemical properties of drinking water in the same area, and this revealed a very low total hardness due to the paucity of calcium and magnesium salts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Relating annual migration from high tuberculosis burden country of origin to changes in foreign-born tuberculosis notification rates in low-medium incidence European countries.

    PubMed

    Hanway, Aidan; Comiskey, Catherine M; Tobin, Katy; O'Toole, Ronan F

    2016-12-01

    The level of immigration from high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries (HBCs) which impacts on the foreign-born TB notification rate is largely unknown. In this work, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological data from 2000 to 2013 from nine European countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Crude notification rates were calculated for foreign- and native-born populations and a multiple-linear regression model predicting notification rates with HBC population data was generated. From 2000 to 2013, the population percentage with a foreign birthplace increased on average each year in all nine countries, ranging from +0.11%/year in the Netherlands to +0.66%/year in Spain. An annual increase in HBC migrants above +0.43% per year (95% Confidence Interval: 0.24%-0.63%) corresponded with higher TB notification rates in the foreign-born population of the countries analyzed. This indicates that migration from HBCs can exert a measurable effect on the foreign-born TB notification rate. However, an increase in the foreign-born TB notification rate coincided with an average annual rise in national TB notification rates only in countries, Norway (+3.85%/year) and Sweden (+2.64%/year), which have a high proportion (>80%) of TB cases that are foreign-born.

  8. Nervous System and Intracranial Tumour Incidence by Ethnicity in England, 2001–2007: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Maile, Edward J.; Barnes, Isobel; Finlayson, Alexander E.; Sayeed, Shameq; Ali, Raghib

    2016-01-01

    Background There is substantial variation in nervous system and intracranial tumour incidence worldwide. UK incidence data have limited utility because they group these diverse tumours together and do not provide data for individual ethnic groups within Blacks and South Asians. Our objective was to determine the incidence of individual tumour types for seven individual ethnic groups. Methods We used data from the National Cancer Intelligence Network on tumour site, age, sex and deprivation to identify 42,207 tumour cases. Self-reported ethnicity was obtained from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. We used mid-year population estimates from the Office for National Statistics. We analysed tumours by site using Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios comparing non-White ethnicities to Whites after adjustment for sex, age and deprivation. Results Our study showed differences in tumour incidence by ethnicity for gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary tumours and cranial and paraspinal nerve tumours. Relative to Whites; South Asians, Blacks and Chinese have a lower incidence of gliomas (p<0.01), with respective incidence rate ratios of 0.68 (confidence interval: 0.60–0.77), 0.62 (0.52–0.73) and 0.58 (0.41–0.83). Blacks have a higher incidence of meningioma (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 1.29 (1.05–1.59) and there is heterogeneity in meningioma incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Blacks have a higher incidence of pituitary tumours relative to Whites (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 2.95 (2.37–3.67). There is heterogeneity in pituitary tumour incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Conclusions We present incidence data of individual tumour types for seven ethnic groups. Current understanding of the aetiology of these tumours cannot explain our results. These findings suggest avenues for further work. PMID:27135830

  9. Determinants of Clostridium difficile Infection Incidence Across Diverse United States Geographic Locations

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, Fernanda C.; Mu, Yi; Winston, Lisa G.; Dumyati, Ghinwa K.; Farley, Monica M.; Beldavs, Zintars G.; Kast, Kelly; Holzbauer, Stacy M.; Meek, James I.; Cohen, Jessica; McDonald, L. Clifford; Fridkin, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Background  Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is no longer restricted to hospital settings, and population-based incidence measures are needed. Understanding the determinants of CDI incidence will allow for more meaningful comparisons of rates and accurate national estimates. Methods  Data from active population- and laboratory-based CDI surveillance in 7 US states were used to identify CDI cases (ie, residents with positive C difficile stool specimen without a positive test in the prior 8 weeks). Cases were classified as community-associated (CA) if stool was collected as outpatients or ≤3 days of admission and no overnight healthcare facility stay in the past 12 weeks; otherwise, cases were classified as healthcare-associated (HA). Two regression models, one for CA-CDI and another for HA-CDI, were built to evaluate predictors of high CDI incidence. Site-specific incidence was adjusted based on the regression models. Results  Of 10 062 cases identified, 32% were CA. Crude incidence varied by geographic area; CA-CDI ranged from 28.2 to 79.1/100 000 and HA-CDI ranged from 45.7 to 155.9/100 000. Independent predictors of higher CA-CDI incidence were older age, white race, female gender, and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) use. For HA-CDI, older age and a greater number of inpatient-days were predictors. After adjusting for relevant predictors, the range of incidence narrowed greatly; CA-CDI rates ranged from 30.7 to 41.3/100 000 and HA-CDI rates ranged from 58.5 to 94.8/100 000. Conclusions  Differences in CDI incidence across geographic areas can be partially explained by differences in NAAT use, age, race, sex, and inpatient-days. Variation in antimicrobial use may contribute to the remaining differences in incidence. PMID:25734120

  10. Environment as a potential key determinant of the continued increase of prostate cancer incidence in martinique.

    PubMed

    Belpomme, Dominique; Irigaray, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980-2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  11. Recent trends in racial and regional disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in United States

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmi

    2017-01-01

    Background Although black women experienced greater cervical cancer incidence and mortality rate reduction in recent years, they continue to have higher incidence rates than whites. Great variations also exist among geographic regions of the US, with the South having both the highest incidence and mortality rates compared to other regions. The present study explores the question of whether living in the South is associated with greater racial disparity in cervical cancer incidence and mortality by examining race- and region-specific rates and the trend between 2000 and 2012. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Program data was used. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, annual percent changes, and disparity ratios were calculated using SEER*Stat software and Joinpoint regression for four groups: US14-Non-Hispanic White (NHW), US14-Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), South-NHW, and South-NHB, where South included 4 registries from Georgia and Louisiana and US14 were 14 US registries except the four South registries. Results The average age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence rate was the highest among South-NHBs (11.1) and mortality rate was the highest among US14-NHBs (5.4). In 2012, the degree of racial disparities between South-NHBs and South-NHWs was greater in terms of mortality rates (NHB:NHW = 1.80:1.35) than incidence rates (NHB:NHW = 1.45:1.15). While mortality disparity ratios decreased from 2000–2012 for US14-NHB (APC: -1.9(-2.3,-1.4), mortality disparity ratios for South-NHWs (although lower than NHBs) increased compared to US14-NHW. Incidence rates for NHBs continued to increase with increasing age, whereas rates for NHWs decreased after age 40. Mortality rates for NHBs dramatically increased at age 65 compared to a relatively stable trend for NHWs. The increasing racial disparity with increasing age in terms of cervical cancer incidence rates became more pronounced when corrected for hysterectomy prevalence. Conclusions

  12. Effects of uncertainty in SAPRC90 rate constants and selected product yields on reactivity adjustment factors for alternative fuel vehicle emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, M.S.; Russell, A.G.; Yang, Y.J.; Milford, J.B.; Kirchner, F.; Stockwell, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone is formed in the atmosphere by a series of reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). While NOx emissions are primarily composed of only two compounds, nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), there are hundreds of different VOCs being emitted. In general, VOCs promote ozone formation, however, the rate and extent of ozone produced by the individual VOCs varies considerably. For example, it is widely acknowledged that formaldehyde (HCHO) is a very reactive VOC, and produces ozone rapidly and efficiently under most conditions. On the other hand, VOCs such as methane, ethane, propane, and methanol do not react as quickly, and are likely to form less urban ozone than a comparable mass of HCHO. The difference in ozone forming potential is one of the bases for the use of alternative fuels. The fuels considered in this study included compressed natural gas, LPG, mixtures of methanol and gasoline, ethanol and gasoline, and a reformulated gasoline.

