Science.gov

Sample records for adjusted incident rate

  1. Risk-adjusted melanoma skin cancer incidence rates in Whites (United States).

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray Martell

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain a better population-based measure of risk for melanoma skin cancer. A method has been previously proposed for estimating cancer incidence rates for data collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Unlike conventionally reported incidence rates in the USA, this method uses the first primary cancer and adjusts for population-based cancer prevalence to obtain a better measure of cancer risk. The study involves SEER data for white men and women. Conventional melanoma incidence rates overestimate risk for men, increasingly so from 3.3% in the age group of 30-39 years to 11.3% in the age group of 80 years and older. Overestimation in risk for women ranged from 3.3% in the age group of 30-39 years to 8.9% in the age group of 80 years and older. Overestimation of risk was more pronounced when both in-situ and malignant melanomas were considered. Increasing trends in conventional rates were slightly greater than trends in risk-adjusted incidence rates (RAIRs). In 2007, the estimated number of cases with malignant melanoma among the white population based on conventional cancer incidence rates is 37 636 (64 125 including in-situ cases) for men and 28 935 (49 361 including in-situ cases) for women. The estimated number of cases in the USA based on RAIRS is 34 652 [(7.9%); 55 413 (13.6%) including in-situ cases] for male and 27 178 [(6.1%); 44 467 (9.9%) including in-situ cases] for women. We concluded that RAIRs are a better measure of melanoma skin cancer risk and should be used for estimating the number of cancer patients in the USA.

  2. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  3. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  4. Low Cloud Cover-Adjusted Ultraviolet B Irradiance Is Associated with High Incidence Rates of Leukemia: Study of 172 Countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are 52,380 cases of leukemia and 24,090 deaths from it in the US annually. Its causes are unknown and no preventive strategies have been implemented. We hypothesized that leukemia is due mainly to vitamin D deficiency, which is due mainly to low solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance. To test this hypothesis, we estimated age-standardized cloud-cover-adjusted winter UVB irradiance using cloud cover data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, latitudes of population centroids, and standard astronomical calculations. Incidence rates for 172 countries, available from the International Agency for Cancer Research, were plotted according to cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance. We used multiple regression to account for national differences in elevation and average life expectancy. Leukemia incidence rates were inversely associated with cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance in males (p ≤ 0.01) and females (p ≤ 0.01) in both hemispheres. There were few departures from the trend line, which was parabolic when plotted with the equator at the center of the display, northern hemisphere countries on the right side and southern hemisphere countries on the left. The bivariate association displayed by the polynomial trend line indicated that populations at higher latitudes had at least two times the risk of leukemia compared to equatorial populations. The association persisted in males (p ≤ 0.05) and females (p ≤ 0.01) after controlling for elevation and life expectancy. Incidence rates of leukemia were inversely associated with solar UVB irradiance. It is plausible that the association is due to vitamin D deficiency. This would be consistent with laboratory studies and a previous epidemiological study. Consideration should be given to prudent use of vitamin D for prevention of leukemia. PMID:26637119

  5. Low Cloud Cover-Adjusted Ultraviolet B Irradiance Is Associated with High Incidence Rates of Leukemia: Study of 172 Countries.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Garland, Cedric F; Gorham, Edward D; Mohr, Sharif B

    2015-01-01

    There are 52,380 cases of leukemia and 24,090 deaths from it in the US annually. Its causes are unknown and no preventive strategies have been implemented. We hypothesized that leukemia is due mainly to vitamin D deficiency, which is due mainly to low solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance. To test this hypothesis, we estimated age-standardized cloud-cover-adjusted winter UVB irradiance using cloud cover data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, latitudes of population centroids, and standard astronomical calculations. Incidence rates for 172 countries, available from the International Agency for Cancer Research, were plotted according to cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance. We used multiple regression to account for national differences in elevation and average life expectancy. Leukemia incidence rates were inversely associated with cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance in males (p ≤ 0.01) and females (p ≤ 0.01) in both hemispheres. There were few departures from the trend line, which was parabolic when plotted with the equator at the center of the display, northern hemisphere countries on the right side and southern hemisphere countries on the left. The bivariate association displayed by the polynomial trend line indicated that populations at higher latitudes had at least two times the risk of leukemia compared to equatorial populations. The association persisted in males (p ≤ 0.05) and females (p ≤ 0.01) after controlling for elevation and life expectancy. Incidence rates of leukemia were inversely associated with solar UVB irradiance. It is plausible that the association is due to vitamin D deficiency. This would be consistent with laboratory studies and a previous epidemiological study. Consideration should be given to prudent use of vitamin D for prevention of leukemia. PMID:26637119

  6. Vibrato rate adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dromey, Christopher; Carter, Neisha; Hopkin, Arden

    2003-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to document the acoustic changes that occur as singers attempt to increase or decrease their vibrato rate to match target stimuli. Eight advanced singing students produced vowels with vibrato in three registers, both naturally and while attempting to match faster or slower rate stimuli. Slower rates were associated with lower intensity and less steady vibrato. Faster rates involved increased vibrato extent in the chest register and increased intensity in the head register. Singers whose spontaneous vibrato rates were naturally either slower or faster tended to also be relatively slower or faster when matching target rates. This ability to modify rate may have beneficial effects on the artistic quality of the voice for performance. PMID:12825649

  7. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances...,'' is ``premised on the recent recession as an exigent event.'' Id. at 1, 2. In Order No. 1059,...

  8. Idiot Savants: Rate of Incidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded revealed a .06 percent incidence rate for idiot savants, persons of low intelligence who possess an unusually high skill in some special task. (CL)

  9. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  10. 76 FR 42140 - Rate Adjustment Remand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... the amount of the revenue lost as a result of the exigent circumstances.'' Id. \\6\\ Id. The court... amount of the proposed adjustments precisely to the amount of revenue lost as a result of the exigent... amount of an exigent rate adjustment must match the amount of revenue lost as a result of an...

  11. Development of adjustable grazing incidence optics for Generation-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Murray, Stephen S.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Freeman, Mark; Juda, Michael; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Schwartz, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    For X-ray astronomy, 0.1 arc-second imaging resolution will result in a significant advance in our understanding of the Universe. Similarly, the advent of low cost high performance X-ray mirrors will also increase the likelihood of more X-ray telescopes being funded and built. We discuss the development plans of two different types of adjustable grazing incidence optics: one being a tenth arc-second resolution bimorph mirror approach also suitable for extremely large collecting areas, and the second being a few arc-second radially adjustable mirror approach more suitable for modest sized telescopes. Bimorph mirrors will be developed using thin (0.1 - 0.4 mm) thermally formed glass or electroplated metal mirror segments with thin film piezo-electric actuators deposited directly on the mirror back surface. Mirror figure will be adjusted on-orbit. Radially adjustable mirrors will employ discreet radially electrostrictive actuators for mirror alignment and low spatial error frequency figure correction during assembly and alignment. In this paper we report on. In this paper we describe mirror design and our development plans for both mirror concepts.

  12. First principles modeling of nonlinear incidence rates in seasonal epidemics.

    PubMed

    Ponciano, José M; Capistrán, Marcos A

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we used a general stochastic processes framework to derive from first principles the incidence rate function that characterizes epidemic models. We investigate a particular case, the Liu-Hethcote-van den Driessche's (LHD) incidence rate function, which results from modeling the number of successful transmission encounters as a pure birth process. This derivation also takes into account heterogeneity in the population with regard to the per individual transmission probability. We adjusted a deterministic SIRS model with both the classical and the LHD incidence rate functions to time series of the number of children infected with syncytial respiratory virus in Banjul, Gambia and Turku, Finland. We also adjusted a deterministic SEIR model with both incidence rate functions to the famous measles data sets from the UK cities of London and Birmingham. Two lines of evidence supported our conclusion that the model with the LHD incidence rate may very well be a better description of the seasonal epidemic processes studied here. First, our model was repeatedly selected as best according to two different information criteria and two different likelihood formulations. The second line of evidence is qualitative in nature: contrary to what the SIRS model with classical incidence rate predicts, the solution of the deterministic SIRS model with LHD incidence rate will reach either the disease free equilibrium or the endemic equilibrium depending on the initial conditions. These findings along with computer intensive simulations of the models' Poincaré map with environmental stochasticity contributed to attain a clear separation of the roles of the environmental forcing and the mechanics of the disease transmission in shaping seasonal epidemics dynamics.

  13. Why have ovarian cancer mortality rates declined? Part I. Incidence.

    PubMed

    Sopik, Victoria; Iqbal, Javaid; Rosen, Barry; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    The age-adjusted mortality rate from ovarian cancer in the United States has declined over the past several decades. The decline in mortality might be the consequence of a reduced number of cases (incidence) or a reduction in the proportion of patients who die from their cancer (case-fatality). In part I of this three-part series, we examine rates of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry database and we explore to what extent the observed decline in mortality can be explained by a downward shift in the stage distribution of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to early detection) or by fewer cases of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to a change in risk factors). The proportion of localized ovarian cancers did not increase, suggesting that a stage-shift did not contribute to the decline in mortality. The observed decline in mortality paralleled a decline in incidence. The trends in ovarian cancer incidence coincided with temporal changes in the exposure of women from different birth cohorts to various reproductive risk factors, in particular, to changes in the use of the oral contraceptive pill and to declining parity. Based on recent changes in risk factor propensity, we predict that the trend of the declining age-adjusted incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the United States will reverse and rates will increase in coming years. PMID:26080287

  14. Trends in cancer incidence rates in Georgia, 1982–2011

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; Coughlin, Steven S.; Lillard, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End results (SEER)-affiliated cancer registry are accessible to the public, there is a shortage of published research describing cancer incidences for White, Black, and other residents in Georgia. The objective of this research is to provide an overview of the trends in incidence of cancer in Georgia. Methods Incidence data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 program, supported by the National Cancer Institute, spanning the years 1982 to 2011. To assess trends over time, age-adjusted cancer incidence rates relative to the 2000 Standard US population and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated using SEER*Stat software. Results In Georgia, cancer incidence rates for women increased from 365.1 per 100,000 in 1982 to 404.2 per 100,000 in 2011, with an overall APC of 0.3% (95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 0.4), but, for men, cancer incidence rates showed a slight decline from 528.0 per 100,000 in 1982 to 513.7 per 100,000 in 2011 (APC of 0.2%, 95% CI: −0.6 to 0.1). For Black, White, and Other (Asian/Pacific Islanders/American Indians) females, there were increases in incidence in this period, with APC values of 0.6, 0.4, and 0.3, respectively. For all males and for Black and White males, there were overall decreases in incidence, with APC values of −0.2. For Other males, however, the APC value was −0.9. Conclusions In Georgia, increases in cancer incidence rates occurred during 1982–2011 among the female population and within various racial groups in this population, but there was relative stability in incidence rates among the male population, except for Other males. PMID:26336654

  15. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis. We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20–99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population. A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17–2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57–3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36–1.51). The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies. PMID:27661041

  16. 76 FR 7883 - Postal Service Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... rate adjustment.\\1\\ The Notice concerns the inbound portion of a bilateral agreement with HongKong Post... upon the Postal Service obtaining all regulatory approvals and notifying HongKong Post that all such... Agreement (CPG) Agreement. The Postal Service and HongKong Post, the postal operator for Hong Kong,...

  17. Risk adjustment for a children's capitation rate.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Manning, W G; Keeler, E B

    1993-01-01

    Few capitation arrangements vary premiums by a child's health characteristics, yielding an incentive to discriminate against children with predictably high expenditures from chronic diseases. In this article, we explore risk adjusters for the 35 percent of the variance in annual out-patient expenditure we find to be potentially predictable. Demographic factors such as age and gender only explain 5 percent of such variance; health status measures explain 25 percent, prior use and health status measures together explain 65 to 70 percent. The profit from risk selection falls less than proportionately with improved ability to adjust for risk. Partial capitation rates may be necessary to mitigate skimming and dumping. PMID:10133708

  18. Risk Adjustment for a Children's Capitation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; Sloss, Elizabeth M.; Manning, Willard G.; Keeler, Emmett B.

    1993-01-01

    Few capitation arrangements vary premiums by a child's health characteristics, yielding an incentive to discriminate against children with predictably high expenditures from chronic diseases. In this article, we explore risk adjusters for the 35 percent of the variance in annual outpatient expenditure we find to be potentially predictable. Demographic factors such as age and gender only explain 5 percent of such variance; health status measures explain 25 percent, prior use and health status measures together explain 65 to 70 percent. The profit from risk selection falls less than proportionately with improved ability to adjust for risk. Partial capitation rates may be necessary to mitigate skimming and dumping. PMID:10133708

  19. Finding the True Incidence Rate of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Julie; Price, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on research that explores the use of detection software in the fight against plagiarism. The aim of the research was to determine if the true incidence rate of plagiarism could be found for a cohort of Higher Education students. The paper outlines the problems and issues when attempting this. In addition, this report highlights…

  20. Age, Race and Regional Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates in Georgia between 2000 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701

  1. Adjustable flow rate controller for polymer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Kenneth M.

    1981-01-01

    An adjustable device for controlling the flow rate of polymer solutions which results in only little shearing of the polymer molecules, said device comprising an inlet manifold, an outlet manifold, a plurality of tubes capable of providing communication between said inlet and outlet manifolds, said tubes each having an internal diameter that is smaller than that of the inlet manifold and large enough to insure that viscosity of the polymer solution passing through each said tube will not be reduced more than about 25 percent, and a valve associated with each tube, said valve being capable of opening or closing communication in that tube between the inlet and outlet manifolds, each said valve when fully open having a diameter that is substantially at least as great as that of the tube with which it is associated.

  2. 5 CFR 9901.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9901... Increases § 9901.322 Setting and adjusting rate ranges. (a) Subject to § 9901.105, the Secretary may set and... factors. (b) The Secretary may determine the effective date of newly set or adjusted band rate...

  3. Incident light adjustable solar cell by periodic nanolens architecture

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ju-Hyung; Lee, Eunsongyi; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, Wayne A.; Kim, Joondong; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Zeng, Jinwei; Yi, Junsin; Kumar, M. Melvin David; Sun, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    Could nanostructures act as lenses to focus incident light for efficient utilization of photovoltaics? Is it possible, in order to avoid serious recombination loss, to realize periodic nanostructures in solar cells without direct etching in a light absorbing semiconductor? Here we propose and demonstrate a promising architecture to shape nanolenses on a planar semiconductor. Optically transparent and electrically conductive nanolenses simultaneously provide the optical benefit of modulating the incident light and the electrical advantage of supporting carrier transportation. A transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanolens was designed to focus the incident light-spectrum in focal lengths overlapping to a strong electric field region for high carrier collection efficiency. The ITO nanolens effectively broadens near-zero reflection and provides high tolerance to the incident light angles. We present a record high light-conversion efficiency of 16.0% for a periodic nanostructured Si solar cell. PMID:25371099

  4. Estimating cancer mortality rates from SEER incidence and survival data.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K C; Horm, J W; Smart, C R

    1990-01-01

    A method to estimate site-specific cancer mortality rates using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program incidence and survival data is proposed, calculated, and validated. This measure, the life table-derived mortality rate (LTM), is the sum of the product of the probability of being alive at the beginning of an interval times the probability of dying of the cancer of interest during the interval times the annual age-adjusted incidence rate for each year that data have been collected. When the LTM is compared to death certificate mortality rates (DCM) for organ sites with no known misclassification problems, the LTM was within 10 percent of the death certificate rates for 13 of 14 organ sites. In the sites that have problems with the death certificate rates, there were major disagreements between the LTM and DCM. The LTM was systematically lower than the DCM for sites if there was overreporting on the death certificates, and the LTM was higher than the DCM for sites if there was underreporting. The limitations and applications of the LTM are detailed. PMID:2106703

  5. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Periodic rate adjustments. 154.403 Section 154.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate Changes § 154.403 Periodic rate adjustments....

  6. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  7. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  8. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  9. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  10. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  11. 5 CFR 536.305 - Adjusting an employee's retained rate when a pay schedule is adjusted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... employee's existing position of record. (2) As provided in 5 CFR 531.206, a retained rate adjustment under... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Pay Retention § 536.305 Adjusting an employee's... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjusting an employee's retained...

  12. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  13. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  14. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjusted internal rate of return. 436.22 Section 436.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS... adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation...

  15. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjusted internal rate of return. 436.22 Section 436.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS... adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation...

  16. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section... Western Area Power Administrations § 903.11 Advance announcement of rate adjustment. The Administrator may... advertisement, and/or by Federal Register publication. Written comments relevant to rate policy and design...

  17. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section... Western Area Power Administrations § 903.11 Advance announcement of rate adjustment. The Administrator may... advertisement, and/or by Federal Register publication. Written comments relevant to rate policy and design...

  18. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section... Western Area Power Administrations § 903.11 Advance announcement of rate adjustment. The Administrator may... advertisement, and/or by Federal Register publication. Written comments relevant to rate policy and design...

  19. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section 903.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area Power Administrations §...

  20. 10 CFR 903.11 - Advance announcement of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance announcement of rate adjustment. 903.11 Section... Western Area Power Administrations § 903.11 Advance announcement of rate adjustment. The Administrator may... advertisement, and/or by Federal Register publication. Written comments relevant to rate policy and design...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9701.322 Section 9701.322 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate Ranges... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9701.322 Section 9701.322 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  3. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjusted internal rate of return. 436.22 Section 436.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return....

  4. 75 FR 455 - Adjustment of Cable Statutory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Participate. SUMMARY: The Copyright Royalty Judges are announcing the commencement of the proceeding to adjust the rates for the cable statutory license. The Copyright Royalty Judges also are announcing the date... Copyright Royalty Board Adjustment of Cable Statutory License Royalty Rates AGENCY: Copyright Royalty...

  5. 76 FR 53160 - Postal Service Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Service and Koninklijke TNT Post BV and TNT Post Pakketservice Benelux BV (TNT Agreement), and the China... the agreement is functionally equivalent to the previously filed TNT and CPG Agreements, and contains...'' and the TNT Agreement does not include rates for a service described as ``Global Confirmation Over...

  6. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Periodic rate... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate Changes § 154.403 Periodic rate adjustments. (a) This section applies to the passthrough, on a...

  7. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Periodic rate... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate Changes § 154.403 Periodic rate adjustments. (a) This section applies to the passthrough, on a...

  8. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  9. Shoulder Injury Incidence Rates in NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Foy, Millennia; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the astronaut shoulder injury rates began with an operational concern at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training. An astronaut suffered a shoulder injury during an NBL training run and commented that it was possibly due to a hardware issue. During the subsequent investigation, questions arose regarding the rate of shoulder injuries in recent years and over the entire history of the astronaut corps.

  10. 24 CFR 203.49 - Eligibility of adjustable rate mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... National Housing Act. (a) Types of mortgages insurable. The types of adjustable rate mortgages that are... payment, except that, for these types of mortgages, the first adjustment shall be no sooner or later than... secured by a principal dwelling under the Truth in Lending Act, 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq. (h)...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....322 Section 9701.322 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....322 Section 9701.322 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and Adjusting Rate...

  13. 75 FR 29577 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... rates for the 2011 season in the Federal Register on October 23, 2009 (74 FR 54848), and we will publish... rates for the 2011 season for the San Carlos Irrigation Project (74 FR 40227).) Final Project name Rate... published in the Federal Register on October 23, 2009 (74 FR 54846) to propose adjustments to the...

  14. 38 CFR 3.27 - Automatic adjustment of benefit rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjustment of benefit rates. (a) Improved pension. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit... income limitation and maximum monthly rates. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit...(b)(1)) (c) Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for certain individuals who are children...

  15. 38 CFR 3.27 - Automatic adjustment of benefit rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjustment of benefit rates. (a) Improved pension. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit... income limitation and maximum monthly rates. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit...(b)(1)) (c) Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for certain individuals who are children...

  16. 38 CFR 3.27 - Automatic adjustment of benefit rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjustment of benefit rates. (a) Improved pension. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit... income limitation and maximum monthly rates. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit...(b)(1)) (c) Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for certain individuals who are children...

  17. 38 CFR 3.27 - Automatic adjustment of benefit rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjustment of benefit rates. (a) Improved pension. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit... income limitation and maximum monthly rates. Whenever there is a cost-of-living increase in benefit...(b)(1)) (c) Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for certain individuals who are children...

  18. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  19. The Impact of Financial Sophistication on Adjustable Rate Mortgage Ownership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hyrum; Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of a financial sophistication scale on adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) borrowing is explored. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis using recent data from the Survey of Consumer Finances reveal that ARM borrowing is driven by both the least and most financially sophisticated households but for different reasons. Less…

  20. 76 FR 53982 - New Postal Product and Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...). In Order No. 700, the Commission approved the functionally equivalent HongKong Post Agreement.\\2\\ The..., TNT Agreement, and the HongKong Post Agreement. The Postal Service requests that the China Post 2011... Operators 1 product. Notice at 2. \\2\\ See Docket No. R2011-4, Order Approving Rate Adjustment for...

  1. 24 CFR 203.49 - Eligibility of adjustable rate mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section shall apply only to mortgage loans described under sections 203(b), 203(h) and 203(k) of the...; (ii) Three-year adjustable rate mortgages—no sooner than 36 months or later than 42 months; (iii) Five... secured by a principal dwelling under the Truth in Lending Act, 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq. (h)...

  2. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

  3. Judging hospitals by severity-adjusted mortality rates: the influence of the severity-adjustment method.

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, L I; Ash, A S; Shwartz, M; Daley, J; Hughes, J S; Mackiernan, Y D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This research examined whether judgments about a hospital's risk-adjusted mortality performance are affected by the severity-adjustment method. METHODS: Data came from 100 acute care hospitals nationwide and 11880 adults admitted in 1991 for acute myocardial infarction. Ten severity measures were used in separate multivariable logistic models predicting in-hospital death. Observed-to-expected death rates and z scores were calculated with each severity measure for each hospital. RESULTS: Unadjusted mortality rates for the 100 hospitals ranged from 4.8% to 26.4%. For 32 hospitals, observed mortality rates differed significantly from expected rates for 1 or more, but not for all 10, severity measures. Agreement between pairs of severity measures on whether hospitals were flagged as statistical mortality outliers ranged from fair to good. Severity measures based on medical records frequently disagreed with measures based on discharge abstracts. CONCLUSIONS: Although the 10 severity measures agreed about relative hospital performance more often than would be expected by chance, assessments of individual hospital mortality rates varied by different severity-adjustment methods. PMID:8876505

  4. Distributed fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor based on the incident angle adjusting method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihai; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Chunlan; Zhang, Yaxun; Zhao, Enming; Yang, Jun; Liu, Chunyu; Yuan, Libo

    2015-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate a distributed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) fiber sensor based on a novel, simple, and effective incident angle adjusting method. For normal fiber SPR sensors, it is hard to realize distributed sensing because it is hard to produce two dynamic ranges (resonance wavebands) with a great difference. The dynamic range depends on the incident angle, and therefore, we propose an incident angle adjusting method that is implemented by grinding an eccentric-core fiber to different angles, which helps to produce different SPR wavebands with great difference, thus realizing distributed sensing. In our two cascaded distributed configuration, with the refractive index range of 1.333-1.385, the fiber grind angles are 9° and 17°, the testing wavelength ranges are 613-760 nm and 745-944 nm, and the average testing sensitivities are 2826 nm/RIU and 4738 nm/RIU, respectively. Larger resonance wavelengths are associated with larger testing sensitivities. This distributed fiber sensor has important significance in the fields of multichannel liquid refractive indices and temperature self-reference measurements. PMID:26421554

  5. Denominator effects on traumatic occupational fatality incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Biddle, E A; Kisner, S M

    1998-01-01

    Each year over 6,000 workers are killed while earning a living in the United States. From these deaths, how can researchers determine if employees in the manufacturing industry are at greater risk of a traumatic occupational fatality than those employed in agriculture or any other industry? Similarly, does the risk of traumatic occupational fatality differ among states? To answer such questions, two measurements are normally used: frequency of occurrence and incidence rate. These measures are used to identify worker groups at greatest risk of fatal injury, target research and prevention activities, and evaluate the impact of these activities. Developing the best methods to accurately identify worker groups at greatest risk of losing their life while at work is always important, but even more so in times of limited government resources. The accuracy of a traumatic occupational fatality incidence rate depends on how closely the denominator and numerator represent the same population. Selecting data from different employment programs for the denominator when calculating incidence rates using the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for the numerator has shown dramatically different results. This analysis points out that researchers must carefully: choose the data they employ; evaluate the meaning of calculated incidence rates; and document the data sources to ensure proper interpretation by others. Additional research and evaluation are necessary to improve data sources, analytical methods and tools to ensure effective resource allocations for the occupational safety and health field.

  6. Incidence, prevalence, and hybrid approaches to calculating disability-adjusted life years

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    When disability-adjusted life years are used to measure the burden of disease on a population in a time interval, they can be calculated in several different ways: from an incidence, pure prevalence, or hybrid perspective. I show that these calculation methods are not equivalent and discuss some of the formal difficulties each method faces. I show that if we don’t discount the value of future health, there is a sense in which the choice of calculation method is a mere question of accounting. Such questions can be important, but they don’t raise deep theoretical concerns. If we do discount, however, choice of calculation method can change the relative burden attributed to different conditions over time. I conclude by recommending that studies involving disability-adjusted life years be explicit in noting what calculation method is being employed and in explaining why that calculation method has been chosen. PMID:22967055

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury in the Netherlands: Incidence, Costs and Disability-Adjusted Life Years

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, Annemieke C.; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Panneman, Martien J. M.; van Beeck, Ed F.; Polinder, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability, leading to great personal suffering and huge costs to society. Integrated knowledge on epidemiology, economic consequences and disease burden of TBI is scarce but essential for optimizing healthcare policy and preventing TBI. This study aimed to estimate incidence, cost-of-illness and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of TBI in the Netherlands. Methods This study included data on all TBI patients who were treated at an Emergency Department (ED - National Injury Surveillance System), hospitalized (National Medical Registration), or died due to their injuries in the Netherlands between 2010–2012. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Disease burden was assessed by calculating years of life lost (YLL) owing to premature death, years lived with disability (YLD) and DALYs. Incidence, costs and disease burden were stratified by age and gender. Results TBI incidence was 213.6 per 100,000 person years. Total costs were €314.6 (USD $433.8) million per year and disease burden resulted in 171,200 DALYs (on average 7.1 DALYs per case). Men had highest mean costs per case (€19,540 versus €14,940), driven by indirect costs. 0–24-year-olds had high incidence and disease burden but low economic costs, whereas 25–64-year-olds had relatively low incidence but high economic costs. Patients aged 65+ had highest incidence, leading to considerable direct healthcare costs. 0–24-year-olds, men aged 25–64 years, traffic injury victims (especially bicyclists) and home and leisure injury victims (especially 0–5-year-old and elderly fallers) are identified as risk groups in TBI. Conclusions The economic and health consequences of TBI are substantial. The integrated approach of assessing incidence, costs and disease burden enables detection of important risk groups in TBI, development of prevention programs that

  8. 39 CFR 3010.44 - Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments. 3010.44... DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Rate Adjustments for Negotiated Service Agreements (Type 2 Rate Adjustments) § 3010.44 Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments. (a) The Commission will establish a docket for...

  9. 39 CFR 3010.44 - Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments. 3010.44... DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Rate Adjustments for Negotiated Service Agreements (Type 2 Rate Adjustments) § 3010.44 Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments. (a) The Commission will establish a docket for...

  10. 39 CFR 3010.44 - Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments 3010.44... DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Rate Adjustments for Negotiated Service Agreements (Type 2 Rate Adjustments) § 3010.44 Proceedings for Type 2 rate adjustments (a) The Commission will establish a docket for...

  11. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  12. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  13. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  14. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  15. 25 CFR 175.12 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for adjustments due to changes in the cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except for... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.12 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates except...

  16. RATE-ADJUSTMENT ALGORITHM FOR AGGREGATE TCP CONGESTION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    P. TINNAKORNSRISUPHAP, ET AL

    2000-09-01

    The TCP congestion-control mechanism is an algorithm designed to probe the available bandwidth of the network path that TCP packets traverse. However, it is well-known that the TCP congestion-control mechanism does not perform well on networks with a large bandwidth-delay product due to the slow dynamics in adapting its congestion window, especially for short-lived flows. One promising solution to the problem is to aggregate and share the path information among TCP connections that traverse the same bottleneck path, i.e., Aggregate TCP. However, this paper shows via a queueing analysis of a generalized processor-sharing (GPS) queue with regularly-varying service time that a simple aggregation of local TCP connections together into a single aggregate TCP connection can result in a severe performance degradation. To prevent such a degradation, we introduce a rate-adjustment algorithm. Our simulation confirms that by utilizing our rate-adjustment algorithm on aggregate TCP, connections which would normally receive poor service achieve significant performance improvements without penalizing connections which already receive good service.

  17. Population-Based Incidence Rates of First-Ever Stroke in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Ngoc, Mai Quang; Huy, Tran Van; Suzuki, Motoi; Tsujino, Akira; Toizumi, Michiko; Takahashi, Kensuke; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Anh, Dang Duc; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hien; Tho, Le Huu; Maeda, Takahiro; Cox, Sharon E.; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke incidence data with methodologically acceptable design in Southeast Asia countries is limited. This study aimed to determine incidence of age-, sex- and subtype-specific first-ever stroke (FES) in Vietnam. Methods We conducted a hospital-based retrospective study, targeting all stroke cases hospitalized at a solo-provider hospital in our study site of Nha Trang from January 2009 to December 2011 with International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes I60-69. We calculated positive predictive values (PPVs) of each ICD-10-coded stroke by conducting a detailed case review of 190 randomly selected admissions with ICD-10 codes of I60-I69. These PPVs were then used to estimate annual incident stroke cases from the computerized database. National census data in 2009 was used as a denominator. Results 2,693 eligible admissions were recorded during the study period. The crude annual incidence rate of total FES was 90.2 per 100,000 population (95% CI 81.1–100.2). The age-adjusted incidence of FES was 115.7 (95% CI 95.9–139.1) when adjusted to the WHO world populations. Importantly, age-adjusted intracerebral hemorrhage was as much as one third of total FES: 36.9 (95% CI 26.1–51.0). Conclusions We found a considerable proportion of FES in Vietnam to be attributable to intracerebral hemorrhage, which is as high or exceeding levels seen in high-income countries. A high prevalence of improperly treated hypertension in Vietnam may underlie the high prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in this population. PMID:27513471

  18. Development Status of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics for 0.5 Arcsecond X-Ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Allured, Ryan; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Marquez, Vanessa; McMuldroch, Stuart; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Zhao, Rui

    2014-01-01

    We describe progress in the development of adjustable grazing incidence X-ray optics for 0.5 arcsec resolution cosmic X-ray imaging. To date, no optics technology is available to blend high resolution imaging like the Chandra X-ray Observatory, with square meter collecting area. Our approach to achieve these goals simultaneously is to directly deposit thin film piezoelectric actuators on the back surface of thin, lightweight Wolter-I or Wolter- Schwarschild mirror segments. The actuators are used to correct mirror figure errors due to fabrication, mounting and alignment, using calibration and a one-time figure adjustment on the ground. If necessary, it will also be possible to correct for residual gravity release and thermal effects on-orbit. In this paper we discuss our most recent results measuring influence functions of the piezoelectric actuators using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We describe accelerated and real-time lifetime testing of the piezoelectric material, and we also discuss changes to, and recent results of, our simulations of mirror correction.

  19. Technology development of adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics for sub-arc second imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, P. B.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Cotroneo, V.; Davis, W.; Johnson-Wilke, R. L.; McMuldroch, S.; Ramsey, B. D.; Schwartz, D. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Vikhlinin, A.; Wilke, R. H. T.

    2012-09-01

    We report on technical progress made over the past year developing thin film piezoelectric adjustable grazing incidence optics. We believe such mirror technology represents a solution to the problem of developing lightweight, sub-arc second imaging resolution X-ray optics. Such optics will be critical to the development next decade of astronomical X-ray observatories such as SMART-X, the Square Meter Arc Second Resolution X-ray Telescope. SMART-X is the logical heir to Chandra, with 30 times the collecting area and Chandra-like imaging resolution, and will greatly expand the discovery space opened by Chandra’s exquisite imaging resolution. In this paper we discuss deposition of thin film piezoelectric material on flat glass mirrors. For the first time, we measured the local figure change produced by energizing a piezo cell - the influence function, and showed it is in good agreement with finite element modeled predictions. We determined that at least one mirror substrate material is suitably resistant to piezoelectric deposition processing temperatures, meaning the amplitude of the deformations introduced is significantly smaller than the adjuster correction dynamic range. Also, using modeled influence functions and IXO-based mirror figure errors, the residual figure error was predicted post-correction. The impact of the residual figure error on imaging performance, including any mid-frequency ripple introduced by the corrections, was modeled. These, and other, results are discussed, as well as future technology development plans.

  20. Estimation of adjusted rate differences using additive negative binomial regression.

    PubMed

    Donoghoe, Mark W; Marschner, Ian C

    2016-08-15

    Rate differences are an important effect measure in biostatistics and provide an alternative perspective to rate ratios. When the data are event counts observed during an exposure period, adjusted rate differences may be estimated using an identity-link Poisson generalised linear model, also known as additive Poisson regression. A problem with this approach is that the assumption of equality of mean and variance rarely holds in real data, which often show overdispersion. An additive negative binomial model is the natural alternative to account for this; however, standard model-fitting methods are often unable to cope with the constrained parameter space arising from the non-negativity restrictions of the additive model. In this paper, we propose a novel solution to this problem using a variant of the expectation-conditional maximisation-either algorithm. Our method provides a reliable way to fit an additive negative binomial regression model and also permits flexible generalisations using semi-parametric regression functions. We illustrate the method using a placebo-controlled clinical trial of fenofibrate treatment in patients with type II diabetes, where the outcome is the number of laser therapy courses administered to treat diabetic retinopathy. An R package is available that implements the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27073156

  1. Toward a better understanding of the comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates in Utah

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Ray M; Hilton, Sterling C; Wiggins, Charles L; Sturgeon, Jared D

    2003-01-01

    Background This study assesses whether comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among white men in Utah represent higher rates among members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons), who comprise about 70% of the state's male population, and considers the potential influence screening has on these rates. Methods Analyses are based on 14,693 histologically confirmed invasive prostate cancer cases among men aged 50 years and older identified through the Utah Cancer Registry between 1985 and 1999. Cancer records were linked to LDS Church membership records to determine LDS status. Poisson regression was used to derive rate ratios of LDS to nonLDS prostate cancer incidence, adjusted for age, disease stage, calendar time, and incidental detection. Results LDS men had a 31% (95% confidence interval, 26% – 36%) higher incidence rate of prostate cancer than nonLDS men during the study period. Rates were consistently higher among LDS men over time (118% in 1985–88, 20% in 1989–92, 15% in 1993–1996, and 13% in 1997–99); age (13% in ages 50–59, 48% in ages 60–69, 28% in ages 70–79, and 16% in ages 80 and older); and stage (36% in local/regional and 17% in unstaged). An age- and stage-shift was observed for both LDS and nonLDS men, although more pronounced among LDS men. Conclusions Comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among LDS men in Utah are explained, at least in part, by more aggressive screening among these men. PMID:12720571

  2. Injury Types and Incidence Rates in Precollegiate Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Saluan, Paul; Styron, Joseph; Ackley, J. Freeland; Prinzbach, Arianna; Billow, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Background: With childhood sports opportunities continuing to increase at an enormous rate along with participation starting at younger ages, the number of female participants in sports has increased in paramount fashion over the past few decades. A review of the current literature reveals a very small number of studies (<30) that document specific injuries suffered by competitive female gymnasts. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the incidence of various injuries and injury rates for different gymnast levels among young precollegiate female gymnasts over a 21-year period, from 1985 to 2005. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: This institutional review board–approved study retrospectively evaluated young, precollegiate female gymnasts over a 21-year period. Gymnasts were stratified into 1 of 4 competition levels based on the number of hours spent training. In addition to the frequency of injuries and hours trained, data collected on each gymnast included the following: age at the time of injury, body part injured, laterality of the injury, and diagnosis. Results: Over the 21-year period, 3681 new injuries were evaluated by a single physician. The injury incidence (2.155 per 1000 exposure hours) was slightly lower when compared with previously reported injury rates. There were 1,452,574 total exposure hours documented from training facility records. The injury rate per 1000 exposure hours was 2.859 for elite, 2.820 for high-level, 1.667 for intermediate, and 0.687 for novice gymnasts. The lower extremity was injured more often than the upper extremity (60.9% compared with 22.6% of total injuries). This difference was statistically significant across all levels. Conclusion: The injury incidence in this study was 2.155 per 1000 exposure hours. This was slightly lower when compared with previously reported injury rates. Although those studies only lasted 3 years or less, the injury rates can be directly compared because they are reported as

  3. Peer- and Self-Rated Correlates of a Teacher-Rated Typology of Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, William A., Jr.; Lease, A. Michele; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2007-01-01

    External correlates of a teacher-rated typology of child adjustment developed using the Behavior Assessment System for Children were examined. Participants included 377 elementary school children recruited from 26 classrooms in the southeastern United States. Multivariate analyses of variance and planned comparisons were used to determine whether…

  4. Ectopic pregnancy and IUDs; incidence, risk rate and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Meirik, O; Nygren, K G

    1980-01-01

    During a period of 4 years, 1974-77, in Uppsala county; Sweden, 203 women underwent surgery for ectopic pregnancy with histological proof of the diagnosis. For the female population of fertile age this corresponds to 0.11 ectopics per 100 women 15-44 years of age, or 1.08 per 100 notified pregnancies, or 1.53 per 100 births. Fifty-five of the women with ectopic pregnancy were using an intrauterine device (IUD) (48 a copper-bearing IUD and 7 some other type of device), and 6 women used a low dose progestogen contraceptive. For users of copper-bearing IUDs the risk of an ectopic pregnancy was estimated to be 0.15 per 100 women years. When comparing this latter risk rate with the overall incidence rate of 0.11, it must be observed that the populations forming the denominator in these two rates differ with respect to some crucial characteristics. Nulliparity and predisposing factors were found statistically significantly more often in non-IUD-users with an ectopic pregnancy than in IUD-users. Such predisposing factors may be less prevalent in IUD-users, as in other populations. This may explain why ectopic pregnancy has been found to occur less frequently than theoretically expected among IUD-users. The "ectopic preventing" capacity of the IUD may therefore be considerably lower than has been previously claimed.

  5. 39 CFR 3010.26 - Calculation of unused rate adjustment authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... unused rate adjustment authority. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 33834, June 12, 2014. (a... the second notice is filed and interim unused rate adjustment authority will be calculated for the... months before the second notice is filed. (2) Interim unused rate adjustment authority is equal to...

  6. Epidemiology of Pelvic Fractures in Germany: Considerably High Incidence Rates among Older People.

    PubMed

    Andrich, Silke; Haastert, Burkhard; Neuhaus, Elke; Neidert, Kathrin; Arend, Werner; Ohmann, Christian; Grebe, Jürgen; Vogt, Andreas; Jungbluth, Pascal; Rösler, Grit; Windolf, Joachim; Icks, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological data about pelvic fractures are limited. Until today, most studies only analyzed inpatient data. The purpose of this study was to estimate incidence rates of pelvic fractures in the German population aged 60 years or older, based on outpatient and inpatient data. We conducted a retrospective population-based observational study based on routine data from a large health insurance company in Germany. Age and sex-specific incidence rates of first fractures between 2008 and 2011 were calculated. We also standardized incidence rates with respect to age and sex in the German population. Multiple Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the association between the risk of first pelvic fracture as outcome and sex, age, calendar year and region as independent variables. The total number of patients with a first pelvic fracture corresponded to 8,041 and during the study period 5,978 insured persons needed inpatient treatment. Overall, the standardized incidence rate of all first pelvic fractures was 22.4 [95% CI 22.0-22.9] per 10,000 person-years, and the standardized incidence rate of inpatient treated fractures 16.5 [16.1-16.9]. Our adjusted regression analysis confirmed a significant sex (RR 2.38 [2.23-2.55], p < 0.001, men as reference) and age effect (higher risk with increasing age, p < 0.001) on first fracture risk. We found a slight association between calendar year (higher risk in later years compared to 2008, p = 0.0162) and first fracture risk and a further significant association with region (RR 0.92 [0.87-0.98], p = 0.006, Westfalen-Lippe as reference). The observed incidences are considerably higher than incidences described in the international literature, even if only inpatient treated pelvic fractures are regarded. Besides which, non-inclusion of outpatient data means that a relevant proportion of pelvic fractures are not taken into account. Prevention of low energy trauma among older people remains an important issue.

  7. Epidemiology of Pelvic Fractures in Germany: Considerably High Incidence Rates among Older People

    PubMed Central

    Andrich, Silke; Haastert, Burkhard; Neuhaus, Elke; Neidert, Kathrin; Arend, Werner; Ohmann, Christian; Grebe, Jürgen; Vogt, Andreas; Jungbluth, Pascal; Rösler, Grit; Windolf, Joachim; Icks, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological data about pelvic fractures are limited. Until today, most studies only analyzed inpatient data. The purpose of this study was to estimate incidence rates of pelvic fractures in the German population aged 60 years or older, based on outpatient and inpatient data. We conducted a retrospective population-based observational study based on routine data from a large health insurance company in Germany. Age and sex-specific incidence rates of first fractures between 2008 and 2011 were calculated. We also standardized incidence rates with respect to age and sex in the German population. Multiple Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the association between the risk of first pelvic fracture as outcome and sex, age, calendar year and region as independent variables. The total number of patients with a first pelvic fracture corresponded to 8,041 and during the study period 5,978 insured persons needed inpatient treatment. Overall, the standardized incidence rate of all first pelvic fractures was 22.4 [95% CI 22.0–22.9] per 10,000 person-years, and the standardized incidence rate of inpatient treated fractures 16.5 [16.1–16.9]. Our adjusted regression analysis confirmed a significant sex (RR 2.38 [2.23–2.55], p < 0.001, men as reference) and age effect (higher risk with increasing age, p < 0.001) on first fracture risk. We found a slight association between calendar year (higher risk in later years compared to 2008, p = 0.0162) and first fracture risk and a further significant association with region (RR 0.92 [0.87–0.98], p = 0.006, Westfalen-Lippe as reference). The observed incidences are considerably higher than incidences described in the international literature, even if only inpatient treated pelvic fractures are regarded. Besides which, non-inclusion of outpatient data means that a relevant proportion of pelvic fractures are not taken into account. Prevention of low energy trauma among older people remains an important issue. PMID

  8. 76 FR 26324 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Section 31 Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... FR 24757 (May 5, 2010). \\7\\ The annual adjustments, as well as the mid-year adjustments required in... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Section 31 Fee Rates I. Background Section 31... Commission to make one final adjustment for fiscal year 2012.\\8\\ \\6\\ Order Making Fiscal Year 2011...

  9. Adjustable Grazing Incidence X-ray Optics with 0.5 Arc Second Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul

    We seek to develop adjustable grazing incidence optics for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this development is thin, lightweight mirrors with angular resolution of 0.5 arc seconds, comparable to the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The new mirror design consists of thin segments of a Wolter-I grazing incidence mirror, with piezo-electric material deposited directly on the back surface of the mirror. Depositing a pattern of independently addressable electrodes on top of the piezoelectric material produces an array of independent piezo cells. Energizing a particular cell introduces a localized deformation in the mirror without the need for a reaction structure. By applying the appropriate voltage to the piezo cells, it is possible to correct mirror figure errors that result from mirror fabrication, gravity release, mounting, and thermal effects. Because the thin mirrors segments are lightweight, they can be densely nested to produce collecting area thirty times that of Chandra, on an affordably priced mission. This Supporting Technology program is a follow-on to an existing APRA program. In the existing program we demonstrated the first successful deposition of piezoelectric material on thermally formed glass substrates. We showed that the localized deformations produced by the piezo cells match finite element predictions, and the piezo cell adjustment range meets requirements necessary to achieve the desired figure correction. We have also shown through simulation that representative mirror figure errors can be corrected via modeled influence functions to achieve 0.5 arc sec imaging performance. This provides a firm foundation on which to develop further the technology. We will continue to optimize the deposition of thin piezoelectric films onto thermally formed glass and electroplated metal mirror segments to improve yield and manufacturability. We will deposit piezoelectric material onto conical mirror segments and demonstrate figure correction in agreement with prediction

  10. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administration of adjusted rates of pay. 38.3 Section 38.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.3 Administration of adjusted rates of pay. (a) An employee...

  11. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of adjusted rates of pay. 38.3 Section 38.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.3 Administration of adjusted rates of pay. (a) An employee...

  12. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Administration of adjusted rates of pay. 38.3 Section 38.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.3 Administration of adjusted rates of pay. (a) An employee...

  13. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of adjusted rates of pay. 38.3 Section 38.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.3 Administration of adjusted rates of pay. (a) An employee...

  14. 43 CFR 38.3 - Administration of adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of adjusted rates of pay. 38.3 Section 38.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.3 Administration of adjusted rates of pay. (a) An employee...

  15. A comparison of surveillance methods for small incidence rates

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Woodall, William H.; Reynolds, Marion R.

    2008-05-15

    A number of methods have been proposed to detect an increasing shift in the incidence rate of a rare health event, such as a congenital malformation. Among these are the Sets method, two modifcations of the Sets method, and the CUSUM method based on the Poisson distribution. We consider the situation where data are observed as a sequence of Bernoulli trials and propose the Bernoulli CUSUM chart as a desirable method for the surveillance of rare health events. We compare the performance of the Sets method and its modifcations to the Bernoulli CUSUM chart under a wide variety of circumstances. Chart design parameters were chosen to satisfy a minimax criteria.We used the steady- state average run length to measure chart performance instead of the average run length which was used in nearly all previous comparisons involving the Sets method or its modifcations. Except in a very few instances, we found that the Bernoulli CUSUM chart has better steady-state average run length performance than the Sets method and its modifcations for the extensive number of cases considered.

  16. 5 CFR 535.105 - Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay... REGULATIONS CRITICAL POSITION PAY AUTHORITY § 535.105 Setting and adjusting rates of basic pay. (a) The rate... head of an agency may set pay initially at any amount up to the rate of pay for level II or level I...

  17. 77 FR 10767 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ..., Telephone: (435) 722-4341. Walker River Irrigation Project Athena Brown, Superintendent, 311 E. Washington... Federal Register on September 20, 2011 (76 FR 58293) to propose adjustments to the irrigation assessment... 203(d) of the Arizona Water Settlements Act (Pub. L. 108-451). Issue: The BIA should not use...

  18. 76 FR 26759 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Federal Register on November 1, 2010 (75 FR 67095) to propose adjustments to the irrigation assessment..., Oregon 97232-4169, Telephone: (503) 231- 6702 Project Name Project/Agency Contacts Fort Hall Dean Fox..., PH: (406) 653-1752 602 6th Avenue North Wolf Point, MT 59201 Wind River Ed Lone Fight,...

  19. Demonization of Divorce: Prevalence Rates and Links to Postdivorce Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    The meaning-making process can be crucial to individuals as they adjust to their divorce. Demonization is a negative coping response (also known as spiritual struggle) that involves appraising someone or something as related to demonic forces. Individuals may cognitively frame a divorce as the work of Satan in order to understand suffering while…

  20. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Diarrheal Disease Associated with Norovirus, Sapovirus, and Astrovirus in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Shioda, Kayoko; Cosmas, Leonard; Audi, Allan; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Breiman, Robert F.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of mortality in Africa and worldwide. While the burden of rotavirus is well described, population-based rates of disease caused by norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus are lacking, particularly in developing countries. Methods Data on diarrhea cases were collected through a population-based surveillance platform including healthcare encounters and household visits in Kenya. We analyzed data from June 2007 to October 2008 in Lwak, a rural site in western Kenya, and from October 2006 to February 2009 in Kibera, an urban slum. Stool specimens from diarrhea cases of all ages who visited study clinics were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus by RT-PCR. Results Of 334 stool specimens from Lwak and 524 from Kibera, 85 (25%) and 159 (30%) were positive for norovirus, 13 (4%) and 31 (6%) for sapovirus, and 28 (8%) and 18 (3%) for astrovirus, respectively. Among norovirus-positive specimens, genogroup II predominated in both sites, detected in 74 (87%) in Lwak and 140 (88%) in Kibera. The adjusted community incidence per 100,000 person-years was the highest for norovirus (Lwak: 9,635; Kibera: 4,116), followed by astrovirus (Lwak: 3,051; Kibera: 440) and sapovirus (Lwak: 1,445; Kibera: 879). For all viruses, the adjusted incidence was higher among children aged <5 years (norovirus: 22,225 in Lwak and 17,511 in Kibera; sapovirus: 5,556 in Lwak and 4,378 in Kibera; astrovirus: 11,113 in Lwak and 2,814 in Kibera) compared to cases aged ≥5 years. Conclusion Although limited by a lack of controls, this is the first study to estimate the outpatient and community incidence rates of norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus across the age spectrum in Kenya, suggesting a substantial disease burden imposed by these viruses. By applying adjusted rates, we estimate approximately 2.8–3.3 million, 0.45–0.54 million, and 0.77–0.95 million people become ill with norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, respectively, every year in

  1. 39 CFR 3010.27 - Application of unused rate adjustment authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... unused rate adjustment authority. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 33834, June 12, 2014. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 33834, June 12, 2014. When the percentage change in rates for a class.... Second, the unused rate adjustment authority generated in the most recent Type 1-A or Type 1-B...

  2. 75 FR 8730 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; FHA- Disclosure of Adjustable Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Adjustable Rate Mortgages (ARMs) Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing, HUD. ACTION... of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35, as amended). This Notice is soliciting comments from members of the... also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Disclosure of Adjustable Rate Mortgages...

  3. 12 CFR 747.1001 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation. (a) NCUA is required by the Federal Civil Penalties... adjust the maximum amount of each civil money penalty within its jurisdiction by the rate of...

  4. 77 FR 13663 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Mid-Year Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Mid-Year Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates I. Background Section... Commission by Congress for such fiscal year.''). \\5\\ Id. \\6\\ Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments... fiscal year 2012 calculated by the Commission in its Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments...

  5. Incidence Rate for Hantavirus Infections without Pulmonary Syndrome, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Armien, Blas; Pascale, Juan M.; Munoz, Carlos; Lee, Sang-Joon; Choi, Kook L.; Avila, Mario; Broce, Candida; Armien, Anibal G.; Gracia, Fernando; Hjelle, Brian

    2011-01-01

    During 2001–2007, to determine incidence of all hantavirus infections, including those without pulmonary syndrome, in western Panama, we conducted 11 communitywide surveys. Among 1,129 persons, antibody prevalence was 16.5%–60.4%. Repeat surveys of 476 found that patients who seroconverted outnumbered patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome by 14 to 1. PMID:22000376

  6. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  7. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Limited Rate... section of this subpart, and to revisions on a periodic basis of a gas reimbursement percentage. (b) Where a pipeline recovers fuel use and unaccounted-for natural gas in kind, the fuel...

  8. 75 FR 81817 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Extensions Act, 2011 (H.R. 3082), which I signed into law today (the ``Continuing Appropriations Act''), the...; section 301(a) of Public Law 102-40) at Schedule 3. Sec. 2. Senior Executive Service. The ranges of rates... section 140 of Public Law 97-92) at Schedule 7. Sec. 4. Uniformed Services. The rates of monthly basic...

  9. 78 FR 71501 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... the section 119 compulsory license for the 2010-2014 term. See 75 FR 53198. The rates adopted by the... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... Copyright Royalty Judges announce a cost of living adjustment (COLA) of 1% in the royalty rates...

  10. 77 FR 3818 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates I. Background Section 31... Rel. No. 34-64373, Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to the Fee Rates Applicable under... Exchange Act effective on the later of October 1, 2011 or the date of enactment of an Act making a...

  11. 78 FR 25515 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates I. Background Section 31... notice of the new fee rates under Section 31 not later than 30 days after the date on which an Act making... appendix also includes the data used by the Commission in making this adjustment. III. Effective Date...

  12. A Short Form of the Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.

    2007-01-01

    A total of 278 children at Time 1 (144 male and 134 female) from School Years 1 and 2 in the United Kingdom serve as participants. The children complete self-rated scales of school adjustment, and their teachers complete the Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment (TRSSA) twice across a 1-year period. At Time 1, children's performance on…

  13. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1) Compute an... must compute its initial rate using either of the following systems: (i) A community rating system...

  14. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1) Compute an... must compute its initial rate using either of the following systems: (i) A community rating system...

  15. Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics based on thin PZT films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Marquez, Vanessa; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.

    2012-10-01

    The direct deposition of piezoelectric thin films on thin substrates offers an appealing technology for the realization of lightweight adjustable mirrors capable of sub-arcsecond resolution. This solution will make it possible to realize X-ray telescopes with both large effective area and exceptional angular resolution and, in particular, it will enable the realization of the adjustable optics for the proposed mission Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution X-ray Telescope (SMART-X). In the past years we demonstrated for the first time the possibility of depositing a working piezoelectric thin film (1-5 um) made of lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on glass. Here we review the recent progress in film deposition and influence function characterization and comparison with finite element models. The suitability of the deposited films is analyzed and some constrains on the piezoelectric film performances are derived. The future steps in the development of the technology are described.

  16. 78 FR 80451 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... ] TD31DE13.201 ] TD31DE13.202 ] TD31DE13.203 ] TD31DE13.204 [FR Doc. 2013-31445 Filed 12-30-13; 11:15 a.m... Administration of the Department of Veterans Affairs (38 U.S.C. 7306, 7404; section 301(a) of Public Law 102-40... under 37 U.S.C. 1009, and the rate of monthly cadet or midshipman pay (37 U.S.C. 203(c)) are set...

  17. The incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer: a four-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) and endometrial cancer (EC) in the Republic of Korea using national insurance claim data generated from 2009 to 2012. Materials and Methods Data that were generated from 2009 to 2012 were sourced from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Inpatients Sample database. The data from women who were assigned diagnosis codes representing EH or EC within 1 month of being assigned codes that corresponded to procedures that included endometrial biopsies and several types of gynecologic surgeries to obtain endometrial pathology samples, were selected for analysis. Results Data from 2,477,424 women were entered into the database between 2009 and 2012, and the data from 1,868 women with EH and 868 women with EC were extracted for analysis. The mean ages of the patients were 44.1 ± 0.4 years for those with EH and 52.7 ± 0.6 years for those with EC. The EH and EC incidence rates were 37 per 100,000 woman-years and 8 per 100,000 woman-years, respectively. The EH and EC incidence rates peaked when the women were in their late forties and fifties, respectively. Conclusions The EH and EC incidence rates determined in this study were somewhat lower than those determined from previous studies. Further studies are required that adjust the data for race, menopausal hormone therapy, and obesity.

  18. The incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer: a four-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) and endometrial cancer (EC) in the Republic of Korea using national insurance claim data generated from 2009 to 2012. Materials and Methods Data that were generated from 2009 to 2012 were sourced from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Inpatients Sample database. The data from women who were assigned diagnosis codes representing EH or EC within 1 month of being assigned codes that corresponded to procedures that included endometrial biopsies and several types of gynecologic surgeries to obtain endometrial pathology samples, were selected for analysis. Results Data from 2,477,424 women were entered into the database between 2009 and 2012, and the data from 1,868 women with EH and 868 women with EC were extracted for analysis. The mean ages of the patients were 44.1 ± 0.4 years for those with EH and 52.7 ± 0.6 years for those with EC. The EH and EC incidence rates were 37 per 100,000 woman-years and 8 per 100,000 woman-years, respectively. The EH and EC incidence rates peaked when the women were in their late forties and fifties, respectively. Conclusions The EH and EC incidence rates determined in this study were somewhat lower than those determined from previous studies. Further studies are required that adjust the data for race, menopausal hormone therapy, and obesity. PMID:27635340

  19. A 5-trial adjusting delay discounting task: Accurate discount rates in less than 60 seconds

    PubMed Central

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who discount delayed rewards at a high rate are more likely to engage in substance abuse, overeating, or problem gambling. Findings such as these suggest the value of methods to obtain an accurate and fast measurement of discount rate that can be easily deployed in variety of settings. In the present study, we developed and evaluated the 5-trial adjusting delay task, a novel method of obtaining discount rate in less than one minute. We hypothesized that discount rates from the 5-trial adjusting delay task would be similar and correlated with discount rates from a lengthier task we have used previously, and that four known effects relating to delay discounting would be replicable with this novel task. To test these hypotheses, the 5-trial adjusting delay task was administered to 111 college students six times to obtain discount rates for six different commodities, along with a lengthier adjusting amount discounting task. We found that discount rates were similar and correlated between the 5-trial adjusting delay task and the adjusting amount task. Each of the four known effects relating to delay discounting was replicated with the 5-trial adjusting delay task to varying degrees. First, discount rates were inversely correlated with amount. Second, discount rates between past and future outcomes were correlated. Third, discount rates were greater for consumable rewards than with money, although we did not control for amount in this comparison. Fourth, discount rates were lower when zero amounts opposing the chosen time point were explicitly described. Results indicate that the 5-trial adjusting delay task is a viable, rapid method to assess discount rate. PMID:24708144

  20. Breast cancer incidence rates among Orthodox Jewish women

    PubMed Central

    Tkatch, Rifky; Schwartz, Kendra; Shore, Ronald D.; Penner, Louis A.; Simon, Michael S.; Albrecht, Terrance L.

    2013-01-01

    BRCA 1/BRCA2 founder mutations have been documented among Ashkenazi Jews. Little is known about cancer rates and cancer-related health behaviors among an insular subset of this population, Orthodox Jews. The goal of this study was estimate the risk of breast and ovarian among the Orthodox Jewish population. We used geo-coding with SEER data to identify this subgroup and estimate breast and ovarian cancer rates. Relative to neighborhoods with lower estimated Jewish populations, higher breast cancer rates were found in neighborhoods with higher estimated Orthodox Jewish population, there were no comparable differences in ovarian cancer rates. Implications include more research on health behaviors that may contribute to breast cancer in this insular community. PMID:23584710

  1. Ciprofloxacin Resistance and Gonorrhea Incidence Rates in 17 Cities, United States, 1991–2006

    PubMed Central

    Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Gift, Thomas L.; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Weinstock, Hillard S.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance can hinder gonorrhea prevention and control efforts. In this study, we analyzed historical ciprofloxacin resistance data and gonorrhea incidence data to examine the possible effect of antimicrobial drug resistance on gonorrhea incidence at the population level. We analyzed data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project and city-level gonorrhea incidence rates from surveillance data for 17 cities during 1991–2006. We found a strong positive association between ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates at the city level during this period. Their association was consistent with predictions of mathematical models in which resistance to treatment can increase gonorrhea incidence rates through factors such as increased duration of infection. These findings highlight the possibility of future increases in gonorrhea incidence caused by emerging cephalosporin resistance. PMID:24655615

  2. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine. PMID:25019265

  3. 75 FR 75624 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... FR 53198 (August 31, 2010). Section 119(c)(2) requires the Judges annually to adjust these rates ``to... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The...

  4. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  5. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  6. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  7. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  8. 43 CFR 38.2 - Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computation of hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly adjusted rates of pay. 38.2 Section 38.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PAY OF U.S. PARK POLICE-INTERIM GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTMENTS § 38.2 Computation of hourly, daily,...

  9. The Impact of Statistically Adjusting for Rater Effects on Conditional Standard Errors of Performance Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Mark R.; Harik, Polina; Clauser, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research indicates that the overall reliability of performance ratings can be improved by using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to adjust for rater effects. The present investigation extends previous work by evaluating the impact of OLS adjustment on standard errors of measurement ("SEM") at specific score levels. In addition, a…

  10. 12 CFR 747.1001 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of inflation. 747.1001 Section 747.1001 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Inflation Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties § 747.1001 Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation. (a) NCUA is required by the Federal Civil...

  11. 12 CFR 747.1001 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of inflation. 747.1001 Section 747.1001 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Inflation Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties § 747.1001 Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation. (a) NCUA is required by the Federal Civil...

  12. 12 CFR 747.1001 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of inflation. 747.1001 Section 747.1001 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Inflation Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties § 747.1001 Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation. (a) NCUA is required by the Federal Civil...

  13. 12 CFR 747.1001 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of inflation. 747.1001 Section 747.1001 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Inflation Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties § 747.1001 Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation. (a) NCUA is required by the Federal Civil...

  14. Childhood cancer incidence rates and hazardous air pollutants in California: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Peggy; Von Behren, Julie; Gunier, Robert B; Goldberg, Debbie E; Hertz, Andrew; Smith, Daniel F

    2003-01-01

    Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are compounds shown to cause cancer or other adverse health effects. We analyzed population-based childhood cancer incidence rates in California (USA) from 1988 to 1994, by HAP exposure scores, for all California census tracts. For each census tract, we calculated exposure scores by combining cancer potency factors with outdoor HAP concentrations modeled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We evaluated the relationship between childhood cancer rates and exposure scores for 25 potentially carcinogenic HAPs emitted from mobile, area, and point sources and from all sources combined. Our study period saw 7,143 newly diagnosed cancer cases in California; of these, 6,989 (97.8%) could be assigned to census tracts and included in our analysis. Using Poisson regression, we estimated rate ratios (RRs) adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and sex. We found little evidence for elevated cancer RRs for all sites or for gliomas among children living in high-ranking combined-source exposure areas. We found elevated RRs and a significant trend with increasing exposure level for childhood leukemia in tracts ranked highest for exposure to the combined group of 25 HAPs (RR = 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.03, 1.42) and in tracts ranked highest for point-source HAP exposure (RR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.11, 1.57). Our findings suggest an association between increased childhood leukemia rates and high HAP exposure, but studies involving more comprehensive exposure assessment and individual-level exposure data will be important for elucidating this relationship. PMID:12676632

  15. 75 FR 53198 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... rates in the Federal Register. 75 FR 39891 (July 13, 2010). Section 119(c)(1)(D)(ii)(III) provides that... proposed rates as published on July 13, 2010. See 75 FR 39891. List of Subjects in 37 CFR Part 386... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License...

  16. 39 CFR 3010.13 - Proceedings for Type 1-A and Type 1-B rate adjustment filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proceedings for Type 1-A and Type 1-B rate... (Type 1-A and 1-B Rate Adjustments) § 3010.13 Proceedings for Type 1-A and Type 1-B rate adjustment... pursuant to appropriate action by the Governors. (e) If planned rate adjustments are found...

  17. Rating and Classification of Incident Reporting in Radiology in a Large Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Aran, Shima; Shaqdan, Khalid W; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rate of safety incident report of adverse events in a large academic radiology department and to share the various types that may occur. This is a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant, institutional review board-approved study. Consent requirement was waived. All incident reports from April 2006-September 2012 were retrieved. Events were further classified as follows: diagnostic test orders, identity document or documentation or consent, safety or security or conduct, service coordination, surgery or procedure, line or tube, fall, medication or intravenous safety, employee general incident, environment or equipment, adverse drug reaction (ADR), skin or tissue, and diagnosis or treatment. Overall rates and subclassification rates were calculated. There were 10,224 incident reports and 4,324,208 radiology examinations (rate = 0.23%). The highest rates of the incident reports were due to diagnostic test orders (34.3%; 3509/10,224), followed by service coordination (12.2%; 1248/10,224) and ADR (10.3%; 1052/4,324,208). The rate of incident reporting was highest in inpatient (0.30%; 2949/970,622), followed by emergency radiology (0.22%; 1500/672,958) and outpatient (0.18%; 4957/2,680,628). Approximately 48.5% (4947/10,202) of incidents had no patient harm and did not affect the patient, followed by no patient harm, but did affect the patient (35.2%, 3589/10,202), temporary or minor patient harm (15.5%, 1584/10,202), permanent or major patient harm (0.6%, 62/10,202), and patient death (0.2%, 20/10,202). Within an academic radiology department, the rate of incident reports was only 0.23%, usually did not harm the patient, and occurred at higher rates in inpatients. The most common incident type was in the category of diagnostic test orders, followed by service coordination, and ADRs.

  18. Using linked birth, notification, hospital and mortality data to examine false-positive meningococcal disease reporting and adjust disease incidence estimates for children in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, A; Jorm, L; McIntyre, P

    2015-09-01

    Meningococcal disease is a rare, rapidly progressing condition which may be difficult to diagnose, disproportionally affects children, and has high morbidity and mortality. Accurate incidence estimates are needed to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination and treatment. We used linked notification, hospital, mortality and birth data for all children of an Australian state (2000-2007) to estimate the incidence of meningococcal disease. A total of 595 cases were notified, 684 cases had a hospital diagnosis, and 26 cases died from meningococcal disease. All deaths were notified, but only 68% (466/684) of hospitalized cases. Of non-notified hospitalized cases with more than one clinical admission, most (90%, 103/114) did not have meningococcal disease recorded as their final diagnosis, consistent with initial 'false-positive' hospital meningococcal disease diagnosis. After adjusting for false-positive rates in hospital data, capture-recapture estimation suggested that up to four cases of meningococcal disease may not have been captured in either notification or hospital records. The estimated incidence of meningococcal disease in NSW-born and -resident children aged 0-14 years was 5·1-5·4 cases/100 000 child-years at risk, comparable to international estimates using similar methods, but lower than estimates based on hospital data. PMID:25573266

  19. Incidence rates of dementia, Alzheimer disease, and vascular dementia in the Japanese American population in Seattle, WA: the Kame Project.

    PubMed

    Borenstein, Amy R; Wu, Yougui; Bowen, James D; McCormick, Wayne C; Uomoto, Jay; McCurry, Susan M; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Larson, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on the incidence of dementia in representative minority populations in the United States; however, no population-based study has been conducted on Japanese American women. We identified 3045 individuals aged 65+ with at least 1 parent of Japanese descent living in King County, WA in the period 1992 to 1994, of whom 1836 were dementia-free and were examined every 2 years (1994 to 2001) to identify incident cases of all dementias, Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and other dementias. Cox regression was used to examine associations with age, sex, years of education, and apolipoprotein (APOE)-ε4. Among 173 incident cases of dementia, the overall rate was 14.4/1000/y, with rates being slightly higher among women (15.9/1000) than men (12.5/1000). Rates roughly doubled every 5 years for dementia and AD; the age trend for VaD and other dementias was less consistent. Sex was not significantly related to incidence of dementia or its subtypes in adjusted models. There was a trend for an inverse association with increasing years of education. APOE-ε4 was a strong risk factor for all dementias [hazard ratio (HR)=2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.88-4.46], AD (HR=3.27; 95% CI, 2.03-5.28), and VaD (HR=3.33; 95% CI, 1.34-8.27). This study is the first to report population-based incidence rates for both Japanese American men and women.

  20. Incidence rates of the major leukemia subtypes among US Hispanics, Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Matasar, Matthew J; Ritchie, Ellen K; Consedine, Nathan; Magai, Carol; Neugut, Alfred I

    2006-11-01

    While leukemia rates are thought to be lower in South and Central America, no study has systematically investigated incidence rates of the leukemia subtypes among Hispanics in the U.S. This was a retrospective cohort study, using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute, 1992 - 2001, to compare leukemia incidence rates as a function of race and ethnicity. It was found that in adults, Hispanics had lower incidence rates for each of the major types of leukemia as compared to non-Hispanic Whites: For AML, elderly Whites had an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.61 in comparison to Hispanics (p < 0.001) and 1.27 in comparison to Blacks (p < 0.001); for CML, the IRR among the elderly was 1.42 that of Hispanics (p < 0.001) and 1.22 that of Blacks (p = 0.003); and for CLL, the IRR was 2.31 times that of Hispanics (p < 0.001) and 1.48 times that of Blacks (p < 0.001). In ALL, however, Hispanics aged 0 - 19 had a significantly higher incidence rate than Whites and Blacks, with an IRR of 1.32 compared to Whites (p < 0.001), and 2.62 compared to Blacks (p < 0.001). In AML, CML, and CLL, among people age 65 or older, white non-Hispanics have higher incidence rates than Blacks, and Blacks have higher incidence rates than Hispanics. Childhood ALL incidence rates are highest among Hispanics, and lowest among Blacks.

  1. Dynamics of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Hsien

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate. This type of nonlinear incidence can be used to describe the psychological effect of certain diseases spread in a contact network at high infective levels. We first find a threshold value for the transmission rate. This value completely determines the dynamics of the model and interestingly, the threshold is not dependent on the functional form of the nonlinear incidence rate. Furthermore, if the transmission rate is less than or equal to the threshold value, the disease will die out. Otherwise, it will be permanent. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the theoretical results. We also consider the effect of the nonlinear incidence on the epidemic dynamics.

  2. HIV incidence rates among drug users in northern Thailand, 1993-7.

    PubMed Central

    Jittiwutikarn, J.; Sawanpanyalert, P.; Rangsiveroj, N.; Satitvipawee, P.

    2000-01-01

    Drug use is a major mode of HIV transmission in Thailand. This study determined HIV incidence rates among drug users in a regional drug treatment centre in northern Thailand. A retrospective cohort of repeatedly-hospitalized drug users between 1993 and 1997 was formed and HIV incidence rates were calculated. The overall incidence was 11.44 per 100 person-years of observation. Gender, age, religion, ethnicity, education, employment, income, reasons for drug use, type of drugs, mode of use, spending on drugs, and referral for treatment are associated with HIV incidence. However, there are no associations between HIV incidence and history of treatment and mode of discharge from the centre. This implies that current treatment modality has no impact on HIV infection risk and other therapeutic approaches should be explored. PMID:11057970

  3. 75 FR 32228 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... adjusted the rates in 1997. 62 FR 55742 (October 28, 1997). In the Satellite Home Viewer Improvement Act of... the former Copyright Royalty Tribunal. 57 FR 129052 (May 1, 1992). When the license was reauthorized... carriers; and the Librarian adopted the respective rates. See 70 FR 17320 (April 6, 2005) and 70 FR...

  4. 75 FR 39891 - Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... carrier statutory license, 17 U.S.C. 119. 75 FR 32228 (June 7, 2010). The law further provides that... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Rate Adjustment for the Satellite Carrier Compulsory License AGENCY... are publishing for comment negotiated royalty rates for the satellite carrier statutory license of...

  5. 77 FR 47582 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2013 Annual Review and Adjust; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 45539) proposing rate adjustments for pilotage services on the Great Lakes. The charge rate... of proposed rulemaking published in the Federal Register on August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45539) is corrected...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NPRM published August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45539) contains an...

  6. 25 CFR 166.408 - Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically? 166.408 Section 166.408 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental...

  7. 25 CFR 166.408 - Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically? 166.408 Section 166.408 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental...

  8. 25 CFR 166.408 - Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically? 166.408 Section 166.408 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental...

  9. 25 CFR 166.408 - Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically? 166.408 Section 166.408 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental...

  10. 25 CFR 166.408 - Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is the grazing rental rate established by the BIA adjusted periodically? 166.408 Section 166.408 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental...

  11. 48 CFR 52.222-31 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (Percentage Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction Wage Rate... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-31 Construction Wage Rate Requirements—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method). As prescribed in 22.407(f), insert the following clause: Construction Wage...

  12. Self-reports and spouse ratings of neuroticism: perspectives on emotional adjustment in couples.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G

    2015-04-01

    Evidence of reciprocal associations between individual emotional adjustment and the quality of intimate relationships has led to the growing use of interventions that combine a focus on couple issues with a focus on individual emotional functioning. In these approaches, spouse ratings of emotional functioning can provide an important second method of assessment, beyond the much more commonly used self-reports. Although an extensive literature demonstrates substantial convergent correlations between self-reported and spouse-rated emotional adjustment, levels of adjustment evident across these 2 assessment methods are much less commonly compared, especially among couples reporting higher levels of marital distress. Well-documented limitations of both self-reports and spouse ratings suggest that differences--which would not necessarily be evident in correlations between methods--might be common and substantial, perhaps raising complications in couple assessments and intervention. The present study compared self-reports and spouse ratings of neuroticism and its specific components using the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised in a sample of 301 middle-aged and older couples. For overall neuroticism and the specific facets of anxiety, angry hostility, and vulnerability, self-reported levels of negative emotionality were consistently lower than the parallel ratings by spouses, most notably among couples reporting low levels of marital adjustment. Hence, substantial underestimates of negative emotionality obtained through self-reports as compared to ratings by spouses (or overestimates as obtained through spouse ratings) may be common and could complicate couple assessment and intervention. PMID:25844498

  13. 75 FR 24757 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Adjustments to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Section 6(b...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...), 75 FR 9964 (March 4, 2010). \\10\\ The annual adjustments, as well as the mid-year adjustments required... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Adjustments to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Section 6(b) of... adjustment based on that estimate. The appendix includes the data used by the Commission in making...

  14. 12 CFR 622.61 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended. 622.61... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment... is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990,...

  15. 12 CFR 622.61 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended. 622.61... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment... is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990,...

  16. 12 CFR 622.61 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended. 622.61... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment... is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990,...

  17. 12 CFR 622.61 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended. 622.61... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment... is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990,...

  18. 12 CFR 622.61 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended. 622.61... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment... is adjusted in accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990,...

  19. Computations of adjusted rates and lifetime risks from occupational cohort data: a program package using FORTRAN and GLIM.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S Y; Mazumdar, S; Redmond, C K; Dong, M H; Costantino, J P

    1991-02-01

    A program package using FORTRAN and GLIM is presented to compute lifetime risks of dying from a particular cause of death for a worker subjected to specific risk exposures using death rates adjusted for selected covariates (risk factors). Calculations of the exposure index and adjusted rates depend on several commonly used procedures. Tests of homogeneity and trend for adjusted rates are provided. Lifetime risks are calculated in two different ways: adjusting or ignoring competing causes of death.

  20. Use of age-adjusted rates of suicide in time series studies in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2009-01-01

    Durkheim's modified theory of suicide was examined to explore how consistent it was in predicting Israeli rates of suicide from 1965 to 1997 when using age-adjusted rates rather than crude ones. In this time-series study, Israeli male and female rates of suicide increased and decreased, respectively, between 1965 and 1997. Conforming to Durkheim's modified theory, the Israeli male rate of suicide was lower in years when rates of marriage and birth are higher, while rates of suicide are higher in years when rates of divorce are higher, the opposite to that of Israeli women. The corrected regression coefficients suggest that the Israeli female rate of suicide remained lower in years when rate of divorce is higher, again the opposite suggested by Durkheim's modified theory. These results may indicate that divorce affects the mental health of Israeli women as suggested by their lower rate of suicide. Perhaps the "multiple roles held by Israeli females creates suicidogenic stress" and divorce provides some sense of stress relief, mentally speaking. The results were not as consistent with predictions suggested by Durkheim's modified theory of suicide as were rates from the United States for the same period nor were they consistent with rates based on "crude" suicide data. Thus, using age-adjusted rates of suicide had an influence on the prediction of the Israeli rate of suicide during this period.

  1. A cross-national analysis of the effects of methadone maintenance and needle and syringe program implementation on incidence rates of HIV in Europe from 1995 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Phillip L; McCullagh, Charlotte A

    2016-06-01

    Although many studies have found an association between harm reduction interventions and reductions in incidence rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, scant research explores the effects of harm reduction cross-nationally. This study used a year- and country-level fixed effects model to estimate the potential effects of needle-and-syringe programs (NSPs) and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) on incidence rates of HIV in the general population and among people who inject drugs (PWID), in a sample of 28 European nations. After adjusting for Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and total expenditures on healthcare, we identified significant associations between years of MMT and NSP implementation and lower incidence rates of HIV among PWID and the general population. In addition to years of implementation of NSP and MMT, the greater proportion of GDP spent on healthcare was associated with a decrease in logged incidence rates of HIV. The findings of this study suggest that MMT and NSP may reduce incidence rates of HIV among PWID cross-nationally. The current study opens a new avenue of exploration, which allows for a focus on countrywide policies and economic drivers of the epidemic. Moreover, it highlights the immense importance of the adoption of harm reduction programs as empirically-based health policy as well as the direct benefits that are accrued from public spending on healthcare on incidence rates of HIV within the general population and among subpopulations of PWID.

  2. A cross-national analysis of the effects of methadone maintenance and needle and syringe program implementation on incidence rates of HIV in Europe from 1995 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Phillip L; McCullagh, Charlotte A

    2016-06-01

    Although many studies have found an association between harm reduction interventions and reductions in incidence rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, scant research explores the effects of harm reduction cross-nationally. This study used a year- and country-level fixed effects model to estimate the potential effects of needle-and-syringe programs (NSPs) and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) on incidence rates of HIV in the general population and among people who inject drugs (PWID), in a sample of 28 European nations. After adjusting for Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and total expenditures on healthcare, we identified significant associations between years of MMT and NSP implementation and lower incidence rates of HIV among PWID and the general population. In addition to years of implementation of NSP and MMT, the greater proportion of GDP spent on healthcare was associated with a decrease in logged incidence rates of HIV. The findings of this study suggest that MMT and NSP may reduce incidence rates of HIV among PWID cross-nationally. The current study opens a new avenue of exploration, which allows for a focus on countrywide policies and economic drivers of the epidemic. Moreover, it highlights the immense importance of the adoption of harm reduction programs as empirically-based health policy as well as the direct benefits that are accrued from public spending on healthcare on incidence rates of HIV within the general population and among subpopulations of PWID. PMID:27212656

  3. The single match approach to strike rate adjustments in batting performance measures in cricket.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, Hermanus H

    2011-01-01

    Batting performance measures containing strike rate adjustments take into account the important fact that if two batsmen had scored the same number of runs in a match, the one with the better strike rate had performed best. But match conditions can influence the batting and bowling performances of cricket players. On a good pitch a batsman can get a good score at a high strike rate, but if the pitch was bad, a similar good score is normally accompanied by a much lower strike rate. The main objective of this study is to propose a method that can be used to make batsmen's scores comparable despite the fact that playing conditions might have been very different. The number of runs scored by a batsman is adjusted by comparing his strike rate with the overall strike rate of all the players in the specific match. These adjusted runs are then used in the most appropriate formula to calculate the average of the batsman. The method is illustrated by using the results of the Indian Premier League 2009 Twenty20 Series played during May and June 2009. The main conclusion is that the traditional average is not the most appropriate measure to compare batsmen's performances after conclusion of a short series. Key pointsIt is unfair to compare the score of a batsman obtained on a good pitch under ideal batting conditions with that of a batsman who had to battle under severe conditions.By comparing a batsman's strike rate with the overall strike rate of the players in the specific match, his score can be adjusted to get a better figure for his true performance.The results demonstrate clearly that the use of adjusted scores lead to rankings that differ from those based on the traditional measures.

  4. The influence of weather conditions on the relative incident rate of fishing vessels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Pelot, Ronald P; Hilliard, Casey

    2009-07-01

    There is a long history of studying the relationship between weather and maritime activities. This article analyzes the link between relative incident rate (RIR) and general weather factors within certain gridded areas and time periods. The study area, which encompasses a broad extent of Atlantic Canadian waters, includes fishing incidents recorded by the Canadian Coast Guard from 1997 to 1999. Methodologies used for traffic track generation in a geographical information system and aggregation of all relevant weather data needed for the statistical analyses are presented. Ultimately, a regression tree was built to illustrate the relationship between incident rate and the following six weather factors: wave height; sea surface temperature; air temperature; ice concentration; fog presence; and precipitation. Results from the regression tree reveal that the RIR defined as (incident number per area-day)/(traffic amount per area-day) across grid cells with incidents, increases as the weather conditions deteriorate in a general way, and the concentration of ice has the biggest influence on the magnitude of incident rates for a given level of traffic exposure. The results from this analysis may assist administrators of maritime traffic, especially those associated with fishing activities, through a better understanding of the influence on RIR of certain weather conditions within given areas in specific time periods.

  5. Short communication: relationship between herd intramammary infection incidence and elimination rate during the dry period.

    PubMed

    Dufour, S; Dohoo, I R

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the relationship between herd dry period (DP) intramammary infection (IMI) incidence and elimination rates. A cohort of 91 Canadian dairy herds was recruited and followed in 2007 and 2008. Universal dry cow therapy was widely adopted among the participating herds. At the beginning of years 2007 and 2008, a sample of 15 cows was selected in each herd. A series of quarter-milk samples consisting of 2 predry and 2 postcalving samples were collected on each quarter of these 30 cows. Milk samples were analyzed using routine bacteriological milk culture, and predry and postcalving IMI statuses of these quarters were established using parallel interpretation of the 2 predry and 2 postcalving tests, respectively. Intramammary infection status was defined as IMI by Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci other than Streptococcus agalactiae, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), or Corynebacterium spp. Incidence and elimination rates of DP IMI were computed for each herd. Lowess curves and linear regression were used to investigate the association between DP IMI incidence and elimination rates. Significant negative associations were found between incidence and elimination rates of Staph. aureus and CNS. The relationship between incidence and elimination rates was nonlinear for CNS, with a relatively strong negative relationship between DP IMI incidence and elimination rates for herds with relatively low DP IMI incidence (<0.10 new IMI/quarter-month). For herds with higher DP IMI incidence (≥ 0.10 new IMI/quarter-month), a weaker negative relationship was observed between rates. No significant associations could be seen between DP incidence and elimination rates of streptococci other than Strep. agalactiae and of Corynebacterium spp. These results suggest that, conversely to the general belief, acquisition of new IMI and elimination of existing IMI during the DP may be driven, at least for staphylococci, by common mechanisms. The use

  6. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. PMID:26513636

  7. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women.

  8. The effects of different rates of ascent on the incidence of altitude decompression sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. V.; Waligora, James M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of different rates of ascent on the incidence of altitude decompression sickness (DCS) was analyzed by a retrospective study on 14,123 man-flights involving direct ascent up to 38,000 ft altitude. The data were classified on the basis of altitude attained, denitrogenation at ground level, duration of stay at altitude, rest or exercise while at altitude, frequency of exercise at altitude, and ascent rates. This database was further divided on the basis of ascent rates into different groups from 1000 ft/min up to 53,000 ft/min. The database was analyzed using multiple correlation and regression methods, and the results of the analysis reveal that ascent rates influence the incidence of DCS in combination with the various factors mentioned above. Rate of ascent was not a significant predictor of DCS and showed a low, but significant multiple correlation (R=0.31) with the above factors. Further, the effects of rates below 2500 ft/min are significantly different from that of rates above 2500 ft/min on the incidence of symptoms (P=0.03) and forced descent (P=0.01). At rates above 2500 ft/min and up to 53,000 ft/min, the effects of ascent rates are not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) in the population examined while the effects of rates below 2500 ft/min are not clear.

  9. 39 CFR 3010.12 - Contents of notice of rate adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be developed from the most recent applicable Commission approved analytical principles. Effective... text, (b)(4), and (e), redesignating paragraphs (b)(9) and (10) as (b)(11) and (12) respectively, and... added and revised text is set forth as follows: § 3010.12 Contents of notice of rate adjustment. (a)...

  10. 76 FR 55139 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates I. Background The... includes the data used by the Commission in making its ``baseline estimate of the aggregate...

  11. 78 FR 54934 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates I. Background The... includes the data used by the Commission in making its ``baseline estimate of the aggregate...

  12. 77 FR 55240 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates I. Background The... Commission in making its ``baseline estimate of the aggregate maximum offering price'' for fiscal year...

  13. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... include any allowance for any increased cost for which adjustment is being requested. (c) The Contracting... be limited to increases or decreases in wages and fringe benefits as described in paragraph (c) of... DBA craft New WD Hourly rate paid Diff. Actual hrs. Actual units (sq. yard) Increase/sq. yard...

  14. 76 FR 590 - Adjustment or Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Making and Distributing Phonorecords

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ..., starting in the year 2006. A proceeding was commenced in 2006, 71 FR 1454 (January 9, 2006); on ] January... FR 4510 (January 26, 2009). Thus, in accordance with section 804(b)(4), a party may file a petition... Copyright Royalty Board Adjustment or Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Making and...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.323 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with a rate range adjustment. 9701.323 Section 9701.323 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.323 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a rate range adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with a rate range adjustment. 9701.323 Section 9701.323 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting...

  17. ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDING EQUIPMENT FOR SWIMMING POOLS. NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION STANDARD NUMBER 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    THE SCOPE OF THIS STANDARD COVERS ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT RATE CHEMICAL FEEDERS, WHETHER USED FOR SOLUTIONS, SLURRIES OR SOLIDS. IT ALSO INCLUDES AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT SUCH AS PUMPS, STRAINERS, TUBING CONNECTIONS, TANKS, INJECTION FITTINGS AND OTHER REQUIRED COMPONENTS. THE FEEDERS DESCRIBED ARE INTENDED TO BE DESIGNED AND USED SPECIFICALLY FOR CHEMICAL…

  18. Incidence Rate of Needlestick and Sharps Injuries in 67 Japanese Hospitals: A National Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Toru; Wada, Koji; Lee, Jong Ja; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Kidouchi, Kiyoshi; Kurosu, Hitomi; Morisawa, Yuji; Aminaka, Mayumi; Okubo, Takashi; Kimura, Satoshi; Moriya, Kyoji

    2013-01-01

    Background Determining incidence rates of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs) using data from multiple hospitals may help hospitals to compare their in-house data with national averages and thereby institute relevant measures to minimize NSIs. We aimed to determine the incidence rate of NSIs using the nationwide EPINet surveillance system. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were analyzed from 5,463 cases collected between April 2009 and March 2011 from 67 Japanese HIV/AIDS referral hospitals that participated in EPINet-Japan. The NSI incidence rate was calculated as the annual number of cases with NSIs per 100 occupied beds, according to the demographic characteristics of the injured person, place, timing, device, and the patients’ infectious status. The NSI incidence rates according to hospital size were analyzed by a non-parametric test of trend. The mean number of cases with NSIs per 100 occupied beds per year was 4.8 (95% confidence interval, 4.1–5.6) for 25 hospitals with 399 or fewer beds, 6.7 (5.9–7.4) for 24 hospitals with 400–799 beds, and 7.6 (6.7–8.5) for 18 hospitals with 800 or more beds (p-trend<0.01). NSIs frequently occurred in health care workers in their 20 s; the NSI incidence rate for this age group was 2.1 (1.6–2.5) for hospitals having 399 or fewer beds, 3.5 (3.0–4.1) for hospitals with 400–799 beds, and 4.5 (3.9–5.0) for hospitals with 800 or more beds (p-trend<0.01). Conclusions/Significance The incidence rate of NSIs tended to be higher for larger hospitals and in workers aged less than 40 years; injury occurrence was more likely to occur in places such as patient rooms and operating rooms. Application of the NSI incidence rates by hospital size, as a benchmark, could allow individual hospitals to compare their NSI incidence rates with those of other institutions, which could facilitate the development of adequate control strategies. PMID:24204856

  19. Parenting stress and external stressors as predictors of maternal ratings of child adjustment.

    PubMed

    Ostberg, Monica; Hagekull, Berit

    2013-06-01

    This study sought to disentangle the effects of different kinds of stress on maternal ratings of child externalizing and internalizing problems, social inhibition, and social competence, with a primary focus on parenting stress. The relations were explored in a sample consisting of mothers of 436 children (Mage  = 7 years) in Sweden. Half the sample had had early clinical contacts during infancy due to child regulation problems, and the rest were mothers without known such early contacts. Demographic factors, family stressors, and parenting stress were examined in stress - adjustment models. Family stressors were clinical contact during infancy, current child and parent health problems, recent negative life events, and insufficient social support. Parenting stress as a mediator of the effect of other stressors on rated child adjustment was tested as was social support as a moderator of the effect of parenting stress on adjustment. The results showed that a higher parenting stress level was associated with maternal ratings of more externalizing and internalizing behaviors, more social inhibition, and lower social competence. Other family stressors and background variables were also found to be of importance, mainly for externalizing and internalizing problems and to some extent for social competence. Social inhibition had a unique relation to parenting stress only. Parenting stress mediated effects of other stressors in twelve models, whereas social support had no moderating effect on the link between parenting stress and child adjustment. Thus, parenting stress seems to be an important overarching construct. Clinical implications are proposed.

  20. What is the relationship between ultraviolet B and global incidence rates of colorectal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Raphael E.; Mohr, Sharif B.; Gorham, Edward D.; Garland, Cedric F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between ultraviolet B and global incidence of colorectal cancer, while controlling for relevant covariates. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between latitude and incidence rates of colon cancer in 173 countries. Multiple linear regression was employed to investigate the relationship between ultraviolet B dose and colorectal cancer rates while controlling for per capita intake of energy from animal sources, per capita health expenditure, pigmentation, and life expectancy. Data on all variables were available for 139 countries. Incidence of colon cancer was highest in countries distant from the equator (R2 = 0.50, p < 0.0001). UV B dose (p < 0.0001) was independently, inversely associated with incidence rates of colorectal cancer after controlling for intake of energy from animal sources, per capita health expenditure, pigmentation, and life expectancy (R2 for overall model = 0.76, p < 0.0001). Consistent with previous research, UVB was inversely associated with incidence of colon cancer. Further research on vitamin D and prevention of colon cancer in individuals should be conducted, including studies of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations than have been studied to date. PMID:24494052

  1. Trends in Stage-Specific Incidence Rates for Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder in the United States: 1988 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Matthew E.; Smith, Angela B.; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Tyree, Seth; Kim, William Y.; Milowsky, Matthew I.; Pruthi, Raj S.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is notable for a striking heterogeneity of disease-specific risks. Among the approximately 75% of incident cases found to be superficial to the muscularis propria at the time of presentation (non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer), the risk of progression to the lethal phenotype of muscle-invasive disease is strongly associated with stage and grade of disease. Given the suggestion of an increasing percentage of low-risk cases in hospital-based registry data in recent years, the authors hypothesized that population-based data may reveal changes in the stage distribution of early-stage cases. METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data were used to examine trends for the stage-specific incidence of bladder cancer between 1988 and 2006, adjusted for age, race, and sex, using Joinpoint and nonparametric tests. RESULTS: The adjusted incidence rate of papillary noninvasive (Ta) predominantly low grade (77%) disease was found to increase from 5.52 to 9.09 per 100,000 population (P <.0001), with an average annual percentage change of +3.3. Over the same period, concomitant, albeit smaller, decreases were observed for flat in situ (Tis) and lamina propria-invasive (T1) disease (2.57 to 1.19 and 6.65 to 4.61 per 100,000 population [both P <.0001]; average annual percent change of −5.0 and −1.6, respectively). The trend was most dramatic among patients in the oldest age strata, suggesting a previously unappreciated cohort phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study should motivate further epidemiological investigations of differential associations of genetic and environmental factors with different bladder cancer phenotypes as well as further scrutiny of clinical practice guideline recommendations for the growing subgroup of predominantly older patients with lower-risk disease. PMID:24122346

  2. AgeStandardized Incidence Rates and Survival of Osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Daoprasert, Karnchana; Teeyakasem, Pimpisa; Chaiyawat, Parunya; Katruang, Narisara; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent worldwide average incidences of osteosarcoma in people aged 0 to 24 years were 4.3 and 3.4 per million, respectively, with a ratio of 1.4:1. However, data on the incidence of osteosarcoma in Thailand are limited. This study analyzed the incidence of osteosarcoma in the upper northern region of Thailand, with a population of 5.85 million people (8.9% of the total Thai population), using data for the years 1998 to 2012, obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry (CMCR) at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Lampang Cancer Registry (LCR) at the Lampang Cancer Hospital, a total of 144 cases. The overall annual incidence of osteosarcoma was 1.67 per million with a male:female ratio of 1.36:1. Incidences by age group (male and female) at 0 to 24, 25 to 59 and over 60 years were 3.5 (3.9 and 3.0), 0.8 (0.9 and 0.6), and 0.7 (0.8 and 0.5), respectively. The peak incidence occurred at 15 to 19 years for males and at 10 to 14 years for females. The median survival time was 18 months with a 5year survival rate of 43%. Neither the age group nor the 5year interval period of treatment was significantly correlated with survival during the 15year period studied. PMID:27509991

  3. Prevalence and Incidence Rates of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment No Dementia in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Mejia-Arango, Silvia; Gutierrez, Luis Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) in the Mexican population. Methods The MHAS study is a prospective panel study of health and aging in Mexico with 7,000 elders that represent 8 million subjects nationally. Using measurements of cognition and activities of daily living of dementia cases and CIND were identified at baseline and follow up. Overall incidence rates and specific rates for sex, age and education were calculated. Results Prevalence was 6.1% and 28.7% for dementia and CIND, respectively. Incidence rates were 27.3 per 1,000 person-years for dementia and 223 per 1,000 persons-year for CIND. Rates of dementia and CIND increased with advancing age and decreased with higher educational level; sex had a differential effect depending on the age strata. Hypertension, diabetes and depression were risk factors for dementia but not for CIND. Discussion These data provide estimates of prevalence and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment in the Mexican population for projection of future burden. PMID:21948770

  4. Progress estimating incidence rates of tumors and deformities in St. Louis River white sucker

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC) was listed for the Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) of Fish Tumors and Other Deformities without the benefit of histological information. Information on the fish tumor incidence rate is important for the future removal of the BUI. Two year...