  13. Colchicine Significantly Reduces Incident Cancer in Gout Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout. PMID:26683907

  14. Micro Ring Grating Spectrometer with Adjustable Aperture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spectrometer includes a micro-ring grating device having coaxially-aligned ring gratings for diffracting incident light onto a target focal point, a detection device for detecting light intensity, one or more actuators, and an adjustable aperture device defining a circular aperture. The aperture circumscribes a target focal point, and directs a light to the detection device. The aperture device is selectively adjustable using the actuators to select a portion of a frequency band for transmission to the detection device. A method of detecting intensity of a selected band of incident light includes directing incident light onto coaxially-aligned ring gratings of a micro-ring grating device, and diffracting the selected band onto a target focal point using the ring gratings. The method includes using an actuator to adjust an aperture device and pass a selected portion of the frequency band to a detection device for measuring the intensity of the selected portion.

  15. Suicide in Recent Onset Psychosis Revisited: Significant Reduction of Suicide Rate over the Last Two Decades — A Replication Study of a Dutch Incidence Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Jill S.; van Es, Frank D.; Visser, Ellen; Aleman, André; Bruggeman, Richard; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare the suicide risk over the past decade following recent onset psychosis to findings from the eighties and nineties in the same catchment area and to identify predictors of suicide in the context of the Psychosis Recent Onset Groningen-Survey (PROGR-S). A medical file search was carried out to determine the current status of all patients admitted between 2000 and 2009. The suicide rate was compared with a study executed in 1973–1988 in the same catchment area. Predictors of suicide were investigated using Cox regression. The status of 424 of the 614 patients was known in July 2014. Suicide occurred in 2.4% of patients with psychosis disorders (n = 10; mean follow-up 5.6 years); 6 out of 10 suicides took place within two years. Within two decades, the suicide rate dropped from 11% (follow-up 15 years, 8.5% after 5 years) to 2.4%. The Standardized Mortality Rate (SMR) of suicides compared with the general population was 41.6. A higher age was the only significant predictor for suicide. Neuroticism, living situation, disorganized and negative symptoms, and passive coping style all showed a trend for significance. A significant reduction in the suicide rate was found for people with psychosis over the past decades. Given the high SMR, suicide research should be given the highest priority. Identifying predictors may contribute to further reduction of suicide among patients with psychosis. PMID:26068417

  16. Presence of animal feeding operations and community socioeconomic factors impact salmonellosis incidence rates: An ecological analysis using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kristi S; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Jiang, Chengsheng; Malayil, Leena; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of foodborne illness. Risk factors for salmonellosis include the consumption of contaminated chicken, eggs, pork and beef. Agricultural, environmental and socioeconomic factors also have been associated with rates of Salmonella infection. However, to our knowledge, these factors have not been modeled together at the community-level to improve our understanding of whether rates of salmonellosis are variable across communities defined by differing factors. To address this knowledge gap, we obtained data on culture-confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport and S. Javiana cases (2004-2010; n=14,297) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), and socioeconomic, environmental and agricultural data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the 2011 American Community Survey, and the 2007 U.S. Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code and derived incidence rate ratios using negative binomial regressions. Multiple community-level factors were associated with salmonellosis rates; however, our findings varied by state. For example, in Georgia (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.01; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.005-1.015) Maryland (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.003-1.015) and Tennessee (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.002-1.012), zip codes characterized by greater rurality had higher rates of S. Newport infections. The presence of broiler chicken operations, dairy operations and cattle operations in a zip code also was associated with significantly higher rates of infection with at least one serotype in states that are leading producers of these animal products. For instance, in Georgia and Tennessee, rates of S. Enteritidis infection were 48% (IRR=1.48; 95% CI=1.12-1.95) and 46% (IRR=1.46; 95% CI=1.17-1.81) higher in zip codes with broiler chicken operations compared to those without these operations. In Maryland, New Mexico and Tennessee, higher poverty levels in zip codes were associated with

  17. Increasing incidence of cataract surgery: Population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gollogly, Heidrun E.; Hodge, David O.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Erie, Jay C.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To estimate the incidence of cataract surgery in a defined population and to determine longitudinal cataract surgery patterns. SETTING Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. DESIGN Cohort study. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) databases were used to identify all incident cataract surgeries in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011. Age-specific and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated and adjusted to the 2010 United States white population. Data were merged with previous REP data (1980 to 2004) to assess temporal trends in cataract surgery. Change in the incidence over time was assessed by fitting generalized linear models assuming a Poisson error structure. The probability of second-eye cataract surgery was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS Included were 8012 cataract surgeries from 2005 through 2011. During this time, incident cataract surgery significantly increased (P < .001), peaking in 2011 with a rate of 1100 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval, 1050–1160). The probability of second-eye surgery 3, 12, and 24 months after first-eye surgery was 60%, 76%, and 86%, respectively, a significant increase compared with the same intervals in the previous 7 years (1998 to 2004) (P < .001). When merged with 1980 to 2004 REP data, incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 3 decades (P < .001). CONCLUSION Incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 32 years and has not leveled off, as reported in Swedish population-based series. Second-eye surgery was performed sooner and more frequently, with 60% of residents having second-eye surgery within 3-months of first-eye surgery. PMID:23820302

  18. Analysis of Factors Driving Incident and Ascending Infection and the Role of Serum Antibody in Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Ali N.; Zheng, Xiaojing; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Taylor, Brandie D.; Wiesenfeld, Harold C.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Zhong, Wujuan; Darville, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection is a major cause of female reproductive morbidity. Risk factors for ascending infection are unknown, and the role for antibody in protection is not well established. Methods. We recruited 225 women from urban outpatient clinics and followed them for a median of 12 months. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of serum anti-chlamydial immunoglobulin G (IgG), behavioral factors, and microbiological factors associated with endometrial infection at enrollment, and a longitudinal analysis of factors associated with incident infection. Results. Oral contraceptives (adjusted relative risk [RR], 2.02 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.38–2.97]) and gonorrhea (adjusted RR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.07–2.60]) were associated with endometrial infection. Gonorrhea (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 3.09 [95% CI, 1.41–6.78]), cervical infection at enrollment (adjusted HR, 2.33 [95% CI, 1.07–5.11]), and exposure to uncircumcised partners (adjusted HR, 2.65 [95% CI, 1.21–5.82]) or infected partners (adjusted HR, 4.99 [95% CI, 2.66–9.39]) significantly increased the risk of incident infection. Seropositivity was associated with a reduced cervical burden (P < .05) but no differences in rates of ascending infection (adjusted RR, 1.24 [95% CI, .71–2.19]) or incident infection (adjusted HR, 0.94 [95% CI, .52–1.69]). Conclusions. Serum anti-chlamydial IgG is not associated with a lowered rate of ascending or repeat infection. Identification of factors associated with ascending infection and increased risk of incident infection provide guidance for targeted screening of women at increased risk for sequelae. PMID:26347571