  5. The global burden of injury: incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and time trends from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013

    PubMed Central

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Graetz, Nicholas; Bolliger, Ian; Naghavi, Mohsen; Higashi, Hideki; Mullany, Erin C; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Adofo, Koranteng; Alsharif, Ubai; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Barrero, Lope H; Bekele, Tolesa; Bose, Dipan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Derrett, Sarah; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Petrovich Ermakov, Sergey; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L; Gabbe, Belinda; Gosselin, Richard A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hijar, Martha; Hu, Guoqing; Jayaraman, Sudha P; Jiang, Guohong; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Chanda; Lecky, Fiona E; Leung, Ricky; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Majdan, Marek; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Meaney, Peter A; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Miller, Ted R; Mock, Charles N; Norman, Rosana E; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Refaat, Amany; Rojas-Rueda, David; Roy, Nobhojit; Schwebel, David C; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Skirbekk, Vegard; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Stein, Dan J; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Theadom, Alice M; Tran, Bach Xuan; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vavilala, Monica S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990 to 2013 for 26 causes of injury, globally, by region and by country. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the extensive GBD mortality database, corrections for ill-defined cause of death and the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on inpatient and outpatient data sets, 26 cause-of-injury and 47 nature-of-injury categories, and seven follow-up studies with patient-reported long-term outcome measures. Results In 2013, 973 million (uncertainty interval (UI) 942 to 993) people sustained injuries that warranted some type of healthcare and 4.8 million (UI 4.5 to 5.1) people died from injuries. Between 1990 and 2013 the global age-standardised injury DALY rate decreased by 31% (UI 26% to 35%). The rate of decline in DALY rates was significant for 22 cause-of-injury categories, including all the major injuries. Conclusions Injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. The decline in rates for almost all injuries is so prominent that it warrants a general statement that the world is becoming a safer place to live in. However, the patterns vary widely by cause, age, sex, region and time and there are still large improvements that need to be made. PMID:26635210

  6. Trends in the Incidence Rates of Chronic Hepatitis B in Poland in the Years 2005 - 2013

    PubMed Central

    Stawinska-Witoszynska, Barbara; Zysnarska, Monika; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Wojtyła-Buciorab, Paulina; Krzyzaniak, Alicja; Wieckowska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of newly-diagnosed cases of chronic hepatitis is decisive for the overall incidence rate of hepatitis B observed in Poland. Objectives We aimed to determine the chronic hepatitis B incidence trends in Poland, taking into consideration the ages, genders, and environments of the patients. Methods The study is based on aggregated data from Polish descriptive epidemiological studies for the period of 2005 to 2013 (i.e., hepatitis B incidence numbers and ratios, including mixed HBV and HCV infections) as published in the annual bulletins Choroby zakazne i zatrucia w Polsce (Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland] drawn up by the laboratory for the monitoring and analysis of epidemiological status of the department of epidemiology at the national institute of public health - national institute of hygiene (NIPH-NIH). Poland, a central European country situated in the humid continental climate zone, is classified as a highly developed country. In the analyzed period, the Polish population consisted of about 38 million people, more than 19 million of whom were women, and more than 18 million of whom were men. Among European countries, Poland has the smallest number of national and ethnic minorities. For the purposes of epidemiological supervision, a special definition of acute hepatitis B was adopted in Poland in 2005, which facilitated separate registration of acute and chronic cases. Results A significantly increasing chronic hepatitis B incidence trend was observed in the population of Poland, with considerable increases in incidence rates for both men and women alike. The incidence rates for inhabitants of both urban and rural areas also showed an increasing tendency. Chronic hepatitis B occurred more frequently in men and in urban areas. For each of the five-year age groups encompassing patients between 20 and 54 years of age, the increase in the incidence rate proved to be significant. Conclusions The registered increase in the

  7. Use of a claims database to characterize and estimate the incidence rate for Castleman disease.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Nikhil; Mehra, Maneesha; van de Velde, Helgi; Desai, Avinash; Potluri, Ravi; Vermeulen, Jessica

    2015-05-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder affecting single (unicentric; UCD) or multiple (multicentric; MCD) lymph nodes. The incidence of this difficult to diagnose disease is poorly understood, as no International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code is available. This study utilized a unique strategy to estimate its incidence using two commercial claims databases, IMS LifeLink™ and Truven Health Analytics MarketScan(®). Patients with an index diagnosis of lymphadenopathy (ICD-9 code 785.6) were followed longitudinally for 1 year prior to and 2 years post-index diagnosis date. An algorithm that identifies potential patients with CD was developed to determine the incidence rate in person-years. The incidence rate for CD was calculated as 21 (IMS LifeLink™) and 25 (MarketScan(®)) per million person-years. Additionally, 23% of patients with CD were identified as potentially suffering from MCD. These results are consistent with the definition of an orphan disease, and the low incidence of the disease estimated in the literature.

  8. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  9. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  10. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  11. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  12. 25 CFR 175.13 - Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost of purchased power...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Service Fees, Electric Power Rates and Revenues § 175.13 Procedures for adjusting electric power rates to reflect changes in the cost...

  13. Age-standardized incidence rates of primordial cyst (keratocyst) on the Witwatersrand.

    PubMed

    Rachanis, C C; Shear, M

    1978-11-01

    Cases of primordial cysts derived from the records of all the hospital pathology departments and private pathology practices on the Witwatersrand, were recorded for the 10-year period 1965-74. The population at risk (1970 census) was 974,390 Whites and 1,567,280 Blacks. Age-specific morbidity rates for each sex and race were calculated, as well as age-standardized incidence rates standardized against African, World and European standard populations. The age-standardized incidence rates for primordial cysts, standardized against a World standard population, per million per year are 0.61, 0, 4.86 and 3.50 for Black males and females and White males and females, respectively. In the population at risk, primordial cysts are much more common in Whites than in Blacks, the incidence being eight times higher in White males than in Black males. The present study confirms that there is a bimodal age distribution but with a higher incidence of the cyst in the age group 50-64 years than previously suspected. This may be either because a substantial number of cases remain undiagnosed for many years or because there are two groups of primordial cyst: one which is triggered in young patients and the other in older patients.

  14. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  15. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  16. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nguyen Xuan; Sheingold, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share hospital (DSH) adjustments to Medicare's prospective payment rates for inpatient services are generally intended to compensate hospitals for patient care costs related to teaching activities and care of low income populations. These adjustments were originally established based on the statistical relationships between IME and DSH and hospital costs. Due to a variety of policy considerations, the legislated levels of these adjustments may have deviated over time from these “empirically justified levels,” or simply, “empirical levels.” In this paper, we estimate the empirical levels of IME and DSH using 2006 hospital data and 2009 Medicare final payment rules. Our analyses suggest that the empirical level for IME would be much smaller than under current law— about one-third to one-half. Our analyses also support the DSH adjustment prescribed by the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA)—about one-quarter of the pre-ACA level. For IME, the estimates imply an increase in costs of 1.88% for each 10% increase in teaching intensity. For DSH, the estimates imply that costs would rise by 0.52% for each 10% increase in the low-income patient share for large urban hospitals. PMID:22340777

  17. A Multicountry Ecological Study of Cancer Incidence Rates in 2008 with Respect to Various Risk-Modifying Factors

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William B.

    2013-01-01

    Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data) in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking), and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses). The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer), energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two), latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three), and per capita gross national product (five types). Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15–25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer. PMID:24379012

  18. Effect of cardiovascular prevention strategies on incident coronary disease hospitalisation rates in Spain; an ecological time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, María José; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Ortíz, Cristina; Galán, Iñaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the overall population impact of primary prevention strategies (promotion of healthy lifestyles, prevention of smoking and use of vascular risk drug therapy) of coronary disease in Spain. Design Ecological time series analysis, 1982–2009. Setting All public and private hospitals in Spain. Participants General population. Outcome Incident coronary disease hospitalisation as derived from official hospital discharge data. Methods Annual hospitalisation rates were modelled according to nationwide use of statins, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and antiplatelet drugs, and prevalences of smoking, obesity and overweight. Additive generalised models and mixed Poisson regression models were used for the purpose, taking year as the random-effect variable and adjusting for age, sex, prevalence of vascular risk factors and the number of hospital beds in intensive and coronary care units. Results Across 28 years and 671.5 million person-years of observation, there were 2 986 834 hospitalisations due to coronary disease; of these, 1 441 980 (48.28%) were classified as incident. Hospitalisation rates increased from 1982 to 1996, with an inflection point in 1997 and a subsequent 52% decrease until 2009. Prevalences of smoking, obesity, overweight and use of vascular risk drug therapy were significantly associated with hospitalisation rates (p<0.001): incidence rates ratios (95% CI) for the fourth versus the first quartile were 1.46 (1.42 to 1.50), 1.80 (1.78 to 1.83), 1.58 (1.55 to 1.60) and 0.57 (0.51 to 0.63), respectively. These variables accounted for 92% of interannual variability. Conclusions After decades of continuous rises, hospitalisation due to incident ischaemic heart disease has been cut by half, an achievement associated with the decline in smoking and the increase in vascular risk drug therapy. These results indicate that these two primary prevention strategies have been effective at a population level, thanks to an appropriate balance

  19. p53 mutations associated with aging-related rise in cancer incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Richard B

    2013-08-01

    TP53's role as guardian of the genome diminishes with age, as the probability of mutation increases. Previous studies have shown an association between p53 gene mutations and cancer. However, the role of somatic TP53 mutations in the steep rise in cancer rates with aging has not been investigated at a population level. This relationship was quantified using the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) TP53 and GLOBOCAN cancer databases. The power function exponent of the cancer rate was calculated for 5-y age-standardized incidence or mortality rates for up to 25 cancer sites occurring in adults of median age 42 to 72 y. Linear regression analysis of the mean percentage of a cancer's TP53 mutations and the corresponding cancer exponent was conducted for four populations: worldwide, Japan, Western Europe, and the United States. Significant associations (P ≤ 0.05) were found for incidence rates but not mortality rates. Regardless of the population studied, positive associations were found for all cancer sites, with more significant associations for solid tumors, excluding the outlier prostate cancer or sex-related tumors. Worldwide and Japanese populations yielded P values as low as 0.002 and 0.005, respectively. For the United States, a significant association was apparent only when analysis utilized the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. This study found that TP53 mutations accounts for approximately one-quarter and one-third of the aging-related rise in the worldwide and Japanese incidence of all cancers, respectively. These significant associations between TP53 mutations and the rapid rise in cancer incidence with aging, considered with previously published literature, support a causal role for TP53 according to the Bradford-Hill criteria. However, questions remain concerning the contribution of TP53 mutations to neoplastic development and the role of factors such as genetic instability, obesity, and gene deficiencies other

  20. 39 CFR 3010.13 - Proceedings for Type 1-A and Type 1-B rate adjustment filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements of 39 U.S.C. chapter 36, subchapter 1: (1) Whether the planned rate adjustments measured using the... an order announcing its findings. (h) If the planned rate adjustments as amended are found to be... 39 U.S.C. chapter 36, subchapter 1 is provisional and subject to subsequent review....

  1. 39 CFR 3010.13 - Proceedings for Type 1-A and Type 1-B rate adjustment filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of 39 U.S.C. chapter 36, subchapter 1: (1) Whether the planned rate adjustments measured using the... an order announcing its findings. (h) If the planned rate adjustments as amended are found to be... 39 U.S.C. chapter 36, subchapter 1 is provisional and subject to subsequent review....

  2. The Epidemiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prevalence and Incident Rates.

    PubMed

    Egan, Kathryn Brigham

    2016-08-01

    This article assesses the reported prevalence and incidence rates for benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) by age, symptom severity, and race/ethnicity. BPH/LUTS prevalence and incidence rates increase with increasing age and vary by symptom severity. The BPH/LUTS relationship is complex due to several factors. This contributes to the range of reported estimates and difficulties in drawing epidemiologic comparisons. Cultural, psychosocial, economic, and/or disease awareness and diagnosis factors may influence medical care access, symptom reporting and help-seeking behaviors among men with BPH/LUTS. However, these factors and their epidemiologic association with BPH/LUTS have not been thoroughly investigated. PMID:27476122

  3. Total-body irradiation and cataract incidence: A randomized comparison of two instantaneous dose rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ozsahin, M.; Belkacemi, Y.; Pene, F.; Dominique, C.; Schwartz, L.H.; Uzal, C.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Gindrey-Vie, B.; Vitu-Loas, L.; Touboul, E. )

    1994-01-15

    To assess the influence of instantaneous total-body irradiation dose rate in hematological malignancies, the authors randomized 157 patients according to different instantaneous dose rates. Patients have undergone a total-body irradiation before bone-marrow transplantation according to two different techniques: Either in one fraction (1000 cGy given to the midplane at the level of L4, and 800 cGy to the lungs) or in six fractions (1200 cGy over 3 consecutive days to the midplane at the level of L4, and 900 cGy to the lungs). Patients were randomized according to two instantaneous dose rates, called LOW and HIGH, in single-dose (6 vs. 15 cGy/min) and fractionated (3 vs. 6 cGy/min) TBI groups; there were 77 cases for the LOW and 80 for the HIGH groups, with 57 patients receiving single-dose (28 LOW, 29 HIGH) and 100 patients receiving fractionated total-body irradiation (49 LOW, 51 HIGH). As of July 1992, 16 of 157 patients developed cataracts after 17 to 46 months, with an estimated incidence of 23% at 5 years. Four of 77 patients in the LOW group, 12 of 80 patients in the HIGH group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 12% and 34%, respectively. Ten of 57 patients in the single-dose group, and 6 of 100 patients in the fractionated group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 39% and 13%, respectively. When the subgroups were considered, in the single-dose group, 3 of 28 LOW patients, and 7 of 29 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 24% and 53%, respectively; in the fractionated group, 1 of 49 LOW patients, and 5 of 51 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 4% and 22%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of 5-year estimated cataract incidence between the patients receiving steroids and those not. The instantaneous dose rate was the only independent factor influencing the cataractogenesis. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Measurement of a drowning incidence rate combining direct observation of an exposed population with mortality statistics.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Damian; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Drowning risk factors may be identified by comparing drowning incidence rates for comparable at-risk populations but precise methods are lacking. To address this knowledge gap, an ecological study extrapolated crude time-duration exposure to water for a specified at-risk sample of surf bathers to estimate the bather population for all wave-dominated beaches in Victoria, Australia, over a four-year summer season period. An incidence rate was calculated using surf bather drowning deaths frequencies matched for time and location. For the sample, 47,341 hours of surf bathing were estimated from 177,528 bathing episodes. Generalising these results to Victoria, the crude drowning deaths incidence rate in the summer season was 0.41 per 1,000,000 person-hours of surf bathing (95% CI 0.37-0.45). Further application of the method, particularly in open water settings, may be used to identify candidate drowning risk factors to advance drowning prevention strategies.

  5. The Relationship Between Monthdisease Incidence Rate and Climatic Factor of Classical Swine Fever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbin; Xu, Danning; Xiao, Jianhua; Zhang, Ru; Dong, Jing

    The Swine Fever is a kind of acute, highly infective epidemic disease of animals; it is name as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) by World animal Health organization. Meteorological factors such as temperature, air pressure and rainfall affect the epidemic of CSF significantly through intermediary agent and CSF viral directly. However there is significant difference among different region for mode of effects. Accordingly, the analyze must adopt different methods. The dependability between incidence rate each month of CSF and meteorological factors from 1999 to 2004 was analyzed in this paper. The function of meteorological factors on CSF was explored and internal law was expected to be discovered. The correlation between the incidence rate of Swine Fever and meteorological factors, thus the foundation analysis of the early warning and the decision-making was made, the result indicated that the incidence rate of CSF has negative correlation with temperature, rainfall, cloudage; relative humidity has positive correlation with disease; for air pressure, except average air pressure of one month, other air pressure factors have positive correlation with disease; for wind speed, except Difference among moths of wind speed and average temperature of one month. have positive correlation with disease, other wind speed factors has negative correlation with disease.

  6. The efficacy of 0.75% bupivacaine with pH adjustment and hyaluronidase for peribulbar blockade: the incidence of prolonged ptosis.

    PubMed

    Mather, C; Smith, J H; Bloom, P A

    1994-01-01

    A prospective, double masked, randomised study was performed to compare the speed of onset of peribulbar anaesthesia using pH adjusted 0.75% bupivacaine, with and without the addition of hyaluronidase. No significant difference in speed of onset occurred due to the addition of hyaluronidase. There were 7 cases of post operative ptosis in the study group, including 1 case of orbital apex syndrome and 2 cases of transient 3rd nerve palsy. This incidence of post operative ptosis using pH adjusted 0.75% bupivacaine was statistically significantly greater than in a matched control group who received a 50:50 mixture of 1% lignocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine with hyaluronidase (p < 0.05). The possible causes of this increased incidence of post operative ptosis are discussed.

  7. The efficacy of 0.75% bupivacaine with pH adjustment and hyaluronidase for peribulbar blockade: the incidence of prolonged ptosis.

    PubMed

    Mather, C; Smith, J H; Bloom, P A

    1994-01-01

    A prospective, double masked, randomised study was performed to compare the speed of onset of peribulbar anaesthesia using pH adjusted 0.75% bupivacaine, with and without the addition of hyaluronidase. No significant difference in speed of onset occurred due to the addition of hyaluronidase. There were 7 cases of post operative ptosis in the study group, including 1 case of orbital apex syndrome and 2 cases of transient 3rd nerve palsy. This incidence of post operative ptosis using pH adjusted 0.75% bupivacaine was statistically significantly greater than in a matched control group who received a 50:50 mixture of 1% lignocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine with hyaluronidase (p < 0.05). The possible causes of this increased incidence of post operative ptosis are discussed. PMID:8019117

  8. Adjustable high-repetition-rate pulse trains in a passively-mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Fodil, Rachid; Amrani, Foued; Yang, Changxi; Kellou, Abdelhamid; Grelu, Ph.

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally investigate multipulse regimes obtained within a passively-mode-locked fiber laser that includes a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer. By adjusting the time delay imbalance of the MZ, ultrashort pulse trains at multi-GHz repetition rates are generated. We compare the observed dynamics with high-harmonic mode locking, and show that the multi-GHz pulse trains display an inherent instability, which has been overlooked. By using a recirculation loop containing the MZ, we demonstrate a significant improvement of the pulse train stability.

  9. [Incidence rate of adverse reaction/event by Qingkailing injection: a Meta-analysis of single rate].

    PubMed

    Ai, Chun-ling; Xie, Yan-ming; Li, Ming-quan; Wang, Lian-xin; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    To systematically review the incidence rate of adverse drug reaction/event by Qingkailing injection. Such databases as the PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, VIP WanFang data and CBM were searched by computer from foundation to July 30, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and cross check data. Then, Meta-analysis was performed by using the R 3.2.0 software, subgroup sensitivity analysis was performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and research quality. Sixty-three studies involving 9,793 patients with Qingkailing injection were included, 367 cases of adverse reactions/events were reported in total. The incidence rate of adverse reaction in skin and mucosa group was 2% [95% CI (0.02; 0.03)]; the digestive system adverse reaction was 6% [95% CI(0.05; 0.07); the injection site adverse reaction was 4% [95% CI (0.02; 0.07)]. In the digestive system as the main types of adverse reactions/events, incidence of children and adults were 4.6% [0.021 1; 0.097 7] and 6.9% [0.053 5; 0.089 8], respectively. Adverse reactions to skin and mucous membrane damage as the main performance/event type, the observation time > 7 days and ≤ 7 days incidence of 3% [0.012 9; 0.068 3] and 1.9% [0.007 8; 0.046 1], respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that different types of adverse reactions, combination in the incidence of adverse reactions/events were higher than that of single drug, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). This study suggested the influence factors of adverse reactions occur, and clinical rational drug use, such as combination, age and other fators, and the influence factors vary in different populations. Therefore, clinical doctors for children and the elderly use special care was required for a clear and open spirit injection, the implementation of individualized medication.

  10. [Incidence rate of adverse reaction/event by Qingkailing injection: a Meta-analysis of single rate].

    PubMed

    Ai, Chun-ling; Xie, Yan-ming; Li, Ming-quan; Wang, Lian-xin; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    To systematically review the incidence rate of adverse drug reaction/event by Qingkailing injection. Such databases as the PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, VIP WanFang data and CBM were searched by computer from foundation to July 30, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and cross check data. Then, Meta-analysis was performed by using the R 3.2.0 software, subgroup sensitivity analysis was performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and research quality. Sixty-three studies involving 9,793 patients with Qingkailing injection were included, 367 cases of adverse reactions/events were reported in total. The incidence rate of adverse reaction in skin and mucosa group was 2% [95% CI (0.02; 0.03)]; the digestive system adverse reaction was 6% [95% CI(0.05; 0.07); the injection site adverse reaction was 4% [95% CI (0.02; 0.07)]. In the digestive system as the main types of adverse reactions/events, incidence of children and adults were 4.6% [0.021 1; 0.097 7] and 6.9% [0.053 5; 0.089 8], respectively. Adverse reactions to skin and mucous membrane damage as the main performance/event type, the observation time > 7 days and ≤ 7 days incidence of 3% [0.012 9; 0.068 3] and 1.9% [0.007 8; 0.046 1], respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that different types of adverse reactions, combination in the incidence of adverse reactions/events were higher than that of single drug, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). This study suggested the influence factors of adverse reactions occur, and clinical rational drug use, such as combination, age and other fators, and the influence factors vary in different populations. Therefore, clinical doctors for children and the elderly use special care was required for a clear and open spirit injection, the implementation of individualized medication. PMID:27245021

  11. Estimation of incidence and recovery rates of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia from longitudinal data

    PubMed Central

    Bekessy, A.; Molineaux, L.; Storey, J.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of estimating the malaria incidence rate ĥ and the recovery rate r from longitudinal data. The method is based on the assumption that the phenomenon of patent parasitaemia can be represented by a reversible two-state catalytic model; it is applicable to all problems that can be represented by such a model. The method was applied to data on falciparum malaria from the West African savanna and the findings suggested that immunity increases the rate of recovery from patent parasitaemia by a factor of up to 10, and also reduces the number of episodes of patent parasitaemia resulting from one inoculation. Under the effect of propoxur, ĥ varies with the estimated man-biting rate of the vector while r̂ increases, possibly owing to reduced super-infection. PMID:800968

  12. The evolution of HPV-related anogenital cancers reported in Quebec - incidence rates and survival probabilities.

    PubMed

    Louchini, R; Goggin, P; Steben, M

    2008-01-01

    Non-cervical anogenital cancers (i.e. anal, vulvar, vaginal and penile cancers) associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV), for which HPV is known to be the necessary cause of carcinogenesis, are poorly documented due to their relatively low incidence rate. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence rates of these cancers between 1984 and 2001, and their relative survival probabilities, in Quebec (Canada) between 1984 and 1998. The incidence of these cancers is on the rise, particularly anal cancer in women and, more recently (since 1993-95), vulvar cancer. Between 1984-86 and 1993-95, the 5-year relative survival probability for men with anal cancer decreased from 57% to 46%, while that for penile cancer dropped from 75% to 59%. However, during the same period, the 5-year relative survival probability for women with anal cancer rose from 56% to 65%, and remained stable for cervical and vulvar cancers, at 74% and 82%, respectively. PMID:18341764

  13. High Repetition Rate Grazing Incidence Pumped X-ray Laser operating at 18.9 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, R; Dunn, J; Patel, P K; Price, D F; Smith, R F; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2004-05-11

    We have demonstrated a 10 Hz Ni-like Mo X-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm with 150 mJ total pump energy by employing a novel pumping scheme. The grazing incidence scheme is described, where a picosecond pulse is incident at a grazing angle to a Mo plasma column produced by a slab target irradiated by a 200 ps laser pulse. This scheme uses refraction of the short pulse at a pre-determined electron density to increase absorption to pump a specific gain region. The high efficiency inherent to this scheme allows a reduction in the pump energy where 70 mJ long pulse energy and 80 mJ short pulse energy are sufficient to produce lasing at a 10 Hz repetition rate. Under these conditions and by optimizing the delay between the pulses, we achieve strong amplification and saturation for 4 mm long targets.

  14. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Eckmanns, Tim; Abu Sin, Muna; Ducomble, Tanja; Harder, Thomas; Sixtensson, Madlen; Velasco, Edward; Weiß, Bettina; Kramarz, Piotr; Monnet, Dominique L.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.; Suetens, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011–2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs. Methods and Findings The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP), healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI), healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI). The burden of these HAIs was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Evidence relating to the disease progression pathway of each type of HAI was collected through systematic literature reviews, in order to estimate the risks attributable to HAIs. For each of the six HAIs, gender and age group prevalence from the ECDC PPS was converted into incidence rates by applying the Rhame and Sudderth formula. We adjusted for reduced life expectancy within the hospital population using three severity groups based on McCabe score data from the ECDC PPS. We estimated that 2,609,911 new cases of HAI occur every year in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA). The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was estimated at 501 DALYs per 100,000 general population each year in EU/EEA. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden and represented more than 60% of the total burden, with 169 and 145 DALYs per 100,000 total population, respectively. HA UTI, SSI, HA CDI, and HA primary BSI ranked as the third to sixth syndromes in terms of burden of disease

  15. Incidence and hospitalisation rates of Lyme borreliosis, France, 2004 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Vandenesch, A; Turbelin, C; Couturier, E; Arena, C; Jaulhac, B; Ferquel, E; Choumet, V; Saugeon, C; Coffinieres, E; Blanchon, T; Vaillant, V; Hanslik, T

    2014-08-28

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) has become a major concern recently, as trends in several epidemiological studies indicate that there has been an increase in this disease in Europe and America over the last decade. This work provides estimates of LB incidence and hospitalisation rates in France. LB data was obtained from the Sentinelles general practitioner surveillance network (2009–2012) and from the Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d’Information (PMSI) data processing centre for hospital discharges (2004–09). The yearly LB incidence rate averaged 42 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval (CI): 37–48), ranging from 0 to 184 per 100,000 depending on the region. The annual hospitalisation rate due to LB averaged 1.55 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI: 1.42–1.70). Both rates peaked during the summer and fall and had a bimodal age distribution (5–10 years and 50–70 years). Healthcare providers should continue to invest attention to prompt recognition and early therapy for LB, whereas public health strategies should keep promoting use of repellent, daily checks for ticks and their prompt removal. PMID:25188613

  16. Malaria Incidence Rates from Time Series of 2-Wave Panel Surveys.

    PubMed

    Castro, Marcia C; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H

    2016-08-01

    Methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from a commonly occurring form of interval-censored longitudinal parasitological data-specifically, 2-wave panel data-was first proposed 40 years ago based on the theory of continuous-time homogeneous Markov Chains. Assumptions of the methodology were suitable for settings with high malaria transmission in the absence of control measures, but are violated in areas experiencing fast decline or that have achieved very low transmission. No further developments that can accommodate such violations have been put forth since then. We extend previous work and propose a new methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from 2-wave panel data, utilizing the class of 2-component mixtures of continuous-time Markov chains, representing two sub-populations with distinct behavior/attitude towards malaria prevention and treatment. Model identification, or even partial identification, requires context-specific a priori constraints on parameters. The method can be applied to scenarios of any transmission intensity. We provide an application utilizing data from Dar es Salaam, an area that experienced steady decline in malaria over almost five years after a larviciding intervention. We conducted sensitivity analysis to account for possible sampling variation in input data and model assumptions/parameters, and we considered differences in estimates due to submicroscopic infections. Results showed that, assuming defensible a priori constraints on model parameters, most of the uncertainty in the estimated incidence rates was due to sampling variation, not to partial identifiability of the mixture model for the case at hand. Differences between microscopy- and PCR-based rates depend on the transmission intensity. Leveraging on a method to estimate incidence rates from 2-wave panel data under any transmission intensity, and from the increasing availability of such data, there is an opportunity to foster further methodological developments

  17. Malaria Incidence Rates from Time Series of 2-Wave Panel Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H.

    2016-01-01

    Methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from a commonly occurring form of interval-censored longitudinal parasitological data—specifically, 2-wave panel data—was first proposed 40 years ago based on the theory of continuous-time homogeneous Markov Chains. Assumptions of the methodology were suitable for settings with high malaria transmission in the absence of control measures, but are violated in areas experiencing fast decline or that have achieved very low transmission. No further developments that can accommodate such violations have been put forth since then. We extend previous work and propose a new methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from 2-wave panel data, utilizing the class of 2-component mixtures of continuous-time Markov chains, representing two sub-populations with distinct behavior/attitude towards malaria prevention and treatment. Model identification, or even partial identification, requires context-specific a priori constraints on parameters. The method can be applied to scenarios of any transmission intensity. We provide an application utilizing data from Dar es Salaam, an area that experienced steady decline in malaria over almost five years after a larviciding intervention. We conducted sensitivity analysis to account for possible sampling variation in input data and model assumptions/parameters, and we considered differences in estimates due to submicroscopic infections. Results showed that, assuming defensible a priori constraints on model parameters, most of the uncertainty in the estimated incidence rates was due to sampling variation, not to partial identifiability of the mixture model for the case at hand. Differences between microscopy- and PCR-based rates depend on the transmission intensity. Leveraging on a method to estimate incidence rates from 2-wave panel data under any transmission intensity, and from the increasing availability of such data, there is an opportunity to foster further methodological

  18. p53 mutations associated with aging-related rise in cancer incidence rates

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    TP53’s role as guardian of the genome diminishes with age, as the probability of mutation increases. Previous studies have shown an association between p53 gene mutations and cancer. However, the role of somatic TP53 mutations in the steep rise in cancer rates with aging has not been investigated at a population level. This relationship was quantified using the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) TP53 and GLOBOCAN cancer databases. The power function exponent of the cancer rate was calculated for 5-y age-standardized incidence or mortality rates for up to 25 cancer sites occurring in adults of median age 42 to 72 y. Linear regression analysis of the mean percentage of a cancer’s TP53 mutations and the corresponding cancer exponent was conducted for four populations: worldwide, Japan, Western Europe, and the United States. Significant associations (P ≤ 0.05) were found for incidence rates but not mortality rates. Regardless of the population studied, positive associations were found for all cancer sites, with more significant associations for solid tumors, excluding the outlier prostate cancer or sex-related tumors. Worldwide and Japanese populations yielded P values as low as 0.002 and 0.005, respectively. For the United States, a significant association was apparent only when analysis utilized the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. This study found that TP53 mutations accounts for approximately one-quarter and one-third of the aging-related rise in the worldwide and Japanese incidence of all cancers, respectively. These significant associations between TP53 mutations and the rapid rise in cancer incidence with aging, considered with previously published literature, support a causal role for TP53 according to the Bradford-Hill criteria. However, questions remain concerning the contribution of TP53 mutations to neoplastic development and the role of factors such as genetic instability, obesity, and gene deficiencies

  19. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  20. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  1. Achieving high bit rate logical stochastic resonance in a bistable system by adjusting parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Gu, Feng-Shou; Feng, Guo-Jin; Yang, Yong-Min; Ball, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The phenomenon of logical stochastic resonance (LSR) in a nonlinear bistable system is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments. However, the bit rates of the logical signals are relatively low and not suitable for practical applications. First, we examine the responses of the bistable system with fixed parameters to different bit rate logic input signals, showing that an arbitrary high bit rate LSR in a bistable system cannot be achieved. Then, a normalized transform of the LSR bistable system is introduced through a kind of variable substitution. Based on the transform, it is found that LSR for arbitrary high bit rate logic signals in a bistable system can be achieved by adjusting the parameters of the system, setting bias value and amplifying the amplitudes of logic input signals and noise properly. Finally, the desired OR and AND logic outputs to high bit rate logic inputs in a bistable system are obtained by numerical simulations. The study might provide higher feasibility of LSR in practical engineering applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51379526).

  2. 5 CFR 591.228 - How does OPM convert the price index plus adjustment factor to a COLA rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OPM convert the price index plus... Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.228 How does OPM convert the price index plus adjustment factor to a COLA rate? (a) OPM converts the price index plus the adjustment factor to a COLA...

  3. Prevalence and incidence rates of pressure ulcers in an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Dugaret, Elodie; Videau, Marie-Neige; Faure, Isabelle; Gabinski, Claude; Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Salles, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Older patients represent an increasing population in emergency department (ED) with underlying diseases and longer ED length of stay, which are potential risk factors of pressure ulcers (PUs). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and incidence rates of PUs in an Emergency Department and to analyse variables related to PUs occurrence. The study was carried out in the Emergency Department of Bordeaux (France), and included 602 patients from 1 to 15 June 2010. All the potential body sites of pressure were examined at admission and discharge for all the patients by trained nurses. Comorbidity score, list of treatment, length of stay (hours), PUs (including stage I) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level were systematically recorded. A total of 47 (7·8%) patients had prevalent PUs at admission and 74 (12·3%) at discharge. The cumulative incidence was 4·9% and the incidence density was 5·4 per 1000 patients per hour. In multivariate analysis, higher comorbidities (OR 1·3; P = 0·014) and CRP levels (OR 1·005; P = 0·017) were both independent risk factors for developing PU. In conclusion, these data show that even a very short stay to the ED is sufficient to induce PUs especially stage I.

  4. Age-standardized incidence rates of ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst on the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shear, M; Singh, S

    1978-07-01

    Although a great deal is known about the incidence of cancer, including oral cancer, no such study has been done on odontogenic tumors and jaw cysts. There are therefore no standardized data which would allow for comparative incidences in different countries and between different groups. In the present study, cases of ameloblastomas and dentigerous cysts derived from the records of all the hospital pathology departments and private pathology practices on the Witwatersrand, were recorded for the 10-year period 1965--1974. The population at risk (1970 census) was 974,390 Whites and 1,567,280 Blacks. The annual incidence rates, standardized against the standard world population, for ameloblastomas per million population are 1.96, 1.20, 0.18 and 0.44 for Black males, females and White males, females, respectively. The equivalent four figures for dentigerous cysts are 1.18, 1.22, 9.92 and 7.26. These figures show that ameloblastoma is very much more common in Blacks than Whites in the population at risk. Conversely, dentigerous cysts are much more common in Whites. This makes it unlikely that dentigerous cysts predispose to ameloblastoma formation. These epidemiologic observations give rise to speculation as to whether some component of the South African Black diet or other environmental substance might possibly be an etiologic factor in ameloblastoma.

  5. Incidence rates of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, growing attention has been given to the mental health of workers. One way to examine the mental health of workers is to look at the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence. There is a scarcity of literature in which the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence among different countries have been considered together. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to address the question: Are there similarities and differences in the incidence rates of mental disorder-related sickness absence among and within OECD identified Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American country categories? In this paper, we seek to identify differences and similarities in the literature rather than to explain them. With this review, we lay the groundwork for and point to areas for future research as well as to raise questions regarding reasons for the differences and similarities. Methods A systematic literature search of the following databases were performed: Medline Current, Medline In-process, PsycINFO, Econlit and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002–2013. The systematic literature search focused on working adults between 18–65 years old who had not retired and who had mental and/or substance abuse disorders. Intervention studies were excluded. The search focused on medically certified sickness absences. Results A total of 3,818 unique citations were identified. Of these, 10 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria; six were from Social Democratic countries. Their quality ranged from good to excellent. There was variation in the incidence rates reported by the studies from the Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American countries in this review. Conclusions The results of this systematic review suggest that this is an emerging area of inquiry that needs to continue to grow. Priority areas to support growth include cross jurisdictional collaboration and development of a typology

  6. The End of the Hysterectomy Epidemic and Endometrial Cancer Incidence: What Are the Unintended Consequences of Declining Hysterectomy Rates?

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, Sarah M.; Minasian, Lori; Noone, Anne-Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Population-level cancer incidence rates are one measure to estimate the cancer burden. The goal is to provide information on trends to measure progress against cancer at the population level and identify emerging patterns signifying increased risk for additional research and intervention. Endometrial cancer is the most common of the gynecologic malignancies but capturing the incidence of disease among women at risk (i.e., women with a uterus) is challenging and not routinely published. Decreasing rates of hysterectomy increase the number of women at risk for disease, which should be reflected in the denominator of the incidence rate calculation. Furthermore, hysterectomy rates vary within the United States by multiple factors including geographic location, race, and ethnicity. Changing rates of hysterectomy are important to consider when looking at endometrial cancer trends. By correcting for hysterectomy when calculating incidence rates of cancers of the uterine corpus, many of the disparities that have been assumed for this disease are diminished. PMID:27148481

  7. Behavior of heart rate and incidence of arrhythmia in swimming and diving.

    PubMed

    Jung, K; Stolle, W

    1981-01-01

    Heart rate behaviour and the incidence of arrhythmia were recorded in 29 young subjects aged between 16 and 20 years using radiotelemetry equipment. The study consisted of four regimens: 100m freestyle swimming with and without an aqualung, up to 50m under water swimming without a breathing apparatus (skin diving) and 100m under water swimming with an aqualung (scuba diving). In the course of the swimming experiments the heart rate tracing exhibits three phases, namely: (a) a sharp rise in the first 10 s; (b) a reduction in the rate of increase, and (c) a constant plateau at approximately 184 bpm without an aqualung and 168 bpm with an aqualung. During apnoeic diving there is a slight increase in heart rate, followed by a rapid drop (vasovagal diver's bradycardia) and finally a plateau at approximately 55 bpm. Diver's bradycardia does not occur when the diver uses an aqualung; the heart rates then correspond to those observed during swimming (maximal rate approximately 169 bpm). Cardiac arrhythmia occurred in 18 instances (3 each during swimming with and without a breathing apparatus, 5 during diving with an aqualung and 7 during diving without an aqualung). 15 were cases of supraventricular extrasystoles, 12 occurred in the plateau phase. A man with a thorough endurance training exhibited in addition to supraventricular extrasystoles a transient bigeminy, substitutive AV systoles and an electric alternans during diving without an aqualung. He experienced no subjective feeling of impairment of performance, nor was there any objective reduction in efficiency.

  8. Increasing Incidence Rate of Cervical Cerclage in Pregnancy in Australia: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Corrine; Lim, Boon; Robson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Data published from the United States have demonstrated that the use of cervical cerclage has fallen in the period 1998–2013. This is in contrast to recommendations in Australia. We examined this trend using data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Study design: Retrospective population-based study. Methods: Data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare procedural database were used to determine the total number of cervical cerclage sutures inserted during the period 2004 to 2013. Population datasets were used to calculate age-stratified incidence rates of cerclage. Findings: There was a significant increase in the rate of cervical cerclage in women aged 25 to 34 years and in the 35 years and older age group. The incidence of preterm birth was stable for gestations of 32 to 36 weeks, but slightly increased in the 20 to 27 week and 28 to 31 week gestational age groups. Further research into cervical cerclage and the use of vaginal progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth would be valuable. PMID:27626455

  9. Differences in tuberculosis incidence rates in township and in rural populations in Ntcheu District, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Harries, A D; Salaniponi, F M

    1999-01-01

    There has been a large upsurge of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly as a result of the co-existing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Malawi has had a well-run National TB Control Programme (NTP) with good registration and recording of cases. For some years the NTP has had the impression that TB in the country is concentrated around townships and is less prevalent in the rural areas. This impression was investigated in a rural district (Ntcheu District) in Malawi. Data on new TB cases were collected from the district TB register for the years 1992-96 and average annual TB incidence rates per 100,000 for semi-urban and rural populations were calculated for this period. There was a significantly higher incidence of TB, particularly amongst cases with smear-negative pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB, in the semi-urban population compared with the rural population. Possible explanations could be higher HIV seroprevalence rates in semi-urban areas compared with rural areas, under-diagnosis at health centres or poor access to medical facilities for rural people.

  10. Picosecond supercontinuum light source for stroboscopic white-light interferometry with freely adjustable pulse repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Steffen; Durairaj, Vasuki; Shavrin, Igor; Lipiäinen, Lauri; Kokkonen, Kimmo; Kaivola, Matti; Ludvigsen, Hanne

    2014-06-01

    We present a picosecond supercontinuum light source designed for stroboscopic white-light interferometry. This source offers a potential for high-resolution characterization of vibrational fields in electromechanical components with frequencies up to the GHz range. The light source concept combines a gain-switched laser diode, the output of which is amplified in a two-stage fiber amplifier, with supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber. Implemented in our white-light interferometer setup, optical pulses with optimized spectral properties and below 310 ps duration are used for stroboscopic illumination at freely adjustable repetition rates. The performance of the source is demonstrated by characterizing the surface vibration field of a square-plate silicon MEMS resonator at 3.37 MHz. A minimum detectable vibration amplitude of less than 100 pm is reached.

  11. Compact range reflector analysis using the plane wave spectrum approach with an adjustable sampling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, James P.; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    1991-06-01

    An improved method for determining the test zone field of compact range reflectors is presented. The plane wave spectrum (PWS) approach is used to obtain the test zone field from knowledge of the reflector aperture field distribution. The method is particularly well suited to the analysis of reflectors with a linearly serrated rim for reduced edge diffraction. Computation of the PWS of the reflector aperture field is facilitated by a closed-form expression for the Fourier transform of a polygonal window function. Inverse transformation in the test zone region is accomplished using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm with a properly adjusted sampling rate (which is a function of both the reflector size and the distance from the reflector). The method is validated by comparison with results obtained using surface current and aperture field integration techniques. The performance of several serrated reflectors is evaluated in order to observe the effects of edge diffraction on the test zone fields.

  12. 34 CFR 668.208 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.208 Section 668.208 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.208 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a) Remaining eligible. You...

  13. 34 CFR 668.189 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.189 Section 668.189 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.189 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a)...

  14. 34 CFR 668.208 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.208 Section 668.208 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.208 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a) Remaining eligible. You...

  15. 34 CFR 668.208 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.208 Section 668.208 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.208 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a) Remaining eligible. You...

  16. 34 CFR 668.208 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.208 Section 668.208 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.208 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a) Remaining eligible. You...

  17. 34 CFR 668.208 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.208 Section 668.208 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cohort Default Rates § 668.208 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a) Remaining eligible. You...

  18. 34 CFR 668.189 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.189 Section 668.189 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.189 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a)...

  19. 34 CFR 668.189 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.189 Section 668.189 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.189 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a)...

  20. 34 CFR 668.189 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.189 Section 668.189 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.189 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a)...

  1. 34 CFR 668.189 - General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... default rates and for appealing their consequences. 668.189 Section 668.189 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.189 General requirements for adjusting official cohort default rates and for appealing their consequences. (a)...

  2. A Distributed Transmission Rate Adjustment Algorithm in Heterogeneous CSMA/CA Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuanglong; Low, Kay Soon; Gunawan, Erry

    2015-01-01

    Distributed transmission rate tuning is important for a wide variety of IEEE 802.15.4 network applications such as industrial network control systems. Such systems often require each node to sustain certain throughput demand in order to guarantee the system performance. It is thus essential to determine a proper transmission rate that can meet the application requirement and compensate for network imperfections (e.g., packet loss). Such a tuning in a heterogeneous network is difficult due to the lack of modeling techniques that can deal with the heterogeneity of the network as well as the network traffic changes. In this paper, a distributed transmission rate tuning algorithm in a heterogeneous IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CA network is proposed. Each node uses the results of clear channel assessment (CCA) to estimate the busy channel probability. Then a mathematical framework is developed to estimate the on-going heterogeneous traffics using the busy channel probability at runtime. Finally a distributed algorithm is derived to tune the transmission rate of each node to accurately meet the throughput requirement. The algorithm does not require modifications on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer and it has been experimentally implemented and extensively tested using TelosB nodes with the TinyOS protocol stack. The results reveal that the algorithm is accurate and can satisfy the throughput demand. Compared with existing techniques, the algorithm is fully distributed and thus does not require any central coordination. With this property, it is able to adapt to traffic changes and re-adjust the transmission rate to the desired level, which cannot be achieved using the traditional modeling techniques. PMID:25822140

  3. Apparently-Different Clearance Rates from Cohort Studies of Mycoplasma genitalium Are Consistent after Accounting for Incidence of Infection, Recurrent Infection, and Study Design.

    PubMed

    Smieszek, Timo; White, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a potentially major cause of urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and increased HIV risk. A better understanding of its natural history is crucial to informing control policy. Two extensive cohort studies (students in London, UK; Ugandan sex workers) suggest very different clearance rates; we aimed to understand the reasons and obtain improved estimates by making maximal use of the data from the studies. As M. genitalium is a sexually-transmitted infectious disease, we developed a model for time-to-event analysis that incorporates the processes of (re)infection and clearance, and fitted to data from the two cohort studies to estimate incidence and clearance rates under different scenarios of sexual partnership dynamics and study design (including sample handling and associated test sensitivity). In the London students, the estimated clearance rate is 0.80 p.a. (mean duration 15 months), with incidence 1.31%-3.93% p.a. Without adjusting for study design, corresponding estimates from the Ugandan data are 3.44 p.a. (mean duration 3.5 months) and 58% p.a. Apparent differences in clearance rates are probably mostly due to lower testing sensitivity in the Uganda study due to differences in sample handling, with 'true' clearance rates being similar, and adjusted incidence in Uganda being 28% p.a. Some differences are perhaps due to the sex workers having more-frequent antibiotic treatment, whilst reinfection within ongoing sexual partnerships might have caused some of the apparently-persistent infection in the London students. More information on partnership dynamics would inform more accurate estimates of natural-history parameters. Detailed studies in men are also required. PMID:26910762

  4. Apparently-Different Clearance Rates from Cohort Studies of Mycoplasma genitalium Are Consistent after Accounting for Incidence of Infection, Recurrent Infection, and Study Design.