  19. Melanoma Incidence Rates in Active Duty Military Personnel Compared With a Population-Based Registry in the United States, 2000-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    for Research on Cancer Working Group on artifi- cial ultraviolet ( UV ) light and skin cancer: The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous...later in life, especially among those with fair skin pigmentation, light eye and hair color, and propensity to freckle.’*"^ Studies comparing melanoma...occupations, " aircrew survival equipmentman" and "engineman," were found to have at least a two-fold risk of melanoma compared with general population rates

  20. Incidence and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among Navajo people living in the Navajo nation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Paul H; Mehal, Jason M; Holman, Robert C; Bartholomew, Michael L; Cheek, James E; Rowland, Andrew S

    2015-04-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is largely unstudied among American Indians. Unique populations might harbor clues to elusive causes. We describe the incidence and prevalence of PD among Navajo people residing in the Navajo Nation, home to the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. We analyzed 2001-2011 inpatient and outpatient visit data for Navajo people obtained from the Indian Health Service, which provides health care to American Indian people living on the Navajo Reservation. Cases were defined by at least two inpatient or outpatient visits with the diagnosis of PD. Crude and age-adjusted incidence and prevalence rates were calculated overall as well as by age, sex, region of residence, and time period. Five hundred twenty-four Navajo people with median age-at-onset of 74.0 years were diagnosed with PD during the study period, yielding an average annual crude incidence rate of 22.5/100,000. Age-specific incidence was 232.0 for patients 65 years of age or older and 302.0 for 80 years of age or older. Age-adjusted incidence was 35.9 overall (238.1 for ≥65 years), was higher in men than in women (47.5 vs. 27.7; P<0.001), varied by region (P=0.03), and was similar between time periods (2002-2004 vs. 2009-2011). The age-adjusted point prevalence rate was 261.0. The rate of PD among Navajo People appears to be as high as or higher than rates reported in many other populations. Rates increased to the highest age group, consistent with population-based studies. Further investigation is warranted to examine risk factors for PD in this remote population.

  1. Changing incidence of esophageal cancer among white women: analysis of SEER data (1992–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Rachna; Deorah, Sundeep; McDowell, Bradley D.; Hejleh, Taher Abu; Lynch, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To analyse trends in the incidence rates of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus (ACE and SCC, respectively) in white women between 1992 and 2010. Material and methods We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER program to identify cases of esophageal cancer). Age adjusted incidence rates (IR) were calculated for ACE and SCC for two different time periods (1992–1996 and 2006–2010) and stratified by age, stage, and histologic type. We used joinpoint analysis to detect changes in rates between 1992 and 2010. Results Between the time periods 1992–1996 and 2006–2010, the age-adjusted incidence rates for SCC in white women decreased from 1.2/100,000 to 0.8/100,000 personyears, and for ACE it increased from 0.5/100,000 to 0.7/100,000 personyears. Similar to white men, the increase in the incidence of ACE was consistent for all stages and all age groups in white women. However, it was most pronounced in women aged 45–59 years, where the incidence of ACE (0.9/100,000 person-years) in 2006–2010 exceeded the incidence of SCC (0.6/100,000 person-years). On joinpoint regression analysis, an inflection point was seen in 1999 for ACE, indicating a slower rate of increase for ACE after 1999 (annual percentage change of 8.00 before 1999 vs. 0.88 starting in 1999). Conclusions The incidence of ACE is increasing in white women, irrespective of age or stage. Indeed, ACE is now more common than SCC in white women between 45 and 59 years of age. PMID:26557784

  2. Severe edentulism is a major risk factor influencing stroke incidence in rural Ecuador (The Atahualpa Project).

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Zambrano, Mauricio; Del Brutto, Victor J

    2017-02-01

    Background There is no information on stroke incidence in rural areas of Latin America, where living conditions and cardiovascular risk factors are different from urban centers. Aim Using a population-based prospective cohort study design, we aimed to assess risk factors influencing stroke incidence in community-dwelling adults living in rural Ecuador. Methods First-ever strokes occurring from 1 June 2012 to 31 May 2016, in Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years, were identified from yearly door-to-door surveys and other overlapping sources. Poisson regression models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, edentulism and the length of observation time per subject were used to estimate stroke incidence rate ratio as well as factors influencing such incidence. Results Of 807 stroke-free individuals prospectively enrolled in the Atahualpa Project, follow-up was achieved in 718 (89%), contributing 2,499 years of follow-up (average 3.48 ± 0.95 years). Overall stroke incidence rate was 2.97 per 100 person-years of follow-up (95% CI: 1.73-4.2), which increased to 4.77 (95% CI: 1.61-14.1) when only persons aged ≥57 years were considered. Poisson regression models, adjusted for relevant confounders, showed that high blood pressure (IRR: 5.24; 95% CI: 2.55-7.93) and severe edentulism (IRR: 5.06; 95% CI: 2.28-7.85) were the factors independently increasing stroke incidence. Conclusions Stroke incidence in this rural setting is comparable to that reported from the developed world. Besides age and high blood pressure, severe edentulism is a major factor independently predicting incident strokes. Public awareness of the consequences of poor dental care might reduce stroke incidence in rural settings.

  3. A whole genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting milk protein percentage in Israeli-Holstein cattle, by means of selective milk DNA pooling in a daughter design, using an adjusted false discovery rate criterion.

    PubMed Central

    Mosig, M O; Lipkin, E; Khutoreskaya, G; Tchourzyna, E; Soller, M; Friedmann, A

    2001-01-01

    Selective DNA pooling was employed in a daughter design to screen all bovine autosomes for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting estimated breeding value for milk protein percentage (EBVP%). Milk pools prepared from high and low daughters of each of seven sires were genotyped for 138 dinucleotide microsatellites. Shadow-corrected estimates of sire allele frequencies were compared between high and low pools. An adjusted false discovery rate (FDR) method was employed to calculate experimentwise significance levels and empirical power. Significant associations with milk protein percentage were found for 61 of the markers (adjusted FDR = 0.10; estimated power, 0.68). The significant markers appear to be linked to 19--28 QTL. Mean allele substitution effects of the putative QTL averaged 0.016 (0.009--0.028) in units of the within-sire family standard deviation of EBVP% and summed to 0.460 EBVP%. Overall QTL heterozygosity was 0.40. The identified QTL appear to account for all of the variation in EBVP% in the population. Through use of selective DNA pooling, 4400 pool data points provided the statistical power of 600,000 individual data points. PMID:11290723

  4. Foodborne Illness Incidence Rates and Food Safety Risks for Populations of Low Socioeconomic Status and Minority Race/Ethnicity: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe. PMID:23955239

  5. Foodborne illness incidence rates and food safety risks for populations of low socioeconomic status and minority race/ethnicity: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2013-08-15

    While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe.