    PubMed

    Smieszek, Timo; White, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a potentially major cause of urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and increased HIV risk. A better understanding of its natural history is crucial to informing control policy. Two extensive cohort studies (students in London, UK; Ugandan sex workers) suggest very different clearance rates; we aimed to understand the reasons and obtain improved estimates by making maximal use of the data from the studies. As M. genitalium is a sexually-transmitted infectious disease, we developed a model for time-to-event analysis that incorporates the processes of (re)infection and clearance, and fitted to data from the two cohort studies to estimate incidence and clearance rates under different scenarios of sexual partnership dynamics and study design (including sample handling and associated test sensitivity). In the London students, the estimated clearance rate is 0.80 p.a. (mean duration 15 months), with incidence 1.31%-3.93% p.a. Without adjusting for study design, corresponding estimates from the Ugandan data are 3.44 p.a. (mean duration 3.5 months) and 58% p.a. Apparent differences in clearance rates are probably mostly due to lower testing sensitivity in the Uganda study due to differences in sample handling, with 'true' clearance rates being similar, and adjusted incidence in Uganda being 28% p.a. Some differences are perhaps due to the sex workers having more-frequent antibiotic treatment, whilst reinfection within ongoing sexual partnerships might have caused some of the apparently-persistent infection in the London students. More information on partnership dynamics would inform more accurate estimates of natural-history parameters. Detailed studies in men are also required.

  5. Apparently-Different Clearance Rates from Cohort Studies of Mycoplasma genitalium Are Consistent after Accounting for Incidence of Infection, Recurrent Infection, and Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Smieszek, Timo; White, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a potentially major cause of urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and increased HIV risk. A better understanding of its natural history is crucial to informing control policy. Two extensive cohort studies (students in London, UK; Ugandan sex workers) suggest very different clearance rates; we aimed to understand the reasons and obtain improved estimates by making maximal use of the data from the studies. As M. genitalium is a sexually-transmitted infectious disease, we developed a model for time-to-event analysis that incorporates the processes of (re)infection and clearance, and fitted to data from the two cohort studies to estimate incidence and clearance rates under different scenarios of sexual partnership dynamics and study design (including sample handling and associated test sensitivity). In the London students, the estimated clearance rate is 0.80p.a. (mean duration 15 months), with incidence 1.31%-3.93%p.a. Without adjusting for study design, corresponding estimates from the Ugandan data are 3.44p.a. (mean duration 3.5 months) and 58%p.a. Apparent differences in clearance rates are probably mostly due to lower testing sensitivity in the Uganda study due to differences in sample handling, with 'true' clearance rates being similar, and adjusted incidence in Uganda being 28%p.a. Some differences are perhaps due to the sex workers having more-frequent antibiotic treatment, whilst reinfection within ongoing sexual partnerships might have caused some of the apparently-persistent infection in the London students. More information on partnership dynamics would inform more accurate estimates of natural-history parameters. Detailed studies in men are also required. PMID:26910762

  6. Long-Term Ambient Residential Traffic–Related Exposures and Measurement Error–Adjusted Risk of Incident Lung Cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelman, Donna; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Schouten, Leo J.; van den Brandt, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Background The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently declared air pollution carcinogenic to humans. However, no study of air pollution and lung cancer to date has incorporated adjustment for exposure measurement error, and few have examined specific histological subtypes. Objectives Our aim was to assess the association of air pollution and incident lung cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer and the impact of measurement error on these associations. Methods The cohort was followed from 1986 through 2003, and 3,355 incident cases were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, for long-term exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black smoke (BS), PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm), and measures of roadway proximity and traffic volume, adjusted for potential confounders. Information from a previous validation study was used to correct the effect estimates for measurement error. Results We observed elevated risks of incident lung cancer with exposure to BS [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.32, per 10 μg/m3], NO2 (HR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.54, per 30 μg/m3), PM2.5 (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.47, per 10 μg/m3), and with measures of traffic at the baseline address. The exposures were positively associated with all lung cancer subtypes. After adjustment for measurement error, the HRs increased and the 95% CIs widened [HR = 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.39) for BS and HR = 1.37 (95% CI: 0.86, 2.17) for PM2.5]. Conclusions These findings add support to a growing body of literature on the effects of air pollution on lung cancer. In addition, they highlight variation in measurement error by pollutant and support the implementation of measurement error corrections when possible. Citation Hart JE, Spiegelman D, Beelen R, Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Schouten LJ, van den Brandt P. 2015. Long-term ambient residential traffic–related exposures and

  7. Study of device use adjusted rates in health care-associated infections after implementation of "bundles" in a closed-model medical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Venkatram, Sindhaghatta; Rachmale, Sonal; Kanna, Balavenkatesh

    2010-03-01

    "Bundles" strategies improve health care-associated infection (HCAI) rates in medical intensive care units (MICUs). However, few studies have analyzed HCAI rates adjusted for the device removal component of the bundles. An observational study of adult MICU patients while using bundles to prevent HCAIs associated with endovascular catheters, mechanical ventilation, and urinary tract catheters was conducted. The HCAI rates, unadjusted and adjusted for device use, were calculated using incidence rate ratios (unadjusted IRRs [uIRR] and adjusted IRRs [aIRR], respectively). Among 4550 study patients, HCAIs declined from 47 in 2004 to 10 in 2005, 8 in 2006, and 3 in 2007. Catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) rates decreased from 10.77 to 1.67 per 1000 central line days (uIRR, 0.155; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.18; P < .0001). Foley-related urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) decreased from 6.23 to 0.63 per 1000 device days (uIRR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.08-0.19; P < .0001). Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) per 1000 ventilator days diminished from 2.17 to 0.62 (uIRR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.21-0.38; P < .0001). After adjustment for device use, aIRRs of CRBSI (0.14; 95% CI, 0.11-0.18), UTI (0.09; 95% CI, 0.06-0.12), and VAP (0.33; 95% CI, 0.22-0.47) declined significantly (P < .00001). Implementing comprehensive bundle strategies reduces HCAI beyond the impact of device removal.

  8. Falling Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria Death Rate among Adults despite Rising Incidence, Sabah, Malaysia, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Rajahram, Giri S; Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J; Menon, Jayaram; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    Deaths from Plasmodium knowlesi malaria have been linked to delayed parenteral treatment. In Malaysia, early intravenous artesunate is now recommended for all severe malaria cases. We describe P. knowlesi fatalities in Sabah, Malaysia, during 2012-2014 and report species-specific fatality rates based on 2010-2014 case notifications. Sixteen malaria-associated deaths (caused by PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi [7], P. falciparum [7], and P. vivax [1] and microscopy-diagnosed "P. malariae" [1]) were reported during 2012-2014. Six patients with severe P. knowlesi malaria received intravenous artesunate at hospital admission. For persons ≥15 years of age, overall fatality rates during 2010-2014 were 3.4, 4.2, and 1.0 deaths/1,000 P. knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax notifications, respectively; P. knowlesi-associated fatality rates fell from 9.2 to 1.6 deaths/1,000 notifications. No P. knowlesi-associated deaths occurred among children, despite 373 notified cases. Although P. knowlesi malaria incidence is rising, the notification-fatality rate has decreased, likely due to improved use of intravenous artesunate.

  9. Running Backwards: Consequences of Current HIV Incidence Rates for the Next Generation of Black MSM in the United States.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Derrick D; Herrick, A L; Coulter, Robert W S; Friedman, M Reuel; Mills, Thomas C; Eaton, Lisa A; Wilson, Patrick A; Stall, Ron D

    2016-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately impacted by HIV. To better understand this public health problem, we reviewed the literature to calculate an estimate of HIV incidence among Black MSM. We used this rate to model HIV prevalence over time within a simulated cohort, which we subsequently compared to prevalence from community-based samples. We searched all databases accessible through PubMed, and Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections abstracts for HIV incidence estimates among Black MSM. Summary HIV incidence rates and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Using the average incidence rate, we modeled HIV prevalence within a simulated cohort of Black MSM (who were all HIV-negative at the start) from ages 18 through 40. Based on five incidence rates totaling 2898 Black MSM, the weighted mean incidence was 4.16 % per year (95 % CI 2.76-5.56). Using this annual incidence rate, our model predicted that 39.94 % of Black MSM within the simulated cohort would be HIV-positive by age 30, and 60.73 % by 40. Projections were similar to HIV prevalence found in community-based samples of Black MSM. High HIV prevalence will persist across the life-course among Black MSM, unless effective prevention and treatment efforts are increased to substantially reduce HIV transmission among this underserved and marginalized population. PMID:26267251

  10. Persistence and extinction for a class of stochastic SIS epidemic models with nonlinear incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Zhidong; Wang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a class of stochastic SIS epidemic models with nonlinear incidence rate is investigated. It is shown that the extinction and persistence of the disease in probability are determined by a threshold value R˜0. That is, if R˜0 < 1 and an additional condition holds then disease dies out, and if R˜0 > 1 then disease is weak permanent with probability one. To obtain the permanence in the mean of the disease, a new quantity R̂0 is introduced, and it is proved that if R̂0 > 1 the disease is permanent in the mean with probability one. Furthermore, the numerical simulations are presented to illustrate some open problems given in Remarks 1-3 and 5 of this paper.

  11. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  12. 77 FR 51681 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for...: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing... for certain dairy product import licenses permanently surrendered by licensees or revoked by...

  13. Use of GRACE determined secular gravity rates for glacial isostatic adjustment studies in North-America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Wu, Patrick; Sideris, Michael G.; Shum, C. K.

    2008-10-01

    Monthly geopotential spherical harmonic coefficients from the GRACE satellite mission are used to determine their usefulness and limitations for studying glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in North-America. Secular gravity rates are estimated by unweighted least-squares estimation using release 4 coefficients from August 2002 to August 2007 provided by the Center for Space Research (CSR), University of Texas. Smoothing is required to suppress short wavelength noise, in addition to filtering to diminish geographically correlated errors, as shown in previous studies. Optimal cut-off degrees and orders are determined for the destriping filter to maximize the signal to noise ratio. The halfwidth of the Gaussian filter is shown to significantly affect the sensitivity of the GRACE data (with respect to upper mantle viscosity and ice loading history). Therefore, the halfwidth should be selected based on the desired sensitivity. It is shown that increase in water storage in an area south west of Hudson Bay, from the summer of 2003 to the summer of 2006, contributes up to half of the maximum estimated gravity rate. Hydrology models differ in the predictions of the secular change in water storage, therefore even 4-year trend estimates are influenced by the uncertainty in water storage changes. Land ice melting in Greenland and Alaska has a non-negligible contribution, up to one-fourth of the maximum gravity rate. The estimated secular gravity rate shows two distinct peaks that can possibly be due to two domes in the former Pleistocene ice cover: west and south east of Hudson Bay. With a limited number of models, a better fit is obtained with models that use the ICE-3G model compared to the ICE-5G model. However, the uncertainty in interannual variations in hydrology models is too large to constrain the ice loading history with the current data span. For future work in which GRACE will be used to constrain ice loading history and the Earth's radial viscosity profile, it is

  14. High repetition rate collisional soft x-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, B M; Wang, Y; Larotonda, M A; Alessi, D; Berrill, M; Rocca, J J; Dunn, J; Keenan, R; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2005-11-18

    We discuss the demonstration of gain-saturated high repetition rate table-top soft x-ray lasers producing microwatt average powers at wavelengths ranging from 13.9 to 33 nm. The results were obtained heating a pre-created plasma with a picosecond optical laser pulse impinging at grazing incidence onto a pre-created plasma. This pumping geometry increases the energy deposition efficiency of the pump beam into the gain region, making it possible to saturate soft x-ray lasers in this wavelength range with a short pulse pump energy of only 1 J at 800 nm wavelength. Results corresponding to 5 Hz repetition rate operation of gain-saturated 14.7 nm Ni-like Pd and 32.6 nm line Ne-like Ti lasers pumped by a table-top Ti:sapphire laser are reported. We also discuss results obtained using a 1 {omega} 1054 nm pre-pulse and 2{omega} 527 nm short pulse from a Nd:glass pump laser. This work demonstrates the feasibility of producing compact high average power soft x-ray lasers for applications.

  15. Risk factors for breast cancer in a population with high incidence rates

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Margaret; Chew, Terri; Farren, Georgianna; Barlow, Janice; Belli, Flavia; Clarke, Christina; Erdmann, Christine A; Lee, Marion; Moghadassi, Michelle; Peskin-Mentzer, Roni; Quesenberry, Charles P; Souders-Mason, Virginia; Spence, Linda; Suzuki, Marisa; Gould, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Background This report examines generally recognized breast cancer risk factors and years of residence in Marin County, California, an area with high breast cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods Eligible women who were residents of Marin County diagnosed with breast cancer in 1997–99 and women without breast cancer obtained through random digit dialing, frequency-matched by cases' age at diagnosis and ethnicity, participated in either full in-person or abbreviated telephone interviews. Results In multivariate analyses, 285 cases were statistically significantly more likely than 286 controls to report being premenopausal, never to have used birth control pills, a lower highest lifetime body mass index, four or more mammograms in 1990–94, beginning drinking after the age of 21, on average drinking two or more drinks per day, the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking and having been raised in an organized religion. Cases and controls did not significantly differ with regard to having a first-degree relative with breast cancer, a history of benign breast biopsy, previous radiation treatment, age at menarche, parity, use of hormone replacement therapy, age of first living in Marin County, or total years lived in Marin County. Results for several factors differed for women aged under 50 years or 50 years and over. Conclusions Despite similar distributions of several known breast cancer risk factors, case-control differences in alcohol consumption suggest that risk in this high-risk population might be modifiable. Intensive study of this or other areas of similarly high incidence might reveal other important risk factors proximate to diagnosis. PMID:12817999

  16. Low incidence of flexion-type supracondylar humerus fractures but high rate of complications.

    PubMed

    Kuoppala, Eira; Parviainen, Roope; Pokka, Tytti; Sirviö, Minna; Serlo, Willy; Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common type of elbow fracture in children. A small proportion of them are flexion-type fractures. We analyzed their current incidence, injury history, clinical and radiographic findings, treatment, and outcomes. Patients and methods - We performed a population-based study, including all children <16 years of age. Radiographs were re-analyzed to include only flexion-type supracondylar fractures. Medical records were reviewed and outcomes were evaluated at a mean of 9 years after the injury. In addition, we performed a systematic literature review of all papers published on the topic since 1990 and compared the results with the findings of the current study. Results - During the study period, the rate of flexion-type fractures was 1.2% (7 out of 606 supracondylar humeral fractures). The mean annual incidence was 0.8 per 105. 4 fractures were multidirectionally unstable, according to the Gartland-Wilkins classification. All but 1 were operatively treated. Reduced range of motion, changed carrying angle, and ulnar nerve irritation were the most frequent short-term complications. Finally, in the long-term follow-up, mean carrying angle was 50% more in injured elbows (21°) than in uninjured elbows (14°). 4 patients of the 7 achieved a satisfactory long-term outcome according to Flynn's criteria. Interpretation - Supracondylar humeral flexion-type fractures are rare. They are usually severe injuries, often resulting in short-term and long-term complications regardless of the original surgical fixation used.

  17. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    PubMed Central

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  18. Regions of High Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Low Bystander CPR Rates in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Straney, Lahn D.; Bray, Janet E.; Beck, Ben; Finn, Judith; Bernard, Stephen; Dyson, Kylie; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health issue and research has shown that large regional variation in outcomes exists. Of the interventions associated with survival, the provision of bystander CPR is one of the most important modifiable factors. The aim of this study is to identify census areas with high incidence of OHCA and low rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia Methods We conducted an observational study using prospectively collected population-based OHCA data from the state of Victoria in Australia. Using ArcGIS (ArcMap 10.0), we linked the location of the arrest using the dispatch coordinates (longitude and latitude) to Victorian Local Government Areas (LGAs). We used Bayesian hierarchical models with random effects on each LGA to provide shrunken estimates of the rates of bystander CPR and the incidence rates. Results Over the study period there were 31,019 adult OHCA attended, of which 21,436 (69.1%) cases were of presumed cardiac etiology. Significant variation in the incidence of OHCA among LGAs was observed. There was a 3 fold difference in the incidence rate between the lowest and highest LGAs, ranging from 38.5 to 115.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The overall rate of bystander CPR for bystander witnessed OHCAs was 62.4%, with the rate increasing from 56.4% in 2008–2010 to 68.6% in 2010–2013. There was a 25.1% absolute difference in bystander CPR rates between the highest and lowest LGAs. Conclusion Significant regional variation in OHCA incidence and bystander CPR rates exists throughout Victoria. Regions with high incidence and low bystander CPR participation can be identified and would make suitable targets for interventions to improve CPR participation rates. PMID:26447844

  19. Identifying Differences Between Biochemical Failure and Cure: Incidence Rates and Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank A.; Shah, Chirag; Kestin, Larry; Ghilezan, Mihai; Krauss, Daniel; Ye Hong; Brabbins, Donald; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    2011-11-15

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer were evaluated to estimate the length of time required to document biochemical cure (BC) after treatment and the variables associated with long-term treatment efficacy. Patients and Methods: 2,100 patients received RT alone for localized prostate carcinoma (external-beam RT, n = 1,504; brachytherapy alone, n = 241; or brachytherapy + pelvic radiation, n = 355). The median external-beam dose was 68.4 Gy, and the median follow-up time was 8.6 years. Biochemical failure (BF) was defined according to the Phoenix definition. Results: Biochemical failure was experienced by 685 patients (32.6%). The median times to BF for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 6.0, 5.6, and 4.5 years respectively (p < 0.001). The average annual incidence rates of BF for years 1-5, 5-10,11-15, and 16-20 in low-risk patients were 2.0%, 2.0%, 0.3%, and 0.06% (p < 0.001); for intermediate-risk patients, 4%, 3%, 0.3%, and 0% (p < 0.001); and for high-risk patients, 10.0%, 5.0%, 0.3%, and 0.3% (p < 0.001). After 5 years of treatment, 36.9% of all patients experienced BF. The percentage of total failures occurring during years 1-5, 5-10, 11-15, and 16-20 were 48.7%, 43.5%, 6.5%, and 1.3% for low-risk patients; 64.0%, 32.2%, 3.8%, and 0% for intermediate-risk patients; and 71.9%, 25.9%, 1.1%, and 1.1% for high-risk patients, respectively. Increasing time to nadir was associated with increased time to BF. On multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with 10-year BC included prostate-specific antigen nadir and time to nadir. Conclusions: The incidence rates for BF did not plateau until later than 10 years after treatment, suggesting that extended follow-up time is required to monitor patients after treatment. Prostate-specific antigen nadir and time to nadir have the strongest association with long-term BC.

  20. Incidence Rates of Fish Tumors and Deformities in the St. Louis River Area of Concern: A Preliminary Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine the current incidence rate of fish tumors and deformities in the St. Louis River and compare that to the rate in a relatively unimpaired waterbody on Lake Superior. These data are necessary to remove the “Fish Tumors and Deformities” Benef...

  1. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... aged enrollees, disabled enrollees, and enrollees who have ESRD. (2) The amount calculated in paragraph... risk adjustment data. This factor is phased as follows: (A) 100 percent of payments for ESRD...

  2. Trend of microbiologically-confirmed tuberculosis in a low-incidence setting with high immigration rates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The metropolitan area of Bologna, a city in Northern Italy (Emilia Romagna region), is considered a low incidence setting for TB, but has a high rate of foreign immigration (13.5% official resident immigrants relative to the whole population in 2011). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological trend of TB, focusing on differences between Italian and foreign-born cases. Methods We examined all bacteriologically confirmed TB cases identified in the Microbiology Unit of Bologna University Hospital from January 2008 and December 2011. We compared demographic, clinical and microbiological data for Italian vs. foreign-born TB cases. Results Out of 255 TB cases identified during the study period, 168 (65.9%) were represented by foreign-born cases. The proportion of immigrants with TB progressively increased over the study period (from 60.8% in 2008 to 67.5% in 2011). Although foreign-born cases were significantly younger than Italian cases (mean age 32.3 ± 14.4 years vs 61.9 ± 21.5 years), the mean age among the latter decreased from 71.2 in 2008 to 54.6 years in 2011 (p = 0.036). Concerning TB localization, 65.9% (n = 168) had pulmonary TB (P-TB) and 34.1% (n = 87) extra-pulmonary TB (EP-TB). In this study, 35.6% of Italian-born P-TB cases were smear positive, versus 51.4% of foreign-born P-TB cases. The highest proportion of high-grade positive microscopy P-TB was among subjects between 25–34 years old (36.9%; p = 0.004). Mono-resistance to isoniazid (mono-H) was found among 9.2% and 10.1% of Italian and foreign-born cases, respectively. Among Italian cases, resistance to H and any other first line drug (poly-H) and Multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) were 4.6% and 1.2%, respectively. In foreign-born cases poly-H (12.8%) and MDR-TB (6.9%) significantly increased over the time (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively). The proportion of MDR-TB was significantly higher among immigrants from Eastern Europe (10

  3. Incidence rate of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on conventional and organic Canadian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Levison, L J; Miller-Cushon, E K; Tucker, A L; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Barkema, H W; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a common and costly production disease on dairy farms. In Canada, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) has been determined for conventionally managed dairy farms; however, no studies to date have assessed rates in organically managed systems. The objectives of this observational study were (1) to determine the producer-reported IRCM and predominant pathogen types on conventional and organic dairy farms in Southern Ontario, Canada, and (2) to evaluate the association of both mean overall IRCM and pathogen-specific IRCM with management system, housing type, and pasture access. Data from 59 dairy farms in Southern Ontario, Canada, distributed across conventional (n=41) and organic management (n=18) systems, were collected from April 2011 to May 2012. In addition to management system, farms were categorized by housing method (loose or tie-stall) and pasture access for lactating cows. Participating producers identified and collected samples from 936 cases of clinical mastitis. The most frequently isolated mastitis pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Bacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The IRCM was higher on conventional farms than organic (23.7 vs. 13.2 cases per 100 cow-years) and was not associated with housing type (loose or tie-stall), pasture access, or herd-average milk yield. Bulk tank somatic cell count tended to be lower on conventional farms than organic (222,000 vs. 272,000 cells/mL). Pathogen-specific IRCM attributed to Staph. aureus, Bacillus spp., and E. coli was greater on conventional than organic farms, but was not associated with housing or any other factors. In conclusion, organic management was associated with reduced overall and pathogen-specific IRCM. PMID:26686728

  4. Dynamics of a competing two-strain SIS epidemic model on complex networks with a saturating incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junyuan; Li, Chun-Hsien

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies a two-strain SIS epidemic model with a competing mechanism and a saturating incidence rate on complex networks. This type of incidence rate can be used to reflect the crowding effect of the infective individuals. We first obtain the associated reproduction numbers for each of the two strains which determine the existence of the boundary equilibria. The stability of the disease-free and boundary equilibria are further examined. Besides this, we also show that the two competing strains can coexist under certain conditions. Interestingly, the saturating incidence rate can have specific effects on not only the stability of the boundary equilibria, but also the existence of the coexistence equilibrium. Numerical simulations are presented to support the theoretical results.

  5. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi

  6. 39 CFR 3010.22 - Calculation of annual limitation when notices of rate adjustment are less than 12 months apart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dividing the sum by 12 (Recent Average). The partial year limitation is then calculated by dividing the Recent Average by the Recent Average from the most recent previous notice of rate adjustment (Previous Recent Average) applicable to each affected class of mail and subtracting 1 from the quotient. The...

  7. Differences in Interaction Patterns of Families with First or Second Grade Sons Rated High or Low in Classroom Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Susan; And Others

    This study attempts to determine whether families with a son rated by his teacher as either "high" or "low" on classroom adjustment (behavior indicative of social maturity and achievement motivation) could be differentiated on the basis of their communicative patterns. It was questioned if significant differences existed in the amount of positive…

  8. 2 CFR 200.411 - Adjustment of previously negotiated indirect (F&A) cost rates containing unallowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of previously negotiated indirect (F&A) cost rates containing unallowable costs. 200.411 Section 200.411 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...

  9. Rating the Relevance of QUORUM-Selected ASRS Incident Narratives to a "Controlled Flight into Terrain" Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Statler, Irving C.

    1998-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to identify commercial aviation incidents that are relevant to a "controlled flight into terrain" (CFIT) accident using a NASA-developed text processing method. The QUORUM method was used to rate 67820 incident narratives, virtually all of the narratives in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, according to their relevance to two official reports on the crash of American Airlines Flight 965 near Cali, Colombia in December 1995. For comparison with QUORUM's ratings, three experienced ASRS analysts read the reports of the crash and independently rated the relevance of the 100 narratives that were most highly rated by QUORUM, as well as 100 narratives randomly selected from the database. Eighty-four of 100 QUORUM-selected narratives were rated as relevant to the Cali accident by one or more of the analysts. The relevant incidents involved a variety of factors, including, over-reliance on automation, confusion and changes during descent/approach, terrain avoidance, and operations in foreign airspace. In addition, the QUORUM collection of incidents was found to be significantly more relevant than the random collection.

  10. Long-term survival rates of gravity-assisted, adjustable differential pressure valves in infants with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Anna-Felicitas; Schulz, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment.

  11. Greater Heart Rate Responses to Acute Stress Are Associated with Better Post-Error Adjustment in Special Police Cadets.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhuxi; Yuan, Yi; Buchanan, Tony W; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    High-stress jobs require both appropriate physiological regulation and behavioral adjustment to meet the demands of emergencies. Here, we investigated the relationship between the autonomic stress response and behavioral adjustment after errors in special police cadets. Sixty-eight healthy male special police cadets were randomly assigned to perform a first-time walk on an aerial rope bridge to induce stress responses or a walk on a cushion on the ground serving as a control condition. Subsequently, the participants completed a Go/No-go task to assess behavioral adjustment after false alarm responses. Heart rate measurements and subjective reports confirmed that stress responses were successfully elicited by the aerial rope bridge task in the stress group. In addition, greater heart rate increases during the rope bridge task were positively correlated with post-error slowing and had a trend of negative correlation with post-error miss rate increase in the subsequent Go/No-go task. These results suggested that stronger autonomic stress responses are related to better post-error adjustment under acute stress in this highly selected population and demonstrate that, under certain conditions, individuals with high-stress jobs might show cognitive benefits from a stronger physiological stress response. PMID:27428280

  12. Greater Heart Rate Responses to Acute Stress Are Associated with Better Post-Error Adjustment in Special Police Cadets

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Yuan, Yi; Buchanan, Tony W.; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    High-stress jobs require both appropriate physiological regulation and behavioral adjustment to meet the demands of emergencies. Here, we investigated the relationship between the autonomic stress response and behavioral adjustment after errors in special police cadets. Sixty-eight healthy male special police cadets were randomly assigned to perform a first-time walk on an aerial rope bridge to induce stress responses or a walk on a cushion on the ground serving as a control condition. Subsequently, the participants completed a Go/No-go task to assess behavioral adjustment after false alarm responses. Heart rate measurements and subjective reports confirmed that stress responses were successfully elicited by the aerial rope bridge task in the stress group. In addition, greater heart rate increases during the rope bridge task were positively correlated with post-error slowing and had a trend of negative correlation with post-error miss rate increase in the subsequent Go/No-go task. These results suggested that stronger autonomic stress responses are related to better post-error adjustment under acute stress in this highly selected population and demonstrate that, under certain conditions, individuals with high-stress jobs might show cognitive benefits from a stronger physiological stress response. PMID:27428280

  13. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... chronic health conditions—(i) General rule. For 2011 and subsequent years, for purposes of the adjustment... chronic health status of similar individuals. Such risk score is used instead of the default risk score... associated with frailty, individuals with multiple, comorbid chronic conditions, and individuals with...

  14. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... chronic health conditions—(i) General rule. For 2011 and subsequent years, for purposes of the adjustment... chronic health status of similar individuals. Such risk score is used instead of the default risk score... associated with frailty, individuals with multiple, comorbid chronic conditions, and individuals with...

  15. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... chronic health conditions—(i) General rule. For 2011 and subsequent years, for purposes of the adjustment... chronic health status of similar individuals. Such risk score is used instead of the default risk score... associated with frailty, individuals with multiple, comorbid chronic conditions, and individuals with...

  16. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... multiple, comorbid chronic conditions, and individuals with a diagnosis of mental illness; and (B) Costs.... (6) Improvements to risk adjustment for special needs individuals with chronic health conditions—(i... risk score that reflects the known underlying risk profile and chronic health status of...

  17. 77 FR 70373 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...\\ yielded no objections. See 75 FR 53198 (August 31, 2010). Section 119(c)(2) requires the Judges annually... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The...

  18. 76 FR 74703 - Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License Royalty Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ...\\ yielded no objections. See 75 FR 53198 (August 31, 2010). Section 119(c)(2) requires the Judges annually... Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 386 Cost of Living Adjustment to Satellite Carrier Compulsory License... by satellite carriers under the satellite carrier compulsory license of the Copyright Act. The...

  19. 78 FR 13521 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2013 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Accountant CPI Consumer Price Index E.O. Executive Order FR Federal Register GLPA Canadian Great Lakes...--2013 Annual Review and Adjustment'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 45539). We received six comments on..., 5, and 7 have been designated by Presidential Proclamation, pursuant to the Act, to be waters...

  20. 76 FR 57992 - Assessment Rate Adjustment Guidelines for Large and Highly Complex Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... by the FDIC Board on February 7, 2011 (76 FR 10672 (Feb. 25, 2011)). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Adjustment Guidelines for Large Institutions and Insured Foreign Branches in Risk Category I, 72 FR 27122... into a total score.\\4\\ \\2\\ Assessments, Large Bank Pricing, 76 FR 10672 (Feb. 25, 2011) (codified at...

  1. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Stefano; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Curti, Stefania; Cooke, Robin MT; Bena, Antonella; de Giacomi, Giovanna; dell'Omo, Marco; Fateh-Moghadam, Pirous; Melani, Carla; Biocca, Marco; Buiatti, Eva; Campo, Giuseppe; Zanardi, Francesca; Violante, Francesco S

    2008-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Methods Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million) over 3–6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare). Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1) codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence) on regional databases; 2) demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the χscore test) age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for married/unmarried men and women. Results Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall). Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57–1.60) in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40–1.45) in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2–3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts). Conclusion This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population. PMID:18957090

  2. [Clinical usefulness of the new Japanese glomerular filtration rate equation for initial and individualized dosage adjustment concentrations of vancomycin].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoki; Ueshima, Satoshi; Sato, Tomoaki; Kobiki, Eriko; Kawasaki, Yoichi; Matsunaga, Hisashi; Nakura, Hironori; Sendo, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    To clarify whether the new Japanese glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equation was able to accurately determine the initial and individualized dosage adjustment concentrations of vancomycin (VCM), the predictive performance for VCM concentrations using the eGFR and Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equations was compared. Data were retrospectively collected from clinical records of 90 patients with MRSA infection whose trough and peak VCM concentrations had been determined. The predicted VCM initial and individualized dosage adjustment concentrations were performed with the 2-compartment linear model using pharmacokinetic parameter means and their individual values via Bayesian estimation, respectively. The prediction error (PE) and its absolute value (APE) between the observed and predicted VCM concentrations were calculated as indices of bias and accuracy in predictive performance, respectively. In the initial dosage adjustment of VCM, the PE value, calculated with the eGFR equation in trough and peak VCM concentrations of patients whose BMI were 18.5 kg/m(2) and higher, was significantly smaller than that calculated with the CG equation. In particular, both PE and APE values obtained from the eGFR calculated concentrations from nonelderly patients (younger than 65 years old) were significantly improved compared with those from the CG equation. In the individualized dosage adjustment of VCM, the eGFR equation gave a significantly smaller PE value in nonelderly patients' trough concentrations than the CG equation. These findings provide useful information for adjusting the VCM dosage to achieve optimal therapeutic efficacy in patients with MRSA infection.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Different Cervical Screening Strategies in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Middle-Income Country with a Low Incidence Rate of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nahvijou, Azin; Daroudi, Rajabali; Tahmasebi, Mamak; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Akbari Sari, Ali; Barati Marenani, Ahmad; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Objective Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Cervical screening programs have reduced the incidence and mortality rates of ICC. We studied the cost-effectiveness of different cervical screening strategies in the Islamic Republic of Iran, a Muslim country with a low incidence rate of ICC. Methods We constructed an 11-state Markov model, in which the parameters included regression and progression probabilities, test characteristics, costs, and utilities; these were extracted from primary data and the literature. Our strategies included Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing plus Pap smear triaging with different starting ages and screening intervals. Model outcomes included lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the stability of the results. Results We found that the prevented mortalities for the 11 strategies compared with no screening varied from 26% to 64%. The most cost-effective strategy was HPV screening, starting at age 35 years and repeated every 10 years. The ICER of this strategy was $8,875 per QALY compared with no screening. We found that screening at 5-year intervals was also cost-effective based on GDP per capita in Iran. Conclusion We recommend organized cervical screening with HPV DNA testing for women in Iran, beginning at age 35 and repeated every 10 or 5 years. The results of this study could be generalized to other countries with low incidence rates of cervical cancer. PMID:27276093

  4. The Effect of High Rates of Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections on HIV Incidence in a Cohort of Black and White Men Who Have Sex with Men in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Colleen F; Vaughan, Adam S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis H; Salazar, Laura F; Frew, Paula M; Cooper, Hannah L F; Diclemente, Ralph; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2015-06-01

    Data reporting sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence rates among HIV-negative U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM) are lacking. In addition, it is difficult to analyze the effect of STI on HIV acquisition given that sexual risk behaviors confound the relationship between bacterial STIs and incident HIV. The InvolveMENt study was a longitudinal cohort of black and white HIV-negative, sexually active MSM in Atlanta who underwent routine screening for STI and HIV and completed behavioral questionnaires. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for urethral and rectal Chlamydia (CT), gonorrhea (GC), and syphilis, stratified by race. Propensity-score-weighted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of STI on HIV incidence and calculate the population attributable fraction (PAF) for STI. We included 562 HIV-negative MSM with 843 person-years of follow-up in this analysis. High incidence rates were documented for all STIs, particularly among black MSM. Having a rectal STI was significantly associated with subsequent HIV incidence in adjusted analyses (aHR 2.7; 95% CI 1.2, 6.4) that controlled for behavioral risk factors associated with STI and HIV using propensity score weights. The PAF for rectal STI was 14.6 (95% CI 6.8, 31.4). The high incidence of STIs among Atlanta MSM and the association of rectal STI with HIV acquisition after controlling for behavioral risk underscore the importance of routine screening and treatment for STIs among sexually active MSM. Our data support targeting intensive HIV prevention interventions, such as preexposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP), for Atlanta MSM diagnosed with rectal STIs.

  5. Age-standardized Incidence Rates for Leukemia Associated with Consanguineous Marriages in 68 Countries, an Ecological Study.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage that defines as a union between biologically related persons has a variety of known deleterious correlations with factors that affect public health within human populations. To investigate the association between the mean of inbreeding coefficient (α) and incidence of leukemia, the present ecological study on 68 countries was carried out. Statistical analysis showed that the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia positively correlated with log10GNI per capita (r=0.699, df=66, P<0.001) and negatively correlated with log10α (r=-0.609, df=66, P<0.001). Controlling log10GNI per capita, a significant negative correlation between log10α and the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia was observed (r=-0.392, df=65, P=0.001). The countries were stratified according to their annual GNI per capita, low and high-income countries with GNI per capita less than and more than 10,000$, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that in high-income countries, after controlling for log10GNI per capita, the correlation between the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia and log10α was still significant (r=-0.600, df=36, P<0.001). It should be noted that there was no significant association between the age-standardized mortality rate due to leukemia and log10α (P>0.05). The present finding indicates that the rate of leukemia, age-standardized for incidence, is lower in countries with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages.

  6. A single measure of cancer burden combining incidence with mortality rates for worldwide application.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Lim; Cho, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol; Cho, Woo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We attempted to develop an indicator combining incidence and mortality (summary indicator of cancer burden, SMCB) and to compare the magnitudes of cancer burden by world region. The SMCB was used to measure the size of cancer burden summarizing the incidence and mortality. The incidence and mortality were divided in equivalent forms and were split. The criteria dividing the size of cancer burden were used as the maximum incidence and mortality by men and women according to the world database, and the value corresponding to 10% of each maximum was set as the cut-off value. In SMCB, the size of cancer burden was highest for men with lung cancer (SMCB=18) and for women with breast cancer (SMCB=14) in MDR (more developed regions) compared to the size of burden in LDR (lower developed regions) (lung, SMCB=11, breast, SMCB=8). For men, the size of cancer burden by region was highest in EURO (SMCB=18, lung), followed by WPRO (SMCB=16, lung), PAHO (SMCB=14, prostate), AFRO (SMCB=8, prostate) and SEARO (SMCB=7, lung). Moreover, for women, the size of cancer burden was greatest in EURO (SMCB=14, breast), followed by PAHO (SMCB=13, breast), AFRO (SMCB=11, cervix uteri), EMRO (SMCB=9, breast) or SEARO (SMCB=8, cervix uteri) and WPRO (SMCB=7, lung). The summary indicator will help to provide a priority setting for reducing cancer burden in health policy.

  7. Incidence rate of thyroid cancer in Neuquén (2001-2012).

    PubMed

    Cohen Sabban, Marcos Alejandro; Palmero, Cintia; Bertrand, Beatriz; Aiello, Ana; Ghiglioni, Amalia; Mac Donell, Maria Celina; Croci, Cecilia; Cabaeiro, Patricia; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan

    2014-11-01

    During the past decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) has been reported worldwide. In Argentina there is no national cancer registry, and its incidence has therefore not been established. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of TC in the province of Neuquén and to compare it to that reported in the literature. The medical records of 229 patients admitted over a period of 12 years (2001 to 2012) were used for data analysis. Tumor size, age, sex, and histological type were evaluated. The study period was divided into four three-year periods, and differences in each of these features were analyzed. We found an incidence of 4.72/100,000 inhabitants/year, and almost all patients had papillary TC. TC was five times more common in females as compared to males (7.78 and 1.55 respectively). Mean tumor size was 22.2 ± 1.1 mm. Tumor size was significantly greater in men (31.8 ± 3.7 mm) than in women (20.4 ± 1.0 mm). When grouped by three-year periods, a higher number of cases was found in the last one (47, 49, 49 and 84 respectively). As regards tumor distribution by size, there was a significant decrease in mean tumor size in the fourth period and an increase in the proportion of tumors <10mm. We report an increase in TC incidence in the Argentinean province of Neuquén which is similar to the overall increase reported in the international literature.

  8. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Dementia and Alzheimer Disease in NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA Families

    PubMed Central

    Vardarajan, Badri N.; Faber, Kelley M.; Bird, Thomas D.; Bennett, David A.; Rosenberg, Roger; Boeve, Bradley F.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Goate, Alison M.; Farlow, Martin; Sweet, Robert A.; Lantigua, Rafael; Medrano, Martin Z.; Ottman, Ruth; Schaid, Daniel J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Mayeux, Richard

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), defined as onset of symptoms after age 65 years, is the most common form of dementia. Few reports investigate incidence rates in large family-based studies in which the participants were selected for family history of LOAD. OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in unaffected members in the National Institute on Aging Genetics Initiative for Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease/National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease (NIA-LOAD/NCRAD) and Estudio Familiar de Influencia Genetica en Alzheimer (EFIGA) family studies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Families with 2 or more affected siblings who had a clinical or pathological diagnosis of LOAD were recruited as a part of the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD Family Study. A cohort of Caribbean Hispanics with familial LOAD was recruited in a different study at the Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging Brain in New York and from clinics in the Dominican Republic as part of the EFIGA study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age-specific incidence rates of LOAD were estimated in the unaffected family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA data sets. We restricted analyses to families with follow-up and complete phenotype information, including 396 NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and 242 EFIGA families. Among the 943 at-risk family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families, 126 (13.4%) developed dementia, of whom 109 (86.5%) met criteria for LOAD. Among 683 at-risk family members in the EFIGA families, 174 (25.5%) developed dementia during the study period, of whom 145 (83.3%) had LOAD. RESULTS The annual incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families per person-year were 0.03 and 0.03, respectively, in participants aged 65 to 74 years; 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, in those aged 75 to 84 years; and 0.08 and 0.07, respectively, in those 85 years or older. Incidence rates in the EFIGA families were slightly higher, at 0.03 and 0.02, 0.06 and 0.05, 0

  9. 75 FR 7580 - Proposed Rate Adjustment for Kerr-Philpott System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... and approved Rate Schedules VA-1-A, VA-2-A, VA-3-A, VA-4-A, CP&L-1-A, CP&L-2-A, CP&L-3-A, CP&L-4-A, AP... arrangement with the Government and for providing a transmission arrangement. Rate Schedule CP&L-1-B Available... Carolinas). Rate Schedule CP&L-2-B Available to public bodies and cooperatives in North Carolina to...

  10. 75 FR 78690 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2012-2013 Proposed Transmission Rate Adjustments Public Hearing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    .... During the workshops, BPA staff presented and discussed information about costs, load and resource forecasting, generation inputs pricing, segmentation, revenue forecasts, load forecasts, risk analysis and... to flexibly serve their retail load. Point-to-Point (PTP-12) rate--The PTP rate is a contract...

  11. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Teacher Ratings of Child Adjustment and Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Rivers, Lanee; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines similarities and differences in teacher ratings of behavioral problems and adaptive skills between a sample of 320 students from Anguilla, BWI and 315 children from the United States of America using the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992). The study also compared teacher ratings of…

  12. Incidence of Second Malignancies in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Hamm, Jeremy; Jiang, Wei Ning; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; Lapointe, Vince; Kahnamelli, Adam; McKenzie, Michael; Miller, Stacy; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the second malignancy incidence in prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy (BT) relative to radical prostatectomy (RP) and to compare both groups with the cancer incidence in the general population. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 2418 patients were treated with Iodine 125 prostate BT monotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency, and 4015 referred patients were treated with RP. Cancer incidence was compared with the age-matched general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Pelvic malignancies included invasive and noninvasive bladder cancer and rectal cancer. Cox multivariable analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates to determine whether treatment (RP vs BT) was associated with second malignancy risk. Results: The median age at BT was 66 years and at RP 62 years. The SIR comparing BT patients with the general population was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.22) for second malignancy and was 1.53 (95% CI 1.12-2.04) for pelvic malignancy. The SIR comparing RP patients with the general population was 1.11 (95% CI 0.98-1.25) for second malignancy and was 1.11 (95% CI 0.82-1.48) for pelvic malignancy. On multivariable analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05) and smoking (HR 1.65) were associated with increased second malignancy risk (P<.0001). Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased second malignancy risk relative to BT (HR 0.90, P=.43), even when excluding patients who received postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy (HR 1.13, P=.25). Older age (HR 1.09, P<.0001) and smoking (HR 2.17, P=.0009) were associated with increased pelvic malignancy risk. Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased pelvic malignancy risk compared with BT (HR 0.57, P=.082), even when excluding postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy patients (HR 0.87, P=.56). Conclusions: After adjustment for covariates, BT patients did not have an increased second

  13. Comparison of hurricane exposure methods and associations with county fetal death rates, adjusting for environmental quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse effects of hurricanes are increasing as coastal populations grow and events become more severe. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy can influence fetal death rates through mechanisms related to healthcare, infrastructure disruption, nutrition, and injury. Estimation of hu...

  14. Decreasing Fertility Rate Correlates with the Chronological Increase and Geographical Variation in Incidence of Kawasaki Disease in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    Background Kawasaki disease (KD) is a common cause of acquired paediatric heart disease in developed countries. KD was first identified in the 1960s in Japan, and has been steadily increasing since it was first reported. The aetiology of KD has not been defined, but is assumed to be infection-related. The present study sought to identify the factor(s) that mediate the geographical variation and chronological increase of KD in Japan. Methods and Findings Based upon data reported between 1979 and 2010 from all 47 prefectures in Japan, the incidence and mean patient age at the onset of KD were estimated. Using spatial and time-series analyses, incidence and mean age were regressed against climatic/socioeconomic variables. Both incidence and mean age of KD were inversely correlated with the total fertility rate (TFR; i.e., the number of children that would be born to one woman). The extrapolation of a time-series regressive model suggested that KD emerged in the 1960s because of a dramatic decrease in TFR in the 1940s through the 1950s. Conclusions Mean patient age is an inverse surrogate for the hazard of contracting the aetiologic agent. Therefore, the observed negative correlation between mean patient age and TFR suggests that a higher TFR is associated with KD transmission. This relationship may be because a higher TFR facilitates sibling-to-sibling transmission. Additionally, the observed inverse correlation between incidence and TFR implies a paradoxical “negative” correlation between the incidence and the hazard of contracting the aetiologic agent. It was hypothesized that a decreasing TFR resulted in a reduced hazard of contracting the agent for KD, thereby increasing KD incidence. PMID:23861836

  15. Environmental radioactivity and high incidence rates of stomach and esophagus cancer in the Van Lake region: a causal relationship?

    PubMed

    Akan, Zafer; Baskurt, Busranur; Asliyuksek, Hizir; Kam, Erol; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Yuksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Biyik, Recep; Esen, Ramazan; Koca, Dogan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the incidence rates of cancer cases (averages for 2006-2010) and relationships with environmental radioactivity levels. Soil and water samples were collected from provincial and district centers of Van city and the outdoor gamma doses were determined using a portable gamma scintillation detector. Gross alpha and beta, (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K activities were measured in both tap water and soil samples. Although high rates of stomach and esophagus cancers have been reported previously in Van the underlying reasons have not hitherto been defined. Incidences of cancers were highest in the Gurpinar (326.0) and Ozalp (377.1) counties (p<0.001). As to the results of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity measurements in the drinking water, these two counties also had high beta radionuclide levels: Gurpinar (140 mBq/dm3) and Ozalp (206 mBq/dm3). Even if within the normal range, a relation between the higher rate of the incidence of stomach and esophagus cancers with that of the higher rate of beta radionuclide activity was clear. On Spearman correlation analysis, the relation between higher beta radionuclide levels and cancer incidence was found to be statistically significant (p<0.01). According to the results of the analysis, Van residents receive an average 1.86 mSv/y annual dose from outdoor gamma radiation, ingestion of radionuclides in the drinking water, and indoor 222Rn activity. Moreover, gross alpha and beta activities were found to be extremely high in all of the lakes around the city of Van, Turkey. Further investigations with long-term detailed environmental radiation measurements are needed regarding the relationship between cancer cases and environmental radioactivity in the city of Van.

  16. Occupational exposure and 25-year incidence rate of non-specific lung disease: the Zutphen Study.

    PubMed

    Heederik, D; Kromhout, H; Burema, J; Biersteker, K; Kromhout, D

    1990-12-01

    Information gathered in the Zutphen Study, the Dutch contribution to the Seven Countries Study that started in the 1960s, was used for the present study. In 1960 878 men participated in the physical examination and they were followed for 25 years until 1 July 1985. During this follow-up, their morbidity status was verified regularly. With this information the occurrence of chronic non-specific lung disease (CNSLD) at a specific time was coded by one physician, using strict criteria. The CNSLD diagnosis was based on the following criteria: episodes of respiratory symptoms such as regular cough and phlegm for longer than three months or episodes of wheezing and shortness of breath reported to the survey physician, or: diagnosis of CNSLD, including chronic bronchitis or emphysema by a clinical specialist. Occupation in 1960 was coded and used to generate specific occupational exposures with a Job Exposure Matrix. Because the exact time of diagnosis of CNSLD was known, incidence densities could be calculated. For 804 men a complete set of data was available. A Poisson regression analysis was used to analyse the relationships between the incidence density and independent variables like age, calendar period, occupation and specific occupational exposures. Blue collar workers had a significantly elevated incidence density ratio (IDR) compared to white collar workers (1.82, 95% confidence limits (CL): 1.35, 2.46). Subgroups of blue collar workers, wood and paper workers, textile workers, and tailors, construction workers and transport workers had significantly elevated IDRs also. Of the specific exposures heavy metals, mineral dust and adhesives had a significantly elevated IDR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2084026

  17. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary. PMID:26133134

  18. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary. PMID:26133134

  19. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-06-30

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary.

  20. Using a detailed uncertainty analysis to adjust mapped rates of forest disturbance derived from Landsat time series data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Stehman, S.; Huang, C.; Healey, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest ecosystem process models require spatially and temporally detailed disturbance data to accurately predict fluxes of carbon or changes in biodiversity over time. A variety of new mapping algorithms using dense Landsat time series show great promise for providing disturbance characterizations at an annual time step. These algorithms provide unprecedented detail with respect to timing, magnitude, and duration of individual disturbance events, and causal agent. But all maps have error and disturbance maps in particular can have significant omission error because many disturbances are relatively subtle. Because disturbance, although ubiquitous, can be a relatively rare event spatially in any given year, omission errors can have a great impact on mapped rates. Using a high quality reference disturbance dataset, it is possible to not only characterize map errors but also to adjust mapped disturbance rates to provide unbiased rate estimates with confidence intervals. We present results from a national-level disturbance mapping project (the North American Forest Dynamics project) based on the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) with annual Landsat time series and uncertainty analyses that consist of three basic components: response design, statistical design, and analyses. The response design describes the reference data collection, in terms of the tool used (TimeSync), a formal description of interpretations, and the approach for data collection. The statistical design defines the selection of plot samples to be interpreted, whether stratification is used, and the sample size. Analyses involve derivation of standard agreement matrices between the map and the reference data, and use of inclusion probabilities and post-stratification to adjust mapped disturbance rates. Because for NAFD we use annual time series, both mapped and adjusted rates are provided at an annual time step from ~1985-present. Preliminary evaluations indicate that VCT captures most of the higher

  1. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation in a Delayed HIV Infection Model with General Incidence Rate and Immune Impairment.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuxiang; Ma, Wanbiao; Jiang, Zhichao; Li, Dan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical behavior of a delayed HIV infection model with general incidence rate and immune impairment. We derive two threshold parameters, the basic reproduction number R 0 and the immune response reproduction number R 1. By using Lyapunov functional and LaSalle invariance principle, we prove the global stability of the infection-free equilibrium and the infected equilibrium without immunity. Furthermore, the existence of Hopf bifurcations at the infected equilibrium with CTL response is also studied. By theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, the effect of the immune impairment rate on the stability of the infected equilibrium with CTL response has been studied.

  2. Trends in the Attack Rates, Incidence, and Mortality of Stroke during 1986–2012: Data of Kaunas (Lithuania) Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Radisauskas, Ricardas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Milinaviciene, Egle; Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, Daina; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Luksiene, Dalia; Milasauskiene, Zemyna; Sopagiene, Diana; Rastenyte, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a lack of reliable epidemiological data on longitudinal trends in stroke attack rates, incidence, and mortality in the countries of the Baltic region. Aims The aim of the present study was to explore the longitudinal trends of stroke in middle-aged urban population of Lithuania during the period of 1986 through 2012. Methods All stroke events in the studied population were ascertained and validated according to the standardized criteria outlined by the WHO MONICA Project. The study included all patients in Kaunas (Lithuania) city aged 25 to 64 years who experienced a stroke between 1986 and 2012. Estimates of time-trends of the annual percentage change in stroke attack rates, incidence of stroke, and mortality from this condition were made by applying the Joinpoint regression analysis. Results During the study period, 9,992 stroke events were registered. The overall proportion of recurrent events was 25.7%. Overall, 18.9% of the events (20.0% in men, and 17.4% in women) were fatal within 28 days. During the period of 1986 to 2012, a flat trend in the incidence of stroke was observed among both male and female middle-aged inhabitants of Kaunas city, while attack rates were increasing due to the increase in recurrent strokes. Both mortality and 28-day case fatality of stroke declined significantly over the study period in both sexes. Conclusions An increase both in the incidence and recurrence of stroke among middle-aged men residing in Kaunas city and in the recurrence of stroke among women denotes the inefficiency of measures applied both for primary and secondary prevention of stroke in Lithuania. The revision of current prevention strategies and the introduction of new ones are of paramount importance in order to fight the epidemic of stroke. PMID:27124412

  3. 77 FR 29259 - Adjustment of Determination of Compulsory License Rates for Mechanical and Digital Phonorecords

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... the section 115 license on January 9, 2006, 71 FR 1454, and their final determination of said rates and terms was published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2009. 74 FR 4510. Therefore, the next.... 76 FR 590 (January 5, 2011). Petitions to Participate were received from: Microsoft...

  4. 75 FR 51191 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2011 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ...'' then click on the balloon shape in the ``Actions'' column. If you submit your comments by mail or hand... in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public Meeting We do not plan... was published on April 3, 2006 (71 FR 16501). Since then, rates have been reviewed under Appendix...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.334 - Setting and adjusting locality and special rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... special rate supplements. 9701.334 Section 9701.334 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.334 - Setting and adjusting locality and special rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... special rate supplements. 9701.334 Section 9701.334 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality...

  7. 75 FR 14150 - Proposed Rate Adjustment, Public Forum, and Opportunities for Public Review and Comment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... rate for the sale of power from the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System of Projects (75 FR 12740... April 29, 2010. The address of the forum was established as the Sheraton Gateway Atlanta Airport.... Southeastern is changing the address of the forum to Atlanta Airport Hilton, 1031 Virginia Avenue, Atlanta,...

  8. Automatic learning rate adjustment for self-supervising autonomous robot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arras, Michael K.; Protzel, Peter W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    Described is an application in which an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) controls the positioning of a robot arm with five degrees of freedom by using visual feedback provided by two cameras. This application and the specific ANN model, local liner maps, are based on the work of Ritter, Martinetz, and Schulten. We extended their approach by generating a filtered, average positioning error from the continuous camera feedback and by coupling the learning rate to this error. When the network learns to position the arm, the positioning error decreases and so does the learning rate until the system stabilizes at a minimum error and learning rate. This abolishes the need for a predetermined cooling schedule. The automatic cooling procedure results in a closed loop control with no distinction between a learning phase and a production phase. If the positioning error suddenly starts to increase due to an internal failure such as a broken joint, or an environmental change such as a camera moving, the learning rate increases accordingly. Thus, learning is automatically activated and the network adapts to the new condition after which the error decreases again and learning is 'shut off'. The automatic cooling is therefore a prerequisite for the autonomy and the fault tolerance of the system.

  9. Work Adjustment Theory: An Empirical Test Using a Fuzzy Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A fuzzy graphic rating scale elicited work preferences and job perceptions of 166 (of 170) Australian bank employees. Correspondence between preferences and perceptions correlated significantly with job satisfaction. Satisfaction and performance related to tenure intentions; this relation was higher for poorer performers. (SK)

  10. Incidence and mutation rates of Huntington's disease in Spain: experience of 9 years of direct genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Arroyo, M; Moreno, S; Valiente, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prior to the discovery of the Huntington's disease (HD) mutation, the prevalence, incidence, and new mutation rates for this disease were based on the presence of progressive choreic movements and a positive family history. Objective: To evaluate the uptake of the HD genetic analysis in Spain, and to provide additional information on the epidemiology of this disease from the experience of 9 years of direct genetic testing. Methods: From 1994 to 2002, CAG repeat length was determined in 317 patients with symptoms compatible with HD. In all cases, demographic, clinical, and family data were carefully reviewed. Results: HD diagnosis (CAG repeat length ⩾36) was confirmed in 166 (52%) symptomatic cases. Of these, 76 (45.8%) reported a positive family history and in 21 cases (12.7%) family history was negative. New mutation events were genetically proven in three families and highly suspected in another, estimating that the minimum new mutation rate for HD in our population is >4%, with a potential mutation rate of 8%. More than 16% of all HD cases had late onset (>59 years) of symptoms, and in three quarters of these the family history was negative. The incidence rate for the autonomous communities of Navarra and the Basque country, based on the number of newly diagnosed cases by genetic testing, was 4.7 per million per year. Conclusions: Direct HD genetic testing shows that the incidence and mutation rates of the disease are 2–3 times higher than previously reported. We also demonstrated the relevance of CAG repeat length assessment in diagnosing patients with late onset of symptoms and negative family history for HD. PMID:15716522

  11. A comparison of pressure ulcer prevalence rates in nursing homes in the Netherlands and Germany, adjusted for population characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tannen, Antje; Bours, Gerrie; Halfens, Ruud; Dassen, Theo

    2006-12-01

    Annual pressure ulcer surveys in the Netherlands and Germany have shown remarkable differences in prevalence rates. We explored the differences between the two populations, and the degree to which these differences were associated with differences in prevalence. To this end, data from 48 Dutch and 45 German facilities (n = 9772) from 2003 were analyzed. The prevalence of pressure ulcers (excluding grade 1) was 12.5% in the Netherlands and 4.3% in Germany. After adjusting for age, sex, and other risk factors, the probability of developing a pressure ulcer of stage 2 or higher in Dutch nursing homes was three times greater than in German homes.

  12. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jian, Wen-Shan; Lee, Peisan; Iqbal, Usman; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The issue of whether cell phone usage can contribute toward the development of brain tumors has recently been reignited with the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans in a WHO report. To our knowledge, this is the largest study reporting on the incidence and mortality of malignant brain tumors after long-term use of the cell phone by more than 23 million users. A population-based study was carried out the numbers of cell phone users were collected from the official statistics provided by the National Communication Commission. According to National Cancer Registry, there were 4 incidences and 4 deaths due to malignant neoplasms in Taiwan during the period 2000-2009. The 10 years of observational data show that the intensive user rate of cell phones has had no significant effect on the incidence rate or on the mortality of malignant brain tumors in Taiwan. In conclusion, we do not detect any correlation between the morbidity/mortality of malignant brain tumors and cell phone use in Taiwan. We thus urge international agencies to publish only confirmatory reports with more applicable conclusions in public. This will help spare the public from unnecessary worries.

  13. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas outlined in this study should

  14. Tribological development of TiCN coatings by adjusting the flowing rate of reactive gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Momeni, Soroush

    2016-03-01

    TiCN coatings were deposited by means of direct current magnetron sputtering of Ti targets in presence of N2 and C2H2 reactive gases. The microstructure, composition, mechanical and tribological properties of the deposited thin films were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), nanoindentation, ball-on-disc, scratch test, and three dimensional (3D) optical microscopy. The obtained results presents a reproducible processing route for tailoring microstructure, mechanical and tribological behavior of TiCN coatings by controlling flowing rate of the reactive gases.

  15. The relationship between safety climate and injury rates across industries: the need to adjust for injury hazards.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon S; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Ho, Michael; Chen, Peter Y

    2006-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that strong safety climates (shared perceptions of safe conducts at work) are associated with lower workplace-injury rates, but they rarely control for differences in industry hazards. Based on 33 companies, we assessed its association with injury rates using three rate based injury measures (claims per 100 employees, claims per 100,000 h worked, and claims per 1 million US dollars payroll), which were derived from workers' compensation injury claims. Linear regression models were used to test the predictability of safety climate on injury rates, followed by controlling for differences in hazard across industries gauged by national industry-specific injury rates. In the unadjusted model, company level safety climate were negatively and significantly associated with injury rates. However, all of the above associations were no longer apparent when controlling for the hazardousness of the specific industry. These findings may be due to over adjustment of hazard risk, or the overwhelming effects of industry specific hazards relative to safety climate effects that could not be differentiated with the statistical power in our study. Industry differences in hazard, conceptualized as one type of injury risk, however need to be considered when testing the association between safety climate and injury across different industries. PMID:16430845

  16. Measuring awareness in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: development of the Memory Awareness Rating Scale--adjusted.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Rachel M; Oyebode, Jan R; Clare, Linda

    2006-04-01

    Variations in level of awareness among people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may impact on well-being for the person with dementia and their carer, and may influence outcomes of cognitive rehabilitation interventions. Awareness has often been assessed using discrepancies between self and proxy rating or between self-rating and objective task performance, with the latter considered to be preferable. Measures are available that are suitable for people with mild AD, for example the Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARS). However, these may be less appropriate for people whose impairments are more advanced and who consequently have more difficulty with the objective task component. In order to provide a measure suitable for people with moderate AD, an adjusted Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARSA) was developed by altering the objective task component of the MARS. The MARSA was piloted with 41 participants with mild to moderate AD. It was found to be suitable for use with a broader group of participants than the MARS. The component ratings were found to have good internal consistency. The component ratings and the two indices of awareness had high test-retest reliability. The extension of the original measure offers the opportunity to consider awareness throughout the course of the disease and provides a basis for longitudinal investigations of awareness.

  17. Risk factors for incidence and case-fatality rates of healthcare-associated infections: a 20-year follow-up of a hospital-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, R-F; Shen, S-H; Yen, A M-F; Wang, T-L; Jang, T-N; Lee, S-H; Wang, J-T; Chen, H-H

    2016-01-01

    Information is lacking on the integrated evaluation of mortality rates in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Our aim was to differentiate the risk factors responsible for the incidence from those for the case-fatality rates in association with HAIs. We therefore examined the time trends of both incidence and case-fatality rates over a 20-year period at a tertiary-care teaching medical centre in Taiwan and the mortality rate was expressed as the product of the incidence rate and the case-fatality rate. During the study period the overall mortality rate fell from 0·46 to 0·32 deaths/1000 patient-days and the incidence rate fell from 3·41 to 2·31/1000 patient-days, but the case-fatality rate increased marginally from 13·5% to 14·0%. The independent risk factors associated with incidence of HAIs were age, gender, infection site, admission type, and department of hospitalization. Significant prognostic factors for HAI case-fatality were age, infection site, intensive care, and clinical department. We conclude that the decreasing trend for the HAI mortality rate was accompanied by a significant decline in the incidence rate and this was offset by a slightly increasing trend in the case-fatality rate. This deconstruction approach could provide further insights into the underlying complex causes of mortality for HAIs.

  18. Tracing the incidence of X-ray AGN and their distribution of accretion rates across the galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, James; Coil, Alison; Georgakakis, Antonis; Nandra, Kirpal

    2016-08-01

    X-ray selection provides a powerful method of identifying AGN across a variety of host galaxies and with a wide range of accretion rates. However, careful consideration of the underlying selection biases are vital to reveal the true underlying distribution of accretion rates and determine how the incidence of AGN is related to the properties of the galaxies that host them. I will present new measurements of the distribution of specific accretion rates (scaled relative to the total host galaxy mass, roughly tracing the Eddington ratio) within both star-forming and quiescent galaxy populations. We combine near-infrared selected samples of galaxies from the CANDELS/3D-HST and UltraVISTA surveys with deep Chandra X-ray data and use an advanced Bayesian technique to constrain the underlying distribution of specific accretion rates as a function of stellar mass and redshift. Our results reveal a broad distribution of accretion rates (reflecting long-term variability in the level of AGN fuelling) in both galaxy types. The probability of a star-forming galaxy hosting an AGN (above a fixed specific accretion rate) has a strong stellar mass dependence - revealing an intrinsically higher incidence of AGN in massive star-forming galaxies - and undergoes a stellar-mass-dependent evolution with redshift. The probability of a quiescent galaxy hosting an AGN is generally lower but does not depend on stellar mass and evolves differently with redshift. These results provide vital insights into the relationship between the growth of black hole and the physical properties of their host galaxies.

  19. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates by Histological Type in 1975–2008: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Fukuaki Lee; Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality is important for the evaluation of cancer control activities. We investigated recent trends in age-standardized incidence rates by histological type of lung cancer in Osaka, Japan. Methods Cancer incidence data for 1975–2008 were obtained from the Osaka Cancer Registry. Lung cancer mortality data with population data in Osaka during 1975–2012 were obtained from vital statistics. We examined trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for all histological types and age-standardized incidence rates by histological type and age group using a joinpoint regression model. Results The age-standardized incidence rate of lung cancer levelled off or slightly increased from 1975–2008, with an annual percentage change of 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%–0.4%) for males and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9%–1.3%) for females, and the mortality rate decreased by 0.9% (95% CI, 1.2%–0.7%) for males and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.8%–0.3%) for females. The incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) and small cell carcinoma (SMC) significantly decreased for both genders, whereas that of adenocarcinoma (ADC) significantly increased among almost all age groups in both genders. Conclusions The incidence rates of SQC and SMC decreased with the decline in smoking prevalence, which probably explains the change in trends in the incidence rates of lung cancer from the mid-1980s. However, the reason for the increase in ADC remains unclear. Therefore, trends in incidence rates of lung cancer should be carefully monitored, especially for ADC, and the associations between ADC and its possible risk factors should be studied. PMID:27150013

  20. Global stability for an HIV-1 infection model with Beddington-DeAngelis incidence rate and CTL immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Cuifang; Huang, Lihong; Yuan, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an HIV-1 infection model with Beddington-DeAngelis incidence rate and CTL immune response is investigated. One main feature of this model is that an eclipse stage for the infected cells is included and a portion of these cells is reverted to uninfected cells. We derive the basic reproduction number R1 and the immune response reproduction number R2 for the HIV-1 infection model. By constructing Lyapunov functions, the global stabilities for the equilibria have been analyzed.

  1. Global stability of a multiple delayed viral infection model with general incidence rate and an application to HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the dynamical behavior of a viral infection model with general incidence rate and two time delays is studied. By using the Lyapunov functional and LaSalle invariance principle, the global stabilities of the infection-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium are obtained. We obtain a threshold of the global stability for the uninfected equilibrium, which means the disease will be under control eventually. These results can be applied to a variety of viral infections of disease that would make it possible to devise optimal treatment strategies. Numerical simulations with application to HIV infection are given to verify the analytical results.

  2. Severe maternal morbidity from direct obstetric causes in West Africa: incidence and case fatality rates.

    PubMed Central

    Prual, A.; Bouvier-Colle, M. H.; de Bernis, L.; Bréart, G.

    2000-01-01

    Data on maternal morbidity make it possible to assess how many women are likely to need essential obstetric care, and permit the organization, monitoring and evaluation of safe motherhood programmes. In the present paper we propose operational definitions of severe maternal morbidity and report the frequency of such morbidity as revealed in a population-based survey of a cohort of 20,326 pregnant women in six West African countries. The methodology and questionnaires were the same in all areas. Each pregnant woman had four contacts with the obstetric survey team: at inclusion, between 32 and 36 weeks of amenorrhoea, during delivery and 60 days postpartum. Direct obstetric causes of severe morbidity were observed in 1215 women (6.17 cases per 100 live births). This ratio varied significantly between areas, from 3.01% in Bamako to 9.05% in Saint-Louis. The main direct causes of severe maternal morbidity were: haemorrhage (3.05 per 100 live births); obstructed labour (2.05 per 100), 23 cases of which involved uterine rupture (0.12 per 100); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (0.64 per 100), 38 cases of which involved eclampsia (0.19 per 100); and sepsis (0.09 per 100). Other direct obstetric causes accounted for 12.2% of cases. Case fatality rates were very high for sepsis (33.3%), uterine rupture (30.4%) and eclampsia (18.4%); those for haemorrhage varied from 1.9% for antepartum or peripartum haemorrhage to 3.7% for abruptio placentae. Thus at least 3-9% of pregnant women required essential obstetric care. The high case fatality rates of several complications reflected a poor quality of obstetric care. PMID:10859853

  3. Centenarian Rates and Life Expectancy Related to the Death Rates of Multiple Sclerosis, Asthma, and Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Children.

    PubMed

    Lens-Pechakova, Lilia S

    2016-02-01

    The autoimmune diseases are among the 10 leading causes of death for women and the number two cause of chronic illness in America as well as a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Patients of some autoimmune diseases have shown a shorter life span and are a model of accelerated immunosenescence. Conversely, centenarians are used as a model of successful aging and have shown several immune parameters that are better preserved and lower levels of autoantibodies. The study reported here focused on clarifying the connection between longevity and some autoimmune and allergic diseases in 29 developed Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, because multidisciplinary analyses of the accelerated or delayed aging data could show a distinct relationship pattern, help to identify common factors, and determine new important factors that contribute to longevity and healthy aging. The relationships between the mortality rates data of multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), asthma, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) from one side and centenarian rates (two sets) as well as life expectancy data from the other side were assessed using regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients. The data obtained correspond to an inverse linear correlation with different degrees of linearity. This is the first observation of a clear tendency of diminishing centenarian rates or life expectancy in countries having higher death rates of asthma, MS, and RA and a higher incidence of T1D in children. The conclusion is that most probably there are common mechanistic pathways and factors affecting the above diseases and at the same time but in the opposite direction the processes of longevity. Further study, comparing genetic data, mechanistic pathways, and other factors connected to autoimmune diseases with those of longevity could clarify the processes involved, so as to promote longevity and limit the expansion of those

  4. Centenarian Rates and Life Expectancy Related to the Death Rates of Multiple Sclerosis, Asthma, and Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Children.

    PubMed

    Lens-Pechakova, Lilia S

    2016-02-01

    The autoimmune diseases are among the 10 leading causes of death for women and the number two cause of chronic illness in America as well as a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Patients of some autoimmune diseases have shown a shorter life span and are a model of accelerated immunosenescence. Conversely, centenarians are used as a model of successful aging and have shown several immune parameters that are better preserved and lower levels of autoantibodies. The study reported here focused on clarifying the connection between longevity and some autoimmune and allergic diseases in 29 developed Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, because multidisciplinary analyses of the accelerated or delayed aging data could show a distinct relationship pattern, help to identify common factors, and determine new important factors that contribute to longevity and healthy aging. The relationships between the mortality rates data of multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), asthma, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) from one side and centenarian rates (two sets) as well as life expectancy data from the other side were assessed using regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients. The data obtained correspond to an inverse linear correlation with different degrees of linearity. This is the first observation of a clear tendency of diminishing centenarian rates or life expectancy in countries having higher death rates of asthma, MS, and RA and a higher incidence of T1D in children. The conclusion is that most probably there are common mechanistic pathways and factors affecting the above diseases and at the same time but in the opposite direction the processes of longevity. Further study, comparing genetic data, mechanistic pathways, and other factors connected to autoimmune diseases with those of longevity could clarify the processes involved, so as to promote longevity and limit the expansion of those

  5. Incidence Rates and Trend of Serious Farm-Related Injury in Minnesota, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Adrienne M K; McGovern, Patricia M; Alexander, Bruce H; Lindgren, Paula G; Williams, Allan N

    2015-01-01

    Only about 2% of Minnesota's workers were employed in agriculture for the years 2005-2012, this small portion of the workforce accounted for 31% of the 563 work-related deaths that occurred in Minnesota during that same time period. Agricultural fatalities in Minnesota and elsewhere are well documented; however, nonfatal injuries are not. To explore the burden of injury, Minnesota hospital discharge data were used to examine rates and trends of farm injury for the years 2000-2011. Cases were identified through the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), injury codes and external cause of injury codes (E codes). Probable cases were defined as E code E849.1 (occurred on a farm) or E919.0 (involving agricultural machinery). Possible cases were based on five less specific E codes primarily involving animals or pesticides. Multiple data sources were used to estimate the agricultural population. An annual average of over 500 cases was identified as probable, whereas 2,000 cases were identified as possible. Trend analysis of all identified cases indicated a small but significant average annual increase of 1.5% for the time period 2000-2011. Probable cases were predominantly male (81.5%), whereas possible cases were predominantly female (63.9%). The average age of an injury case was 38.5 years, with the majority of injuries occurring in late summer and fall months. Despite the undercount of less serious injuries, hospital discharge data provide a meaningful data source for the identification and surveillance of nonfatal agricultural injuries. These methods could be utilized by other states for ongoing surveillance for nonfatal agricultural injuries.

  6. Ion sputtering rates of W-, Ti- and Cr-carbides studied at different Ar + ion incidence angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalar, A.; Kovač, J.; Praček, B.; Panjan, P.; Čeh, M.

    2008-08-01

    To study the ion sputtering rates of W-, Ti- and Cr-carbides, trilayer structures comprising C-graphite (59 nm)/WC (50 nm)/W (38 nm), C-graphite (56 nm)/TiC (40 nm)/Ti (34 nm) and C-graphite (46 nm)/C 3C 2 (60 nm)/Cr (69 nm) with a tolerance ±2% were sputter deposited onto smooth silicon substrates. Their precise structural and compositional characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the WC and Cr 3C 2 layers were amorphous, while the TiC layer had a polycrystalline structure. The ion sputtering rates of all three carbides, amorphous carbon and polycrystalline Cr, Ti and W layers were determined by means of Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling as a function of the angle of incidence of two symmetrically inclined 1 keV Ar + ion beams in the range between 22° and 82°. The sputtering rates were calculated from the known thicknesses of the layers and the sputtering times necessary to remove the individual layers. It was found that the sputtering rates of carbides, C-graphite and metals were strongly angle dependent. For the carbides in the range between 36° and 62° the highest ion sputtering rate was found for Cr 3C 2 and the lowest for TiC, while the values of the sputtering rates for WC were intermediate. The normalized sputtering yields calculated from the experimentally obtained data for all three carbides followed the trend of theoretical results obtained by calculation of the transport of ions in solids by the SRIM code. The sputtering yields are also presented in terms of atoms/ion. Our experimental data for two ion incidence angles of 22° and 49° and reported values of other authors for C-graphite and metals are mainly inside the estimated error of about ±20%. The influence of the ion-induced surface topography on the measured sputtering yields was estimated from the atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements at the intermediate points of

  7. The Incidence Rate and Economic Burden of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in a Working-Age Population

    PubMed Central

    Broulette, Jonah; Yu, Holly; Pyenson, Bruce; Iwasaki, Kosuke; Sato, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently associated with the very young and the elderly but is a largely underrecognized burden among working-age adults. Although the burden of CAP among the elderly has been established, there are limited data on the economic burden of CAP in the employed population. Objective To assess the economic impact of CAP in US working-age adults from an employer perspective by estimating the incidence rate and costs of healthcare, sick time, and short-term disability for this patient population. Methods This retrospective cohort study is based on data from 2 Truven Health Analytics databases. The study population consisted of commercially insured active employees aged 18 to 64 years, early retirees aged <65 years, and adult dependents of both cohorts. CAP was identified using medical claims with pneumonia diagnosis codes during the 2009 calendar year. Incidence rate, episode level, and annual costs were stratified by age and by risk based on the presence of comorbidities. Descriptive statistics were used to compare healthcare (ie, medical and pharmacy) costs, sick time, and short-term disability costs between the cohorts with and without CAP. Linear regression was used to estimate the average annual incremental healthcare cost in employed patients with inpatient or outpatient CAP versus individuals without CAP. Results Study eligibility was met by 12,502,017 employed individuals, including 123,920 with CAP and 12,378,097 without CAP; the overall incidence rate of CAP was 10.6 per 1000 person-years. Among individuals with and without CAP, the costs of healthcare, sick time, and short-term disability increased with advancing age and with higher risk status. The mean annual healthcare costs were $20,961 for patients with CAP and $3783 for individuals without CAP. Overall, the mean costs of sick time and short-term disability were $1129 and $1016, respectively, in active employees with CAP, and $853 and $322, respectively

  8. Running Head: Control and Adjustment of the Rate of Photosynthesis Above Present CO{sub 2} Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J. Timothy

    1996-12-01

    The adjustment of photosynthesis to different environmental conditions and especially to elevated CO{sub 2} is often characterized in terms of changes in the processes that establish (limit) the net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate. At slightly above present ambient pCO{sub 2} light-saturated photosynthetic responses to CO{sub 2} depart limitation by the catalytic capacity of tissue rubisco content. An hypothesis attributing this departure to limited thylakoid reaction/electron transport capacity is widely accepted, although we find no experimental evidence in the literature supporting this proposition.. The results of several tests point to the conclusion that the capacity of the thyiakoid reactions cannot be generally responsible for the deviation from rubisco limitation. This conclusion leaves a significant gap in the interpretation of gas exchange responses to CO{sub 2}. Since the inputs to the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (CO{sub 2} and photon-capture/electron-transport products) do not limit photosynthesis on the shoulder of the A=f(c{sub i}) curve, the control of photosynthesis can be characterized as: due to feedback. Several characteristics of gas exchange and fluorescence that occur when steady-states in this region are perturbed by changes in CO{sub 2} or O{sub 2} suggest significant regulation by conditions other than directly by substrate RuBP levels. A strong candidate to explain these responses is the triose-phosphate flux/ inorganic phosphate regulatory sequence, although not all of the gas exchange characteristics expected with ''TPU-limitation'' are present (e.g. oxygen-insensitive photosynthesis). Interest in nitrogen allocation between rubisco and light capture/electron transport as the basis for photosynthetic adjustment to elevated CO{sub 2} may need to be reconsidered as a result of these findings. Contributors to the feedback regulation of photosynthesis (which may include sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose bisphosphatase activities

  9. Late Quaternary incision rates in the southern French Alps from river longitudinal profiles inversion: climatic forcing and internal adjustments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Carole; Cassol, Davide; Rolland, Yann; Saillard, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Southern French Alps, and especially the external crystalline massifs, show evidences of rapid river incision featured by deeply incised gorges and widespread active landslides. The onset of rapid incision is not precisely dated, but cosmogenic nuclide dating of river polished profiles evidences rapid incision (of the order of 2-3 mm.yr-1) since 20 ka. These data suggest that it may be related to temperature and runoff increase due to glacier melting after le last glacial maximum (LGM). In this study, we use river longitudinal profiles from tributaries of the Tinée River, in the Argentera-Mercantour crystalline massif, to determine recent incision rate (IR) variations through time with the inversion method of Goren et al. (2014). Overall, the background IR is of approximately 5 mm.yr-1, in agreement with recent IR estimates from cosmogenic nuclide dating in the Tinée River. Incision rate histories of all tributaries show periodic pulses of large IR that could be correlated to quaternary interglacials and interstadials, based on the comparison with global temperature curves. However, some tributaries show very large IR in the Holocene period, whereas others show a recent (post 10 ka) IR decrease. We suggest that local internal adjustments, possibly in relation with meander migration of the main stem, are responsible for these different behaviors.

  10. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita; Moonsamy, Suri; Abbai, Nathlee Samantha; Wand, Handan

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002–2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR) were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old), unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole. PMID:27104835

  11. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  12. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study. PMID:23244129

  13. Quality of drinking water and high incidence rate of esophageal cancer in Golestan province of Iran: a probable link.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Najmeddin, Ali; Rahmani, Farah; Malekzadeh, Ahad

    2012-02-01

    Golestan province in north Iran is known to be a high-risk area for esophageal cancer (EC). Of a long list of multiple risk factors, this study focuses on a possible link between the epidemiologic patterns of EC and the anomalous concentration of some ions and elements in the drinking water sources. A total of 183 samples from 45 villages covering a wide range of EC mortality rates are collected and analyzed. The results demonstrate that NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Sb, and Sr exceed the recommended maximum concentration level (MCL) in drinking water. This is more prominent in the villages with high esophageal cancer mortality rate, suggesting a possible link between EC incidence and water quality. Se concentration in drinking water increases from low to the high EC areas, a finding contrary to the expected trend. It is concluded that Se deficiency does not play a major role in the etiology of EC in the Golestan province. The statistical results obtained from Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests along with cluster analysis are consistent with the observed trend of EC mortality rate in Golestan province.

  14. 42 CFR 484.220 - Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-day episode payment rate for case-mix and area wage levels. 484.220 Section 484.220 Public Health... Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and area wage levels... case-mix using a case-mix index to explain the relative resource utilization of different patients....

  15. Application of a Novel Grey Self-Memory Coupling Model to Forecast the Incidence Rates of Two Notifiable Diseases in China: Dysentery and Gonorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojun; Liu, Sifeng; Wu, Lifeng; Tang, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this study, a novel grey self-memory coupling model was developed to forecast the incidence rates of two notifiable infectious diseases (dysentery and gonorrhea); the effectiveness and applicability of this model was assessed based on its ability to predict the epidemiological trend of infectious diseases in China. Methods The linear model, the conventional GM(1,1) model and the GM(1,1) model with self-memory principle (SMGM(1,1) model) were used to predict the incidence rates of the two notifiable infectious diseases based on statistical incidence data. Both simulation accuracy and prediction accuracy were assessed to compare the predictive performances of the three models. The best-fit model was applied to predict future incidence rates. Results Simulation results show that the SMGM(1,1) model can take full advantage of the systematic multi-time historical data and possesses superior predictive performance compared with the linear model and the conventional GM(1,1) model. By applying the novel SMGM(1,1) model, we obtained the possible incidence rates of the two representative notifiable infectious diseases in China. Conclusion The disadvantages of the conventional grey prediction model, such as sensitivity to initial value, can be overcome by the self-memory principle. The novel grey self-memory coupling model can predict the incidence rates of infectious diseases more accurately than the conventional model, and may provide useful references for making decisions involving infectious disease prevention and control. PMID:25546054

  16. Heart rate-based training intensity and its impact on injury incidence among elite-level professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Owen, Adam L; Forsyth, Jacky J; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Connelly, Sean P; Chamari, Karim

    2015-06-01

    Elite-level professional soccer players are suggested to have increased physical, technical, tactical, and psychological capabilities when compared with their subelite counterparts. Ensuring these players remain at the elite level generally involves training many different bodily systems to a high intensity or level within a short duration. This study aimed to examine whether an increase in training volume at high-intensity levels was related to injury incidence, or increased the odds of sustaining an injury. Training intensity was monitored through time spent in high-intensity (T-HI) and very high-intensity (T-VHI) zones of 85-<90% and ≥90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), and all injuries were recorded over 2 consecutive seasons. Twenty-three, elite professional male soccer players (mean ± SD age, 25.6 ± 4.6 years; stature, 181.8 ± 6.8 cm; and body mass, 79.3 ± 8.1 kg) were studied throughout the 2-years span of the investigation. The results showed a mean total injury incidence of 18.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.7-22.9) injuries per 1,000 hours of exposure. Significant correlations were found between training volume at T-HI and injury incidence (r = 0.57, p = 0.005). Further analysis revealed how players achieving more time in the T-VHI zone during training increased the odds of sustaining a match injury (odds ratio = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12-3.12, p = 0.02) but did not increase the odds of sustaining a training injury. Reducing the number of competitive match injuries among elite-level professional players may be possible if greater focus is placed on the training intensity and volume over a period of time ensuring the potential reduction of fatigue or overuse injuries. In addition, it is important to understand the optimal training load at which adaptation occurs without raising the risk of injury. PMID:26010801

  17. Effect of carcinogen release rate on the incidence of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the respiratory tract epithelium in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shiba, M.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.; Marchok, A.C.; Pal, B.C.; Nettesheim, P.

    1982-11-01

    Inbred F344 rat tracheal transplants were exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) delivered at different release rates from intraluminal pellets made of various matrices to study the effect of carcinogen dose rate on the induction of lesions in the epithelium. These matrices were beeswax, beeswax-stearyl alcohol, and beeswax-cholesterol. In addition, DMBA adsorbed onto carbon particles was dispersed in beeswax-stearyl alcohol. The fastest release was obtained from beeswax pellets from which 99% of the carcinogen (198 ..mu..g) was released in 4 weeks, and the slowest release was from DMBA adsorbed on carbon at a ratio of 1:9 from which only 56% (113 ..mu..g) was released in 16 weeks. Morphometry of histologic sections showed marked differences in the percentage of luminal surface covered by dysplastic-neoplastic epithelium (i.e., 7.5% in the tracheas exposed to the fastest releasing pellets and 46.3% in the tracheas exposed to the slowest releasing pellets). An inverse linear correlation was found between the cumulative amount of DMBA release from the different pellet matrices at 2 weeks and the incidence of dysplastic plus neoplastic lesions of tracheal epithelium at 16 weeks. The results indicated that lower doses of carcinogen delivered slowly are more effective in producing dysplastic plus neoplastic lesions than higher doses delivered rapidly.

  18. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  19. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations. PMID:27632152

  20. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis: A 5-year nationwide population-based study in a country with an intermediate tuberculosis burden.

    PubMed

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis.We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20-99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population.A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17-2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57-3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36-1.51).The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies. PMID:27661041

  1. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis: A 5-year nationwide population-based study in a country with an intermediate tuberculosis burden.

    PubMed

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis.We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20-99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population.A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17-2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57-3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36-1.51).The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies.

  2. Subnormal Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Strongly Predict Incident Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetic Chinese Population With Normoalbuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Kuo, Jeng-Fu; Su, Shih-Li; Chen, Jung-Fu; Chen, Hung-Chun; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract No study has evaluated whether subnormal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (between 61 and 90 mL/min) and high normal albumin–creatinine ratio (ACR) (<30 mg/g) are associated with cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients with normoalbuminuria. We observed a longitudinal cohort study of 1291 T2DM patients with normoalbuminuria who were receiving intensified multifactorial treatment from 2004 to 2008. Cox regression models were used to evaluate eGFR and ACR as the risk factors of major CV events (nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke) and mortality. During the 4-year period, 56 patients died and 159 patients developed major CV events. We found eGFR, but not ACR, to be associated with major CV events. Compared to those with eGFR higher than 90 mL/min, patients with subnormal eGFR (HR: 3.133, 1.402–7.002, P = 0.005) were at greater risk of incident major CV events. Extremely low eGFR (<30 mL/min) was associated with mortality only in patients under 65 years old. Subnormal eGFR was a strong predictor of major CV events in diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria. Normoalbuminuric diabetic patients with subnormal eGFR may need intensive CV risk factor intervention to prevent and treat CV events. PMID:26765399

  3. Large-Amplitude, High-Rate Roll Oscillations of a 65 deg Delta Wing at High Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Schiff, Lewis B.

    2000-01-01

    The IAR/WL 65 deg delta wing experimental results provide both detail pressure measurements and a wide range of flow conditions covering from simple attached flow, through fully developed vortex and vortex burst flow, up to fully-stalled flow at very high incidence. Thus, the Computational Unsteady Aerodynamics researchers can use it at different level of validating the corresponding code. In this section a range of CFD results are provided for the 65 deg delta wing at selected flow conditions. The time-dependent, three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are used to numerically simulate the unsteady vertical flow. Two sting angles and two large- amplitude, high-rate, forced-roll motions and a damped free-to-roll motion are presented. The free-to-roll motion is computed by coupling the time-dependent RANS equations to the flight dynamic equation of motion. The computed results are compared with experimental pressures, forces, moments and roll angle time history. In addition, surface and off-surface flow particle streaks are also presented.

  4. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  5. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013): an analysis of population-based data in relation to socioeconomic changes

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Tomasz; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Nieweglowska, Dorota; Ludwin, Artur; Czerw, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC), corpus uteri cancer (CUC), and ovarian cancer (OC) in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes. Materials and methods Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013) were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013) were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Results A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21), with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93) was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74). After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49), as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). Conclusion After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in mortality rate was observed for BC and OC predominantly at the end of the study period, while for CUC, after a long decreasing mortality trend, a significant increase was observed.

  6. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013): an analysis of population-based data in relation to socioeconomic changes

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Tomasz; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Nieweglowska, Dorota; Ludwin, Artur; Czerw, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC), corpus uteri cancer (CUC), and ovarian cancer (OC) in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes. Materials and methods Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013) were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013) were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Results A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21), with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93) was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74). After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49), as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). Conclusion After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in mortality rate was observed for BC and OC predominantly at the end of the study period, while for CUC, after a long decreasing mortality trend, a significant increase was observed. PMID:27660470

  7. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary.

  8. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  9. 75 FR 9964 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2010 Mid-Year Adjustment to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Sections 31(b...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... FR 21018 (May 6, 2009). Based on data provided by the national securities exchanges and the national... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2010 Mid-Year Adjustment to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Sections 31(b... amount of sales for fiscal year 2010 calculated by the Commission in its Order Making Fiscal 2010...

  10. Secondary cancer-incidence risk estimates for external radiotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy in cervical cancer: phantom study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hyeyoung; Son, Jaeman; Sung, Jiwon; Han, Youngyih; Huh, Seung Jae; Kim, Jin Sung; Kim, Dong Wook; Yoon, Myonggeun

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate radiation-induced secondary cancer risks from high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and external radiotherapy for patients with cervical cancer based on measurements of doses absorbed by various organs. Organ doses from HDR brachytherapy and external radiotherapy were measured using glass rod dosimeters. Doses to out-of-field organs were measured at various loca-tions inside an anthropomorphic phantom. Brachytherapy-associated organ doses were measured using a specialized phantom that enabled applicator insertion, with the pelvis portion of the existing anthropomorphic phantom replaced by this new phantom. Measured organ doses were used to calculate secondary cancer risk based on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII models. In both treatment modalities, organ doses per prescribed dose (PD) mostly depended on the distance between organs. The locations showing the highest and lowest doses were the right kidney (external radiotherapy: 215.2 mGy; brachytherapy: 655.17 mGy) and the brain (external radiotherapy: 15.82 mGy; brachytherapy: 2.49 mGy), respectively. Organ doses to nearby regions were higher for brachytherapy than for external beam therapy, whereas organ doses to distant regions were higher for external beam therapy. Organ doses to distant treatment regions in external radiotherapy were due primarily to out-of-field radiation resulting from scattering and leakage in the gantry head. For brachytherapy, the highest estimated lifetime attributable risk per 100,000 population was to the stomach (88.6), whereas the lowest risks were to the brain (0.4) and eye (0.4); for external radiotherapy, the highest and lowest risks were to the thyroid (305.1) and brain (2.4). These results may help provide a database on the impact of radiotherapy-induced secondary cancer incidence dur-ing cervical cancer treatment, as well as suggest further research on strategies to counteract the risks of radiotherapy-associated secondary

  11. Trends in incidence rates of congenital hypothyroidism related to select demographic factors: data from the United States, California, Massachusetts, New York, and Texas.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Cynthia F; Harris, Katharine B; Borgfeld, Lynette; Drummond-Borg, Margaret; Eaton, Roger; Lorey, Fred; Therrell, Bradford L; Wallace, Jill; Pass, Kenneth A

    2010-05-01

    Primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a common and preventable cause of intellectual disability. The incidence rate of CH has been reported to be increasing in the United States, but the factors behind the observed rate increase are not known. We summarize here the data presented at a workshop on CH, at which factors potentially related to the CH-incidence-rate increase (namely, race, ethnicity, sex, and birth outcomes) were evaluated. Data sources for the analyses included a national data set of newborn-screening results and state-specific data from newborn-screening programs in California, Massachusetts, New York, and Texas. The incidence rate of CH increased in the United States by 3% per year; however, an increase did not occur in all states, at a constant rate, or even at the same rate. Analysis of US data (1991-2000) showed a CH-incidence-rate increase only among white newborns. More recently, in California (2000-2007), the rate was constant in non-Hispanic newborns, but it increased among Hispanic newborns. In the national data, the CH-incidence rate increased similarly among boys and girls, whereas in Texas (1992-2006), the rate among boys increased significantly more than among girls and varied according to race and ethnicity. In Massachusetts (1995-2007), low birth weight newborns or newborns who had a delayed rise in thyrotropin concentration accounted for the majority of the recent rate increase. Race, ethnicity, sex, and pregnancy outcomes have affected the observed increasing incidence rate of CH, although there have been some inconsistencies and regional differences. The association with preterm birth or low birth weight could reflect the misclassification of some cases of transient hypothyroxinemia as true CH. Future studies of risk factors should focus on correct initial identification and reporting of demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes for cases of CH. In addition, long-term follow-up data of presumed cases of CH should be

  12. Time Trends over 16 Years in Incidence-Rates of Autism Spectrum Disorders across the Lifespan Based on Nationwide Danish Register Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated time trends and associated factors of incidence rates of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan from 1995 to 2010, using data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. First time diagnosis of childhood autism, atypical autism, Asperger's syndrome, or pervasive developmental…

  13. Sports members' participation in assessment of incidence rate of injuries in five sports from records of hospital-based clinical treatment.

    PubMed

    Kingma, J; ten Duis, H J

    1998-04-01

    This study is about the incidence rate of sports injuries in five different types of sports, gymnastics, soccer, volleyball, hockey, and basketball, for which 5,154 patients were admitted to the Emergency Unit of the Groningen University Hospital during the period 1990 through 1994. Incidence rate had been computed by membership participation. Basketball had the highest incidence rate (231 injured persons per 10,000 participants), followed by hockey (158 injured persons per 10,000 participants). The highest mean Injury Severity Score, 2.39, was found for gymnastics which had the lowest incidence rate (7 injured persons per 10,000 participants). Gymnastics had the highest percentage (12%) clinically treated patients, whereas basketball had the smallest percentage (2%) of clinically treated patients. The most frequent type of injury was distorsion, except for hockey, in which contusion had the highest percentage of occurrence. For all five types of sports, the majority (about 90%) of the injuries were observed at either the lower or at the upper extremities.