  6. Incidence of orbital, conjunctival and lacrimal gland malignant tumors in USA from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, 1973-2009

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Waleed M.; Bakry, Mohamed S.; Hassan, Housam M.; Alfaar, Ahmad S.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the types and incidence of tumors affecting the orbit, conjunctiva and lacrimal glands and to study the trend line of these tumors in the United States from 1973 to 2009. METHODS We used the publicly available Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database registries to determine the incidence rates. Age was adjusted to the 2000 US Standard Population. Patients were stratified according to age group, gender, race and histological grouping of tumor lesions. Three age groups were defined: 0-19, 20-49 and ≥50y. Annual percentage changes were calculated to examine trends. RESULTS The overall age adjusted incidence rate was 3.39 (95%CI: 3.27-3.52) per million person-years. The tumors were more prevalent in age group ≥50 counting 9.51 (95%CI: 9.11-9.92) per million person-years. Most of the soft tissue sarcomas occurred in the young age with incidence rate of 0.35 (95%CI: 0.28-0.42) per million person-years. Lymphomas were the dominant subtype in the adult population with incidence rate of 5.74 (95%CI: 5.43-6.06) per million person-years. Incidence rates were higher in males than females with an overall rate ratio of 1.31 (95%CI: 1.21-1.41) mainly caused by the increase in carcinoma subtypes. White race had a higher tumor incidence with a rate ratio of 1.47(95%CI: 1.25-1.73) driven by the higher incidence of most histological subtypes. Orbital tumors showed a higher incidence rate followed by conjunctival and lacrimal gland tumors with incidence rates of 1.59, 1.37 and 0.43 per million person-years respectively. The trend line of overall incidence of tumors showed a significant increase (APC=3.11, 95%CI: 2.61-3.61) mainly due to increase of lymphomas. This increase was higher than the increase of lymphomas at other sites. CONCLUSION Orbital, conjunctival and lacrimal gland malignant tumors differ among children and adults. Over the years there has been a noticeable increase in incidence rates of orbital and lacrimal gland tumors mainly

  7. 76 FR 22157 - Postal Service Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... flats that include, in or on the mailpiece, a two dimensional barcode readable by mobile smart phones... dimensional barcodes, though readable by smart phones, are not eligible to receive the discount. Id. The... mobile smart phones to market, promote, or educate.'' Id. at 2-3. The 3 percent discount may be...

  8. 76 FR 53160 - Postal Service Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... (LC/AO) items weighing up to 2 kilograms tendered as Expr s Items and branded with the Common Logo... features and a common logo.' '' Id. at 6-7, Attachment 2 at 1 (footnote omitted). Article 12 of the Expr...

  9. Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Incident Gout

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqing; Peloquin, Christine E.; Dubreuil, Maureen; Roddy, Edward; Lu, Na; Neogi, Tuhina; Choi, Hyon K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sleep apnea is associated with hyperuricemia owing to hypoxia-induced nucleotide turnover. We undertook this study to assess the relationship between incident sleep apnea and the risk of incident gout. Methods Using data from The Health Improvement Network in the UK, we identified individuals with a first-ever physician diagnosis of sleep apnea. For each patient with sleep apnea, up to 5 individuals without sleep apnea were matched by sex, age, birth year, and body mass index (within ±0.5 kg/m2). We estimated the incidence rates of gout and examined the relationship between sleep apnea and the risk of incident gout using a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for potential confounders. In addition, we assessed the rate difference in gout due to sleep apnea using an additive hazard model. Results Among 9,865 patients with newly diagnosed sleep apnea and 43,598 matched individuals without sleep apnea, we identified 270 incident cases of gout over 1 year of followup, resulting in incidence rates of 8.4 per 1,000 person-years and 4.8 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. The crude and multivariable rate ratios of incident gout in patients with sleep apnea were 1.7 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3, 2.2) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.1, 2.1), respectively. The corresponding rate differences between patients with sleep apnea and the comparison cohort were 3.6 (95% CI 1.6, 5.6) and 2.8 (95% CI 0.7, 4.9) per 1,000 person-years. The effect of sleep apnea persisted across subgroups. Conclusion This general population–based study indicates that sleep apnea is independently associated with an increased risk of incident gout. Future research should examine the potential benefits of correcting sleep apnea–induced hypoxia on the risk of hyperuricemia and gout flares. PMID:26477891

  10. Ideal cardiovascular health and incident hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai Yan; Liu, Xiao Xue; Wang, An Xin; Wu, Yun Tao; Zheng, Xiao Ming; Zhao, Xiao Hong; Cui, Kai; Ruan, Chun Yu; Lu, Cheng Zhi; Jonas, Jost B.; Wu, Shou Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) has been defined by the American Heart Association as the absence of disease and presence of 7 key health factors. Since it is unknown whether cumulative exposure to CVH reduces the risk of developing arterial hypertension, we prospectively examined the potential association between cumulative CVH (cumCVH) score (except for blood pressure metrics) and incident hypertension. Of the 101,510 participants with an age range of 18 to 98 years in this longitudinal community-based Kailuan study, our cohort included those 15,014 participants without hypertension at baseline and who had follow-up examinations 2, 4, and 6 years later. CumCVH was calculated as the summed CVH score for each examination multiplied by the time between the 2 examinations (points × year). Based on the cumCVH score, the study population was stratified into groups of <44 points, 44 to 48 points, 49 to 54 points, 55 to 59 points, and ≥60 points. Incidence of hypertension ranged from 16.76% in the lowest cumCVH category to 11.52% in the highest cumCVH category. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, income level, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration, uric acid concentration, resting heart rate, parental history of hypertension at baseline, and medication usage before the third follow-up examination, participants in the highest cumCVH category had a significantly reduced risk of incident hypertension compared with those in the lowest cumCVH category (adjusted odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.50–0.71). For every increase in category based on the cumCVH score, the risk of hypertension decreased by approximately 2% (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.97–0.98). The effect was consistent across sex and age groups. A higher cumCVH score is associated with a lower risk of incident hypertension. PMID:27977580

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer With 2 Fractions in 1 Application Under Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia: Incidence and Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Czajka-Pepl, Agnieszka; Scharbert, Gisela; Wetzel, Léonore; Sturdza, Alina; Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the psychological consequences of high-dose-rate brachytherapy with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In 50 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, validated questionnaires were used for prospective assessment of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD/PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale–Revision), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Cervical Cancer 24), physical functioning (World Health Organization performance status), and pain (visual analogue scale), before and during treatment and 1 week and 3 months after treatment. Qualitative interviews were recorded in open format for content analysis. Results: Symptoms of ASD occurred in 30% of patients 1 week after treatment; and of PTSD in 41% 3 months after treatment in association with this specific brachytherapy procedure. Pretreatment predictive variables explain 82% of the variance of PTSD symptoms. Helpful experiences were the support of the treatment team, psychological support, and a positive attitude. Stressful factors were pain, organizational problems during treatment, and immobility between brachytherapy fractions. Conclusions: The specific brachytherapy procedure, as performed in the investigated mono-institutional setting with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia, bears a considerable risk of traumatization. The source of stress seems to be not the brachytherapy application itself but the maintenance of the applicator under epidural anesthesia in the time between fractions. Patients at risk may be identified before treatment, to offer targeted psycho-social support. The patients' open reports regarding helpful experiences are an encouraging feedback for the treatment team; the reported stressful factors

  12. The prevalence and genetic characterization of Chlamydia psittaci from domestic and feral pigeons in Poland and the correlation between infection rate and incidence of pigeon circovirus.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Tomasz; Pestka, Daria; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Chlamydia psittaci that occurs in a wide range of bird species. High infection rates with C. psittaci are found in pigeons, which can act as vectors transmitting this bacterium to poultry and humans. Chlamydia shedding by pigeons is intermittent and can be activated by stressors or immunosuppression. The most common immunosuppressive factor for pigeons is a pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. psittaci in Polish populations of domestic and feral pigeons (Columba livia) in the context of its correlation with PiCV infections. The second objective was to determine the genetic characteristics of Polish C. psittaci isolates. The study was conducted on 377 pigeon samples (276 domestic and 101 feral pigeons) collected from pigeons from different regions of Poland. The average prevalence of C. psittaci in the Polish pigeon population was determined at 6.8%, and it was higher in domestic than in feral pigeons. This is the first ever study to suggest a potential correlation between C. psittaci and PiCV infections, which could be attributed to the fact that there are 2 to 3 times more pigeons infected with C. psittaci and coinfected with PiCV than pigeons infected with C. psittaci alone. This trend was observed mainly in the population of sick pigeons. As many as 88.2% of isolates were recognized as belonging to genotype B, and the remaining isolates were identified as belonging to genotype E. The isolates analyzed in this study demonstrated low levels of genetic variation (96-100% homology among the isolates and in relation to reference strains). Chlamydia psittaci could be expected to spread across pigeon populations due to the high probability of mutual infections between birds and the increasing number of PiCV infections.