  14. Sex differences in the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases in Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, and a comparison with other rates published worldwide.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2016-09-01

    Many skin and skin-related diseases affect the sexes unequally, with attendant implications for public health and resource allocation. To evaluate better the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases affecting males vs. females, we reviewed published population-based epidemiology studies of skin disorders performed utilizing Rochester Epidemiology Project data. Females had a higher incidence of the following diseases: connective tissue diseases (scleroderma, morphea, dermatomyositis, primary Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus [not in all studies]), pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, condyloma acuminatum, hidradenitis suppurativa, herpes zoster (except in children), erythromelalgia, venous stasis syndrome, and venous ulcers. Males had a higher incidence of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, basal cell carcinoma (exception, females aged ≤40 years), squamous cell carcinoma, and lentigo maligna. Incidence rates were equal in males and females for cutaneous malignant melanoma (exception, higher in females aged 18-39 years), lower-extremity cellulitis, cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, Behçet disease, delusional infestation, alopecia areata, and bullous pemphigoid. Many of the population-based sex-specific incidence rates of skin and skin-related diseases derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project are strikingly different from those estimated elsewhere. In general, females are more commonly affected by skin and skin-related diseases. The reasons for this imbalance remain to be determined and are likely multifactorial. PMID:27009931

  15. Derivation of effective penetration depth of femtosecond laser pulses in metal from ablation rate dependence on laser fluence, incidence angle, and polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiro; Hashida, Masaki; Nishii, Takaya; Inoue, Shunsuke; Sakabe, Shuji

    2015-01-05

    Ablation rate dependence on laser fluence for copper subjected to oblique femtosecond laser irradiation has been determined experimentally in order to investigate processing induced by oblique irradiation. A difference of ablation rate between p-polarized and s-polarized oblique irradiation is clearly observed. Effective penetration depth is defined to explain the ablation rate dependence instead of using optical penetration depth, which is treated as a key value for determining the ablation rate in conventional theory. The effective penetration depth for copper is presented in simple formulas as a function of laser incidence angle for each polarization.

  16. Age-specific and age-standardised incidence rates for intraoral squamous cell carcinoma in blacks on the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Altini, M; Kola, A H

    1985-12-01

    All new cases of intraoral squamous cell carcinoma which occurred in Blacks resident on the Witwatersrand during the 10-yr period 1971-80 were traced by examining the records of all the hospital pathology departments in this area. The population at risk at the mid-point of the study (1975) was calculated from the National Population Censuses of 1970 and 1980, and consisted of 1125960 men and 880269 women. Age-specific incidence rates and age-standardised incidence rates were calculated for each intraoral site for men and women. In the latter calculation a standard World population was used. All rates are expressed as average number of cases per 100000 population per annum. The age-specific incidence rates and age-standardised incidence rates (in brackets) for men and women respectively are: tongue, 1.43 and 0.26 (2.69 and 0.41); gingiva and alveolar ridge, 0.04 and 0.01 (0.07 and 0.01); floor of mouth, 0.87 and 0.22 (1.64 and 0.38); buccal mucosa, 0.05 and 0.04 (0.13 and 0.05); hard and soft palate, 0.34 and 0.05 (0.63 and 0.08). There appears to have been an increase in the incidence of intraoral cancer in Black South Africans since the first survey in 1953-55, which can probably be ascribed to the urbanization process. In Europe, North America and in other population groups in South Africa, the palate is least frequently affected. In contrast, in Black South Africans lesions of the palate are much more common, being less frequent only than tongue and floor of mouth lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Estimated incidence rate and distribution of tumours in 4,653 cases of archival submissions derived from the Dutch golden retriever population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A genetic predisposition for certain tumour types has been proven for some dog breeds. Some studies have suggested that this may also be true for the Golden retriever breed. The present study aimed to examine a possible existence of a tumour (type) predisposition in the Dutch population of Golden retrievers by evaluating annual estimated incidence rates compared to incidence rates from previous publications. A second aim was to evaluate whether incidences of various tumours differed as related to the diagnostic method chosen, being either cytology or histology. Results Tumours submitted to Utrecht University during the period 1998–2004 diagnosed either by means of cytology (n = 2,529) or histology (n = 2,124), were related to an average annual Dutch kennel club population of 29,304 Golden retrievers. Combining individual tumours from both the cytological and the histopathological data-set resulted in an annual estimated incidence rate of 2,242 for 100,000 dog-years at risk regarding tumour development in general. The most common cytological tumor diagnoses were ‘fat, possibly lipoma’ (35%), mast cell tumour (21%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (10%). The most commonly diagnosed tumours by histology were mast cell tumour (26%), soft tissue sarcomas (11%) and melanoma (8%). Both the cytological and histopathological data-sets, showed variation; in patient age distribution, age of onset and incidence of various tumours. Conclusion Comparing our data with previous reports in non-breed-specified dog populations, the Golden retriever breed shows an increased risk for the development of tumours in general, as well as an increased risk for the development of specific tumour types, including the group of soft tissue sarcomas. Variations in age, location and incidence of various tumours were observed between the two data-sets, indicating a selection bias for diagnostic procedure. PMID:24484635

  18. Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Incidence among Residents of Guam

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Robert L; Whippy, Helen JD; Talon, Rebecca J; Montano, Melani V

    2015-01-01

    Cancer incidence data collected by the Guam Cancer Registry for the period 1998 through 2002 were analyzed by cancer site, age, and ethnicity. Ethnicity and site specific age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for Guam residents were calculated utilizing Guam 2000 census data and the U.S. 2000 standard population and were compared to U.S. 2000 data. Age-adjusted total cancer incidence rates per 100,000 population for the major ethnic groups represented on Guam were generally lower than U.S. averages (the exception was the Caucasian group which was higher). Some highlights include: 1). Chamorros (the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands) living on Guam had a slightly lower total cancer incidence rate than the total U.S. population (406.8/100,000 vs. 478.6 U.S.). Chamorros had high age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the mouth and pharynx (24.4 vs. U.S. 10.7), nasopharynx (13.9 vs. 0.6 U.S.), liver (13.2 vs. 5.2 U.S.), and cervix (16.2 vs. 9.6 U.S.). Rates for prostate cancer (103.9 vs. 167.7 U.S.), female breast (115.9 vs. 130.9 U.S.), ovary (7.0 vs. 14.2 U.S.), colon-rectum-anus (44.3 vs. 56.9 U.S.), leukemia (11.0 vs. 12.6 U.S.), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (7.0 vs. 18.9 U.S.) were all lower than U.S. rates. 2). Filipinos living on Guam had high age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the nasopharynx (5.1), and liver (9.6). Filipinos had low age-adjusted incidence rates for all cancers (215.7), cancers of the mouth and pharynx when NPC was excluded (4.8), lung and bronchus (35.6 vs. U.S. 70.1), pancreas (1.7 vs. U.S. 11.1), colon-rectum-anus (37.1), female breast (60.7), prostate (46.1), leukemia (4.7), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (8.4). 3). Micronesians other than Chamorros had the highest age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the lung and bronchus (111.5), liver (39.4), and cervix (27.4). Micronesians had low age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the colon-rectum-anus (4.1), female breast (35.0), prostate (78.4), leukemia (6.3), and non

  19. Ethnic disparities in cancer incidence among residents of Guam.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Robert L; Whippy, Helen J D; Talon, Rebecca J; Montano, Melani V

    2009-01-01

    Cancer incidence data collected by the Guam Cancer Registry for the period 1998 through 2002 were analyzed by cancer site, age, and ethnicity. Ethnicity and site specific age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for Guam residents were calculated utilizing Guam 2000 census data and the U.S. 2000 standard population and were compared to U.S. 2000 data. Age-adjusted total cancer incidence rates per 100,000 population for the major ethnic groups represented on Guam were generally lower than U.S. averages (the exception was the Caucasian group which was higher). Some highlights include: 1). Chamorros (the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands) living on Guam had a slightly lower total cancer incidence rate than the total U.S. population (406.8/100,000 vs. 478.6 U.S.). Chamorros had high age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the mouth and pharynx (24.4 vs. U.S. 10.7), nasopharynx (13.9 vs. 0.6 U.S.), liver (13.2 vs. 5.2 U.S.), and cervix (16.2 vs. 9.6 U.S.). Rates for prostate cancer ( 103.9 vs. 167.7 U.S.), female breast (115.9 vs. 130.9 U.S.), ovary (7.0 vs. 14.2 U.S.), colon-rectum-anus (44.3 vs. 56.9 U.S.), leukemia (11.0 vs. 12.6 U.S.), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (7.0 vs. 18.9 U.S.) were all lower than U.S. rates. 2). Filipinos living on Guam had high age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the nasopharynx (5.1), and liver (9.6). Filipinos had low age-adjusted incidence rates for all cancers (215.7), cancers of the mouth and pharynx when NPC was excluded (4.8), lung and bronchus (35.6 vs. U.S. 70.1), pancreas (1.7 vs. U.S. 11.1), colon-rectum-anus (37.1), female breast (60.7), prostate (46.1), leukemia (4.7), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (8.4). 3). Micronesians other than Chamorros had the highest age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the lung and bronchus (111.5), liver (39.4), and cervix (27.4). Micronesians had low age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the colon-rectum-anus (4.1), female breast (35.0), prostate (78.4), leukemia (6.3), and non

  20. Risk adjustment models for interhospital comparison of CS rates using Robson’s ten group classification system and other socio-demographic and clinical variables

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Caesarean section (CS) rate is a quality of health care indicator frequently used at national and international level. The aim of this study was to assess whether adjustment for Robson’s Ten Group Classification System (TGCS), and clinical and socio-demographic variables of the mother and the fetus is necessary for inter-hospital comparisons of CS rates. Methods The study population includes 64,423 deliveries in Emilia-Romagna between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2004, classified according to theTGCS. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted hospital relative risks of CS compared to a reference category. Analyses were carried out in the overall population and separately according to the Robson groups (groups I, II, III, IV and V–X combined). Adjusted relative risks (RR) of CS were estimated using two risk-adjustment models; the first (M1) including the TGCS group as the only adjustment factor; the second (M2) including in addition demographic and clinical confounders identified using a stepwise selection procedure. Percentage variations between crude and adjusted RRs by hospital were calculated to evaluate the confounding effect of covariates. Results The percentage variations from crude to adjusted RR proved to be similar in M1 and M2 model. However, stratified analyses by Robson’s classification groups showed that residual confounding for clinical and demographic variables was present in groups I (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and III (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and to a minor extent in groups II (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour). Conclusions The TGCS classification is useful for

  1. 48 CFR 52.222-30 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to workers subject to the Construction Wage Rate Requirements statute. (End of clause) ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction Wage Rate... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-30 Construction Wage Rate...

  2. Racial and Gender Disparities in Incidence of Lung and Bronchus Cancer in the United States: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Mohammad A.; Kengwoung-Keumo, Jean-Jacques; Oates, Gabriela R.; Guemmegne, Juliette T.; Akinlawon, Akinola; Ekadi, Green; Fouad, Mona N.; Singh, Karan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain population groups in the United States carry a disproportionate burden of cancer. This work models and analyzes the dynamics of lung and bronchus cancer age-adjusted incidence rates by race (White and Black), gender (male and female), and prevalence of daily smoking in 38 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and across eight U.S. geographic regions from 1999 to 2012. Methods Data, obtained from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Section of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reflect approximately 77% of the U.S. population and constitute a representative sample for making inferences about incidence rates in lung and bronchus cancer (henceforth lung cancer). A longitudinal linear mixed-effects model was used to study lung cancer incidence rates and to estimate incidence rate as a function of time, race, gender, and prevalence of daily smoking. Results Between 1999 and 2012, age-adjusted incidence rates in lung cancer have decreased in all states and regions. However, racial and gender disparities remain. Whites continue to have lower age-adjusted incidence rates for this cancer than Blacks in all states and in five of the eight U.S. geographic regions. Disparities in incidence rates between Black and White men are significantly larger than those between Black and White women, with Black men having the highest incidence rate of all subgroups. Assuming that lung cancer incidence rates remain within reasonable range, the model predicts that the gender gap in the incidence rate for Whites would disappear by mid-2018, and for Blacks by 2026. However, the racial gap in lung cancer incidence rates among Black and White males will remain. Among all geographic regions, the Mid-South has the highest overall lung cancer incidence rate and the highest incidence rate for Whites, while the Midwest has the highest incidence rate for Blacks. Between 1999 and 2012, there was a downward trend in the prevalence of daily smokers in both genders. However, males

  3. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  4. Adjustable Nyquist-rate System for Single-Bit Sigma-Delta ADC with Alternative FIR Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Vincent; Dadouche, Foudil; Berviller, Hervé

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new smart and compact system dedicated to control the output sampling frequency of an analogue-to-digital converters (ADC) based on single-bit sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulator. This system dramatically improves the spectral analysis capabilities of power network analysers (power meters) by adjusting the ADC's sampling frequency to the input signal's fundamental frequency with a few parts per million accuracy. The trade-off between straightforwardness and performance that motivated the choice of the ADC's architecture are preliminary discussed. It particularly comes along with design considerations of an ultra-steep direct-form FIR that is optimised in terms of size and operating speed. Thanks to compact standard VHDL language description, the architecture of the proposed system is particularly suitable for application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) implementation-oriented low-power and low-cost power meter applications. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) prototyping and experimental results validate the adjustable sampling frequency concept. They also show that the system can perform better in terms of implementation and power capabilities compared to dedicated IP resources.

  5. Ultraviolet carcinogenesis in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Part I: incidence rates in relation to geographic locations and in migrant populations.

    PubMed

    Almahroos, Mona; Kurban, Amal K

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades a worldwide increase in the incidence of skin cancer to near epidemic proportions has led to increased morbidity and appreciating cost. Well known risk factors include UV radiation, x or gamma irradiation, chemical carcinogens, genetic aberrations, and immunosuppression. This article reviews and analyzes the evidence for UV radiations role in the pathogenesis of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Observations on the incidence of NMSC among migrants to temperate regions show an increase in both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. There is also an increase in NMSC in areas with lower latitudes. Irradiation of human skin grafted to animals and animal models that develop NMSC lend further support to the role of UV radiation in the pathogenesis of NMSC. In the forthcoming Part II of this review, epidemiologic evidence will be presented attesting to the relationship between UV radiation and NMSC.

  6. Natural history of pancreatitis-induced splenic vein thrombosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of its incidence and rate of gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Butler, James R; Eckert, George J; Zyromski, Nicholas J; Leonardi, Michael J; Lillemoe, Keith D; Howard, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Background Pancreatitis-induced splenic vein thrombosis (PISVT) is an acquired anatomic abnormality that impacts decision making in pancreatic surgery. Despite this influence, its incidence and the rate of associated gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding are imprecisely known. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases were searched from their inception to June 2010 for abstracts documenting PISVT in acute (AP) or chronic pancreatitis (CP). Two reviewers independently graded abstracts for inclusion in this review. Heterogeneity in combining data was assumed prior to pooling. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to estimate percentages and 95% confidence intervals. Results After review of 241 abstracts, 47 studies and 52 case reports were graded as relevant. These represent a cohort of 805 patients with PISVT reported in the literature. A meta-analysis of studies meeting inclusion criteria shows mean incidences of PISVT of 14.1% in all patients, 22.6% in patients with AP and 12.4% in patients with CP. The incidence of associated splenomegaly was only 51.9% in these patients. Varices were identified in 53.0% of patients and were gastric in 77.3% of cases. The overall rate of GI bleeding was 12.3%. Conclusions Although reported incidences of PISVT vary widely across studies, an overall incidence of 14.1% is reported. Splenomegaly is an unreliable sign of PISVT. Although the true natural history of PISVT remains unknown, the collective reported rate of associated GI bleeding is 12.3%. PMID:22081918

  7. A poly(glycerol sebacate)-coated mesoporous bioactive glass scaffold with adjustable mechanical strength, degradation rate, controlled-release and cell behavior for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan; Yang, Kai; Tang, Wei; Liu, Yutong; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-07-01

    Various requirements in the field of tissue engineering have motivated the development of three-dimensional scaffold with adjustable physicochemical properties and biological functions. A series of multiparameter-adjustable mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds with uncrosslinked poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) coating was prepared in this article. MBG scaffold was prepared by a modified F127/PU co-templating process and then PGS was coated by a simple adsorption and lyophilization process. Through controlling macropore parameters and PGS coating amount, the mechanical strength, degradation rate, controlled-release and cell behavior of the composite scaffold could be modulated in a wide range. PGS coating successfully endowed MBG scaffold with improved toughness and adjustable mechanical strength covering the bearing range of trabecular bone (2-12MPa). Multilevel degradation rate of the scaffold and controlled-release rate of protein from mesopore could be achieved, with little impact on the protein activity owing to an "ultralow-solvent" coating and "nano-cavity entrapment" immobilization method. In vitro studies indicated that PGS coating promoted cell attachment and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting the osteogenic induction capacity of MBG substrate. These results first provide strong evidence that uncrosslinked PGS might also yield extraordinary achievements in traditional MBG scaffold. With the multiparameter adjustability, the composite MBG/PGS scaffolds would have a hopeful prospect in bone tissue engineering. The design considerations and coating method of this study can also be extended to other ceramic-based artificial scaffolds and are expected to provide new thoughts on development of future tissue engineering materials.

  8. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Return Method Rate of return for a period may be calculated by computing the net performance divided by the beginning net asset value for each trading day in the period and compounding each daily rate of... commodity pool operator or commodity trading advisor may present to the Commission proposals regarding...

  9. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Return Method Rate of return for a period may be calculated by computing the net performance divided by the beginning net asset value for each trading day in the period and compounding each daily rate of... commodity pool operator or commodity trading advisor may present to the Commission proposals regarding...

  10. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Return Method Rate of return for a period may be calculated by computing the net performance divided by the beginning net asset value for each trading day in the period and compounding each daily rate of... commodity pool operator or commodity trading advisor may present to the Commission proposals regarding...

  11. 75 FR 70744 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2012-2013 Proposed Power Rate Adjustments Public Hearing and Opportunities for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... information about costs, load and resource forecasting, generation inputs pricing, segmentation, revenue... Public customers serving new large single loads. BPA is forecasting no sales at the NR rate in the... governed by BPA's Procedures Governing Bonneville Power Administration Rate Hearings, 51 FR ] 7611...

  12. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Return Method Rate of return for a period may be calculated by computing the net performance divided by the beginning net asset value for each trading day in the period and compounding each daily rate of... commodity pool operator or commodity trading advisor may present to the Commission proposals regarding...

  13. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Return Method Rate of return for a period may be calculated by computing the net performance divided by the beginning net asset value for each trading day in the period and compounding each daily rate of... commodity pool operator or commodity trading advisor may present to the Commission proposals regarding...

  14. Relationship of Self-Rated Health to Stroke Incidence and Mortality in Older Individuals with and without a History of Stroke: A Longitudinal Study of the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing (CFAS) Population

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nahal; van der Linde, Rianne; Parker, Richard; Savva, George; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Brayne, Carol; Mant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been associated with increased risk of death and poor health outcomes even after adjusting for confounders. However its’ relationship with disease-specific mortality and morbidity has been less studied. SRH may also be particularly predictive of health outcomes in those with pre-existing conditions. We studied whether SRH predicts new stroke in older people who have never had a stroke, or a recurrence in those with a prior history of stroke. Methods MRC CFAS I is a multicentre cohort study of a population representative sample of people in their 65th year and older. A comprehensive interview at baseline included questions about presence of stroke, self-rated health and functional disability. Follow-up at 2 years included self-report of stroke and stroke death obtained from death certificates. Multiple logistical regression determined odds of stroke at 2 years adjusting for confounders including disability and health behaviours. Survival analysis was performed until June 2014 with follow-up for up to 13 years. Results 11,957 participants were included, of whom 11,181 (93.8%) had no history of stroke and 776 (6.2%) one or more previous strokes. Fewer with no history of stroke reported poor SRH than those with stroke (5 versus 21%). In those with no history of stroke, poor self-rated health predicted stroke incidence (OR 1.5 (1.1–1.9)), but not stroke mortality (OR 1.2 (0.8–1.9)) at 2 years nor for up to 13 years (OR 1.2(0.9–1.7)). In those with a history of stroke, self-rated health did not predict stroke incidence (OR 0.9(0.6–1.4)), stroke mortality (OR 1.1(0.5–2.5)), or survival (OR 1.1(0.6–2.1)). Conclusions Poor self-rated health predicts risk of stroke at 2 years but not stroke mortality among the older population without a previous history of stroke. SRH may be helpful in predicting who may be at risk of developing a stroke in the near future. PMID:26928666

  15. Do US thyroid cancer incidence rates increase with socioeconomic status among people with health insurance? An observational study using SEER population-based data

    PubMed Central

    Altekruse, Sean; Das, Anita; Cho, Hyunsoon; Petkov, Valentina; Yu, Mandi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The US thyroid cancer incidence rates are rising while mortality remains stable. Trends are driven by papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), the predominant cancer subtype which has a very good prognosis. We hypothesised that health insurance and high census tract socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with PTC risk. Design Relationships between thyroid cancer incidence, insurance and census tract SES during 2007–2010 were examined in population-based cancer registries. Cases were stratified by tumour histology, size and demography. Setting Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries covering 30% of the US population. Results PTCs accounted for 88% of incident thyroid cancer cases. Small PTCs (≤2 cm) accounted for 60% of cases. Unlike non-PTC cases, the majority of those diagnosed with PTC were <50 years of age and had ≤2 cm tumours. Rate ratios (RR) of PTC diagnoses increased monotonically with SES among fully insured cases. The effect was strongest for small PTCs, high-SES versus low-SES quintile RR=2.7, 95% CI 2.6 to 2.9, two-sided trend test p<0.0001. For small PTC cases with insurance, the monotonic increase in incidence rates with rising SES persisted among cases younger than 50 years of age (RR=3.3, 95% CI 3.0 to 3.5), women (RR=2.6, 95% CI 2.5 to 2.8) and Caucasians (RR=2.5, 95% CI 2.4 to 2.7). Among the less than fully insured, rates generally decreased with increasing SES. Conclusions The >2.5-fold increase in risk of PTC diagnosis among insured individuals associated with high SES may be informative with respect to the contemporary issue of PTC overdiagnosis. PMID:26644126

  16. 5 CFR 9701.337 - Treatment of employees whose rate of pay falls below the minimum adjusted rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements § 9701.337 Treatment of employees whose rate of pay...

  17. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments.

    PubMed

    Loebner, Keith T K; Underwood, Thomas C; Cappelli, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated. PMID:26133835

  18. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments.

    PubMed

    Loebner, Keith T K; Underwood, Thomas C; Cappelli, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated.

  19. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebner, Keith T. K.; Underwood, Thomas C.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2015-06-01

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated.

  20. A fast rise-rate, adjustable-mass-bit gas puff valve for energetic pulsed plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Loebner, Keith T. K. Underwood, Thomas C.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2015-06-15

    A fast rise-rate, variable mass-bit gas puff valve based on the diamagnetic repulsion principle was designed, built, and experimentally characterized. The ability to hold the pressure rise-rate nearly constant while varying the total overall mass bit was achieved via a movable mechanical restrictor that is accessible while the valve is assembled and pressurized. The rise-rates and mass-bits were measured via piezoelectric pressure transducers for plenum pressures between 10 and 40 psig and restrictor positions of 0.02-1.33 cm from the bottom of the linear restrictor travel. The mass-bits were found to vary linearly with the restrictor position at a given plenum pressure, while rise-rates varied linearly with plenum pressure but exhibited low variation over the range of possible restrictor positions. The ability to change the operating regime of a pulsed coaxial plasma deflagration accelerator by means of altering the valve parameters is demonstrated.

  1. Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Alghamdi, Mansour M; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32), followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07), and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69) than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men). Conclusion A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the highest incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases. Finally, Jouf had the highest changes in crude incidence rate and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of NHL among Saudi men. PMID:25028562

  2. Primary intracerebral haemorrhage in the Jyväskylä region, central Finland, 1985-89: incidence, case fatality rate, and functional outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Fogelholm, R; Nuutila, M; Vuorela, A L

    1992-01-01

    The age and sex specific incidence rates, the case fatality rates, and the functional outcome of patients with primary intracerebral haemorrhage occurring in a population of 116,000 during a period of four years four months are presented. A total of 158 patients were identified, the diagnosis was confirmed in 78% by CT, and in 22% by necropsy. The crude annual incidence rate was 31/100,000 population, the age specific rates increased from two to 222/100,000 from the age of 30-39 to over 80 years. Men had higher incidence rates between the ages of 40 and 79 years. The short term case fatality rate was high, 27% of patients dying during the first day after onset of symptoms, and 50% were dead at 30 days. After the first month the probability of survival did not differ from an age- and sex-matched average population. Large haematoma volume had an adverse effect on the short term, old age (greater than 70 years) on the long term survival. Ventricular extension, especially when combined with hydrocephalus was a bad omen for short term survival. Infratentorial and large basal ganglionic haematomas, and primary intraventricular haemorrhage carried a worse prognosis than haematomas of other locations. At the end of a median 32 month follow up 55 (35%) of the patients were alive, 51% of these were independent in activities of daily living, 45% were dependent on outside help, and 4% needed constant nursing care. Old age (greater than 70 years), but not the haematoma volume or location, was associated with a poor functional recovery. PMID:1640229

  3. Role of solar UVB irradiance and smoking in cancer as inferred from cancer incidence rates by occupation in Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiance and vitamin D reduce the risk of incidence and death for many types of cancer. However, most of that evidence comes from midlatitude regions, where solar UVB doses are generally high in summer. Data on cancer standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) by sex and 54 occupation categories based on 1.4 million male and 1.36 million female cancer cases for 1961–2005 in the five Nordic countries provide the basis for an ecological study of the role of solar UVB in the risk of many types of cancer at high latitudes. Lip cancer SIRs less lung cancer SIRs for men was the best index of solar UVB dose, which was weakly inversely correlated with both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) SIRs. Lung cancer SIRs were used as the index of the effects of smoking. For men, the UVB index was significantly inversely correlated with 14 types of internal cancer—bladder, breast, colon, gallbladder, kidney, laryngeal, liver, lung, oral, pancreatic, pharyngeal, prostate, rectal and small intestine cancer. For women, the same UVB index was inversely correlated with bladder, breast and colon cancer. These results generally agree with findings from other studies. These results provide more support for the UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis and suggest that widespread fear of chronic solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance may be misplaced. PMID:22928078

  4. The Secular Trends in the Incidence Rate and Outcomes of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Taiwan—A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Jen-Yu; Teng, Nai-Chi; Chao, Ting-Ting; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Chen, Chi-Liang; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Wu, Chin-Pyng; Lai, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Likwang

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the trends in incidence and mortality of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), as well as factors associated with OHCA outcomes in Taiwan. Methods Our study included OHCA patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) upon arrival at the hospital. We used national time-series data on annual OHCA incidence rates and mortality rates from 2000 to 2012, and individual demographic and clinical data for all OHCA patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) care from March of 2010 to September of 2011. Analytic techniques included the time-series regression and the logistic regression. Results There were 117,787 OHCAs in total. The overall incidence rate during the 13 years was 51.1 per 100,000 persons, and the secular trend indicates a sharp increase in the early 2000s and a decrease afterwards. The trend in mortality was also curvilinear, revealing a substantial increase in the early 2000s, a subsequent steep decline and finally a modest increase. Both the 30-day and 180-day mortality rates had a long-term decreasing trend over the period (p<0.01). For both incidence and mortality rates, a significant second-order autoregressive effect emerged. Among OHCA patients with MV, 1-day, 30-day and 180-day mortality rates were 31.3%, 75.8%, and 86.0%, respectively. In this cohort, older age, the female gender, and a Charlson comorbidity index score ≥ 2 were associated with higher 180-day mortality; patients delivered to regional hospitals and those residing in non-metropolitan areas had higher death risk. Conclusions Overall, both the 30-day and the 180-day mortality rates after OHCA had a long-term decreasing trend, while the 1-day mortality had no long-term decline. Among OHCA patients requiring MV, those delivered to regional hospitals and those residing in non-metropolitan areas tended to have higher mortality, suggesting a need for effort to further standardize and improve in-hospital care across hospitals and to advance pre

  5. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries. PMID:27336001

  6. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    PubMed

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  7. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    PubMed

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries. PMID:27336001

  8. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    PubMed

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  9. Incidence rates of suicidal behaviors and treated depression in patients with and without psoriatic arthritis using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Hagberg, Katrina Wilcox; Li, Lin; Peng, Michael; Shah, Kamal; Paris, Maria; Jick, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate rates of suicidal behaviors and treated depression in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in comparison to non-PsA patients. Methods: Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we conducted a cohort study of patients with PsA compared to non-PsA patients. Patients with codes for suicidal behaviors (ideation, attempts, and suicide) and treated depression (diagnosis plus anti-depressant prescription) recorded during follow-up were identified as cases. We estimated incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome and stratified results in the PsA cohort by receipt of systemic PsA drugs. Results: The rates of suicide ideation, attempt, and suicide were similar for PsA and non-PsA patients [IRR = 0.99 (95%CI: 0.67–1.47), IRR = 1.07 (95%CI: 0.86–1.34), and 0.34 (95%CI: 0.05–2.48), respectively] and rates of suicidal behaviors were slightly higher among PsA patients who received PsA drugs compared to those who did not. PsA patients had slightly higher rate of treated depression compared to non-PsA patients [IRR = 1.38 (95%CI: 1.27–1.49)] and were significantly higher in PsA patients who received drugs [IRR = 1.59 (95%CI: 1.35–1.86)]. Conclusions: Rate of depression was higher in patients with PsA compared to non-PsA patients. The rate of suicidal behaviors was similar between the two cohorts. PMID:26882216

  10. Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; Dohal, Ahlam A; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR), and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling. Results A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001) in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83), followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82), and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98). The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years) and 1.71 + (0.09× years), respectively. Conclusion We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women. PMID:25028565

  11. Effect of low /sup 60/Co dose rates on sister chromatid exchange incidence in the benthic worm. Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-10-13

    The usefulness of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as a measure of low-level radiation effect was examined in a benthic marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Larvae were exposed to /sup 60/Co radiation for 12 to 24 h at total doses ranging from 0.5 to 309 R and at dose rates from 0.04 to 13 R/h. Animals exposed at intermediate dose rates (0.5, 0.6, 1.25, 2.0, and 2.5 R/h) had SCE frequencies per chromosome about twice that of those receiving no radiation (controls), whereas those exposed at the higher dose rates (7.0 and 13 R/h) had SCE frequencies lower than the controls. Animals exposed at the lower dose rates (0.04 and 0.1 R/h) had lower SCE frequencies than those exposed at intermediate dose rates (and higher SCE frequencies than controls). The length of chromosome pair number one differed among metaphase spreads and was used as an index of chromosome condensation in a given metaphase. Because there is a possibility that chromosome morphology may affect the ability to resolve SCEs, morphology will be monitored in future studies. A preliminary experiment was performed to assess the effects of 2.2 and 11.5 R/h for 24 h on growth and development. Larvae observed at 6 and 17 d after irradiation did not have significantly different numbers of abnormal larvae or survival rates.

  12. Inhibitors incidence rate in Czech previously untreated patients with haemophilia A has not increased since introduction of recombinant factor VIII treatment in 2003.

    PubMed

    Blatny, Jan; Komrska, Vladimir; Blazek, Bohumir; Penka, Miroslav; Ovesna, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Our objective was to assess the incidence of inhibitors development in Czech Republic since the introduction of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) and to look for the factors potentially influencing this parameter. It is to be expected that inhibitors risk may be increased after the introduction of recombinant products. Data of Czech National Haemophilia Programme registry entered from 2003 till 2013 were analysed. Both annual and absolute incidences of newly developed inhibitors in previously untreated patients (PUPs) were calculated. Bleeding and treatment data were also extracted, and association to the treatment regimen and development of inhibitors were analysed. Within the given period, we commenced 45 PUPs with haemophilia A on rFVIII and treated them for 137 treatment-years. Twenty-two of the PUPs had severe haemophilia A, being treated for 88 treatment-years. Treatment strategy for them was prophylaxis. Other PUPs were treated on demand. Median annual bleeding rate was 5 for boys with severe haemophilia, 3 for moderate haemophilia and 1 for mild form of the disease. No inhibitors developed in PUPs with moderate/mild haemophilia A. Annual inhibitor incidence rate in PUPs with severe haemophilia A treated with rFVIII was 56.8 per 1000 treatment-years. Absolute incidence was 22.7% (5/22). All inhibitors appeared within the first 50 exposure days. Comparing rFVIII-treated group with the control group treated under same/similar conditions with plasma-derived FVIII during the same follow-up period, we were not able to find significant difference in inhibitor development between these two groups. Our results support the finding that use of rFVIII is not a proven risk factor for inhibitor development in patients with haemophilia A.

  13. What is the Most Suitable Time Period to Assess the Time Trends in Cancer Incidence Rates to Make Valid Predictions--an Empirical Approach.

    PubMed

    Ramnath, Takiar; Shah, Varsha Premchandbhai; Krishnan, Sathish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Projections of cancer cases are particularly useful in developing countries to plan and prioritize both diagnostic and treatment facilities. In the prediction of cancer cases for the future period say after 5 years or after 10 years, it is imperative to use the knowledge of past time trends in incidence rates as well as in population at risk. In most of the recently published studies the duration for which the time trend was assessed was more than 10 years while in few studies the duration was between 5-7 years. This raises the question as to what is the optimum time period which should be used for assessment of time trends and projections. Thus, the present paper explores the suitability of different time periods to predict the future rates so that the valid projections of cancer burden can be done for India. The cancer incidence data of selected cancer sites of Bangalore, Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai PBCR for the period of 1991-2009 was utilized. The three time periods were selected namely 1991-2005; 1996-2005, 1999-2005 to assess the time trends and projections. For the five selected sites, each for males and females and for each registry, the time trend was assessed and the linear regression equation was obtained to give prediction for the years 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009. These predictions were compared with actual incidence data. The time period giving the least error in prediction was adjudged as the best. The result of the current analysis suggested that for projections of cancer cases, the 10 years duration data are most appropriate as compared to 7 year or 15 year incidence data. PMID:25921103

  14. Improvement in in vitro fertilization rate, decrease in reactive oxygen species and spermatozoa death incidence in rams by dietary fish oil.

    PubMed

    Matini Behzad, A; Ebrahimi, B; Alizadeh, A R; Esmaeili, V; Dalman, A; Rashki, L; Shahverdi, A H

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the effects of fish oil feeding on sperm classical parameters, level of reactive oxygen spices (ROS), spermatozoa death incidence and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate in rams. We randomly assigned nine rams, into two experimental groups (isoenergetic and isonitrogenous rations with constant level of vitamin E supplement): control (CTR; n = 5) and fish oil (FO; n = 4, 35 g/day/ram). Diets were fed for 70 days during the physiological breeding season. After a 21-day dietary adaptation period, semen was collected weekly from each ram by an artificial vagina. Sperm classical parameters were determined by the computer-assisted sperm analyzer system (CASA), and it was prepared for IVF process by swim-up technique. These evaluations were performed during the first and last weeks of sampling. Intracellular ROS level and spermatozoa death incidence were detected by flow cytometry on a weekly basis after adaptation. Data were analysed with SPSS 15. The volume, concentration (3.6 and 2.7 × 10(9) /ml) and sperm progressive motility (60 and 48%) were significantly improved in the FO group compared with the CTR (p < 0.05). A comparison of two-cell stage embryos following IVF in the two groups showed a significantly higher fertilization rate in the FO group (56%) compared with the CTR (49%). Superoxide anion (O2 (-) ) rate was significantly lower (p < 0.05) at the third week of sampling in the FO. Although the H2 O2 rate was numerically lower in the FO group compared with the CTR, this difference was not significant. In addition, apoptosis showed a significant difference in the third week of sampling (15 and 30% for FO and CTR, respectively; p < 0.05). Overall, adding fish oil to the ram diet not only improved sperm quality and IVF results, it also could reduce oxygen-free radicals and the incidence of spermatozoa death.

  15. Adjustment on the Type I Error Rate for a Clinical Trial Monitoring for both Intermediate and Primary Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Halabi, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In many clinical trials, a single endpoint is used to answer the primary question and forms the basis for monitoring the experimental therapy. Many trials are lengthy in duration and investigators are interested in using an intermediate endpoint for an accelerated approval, but will rely on the primary endpoint (such as, overall survival) for the full approval of the drug by the Food and Drug Administration. We have designed a clinical trial where both intermediate (progression-free survival, (PFS)) and primary endpoints (overall survival, (OS)) are used for monitoring the trial so the overall type I error rate is preserved at the pre-specified alpha level of 0.05. A two-stage procedure is used. In the first stage, the Bonferroni correction was used where the global type I error rate was allocated to each of the endpoints. In the next stage, the O’Brien-Fleming approach was used to design the boundary for the interim and final analysis for each endpoint. Data were generated assuming several parametric copulas with exponential marginals. Different degrees of dependence, as measured by Kendall’s τ, between OS and PFS were assumed: 0 (independence) 0.3, 0.5 and 0.70. This approach is applied to an example in a prostate cancer trial. PMID:24466469

  16. A validation of the Danish microbiology database (MiBa) and incidence rate of Actinotignum schaalii (Actinobaculum schaalii) bacteraemia in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bank, S; Søby, K M; Kristensen, L H; Voldstedlund, M; Prag, J

    2015-12-01

    Actinotignum schaalii (former named Actinobaculum schaalii) can cause urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bacteraemia, mainly in the elderly. A. schaalii is difficult to identify with conventional biochemical tests, and it is often overlooked if the urine is only cultured in ambient air. The aim of this study was to validate data from the nationwide Danish microbiology database (MiBa) with data from the laboratory information system (LIS) at the local department of microbiology in Viborg-Herning, and to evaluate the incidence rate of bacteraemia caused by A. schaalii in Denmark by using data from the MiBa. All departments of microbiology in Denmark report data to the MiBa. All microbiological samples with A. schaalii in Denmark were extracted for a period of 5 years from the MiBa and from the local LISs. All data obtained from our local LIS were also found in the MiBa, except for data on real-time PCR, which were not registered, owing to missing ID codes in the MiBa. From 2010 to 2014, there was a significant increase in the incidence rate of blood cultures with A. schaalii, from 1.8 to 6.8 cases per million, which was probably due to coincident implementation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in routine diagnostics. We found that A. schaalii caused bacteraemia and UTIs mainly in the elderly. In conclusion, the MiBa can be a useful source of nationwide microbiological data in Denmark. Our results suggest that the incidence rate of A. schaalii as a cause of bacteraemia has been underestimated, and that culture of urine in CO2 can improve the detection of A. schaalii.

  17. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence, Mortality, and Survival Trends in the United States From 1975 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Altekruse, Sean F.; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Reichman, Marsha E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Incidence rates are increasing in the United States. Monitoring incidence, survival, and mortality rates within at-risk populations can facilitate control efforts. Methods Age-adjusted incidence trends for HCC were examined in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries from 1975 to 2005. Age-specific rates were examined for birth cohorts born between 1900 and 1959. Age-adjusted incidence and cause-specific survival rates from 1992 to 2005 were examined in the SEER 13 registries by race/ethnicity, stage, and treatment. United States liver cancer mortality rates were also examined. Results Age-adjusted HCC incidence rates tripled between 1975 and 2005. Incidence rates increased in each 10-year birth cohort from 1900 through the 1950s. Asians/Pacific Islanders had higher incidence and mortality rates than other racial/ethnic groups, but experienced a significant decrease in mortality rates over time. From 2000 to 2005, marked increases in incidence rates occurred among Hispanic, black, and white middle-aged men. Between 1992 and 2004, 2- to 4-year HCC survival rates doubled, as more patients were diagnosed with localized and regional HCC and prognosis improved, particularly for patients with reported treatment. Recent 1-year survival rates remained, however, less than 50%. Conclusion HCC incidence and mortality rates continue to increase, particularly among middle-aged black, Hispanic, and white men. Screening of at-risk groups and treatment of localized-stage tumors may contribute to increasing HCC survival rates in the United States. More progress is needed. PMID:19224838

  18. HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethnicity, and Sex, United States, 2008–2012 The graph above shows age-adjusted incidence rates for HPV- ... were diagnosed with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. This graph was adapted from Viens LJ, Henley SJ, Watson ...

  19. Incidence rate and pattern of clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions in a large outpatient population of a developing country.

    PubMed

    Nabovati, Ehsan; Vakili-Arki, Hasan; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine incidence rate, type, and pattern of clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) in a large outpatient population of a developing country. A retrospective, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on outpatients' prescriptions in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran, over 12 months. A list of 25 clinically relevant DDIs, which are likely to occur in the outpatient setting, was used as the reference. Most frequent clinically relevant pDDIs, most common drugs contributing to the pDDIs, and the pattern of pDDIs for each medical specialty were determined. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. In total, out of 8,169,142 prescriptions, 6,096 clinically relevant pDDIs were identified. The most common identified pDDIs were theophyllines-quinolones, warfarin-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, benzodiazepines-azole antifungal agents, and anticoagulants-thyroid hormones. The most common drugs contributing to the identified pDDIs were ciprofloxacin, theophylline, warfarin, aminophylline, alprazolam, levothyroxine, and selegiline. While the incidence rate of clinically relevant pDDIs in prescriptions of general practitioners, internists, and cardiologists was the highest, the average pDDI incidence per 10,000 prescriptions of pulmonologists, infectious disease specialists, and cardiologists was highest. Although a small proportion of the analyzed prescriptions contained drug pairs with potential for clinically relevant DDIs, a significant number of outpatients have been exposed to the adverse effects associated with these interactions. It is recommended that in addition to training physicians and pharmacists, other effective interventions such as computerized alerting systems and electronic prescribing systems be designed and implemented. PMID:27499793

  20. Investigation of HIV Incidence Rates in a High-Risk, High-Prevalence Kenyan Population: Potential Lessons for Intervention Trials and Programmatic Strategies.

    PubMed

    Mdodo, Rennatus; Gust, Deborah; Otieno, Fredrick O; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Chen, Robert T; LeBaron, Charles; Hardnett, Felicia; Turner, Kyle; Ndivo, Richard; Zeh, Clement; Samandari, Taraz; Mills, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effective HIV prevention programs should target persons at high risk of HIV acquisition. We conducted an observational HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya, where HIV prevalence is triple that of the national rate. We used referral and venue-sampling approaches to enroll HIV-negative persons for a 12-month observational cohort, August 2010 to September 2011, collected data using computer-assisted interviews, and performed HIV testing quarterly. Among 1292 eligible persons, 648 (50%) were excluded for HIV positivity and other reasons. Of the 644 enrollees, 52% were women who were significantly older than men (P<.01). In all, 7 persons seroconverted (incidence rate [IR] per 100 person-years=1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-2.30), 6 were women; 5 (IR=3.14; 95% CI 1.02-7.34) of whom were ≤25 years. Most new infections occurred in young women, an observation consistent with other findings in sub-Saharan Africa that women aged ≤25 years are an important population for HIV intervention trials in Africa.

  1. Rate of phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue complex formation in acidic persulfate digested sample matrix for total dissolved phosphorus determination: importance of post-digestion pH adjustment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2008-10-19

    Acidic persulfate oxidation is one of the most common procedures used to digest dissolved organic phosphorus compounds in water samples for total dissolved phosphorus determination. It has been reported that the rates of phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue complex formation were significantly reduced in the digested sample matrix. This study revealed that the intermediate products of persulfate oxidation, not the slight change in pH, cause the slowdown of color formation. This effect can be remedied by adjusting digested samples pH to a near neural to decompose the intermediate products. No disturbing effects of chlorine on the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue formation in seawater were observed. It is noted that the modification of mixed reagent recipe cannot provide near neutral pH for the decomposition of the intermediate products of persulfate oxidation. This study provides experimental evidence not only to support the recommendation made in APHA standard methods that the pH of the digested sample must be adjusted to within a narrow range of sample, but also to improve the understanding of role of residue from persulfate decomposition on the subsequent phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue formation.

  2. Socioeconomic status and the incidence of non-central nervous system childhood embryonic tumours in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer differs from most common adult cancers, suggesting a distinct aetiology for some types of childhood cancer. Our objective in this study was to test the difference in incidence rates of 4 non-CNS embryonic tumours and their correlation with socioeconomic status (SES) in Brazil. Methods Data was obtained from 13 Brazilian population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) of neuroblastoma (NB), Wilms'tumour (WT), retinoblastoma (RB), and hepatoblastoma (HB). Incidence rates by tumour type, age, and gender were calculated per one million children. Correlations between social exclusion index (SEI) as an indicator of socioeconomic status (SES) and incidence rates was investigated using the Spearman's test. Results WT, RB, and HB presented with the highest age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIRs) in 1 to 4 year old of both genders, whereas NB presented the highest AAIR in ≤11 month-olds. However, differences in the incidence rates among PBCRs were observed. Higher incidence rates were found for WT and RB, whereas lower incidence rates were observed for NB. Higher SEI was correlated with higher incidences of NB (0.731; p = 0.0117), whereas no SEI correlation was observed between incidence rates for WT, RB, and HB. In two Brazilian cities, the incidence rates of NB and RB were directly correlated with SEI; NB had the highest incidence rates (14.2, 95% CI, 8.6-19.7), and RB the lowest (3.5, 95% CI, 0.7-6.3) in Curitiba (SEI, 0.730). In Natal (SEI, 0.595), we observed just the opposite; the highest incidence rate was for RB and the lowest was for NB (4.6, 95% CI, 0.1-9.1). Conclusion Regional variations of SES and the incidence of embryonal tumours were observed, particularly incidence rates for NB and RB. Further studies are necessary to investigate risk factors for embryonic tumours in Brazil. PMID:21545722

  3. Adaptive upstream rate adjustment by RSOA-ONU depending on different injection power of seeding light in standard-reach and long-reach PON systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, C. H.; Chow, C. W.; Shih, F. Y.; Pan, C. L.

    2012-08-01

    The wavelength division multiplexing-time division multiplexing (WDM-TDM) passive optical network (PON) using reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based colorless optical networking units (ONUs) is considered as a promising candidate for the realization of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH). And this architecture is actively considered by Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) for the realization of FTTH in Taiwan. However, different fiber distances and optical components would introduce different power budgets to different ONUs in the PON. Besides, due to the aging of optical transmitter (Tx), the power decay of the distributed optical carrier from the central office (CO) could also reduce the injection power into each ONU. The situation will be more severe in the long-reach (LR) PON, which is considered as an option for the future access. In this work, we investigate a WDM-TDM PON using RSOA-based ONU for upstream data rate adjustment depending on different continuous wave (CW) injection powers. Both standard-reach (25 km) and LR (100 km) transmissions are evaluated. Moreover, a detail analysis of the upstream signal bit-error rate (BER) performances at different injection powers, upstream data rates, PON split-ratios under stand-reach and long-reach is presented.

  4. Temporal Trends in Incidence and Case Fatality of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The Tromsø Study 1995-2012

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Maria; Wilsgaard, Tom; Johnsen, Stein Harald; Vangen-Lønne, Anne Merete; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv Bøgeberg

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore temporal trends in incidence and case fatality rates of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) over the last two decades in a Norwegian municipality. Methods Incident cases of primary ICH were registered in the period from 1995 through 2012 in 32,530 participants of the longitudinal population-based Tromsø Study. Poisson regression models were used to obtain incidence rates over time in age- and sex-adjusted and age- and sex-specific models. Case fatality rates were calculated and age- and sex-adjusted trends over time were estimated using logistic regression. Results A total of 226 ICHs were registered. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate [95% confidence interval (CI)] in the overall population was 0.42 (0.37-0.48) per 1,000 person-years. Age-adjusted incidence rates were 0.53 (0.43-0.62) in men and 0.33 (0.26-0.39) in women. In individuals aged <75 years, the age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate was 0.27 (0.22-0.32) and in individuals aged ≥75 years, it was 2.42 (1.95-2.89) per 1,000 person-years. There was no significant change in incidence rates over time. The incidence rate ratio (95% CI) in the overall population was 0.73 (0.47-1.12) in 2012 compared with 1995. The overall 30-day case fatality (95% CI) was 23.9% (18.3-29.5) and did not change substantially over time [odds ratio in 2012 vs. 1995 = 0.83 (95% CI 0.27-2.52)]. Conclusion No significant changes in incidence and case fatality rates of ICH were observed during the last two decades. PMID:27522404

  5. Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanqi; Feng, Hao; Liu, Fulai

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the comparative effects of reduced irrigation regimes--partial root-zone drying (PRD) and conventional deficit irrigation (DI)--on the incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under three Ca-fertilization rates: 0, 100, and 200mg Ca kg(-1) soil (denoted Ca0, Ca1, and Ca2, respectively). The plants were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and treated with PRD and DI during early flowering to the fruit maturity stage. The results showed that, in comparison with DI treatment, PRD significantly reduced BER incidence. A greater xylem sap abscisic acid concentration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher plant water status in the PRD in relation to the DI plants might have contributed to the increased fruit Ca uptake, and could have reduced BER development in tomato fruits. Therefore, under conditions with limited freshwater resources, application of PRD irrigation could be a promising approach for saving water and for preventing BER development in tomatoes.

  6. Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanqi; Feng, Hao; Liu, Fulai

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the comparative effects of reduced irrigation regimes--partial root-zone drying (PRD) and conventional deficit irrigation (DI)--on the incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under three Ca-fertilization rates: 0, 100, and 200mg Ca kg(-1) soil (denoted Ca0, Ca1, and Ca2, respectively). The plants were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and treated with PRD and DI during early flowering to the fruit maturity stage. The results showed that, in comparison with DI treatment, PRD significantly reduced BER incidence. A greater xylem sap abscisic acid concentration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher plant water status in the PRD in relation to the DI plants might have contributed to the increased fruit Ca uptake, and could have reduced BER development in tomato fruits. Therefore, under conditions with limited freshwater resources, application of PRD irrigation could be a promising approach for saving water and for preventing BER development in tomatoes. PMID:23530128

  7. The rate ratio of injury and aggressive incident for alcohol alone, cocaine alone and simultaneous use before the event: A case-crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinhui; Macdonald, Scott; Borges, Guilherme; Joordens, Chantele; Stockwell, Tim; Ye, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (i) To estimate the Rate Ratio (RR) of use of alcohol alone, cocaine alone, and both substances simultaneously on acute injury or an aggressive incident, (ii) To compare the RRs for simultaneous use within 3 or 6 hours of the event; and (iii) To compare the RRs of two measures of exposure, “hours of feeling effects” versus estimates based on self-reported quantity and frequency of use. Methods The study employed a case-crossover design with the frequency approach. Clients (N=616) in substance abuse treatment for alcohol or cocaine issues from 2009 to 2012 completed a self-administered questionnaire on their substance use within 3 and 6 hours before a recent injury or physically aggressive incident. Clients also reported detailed quantity and frequency information in relation to their typical substance use, as well as information on “feeling effects”. The RR of acute harms due to substance use was estimated using the Mantel-Haenszel estimator. Results In the 6-hour window before the event, use of cocaine alone, alcohol alone and simultaneous alcohol and cocaine use were each significantly (P <0.05) related to a recent injury and aggressive incident. Simultaneous use was not significantly greater than use of either drug alone. Estimates of RR based on simultaneous use for a 3-hour window before the event were consistently larger than those based on a 6-hour window, and comparisons were significant (P <0.05) for an aggressive incident but not an injury. With reference to the two measures of exposure, three of eight comparisons of RRs were significantly larger for feeling the effects of the substance in comparison to quantity and frequency of substance use. Conclusion These findings are consistent with increased likelihood of harms related to the acute effects of alcohol alone, cocaine alone or simultaneous use. The results are suggestive that the acute effects of these drugs may be better measured within a 3-hour time window than a 6-hour window

  8. The association of solar ultraviolet and skin melanoma incidence among caucasians in the United States.

    PubMed

    Scotto, J; Fears, T R

    1987-01-01

    Using recent data from cancer incidence surveys and measures of UVB exposure levels at seven geographic locations within the United States, we estimate the dose-response relation between UVB and skin melanoma incidence. Mathematical models used information from general population interview studies conducted in these locations to adjust for potentially confounding factors such as age, skin color, ancestry, eye color, hair color, sunburn sensitivity, prevalence of moles, freckles, and hours spent outdoors, use of sunscreen/lotion, and other variables. The effect of geographic UVB exposure on incidence was found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.01) after adjusting for each variable and certain combinations of these variables. We found that incidence rates for those skin melanomas arising in the face, head, neck, or upper extremities (i.e, the most exposed sites) were more sensitive to UVB increases than the incidence rates for those lesions occurring in the ordinarily less exposed sites of the trunk and lower extremities.

  9. High rates of reinfection and incidence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of female sex workers from two Indian cities: need for different STI control strategies?

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anjana; Pathni, Anupam Khungar; Narayanan, Prakash; George, Bitra; Morineau, Guy; Saidel, Tobi; Prabhakar, Parimi; Deshpande, Gururaj Rao; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Mehendale, Sanjay; Risbud, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) in India are provided a standardised package of clinical interventions for management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A study was conducted among FSWs at known high STI prevalence sites to determine the effectiveness of the service package. Methods A cohort of FSW clinic attendees in two cities, Hyderabad and Mumbai, were enrolled and followed up from October 2008 to November 2009. At each visit, behavioural and clinical data were obtained and vaginal swabs collected for laboratory testing of cervical infections (gonorrhoea and chlamydia). Results 417 participants were enrolled, of whom 360 attended at least a follow-up visit. Prevalence of cervical infections did not change between the baseline and final visits (27.7% and 21.3% respectively, p=0.08) in spite of presumptive treatment at baseline and syndromic management at all visits. The proportion of asymptomatic cervical infections increased from 36% at baseline to 77% at the final visit. Incidence rate of cervical infections was high (85.6/100 person years) and associated with a prevalent cervical infection at baseline (HR=2.7, p<0.001) and inconsistent condom use with non-commercial partners (HR=2.5, p=0.014). Conclusions High rates of STIs persisted despite the interventions due to poor condom use, minimal partner treatment, and high prevalence and incidence of STIs with a large proportion of asymptomatic infections. High-prevalence FSW sites in India need to design more effective partner treatment strategies and consider increasing the frequency of presumptive treatment as a temporary measure for quickly reducing STI prevalence, with renewed emphasis on consistent condom use with all partners. PMID:23196329

  10. Utilizing United States Coast Guard data to calculate incidence rates and identify risk factors for occupational fishing injuries in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Day, Emily Ruth; Lefkowitz, Daniel K; Marshall, Elizabeth G; Hovinga, Mary

    2010-10-01

    Commercial fishing has high rates of work-related injury and death and needs preventive strategies. Work-related fatal and nonfatal injury rates for New Jersey (NJ) commercial fishermen who suffered unintentional traumatic injuries from 2001 to 2007 are calculated using data from the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Marine Safety and Pollution Database and estimated denominator data. Fatalities were compared to those ascertained by the NJ Fatality Assessment Control and Evaluation (FACE) surveillance system. For the study years, 225 nonfatal injuries and 31 fatal injuries were reported. Among nonfatal injuries, the causes by frequency were fall onto surface, crushed between objects, struck by moving object, line handling/caught in lines, collision with fixed objects, fall into water, and other noncontact injuries. The distribution of fatal injuries differed, with the most frequent cause as crushed between objects. Falls into water and several noncontact injuries accounted for most of the other fatalities. The large majority (96%) of nonfatal injuries were contact injuries, whereas only 68% of fatalities were classified as contact. The overall incidence rate of nonfatal injuries was 1188 per 100,000 full-time equivalents (FTEs) per year. The rate varied considerably by year, from a low of 286 per 100,000 FTEs in 2001 and 2007 to 3806 per 100,000 FTEs in 2003. The overall occupational fatality rate over the period 2001-2007 was 164 per 100,000 FTEs per year. These results can aid in targeting the commercial fishing industry for injury prevention strategies and interventions, especially for falls, crushing injuries, and drownings.

  11. Utilizing United States Coast Guard data to calculate incidence rates and identify risk factors for occupational fishing injuries in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Day, Emily Ruth; Lefkowitz, Daniel K; Marshall, Elizabeth G; Hovinga, Mary

    2010-10-01

    Commercial fishing has high rates of work-related injury and death and needs preventive strategies. Work-related fatal and nonfatal injury rates for New Jersey (NJ) commercial fishermen who suffered unintentional traumatic injuries from 2001 to 2007 are calculated using data from the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Marine Safety and Pollution Database and estimated denominator data. Fatalities were compared to those ascertained by the NJ Fatality Assessment Control and Evaluation (FACE) surveillance system. For the study years, 225 nonfatal injuries and 31 fatal injuries were reported. Among nonfatal injuries, the causes by frequency were fall onto surface, crushed between objects, struck by moving object, line handling/caught in lines, collision with fixed objects, fall into water, and other noncontact injuries. The distribution of fatal injuries differed, with the most frequent cause as crushed between objects. Falls into water and several noncontact injuries accounted for most of the other fatalities. The large majority (96%) of nonfatal injuries were contact injuries, whereas only 68% of fatalities were classified as contact. The overall incidence rate of nonfatal injuries was 1188 per 100,000 full-time equivalents (FTEs) per year. The rate varied considerably by year, from a low of 286 per 100,000 FTEs in 2001 and 2007 to 3806 per 100,000 FTEs in 2003. The overall occupational fatality rate over the period 2001-2007 was 164 per 100,000 FTEs per year. These results can aid in targeting the commercial fishing industry for injury prevention strategies and interventions, especially for falls, crushing injuries, and drownings. PMID:20954031

  12. Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in a Multicenter Cohort of HIV-Positive Patients in Spain 2004–2011: Increasing Rates of HCV Diagnosis but Not of HCV Seroconversions

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Monge Corella, Susana; Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Félix; Blanco, José Ramón; Santos, Ignacio; del Romero, Jorge; Segura, Ferrán; Portilla, Joaquín; Guillén, Santiago Moreno; del Amo, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We aim to describe rates and risk factors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) diagnoses, follow-up HCV testing and HCV seroconversion from 2004–2011 in a cohort of HIV-positive persons in Spain. Methods CoRIS is a multicentre, open and prospective cohort recruiting adult HIV-positive patients naïve to antiretroviral therapy. We analysed patients with at least one negative and one follow-up HCV serology. Incidence Rates (IR) were calculated and multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted Rates Ratios (aIRR). Results Of 2112 subjects, 53 HCV diagnoses were observed, IR = 0.93/100py (95%CI: 0.7–1.2). IR increased from 0.88 in 2004–05 to 1.36 in 2010–11 (aIRR = 1.55; 95%CI: 0.37–6.55). In men who have sex with men (MSM) from 0.76 to 1.10 (aIRR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.31–6.82); in heterosexual (HTX) subjects from 1.19 to 1.28 (aIRR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.11–10.24). HCV seroconversion rates decreased from 1.77 to 0.65 (aIRR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.12–1.11); in MSM from 1.06 to 0.49 (aIRR = 0.46; 95%CI: 0.09–2.31); in HTX from 2.55 to 0.59 (aIRR = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.06–0.98). HCV infection risk was higher for injecting drug users (IDU) compared to HTX (aIRR = 9.63;95%CI: 2.9–32.2); among MSM, for subjects aged 40–50 compared to 30 or less (IRR = 3.21; 95%CI: 1.7–6.2); and among HTX, for female sex (aIRR = 2.35; 95%CI: 1.03–5.34) and <200 CD4-count (aIRR = 2.39; 95%CI: 0.83–6.89). Conclusion We report increases in HCV diagnoses rates which seem secondary to intensification of HCV follow-up testing but not to rises in HCV infection rates. HCV IR is higher in IDU. In MSM, HCV IR increases with age. Among HTX, HCV IR is higher in women and in subjects with impaired immunological situation. PMID:25549224

  13. The rate and pattern of bed incision and bank adjustment on the Colorado River in Glen Canyon downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, 1956-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grams, P.E.; Schmidt, J.C.; Topping, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 transformed the Colorado River by reducing the magnitude and duration of spring floods, increasing the magnitude of base flows, and trapping fine sediment delivered from the upper watershed. These changes caused the channel downstream in Glen Canyon to incise, armor, and narrow. This study synthesizes over 45 yr of channel-change measurements and demonstrates that the rate and style of channel adjustment are directly related to both natural processes associated with sediment deficit and human decisions about dam operations. Although bed lowering in lower Glen Canyon began when the first cofferdam was installed in 1959, most incision occurred in 1965 in conjunction with 14 pulsed high flows that scoured an average of 2.6 m of sediment from the center of the channel. The average grain size of bed material has increased from 0.25 mm in 1956 to over 20 mm in 1999. The magnitude of incision at riffles decreases with distance downstream from the dam, while the magnitude of sediment evacuation from pools is spatially variable and extends farther downstream. Analysis of bed-material mobility indicates that the increase in bed-material grain size and reduction in reach-average gradient are consistent with the transformation of an adjustable-bed alluvial river to a channel with a stable bed that is rarely mobilized. Decreased magnitude of peak discharges in the post-dam regime coupled with channel incision and the associated downward shifts of stage-discharge relations have caused sandbar and terrace erosion and the transformation of previously active sandbars and gravel bars to abandoned deposits that are no longer inundated. Erosion has been concentrated in a few pre-dam terraces that eroded rapidly for brief periods and have since stabilized. The abundance of abandoned deposits decreases downstream in conjunction with decreasing magnitude of shift in the stage-discharge relations. In the downstream part of the study area where riffles

  14. Some factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of Neospora-associated abortions are different in cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Yániz, J L; López-Gatius, F; García-Ispierto, I; Bech-Sàbat, G; Serrano, B; Nogareda, C; Sanchez-Nadal, J A; Almeria, S; Santolaria, P

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of Neospora-associated abortions are different in pregnancies of cows and heifers chronically infected with Neospora caninum. In heifers (n = 229), an increase in the cumulative number of days with a mean relative humidity (RH) lower than 60% during the second trimester of gestation increases the risk of abortion. Yet, the likelihood of abortion was 7.6 times lower for pregnant heifers inseminated with Limousin bull semen, compared with those inseminated with Holstein-Friesian bull semen. In pregnancies of parous cows (n = 521), an increase in rainfall and in the cumulative number of days with a mean RH lower than 60% during the second trimester of gestation increased the abortion rate. However, in contrast, an increase in the lactation number produced a decrease in the abortion rate, with a likelihood of abortion 4.8 times lower for pregnant cows inseminated with Limousin bull semen, and three times lower for those inseminated with Belgian Blue bull semen, compared with dairy cows inseminated with Holstein-Friesian bull semen. Finally, the likelihood of abortion was 3.2 times lower for pregnancies of parous cows with low antibody titres against N. caninum (6-30 units) as compared to those with high antibody titres (>/=30 units), whereas in heifers this variable had no effect. The practical recommendations of the present study include the control of the cow environment during the second trimester of gestation, the priority of culling for parous cows with higher antibody titres against N. caninum and the insemination of Neospora-seropositive cows with semen from the Limousin breed.

  15. Associations between CXCR1 polymorphisms and pathogen-specific incidence rate of clinical mastitis, test-day somatic cell count, and test-day milk yield.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Joren; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Piepers, Sofie; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2014-12-01

    The CXCR1 gene plays an important role in the innate immunity of the bovine mammary gland. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) CXCR1c.735C>G and c.980A>G and udder health have been identified before in small populations. A fluorescent multiprobe PCR assay was designed specifically and validated to genotype both SNP simultaneously in a reliable and cost-effective manner. In total, 3,106 cows from 50 commercial Flemish dairy herds were genotyped using this assay. Associations between genotype and detailed phenotypic data, including pathogen-specific incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM), test-day somatic cell count, and test-day milk yield (MY) were analyzed. Staphylococcus aureus IRCM tended to associate with SNP c.735C>G. Cows with genotype c.735GG had lower Staph. aureus IRCM compared with cows with genotype c.735CC (rate ratio = 0.35, 95% confidence interval = 0.14–0.90). Additionally, a parity-specific association between Staph. aureus IRCM and SNP c.980A>G was detected. Heifers with genotype c.980GG had a lower Staph. aureus IRCM compared with heifers with genotype c.980AG (rate ratio = 0.15, 95% confidence interval = 0.04–0.56). Differences were less pronounced in multiparous cows. Associations between CXCR1 genotype and somatic cell count were not detected. However, MY was associated with SNP c.735C>G. Cows with genotype c.735GG out-produced cows with genotype c.735CC by 0.8 kg of milk/d. Results provide a basis for further research on the relation between CXCR1 polymorphism and pathogen-specific mastitis resistance and MY. PMID:25459910

  16. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  17. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  18. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  19. The thickness history of the northern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: an assessment of glacial isostatic adjustment models, sea-level measurements, and vertical land motion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A.

    2014-12-01

    The fit of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model predictions to 24 relative sea-level histories and an additional 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates constrains the thickness and volume history of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet. The predictions of the best-fit GIA model indicate respective peak ice thicknesses west and east of Hudson Bay of 3.4-3.6 km and approximately 4 km. These values represent, respectively, a large decrease, and a moderate increase, to the load thickness compared to ICE-5G. This result is generally consistent with other GIA studies focussing on space-geodetic constraints. The large reduction to the ice load west of Hudson Bay also reduces the vertical mantle response along the margins of the load centre, which improves the fit to relative sea-level data from the southern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The fit of GIA model predictions to relative sea-level data from the Baffin Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet indicate peak ice thicknesses there of 1.2-1.3 km, a modest reduction compared to ICE-5G. On Baffin Island, the modelled elastic crustal response of the Earth to present-day ice mass changes is large. Accounting for this effect improves the agreement between GPS measurements of vertical crustal motion and the GIA model predictions. However, work is needed to incorporate more detailed observations and modelling of present-day changes to glaciers and ice caps. Overall, the fit to the data is most strongly improved in the region west of Hudson Bay (the χ2 RSL misfit is reduced by a factor of ~4) although the entire revised reconstruction for the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet provides an improved fit to both the regional RSL data (the cumulative χ2 misfit is reduced by a factor of >2) and the GPS data (the RMS misfit is reduced by a factor of 9).

  20. 25 CFR 171.565 - How will I know if BIA plans to adjust my annual operation and maintenance assessment rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and Collections § 171.565 How will I know if BIA plans to adjust my annual operation...

  1. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  2. Incidence (1988–97) and prevalence (1997) of multiple sclerosis in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrom, P; Nystrom, L; Forsgren, L

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Methods: Multiple sources were used in the case identification process. Follow up interviews with clinical examinations were undertaken and, when indicated, additional paraclinical investigations were done. In this way case ascertainment was assured and supplemental clinical data were collected. The incidence rate was based on symptom onset. Onset adjusted prevalence was applied. Results: The crude incidence rate of multiple sclerosis in 1988–97 in Västerbotten County was 5.2/105 (95% confidence interval, 4.4 to 6.2): 6.7/105 (6.0 to 8.3) in women and 3.7/105 (2.7 to 4.9) in men. The onset adjusted prevalence for 31 December 1997 was 154/105 (139 to 170): 202/105 (179 to 228) in women and 105/105 (89 to 125) in men. When compared with a previous estimate of prevalence, a yearly 2.6% increase in prevalence between 1990 and 1997 was found, mainly attributable to a higher incidence than mortality. Conclusions: The present incidence rate and prevalence confirms earlier findings that Västerbotten is a high risk area for multiple sclerosis. The adjusted incidence was twice as high as the incidence from 1974–88 in the only previous Swedish population based study from Göteborg, but comparable with other recent Fennoscandian multiple sclerosis incidence rates. PMID:12486262

  3. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  4. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  5. Variations in Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and urbanization level variations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rarely investigated, especially in Asia. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) entries between 2002 and 2009. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%). The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. The people who were not under the labor force (i.e., dependents) or with lower monthly incomes were at significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (1.50–1.56) and adjusted prevalence rate ratio (1.66–1.71) of PD. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD. PMID:26904358

  6. Rate and Incidence Estimates of Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections among Pregnant Women in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1991 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Oliveira, Carmem A.; Ueda, Mirthes; Yamashiro, Rosemeire; Rodrigues, Rosāngela; Sheppard, Haynes W.; de Macedo Brígido, Luís Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The serological testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion (STARHS) was employed to estimate HIV incidence among pregnant women from São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study (1999 to 2002) showed an incidence of infection of 0.2 per 100 pregnant women per year (95% confidence interval, 0.041 to 0.608). Western blot profiles suggested an association between results of the STARHS analysis and gp41/gp31 bands. PMID:15750127

  7. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers.

    PubMed

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  8. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  9. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers.

    PubMed

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  10. Incidence and Variation of Discrepancies in Recording Chronic Conditions in Australian Hospital Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M.; Stubbs, Joanne M.; Guevarra, Veth M.; Hill, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic data routinely collected for hospital admitted patients and used for case-mix adjustment in care provider comparisons and reimbursement are prone to biases. We aim to measure discrepancies, variations and associated factors in recorded chronic morbidities for hospital admitted patients in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Of all admissions between July 2010 and June 2014 in all NSW public and private acute hospitals, admissions with over 24 hours stay and one or more of the chronic conditions of diabetes, smoking, hepatitis, HIV, and hypertension were included. The incidence of a non-recorded chronic condition in an admission occurring after the first admission with a recorded chronic condition (index admission) was considered as a discrepancy. Poisson models were employed to (i) derive adjusted discrepancy incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) accounting for patient, admission, comorbidity and hospital characteristics and (ii) quantify variation in rates among hospitals. The discrepancy incidence rate was highest for hypertension (51% of 262,664 admissions), followed by hepatitis (37% of 12,107), smoking (33% of 548,965), HIV (27% of 1500) and diabetes (19% of 228,687). Adjusted rates for all conditions declined over the four-year period; with the sharpest drop of over 80% for diabetes (47.7% in 2010 vs. 7.3% in 2014), and 20% to 55% for the other conditions. Discrepancies were more common in private hospitals and smaller public hospitals. Inter-hospital differences were responsible for 1% (HIV) to 9.4% (smoking) of variation in adjusted discrepancy incidences, with an increasing trend for diabetes and HIV. Chronic conditions are recorded inconsistently in hospital administrative datasets, and hospitals contribute to the discrepancies. Adjustment for patterns and stratification in risk adjustments; and furthermore longitudinal accumulation of clinical data at patient level, refinement of clinical coding systems and standardisation of comorbidity

  11. Incidence and Variation of Discrepancies in Recording Chronic Conditions in Australian Hospital Administrative Data.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M; Guevarra, Veth M; Hill, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic data routinely collected for hospital admitted patients and used for case-mix adjustment in care provider comparisons and reimbursement are prone to biases. We aim to measure discrepancies, variations and associated factors in recorded chronic morbidities for hospital admitted patients in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Of all admissions between July 2010 and June 2014 in all NSW public and private acute hospitals, admissions with over 24 hours stay and one or more of the chronic conditions of diabetes, smoking, hepatitis, HIV, and hypertension were included. The incidence of a non-recorded chronic condition in an admission occurring after the first admission with a recorded chronic condition (index admission) was considered as a discrepancy. Poisson models were employed to (i) derive adjusted discrepancy incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) accounting for patient, admission, comorbidity and hospital characteristics and (ii) quantify variation in rates among hospitals. The discrepancy incidence rate was highest for hypertension (51% of 262,664 admissions), followed by hepatitis (37% of 12,107), smoking (33% of 548,965), HIV (27% of 1500) and diabetes (19% of 228,687). Adjusted rates for all conditions declined over the four-year period; with the sharpest drop of over 80% for diabetes (47.7% in 2010 vs. 7.3% in 2014), and 20% to 55% for the other conditions. Discrepancies were more common in private hospitals and smaller public hospitals. Inter-hospital differences were responsible for 1% (HIV) to 9.4% (smoking) of variation in adjusted discrepancy incidences, with an increasing trend for diabetes and HIV. Chronic conditions are recorded inconsistently in hospital administrative datasets, and hospitals contribute to the discrepancies. Adjustment for patterns and stratification in risk adjustments; and furthermore longitudinal accumulation of clinical data at patient level, refinement of clinical coding systems and standardisation of comorbidity

  12. Incidence and Variation of Discrepancies in Recording Chronic Conditions in Australian Hospital Administrative Data.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M; Guevarra, Veth M; Hill, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic data routinely collected for hospital admitted patients and used for case-mix adjustment in care provider comparisons and reimbursement are prone to biases. We aim to measure discrepancies, variations and associated factors in recorded chronic morbidities for hospital admitted patients in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Of all admissions between July 2010 and June 2014 in all NSW public and private acute hospitals, admissions with over 24 hours stay and one or more of the chronic conditions of diabetes, smoking, hepatitis, HIV, and hypertension were included. The incidence of a non-recorded chronic condition in an admission occurring after the first admission with a recorded chronic condition (index admission) was considered as a discrepancy. Poisson models were employed to (i) derive adjusted discrepancy incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) accounting for patient, admission, comorbidity and hospital characteristics and (ii) quantify variation in rates among hospitals. The discrepancy incidence rate was highest for hypertension (51% of 262,664 admissions), followed by hepatitis (37% of 12,107), smoking (33% of 548,965), HIV (27% of 1500) and diabetes (19% of 228,687). Adjusted rates for all conditions declined over the four-year period; with the sharpest drop of over 80% for diabetes (47.7% in 2010 vs. 7.3% in 2014), and 20% to 55% for the other conditions. Discrepancies were more common in private hospitals and smaller public hospitals. Inter-hospital differences were responsible for 1% (HIV) to 9.4% (smoking) of variation in adjusted discrepancy incidences, with an increasing trend for diabetes and HIV. Chronic conditions are recorded inconsistently in hospital administrative datasets, and hospitals contribute to the discrepancies. Adjustment for patterns and stratification in risk adjustments; and furthermore longitudinal accumulation of clinical data at patient level, refinement of clinical coding systems and standardisation of comorbidity

  13. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  14. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  15. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G.; Johnson, Jay R.; Miller, Federick W.; Matteson, Eric L.; Crowson, C. S.; Gabriel, S. E.

    2015-05-15

    Our objective was to examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: We used data from patients with GCA (1950-2004) and RA (1955-2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. Results: The correlation of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0-1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5-7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4-5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8-11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. Conclusions: AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4-5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. Lastly, the link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases.

  16. International patterns and trends in thyroid cancer incidence, 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Han, Xuesong; Ward, Mary H.; Sjodin, Andreas; Zhang, Yaqun; Bai, Yana; Zhu, Cairong; Guo, Grace L.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Yawei

    2009-01-01

    During the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in many parts of the world. To date, no study has compared trends in thyroid cancer incidence across continents. We examined incidence data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) over the 30-year period 1973–2002 from 19 populations in the Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Thyroid cancer rates have increased from 1973–1977 to 1998–2002 for most of the populations except for Sweden, in which the incidence rates decreased about 18% for both males and females. The average increase was 48.0% among males and 66.7% among females. More recently, the age-adjusted international thyroid cancer incidence rates from 1998–2002 varied 5-fold by geographic region for males and nearly 10-fold for females by geographic region. Considerable variation in thyroid cancer incidence was present for every continent but Africa, in which the incidence rates were generally low. Our analysis of published CI5 data suggests that thyroid cancer rates increased between 1973 and 2002 in most populations worldwide and that the increase does not appear to be restricted to a particular region of the world or by the underlying rates of thyroid cancer. PMID:19016336

  17. Cervical cancer: incidence and survival in migrants within Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Borràs, J M; Sánchez, V; Moreno, V; Izquierdo, A; Viladiu, P

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--This study examined the incidence of cervical cancer and survival rates according to migrant experience of women from different regions of Spain to Girona, Catalonia (Spain). DESIGN--Using data from the population based cancer registry of Girona for the period 1980-89, crude and age adjusted incidence rates were calculated for local-born and first generation migrants from other Spanish regions. The age standardised rate ratio (SRR) was calculated and Cox's regression model was used to adjust survival according to migrant status for age and stage at diagnosis. MAIN RESULTS--The incidence of cervical cancer was significantly higher in first generation Spanish migrants compared with locally born women (SRR: 2.02; 95% CI 1.40:2.92). The stage at diagnosis was more advanced among migrants. Survival probability was significantly associated with stage at diagnosis, but age and region of birth were not. CONCLUSIONS--Migrants from the southern Spanish regions show a twofold excess in the incidence of cervical cancer compared with the Girona-born female population. Cases of cervical cancer in migrants are diagnosed at a more advanced stage and as a consequence have a poorer prognosis. PMID:7798043

  18. A Q-Switched All-Solid-State Single-Longitudinal-Mode Laser with Adjustable Pulse-Width and High Repetition Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Shi-Zhong; Hou, Xia; Wei, Hui; Chen, Wei-Biao

    2006-01-01

    A single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) laser-diode pumped Nd: YAG laser with adjustable pulse width is developed by using the techniques of pre-lasing and changing polarization of birefingent crystal. The Q-switching voltage is triggered by the peak of the pre-lasing pulse to achieve the higher stability of output pulse energy. The output energy of more than 1 mJ is obtained with output energy stability of 3% (rms) at 100 Hz. The pulse-width can be adjusted from 30 ns to 300 ns by changing the Q-switching voltage. The probability of putting out single-longitudinal-mode pulses is almost 100%. The laser can be run over four hours continually without mode hopping.

  19. A critical analysis of sarcoidosis incidence assessment.

    PubMed

    Reich, Jerome M

    2013-01-01

    Valid sarcoidosis incidence assessment is contingent on access to medical care, thoroughness of reportage, assiduity of radiographic interpretation, employment and health care screening policies, misclassification, and population ethnicity. To diminish ambiguity and foster inter-population comparison, the term "sarcoidosis incidence" must be modified to convey the methodology employed in compiling the numerator. In age-delimited cohorts, valid comparison to population incidence requires age adjustment due to the age-dependency of incidence. The "true incidence" of sarcoidosis is a notional concept: more than 90% of cases are subclinical and radiographically inevident. Occupational causal inference based on incidence differential vs. populations has been undermined by methodological differences in ascertainment and computation.

  20. Cancer incidence among Danish stone workers.

    PubMed

    Guénel, P; Højberg, G; Lynge, E

    1989-08-01

    The lung cancer incidence of 2071 Danish stone workers was followed for a 42-year period. The expected numbers of cancer cases were based on the incidence rates for all Danish men after adjustment for region, and the data were analyzed separately for skilled and unskilled stone workers. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for lung cancer was 200 (44 observed, 22.0 expected) for all skilled stone workers, 808 (7 observed, 0.9 expected) for skilled sandstone cutters in Copenhagen, 119 (8 observed, 6.5 expected) for skilled granite cutters in Bornholm, 181 (24 observed, 13.2 expected) for all unskilled stone workers, 246 (17 observed, 6.9 expected) for unskilled workers in the road and building material industry, and 111 (7 observed, 6.3 expected) for unskilled workers in the stonecutting industry. Smoking was unlikely alone to explain the excess risk, and the available data on levels of exposure in the Danish stone industry point to a possible dose-response relationship between exposure to respirable silica dust and the incidence of lung cancer.

  1. Incidence rates and deaths of tuberculosis in HIV-negative patients in the United States and Germany as analyzed by new predictive model for infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incidence and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) have been decreasing worldwide. Given that TB is a cosmopolitan disease, proper surveillance and evaluation are critical for controlling dissemination. Herein, mathematical modeling was performed in order to: 1) demonstrate a correlation between the i...

  2. Increasing incidence of celiac disease in a North American population

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; van Dyke, Carol T.; Melton, L. Joseph; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Lahr, Brian D.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) varies greatly, potentially because of incomplete ascertainment of cases and small study samples with limited statistical power. Previous reports indicate that the incidence of CD is increasing. We examined the prevalence of CD in a well-defined US county. METHODS Population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, US. Using the infrastructure of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, medical, histopathology, and CD serology records were used to identify all new cases of CD in Olmsted County since 2000. Age- and sex-specific and adjusted (to the US white 2000 population) incidence rates for CD were estimated. Clinical presentation at diagnosis was also assessed. RESULTS Between 2000 and 2010, 249 individuals (157 female or 63%, median age 37.9 years) were diagnosed with CD in Olmsted County. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CD in the study period was 17.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15.2–19.6) per 100,000 person-years, increasing from 11.1 (95% CI=6.8–15.5) in 2000–2001 to 17.3 (95% CI=13.3–21.3) in 2008–2010. The temporal trend in incidence rates was modeled as a two-slope pattern, with the incidence leveling off after 2004. Based on the two classic CD symptoms of diarrhea and weight loss, the relative frequency of classical CD among incident cases decreased over time between 2000 and 2010 (p=0.044). CONCLUSION The incidence of CD has continued to increase in the past decade in a North American population. PMID:23511460

  3. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence in a Healthcare Area.

    PubMed

    Molina, Antonio J; García-Martínez, Lidia; Zapata-Alvarado, Julio; Alonso-Orcajo, Nieves; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends in the incidence of lung cancer in the Leon Healthcare Area. All cases of cancer among residents of the Leon healthcare catchment area listed in the hospital-based tumor registry of the Centro Asistencial Universitario de Leon (CAULE) between 1996 and 2010 were included. Gross incidence rates over 3-year intervals were calculated and adjusted for the worldwide and European populations. A total of 2,491 cases were included. In men, incidence adjusted for the European population rose from 40.1 new cases per 100,000 population (1996-1998) to 61.8 (2005-2007), and then fell to 54.6 (2008-2010). In women, incidence tripled from 3.0 (1996-1998) to 9.2 new cases per 100,000 (2008-2010). Although lung cancer is an avoidable disease, it is a serious problem in the Leon Healthcare Area. Of particular concern is the rising incidence among women. PMID:26153559

  4. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence in a Healthcare Area.

    PubMed

    Molina, Antonio J; García-Martínez, Lidia; Zapata-Alvarado, Julio; Alonso-Orcajo, Nieves; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends in the incidence of lung cancer in the Leon Healthcare Area. All cases of cancer among residents of the Leon healthcare catchment area listed in the hospital-based tumor registry of the Centro Asistencial Universitario de Leon (CAULE) between 1996 and 2010 were included. Gross incidence rates over 3-year intervals were calculated and adjusted for the worldwide and European populations. A total of 2,491 cases were included. In men, incidence adjusted for the European population rose from 40.1 new cases per 100,000 population (1996-1998) to 61.8 (2005-2007), and then fell to 54.6 (2008-2010). In women, incidence tripled from 3.0 (1996-1998) to 9.2 new cases per 100,000 (2008-2010). Although lung cancer is an avoidable disease, it is a serious problem in the Leon Healthcare Area. Of particular concern is the rising incidence among women.

  5. Galectin 3 and incident atrial fibrillation in the community

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jennifer E.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Levy, Daniel; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Magnani, Jared W.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; McManus, David D.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Larson, Martin G.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Galectin 3 (Gal-3) is a potential mediator of cardiac fibrosis, and Gal-3 concentrations predict incident heart failure. The same mechanisms that lead to cardiac fibrosis in heart failure may influence development of atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation (AF). We examined the association of Gal-3 and incident AF in the community. Methods Plasma Gal-3 concentrations were measured in 3,306 participants of the Framingham Offspring cohort who attended the sixth examination cycle (1995–1998, mean age 58 years, 54% women). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association of baseline Gal-3 concentrations and incident AF. Results Over a median follow-up period of 10 years, 250 participants developed incident AF. Crude incidence rates of AF by increasing sex-specific Gal-3 quartiles were 3.7%, 5.9%, 9.1%, and 11.5% (log-rank test P < .0001). In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, each 1-SD increase in loge-Gal-3 was associated with a 19% increased hazard of incident AF (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% CI 1.05–1.36, P = .009). This association was not significant after adjustment for traditional clinical AF risk factors (hazard ratio 1.12, 95% CI 0.98–1.28, P = .10). Conclusion Higher circulating Gal-3 concentrations were associated with increased risk of developing AF over the subsequent 10 years in age- and sex-adjusted analyses but not after accounting for other traditional clinical AF risk factors. Our results do not support a role for Gal-3 in AF risk prediction. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether Gal-3 plays a role in the development of AF substrate similar to HF. PMID:24766984

  6. Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial–temporal models☆

    PubMed Central

    Alegana, Victor A.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wright, Jim A.; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

    2013-01-01

    As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

  7. Incidence analyses of bladder cancer in the Nile delta region of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Soliman, Amr S; Ismail, Kadry; Hablas, Ahmed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A; Ramadan, Mohamed; Omar, Hoda G; Nriagu, Jerome; Wilson, Mark L

    2009-10-01

    Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy among Egyptian males and previously has been attributed to Schistosoma infection, a major risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recently, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) incidence has been increasing while SCC has declined. To investigate this shift, we analyzed the geographical patterns of all bladder cancers cases recorded in Egypt's Gharbiah Population-Based Cancer Registry from 1999 through 2002. Data on tumor grade, stage, and morphology, as well as smoking, community of residence, age and sex, were collected on 1209 bladder cancer cases. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for males, females, and the total population for the eight administrative Districts and 316 communities in Gharbiah. Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using Poisson Regression. The male age-adjusted incidence rate (IR) in Gharbiah Province was 13.65/100,000 person years (PY). The District of Kotour had the highest age-adjusted IR 28.96/100,000 among males. The District of Kotour also had the highest IRR among all Districts, IRR=2.15 95% CI (1.72, 2.70). Kotour's capital city had the highest bladder cancer incidence among the 316 communities (IR=73.11/100,000 PY). Future studies on sources and types of environmental pollution and exposures in relation to the spatial patterns of bladder cancer, particularly in Kotour District, may improve our understating of risk factors for bladder cancer in the region. PMID:19762298

  8. Incidence analyses of bladder cancer in the Nile delta region of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Fedewa, Stacey A.; Soliman, Amr S.; Ismail, Kadry; Hablas, Ahmed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.; Ramadan, Mohamed; Omar, Hoda G.; Nriagu, Jerome; Wilson, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy among Egyptian males and previously has been attributed to Schistosoma infection, a major risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recently, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) incidence has been increasing while SCC has declined. To investigate this shift, we analyzed the geographical patterns of all bladder cancers cases recorded in Egypt’s Gharbiah Population-Based Cancer Registry from 1999 through 2002. Data on tumor grade, stage, and morphology, as well as smoking, community of residence, age and sex, were collected on 1,209 bladder cancer cases. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for males, females, and the total population for the eight administrative Districts and 316 communities in Gharbiah. Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were computed using Poisson Regression. The male age-adjusted incidence rate (IR) in Gharbiah Province was 13.65/100,000 person years (PY). The District of Kotour had the highest age-adjusted IR 28.96/100,000 among males. The District of Kotour also had the highest IRR among all Districts, IRR=2.15 95% CI (1.72, 2.70). Kotour’s capital city had the highest bladder cancer incidence among the 316 communities (IR=73.11/100,000 PY). Future studies on sources and types of environmental pollution and exposures in relation to the spatial patterns of bladder cancer, particularly in Kotour District, may improve our understating of risk factors for bladder cancer in the region. PMID:19762298

  9. [Effect of hysterectomy and ovariectomy on the incidence of malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract].

    PubMed

    Di Bonito, L; Patriarca, S; Tomasic, G; Delendi, M; Grandi, G; Stanta, G

    1990-10-01

    The true risk population for uterine and ovary cancer have been studied, according to the prevalence of histerectomy and oophorectomy in the Trieste area female population. The calculation of the females at risk for these tumors permits to recalculate the incidence rates that are usually underestimated. This adjustment increases the rates in all genital tract tumors from 14% to 18%, but does not modify the relative frequency per age groups or the incidence in the temporal trends. An exception is represented from the uterine corpus cancer in which the correction of the population modifies the temporal trend for the age group over 60 years. The incidences tend in fact to increase significantly more after the adjustment.

  10. Increasing Trend in Colorectal Cancer Incidence in the Southeast of Iran 2003-2013: A Population Based Cancer Registry Study.

    PubMed

    Baniasadi, Nadieh; Moghtader, Elahe; Khajehkazemi, Razieh; Mohebbi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Rates based on age-adjusted incidence of colorectal cancers over a 10-year period in Kerman, the biggest province of Iran, were estimated from 2003 to 2013. Data were obtained from the population-based cancer registry unit of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (CR-KMU). Information included age, sex, city, ICD-O and year of registry. Our trend analyses cover 3.91% of the Iranian population. The data set comprised cases diagnosed from 2003 to 2013.The population of over 20 years was interpolated using 2003 and 2010 censuses. Then, truncated age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated. Increase was noted from 2003-2009 to 2010-2013 for 731 cancer cases considered in the analysis. The increases was most prominent in 2009. Totally, the frequency of the cancer was greater in males. Moreover, calculating truncated age-adjusted incidence rate indicated that the most prevalent age of colorectal incidence was in the 50-59 year age group except in 2007-2008 and 2012- 2013, when greatest incidences occurred in people aged 60-69 years. Our data revealed that the incidence rates of colorectal cancer have increased over the past decade in our region of Iran.

  11. Time-adjusted variable resistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Mitochondrial Lineages in Cities with Distinct Dengue Incidence Rates Suggests Complex Population Dynamics of the Dengue Vector in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes-Dueñez, Jeiczon; Arboleda, Sair; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4), Chikungunya and yellow fever virus to humans. Previous population genetic studies have revealed a particular genetic structure among the vector populations in the Americas that suggests differences in the ability to transmit DENV. In Colombia, despite its high epidemiologic importance, the genetic population structure and the phylogeographic depiction of Ae. aegypti, as well as its relationship with the epidemiologic landscapes in cities with heterogeneous incidence levels, remains unknown. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis with the aim of determining the genetic structure and phylogeography of Colombian populations of Ae. aegypti among cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to DENV. Methods/Findings Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (COI) - NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were sequenced and analyzed from 341 adult mosquitoes collected during 2012 and 2013 in the Colombian cities of Bello, Riohacha and Villavicencio, which exhibit low, medium and high levels of incidence of DENV, respectively. The results demonstrated a low genetic differentiation over time and a high genetic structure between the cities due to changes in the frequency of two highly supported genetic groups. The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello and in only one sampling from Riohacha. Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time and space in these cities. Conclusions Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is

  13. Brain and central nervous system cancer incidence in navarre (Spain), 1973-2008 and projections for 2014.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, J; Román, E San; Burgui, R; Guevara, M; Moreno-Iribas, C; Urbina, M J; Ardanaz, E

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have pointed out Navarre as one of the regions of Spain with the highest incidence rates of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancer. Trend analysis for cancer incidence rates for long periods of time, might help determining risk factors as well as, assessing prevention actions involved in this disease. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of brain and CNS cancer using data from the population-based cancer registry of Navarre, (Spain) during the period 1973-2008 and provide forecast figures up to-2014. Crude and age-standardized (world population) incidence rates of brain cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated by the direct method separately by gender, area (Pamplona and others), and age-groups. Penalized splines for smoothing rates in the temporal dimensions were applied in order to estimate and forecast cancer incidence rates. Age-adjusted incidence rates showed an increase over the study and forecast periods in both sexes more marked in women than in men. Higher incidence rates were observed in men compared with women but the differences became smaller with time. The increase was due to the rise of rates in the oldest age groups since the rates for younger age groups remained stable or decreased over time. As the entire aetiology of brain and other CNS cancer is not still clear, keep promoting healthful lifestyles for cancer primary prevention among the whole population is necessary.