  13. SEX WORK AND HIV INCIDENCE AMONG PEOPLE WHO INJECT DRUGS

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Thomas; Shannon, Kate; Ti, Lianping; Strathdee, Steffanie; Hayashi, Kanna; Nguyen, Paul; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although the global burden of HIV infection among sex workers (SW) has been well recognized, HIV-related risks among sex workers who inject drugs (SW-IDU) have received less attention. We investigated the relationship between sex work and HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (IDU) in a Canadian setting. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Using Kaplan–Meier methods and the extended Cox regression, we compared HIV incidence among SW-IDU and non-SW-IDU in Vancouver, Canada, after adjusting for potential confounders. Results Between 1996 and 2012, 1647 participants were included in the study, including 512 (31.1%) IDU engaged in sex work. At 5 years the HIV cumulative incidence was higher among SW-IDU in comparison to other IDU (12 vs. 7%, P = 0.001). In unadjusted Cox regression analyses, HIV incidence among SW-IDU was also elevated [relative hazard: 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13–2.53]. However, in a multivariable analysis, sex work did not remain associated with HIV infection (adjusted relative hazard: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.45–1.20), with cocaine injection appearing to account for the elevated risk for HIV infection among SW-IDU. Conclusion These data suggest that local SW-IDU have elevated rates of HIV infection. However, our exploration of risk factors among SW-IDU demonstrated that drug use patterns and environmental factors, rather than sexual risks, may explain the elevated HIV incidence among SW-IDU locally. Our findings highlight the need for social and structural interventions, including increased access to harm reduction programs and addiction treatment. PMID:26558725

  14. Introduction to Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will explain and facilitate such incident reporting.

  15. A prospective randomised trial comparing insertion success rate and incidence of catheterisation-related complications for subclavian venous catheterisation using a thin-walled introducer needle or a catheter-over-needle technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, E; Kim, B G; Lim, Y J; Jeon, Y T; Hwang, J W; Kim, H C; Choi, Y H; Park, H P

    2016-09-01

    In clinical practice, both a thin-walled introducer needle and catheter-over-needle technique can be used to allow insertion of a guidewire during central venous catheterisation using the Seldinger technique. We compared the incidence of catheterisation-related complications (arterial puncture, haemothorax, pneumothorax, haematoma and catheter tip malposition) and insertion success rate for these two techniques in patients requiring right-sided subclavian central venous catheterisation. A total of 414 patients requiring infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterisation were randomly allocated to either a thin-walled introducer needle (needle group, n = 208) or catheter-over-needle technique (catheter group, n = 206). The catheterisation-related complication rate was lower in the needle group compared with the catheter group (5.8% vs. 15.5%; p = 0.001). Overall insertion success rates were similar (97.1% and 92.7% in the needle and catheter groups respectively; p = 0.046), although the first-pass success rate was higher in the needle group (62.0% vs. 35.4%; p < 0.001). We recommend the use of a thin-walled introducer needle technique for right-sided infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterisation.

  16. Increased incidence of adult pneumococcal pneumonia during school holiday periods

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Chamira; Bewick, Thomas; Sheppard, Carmen; Greenwood, Sonia; McKeever, Tricia M.; Slack, Mary; Lim, Wei Shen

    2017-01-01

    Child contact is a recognised risk factor for adult pneumococcal disease. Peaks in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence observed during winter holidays may be related to changes in social dynamics. This analysis was conducted to examine adult pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) incidence during school holiday periods. Between September 2008 and 2013, consecutive adults admitted to hospitals covering the Greater Nottingham area with a diagnosis of CAP were studied. Pneumococcal pneumonia was detected using culture and antigen detection methods. Of 2221 adults studied, 575 (25.9%) were admitted during school holidays and 643 (29.0%) had pneumococcal CAP. CAP of pneumococcal aetiology was significantly more likely in adults admitted during school holidays compared to term time (35.3% versus 26.7%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11–1.72, p=0.004). Over the 5-year period, the age-adjusted incidence of hospitalised pneumococcal CAP was higher during school holidays compared to term time (incident rate ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.14–1.60, p<0.001); there was no difference in rates of all-cause CAP or non-pneumococcal CAP. Reported child contact was higher in individuals with pneumococcal CAP admitted during school holidays compared to term time (42.0% versus 33.7%, OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.00–2.03, p=0.046). Further study of transmission dynamics in relation to these findings and to identify appropriate intervention strategies is warranted. PMID:28326311

  17. Incidence and relative risk of hearing disorders in professional musicians

    PubMed Central

    Schink, Tania; Kreutz, Gunter; Busch, Veronika; Pigeot, Iris; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background Hearing disorders have been associated with occupational exposure to music. Musicians may benefit from non-amplified and low-intensity music, but may also have high risks of music-induced hearing loss. Aims To compare the incidence of hearing loss (HL) and its subentities in professional musicians with that in the general population. Methods We performed a historical cohort study among insurants between 19 and 66 years who were employed subject to social insurance contributions. The study was conducted with data from three German statutory health insurance providers covering the years 2004–2008 with about 7 million insurants. Incidence rates with 95% CIs of HL and the subentities noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), conductive HL, sensorineural HL, conductive and sensorineural HL, as well as tinnitus were estimated stratified by age, sex and federal state. A Cox regression analysis was conducted to estimate adjusted HRs and two-sided 95% CIs for HL and its subentities. Results More than 3 million insurants were eligible, of whom 2227 were identified as professional musicians (0.07%). During the 4-year observation period, 283 697cases of HL were seen, 238 of them among professional musicians (0.08%), leading to an unadjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.27. The adjusted hazard ratio of musicians was 1.45 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.65) for HL and 3.61 (95% CI 1.81 to 7.20) for NIHL. Conclusions Professional musicians have a high risk of contracting hearing disorders. Use of already available prevention measures should reduce the incidence of HL in professional musicians. PMID:24790053

  18. Estimates for the sensitivity and false-positive rates for second trimester serum screening for Down syndrome and trisomy 18 with adjustment for cross-identification and double-positive results.

    PubMed

    Benn, P A; Ying, J; Beazoglou, T; Egan, J F

    2001-01-01

    Second trimester screening for fetal Down syndrome and trisomy 18 is available through separate protocols that combine the maternal age-specific risk and the analysis of maternal serum markers. We have determined the extent to which additional Down syndrome affected pregnancies may be identified through trisomy 18 screening, and the extent to which additional cases of trisomy 18 may be screen-positive for Down syndrome. The combined false-positive rate, taking into consideration those pregnancies that are screen-positive by both protocols, has also been determined. Sensitivity and false-positive rates were determined by computer simulation of results that incorporated previously published statistical variables into the model. Using second trimester risk cut-offs of 1:270 for Down syndrome and 1:100 for trisomy 18, it was found that few additional cases of Down syndrome are identified through trisomy 18 screening. However, approximately 6-10% of trisomy 18 affected pregnancies will be screen-positive for Down syndrome but screen-negative for trisomy 18. For women aged 40 or more, the false-positive rate for trisomy 18 exceeds 1% and approximately half of these cases will also be screen-positive for Down syndrome. For a population with maternal ages equivalent to that in the United States in 1998, after adjusting for the cross-identification, the sensitivity for three-analyte trisomy 18 screening is 78%. If this testing is performed in conjunction with Down syndrome "triple" screening, the Down syndrome sensitivity is 75% and the combined false-positive rate is 8.5%. If the three-analyte trisomy 18 screening is performed with the Down syndrome "quad" screen, the trisomy 18 sensitivity remains at 78%, the Down syndrome sensitivity is 79%, and combined false-positive rate is 7.5%. Sensitivity and false-positive rates are also provided for other widely used Down syndrome and trisomy 18 risk cut-offs. Sensitivity and false-positive rates that take into consideration

  19. Does case mix matter for substance abuse treatment? A comparison of observed and case mix-adjusted readmission rates for inpatient substance abuse treatment in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    PubMed Central

    Phibbs, C S; Swindle, R W; Recine, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a case mix model for inpatient substance abuse treatment to assess the effect of case mix on readmission across Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The computerized patient records from the 116 VAMCs with inpatient substance abuse treatment programs between 1987 and 1992. STUDY DESIGN: Logistic regression was used on patient data to model the effect of demographic, psychiatric, medical, and substance abuse factors on readmission to VAMCs for substance abuse treatment within six months of discharge. The model predictions were aggregated for each VAMC to produce an expected number of readmissions. The observed number of readmissions for each VAMC was divided by its expected number to create a measure of facility performance. Confidence intervals and rankings were used to examine how case mix adjustment changed relative performance among VAMCs. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Ward where care was provided and ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes were used to identify patients receiving treatment for substance abuse (N = 313,886). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The case mix model explains 36 percent of the observed facility level variation in readmission. Over half of the VAMCs had numbers of readmissions that were significantly different than expected. There were also noticeable differences between the rankings based on actual and case mix-adjusted readmissions. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary data can be used to build a reasonably stable case mix model for substance abuse treatment that will identify meaningful variation across facilities. Further, case mix has a large effect on facility level readmission rates for substance abuse treatment. Uncontrolled facility comparisons can be misleading. Case mix models are potentially useful for quality assurance efforts. PMID:9018215

  20. Estimating Insolation Incident on Tilted Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R. E.; Toelle, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    ASHMET computer program estimates amount of solar insolation incident on surfaces of several types of solar collectors, including fixed-position flat-plate, monthly-tilt-adjusted flat-plat, beam-tracting, and fixed-azimuthtracker. Basic methodology employed in ASHMET is to use ASHRAE relationships to obtain clear-day total daily insolation incident on collector surface of representative day of each month of year. ASHMET is interactive program and prompts user for all required data.

  1. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G; Johnson, Jay R; Miller, Federick W; Matteson, Eric L; Gabriel, Sherine E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We used data from patients with GCA (1950–2004) and RA (1955–2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. Results The correlation of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0–1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5–7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4–5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8–11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. Conclusions AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4–5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. The link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases. PMID:25979866

  2. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    DOE PAGES

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G.; Johnson, Jay R.; ...

    2015-05-15

    Our objective was to examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: We used data from patients with GCA (1950-2004) and RA (1955-2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. Results: The correlationmore » of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0-1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5-7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4-5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8-11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. Conclusions: AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4-5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. Lastly, the link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases.« less

  3. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure. Methods Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates. Results Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks. Conclusions and Public Health Implications Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing

  4. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  5. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... C. Richardson Frances Babcock Vicki Benard Djenaba A. Joseph Jacqueline W. Miller Thomas B. Richards Mona Saraiya ... MPH Keisha Houston, DrPH, MPH Commander Djenaba A. Joseph, MD, MPH Jun Li, MD, PhD, MPH Captain ...

  6. Nonlinear Hydrostatic Adjustment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannon, Peter R.

    1996-12-01

    The final equilibrium state of Lamb's hydrostatic adjustment problem is found for finite amplitude heating. Lamb's problem consists of the response of a compressible atmosphere to an instantaneous, horizontally homogeneous heating. Results are presented for both isothermal and nonisothermal atmospheres.As in the linear problem, the fluid displacements are confined to the heated layer and to the region aloft with no displacement of the fluid below the heating. The region above the heating is displaced uniformly upward for heating and downward for cooling. The amplitudes of the displacements are larger for cooling than for warming.Examination of the energetics reveals that the fraction of the heat deposited into the acoustic modes increases linearly with the amplitude of the heating. This fraction is typically small (e.g., 0.06% for a uniform warming of 1 K) and is essentially independent of the lapse rate of the base-state atmosphere. In contrast a fixed fraction of the available energy generated by the heating goes into the acoustic modes. This fraction (e.g., 12% for a standard tropospheric lapse rate) agrees with the linear result and increases with increasing stability of the base-state atmosphere.The compressible results are compared to solutions using various forms of the soundproof equations. None of the soundproof equations predict the finite amplitude solutions accurately. However, in the small amplitude limit, only the equations for deep convection advanced by Dutton and Fichtl predict the thermodynamic state variables accurately for a nonisothermal base-state atmosphere.

  7. Geographic variation in U.S. thyroid cancer incidence and a cluster near nuclear reactors in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, thyroid cancer incidence (along with liver cancer) is increasing more rapidly than any other malignancy, rising nearly threefold from 1980 to 2006. Improved diagnosis has been proposed by some as the major reason for this change, while others contend that additional factors also account for the increase. Among U.S. states, 2001-2005 age-adjusted thyroid cancer incidence rates vary from 5.4 to 12.8 per 100,000. County-specific incidence data, available for the first time, document that most U.S. counties with the highest thyroid cancer incidence are in a contiguous area of eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and southern New York State. Exposures to radioactive iodine emissions from 16 nuclear power reactors within a 90-mile radius in this area indicate that these emissions are a likely etiological factor in rising thyroid cancer incidence rates.

  8. True rise in anaphylaxis incidence: Epidemiologic study based on a national health insurance database.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Byung-Keun; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-02-01

    The incidence trend of anaphylaxis in Asia is not well investigated. The aim of this study is to estimate the entire population-based incidence of anaphylaxis in Korea using a nationwide administrative database.Data over a 7-year period (2008-2014) was obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database which covers 97.9% of the entire Korean population. Using diagnosis codes from the International Classification of Diseases-10 for anaphylaxis (T78.0, T78.2, T80.5, and T88.6), we identified the annual number of patients who had visited any hospital with a primary diagnosis of anaphylaxis. Incidence rates were calculated using the population distribution data of all NHI beneficiaries.The incidence of anaphylaxis in Korea was 32.19 episodes per 100,000 person-years in 2014, which nearly doubled from 2008 (16.02 episodes per 100,000 person-years). The incidence of anaphylaxis increased continuously throughout these years regardless of gender and age groups (P for trend < 0.001). Female was significantly less predisposed than male (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confident interval [CI], 0.66-0.72; P < 0.001). The incidence was the lowest in 0 to 19 age group and the highest in 40 to 69 age group (adjusted OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 2.29-2.54; P < 0.001).In conclusion, we report the increasing time trend of anaphylaxis incidence rates using nationwide claims database for the first time in Asia.

  9. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (−1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and

  10. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (-1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and body weight

  11. Temporal Trends in Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Stroke by Socioeconomic Position in Sweden 1987–2010

    PubMed Central

    Malki, Ninoa; Koupil, Ilona; Eloranta, Sandra; Weibull, Caroline E.; Tiikkaja, Sanna; Ingelsson, Erik; Sparén, Pär

    2014-01-01

    Background We analyzed temporal trends in the incidence of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke in Sweden by socioeconomic position and investigated whether social inequalities in incidence of these diseases changed over time. Materials and Methods We studied a cohort of almost three million Swedish residents born between 1932 and 1960 followed from 1987 until 2010. Incident cases of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke were identified in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and Cause of Death Register. Socioeconomic position was retrieved from the Population and Housing Censuses. Incidence rates of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke and incidence rate ratios comparing levels of socioeconomic position were estimated using flexible parametric survival models adjusted for calendar year, attained age, sex, and birth country. Results The overall incidences of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke decreased over time among men, but were stable over time among women. With regard to ischemic stroke incidence, socioeconomic inequality increased over time in the age group 55 to 59: the incidence rate ratios for low manual compared to high non-manual increased from 1.3 (95% CI: 1.2–1.4) in 1997 to 1.5 (1.4–1.7) in 2010 among men, and from 1.4 (1.3–1.6) in 1997 to 2.1 (1.8–2.5) in 2010 among women. The socioeconomic inequality in incidence of myocardial infarction was stable over time for both men and women. Conclusion There was a decrease in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke incidence over time among men but no significant change for women. Our study highlights existing, and in some cases increasing, social inequalities in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25170919

  12. Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: Herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, G.S.; King, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    In a cooperative agreement starting January 1995, prior to the FDA's licensure of the varicella vaccine on March 17, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded the Los Angeles Department of Health Services’ Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project (AV-VASP). Since only varicella case reports were gathered, baseline incidence data for herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles was lacking. Varicella case reports decreased 72%, from 2834 in 1995 to 836 in 2000 at which time approximately 50% of children under 10 years of age had been vaccinated. Starting in 2000, HZ surveillance was added to the project. By 2002, notable increases in HZ incidence rates were reported among both children and adults with a prior history of natural varicella. However, CDC authorities still claimed that no increase in HZ had occurred in any US surveillance site. The basic assumptions inherent to the varicella cost–benefit analysis ignored the significance of exogenous boosting caused by those shedding wild-type VZV. Also ignored was the morbidity associated with even rare serious events following varicella vaccination as well as the morbidity from increasing cases of HZ among adults. Vaccine efficacy declined below 80% in 2001. By 2006, because 20% of vaccinees were experiencing breakthrough varicella and vaccine-induced protection was waning, the CDC recommended a booster dose for children and, in 2007, a shingles vaccination was approved for adults aged 60 years and older. In the prelicensure era, 95% of adults experienced natural chickenpox (usually as children)—these cases were usually benign and resulted in long-term immunity. Varicella vaccination is less effective than the natural immunity that existed in prevaccine communities. Universal varicella vaccination has not proven to be cost-effective as increased HZ morbidity has disproportionately offset cost savings associated with reductions in varicella disease. Universal varicella vaccination has failed to

  13. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Norway 1963-2011: increasing incidence and stable mortality.

    PubMed

    Robsahm, Trude E; Helsing, Per; Veierød, Marit B

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rapidly increasing in white populations, causing high morbidity and health-care costs. Few studies, however, have described the trends for SCC, as population-based data with a long follow-up are limited. In Norway we have this opportunity and we aimed to describe SCC incidence, mortality and survival rates, according to sex, age, stage, primary anatomical location, and geographical region, for the period 1963-2011, for estimation of future health-care needs. Data were retrieved from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Age-adjusted SCC incidence and mortality rates and 5-year relative survival (in percent) were calculated for 5-year calendar periods. A joinpoint regression model identified the annual percentage change (APC) in rates over the 50-year period. The age-adjusted incidence rate increased ninefold in females and sixfold in males from 1963 to 2011, with APCs of 5.6% (95% confidence interval, CI 4.5, 7.3) and 3.3% (95% CI 1.3, 5.3) in females and males, respectively. SCC incidence rose in all age groups, anatomical locations (except ears in females), and geographical regions, though restricted to localized tumors. Most striking increase was seen in the age group 70-79, in face and head locations and among residents in southern Norway. SCC mortality and survival rates remained relatively stable. Our findings underline an increasing need for SCC treatment in Norway, especially considering the aging population. The findings also call for the creation of particular guidelines for primary prevention of SCC.

  14. PAHs and PM2.5 emissions and female breast cancer incidence in metro Atlanta and rural Georgia.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Puja Vijay; Wei, Yudan

    2016-08-01

    Environmental chemical exposure could be an important etiologic factor for geographic differences in breast cancer incidence. In this study, we examined emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PM2.5 in relation to breast cancer incidence in metro Atlanta and rural Georgia by analyzing data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program and the Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that metro Atlanta had a significantly higher age-adjusted annual incidence rate of female breast cancer than rural Georgia (132.6 vs. 113.7 per 100,000) for 1992-2011. Emissions of both PAHs [adjusted β = 0.568 (95 % CI: 0.209, 0.927); p = 0.004] and PM2.5 [adjusted β = 2.964 (95 % CI: 0.468, 5.459); p = 0.023] were significantly associated with breast cancer incidence in metro Atlanta area. This study suggests that ambient air pollution, especially PAHs and PM2.5, could have a significant impact on the increased incidence of female breast cancer in urban areas.

  15. Incidence of cancer in children aged 0-14 years in Taiwan, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Lin; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Ya-Wen; Lu, Meng-Yao; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Ho, Wan-Ling; Li, Meng-Ju; Miser, James S; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2015-02-01

    Studies have found lower risk of childhood cancer among Asian children. We aim to characterize the recent incidence and incidence-trend of childhood cancer in Taiwan after the National Health Insurance program was launched in March 1995. Data were extracted from the Taiwan Cancer Registry, a population-based database established in 1979. Cases diagnosed at age 0-14 from 1996 to 2010 were analyzed and categorized according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, Third Edition (ICCC-3). In total, 8032 childhood cancer cases were included, with a microscopic verification rate of 93.9%. The overall age-standardized rate (ASR) of incidence adjusted to the 2000 World Standard Population is 125.0 cases/million, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3. The top five cancer types (ICCC-3 subgroup[s]; ASR per million) are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ia, 30.3), acute myeloid leukemia (Ib; 9.4), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (IIb,c,e, 9.0), extracranial germ cell tumor (Xb,c; 8.3), and neuroblastoma (IVa; 7.8). The median age of diagnosis was 6 years for both genders. During the study period, the ASR of childhood cancer has been increasing at a rate of 1.2% per year (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.7%). In contrast to Western countries, China, Japan, and Taiwan have lower incidence of childhood cancer; however, Taiwan's incidence rates of childhood germ cell tumors and hepatic tumors are higher. In conclusion, this population-based study reveals that the incidence rate of childhood cancer in Taiwan is rising consistently. The high incidence of germ cell tumors warrants further investigation.

  16. Age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-specific incidence of Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism in northeast Scotland: the PINE study.

    PubMed

    Caslake, Robert; Taylor, Kate; Scott, Neil; Gordon, Joanna; Harris, Clare; Wilde, Katie; Murray, Alison; Counsell, Carl

    2013-05-01

    There have been few high quality incidence studies of Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured age-, gender- and socioeconomic-specific incidence rates for parkinsonism and PD in north-east Scotland, and compared our results with those of previous high quality studies. Incident patients were identified prospectively over three years by several overlapping methods from primary care practices (total population 311,357). Parkinsonism was diagnosed if patients had two or more cardinal motor signs. Drug-induced parkinsonism was excluded. Patients had yearly follow-up to improve diagnostic accuracy. Incidence rates using clinical diagnosis at latest follow-up were calculated for all parkinsonism and for PD by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis with similar studies was performed. Of 377 patients identified at baseline with possible or probable parkinsonism, 363 were confirmed as incident patients after median follow-up of 26 months (mean age 74.8 years, SD 9.8; 61% men). The crude annual incidence of parkinsonism was 28.7 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 25.7-31.8) and PD 17.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 15.5-20.4). PD was more common in men (age-adjusted male to female ratio 1.87:1, 95% CI 1.55-2.23) but there was no difference by socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis of 12 studies showed an incidence of PD (adjusted to the 1990 Scottish population) of 14.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.2-17.3) with considerable heterogeneity (I(2) 95%), partially explained by population size and recruitment duration. The incidence of PD was similar to other high quality studies. The incidence of PD was not affected by socioeconomic status.

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Reducing the Incidence Rate of Healthcare-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection: A Non-Randomized, Stepped Wedge, Single-Site, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI) is estimated at 1 in 100 patients. Antibiotic exposure is the most consistently reported risk factor for HA-CDI. Strategies to reduce the risk of HA-CDI have focused on reducing antibiotic utilization. Prospective audit and feedback is a commonly used antimicrobial stewardship intervention (ASi). The impact of this ASi on risk of HA-CDI is equivocal. This study examines the effectiveness of a prospective audit and feedback ASi on reducing the risk of HA-CDI. Methods Single-site, 339 bed community-hospital in Barrie, Ontario, Canada. Primary outcome is HA-CDI incidence rate. Daily prospective and audit ASi is the exposure variable. ASi implemented across 6 wards in a non-randomized, stepped wedge design. Criteria for ASi; any intravenous antibiotic use for ≥ 48 hrs, any oral fluoroquinolone or oral second generation cephalosporin use for ≥ 48 hrs, or any antimicrobial use for ≥ 5 days. HA-CDI cases and model covariates were aggregated by ward, year and month starting September 2008 and ending February 2016. Multi-level mixed effect negative binomial regression analysis was used to model the primary outcome, with intercept and slope coefficients for ward-level random effects estimated. Other covariates tested for inclusion in the final model were derived from previously published risk factors. Deviance residuals were used to assess the model’s goodness-of-fit. Findings The dataset included 486 observation periods, of which 350 were control periods and 136 were intervention periods. After accounting for all other model covariates, the estimated overall ASi incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0.48 (95% 0.30, 0.79). The ASi effect was independent of antimicrobial utilization. The ASi did not seem to reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile infection on the surgery wards (IRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.45, 1.69) compared to the medicine wards (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28, 0.63). The ward

  18. Incidence and Survival Patterns of Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Kyle J.; Lehmann, Ashton E.; Remenschneider, Aaron; Dedmon, Matthew; Meier, Josh; Gray, Stacey T.; Lin, Derrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine trends in sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) survival patterns in the United States. Design Retrospective review of national database. Participants All cases of SNUC in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results program from 1973 to 2010 were examined. Main Outcome Measures Age-adjusted incidence and survival rates were calculated and stratified by demographic information and treatment modality. Cohort analysis was performed to analyze survival patterns over time. Results A total of 318 SNUC cases were identified. Age-adjusted incidence rate (IR) was 0.02 per 100,000. Incidence was greater in males (IR: 0.03) than females (IR: 0.01; p = 0.03). Overall 5- and 10-year relative survival rate was 34.9% and 31.3%, respectively. Overall median survival was 22.1 months. Median survival following surgery combined with radiation was 41.9 months. Five-year relative survival rate following surgery, radiation, or surgery combined with radiation was 38.7%, 36.0%, and 39.1%, respectively. Median survival from 1973–1986 and 1987–2010 was 14.5 and 23.5 months, respectively. Conclusions This study provides new data regarding survival patterns of SNUC in the United States, confirming survival benefit with surgery and radiation as well as identifying a trend toward improved survival in recent decades. PMID:25844294

  19. A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in the community: the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project--1981-86. 2. Incidence, case fatality rates and overall outcome at one year of cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, J; Sandercock, P; Dennis, M; Burn, J; Warlow, C

    1990-01-01

    The age and sex specific incidence rates for cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral haemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage in a population of approximately 105,000 are presented. Over four years 675 patients with a first-ever stroke were registered with the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. The pathological diagnosis was confirmed by computerised tomography (CT) scan, necropsy or lumbar puncture (cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage only) in 78% of cases and a further 17% were diagnosed according to the Guy's Hospital Stroke Diagnostic Score. The proportion of all first-ever strokes by pathological type was: cerebral infarction 81% (95% confidence interval 78-84), primary intracerebral haemorrhage 10% (8-12), subarachnoid haemorrhage 5% (3-7) and uncertain type 5% (3-7). These proportions are similar to other community-based studies. The overall 30 day case fatality rate was 19% (16-22), that for cerebral infarction being 10% (7-13), primary intracerebral haemorrhage 50% (38-62) and subarachnoid haemorrhage 46% (29-63). One year post stroke 23% (19-27) with cerebral infarction were dead and 65% (60-70) of survivors were functionally independent. The figures for primary intracerebral haemorrhage were 62% (43-81) dead and 68% (50-86) of survivors functionally independent and for subarachnoid haemorrhage were 48% (24-72) dead and 76% (56-96) of survivors functionally independent. There are important differences between these rates and those from other sources possibly due to more complete case ascertainment in our study. Nevertheless, the generally more optimistic early prognosis in our study, particularly for cases of cerebral infarction, has important implications for the planning of clinical trials and for the expected impact that any treatment might have on the general population. PMID:2303826

  20. Trauma, comorbidity, and mortality following diagnoses of severe stress and adjustment disorders: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Antonsen, Sussie; Svensson, Elisabeth; Lash, Timothy L; Resick, Patricia A; Hansen, Jens Georg

    2015-09-01

    Longitudinal outcomes following stress or trauma diagnoses are receiving attention, yet population-based studies are few. The aims of the present cohort study were to examine the cumulative incidence of traumatic events and psychiatric diagnoses following diagnoses of severe stress and adjustment disorders categorized using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes and to examine associations of these diagnoses with all-cause mortality and suicide. Data came from a longitudinal cohort of all Danes who received a diagnosis of reaction to severe stress or adjustment disorders (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, code F43.x) between 1995 and 2011, and they were compared with data from a general-population cohort. Cumulative incidence curves were plotted to examine traumatic experiences and psychiatric diagnoses during the study period. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the associations of the disorders with mortality and suicide. Participants with stress diagnoses had a higher incidence of traumatic events and psychiatric diagnoses than did the comparison group. Each disorder was associated with a higher rate of all-cause mortality than that seen in the comparison cohort, and strong associations with suicide were found after adjustment. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the associations of stress disorders with a variety of outcomes, and we found that stress diagnoses may have long-lasting and potentially severe consequences.