  14. Social determinants of health predict state incidence of HIV and AIDS: a short report.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, Robert J; Stein, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    There are approximately 1.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the USA. Each year, there are roughly 50,000 new HIV diagnoses. The World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) identified several social determinants of health and health inequity (SDH) including childcare, education, employment, gender equality, health insurance, housing, and income. The CSDH also noted the significant impact the SDH can have on advocacy for social change, social interventions to reduce HIV prevalence, and health monitoring. The current analysis evaluated the predictive ability of five SDH for HIV and AIDS incidence on the state level. The SDH used in the analysis were education, employment, housing, income, and insurance; other SDH were not included because reliable and appropriate state-level data were not available. The results of multiple regression analyses indicate that the use of these five SDH create statistically significant models predicting HIV incidence (adjusted R(2) = .54) and AIDS incidence (adjusted R(2) = .37) and account for a sizable portion of the variance for each. Stepwise variable selection reduced the necessary SDH to two: (1) education and (2) housing. These models are also statistically significant and account for a notable portion of variance in HIV incidence (adjusted R(2) = .55) and AIDS incidence (adjusted R(2) = .40). These outcomes demonstrate that state-level SDH, particularly education and housing, offer significant explanatory power regarding HIV and AIDS incidence rates. Congruent with the recommendations of the CSDH, the results of the current analysis suggest that state-sponsored policy and social interventions should consider and target SDH, especially education and housing, in attempts to reduce HIV and AIDS incidence rates.

  15. Social determinants of health predict state incidence of HIV and AIDS: a short report.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, Robert J; Stein, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    There are approximately 1.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the USA. Each year, there are roughly 50,000 new HIV diagnoses. The World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) identified several social determinants of health and health inequity (SDH) including childcare, education, employment, gender equality, health insurance, housing, and income. The CSDH also noted the significant impact the SDH can have on advocacy for social change, social interventions to reduce HIV prevalence, and health monitoring. The current analysis evaluated the predictive ability of five SDH for HIV and AIDS incidence on the state level. The SDH used in the analysis were education, employment, housing, income, and insurance; other SDH were not included because reliable and appropriate state-level data were not available. The results of multiple regression analyses indicate that the use of these five SDH create statistically significant models predicting HIV incidence (adjusted R(2) = .54) and AIDS incidence (adjusted R(2) = .37) and account for a sizable portion of the variance for each. Stepwise variable selection reduced the necessary SDH to two: (1) education and (2) housing. These models are also statistically significant and account for a notable portion of variance in HIV incidence (adjusted R(2) = .55) and AIDS incidence (adjusted R(2) = .40). These outcomes demonstrate that state-level SDH, particularly education and housing, offer significant explanatory power regarding HIV and AIDS incidence rates. Congruent with the recommendations of the CSDH, the results of the current analysis suggest that state-sponsored policy and social interventions should consider and target SDH, especially education and housing, in attempts to reduce HIV and AIDS incidence rates. PMID:25225050

  16. Cardiometabolic Correlates of Low Type 2 Diabetes Incidence in Western Alaska Native People -- the WATCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Kathryn R.; Metzger, Jesse S.; Jolly, Stacey E.; Umans, Jason G.; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Kaufmann, Cristiane; Wilson, Amy S.; Ebbesson, Sven O. E.; Raymer, Terry W.; Austin, Melissa A.; Howard, Barbara V.; Boyer, Bert B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Previously rare among Alaska Native (AN) people, type 2 diabetes (DM2) prevalence as indicated by registry data has increased by as much as 300% in some western Alaska regions. We sought to determine prevalence and incidence of DM2 and analyze associated cardiometabolic risk factors in western AN people. Methods DM2 and prediabetes prevalence and incidence were determined by the Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health using consolidated data from cohort studies conducted during 2000–2010. Crude and age-adjusted incidence for DM2 and prediabetes were calculated using 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria. Effects of covariates on DM2 and prediabetes were determined using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses, adjusted for age and sex. Results Excluding baseline diabetes (n=124, 4.5%), 53 cases of new DM2 were identified among 2,630 participants. Age- and sex-adjusted DM2 incidence was 4.3/1,000 (95% CI 2.9, 5.0) person-years over an average 5.9-year follow up. After excluding baseline prediabetes, 387 new cases of prediabetes were identified among 1,841 participants; adjusted prediabetes incidence was 44.5/1,000 (95% CI 39.5, 49.5) person years. Independent predictors for DM2 included age, impaired fasting glucose, and metabolic syndrome; family history of diabetes and obesity were additional independent predictors for prediabetes. Conclusions DM2 incidence in western AN people is substantially lower than that for U.S. whites; however, incidence of prediabetes is more than 10-fold higher than western AN DM2 incidence and more closely aligned with U.S. rates. Interventions aimed at achieving healthy lifestyles are needed to minimize risk factors and maximize protective factors for DM2 in this population. PMID:25805711

  17. A crossover adjustment for improving sea surface height mapping from in-situ high rate ship-borne GNSS data using PPP technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinyun; Dong, Zhenghua; Tan, Zhengguang; Liu, Xin; Chen, Chuanfa; Hwang, Cheinway

    2016-08-01

    Ship-borne global navigation satellite system (GNSS) technique can overcome the weakness of satellite altimetry and tide gauge in measuring sea surface heights (SSHs) over coastal seas. Ship-borne GNSS technique can be used to calibrate SSHs determined by the satellite altimetry and tide gauge. The ship-borne GNSS data are processed with the single-epoch precise point positioning (PPP) method to estimate SSHs which are filtered by the Gaussian filter to weaken and/or remove effects of sea wind and wave field. Tidal corrections are also taken into consideration to improve SSHs. One crossover adjustment method is put forward to calculate the bias and drift along the ship route and assess the accuracy of SSHs. We processed the in-situ ship-borne GPS data over the offshore sea around Keelung to compute precisely SSHs with the single-epoch PPP. Statistical results of SSH differences of crossover points indicate that the root mean squares error of SSHs determined by the ship-borne GPS is up to level of 12.9 cm over the offshore sea ~30 km far away to land.

  18. Adjustment versus no adjustment when using adjustable sutures in strabismus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liebermann, Laura; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.; Holmes, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare long-term postoperative outcomes when performing an adjustment to achieve a desired immediate postoperative alignment versus simply tying off at the desired immediate postoperative alignment when using adjustable sutures for strabismus surgery. Methods We retrospectively identified 89 consecutive patients who underwent a reoperation for horizontal strabismus using adjustable sutures and also had a 6-week and 1-year outcome examination. In each case, the intent of the surgeon was to tie off and only to adjust if the patient was not within the intended immediate postoperative range. Postoperative success was predefined based on angle of misalignment and diplopia at distance and near. Results Of the 89 patients, 53 (60%) were adjusted and 36 (40%) were tied off. Success rates were similar between patients who were simply tied off immediately after surgery and those who were adjusted. At 6 weeks, the success rate was 64% for the nonadjusted group versus 81% for the adjusted group (P = 0.09; difference of 17%; 95% CI, −2% to 36%). At 1 year, the success rate was 67% for the nonadjusted group versus 77% for the adjusted group (P = 0.3; difference of 11%; 95% CI, −8% to 30%). Conclusions Performing an adjustment to obtain a desired immediate postoperative alignment did not yield inferior long-term outcomes to those obtained by tying off to obtain that initial alignment. If patients were who were outside the desired immediate postoperative range had not been not adjusted, it is possible that their long-term outcomes would have been worse, therefore, overall, an adjustable approach may be superior to a nonadjustable approach. PMID:23415035

  19. Trends in incidence of head and neck cancer in the northern territory, Australia, between 2007 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, Rama; Singh, Jagtar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-01-01

    Incidence trends of head and neck cancer (HNC) have implications for screening strategies, disease management, guiding health policy making, and are needed to further oral cancer research. This paper aims to describe trends in age-adjusted HNC incidence rates focusing on changes across calendar period between 2007 and 2010 in Australian Northern Territory. Age-adjusted incidence rates of HNC were calculated for 2007- 2010 using Northern Territory population based data assembled by Department of Health, Northern Territory Government of Australia. Changes in the HNC rate ratio (RR) and Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) between 2007-2008, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 were calculated. A total of 171 HNC patients were recorded by the Northern Territory Department of Health during the time period between 2007 and 2010, out of which, 135 were males (78.9% of male HNC patients) and 36 were females (21.1% of female HNC patients). In conclusion, HNC incidence rate has decreased in the Northern Territory Australian males but remains unchanged in Australian females. High incidences of HNC may be associated with the high smoking rate and high alcohol consumption in the Northern Territory. Continued monitoring of trends in HNC incidence rates is crucial to inform Northern Territory based cancer prevention strategies.

  20. Cancer Incidence and Staging among American Indians in Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Janis E.; Martinez, Sydney A.; Janitz, Amanda E.; Pate, Anne E.; Erb-Alvarez, Julie; Wharton, David F; Gahn, David; Tall, Vicki L.; Snider, Cuyler; Anderson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background This study describes overall and site specific cancer incidence among AI/ANs compared to whites in Oklahoma and differences in cancer staging. Methods Age-adjusted incidence rates obtained from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry are presented for all cancer sites combined and for the most common cancer sites among AI/ANs with comparisons to whites. Percentages of late stage cancers for breast, colorectal, and melanoma cancers are also presented. Results AI/ANs had a significantly higher overall cancer incidence rate compared to whites (629.8/100,000 vs. 503.3/100,000), with a rate ratio of 1.25 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.28). There was a significant disparity in the percentage of late stage melanoma cancers between 2005 and 2009, with 14.0% late stage melanoma for whites and 20.0% for AI/ANs (p-value: 0.03). Conclusions Overall, there were cancer disparities between AI/ANs and whites in Oklahoma. Incidence rates were higher among AI/ANs for all cancers and many site specific cancers. PMID:24800463

  1. Prostate cancer trends in Canada: rising incidence or increased detection?

    PubMed Central

    Levy, I G; Gibbons, L; Collins, J P; Perkins, D G; Mao, Y

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse trends in the incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer in Canada according to age distribution, temporal pattern and provincial variation; to determine any association with the rate of prostatectomy; and to determine whether any observed increase in the rate of prostate cancer was due to an increase in the detection rate. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiologic study based on Canadian population data from 1959 to 1989 and chart review from one Canadian hospital. SETTING: The chart review was conducted at the Ottawa Civic Hospital. SUBJECTS: The data on prostate cancer trends were obtained from the Canadian population. Charts were reviewed for two groups of patients: (a) men discharged from inpatient care during 1976 and 1986-87 with prostate cancer first diagnosed in the same year and (b) men who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) during 1976 and 1986. OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer, rates of prostatectomy and TURP, and correlations between them. From the hospital data, changes between 1976 and 1986-87 in distribution of cancer stages, distribution of cases detected incidentally after surgery for suspected benign prostatic hypertrophy and average number of slides analysed per gram of tissue obtained from prostatectomy. RESULTS: The epidemiologic data showed that the age-adjusted incidence rates increased by 72% overall, an increase seen in all age groups over 60 years. The mortality rates increased by 29% overall, primarily in men over 85 years old. The prostatectomy rate increased by 55%. There were significant linear correlations between the national and provincial incidence rates of prostate cancer and the TURP rates. The chart review revealed that during 1976, 53% of the cases of prostate cancer diagnosed were localized, as compared with 75% in 1986-87 (p < 0.01). The proportion of tumours diagnosed incidentally in men undergoing TURP increased by 11%, whereas the number of

  2. Incident reporting.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J

    Healthcare delivery is a risky business. People view the NHS in the same light as other commercial businesses such as the hotel, retail and airline industries. The White Paper 'The New NHS: Modern, Dependable' (Secretary of State for Health, 1997) places statutory responsibilities on managers and clinicians to provide a quality service and to have accountability for clinical governance and performance management. Quality and risk are two sides of the same coin, i.e. if you have good quality you have low risk, and this firmly supports the clinical effectiveness agenda. Healthcare organizations in all sectors of care delivery need to demonstrate their high levels of achievement and commitment to continuous quality improvements. Risk management is a process for identifying, assessing and evaluating risks which have adverse effects on the quality, safety and effectiveness of service delivery, and taking positive action to eliminate or reduce them. Having an open, honest and blame-free organization which is open to improving processes and systems of care is a big step towards having staff who are committed to quality and getting things right. Near-miss, incident and indicator recording and reporting are cornerstones of any quality and risk management system.

  3. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age. In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011. Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61–0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61–0.96, compared with the non-NPC group. The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  4. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence rates, risk factors, and targeted interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. Methods We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Results Fourteen studies (n = 1,595) with 52.1% males aged 14.4 years reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1,508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1,348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean: 42 months follow-up were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female gender, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. Conclusions SI and SA are highly common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. PMID:23829436

  5. 5 CFR 9701.336 - Treatment of employees whose pay does not fall below the minimum adjusted rate of their band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements § 9701.336 Treatment of employees whose pay does not...

  6. Nervous System and Intracranial Tumour Incidence by Ethnicity in England, 2001–2007: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Maile, Edward J.; Barnes, Isobel; Finlayson, Alexander E.; Sayeed, Shameq; Ali, Raghib

    2016-01-01

    Background There is substantial variation in nervous system and intracranial tumour incidence worldwide. UK incidence data have limited utility because they group these diverse tumours together and do not provide data for individual ethnic groups within Blacks and South Asians. Our objective was to determine the incidence of individual tumour types for seven individual ethnic groups. Methods We used data from the National Cancer Intelligence Network on tumour site, age, sex and deprivation to identify 42,207 tumour cases. Self-reported ethnicity was obtained from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. We used mid-year population estimates from the Office for National Statistics. We analysed tumours by site using Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios comparing non-White ethnicities to Whites after adjustment for sex, age and deprivation. Results Our study showed differences in tumour incidence by ethnicity for gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary tumours and cranial and paraspinal nerve tumours. Relative to Whites; South Asians, Blacks and Chinese have a lower incidence of gliomas (p<0.01), with respective incidence rate ratios of 0.68 (confidence interval: 0.60–0.77), 0.62 (0.52–0.73) and 0.58 (0.41–0.83). Blacks have a higher incidence of meningioma (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 1.29 (1.05–1.59) and there is heterogeneity in meningioma incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Blacks have a higher incidence of pituitary tumours relative to Whites (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 2.95 (2.37–3.67). There is heterogeneity in pituitary tumour incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Conclusions We present incidence data of individual tumour types for seven ethnic groups. Current understanding of the aetiology of these tumours cannot explain our results. These findings suggest avenues for further work. PMID:27135830

  7. [Hemodynamic benefits of AV interval adjustment and heart rate increase during exercise in dual-chamber pacing as determined by Doppler].

    PubMed

    Sancho-Tello, M J; Salvador, A; Olagüe, J

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the relative significance of ventricular rate increase and AV delay on exercise cardiac output, we have studied 10 patients (8 male and 2 female, 16-59 years) with complete chronic heart block treated with AV sequential pacing. Cardiac output variations (delta CO) were estimated by pulsed Doppler comparisons of the aortic flow velocity in the supine position, at rest and during bicycle exercise. The following pacing programs were tested: DDD with AV intervals of 50, 100 and 150 ms (DDD50 o DDDD100, DDD150), VVI at 70 ppm (VVI70), and VVI at the maximal available rate in this pacing mode-113 or 130 ppm depending on the PM type (VVIM). Exercise measurements in DDD mode were taken when that rate was reached. The delta CO was calculated as a percent change of the product flow velocity integral x heart rate, from that obtained with VVI70 mode at rest. At rest, the delta CO obtained with DDD pacing was 20.4 +/- 14.7% and the optimal AV delay was 50 ms in 1 patient, 100 ms in 3 patients and 150 ms in six. During exercise, the delta CO was higher in DDD and VVIM modes (82.0 +/- 30.8% and 56.2 +/- 37.6%, respectively; p less than 0.01) than in VVI70 mode (20.4 +/- 10.4%; p less than 0.005), the greatest delta CO was reached at DDD mode in 8 out of 10 patients (p less than 0.03). The optimal AV delays were 50 ms in 5 patients, 100 ms in 4 patients and 150 ms in one. Thus, DDD pacing with the optimal AV delay seems to obtain greater haemodynamic benefits during exercise than does rate-responsive pacing; the optimal exercise AV delay varies from patient to patient and is usually less than 150 ms. PMID:2236802

  8. Development of an incident reporting system.

    PubMed

    Puetz, K

    1988-08-01

    Incident reports document occurrences that are not consistent with routine hospital procedures or routine patient care; they are one measure of the quality of patient care. Waukesha (Wisconsin) Memorial Hospital has developed an incident reporting system that allows analysis of incidents by type and location of occurrence so trends can be identified. The hospital has also developed an "incident rate," which is useful for analyzing incident occurrences in relation to patient census.

  9. An index of unhealthy lifestyle is associated with coronary heart disease mortality rates for small areas in England after adjustment for deprivation.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, P; Allender, S; Rayner, M; Goldacre, M

    2011-03-01

    Indices of socio-economic deprivation are often used as a proxy for differences in the health behaviours of populations within small areas, but these indices are a measure of the economic environment rather than the health environment. Sets of synthetic estimates of the ward-level prevalence of low fruit and vegetable consumption, obesity, raised blood pressure, raised cholesterol and smoking were combined to develop an index of unhealthy lifestyle. Multi-level regression models showed that this index described about 50% of the large-scale geographic variation in CHD mortality rates in England, and substantially adds to the ability of an index of deprivation to explain geographic variations in CHD mortality rates.

  10. Geographic variation in end-stage renal disease incidence and access to deceased donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mathur, A K; Ashby, V B; Sands, R L; Wolfe, R A

    2010-04-01

    The effect of demand for kidney transplantation, measured by end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence, on access to transplantation is unknown. Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (OPTN/SRTR) from 2000 to 2008, we performed donation service area (DSA) and patient-level regression analyses to assess the effect of ESRD incidence on access to the kidney waiting list and deceased donor kidney transplantation. In DSAs, ESRD incidence increased with greater density of high ESRD incidence racial groups (African Americans and Native Americans). Wait-list and transplant rates were relatively lower in high ESRD incidence DSAs, but wait-list rates were not drastically affected by ESRD incidence at the patient level. Compared to low ESRD areas, high ESRD areas were associated with lower adjusted transplant rates among all ESRD patients (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.66-0.70). Patients living in medium and high ESRD areas had lower transplant rates from the waiting list compared to those in low ESRD areas (medium: RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.66-0.69; high: RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.61-0.65). Geographic variation in access to kidney transplant is in part mediated by local ESRD incidence, which has implications for allocation policy development.

  11. Controlling Type I Error Rate in Evaluating Differential Item Functioning for Four DIF Methods: Use of Three Procedures for Adjustment of Multiple Item Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihye

    2010-01-01

    In DIF studies, a Type I error refers to the mistake of identifying non-DIF items as DIF items, and a Type I error rate refers to the proportion of Type I errors in a simulation study. The possibility of making a Type I error in DIF studies is always present and high possibility of making such an error can weaken the validity of the assessment.…

  12. A frequency-locked and frequency-doubled, hybrid Q-switched Yb:KYW laser at 515 nm with a widely adjustable repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjörnhammar, S.; Zukauskas, A.; Canalias, C.; Pasiskevicius, V.; Laurell, F.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a compact wavelength-stabilized, frequency-doubled Yb-doped double-tungstate laser with widely tunable repetition rate, spanning from 35 Hz to 3 kHz obtained by hybrid Q-switching. The Q-switching unit consisted of a combination of a passive Cr:YAG crystal and an opto-mechanical active intensity modulator. The fundamental wavelength was locked at 1029 nm with a volume Bragg grating, and the pulse length and energy were 42 ns and 250 µJ, respectively. As the laser was stabilized with the VBG and the opto-mechanical modulator, the frequency instability was reduced six times from free running down to 0.29 %. Frequency doubling was done extra-cavity in PPKTP, and a repetition rate-independent conversion efficiency of 63 % was obtained. The controllable repetition rate together with stable temporal and spatial characteristics makes this laser a suitable candidate in many biology-related experiments, as a pump source for in vivo excitation of fluorophores, e.g., pumping of "living lasers" and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy.

  13. Comparing the Incidence of Falls/Fractures in Parkinson's Disease Patients in the US Population.

    PubMed

    Kalilani, Linda; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Palokangas, Tuire; Durgin, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may experience falls and/or fractures as a result of disease symptoms. There are limited data available from long-term studies estimating the incidence of falls/fractures in patients with PD. The objective was to compare the incidence rate of falls/fractures in PD patients with non-PD patients in a US population. This was a retrospective study using a US-based claims database (Truven Health MarketScan®) that compared the incidence rate of falls/fractures in PD subjects with non-PD subjects. The study period included the 12 months prior to index date (defined as earliest PD diagnosis [International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 332.0]) and a postindex period to the end of data availability. Fractures were defined by inpatient/outpatient claims as a principal or secondary diagnosis and accompanying procedure codes during the postindex period. Incidence rates and 95% CIs for falls/fractures were calculated as the number of events per 10,000 person-years of follow-up using negative binomial or Poisson regression models. Twenty-eight thousand two hundred and eighty PD subjects were matched to non-PD subjects for the analysis (mean [SD] age, 71.4 [11.8] years; 53% male). A higher incidence rate (adjusted for comorbidities and medications) of all fall/fracture cases and by fall and fracture types was observed for PD subjects versus non-PD subjects; the overall adjusted incidence rate ratio comparing PD to non-PD subjects was 2.05; 95% CI, 1.88-2.24. The incidence rate of falls/fractures was significantly higher in subjects with PD compared with non-PD subjects in a US population. PMID:27583564

  14. Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1999–2009

    PubMed Central

    Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. Methods. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. Results. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR] = 2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR = 1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR = 1.84 for regional stage and RR = 1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (−25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Conclusions. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. PMID:24754650

  15. Colchicine Significantly Reduces Incident Cancer in Gout Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout. PMID:26683907

  16. Increasing incidence of cataract surgery: Population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gollogly, Heidrun E.; Hodge, David O.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Erie, Jay C.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To estimate the incidence of cataract surgery in a defined population and to determine longitudinal cataract surgery patterns. SETTING Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. DESIGN Cohort study. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) databases were used to identify all incident cataract surgeries in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011. Age-specific and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated and adjusted to the 2010 United States white population. Data were merged with previous REP data (1980 to 2004) to assess temporal trends in cataract surgery. Change in the incidence over time was assessed by fitting generalized linear models assuming a Poisson error structure. The probability of second-eye cataract surgery was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS Included were 8012 cataract surgeries from 2005 through 2011. During this time, incident cataract surgery significantly increased (P < .001), peaking in 2011 with a rate of 1100 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval, 1050–1160). The probability of second-eye surgery 3, 12, and 24 months after first-eye surgery was 60%, 76%, and 86%, respectively, a significant increase compared with the same intervals in the previous 7 years (1998 to 2004) (P < .001). When merged with 1980 to 2004 REP data, incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 3 decades (P < .001). CONCLUSION Incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 32 years and has not leveled off, as reported in Swedish population-based series. Second-eye surgery was performed sooner and more frequently, with 60% of residents having second-eye surgery within 3-months of first-eye surgery. PMID:23820302

  17. Presence of animal feeding operations and community socioeconomic factors impact salmonellosis incidence rates: An ecological analysis using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kristi S; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Jiang, Chengsheng; Malayil, Leena; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of foodborne illness. Risk factors for salmonellosis include the consumption of contaminated chicken, eggs, pork and beef. Agricultural, environmental and socioeconomic factors also have been associated with rates of Salmonella infection. However, to our knowledge, these factors have not been modeled together at the community-level to improve our understanding of whether rates of salmonellosis are variable across communities defined by differing factors. To address this knowledge gap, we obtained data on culture-confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport and S. Javiana cases (2004-2010; n=14,297) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), and socioeconomic, environmental and agricultural data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the 2011 American Community Survey, and the 2007 U.S. Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code and derived incidence rate ratios using negative binomial regressions. Multiple community-level factors were associated with salmonellosis rates; however, our findings varied by state. For example, in Georgia (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.01; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.005-1.015) Maryland (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.003-1.015) and Tennessee (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.002-1.012), zip codes characterized by greater rurality had higher rates of S. Newport infections. The presence of broiler chicken operations, dairy operations and cattle operations in a zip code also was associated with significantly higher rates of infection with at least one serotype in states that are leading producers of these animal products. For instance, in Georgia and Tennessee, rates of S. Enteritidis infection were 48% (IRR=1.48; 95% CI=1.12-1.95) and 46% (IRR=1.46; 95% CI=1.17-1.81) higher in zip codes with broiler chicken operations compared to those without these operations. In Maryland, New Mexico and Tennessee, higher poverty levels in zip codes were associated with

  18. Presence of animal feeding operations and community socioeconomic factors impact salmonellosis incidence rates: An ecological analysis using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kristi S; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Jiang, Chengsheng; Malayil, Leena; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of foodborne illness. Risk factors for salmonellosis include the consumption of contaminated chicken, eggs, pork and beef. Agricultural, environmental and socioeconomic factors also have been associated with rates of Salmonella infection. However, to our knowledge, these factors have not been modeled together at the community-level to improve our understanding of whether rates of salmonellosis are variable across communities defined by differing factors. To address this knowledge gap, we obtained data on culture-confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport and S. Javiana cases (2004-2010; n=14,297) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), and socioeconomic, environmental and agricultural data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the 2011 American Community Survey, and the 2007 U.S. Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code and derived incidence rate ratios using negative binomial regressions. Multiple community-level factors were associated with salmonellosis rates; however, our findings varied by state. For example, in Georgia (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.01; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.005-1.015) Maryland (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.003-1.015) and Tennessee (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.002-1.012), zip codes characterized by greater rurality had higher rates of S. Newport infections. The presence of broiler chicken operations, dairy operations and cattle operations in a zip code also was associated with significantly higher rates of infection with at least one serotype in states that are leading producers of these animal products. For instance, in Georgia and Tennessee, rates of S. Enteritidis infection were 48% (IRR=1.48; 95% CI=1.12-1.95) and 46% (IRR=1.46; 95% CI=1.17-1.81) higher in zip codes with broiler chicken operations compared to those without these operations. In Maryland, New Mexico and Tennessee, higher poverty levels in zip codes were associated with

  19. Incidence and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among Navajo people living in the Navajo nation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Paul H; Mehal, Jason M; Holman, Robert C; Bartholomew, Michael L; Cheek, James E; Rowland, Andrew S

    2015-04-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is largely unstudied among American Indians. Unique populations might harbor clues to elusive causes. We describe the incidence and prevalence of PD among Navajo people residing in the Navajo Nation, home to the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. We analyzed 2001-2011 inpatient and outpatient visit data for Navajo people obtained from the Indian Health Service, which provides health care to American Indian people living on the Navajo Reservation. Cases were defined by at least two inpatient or outpatient visits with the diagnosis of PD. Crude and age-adjusted incidence and prevalence rates were calculated overall as well as by age, sex, region of residence, and time period. Five hundred twenty-four Navajo people with median age-at-onset of 74.0 years were diagnosed with PD during the study period, yielding an average annual crude incidence rate of 22.5/100,000. Age-specific incidence was 232.0 for patients 65 years of age or older and 302.0 for 80 years of age or older. Age-adjusted incidence was 35.9 overall (238.1 for ≥65 years), was higher in men than in women (47.5 vs. 27.7; P<0.001), varied by region (P=0.03), and was similar between time periods (2002-2004 vs. 2009-2011). The age-adjusted point prevalence rate was 261.0. The rate of PD among Navajo People appears to be as high as or higher than rates reported in many other populations. Rates increased to the highest age group, consistent with population-based studies. Further investigation is warranted to examine risk factors for PD in this remote population. PMID:25649219

  20. Effects of uncertainty in SAPRC90 rate constants and selected product yields on reactivity adjustment factors for alternative fuel vehicle emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, M.S.; Russell, A.G.; Yang, Y.J.; Milford, J.B.; Kirchner, F.; Stockwell, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone is formed in the atmosphere by a series of reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). While NOx emissions are primarily composed of only two compounds, nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), there are hundreds of different VOCs being emitted. In general, VOCs promote ozone formation, however, the rate and extent of ozone produced by the individual VOCs varies considerably. For example, it is widely acknowledged that formaldehyde (HCHO) is a very reactive VOC, and produces ozone rapidly and efficiently under most conditions. On the other hand, VOCs such as methane, ethane, propane, and methanol do not react as quickly, and are likely to form less urban ozone than a comparable mass of HCHO. The difference in ozone forming potential is one of the bases for the use of alternative fuels. The fuels considered in this study included compressed natural gas, LPG, mixtures of methanol and gasoline, ethanol and gasoline, and a reformulated gasoline.

  1. Micro Ring Grating Spectrometer with Adjustable Aperture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spectrometer includes a micro-ring grating device having coaxially-aligned ring gratings for diffracting incident light onto a target focal point, a detection device for detecting light intensity, one or more actuators, and an adjustable aperture device defining a circular aperture. The aperture circumscribes a target focal point, and directs a light to the detection device. The aperture device is selectively adjustable using the actuators to select a portion of a frequency band for transmission to the detection device. A method of detecting intensity of a selected band of incident light includes directing incident light onto coaxially-aligned ring gratings of a micro-ring grating device, and diffracting the selected band onto a target focal point using the ring gratings. The method includes using an actuator to adjust an aperture device and pass a selected portion of the frequency band to a detection device for measuring the intensity of the selected portion.

  2. Female breast cancer incidence and survival in Utah according to religious preference, 1985–1999

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Ray M; Folsom, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    Background Female breast cancer incidence rates in Utah are among the lowest in the U.S. The influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon) religion on these rates, as well as on disease-specific survival, will be explored for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Methods Population-based records for incident female breast cancer patients were linked with membership records from the LDS Church to determine religious affiliation and, for LDS Church members, level of religiosity. Incidence rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population using the direct method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare survival among religiously active LDS, less religiously active LDS, and non-LDS with simultaneous adjustment for prognostic factors. Results Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rates were consistently lower for LDS than non-LDS in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Rates were lower among LDS compared with non-LDS across the age span. In 1995–99, the age-adjusted incidence rates were 107.6 (95% CI: 103.9 – 111.3) for LDS women and 130.5 (123.2 – 137.9) for non-LDS women. If non-LDS women in Utah had the same breast cancer risk profile as LDS women, an estimated 214 (4.8%) fewer malignant breast cancer cases would have occurred during 1995–99. With religiously active LDS serving as the reference group, the adjusted death hazard ratio for religiously less active LDS was 1.09 (0.94 – 1.27) and for non-LDS was 0.86 (0.75 – 0.98). Conclusion In Utah, LDS lifestyle is associated with lower incidence rates of female breast cancer. However, LDS experience poorer survivability from breast cancer than their non-LDS counterparts. Parity and breastfeeding, while protective factors against breast cancer, may contribute to poorer prognosis of female breast cancer in LDS women. PMID:15904509

  3. Time Trends and Racial Differences in Female Breast Cancer Incidence in Pennsylvania, 1985-2004.

    PubMed

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Talbott, Evelyn; Donovan, Maryann

    2011-02-25

    Abstract Background: Differences in breast cancer incidence time trends can result from changes in ascertainment, new diagnostic codes, or possibly changes in underlying risk factors. Methods: Female breast cancer incidence data between 1985 and 2004 were obtained from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Joinpoint regression was applied to characterize time trends of age-specific, race-specific, and histology-specific breast cancer incidence. Estimated annual percent change (APC) was calculated. Spatial analysis was applied to detect spatial clusters of county-specific incidence for breast cancer in Pennsylvania. Results: The age-adjusted incidence of invasive breast carcinoma and breast carcinoma in situ was higher in white women than in black women. Invasive breast carcinoma incidence began to decrease significantly in 2001 (APC -3.0%) among white women but has been stable among black women since 1987. Among white women, the age-adjusted incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ increased significantly from 1985 to 1999 but was stable for lobular carcinoma in situ. Among black women, the incidence for both ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ increased significantly over time. For women under the age of 40, breast carcinoma in situ incidence increased significantly over time (APC 4.5% and 10.0% in white women and black women, respectively, 1985-2004). Young black women had a higher incidence of both invasive breast carcinoma and breast carcinoma in situ compared to young white women. Conclusions: Although the increase in breast carcinoma in situ is partly explained by improved diagnosis and screening, other risk factors should be considered. In addition, factors responsible for higher breast cancer rates among younger black women and women living in urban areas should be carefully assessed.

  4. Incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Abelmann, Walter H.

    1985-01-01

    Full reliable data on the incidence and prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy are not available. In the United States, at least 0.7% of cardiac deaths are attributable to cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy probably contributes the great majority of these cases. The mortality rate for cardiomyopathy in males is twice that of females, and for blacks it is 2.4 times that of whites. Cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in 0.67% of patients discharged from hospitals in 1979 with diagnoses of disease of the circulatory system. Cardiomyopathy accounted for 1% of general cardiologists' and for 7% of academic cardiologists' patient encounters. In Scandinavia, population surveys suggested an annual incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy ranging from 0.73 to 7.5 cases per 100,000 population; for Tokyo this figure is 2.6. The prevalence of cardiomyopathy in underdeveloped and in tropical countries is considerably higher than in developed countries.

  5. Foodborne Illness Incidence Rates and Food Safety Risks for Populations of Low Socioeconomic Status and Minority Race/Ethnicity: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe. PMID:23955239

  6. Depression and incident lower limb amputations in veterans with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lisa H.; Miller, Donald R.; Fincke, Graeme; Lafrance, Jean-Philippe; Etzioni, Ruth; Maynard, Charles; Raugi, Gregory J.; Reiber, Gayle E.

    2010-01-01

    Problem Depression is associated with a higher risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications and mortality in diabetes, but whether depression is linked to an increased risk of incident amputations is unknown. We examined the association between diagnosed depression and incident non-traumatic lower limb amputations in veterans with diabetes. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study from 2000-2004 that included 531,973 veterans from the Diabetes Epidemiology Cohorts, a national Veterans Affairs (VA) registry with VA and Medicare data. Depression was defined by diagnostic codes or antidepressant prescriptions. Amputations were defined by diagnostic and procedural codes. We determined the HR and 95% CI for incident non-traumatic lower limb amputation by major (transtibial and above) and minor (ankle and below) subtypes, comparing veterans with and without diagnosed depression and adjusting for demographics, health care utilization, diabetes severity, and comorbid medical and mental health conditions. Results Over a mean 4.1 years of follow up, there were 1,289 major and 2,541 minor amputations. Diagnosed depression was associated with an adjusted HR of 1.33 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.55) for major amputations. There was no statistically significant association between depression and minor amputations (adjusted HR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.13). Conclusions Diagnosed depression is associated with a 33% higher risk of incident major lower limb amputation in veterans with diabetes. Further study is needed to understand this relationship and to determine whether depression screening and treatment in patients with diabetes could decrease amputation rates. PMID:20801060

  7. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences. PMID:22543542

  8. TB Incidence in an Adolescent Cohort in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mahomed, Hassan; Ehrlich, Rodney; Hawkridge, Tony; Hatherill, Mark; Geiter, Lawrence; Kafaar, Fazlin; Abrahams, Deborah Ann; Mulenga, Humphrey; Tameris, Michele; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Hanekom, Willem Albert; Verver, Suzanne; Hussey, Gregory Dudley

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem globally. Little is known about TB incidence in adolescents who are a proposed target group for new TB vaccines. We conducted a study to determine the TB incidence rates and risk factors for TB disease in a cohort of school-going adolescents in a high TB burden area in South Africa. Methods We recruited adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from high schools in Worcester, South Africa. Demographic and clinical information was collected, a tuberculin skin test (TST) performed and blood drawn for a QuantiFERON TB Gold assay at baseline. Screening for TB cases occurred at follow up visits and by surveillance of registers at public sector TB clinics over a period of up to 3.8 years after enrolment. Results A total of 6,363 adolescents were enrolled (58% of the school population targeted). During follow up, 67 cases of bacteriologically confirmed TB were detected giving an overall incidence rate of 0.45 per 100 person years (95% confidence interval 0.29–0.72). Black or mixed race, maternal education of primary school or less or unknown, a positive baseline QuantiFERON assay and a positive baseline TST were significant predictors of TB disease on adjusted analysis. Conclusion The adolescent TB incidence found in a high burden setting will help TB vaccine developers plan clinical trials in this population. Latent TB infection and low socio-economic status were predictors of TB disease. PMID:23533639

  9. Disparities in Cancer Mortality and Incidence Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Espey, David K.; Swan, Judith; Wiggins, Charles L.; Eheman, Christie; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used improved data on American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) ancestry to provide an updated and comprehensive description of cancer mortality and incidence among AI/AN populations from 1990 to 2009. Methods. We linked the National Death Index and central cancer registry records independently to the Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registration database to improve identification of AI/AN persons in cancer mortality and incidence data, respectively. Analyses were restricted to non-Hispanic persons residing in Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in 6 geographic regions of the United States. We compared age-adjusted mortality and incidence rates for AI/AN populations with White populations using rate ratios and mortality-to-incidence ratios. Trends were described using joinpoint analysis. Results. Cancer mortality and incidence rates for AI/AN persons compared with Whites varied by region and type of cancer. Trends in death rates showed that greater progress in cancer control was achieved for White populations compared with AI/AN populations over the last 2 decades. Conclusions. Spatial variations in mortality and incidence by type of cancer demonstrated both persistent and emerging challenges for cancer control in AI/AN populations. PMID:24754660

  10. Sociodemographic distribution of gonorrhea incidence: implications for prevention and behavioral research.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, R J; Roberts, P L; Handsfield, H H; Holmes, K K

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Despite a declining incidence during the AIDS era, gonorrhea remains the most frequently reported communicable disease in the United States. METHODS. During 1986 and 1987 we supplemented gonorrhea case reporting with laboratory surveillance in King County, Washington. Incidence rates were correlated with demographic variables. RESULTS. Overall incidence of gonorrhea was similar for men and women, but highest for 16- to 21-year-old females and urban Seattle residents. Incidence rates by ethnicity were Blacks, 3033; Native Americans, 843; Hispanics, 617; Asians, 190; and Whites, 121. Census tracts representing the lowest socioeconomic status (SES) quartile accounted for 58% of reported gonorrhea. Black female teenagers residing in the lowest SES urban areas had highest incidence rates: aged 14 to 15, 3.4%; 16 to 17, 10.4%; 18, 17.0%; and 19, 15.4%. Rates in female teenagers were even higher after adjustment for estimated proportion of those who were sexually experienced. CONCLUSIONS. Gonorrhea incidence is associated with age, gender, ethnicity, SES, and residence. Identification of populations at highest risk for gonorrhea can direct interventions against all sexually transmitted diseases. Clearly, interventions to alter high-risk behaviors must be initiated in early adolescence. PMID:1928521

  11. A whole genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting milk protein percentage in Israeli-Holstein cattle, by means of selective milk DNA pooling in a daughter design, using an adjusted false discovery rate criterion.

    PubMed Central

    Mosig, M O; Lipkin, E; Khutoreskaya, G; Tchourzyna, E; Soller, M; Friedmann, A

    2001-01-01

    Selective DNA pooling was employed in a daughter design to screen all bovine autosomes for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting estimated breeding value for milk protein percentage (EBVP%). Milk pools prepared from high and low daughters of each of seven sires were genotyped for 138 dinucleotide microsatellites. Shadow-corrected estimates of sire allele frequencies were compared between high and low pools. An adjusted false discovery rate (FDR) method was employed to calculate experimentwise significance levels and empirical power. Significant associations with milk protein percentage were found for 61 of the markers (adjusted FDR = 0.10; estimated power, 0.68). The significant markers appear to be linked to 19--28 QTL. Mean allele substitution effects of the putative QTL averaged 0.016 (0.009--0.028) in units of the within-sire family standard deviation of EBVP% and summed to 0.460 EBVP%. Overall QTL heterozygosity was 0.40. The identified QTL appear to account for all of the variation in EBVP% in the population. Through use of selective DNA pooling, 4400 pool data points provided the statistical power of 600,000 individual data points. PMID:11290723

  12. Incidence trends of mesothelioma in Norway, 1965-1999.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, Bente; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Møller, Bjørn; Andersen, Aage

    2003-10-20

    Asbestos exposure is considered to be the only important risk factor for malignant mesothelioma. The importation of asbestos to Norway increased after World War II and peaked in 1970. Stringent regulations took effect in 1977, and importation and use of asbestos practically ended in Norway in the late 1970s, until importation was prohibited in 1982. Our study aimed to analyze the incidence of mesothelioma in Norway according to temporal variation, to study the consequences of the use of asbestos and the asbestos ban effectiveness. An age-period-cohort model was used to analyze time trends for pleural mesotheliomas. From 1965-1999, the annual number of pleural mesotheliomas rose gradually both in males and females, and the highest annual number of pleural mesotheliomas was recorded in 1999 with 73 new cases diagnosed. The age-adjusted log linear drift of malignant mesothelioma of the pleura during the observation period rose 31.1% per 5 years among men and 15.9% among women. In 1995-1999, the age-adjusted incidence rate for men was 16.6 per million person-years for men and 2.3 for women. Cohort-specific risks increased for men born up to around 1935. After this the risks seem to stabilize. The rates were determined by age and by birth cohort. The delayed period effect of the asbestos regulation by the late 1970s will probably have its greatest effects on the mesothelioma rates around 2010.

  13. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer With 2 Fractions in 1 Application Under Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia: Incidence and Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Czajka-Pepl, Agnieszka; Scharbert, Gisela; Wetzel, Léonore; Sturdza, Alina; Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the psychological consequences of high-dose-rate brachytherapy with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In 50 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, validated questionnaires were used for prospective assessment of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD/PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale–Revision), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Cervical Cancer 24), physical functioning (World Health Organization performance status), and pain (visual analogue scale), before and during treatment and 1 week and 3 months after treatment. Qualitative interviews were recorded in open format for content analysis. Results: Symptoms of ASD occurred in 30% of patients 1 week after treatment; and of PTSD in 41% 3 months after treatment in association with this specific brachytherapy procedure. Pretreatment predictive variables explain 82% of the variance of PTSD symptoms. Helpful experiences were the support of the treatment team, psychological support, and a positive attitude. Stressful factors were pain, organizational problems during treatment, and immobility between brachytherapy fractions. Conclusions: The specific brachytherapy procedure, as performed in the investigated mono-institutional setting with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia, bears a considerable risk of traumatization. The source of stress seems to be not the brachytherapy application itself but the maintenance of the applicator under epidural anesthesia in the time between fractions. Patients at risk may be identified before treatment, to offer targeted psycho-social support. The patients' open reports regarding helpful experiences are an encouraging feedback for the treatment team; the reported stressful factors

  15. The prevalence and genetic characterization of Chlamydia psittaci from domestic and feral pigeons in Poland and the correlation between infection rate and incidence of pigeon circovirus.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Tomasz; Pestka, Daria; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Chlamydia psittaci that occurs in a wide range of bird species. High infection rates with C. psittaci are found in pigeons, which can act as vectors transmitting this bacterium to poultry and humans. Chlamydia shedding by pigeons is intermittent and can be activated by stressors or immunosuppression. The most common immunosuppressive factor for pigeons is a pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. psittaci in Polish populations of domestic and feral pigeons (Columba livia) in the context of its correlation with PiCV infections. The second objective was to determine the genetic characteristics of Polish C. psittaci isolates. The study was conducted on 377 pigeon samples (276 domestic and 101 feral pigeons) collected from pigeons from different regions of Poland. The average prevalence of C. psittaci in the Polish pigeon population was determined at 6.8%, and it was higher in domestic than in feral pigeons. This is the first ever study to suggest a potential correlation between C. psittaci and PiCV infections, which could be attributed to the fact that there are 2 to 3 times more pigeons infected with C. psittaci and coinfected with PiCV than pigeons infected with C. psittaci alone. This trend was observed mainly in the population of sick pigeons. As many as 88.2% of isolates were recognized as belonging to genotype B, and the remaining isolates were identified as belonging to genotype E. The isolates analyzed in this study demonstrated low levels of genetic variation (96-100% homology among the isolates and in relation to reference strains). Chlamydia psittaci could be expected to spread across pigeon populations due to the high probability of mutual infections between birds and the increasing number of PiCV infections.

  16. 76 FR 22157 - Postal Service Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... flats that include, in or on the mailpiece, a two dimensional barcode readable by mobile smart phones.... Id. The Postal Service requires that the barcode must be two dimensional, and notes that one dimensional barcodes, though readable by smart phones, are not eligible to receive the discount. Id....

  17. Structural and Functional Vascular Alterations and Incident Hypertension in Normotensive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peralta, Carmen A.; Adeney, Kathryn L.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Jacobs, David; Duprez, Daniel; Bluemke, David; Polak, Joseph; Psaty, Bruce; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities may exist before clinical hypertension. Using Poisson regression, the authors studied the association of coronary artery calcium (CAC), common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), aortic distensibility, and large and small arterial elasticity with incident hypertension among 2,512 normotensive US adults free of cardiovascular disease. Incidence rate ratios for incident hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or new antihypertensive medication) were calculated. Increased CAC was associated with incident hypertension in demographics-adjusted models (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.75; IRR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.78; and IRR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.25 for CAC scores of 30–99, 100–399, and ≥400, respectively) but was attenuated after further adjustment. Increased common CIMT was associated with incident hypertension (IRR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.28, 2.46 for quintile 4; IRR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.28, 2.53 for quintile 5). Participants with the lowest, compared with the highest, aortic distensibility had an increased risk of hypertension (IRR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.79), as did those with the lowest large arterial elasticity (IRR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.99). Lower small arterial elasticity was incrementally associated with incident hypertension starting at quintile 2 (IRR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.39, 2.91; IRR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.71, 3.57; IRR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.88, 3.95; and IRR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.95, 4.16). Structural and functional vascular abnormalities are independent predictors of incident hypertension. These findings are important for understanding the pathogenesis of hypertension. PMID:19951938

  18. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G; Johnson, Jay R; Miller, Federick W; Matteson, Eric L; Gabriel, Sherine E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We used data from patients with GCA (1950–2004) and RA (1955–2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. Results The correlation of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0–1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5–7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4–5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8–11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. Conclusions AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4–5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. The link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases. PMID:25979866

  19. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    DOE PAGES

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G.; Johnson, Jay R.; Miller, Federick W.; Matteson, Eric L.; Crowson, C. S.; Gabriel, S. E.

    2015-05-15

    Our objective was to examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: We used data from patients with GCA (1950-2004) and RA (1955-2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. Results: The correlationmore » of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0-1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5-7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4-5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8-11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. Conclusions: AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4-5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. Lastly, the link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases.« less

  20. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure. Methods Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates. Results Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks. Conclusions and Public Health Implications Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing