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Sample records for adjusted life year

  1. Understanding DALYs (disability-adjusted life years).

    PubMed

    Murray, C J; Acharya, A K

    1997-12-01

    The measurement unit disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), used in recent years to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries and risk factors on human populations, is grounded on cogent economic and ethical principles and can guide policies toward delivering more cost-effective and equitable health care. DALYs follow from a fairness principle that treats 'like as like' within an information set comprising the health conditions of individuals, differentiated solely by age and sex. The particular health state weights used to account for non-fatal health outcomes are derived through the application of various forms of the person trade-off.

  2. Disability-adjusted Life Years for Diabetes in Cuban Children and Adolescents, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Alonso, Emma

    2016-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Shifts in diabetes onset to earlier ages, globally and in Cuba, signify greater risk of early complications and premature death, with consequent economic and social repercussions for families and health systems. OBJECTIVE Describe the trend in diabetes burden in Cuban children and adolescents in the period 1990 to 2010, in terms of disability-adjusted life years. METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study was conducted of diabetes burden in Cuba, analyzing the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 for the age group 0-19 years. Disability-adjusted life years were obtained from the sum of potential years of life lost plus years lived with disability. The first is calculated based on total deaths in the country in which diabetes was recorded as underlying cause; the second from the product of severity, as assigned to diabetes in similar studies, and incidence and average duration, provided by the DISMOD II program, which estimates six internally consistent epidemiological indicators. RESULTS Mortality indicators improved, with a decrease in the rate of potential years of life lost in boys from 21.9/100,000 population in 1990 to 0 in 2010, and in girls from 38.8/100,000 in 1990 to 4.9/100,000 in 2010 (1% of disability-adjusted life years in girls in 2010, corresponding to one death). In contrast, years lived with disability increased by 134.5% in boys and 156.4% in girls. The net result was that disability-adjusted life years increased by >100% in both sexes (from 137.2 to 321.9/100,000 in boys and from 157.3 to 403.3/100,000 in girls, increases of 102.3% and 108.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Disability-adjusted life years lost for diabetes in Cuban children and adolescents have increased, due to disability, while mortality has decreased. KEYWORDS Diabetes mellitus, childhood, adolescence, disability-adjusted life years, potential years of life lost, years lived with disability, Cuba.

  3. Association between lifestyle factors and quality-adjusted life years in the EPIC-NL cohort.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Heidi P; May, Anne M; Beulens, Joline W J; Struijk, Ellen A; de Wit, G Ardine; Boer, Jolanda M A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hoekstra, Jeljer; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to relate four modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet) to health expectancy, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in a prospective cohort study. Data of the prospective EPIC-NL study were used, including 33,066 healthy men and women aged 20-70 years at baseline (1993-7), followed until 31-12-2007 for occurrence of disease and death. Smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (excluding alcohol) were investigated separately and combined into a healthy lifestyle score, ranging from 0 to 4. QALYs were used as summary measure of healthy life expectancy, combining a person's life expectancy with a weight for quality of life when having a chronic disease. For lifestyle factors analyzed separately the number of years living longer in good health varied from 0.12 year to 0.84 year, after adjusting for covariates. A combination of the four lifestyle factors was positively associated with higher QALYs (P-trend <0.0001). A healthy lifestyle score of 4 compared to a score of 0 was associated with almost a 2 years longer life in good health (1.75 QALYs [95% CI 1.37, 2.14]).

  4. Incidence, prevalence, and hybrid approaches to calculating disability-adjusted life years

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    When disability-adjusted life years are used to measure the burden of disease on a population in a time interval, they can be calculated in several different ways: from an incidence, pure prevalence, or hybrid perspective. I show that these calculation methods are not equivalent and discuss some of the formal difficulties each method faces. I show that if we don’t discount the value of future health, there is a sense in which the choice of calculation method is a mere question of accounting. Such questions can be important, but they don’t raise deep theoretical concerns. If we do discount, however, choice of calculation method can change the relative burden attributed to different conditions over time. I conclude by recommending that studies involving disability-adjusted life years be explicit in noting what calculation method is being employed and in explaining why that calculation method has been chosen. PMID:22967055

  5. Global Burden of Leptospirosis: Estimated in Terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years

    PubMed Central

    Torgerson, Paul R.; Hagan, José E.; Costa, Federico; Calcagno, Juan; Kane, Michael; Martinez-Silveira, Martha S.; Goris, Marga G. A.; Stein, Claudia; Ko, Albert I.; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonosis, occurs in diverse epidemiological settings and affects vulnerable populations, such as rural subsistence farmers and urban slum dwellers. Although leptospirosis can cause life-threatening disease, there is no global burden of disease estimate in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) available. Methodology/Principal Findings We utilised the results of a parallel publication that reported global estimates of morbidity and mortality due to leptospirosis. We estimated Years of Life Lost (YLLs) from age and gender stratified mortality rates. Years of Life with Disability (YLDs) were developed from a simple disease model indicating likely sequelae. DALYs were estimated from the sum of YLLs and YLDs. The study suggested that globally approximately 2·90 million DALYs are lost per annum (UIs 1·25–4·54 million) from the approximately annual 1·03 million cases reported previously. Males are predominantly affected with an estimated 2·33 million DALYs (UIs 0·98–3·69) or approximately 80% of the total burden. For comparison, this is over 70% of the global burden of cholera estimated by GBD 2010. Tropical regions of South and South-east Asia, Western Pacific, Central and South America, and Africa had the highest estimated leptospirosis disease burden. Conclusions/Significance Leptospirosis imparts a significant health burden worldwide, which approach or exceed those encountered for a number of other zoonotic and neglected tropical diseases. The study findings indicate that highest burden estimates occur in resource-poor tropical countries, which include regions of Africa where the burden of leptospirosis has been under-appreciated and possibly misallocated to other febrile illnesses such as malaria. PMID:26431366

  6. Factors associated with improvement in disability-adjusted life years in patients with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez-Tamayo, Clara; Martin, Jose Jesus Martin; Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Lima, Antonio Olry de Labry

    2008-01-01

    Background The epidemic of HIV/AIDS and treatments that have emerged to alleviate, have brought about a shift in the burden of disease from death to quality of life/disability. The aim was to determine which factors are associated with improvements in the level of health of male and female patients with HIV/AIDS in Andalusia, in terms of disability-adjusted life years. Methods Descriptive study based on a sample group of 8800 people on the Andalusian AIDS register between 1983 and 2004. Dependent variables: Life lost due to premature mortality (YLL), years lost due to disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life years (DALY). Independent variables: vital state, sex, age at the time of diagnosis, age at the time of death, transmission category, province of residence, AIDS-indicator disease and the period of diagnosis. A bivariate analysis was carried out to find out if the health level variables changed in accordance with the independent variables. Using the independent variables which had a statistically significant link with the level of health variables, a multivariate linear regression model, disaggregated by gender, was constructed. Results Amongst the women, we found a model which explained the level of health of 64.9%: a link was found between a higher level of health (lower DALYs) and not intravenous drug use, the province of residence, being diagnosed during the HAART era and older age at the time of diagnosis. Amongst the men, we found a model which explained the level of health of 64.4%: a link was found between a higher level of health (lower DALYs) and intravenous drug use, the province of residence, being diagnosed during the HAART era and older age at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion A higher level of health (lower DALY) amongst both men and women was found to be linked to not be intravenous drug user, the province of residence, being diagnosed during the HAART era and older age at the time of diagnosis. PMID:18939970

  7. Calculating disability-adjusted-life-years lost (DALYs) in discrete-time.

    PubMed

    Larson, Bruce A

    2013-08-08

    Disability-adjusted-life-years lost (DALYs) is a common outcome metric for cost-effectiveness analyses, and the equations used for such calculations have been presented previously by Fox-Rushby and Hanson (see, e.g., "Health Policy and Planning 16:326-331, 2001"). While the equations are clear, the logic behind them is opaque at best for a large share of public health practitioners and students. The objective of this paper is to show how to calculate DALYs using a discrete time formulation that is easy to teach to students and public health practitioners, is easy to apply for those with basic discounting skills, and is consistent with the discounting methods typically included on the costing side of cost-effectiveness analysis. A continuous-time adjustment factor is derived that can be used to ensure exact consistency between the continuous and discrete time approaches, but this level of precision is typically unnecessary for cost-effectiveness analyses. To illustrate the approach, both a new, simple example and the same example presented in Fox-Rushby and Hanson are used throughout the paper.

  8. Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Resign; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-02-22

    Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15-45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011-2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease.

  9. Diminishing willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year: valuing acute foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Haninger, Kevin; Hammitt, James K

    2011-09-01

    We design and conduct a stated-preference survey to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce foodborne risk of acute illness and to test whether WTP is proportional to the corresponding gain in expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). If QALYs measure utility for health, then economic theory requires WTP to be nearly proportional to changes in both health quality and duration of illness and WTP could be estimated by multiplying the expected change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. WTP is elicited using double-bounded, dichotomous-choice questions in which respondents (randomly selected from the U.S. general adult population, n = 2,858) decide whether to purchase a more expensive food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Health risks vary by baseline probability of illness, reduction in probability, duration and severity of illness, and conditional probability of mortality. The expected gain in QALYs is calculated using respondent-assessed decrements in health-related quality of life if ill combined with the duration of illness and reduction in probability specified in the survey. We find sharply diminishing marginal WTP for severity and duration of illness prevented. Our results suggest that individuals do not have a constant rate of WTP per QALY, which implies that WTP cannot be accurately estimated by multiplying the change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value.

  10. Disability-Adjusted Life Years for Maternal, Neonatal, and Nutritional Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and child health is an important issue throughout the world. Given their impact on maternal and child health, nutritional issues need to be carefully addressed. Accordingly, the effect of maternal, child, and nutritional disorders on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) should be calculated. The present study used DALYs to estimate the burden of disease of maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders in the Korean population in 2012. For this purpose, we used claim data of the Korean National Health Insurance Service, DisMod II, and death data of the Statistics Korea and adhered to incidence-based DALY estimation methodology. The total DALYs per 100,000 population were 376 in maternal disorders, 64 in neonatal disorders, and 58 in nutritional deficiencies. The leading causes of DALYs were abortion in maternal disorders, preterm birth complications in neonatal disorders, and iron-deficiency anemia in nutritional deficiencies. Our findings shed light on the considerable burden of maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions, emphasizing the need for health care policies that can reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27775256

  11. Disability adjusted life year (DALY): a useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Wang, Xiaochang C; Chen, Rong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-04-01

    Disability adjusted life year (DALY) has been widely used since 1990s for evaluating global and/or regional burden of diseases. As many environmental pollutants are hazardous to human health, DALY is also recognized as an indicator to quantify the health impact of environmental pollution related to disease burden. Based on literature reviews, this article aims to give an overview of the applicable methodologies and research directions for using DALY as a tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution. With an introduction of the methodological framework of DALY, the requirements on data collection and manipulation for quantifying disease burdens are summarized. Regarding environmental pollutants hazardous to human beings, health effect/risk evaluation is indispensable for transforming pollution data into disease data through exposure and dose-response analyses which need careful selection of models and determination of parameters. Following the methodological discussions, real cases are analyzed with attention paid to chemical pollutants and pathogens usually encountered in environmental pollution. It can be seen from existing studies that DALY is advantageous over conventional environmental impact assessment for quantification and comparison of the risks resulted from environmental pollution. However, further studies are still required to standardize the methods of health effect evaluation regarding varied pollutants under varied circumstances before DALY calculation.

  12. Quality-Adjusted Life Years Lost to Road Crash Injury: Updating the Injury Impairment Index

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, Rebecca S.; Miller, Ted R.; Hendrie, Delia; Blincoe, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    The Injury Impairment Index (III) has long been used internationally to estimate the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) losses associated with crash injuries. The III has major limitations, notably its lack of detailed validation, but it is widely used and estimates from it are regularly published. It is based on physician estimates of typical impairment on 6 dimensions of functioning (cognitive, mobility, bending/grasping/lifting, sensory, pain and cosmetic), supplemented with data on work-related disability. This paper reports on a literature synthesis used to update the III scoring algorithm that converts impairment levels by dimension into a combined QALY loss score. An extensive international literature search identified 13 health status scales, some of them with multiple scorings. From the scorings, we extracted utility scores for each level of each dimension of the III. We also searched for direct utility estimates for III dimension endpoints (e.g., blindness, deafness). Median and inter-quartile ranges were computed by scale point to represent the uncertainty range of preference weights within each III dimension and level. Average QALY losses per injury by MAIS were computed using the updated preference weight ranges applied to 2000–2006 U.S. crash data. The updated QALY loss estimates are lower than those computed with the QALY weights developed in 1990. This paper’s tables of estimated average QALY losses by MAIS, injury type, and body region injured can be applied to future and existing injury data in order to estimate the impact of injury on quality of life and measure health status. PMID:22105411

  13. Costing the Morbidity and Mortality Consequences of Zoonoses Using Health-Adjusted Life Years.

    PubMed

    Jordan, H; Dunt, D; Hollingsworth, B; Firestone, S M; Burgman, M

    2016-10-01

    Governments are routinely involved in the biosecurity of agricultural and food imports and exports. This involves controlling the complex ongoing threat of the broad range of zoonoses: endemic, exotic and newly emerging. Policy-related decision-making in these areas requires accurate information and predictions concerning the effects and potential impacts of zoonotic diseases. The aim of this article was to provide information concerning the development and use of utility-based tools, specifically disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), for measuring the burden on human disease (morbidity and mortality) as a consequence of zoonotic infections. Issues and challenges to their use are also considered. Non-monetary utility approaches that are reviewed in this paper form one of a number of tools that can be used to estimate the monetary and non-monetary 'cost' of morbidity- and mortality-related consequences. Other tools derive from cost-of-illness, willingness-to-pay and multicriteria approaches. Utility-based approaches are specifically designed to capture the pain, suffering and loss of functioning associated with diseases, zoonotic and otherwise. These effects are typically complicated to define, measure and subsequently 'cost'. Utility-based measures will not be able to capture all of the effects, especially those that extend beyond the health sector. These will more normally be captured in financial terms. Along with other uncommon diseases, the quality of the relevant epidemiological data may not be adequate to support the estimation of losses in utility as a result of zoonoses. Other issues in their use have been identified. New empirical studies have shown some success in addressing these issues. Other issues await further study. It is concluded that, bearing in mind all caveats, utility-based methods are important tools in assessing the magnitude of the impacts of zoonoses in human disease. They make an important contribution to decision-making and priority

  14. Putting health metrics into practice: using the disability-adjusted life year for strategic decision making

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Implementing organizations are pressured to be accountable for performance. Many health impact metrics present limitations for priority setting; they do not permit comparisons across different interventions or health areas. In response, Population Services International (PSI) adopted the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted as its bottom-line performance metric. While international standards exist for calculating DALYs to determine burden of disease (BOD), PSI's use of DALYs averted is novel. It uses DALYs averted to assess and compare the health impact of its country programs, and to understand the effectiveness of a portfolio of interventions. This paper describes how the adoption of DALYs averted influenced organizational strategy and presents the advantages and constraints of using the metric. Methods Health impact data from 2001-2011 were analyzed by program area and geographic region to measure PSI's performance against its goal of doubling health impact between 2007-2011. Analyzing 10 years of data permitted comparison with previous years' performance. A case study of PSI's Asia and Eastern European (A/EE) region, and PSI/Laos, is presented to illustrate how the adoption of DALYs averted affected strategic decision making. Results Between 2007-2011, PSI's programs doubled the total number of DALYs averted from 2002-2006. Most DALYs averted were within malaria, followed by HIV/AIDS and family planning (FP). The performance of PSI's A/EE region relative to other regions declined with the switch to DALYs averted. As a result, the region made a strategic shift to align its work with countries' BOD. In PSI/Laos, this redirection led to better-targeted programs and an approximate 50% gain in DALYs averted from 2009-2011. Conclusions PSI's adoption of DALYs averted shifted the organization's strategic direction away from product sales and toward BOD. Now, many strategic decisions are based on "BOD-relevance," the share of the BOD that

  15. [Recent trends in mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to tobacco in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K

    2001-07-01

    To assess recent trends in mortality and disease burden from tobacco in Japan, the present study estimated the number of deaths, years of life lost (YLLs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to tobacco for the years 1985 and 1995. Since smoking prevalence is a very poor measure of population exposure to tobacco, this study employed an alternative measure of the attributable fractions based on excess lung cancer mortality. It is suggested that there was a significant increase in both the absolute numbers and age-standardized rates of tobacco-attributed mortality and disease burden over the decade, in particular from lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In 1995, tobacco already accounted for 12% of total mortality, 16% of total male mortality and 7% of total female mortality. The burden of disease attributable to tobacco amounted to 10% of the total YLLs and 7% of total DALYs, suggesting that tobacco is probably a single major risk factor of mortality and morbidity in Japan.

  16. Reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty cost-effectiveness: A quality-adjusted life years comparison with total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Daniel; Nyland, John; Krupp, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) cost-effectiveness with total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. METHODS: This study used a stochastic model and decision-making algorithm to compare the cost-effectiveness of RSA and total hip arthroplasty. Fifteen patients underwent pre-operative, and 3, 6, and 12 mo post-operative clinical examinations and Short Form-36 Health Survey completion. Short form-36 Health Survey subscale scores were converted to EuroQual Group Five Dimension Health Outcome scores and compared with historical data from age-matched patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) improvements based on life expectancies were calculated. RESULTS: The cost/QALY was $3900 for total hip arthroplasty and $11100 for RSA. After adjusting the model to only include shoulder-specific physical function subscale items, the RSA QALY improved to 2.8 years, and its cost/QALY decreased to $8100. CONCLUSION: Based on industry accepted standards, cost/QALY estimates supported both RSA and total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. Although total hip arthroplasty remains the quality of life improvement “gold standard” among arthroplasty procedures, cost/QALY estimates identified in this study support the growing use of RSA to improve patient quality of life. PMID:26925384

  17. Psychosocial Adjustment and Life Satisfaction until 5 Years after Severe Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorbo, Ann K.; Blomqvist, Maritha; Emanuelsson, Ingrid M.; Rydenhag, Bertil

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe psychosocial adjustment and outcome over time for severely brain-injured patients and to find suitable outcome measures for clinical practice during the rehabilitation process and for individual rehabilitation planning after discharge from hospital. The methods include a descriptive, prospective,…

  18. Calculating disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as a measure of excess cancer risk following radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Shimada, K; Kai, M

    2015-12-01

    This paper has proposed that disability-adjusted life year (DALY) can be used as a measure of radiation health risk. DALY is calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD). This multidimensional concept can be expressed as a risk index without a probability measure to avoid the misuse of the current radiation detriment at low doses. In this study, we calculated YLL and YLD using Japanese population data by gender. DALY for all cancers in Japan per 1 Gy per person was 0.84 year in men and 1.34 year in women. The DALY for all cancers in the Japanese baseline was 4.8 in men and 3.5 in women. When we calculated the ICRP detriment from the same data, DALYs for the cancer sites were similar to the radiation detriment in the cancer sites, excluding leukemia, breast and thyroid cancer. These results suggested that the ICRP detriment overestimate the weighting fraction of leukemia risk and underestimate the weighting fraction of breast and thyroid cancer. A big advantage over the ICRP detriment is that DALY can calculate the risk components for non-fatal diseases without the data of lethality. This study showed that DALY is a practical tool that can compare many types of diseases encountered in public health.

  19. Willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life year: in search of a standard.

    PubMed

    Hirth, R A; Chernew, M E; Miller, E; Fendrick, A M; Weissert, W G

    2000-01-01

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) provides a clear decision rule: undertake an intervention if the monetary value of its benefits exceed its costs. However, due to a reluctance to characterize health benefits in monetary terms, users of cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses must rely on arbitrary standards (e.g., < $50,000 per QALY) to deem a program "cost-effective." Moreover, there is no consensus regarding the appropriate dollar value per QALY gained upon which to base resource allocation decisions. To address this, the authors determined the value of a QALY as implied by the value-of-life literature and compared this value with arbitrary thresholds for cost-effectiveness that have come into common use. A literature search identified 42 estimates of the value of life that were appropriate for inclusion. These estimates were classified by method: human capital (HK), contingent valuation (CV), revealed preference/job risk (RP-JR) and revealed preference/non-occupational safety (RP-S), and by U.S. or non-U.S. origin. After converting these value-of-life estimates to 1997 U.S. dollars, the life expectancy of the study population, age-specific QALY weights, and a 3% real discount rate were used to calculate the implied value of a QALY. An ordinary least-squares regression of the value of a QALY on study type and national origin explained 28.4% of the variance across studies. Most of the explained variance was attributable to study type; national origin did not significantly affect the values. Median values by study type were $24,777 (HK estimates), $93,402 (RP-S estimates), $161,305 (CV estimates), and $428,286 (RP-JR estimates). With the exception of HK, these far exceed the "rules of thumb" that are frequently used to determine whether an intervention produces an acceptable increase in health benefits in exchange for incremental expenditures.

  20. Mapping disability-adjusted life years: a Bayesian hierarchical model framework for burden of disease and injury assessment.

    PubMed

    MacNab, Ying C

    2007-11-20

    This paper presents a Bayesian disability-adjusted life year (DALY) methodology for spatial and spatiotemporal analyses of disease and/or injury burden. A Bayesian disease mapping model framework, which blends together spatial modelling, shared-component modelling (SCM), temporal modelling, ecological modelling, and non-linear modelling, is developed for small-area DALY estimation and inference. In particular, we develop a model framework that enables SCM as well as multivariate CAR modelling of non-fatal and fatal disease or injury rates and facilitates spline smoothing for non-linear modelling of temporal rate and risk trends. Using British Columbia (Canada) hospital admission-separation data and vital statistics mortality data on non-fatal and fatal road traffic injuries to male population age 20-39 for year 1991-2000 and for 84 local health areas and 16 health service delivery areas, spatial and spatiotemporal estimation and inference on years of life lost due to premature death, years lived with disability, and DALYs are presented. Fully Bayesian estimation and inference, with Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation, are illustrated. We present a methodological framework within which the DALY and the Bayesian disease mapping methodologies interface and intersect. Its development brings the relative importance of premature mortality and disability into the assessment of community health and health needs in order to provide reliable information and evidence for community-based public health surveillance and evaluation, disease and injury prevention, and resource provision.

  1. International Classification of Diseases 10th edition-based disability adjusted life years for measuring of burden of specific injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Jin; Shin, Sang Do; Park, Hye Sook; Song, Kyoung Jun; Cho, Jin Sung; Lee, Seung Chul; Kim, Sung Chun; Park, Ju Ok; Ahn, Ki Ok; Park, Yu Mi

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to develop an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10th edition injury code-based disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to measure the burden of specific injuries. Methods Three independent panels used novel methods to score disability weights (DWs) of 130 indicator codes sampled from 1,284 ICD injury codes. The DWs were interpolated into the remaining injury codes (n=1,154) to estimate DWs for all ICD injury codes. The reliability of the estimated DWs was evaluated using the test-retest method. We calculated ICD-DALYs for individual injury episodes using the DWs from the Korean National Hospital Discharge Injury Survey (HDIS, n=23,160 of 2004) database and compared them with DALY based on a global burden of disease study (GBD-DALY) regarding validation, correlation, and agreement for 32 injury categories. Results Using 130 ICD 10th edition injury indicator codes, three panels determined the DWs using the highest reliability (person trade-off 1, Spearman r=0.724, 0.788, and 0.875 for the three panel groups). The test-retest results for the reliability were excellent (Spearman r=0.932) (P<0.001). The HDIS database revealed injury burden (years) as follows: GBD-DALY (138,548), GBD-years of life disabled (130,481), and GBD-years of life lost (8,117) versus ICD-DALY (262,246), ICD-years of life disabled (255,710), and ICD-years of life lost (6,537), respectively. Spearman’s correlation coefficient of the DALYs between the two methods was 0.759 (P<0.001), and the Bland-Altman test displayed an acceptable agreement, with exception of two categories among 32 injury groups. Conclusion The ICD-DALY was developed to calculate the burden of injury for all injury codes and was validated with the GBD-DALY. The ICD-DALY was higher than the GBD-DALY but showed acceptable agreement. PMID:28168229

  2. Impact of work-related cancers in Taiwan-Estimation with QALY (quality-adjusted life year) and healthcare costs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Hung, Mei-Chuan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-12-01

    This study estimates the annual numbers of eight work-related cancers, total losses of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and lifetime healthcare expenditures that possibly could be saved by improving occupational health in Taiwan. Three databases were interlinked: the Taiwan Cancer Registry, the National Mortality Registry, and the National Health Insurance Research Database. Annual numbers of work-related cancers were estimated based on attributable fractions (AFs) abstracted from a literature review. The survival functions for eight cancers were estimated and extrapolated to lifetime using a semi-parametric method. A convenience sample of 8846 measurements of patients' quality of life with EQ-5D was collected for utility values and multiplied by survival functions to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancies (QALEs). The loss-of-QALE was obtained by subtracting the QALE of cancer from age- and sex-matched referents simulated from national vital statistics. The lifetime healthcare expenditures were estimated by multiplying the survival probability with mean monthly costs paid by the National Health Insurance for cancer diagnosis and treatment and summing this for the expected lifetime. A total of 3010 males and 726 females with eight work-related cancers were estimated in 2010. Among them, lung cancer ranked first in terms of QALY loss, with an annual total loss-of-QALE of 28,463 QALYs and total lifetime healthcare expenditures of US$36.6 million. Successful prevention of eight work-related cancers would not only avoid the occurrence of 3736 cases of cancer, but would also save more than US$70 million in healthcare costs and 46,750 QALYs for the Taiwan society in 2010.

  3. Estimating quality-adjusted life years from patient-reported visual functioning

    PubMed Central

    Browne, C; Brazier, J; Carlton, J; Alavi, Y; Jofre-Bonet, M

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Glaucoma is an important disease, the impacts of which on vision have been shown to have implications for patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The primary aim of this study is to estimate a mapping algorithm to predict EQ-5D and SF-6D utility values based on the vision-specific measure, the 25-item Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VFQ-25), as well as the clinical measures of visual function, that is, integrated visual field, visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity. Methods Ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and censored least absolute deviations were compared using data taken from the Moorfields Eye Hospital in London, to assess mapping functions to predict the EQ-5D and SF-6D from the VFQ-25, and tests of visual function. These models were compared using root mean square error (RMSE), R2, and mean absolute error (MAE). Results OLS was the best-performing model of the three compared, as this produced the lowest RMSE and MAE, and the highest R2. Conclusions The models provided initial algorithms to convert the VFQ-25 to the EQ-5D and SF-6D. Further analysis would be needed to validate the models or algorithms. PMID:22766537

  4. Disability-adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for Mental and Substance Use Disorders in the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dohee; Lee, Won Kyung; Park, Hyesook

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the national burden of mental substance disorders on medical care utilization in Korea using National Health Insurance System (NHIS) data and updated disability weight, in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). For each of the 24 disorders, the incident years lived with disability (YLDs) was calculated, using NHIS data to estimate prevalence and incidence rates. The DisMod-II software program was used to model duration and remission. The years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature death were calculated from causes of death statistics. DALYs were computed as the sum of YLDs and YLLs, and time discounting and age weighting were applied. The year examined was 2012, and the subjects were divided into 9 groups according to age. In 2012, the Korean burden of mental and substance use disorders was 945,391 DALYs. More than 98% of DALYs were from YLDs, and the burden in females was greater than that in males, though the burden in males aged less than 19 years old was greater than that in females. Unipolar depressive disorders, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders were found to be major diseases that accounted for more than 70% of the burden, and most DALYs occurred in their 30-59. Mental and substance use disorders accounted for 6.2% of the total burden of disease and were found to be the 7th greatest burden of disease. Therefore, mental and substance use disorders need to be embraced by mainstream health care with resources commensurate with the burden.

  5. Disability-adjusted Life Years for 313 Diseases and Injuries: the 2012 Korean Burden of Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a 5-year research project on the national burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors in Korea. Using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a metric introduced by the 1990 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project, we performed a comprehensive and detailed assessment of the magnitude and distribution of both fatal and non-fatal health problems in the Korean population. The concept and general approach were consistent with the original GBD study, with some methodological modifications to make the study more suitable for Korea. We computed DALYs for 313 causes in both sexes and nine age groups using the entire population's medical records and newly generated Korean disability weights. In 2012, the dominant disease burden was non-communicable diseases, which accounted for 85.21% of total DALYs, while injuries accounted for 7.77% and communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders for 7.02%. Of the total DALYs, 88.67% were from years lived with disability and 11.32% were from years of life lost due to premature mortality. Diabetes mellitus was the leading cause of DALYs, followed by low back pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, cirrhosis of the liver, falls, osteoarthritis, motorized vehicle with three or more wheels, and self-harm. The results reported here identify key health challenges and opportunities for future health interventions and policy changes, and provide information that will help assess the major public health issues in Korea, a nation faced with one of the world's most rapidly ageing populations. PMID:27775252

  6. Cost per QALY (Quality-Adjusted Life Year) and Lifetime Cost of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Mei-Chuan; Lu, Hsin-Ming; Chen, Likwang; Lin, Ming-Shian; Chen, Cheng-Ren; Yu, Chong-Jen; Wang, Jung-Der

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) are increasing and producing financial burdens worldwide. This study determines the cost per QALY (quality-adjusted life year), out-of-pocket expenses, and lifetime costs for PMV patients stratified by underlying diseases and cognition levels. Methods A nationwide sample of 50,481 patients with continual mechanical ventilation for more than 21 days was collected during 1997–2007. After stratifying the patients according to specific diagnoses, a latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to categorise PMV patients with multiple co-morbidities into several homogeneous groups. The survival functions were estimated for individual groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and extrapolated to 300 months through a semi-parametric method. The survival functions were adjusted using an EQ-5D utility value derived from a convenience sample of 142 PMV patients to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancies (QALE). Another convenience sample of 165 patients was used to estimate the out-of-pocket expenses. The lifetime expenditures paid by the single-payer National Health Insurance (NHI) system and patients' families were estimated by multiplying average monthly expenditures by the survival probabilities and summing the values over lifetime. Results PMV therapy costs more than 100,000 U.S. dollars (USD) per QALY for all patients with poor cognition. For patients with partial cognition, PMV therapy costs less than 56,000 USD per QALY for those with liver cirrhosis, intracranial or spinal cord injuries, and 57,000–69,000 USD for patients with multiple co-morbidities under age of 65. The average lifetime cost of PMV was usually below 56,000 USD. The out-of-pocket expenses were often more than one-third of the total cost of treatment. Conclusions PMV treatment for patients with poor cognition would cost more than 5 times Taiwan's GDP (gross domestic products), or less cost-effective. The out-of-pocket expenses

  7. Are women disfavoured in the estimation of disability adjusted life years and the global burden of disease?

    PubMed

    Sundby, J

    1999-12-01

    Addressing women's health goes beyond merely producing gender-disaggregated data. A women's perspective on health issues involves an analysis based on knowledge of broader gender differences than those that can be attributed to biology alone. Women and men live different lives. It is therefore important to evaluate whether women's health issues are disfavoured by known health burden estimators in general use. The Global Burden of Disease and Disability Adjusted Life Years framework was presented to the public health community by the World Bank in 1993. The data presented are applied for the year 1990. The estimators have been criticized for not being able to address social inequity within populations, and for failure to predict how serious the HIV/AIDS epidemic would be. Some of the critical voices have also centred around how the methodology will affect the way women's health priorities are incorporated; however, the debate is still in its infancy. This paper examines this new concept of measuring health burdens from a women's health perspective.

  8. Cancer risk assessment on trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in drinking water of China using disability-adjusted life years.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shenling; An, Wei; Li, Hongyan; Su, Ming; Zhang, Jinliang; Yang, Min

    2014-09-15

    The cancer risks from exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) through multiple pathways were assessed based on the result of a water quality survey in 35 major cities of China. To express the risks in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), the excess cancer incidence estimates were combined with a two-stage disease model for calculation. The median total cancer risk of THMs and HAAs was calculated as 7.34 × 10(-7) DALYs per person-year (ppy), lower than the reference level of risk (10(-6)DALYsppy) set by WHO. The risk from ingestion and inhalation exposures contributed 93.6% and 6.3% of the total risk respectively, while dermal contact made a negligible contribution. The median risk of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) (2.12 × 10(-7)DALYsppy) was highest among the disinfection by-products (DBPs) considered. The risk ratio of total HAAs (THAA) to total THMs (TTHM) was 1.12. The risk was highest in northeast China while lowest in northwest China. As for the 35 cities, Tianjin had the highest risk while Yinchuan had the lowest. This study attempted to use DALYs for the risk assessment of DBPs, which will provide useful information for risk comparison and prioritization of hazards in drinking water.

  9. Assessing the burden of sexual and reproductive ill-health: questions regarding the use of disability-adjusted life years.

    PubMed Central

    AbouZahr, C.; Vaughan, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    The use of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) as the unit in which to calculate the burden of disease associated with reproductive ill-health has given rise to considerable debate. Criticisms include the failure to address the problem of missing and inadequate epidemiological data, inability to deal adequately with co-morbidities, and lack of transparency in the process of ascribing disability weights to sexual and reproductive health conditions. Many of these criticisms could be addressed within the current DALY framework and a number of suggestions to do so are made. These suggestions include: (1) developing an international research strategy to determine the incidence and prevalence of reproductive ill-health and diseases, including the risk of long-term complications; (2) undertaking a research strategy using case studies, population-based surveillance data and longitudinal studies to identify, evaluate and utilize more of the existing national data sources on sexual and reproductive health; (3) comprehensively mapping the natural history of sexual and reproductive health conditions--in males and in females--and their sequelae, whether physical or psychological; (4) developing valuation instruments that are adaptable for both chronic and acute health states, that reflect a range of severity for each health state and can be modified to reflect prognosis; (5) undertaking a full review of the DALY methodology to determine what changes may be made to reduce sources of methodological and gender bias. Despite the many criticisms of the DALY as a measurement unit, it represents a major conceptual advance since it permits the combination of life expectancy and levels of dysfunction into a single measure. Measuring reproductive ill-health by counting deaths alone is inadequate for a proper understanding of the dimensions of the problem because of the young age of many of the deaths associated with reproductive ill-health and the large component of years lived with

  10. Annual cost of illness and quality-adjusted life year losses in the United States due to 14 foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Batz, Michael B; Morris, J Glenn

    2012-07-01

    In this article we estimate the annual cost of illness and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) loss in the United States caused by 14 of the 31 major foodborne pathogens reported on by Scallan et al. (Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17:7-15, 2011), based on their incidence estimates of foodborne illness in the United States. These 14 pathogens account for 95 % of illnesses and hospitalizations and 98 % of deaths due to identifiable pathogens estimated by Scallan et al. We estimate that these 14 pathogens cause $14.0 billion (ranging from $4.4 billion to $33.0 billion) in cost of illness and a loss of 61,000 QALYs (ranging from 19,000 to 145,000 QALYs) per year. Roughly 90 % of this loss is caused by five pathogens: nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica ($3.3 billion; 17,000 QALYs), Campylobacter spp. ($1.7 billion; 13,300 QALYs), Listeria monocytogenes ($2.6 billion; 9,400 QALYs), Toxoplasma gondii ($3 billion; 11,000 QALYs), and norovirus ($2 billion; 5,000 QALYs). A companion article attributes losses estimated in this study to the consumption of specific categories of foods. To arrive at these estimates, for each pathogen we create disease outcome trees that characterize the symptoms, severities, durations, outcomes, and likelihoods of health states associated with that pathogen. We then estimate the cost of illness (medical costs, productivity loss, and valuation of premature mortality) for each pathogen. We also estimate QALY loss for each health state associated with a given pathogen, using the EuroQol 5D scale. Construction of disease outcome trees, outcome-specific cost of illness, and EuroQol 5D scoring are described in greater detail in a second companion article.

  11. Willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life year: an evaluation of attitudes towards risk and preferences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines the Willingness to Pay (WTP) for a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) expressed by people who attended the healthcare system as well as the association of attitude towards risk and other personal characteristics with their response. Methods Health-state preferences, measured by EuroQol (EQ-5D-3L), were combined with WTP for recovering a perfect health state. WTP was assessed using close-ended, iterative bidding, contingent valuation method. Data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as usage of health services by the subjects were collected. The attitude towards risk was evaluated by collecting risky behaviors data, by the subject’s self-evaluation, and through lottery games. Results Six hundred and sixty two subjects participated and 449 stated a utility inferior to 1. WTP/QALY ratios varied significantly when payments with personal money (mean €10,119; median €673) or through taxes (mean €28,187; median €915) were suggested. Family income, area income, higher education level, greater use of healthcare services, and the number of co-inhabitants were associated with greater WTP/QALY ratios. Age and female gender were associated with lower WTP/QALY ratios. Risk inclination was independently associated with a greater WTP/QALY when “out of pocket” payments were suggested. Clear discrepancies were demonstrated between linearity and neutrality towards risk assumptions and experimental results. Conclusions WTP/QALY ratios vary noticeably based on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the subject, but also on their attitude towards risk. Knowing the expression of preferences by patients from this outcome measurement can be of interest for health service planning. PMID:24989615

  12. A Software Tool for Estimation of Burden of Infectious Diseases in Europe Using Incidence-Based Disability Adjusted Life Years

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Daniel; Mangen, Marie-Josee J.; Plass, Dietrich; McDonald, Scott A.; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Maringhini, Guido; Pini, Alessandro; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.

    2017-01-01

    The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology poses a challenge. The aim of the Burden of Communicable Disease in Europe (BCoDE) project is to summarize the impact of communicable disease in the European Union and European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MS). To meet this goal, a user-friendly software tool (BCoDE toolkit), was developed. This stand-alone application, written in C++, is open-access and freely available for download from the website of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). With the BCoDE toolkit, one can calculate DALYs by simply entering the age group- and sex-specific number of cases for one or more of selected sets of 32 communicable diseases (CDs) and 6 healthcare associated infections (HAIs). Disease progression models (i.e., outcome trees) for these communicable diseases were created following a thorough literature review of their disease progression pathway. The BCoDE toolkit runs Monte Carlo simulations of the input parameters and provides disease-specific results, including 95% uncertainty intervals, and permits comparisons between the different disease models entered. Results can be displayed as mean and median overall DALYs, DALYs per 100,000 population, and DALYs related to mortality vs. disability. Visualization options summarize complex epidemiological data, with the goal of improving communication and knowledge transfer for decision-making. PMID:28107447

  13. Examining changes in relationship adjustment and life satisfaction in marriage.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Scott M; Ragan, Erica P; Rhoades, Galena K; Markman, Howard J

    2012-02-01

    The current study examined the association between relationship adjustment and life satisfaction before marriage to 6 years into marriage in a sample of 126 couples. Results showed that both premarital relationship adjustment and premarital life satisfaction uniquely predicted marital adjustment 6 years into marriage. Premarital life satisfaction, but not premarital relationship adjustment, predicted life satisfaction 6 years into marriage. While premarital relationship adjustment scores were not uniquely associated with future life satisfaction scores, changes in relationship adjustment were positively associated with future life satisfaction. These findings are supportive of the idea that helping people to improve their relationships may increase overall life satisfaction. The findings also suggest that, while an individual's base level of life satisfaction may set some parameters for the course of relationship adjustment, changes in life satisfaction over time impact marital adjustment. Starting marriage with higher life satisfaction may increase chances for a happier marriage. Overall, the findings suggest that life satisfaction plays a role in marital adjustment over time, and that it is important to consider life satisfaction as not only an outcome associated with relationship adjustment but also as a predictor of relationship adjustment.

  14. An assessment of the human health impact of seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using disability adjusted life years.

    PubMed

    Scallan, E; Hoekstra, R M; Mahon, B E; Jones, T F; Griffin, P M

    2015-10-01

    We explored the overall impact of foodborne disease caused by seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using the disability adjusted life year (DALY). We defined health states for each pathogen (acute illness and sequelae) and estimated the average annual incidence of each health state using data from public health surveillance and previously published estimates from studies in the United States, Canada and Europe. These pathogens caused about 112 000 DALYs annually due to foodborne illnesses acquired in the United States. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (32 900) and Toxoplasma (32 700) caused the most DALYs, followed by Campylobacter (22 500), norovirus (9900), Listeria monocytogenes (8800), Clostridium perfringens (4000), and Escherichia coli O157 (1200). These estimates can be used to prioritize food safety interventions. Future estimates of the burden of foodborne disease in DALYs would be improved by addressing important data gaps and by the development and validation of US-specific disability weights for foodborne diseases.

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of dialysis and kidney transplant in patients with renal impairment using disability adjusted life years in Iran

    PubMed Central

    YaghoubiFard, Safiye; Goudarzi, Reza; Etminan, Abbas; Baneshi, MohammadReza; Barouni, Mohsen; Jafari Sirizi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: This cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the cost-effectiveness of three therapeutic methods of long-term hemodialysis, kidney transplant from a living person and kidney transplant from a cadaver utilizing Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) using data from the records of patients referred to Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman in 2012. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilizing Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) as outcome measure, used data from the records of patients referred to Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman in 2012. The decision tree model and decision tree software (Tree Age pro 11) were used for data analysis. In this research, costs and effects were studied from the patients and healthcare providers’ perspective. Results: In the patient’s perspective, the CER of dialysis was 5.04 times greater than transplant from a living person and 6.15 times higher than transplant from a cadaveric donor. In the hospital’s perspective, the average cost-effectiveness ratio of dialysis was 8.4 times greater than transplant from a living person and 14.07 times higher than transplant from a cadaver. The smaller the C-E ratio, the greater was the cost-effectiveness. In both perspectives, the order of effectiveness of treatment methods were transplant from a cadaver, transplant from a living person and dialysis. Conclusion: Considering the results obtained in this study, measures should be taken to increase the desire for organ donation from brain-dead patients, living people and patients’ relatives PMID:27493934

  16. Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for Injuries Using Death Certificates and Hospital Discharge Survey by the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A system for assessing the burdens imposed by disease and injury was developed to meet healthcare, priority setting, and policy planning needs. The first such system, the Global Burden of Disease (GBD), was implemented in 1990. However, problems associated with limited data and assumed disability weightings remain to be resolved. The purpose of the present study was to estimate national burdens of injuries in Korea using more reliable data and disability weightings. The incidences of injuries were estimated using the Korean National Hospital Discharge Survey and the mortality data from the Korean National Statistical Office in 2010. Additionally, durations of injuries and age at injury onset were used to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALY) using disability weightings derived from the Korean Burden of Disease (KBD) study. Korea had 1,581,072 DALYs resulting from injuries (3,170 per 100,000), which was 22.9% higher than found by the GBD 2010 study. Males had almost twice as heavy an injury burden as females. Road injury, fall, and self-harm ranked 1st, 2nd, and 3rd in terms of burden of injury in 2010. Total injury burden peaked in the forties, while burden per person declined gradually from early adulthood. We hope that this study contributes to the reliable evaluation of injury burden and a better understanding of injury-related health status using nation-specific, dependable data. PMID:27775258

  17. Effect of occupational polychlorinated biphenyls exposure on quality-adjusted life years over time at the HELPcB surveillance program.

    PubMed

    Esser, A; Gaum, P M; Schettgen, T; Kraus, T; Gube, M; Lang, J

    2015-01-01

    HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls [PCB]) is a surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a capacitor recycling company and other concerned individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and on quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The EQ-5D-3L questionnaire was used to determine the HRQL. After three cross-sectional examinations at intervals of 1 yr, the longitudinal development of QALY was compared by repeated-measurement analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The cohort was split at the 95th percentile of the comparison group for each PCB congener; known confounders such as age were taken into account. A significant difference in height and development of QALY over time was shown for the higher chlorinated non-dioxin-like PCB (hcPCB) congeners. A significant between-groups effect was found on PCB 153, PCB 180, and the sum of hcPCB. It was found that QALY decreased in the high-burden group and QALY stabilized after yr 2 in the normal-burden group. Taking the dimensions of the EQ-5D into account, the between-groups effect seems to be based predominantly on the dimension anxiety. The development of the within-group effect, however, seems to be based on the dimension mobility. This study detected a significant influence of hcPCB on the development of HRQL and QALYs over time according to the level of internal PCB burden.

  18. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Eckmanns, Tim; Abu Sin, Muna; Ducomble, Tanja; Harder, Thomas; Sixtensson, Madlen; Velasco, Edward; Weiß, Bettina; Kramarz, Piotr; Monnet, Dominique L.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.; Suetens, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011–2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs. Methods and Findings The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP), healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI), healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI). The burden of these HAIs was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Evidence relating to the disease progression pathway of each type of HAI was collected through systematic literature reviews, in order to estimate the risks attributable to HAIs. For each of the six HAIs, gender and age group prevalence from the ECDC PPS was converted into incidence rates by applying the Rhame and Sudderth formula. We adjusted for reduced life expectancy within the hospital population using three severity groups based on McCabe score data from the ECDC PPS. We estimated that 2,609,911 new cases of HAI occur every year in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA). The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was estimated at 501 DALYs per 100,000 general population each year in EU/EEA. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden and represented more than 60% of the total burden, with 169 and 145 DALYs per 100,000 total population, respectively. HA UTI, SSI, HA CDI, and HA primary BSI ranked as the third to sixth syndromes in terms of burden of disease

  19. Disease-outcome trees, EQ-5D scores, and estimated annual losses of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for 14 foodborne pathogens in the United States.

    PubMed

    Batz, Michael; Hoffmann, Sandra; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-05-01

    Measures of disease burden such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) are increasingly important to risk-based food safety policy. They provide a means of comparing relative risk from diverse health outcomes. We present detailed disease-outcome trees and EQ-5D scoring for 14 major foodborne pathogens representing over 95% of foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths due to specified agents in the United States (Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli non-O157, Listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica, Shigella, Toxoplasma gondii, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and other noncholera Vibrio, and Yersinia enterocolitica). We estimate over 5800 QALYs lost per 1000 cases of L. monocytogenes and V. vulnificus, compared to 125 QALYs lost per 1000 cases of T. gondii, 26 for E. coli O157:H7, 16 for Salmonella and Campylobacter, and 14 for Y. enterocolitica. The remaining 7 pathogens are estimated to cause less than 5 QALYs lost per 1000 cases. In total, these 14 pathogens cause over 61,000 in QALY loss annually, with more than 90% due solely to acute infection being responsible for 65% of total QALY loss, with premature mortality and morbidity due to chronic and congenital illness responsible for another 28%. These estimates of the burden of chronic sequelae are likely conservative; additional epidemiological research is needed to support more accurate burden estimates. This study shows the value of using integrated metrics for comparing disease burden, and the need to consider chronic and congenital illness when prioritizing foodborne pathogens.

  20. The global burden of injury: incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and time trends from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013

    PubMed Central

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Graetz, Nicholas; Bolliger, Ian; Naghavi, Mohsen; Higashi, Hideki; Mullany, Erin C; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Adofo, Koranteng; Alsharif, Ubai; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Barrero, Lope H; Bekele, Tolesa; Bose, Dipan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Derrett, Sarah; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Petrovich Ermakov, Sergey; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L; Gabbe, Belinda; Gosselin, Richard A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hijar, Martha; Hu, Guoqing; Jayaraman, Sudha P; Jiang, Guohong; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Chanda; Lecky, Fiona E; Leung, Ricky; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Majdan, Marek; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Meaney, Peter A; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Miller, Ted R; Mock, Charles N; Norman, Rosana E; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Refaat, Amany; Rojas-Rueda, David; Roy, Nobhojit; Schwebel, David C; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Skirbekk, Vegard; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Stein, Dan J; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Theadom, Alice M; Tran, Bach Xuan; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vavilala, Monica S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990 to 2013 for 26 causes of injury, globally, by region and by country. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the extensive GBD mortality database, corrections for ill-defined cause of death and the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on inpatient and outpatient data sets, 26 cause-of-injury and 47 nature-of-injury categories, and seven follow-up studies with patient-reported long-term outcome measures. Results In 2013, 973 million (uncertainty interval (UI) 942 to 993) people sustained injuries that warranted some type of healthcare and 4.8 million (UI 4.5 to 5.1) people died from injuries. Between 1990 and 2013 the global age-standardised injury DALY rate decreased by 31% (UI 26% to 35%). The rate of decline in DALY rates was significant for 22 cause-of-injury categories, including all the major injuries. Conclusions Injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. The decline in rates for almost all injuries is so prominent that it warrants a general statement that the world is becoming a safer place to live in. However, the patterns vary widely by cause, age, sex, region and time and there are still large improvements that need to be made. PMID:26635210

  1. Impact of adherence to GOLD guidelines on 6-minute walk distance, MRC dyspnea scale score, lung function decline, quality of life, and quality-adjusted life years in a Shanghai suburb.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y Q; Zhu, Y X; Chen, X L; Xu, X; Li, F; Fu, H J; Shen, C Y; Lu, Y Y; Zhuang, Q J; Xu, G; Cai, Y Y; Zhang, Y; Liu, S S; Zhu, M Y; Li, S H

    2015-08-03

    We performed a 1-year cluster-randomized field trial to assess the effect of standardized management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on lung function and quality of life (QOL) measures in patients in China. We used the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) treatment guidelines and assessed indexes including pulmonary function, QOL, quality-adjusted life years (QALY), Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, 6-min walk distance (6-MWD), number of emergency visits, and frequency of hospitalization. Of a total of 711 patients with chronic cough and asthma, 132 were diagnosed as having COPD and 102 participated in this study [intervention group (N = 47); control group (N = 55)]. We found that adherence to GOLD guidelines had a perceivable impact on 6-MWD, MRC dyspnea scale score, and QOL. The average QALY increased by 1.42/person/year in the intervention group, but declined by 0.95/person/year in the control group. We conclude that standardized management improves disease severity, QOL, and QALY in COPD patients when treatment protocols adhere to GOLD guidelines.

  2. Applying the disability-adjusted life year to track health impact of social franchise programs in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing effective methods for measuring the health impact of social franchising programs is vital for demonstrating the value of this innovative service delivery model, particularly given its rapid expansion worldwide. Currently, these programs define success through patient volume and number of outlets, widely acknowledged as poor reflections of true program impact. An existing metric, the disability-adjusted life years averted (DALYs averted), offers promise as a measure of projected impact. Country-specific and service-specific, DALYs averted enables impact comparisons between programs operating in different contexts. This study explores the use of DALYs averted as a social franchise performance metric. Methods Using data collected by the Social Franchising Compendia in 2010 and 2011, we compared franchise performance, analyzing by region and program area. Coefficients produced by Population Services International converted each franchise's service delivery data into DALYs averted. For the 32 networks with two years of data corresponding to these metrics, a paired t-test compared all metrics. Finally, to test data reporting quality, we compared services provided to patient volume. Results Social franchising programs grew considerably from 2010 to 2011, measured by services provided (215%), patient volume (31%), and impact (couple-years of protection (CYPs): 86% and DALYs averted: 519%), but not by the total number of outlets. Non-family planning services increased by 857%, with diversification centered in Asia and Africa. However, paired t-test comparisons showed no significant increase within the networks, whether categorized as family planning or non-family planning. The ratio of services provided to patient visits yielded considerable range, with one network reporting a ratio of 16,000:1. Conclusion In theory, the DALYs averted metric is a more robust and comprehensive metric for social franchising than current program measures. As social

  3. New findings from the time trade-off for income approach to elicit willingness to pay for a quality adjusted life year.

    PubMed

    Attema, Arthur E; Krol, Marieke; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2017-03-08

    In this paper we empirically investigate how to appropriately model utility of wealth and health. We use a recently proposed alternative approach to value willingness to pay (WTP) for health, making use of trade-offs between income and life years or quality of life, which we extend to allow for a more realistic multiplicative utility function over health and money. Moreover, we show how reference-dependency can be incorporated into this model and derive its predictions for WTP elicitation. We propose three experimental elicitation procedures and test these in a feasibility study, analysing the responses under different assumptions about the discount rate. Several interesting results are reported: first, the data are highly skewed, but if we trim the 5% lowest and highest values, we obtain plausible WTP estimates. Second, the results differ considerably between procedures, indicating that WTP estimates are sensitive to the assumed utility function. Third, respondents appear to be loss averse for both health and money, which is consistent with assumptions from prospect theory. Finally, our results also indicate that respondents are more willing to trade quality of life than life years.

  4. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age–sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. Methods We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Findings Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6–6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0–65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0–71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9–5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5–59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7

  5. Health-related quality of life and life satisfaction in colorectal cancer survivors: trajectories of adjustment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal study describes the five year trajectories of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and life satisfaction in long term colorectal cancer survivors. Patients and methods A population-based sample of 1966 colorectal cancer survivors were surveyed at six time points from five months to five years post-diagnosis. Predictor variables were: socio-demographic variables, optimism; cancer threat appraisal; perceived social support. Quality of life was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (HR-QOL); and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Growth mixture models were applied to identify trajectory classes and their predictors. Results Distinct adjustment trajectories were identified for HR-QOL and life satisfaction. Lower optimism, poorer social support, a more negative cognitive appraisal, and younger age were associated with poorer life satisfaction, while survivors with less than 8 years of education had higher life satisfaction. This pattern was similar for overall HR-QOL except that educational level was not a significant predictor and later stage disease and female gender emerged as related to poorer outcomes. One in five survivors reported poorer constant HR-QOL (19.2%) and a small group had poor life satisfaction (7.2%); 26.2% reported constant high HR-QOL and 48.8% had high constant life satisfaction. Socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of residence uniquely predicted poorer outcomes in the colorectal cancer specific HR-QOL sub domain. Conclusion Although HR-QOL and subjective cognitive QOL share similar antecedents their trajectory patterns suggested they are distinct adjustment outcomes; with life satisfaction emerging as temporally stable phenomenon. Unique patterns of risk support suggest the need to account for heterogeneity in adjustment in longitudinal QOL studies with cancer survivors. PMID:23497387

  6. First Year Adjustment in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosemore, Jean Ann

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between adjustment to secondary school and 17 cognitive and noncognitive variables, including intelligence (verbal and nonverbal reasoning), academic achievement, extraversion-introversion, stable/unstable, social adjustment, endeavor, age, sex, and school form. (CP)

  7. Life Events, Sibling Warmth, and Youths' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Evelyn B.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Sibling warmth has been identified as a protective factor from life events, but stressor-support match-mismatch and social domains perspectives suggest that sibling warmth may not efficiently protect youths from all types of life events. We tested whether sibling warmth moderated the association between each of family-wide, youths' personal, and…

  8. Relation Between Health-Related Quality of Life and Sleep Quality With Adjustment for Comorbidity Among the Korean Elderly: Mixed-Effects Model With a 6-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Amy M; Shin, Chol

    2016-04-01

    It is an important public health problem to identify risk factors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among the elderly. We recruited subjects from Ansan, Korea, as a subset of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES), which is an ongoing population study, and followed up their sleep quality for 6 years. Mixed effect models were used to estimate the association between sleep quality and HRQoL, and we found that overall HRQoL was significantly lower to the elderly having poor sleep quality with adjustment for significant covariates although sleep quality showed a significant interaction effect with time for the mental component summary of SF-12. In particular, the elderly having lack of quality sleep appeared to have good general health, but their functional performances were significantly poor.

  9. Design of life testboard of manual slack adjuster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zai; Qiu, Guofeng; Lin, Min; Guo, Bin

    2011-12-01

    In order to solve the problem of realization of the manual slack adjuster"s life test system, this paper introduces the hardware system design and software programming to control the movement of manual slack adjuster intelligently, so as to record and judge single manual slack adjuster"s life. The paper firstly introduces the manual adjuster"s structure, work theory and the structure expression of its failure. Then, based on the work theory, it is designed that the test system which mainly consists of hardware system and software system. The hardware system is composed of computer, PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), electric control system, pneumatic system, sensor system, the adjuster to be measured and so on. The software system consists of control software and display software. Control software is designed by using ladder diagram for programming in CX-Programmer 7.3 environment. Meanwhile, display software which is based on MCGS (Monitor and Control Generated System) software is designed with a reasonable and convenient interface. We calculate uncertainty in life testing of the manual slack adjuster to analyze the experimental results. The experimental results show that the system runs stably and measures accurately. Consequently, it meets the design requirements well.

  10. National and sub-national age-sex specific and cause-specific mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to household air pollution from solid cookfuel use (HAP) in Iran, 1990-2013.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Mehrnoosh; Koolivand, Ali; Dobaradaran, Sina; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Khaloo, Shokooh Sadat; Jorfi, Sahand; Saeedi, Reza

    2017-03-21

    National and sub-national mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for household air pollution from solid cookfuel use (HAP) in Iran, 1990-2013 were estimated based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013). The burden of disease attributable to HAP was quantified by the comparative risk assessment method using four inputs: (1) exposure to HAP, (2) the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), (3) exposure-response relationships of related causes (4) disease burden of related causes. All across the country, solid fuel use decreased from 5.26% in 1990 to 0.15% in 2013. The drastic reduction of solid fuel use leaded to DALYs attributable to HAP fell by 97.8% (95% uncertainty interval 97.7-98.0%) from 87,433 (51072-144303) in 1990 to 1889 (1016-3247) in 2013. Proportion of YLLs in DALYs from HAP decreased from 95.7% in 1990 to 86.6% in 2013. Contribution of causes in the attributable DALYs was variable during the study period and in 2013 was in the following order: ischemic heart disease for 43.4%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for 24.7%, hemorrhagic stroke for 9.7%, lower respiratory infections for 9.3%, ischemic stroke for 7.8%, lung cancer for 3.4% and cataract for 1.8%. Based on the Gini coefficient, the spatial inequality of the disease burden from HAP increased during the study period. The remained burden of disease was relatively scarce and it mainly occurred in seven southern provinces. Further reduction of the disease burden from HAP as well as compensation of the increasing spatial inequality in Iran could be attained through an especial plan for providing cleaner fuels in the southern provinces.

  11. Disability-adjusted life years and economic cost assessment of the health effects related to PM2.5 and PM10 pollution in Mumbai and Delhi, in India from 1991 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Maji, Kamal Jyoti; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Deshpande, Ashok

    2016-12-15

    Particulate air pollution is becoming a serious public health concern in urban cities in India due to air pollution-related health effects associated with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic loss. To obtain the quantitative result of health impact of particulate matter (PM) in most populated Mumbai City and most polluted Delhi City in India, an epidemiology-based exposure-response function has been used to calculate the attributable number of mortality and morbidity cases from 1991 to 2015 in a 5-year interval and the subsequent DALYs, and economic cost is estimated of the health damage based on unit values of the health outcomes. Here, we report the attributable number of mortality due to PM10 in Mumbai and Delhi increased to 32,014 and 48,651 in 2015 compared with 19,291 and 19,716 in year 1995. And annual average mortality due to PM2.5 in Mumbai and Delhi was 10,880 and 10,900. Premature cerebrovascular disease (CEV), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes are about 35.3, 33.3, and 22.9% of PM2.5-attributable mortalities. Total DALYs due to PM10 increased from 0.34 million to 0.51 million in Mumbai and 0.34 million to 0.75 million in Delhi from average year 1995 to 2015. Among all health outcomes, mortality and chronic bronchitis shared about 95% of the total DALYs. Due to PM10, the estimated total economic cost at constant price year 2005 US$ increased from 2680.87 million to 4269.60 million for Mumbai City and 2714.10 million to 6394.74 million for Delhi City, from 1995 to 2015, and the total amount accounting about 1.01% of India's gross domestic product (GDP). A crucial presumption is that in 2030, PM10 levels would have to decline by 44% (Mumbai) and 67% (Delhi) absolutely to maintain the same health outcomes in year 2015 levels. The results will help policy makers from pollution control board for further cost-benefit analyses of air pollution management programs in Mumbai and Delhi.

  12. Emotional Intelligence and Life Adjustment for Nigerian Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogoemeka, Obioma Helen

    2013-01-01

    In the process of educating adolescents, good emotional development and life adjustment are two significant factors for teachers to know. This study employed random cluster sampling of senior secondary school students in Ondo and Oyo States in south-western Nigeria. The Random sampling was employed to select 1,070 students. The data collected were…

  13. Impact of diabetes mellitus on life expectancy and health-adjusted life expectancy in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate life expectancy (LE) and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) for Canadians with and without diabetes and to evaluate the impact of diabetes on population health using administrative and survey data. Mortality data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (2004 to 2006) and Health Utilities Index data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2000 to 2005) were used. Life table analysis was applied to calculate LE, HALE, and their confidence intervals using the Chiang and the adapted Sullivan methods. LE and HALE were significantly lower among people with diabetes than for people without the disease. LE and HALE for females without diabetes were 85.0 and 73.3 years, respectively (males: 80.2 and 70.9 years). Diabetes was associated with a loss of LE and HALE of 6.0 years and 5.8 years, respectively, for females, and 5.0 years and 5.3 years, respectively, for males, living with diabetes at 55 years of age. The overall gains in LE and HALE after the hypothetical elimination of prevalent diagnosed diabetes cases in the population were 1.4 years and 1.2 years, respectively, for females, and 1.3 years for both LE and HALE for males. The results of the study confirm that diabetes is an important disease burden in Canada impacting the female and male populations differently. The methods can be used to calculate LE and HALE for other chronic conditions, providing useful information for public health researchers and policymakers. PMID:22531113

  14. Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…

  15. Life adjustment correlates of physical self-concepts.

    PubMed

    Sonstroem, R J; Potts, S A

    1996-05-01

    This research tested relationships between physical self-concepts and contemporary measures of life adjustment. University students (119 females, 126 males) completed the Physical Self-Perception Profile assessing self-concepts of sport competence, physical condition, attractive body, strength, and general physical self-worth. Multiple regression found significant associations (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) in hypothesized directions between physical self-concepts and positive affect, negative affect, depression, and health complaints in 17 of 20 analyses. Thirteen of these relationships remained significant when controlling for the Bonferroni effect. Hierarchical multiple regression examined the unique contribution of physical self-perceptions in predicting each adjustment variable after accounting for the effects of global self-esteem and two measures of social desirability. Physical self-concepts significantly improved associations with life adjustment (P < 0.05 to P < 0.05) in three of the eight analyses across gender and approached significance in three others. These data demonstrate that self-perceptions of physical competence in college students are essentially related to life adjustment, independent of the effects of social desirability and global self-esteem. These links are mainly with perceptions of sport competence in males and with perceptions of physical condition, attractive body, and general physical self-worth in both males and females.

  16. Impact of dose calculation models on radiotherapy outcomes and quality adjusted life years for lung cancer treatment: do we need to measure radiotherapy outcomes to tune the radiobiological parameters of a normal tissue complication probability model?

    PubMed Central

    Docquière, Nicolas; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Balosso, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) radiobiological model can be applied for lung cancer treatment plans to estimate the tumor control probability (TCP) and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) using different dose calculation models. Then, based on the different calculated doses, the quality adjusted life years (QALY) score can be assessed versus the uncomplicated tumor control probability (UTCP) concept in order to predict the overall outcome of the different treatment plans. Methods Nine lung cancer cases were included in this study. For the each patient, two treatments plans were generated. The doses were calculated respectively from pencil beam model, as pencil beam convolution (PBC) turning on 1D density correction with Modified Batho’s (MB) method, and point kernel model as anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) using exactly the same prescribed dose, normalized to 100% at isocentre point inside the target and beam arrangements. The radiotherapy outcomes and QALY were compared. The bootstrap method was used to improve the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) estimation. Wilcoxon paired test was used to calculate P value. Results Compared to AAA considered as more realistic, the PBCMB overestimated the TCP while underestimating NTCP, P<0.05. Thus the UTCP and the QALY score were also overestimated. Conclusions To correlate measured QALY’s obtained from the follow-up of the patients with calculated QALY from DVH metrics, the more accurate dose calculation models should be first integrated in clinical use. Second, clinically measured outcomes are necessary to tune the parameters of the NTCP model used to link the treatment outcome with the QALY. Only after these two steps, the comparison and the ranking of different radiotherapy plans would be possible, avoiding over/under estimation of QALY and any other clinic-biological estimates. PMID:28149761

  17. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  18. Adjusting for Year to Year Rater Variation in IRT Linking--An Empirical Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Shu Jing; Ochieng, Charles; Michaels, Hillary; Friedman, Greg

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to illustrate a polytomous IRT-based linking procedure that adjusts for rater variations. Test scores from two administrations of a statewide reading assessment were used. An anchor set of Year 1 students' constructed responses were rescored by Year 2 raters. To adjust for year-to-year rater variation in IRT…

  19. The Middle Years, Development and Adjustment; A Study-Discussion Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinsasser, L.D., Comp.; Harris, Dale B., Comp.

    Based largely on research in adult development and aging, these readings and discussion questions pertain to such aspects of development and adjustment in middle life as the following: individual differences in aging; biological changes through the adult years; changes in the physical senses (vision, hearing, taste, smell, touch, and pain)…

  20. Prescriptions for Happy Marriage: Adjustments and Satisfactions of Couples Married for 50 or More Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sporakowski, Michael J.; Hughston, George A.

    1978-01-01

    Couples who were married 50 or more years were interviewed about what they felt were the most important factors in happy marriage. Their marital satisfactions were assessed over the stages of the family life cycle. Indices of their marital adjustment and personality were examined using a self-perceived, other comparison technique. (Author)

  1. An improved accrual: reducing medical malpractice year-end adjustments.

    PubMed

    Frese, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    Healthcare organizations can improve their year-end malpractice insurance accruals by taking the following steps: Maintain productive communication. Match accrual and accounting policies. Adjust amount of credit to own historical loss experience. Request more frequent analysis. Obtain a second opinion.

  2. The Early Years: "Life" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

  3. 77 FR 13663 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Mid-Year Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... take effect on April 1 of the fiscal year in which such rate applies. Therefore, the exchanges and the... Exchange Act requires the Commission to annually adjust the fee rates applicable under Sections 31(b) and... adjusting the fee rates applicable under Sections 31(b) and (c) of the Exchange Act. Specifically,...

  4. A Qualitative Analysis of Life Course Adjustment to Multiple Morbidity and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie; Taylor, Jessica; Fredland, Nina; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Janiece; Choban, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of limitations over the life course requires that women re-adapt to environmental barriers that they encounter over time. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to detail the life experiences associated with living with mobility, cognitive, and sensory loss experienced by a woman and her sister who participated in an on-going ethnographic study of mobility impairment in women. In-depth interviews were subjected to thematic, life course analysis. A family case study was interpreted as an exemplar for aging with early onset disability into multiple morbidity, which was described as a series of loss, recovery and re-engagement. Within the case study, the participant suggested that because her functional limitations were not accommodated earlier in life due to societal and family level disadvantage, functional limitations were more difficult to adjust to in later years. PMID:23437442

  5. Architectures and Evaluation for Adjustable Control Autonomy for Space-Based Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    In the past five years, a number of automation applications for control of crew life support systems have been developed and evaluated in the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This paper surveys progress on an adjustable autonomous control architecture for situations where software and human operators work together to manage anomalies and other system problems. When problems occur, the level of control autonomy can be adjusted, so that operators and software agents can work together on diagnosis and recovery. In 1997 adjustable autonomy software was developed to manage gas transfer and storage in a closed life support test. Four crewmembers lived and worked in a chamber for 91 days, with both air and water recycling. CO2 was converted to O2 by gas processing systems and wheat crops. With the automation software, significantly fewer hours were spent monitoring operations. System-level validation testing of the software by interactive hybrid simulation revealed problems both in software requirements and implementation. Since that time, we have been developing multi-agent approaches for automation software and human operators, to cooperatively control systems and manage problems. Each new capability has been tested and demonstrated in realistic dynamic anomaly scenarios, using the hybrid simulation tool.

  6. Coping Styles, Social Support, Relational Self-Construal, and Resilience in Predicting Students' Adjustment to University Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahat, Enes; Ilhan, Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate how well coping styles, social support, relational self-construal, and resilience characteristics predict first year university students' ability to adjust to university life. Participants consisted of 527 at-risk students attending a state university in Turkey. The Personal Information Form, Risk…

  7. The relationship between life adjustment and parental bonding in military personnel with adjustment disorder in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    For-Wey, Lung; Fei-Yin, Lee; Bih-Ching, Shu

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the characteristics of military personnel with adjustment disorder to give them more appropriate treatment. The participants were 36 military personnel who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria of adjustment disorder as diagnosed by a psychiatrist at a teaching hospital in southern Taiwan. Another 24 persons were recruited as an age-matched control group. Each individual completed the clinical interview and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and then completed the questionnaires which included demographic information, the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Chinese Health Questionnaire. We found statistically significant differences between the case and control groups in personality and parental bonding attitudes. Soldiers with higher neuroticism, lower extraversion, and maternal overprotection had an increased risk of suffering from adjustment disorder. The inclusion of family function and the military environment and such other factors as cultural variables is recommended for future study. The statistical approach of structural equation modeling also should be considered in future studies to determine competing risk factors and mediating effects.

  8. Gender and ethnic health disparities among the elderly in rural Guangxi, China: estimating quality-adjusted life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tai; Shi, Wuxiang; Huang, Zhaoquan; Gao, Dong; Guo, Zhenyou; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnic health inequalities for males and females among the elderly have not yet been verified in multicultural societies in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of disparities in health expectancy among the elderly from different ethnic groups using quality-adjusted life expectancy. Design A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted. A total of 6,511 rural elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were selected from eight different ethnic groups in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China and assessed for health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The HRQoL utility value was combined with life expectancy at age 60 years (LE60) data by using Sullivan's method to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy at age 60 years (QALE60) and loss in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each group. Results Overall, LE60 and QALE60 for all ethnic groups were 20.9 and 18.0 years in men, respectively, and 24.2 and 20.3 years in women. The maximum gap in QALE60 between ethnic groups was 3.3 years in males and 4.6 years in females. The average loss in QALY was 2.9 years for men and 3.8 years for women. The correlation coefficient between LE60 and QALY lost was −0.53 in males and 0.12 in females. Conclusion Women live longer than men, but they suffer more; men have a shorter life expectancy, but those who live longer are healthier. Attempts should be made to reduce suffering in the female elderly and improve longevity for men. Certain ethnic groups had low levels of QALE, needing special attention to improve their lifestyle and access to health care. PMID:27814777

  9. Impact of Psychological Problems and Marital Adjustment of Iranian Veterans on Their Children's Quality of Life and Happiness

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Iran-Iraq war during the 1980-1988 has left many consequences on veterans and their families that persist long after the war ended. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of psychological problems and marital adjustment of Iranian veterans on their children's quality of life and happiness 24 years after the war ended. Patients and Methods: The sample was all children of veterans in Isfahan city that registered by Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF). One hundred sixty-three veterans were selected by systematic randomized sampling and the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and dyadic adjustment scale (DAS) were administered for them. Their wives filled out the DAS and their children answered to World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). The data from questionnaires completed by 149 families were analyzed using the multiple regressions analysis. Results: Global Severity Index (GSI) scores of veterans and veteran's age were inversely correlated with the scores of children's quality of life, while marital adjustment of parents and number of rooms in house were positively correlated. Mother's age was inversely correlated with the scores of children's happiness, while marital adjustment of the parents, the number of rooms in their house and the number of children were positively correlated. Conclusions: In veterans' family, psychological health of the veterans and marital adjustment of the parents have a significant relationship with their children's quality of life and happiness. PMID:25599063

  10. An Extraordinary Year of My Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rednikov, A. Ye.

    Most of the time, life goes on at a regular pace. This does not mean that nothing interesting happens. It is just regular, normal happy daily life. But there are times when things accelerate and impressions overflow. The periods like this leave a deep impact on one's life. For me, the first year of my postdoc with Manuel, in 1992, at Instituto Pluridisciplinar (IP) of the Universidad Complutense of Madrid (UCM), was definitely one of such occasions. In a word, it was a shock, in a good sense of the word, both scientific and cultural.

  11. Life Change Measurement: Scoring, Reliability, and Subjective Estimates of Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Reports the test-retest reliabilities for the Schedule of Recent Experiences (item counts) and the Recent Life Changes Questionnaire and compares the two scales. Subjects (N=109) were men and women enlisted in the US military reserves. Results indicated the two questionnaires demonstrate acceptable test-retest reliability. (BH)

  12. Harsh Environments, Life History Strategies, and Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study of Oregon Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Andrews, Judy A.; Barckley, Maureen; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2015-01-01

    We modeled the effects of harsh environments in childhood on adjustment in early emerging adulthood, through parenting style and the development of fast Life History Strategies (LHS; risky beliefs and behaviors) in adolescence. Participants were from the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project (N = 988; 85.7% White). Five cohorts of children in Grades 1–5 at recruitment were assessed through one-year post high school. Greater environmental harshness (neighborhood quality and family poverty) in Grades 1–6 predicted less parental investment at Grade 8. This parenting style was related to the development of fast LHS (favorable beliefs about substance users and willingness to use substances at Grade 9, and engagement in substance use and risky sexual behavior assessed across Grades 10–12). The indirect path from harsh environment through parenting and LHS to (less) psychological adjustment (indicated by lower life satisfaction, self-rated health, trait sociability, and higher depression) was significant (indirect effect −.024, p = .011, 95% CI = −.043, −.006.). This chain of development was comparable to that found by Gibbons et al. (2012) for an African-American sample that, unlike the present study, included perceived racial discrimination in the assessment of harsh environment. PMID:26451065

  13. Harsh Environments, Life History Strategies, and Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study of Oregon Youth.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Sarah E; Andrews, Judy A; Barckley, Maureen; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2016-01-01

    We modeled the effects of harsh environments in childhood on adjustment in early emerging adulthood, through parenting style and the development of fast Life History Strategies (LHS; risky beliefs and behaviors) in adolescence. Participants were from the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project (N = 988; 85.7% White). Five cohorts of children in Grades 1-5 at recruitment were assessed through one-year post high school. Greater environmental harshness (neighborhood quality and family poverty) in Grades 1-6 predicted less parental investment at Grade 8. This parenting style was related to the development of fast LHS (favorable beliefs about substance users and willingness to use substances at Grade 9, and engagement in substance use and risky sexual behavior assessed across Grades 10-12). The indirect path from harsh environment through parenting and LHS to (less) psychological adjustment (indicated by lower life satisfaction, self-rated health, trait sociability, and higher depression) was significant (indirect effect -.024, p = .011, 95% CI = -.043, -.006.). This chain of development was comparable to that found by Gibbons et al. (2012) for an African-American sample that, unlike the present study, included perceived racial discrimination in the assessment of harsh environment.

  14. Early social experience predicts referential communicative adjustments in five-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold; Toni, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    A large body of work has focused on children's ability to attribute mental states to other people, and whether these abilities are influenced by the extent and nature of children's social interactions. However, it remains largely unknown which developmental factors shape children's ability to influence the mental states of others. Building on the suggestion that collaborative experiences early in life might be crucial for the emergence of mental coordination abilities, here we assess the relative contribution of social exposure to familial and non-familial agents on children's communicative adjustments to their mental model of an addressee ('audience design'). During an online interactive game, five-year-olds spontaneously organized their non-verbal communicative behaviors according to their beliefs about an interlocutor. The magnitude of these communicative adjustments was predicted by the time spent at daycare, from birth until four years of age, over and above effects of familial social environment. These results suggest that the degree of non-familial social interaction early in life modulates the influence that children's beliefs have on their referential communicative behavior.

  15. Depression during the menopause transition: impact on quality of life, social adjustment, and disability.

    PubMed

    Wariso, Bathsheba A; Guerrieri, Gioia M; Thompson, Karla; Koziol, Deloris E; Haq, Nazli; Martinez, Pedro E; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    The impact of depression on quality of life (QOL) and social support has neither been well characterized in clinical samples of women with perimenopausal depression (PMD) nor have the relative contributions of depression and other menopausal symptoms (e.g., hot flushes) to declining QOL been clarified. In this study, we compared QOL measures, social support, and functional disability in PMD and non-depressed perimenopausal women. We evaluated women aged 40-60 years who presented with menstrual cycle irregularity, elevated plasma FSH levels, and met criteria for perimenopause. A structured clinical interview was administered to determine the presence or absence of major and minor depression. Outcome measures included the Quality of Life Enjoyment Scale Questionnaire, the Sheehan Disability Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning, the Social Adjustment Scale, and the Duke Social Support Index. Kruskal-Wallis tests and ANOVAs were used to compare outcome measures. Ninety women with PMD and 51 control women participated in this study. Women with PMD reported significantly decreased QOL, social support, and adjustment and increased disability compared with non-depressed perimenopausal women. Neither perimenopausal reproductive status alone nor the presence of hot flushes had a significant negative impact on QOL measures. PMD is accompanied by significant reductions in QOL, social support, and disability similar to depression in women at other stages of life. PMD may also contribute to decreased QOL in community- or clinic-based samples of perimenopausal women. It remains unclear whether the clinical characteristics we identified reflect pre-existing risk factors for depression during the perimenopause or the effects of a current depression. Future clinical and treatment studies in perimenopausal women should distinguish depressed women when outcome measures include QOL.

  16. The Relation of Marital Adjustment and Family Functions With Quality of Life in Women

    PubMed Central

    Basharpoor, Sajjad; Sheykholeslami, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Given the immense importance of marital relationships in the quality of life, this research was conducted in order to investigate the relationships between marital adjustment and family functions with quality of life in women. The design of the current study was correlational. Seven hundred and thirty women were selected randomly among all women living in the province of Western Azerbaijan (Iran) and participated in this study. The sample responded to the Family Assessment Device, Dyadic Adjustment scale and Quality of Life questionnaire, individually in their homes. Collected data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression tests. The results showed that all dimensions of family functions and dyadic adjustment were positively correlated with quality of life in women. Results of multiple regression also revealed that 33 percent of total quality of life can be explained by family functions and 24 percent of this variable can be explained by dyadic adjustment. Our study demonstrated that women’s quality of life was affected by family functions and marital adjustment in family. PMID:27247668

  17. 76 FR 26324 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Section 31 Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... adjustments to the fee rates applicable under Sections 31(b) and (c) of the Exchange Act shall take effect on... circumstances, to make a mid-year adjustment to the fee rates under Sections 31(b) and (c) of the Exchange Act... national securities exchange to pay the Commission a fee at a rate, as adjusted by our order pursuant...

  18. Personality and quality of life: the importance of optimism and goal adjustment.

    PubMed

    Wrosch, Carsten; Scheier, Michael F

    2003-01-01

    This article concerns the relations between personality and quality of life. In the first part, we discuss different conceptualizations of personality and quality of life. We argue that personality affects quality of life by influencing how people approach and react to critical life situations. In the second part, we address the beneficial role played by two individual difference variables in promoting quality of life: dispositional optimism and goal adjustment. Literature is reviewed demonstrating that dispositional optimism facilitates subjective well-being and good health, mediated by a person's coping behaviors. In addition, we discuss studies that examine people who confront unattainable goals. The reported evidence supports the conclusion that individual differences in people's abilities to adjust to unattainable goals are associated with a good quality of life.

  19. First-Year Village: Experimenting with an African Model for First-Year Adjustment and Support in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speckman, McGlory

    2016-01-01

    Predicated on the principles of success and contextuality, this chapter shares an African perspective on a first-year adjustment programme, known as First-Year Village, including its potential and challenges in establishing it.

  20. [Interpersonal motivation in a First Year Experience class influences freshmen's university adjustment].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Rumiko; Nakanishi, Yoshifumi; Nagahama, Fumiyo; Nakajima, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined the influence of interpersonal motivation on university adjustment in freshman students enrolled in a First Year Experience (FYE) class. An interpersonal motivation scale and a university adjustment (interpersonal adjustment and academic adjustment) scale were administered twice to 116 FYE students; data from the 88 students who completed both surveys were analyzed. Results from structural equation modeling indicated a causal relationship between interpersonal, motivation and university adjustment: interpersonal adjustment served as a mediator between academic adjustment and interpersonal motivation, the latter of which was assessed using the internalized motivation subscale of the Interpersonal Motivation Scale as well as the Relative Autonomy Index, which measures the autonomy in students' interpersonal attitudes. Thus, revising the FYE class curriculum to include approaches to lowering students' feelings of obligation and/or anxiety in their interpersonal interactions might improve their adjustment to university.

  1. College Adjustment Experiences of First-Year Students: Disengaged Athletes, Nonathletes, and Current Varsity Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubker, John R.; Etzel, Edward F.

    2007-01-01

    The freshman year of college is usually acknowledged as a stressful time of social and academic adjustment. During this period, first-year students face many social and intellectual challenges. For high school athletes, the combined impact of college transition plus disengagement from sport can further complicate first-semester adjustment and may…

  2. 34 CFR 300.205 - Adjustment to local fiscal efforts in certain fiscal years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adjustment to local fiscal efforts in certain fiscal years. 300.205 Section 300.205 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Adjustment to local fiscal efforts in certain fiscal years. (a) Amounts in excess. Notwithstanding §...

  3. Adjustment to College in Nonresidential First-Year Students: The Roles of Stress, Family, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gefen, Dalia R.; Fish, Marian C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored factors related to college adjustment in nonresidential first-year students. It was hypothesized that stress, family functioning, and coping strategies would predict academic, personal-emotional, and social adjustment in addition to institutional attachment. The sample comprised 167 first-year college students (ages 18-23)…

  4. Child and family adjustment following pediatric solid organ transplantation: factors to consider during the early years post-transplant.

    PubMed

    Brosig, Cheryl; Pai, Ahna; Fairey, Elise; Krempien, Jennifer; McBride, Michael; Lefkowitz, Debra S

    2014-09-01

    Adjusting to life after transplant can be challenging to pediatric solid organ transplant recipients and their families. In this review, we discuss a number of important factors to consider during the first 2-3 yr after transplant (defined as the "early years"), including transitioning from hospital to home, returning to physical activity, feeding and nutrition, school reentry, potential cognitive effects of transplant, family functioning, and QOL. We highlight steps that providers can take to optimize child and family adjustment during this period.

  5. Quality of sexual life and its effect on marital adjustment of Turkish women in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kisa, Sezer; Zeyneloğlu, Simge; Yilmaz, Duygu; Güner, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is an important period of a woman's life that can affect marital relationships because of decrease in the sexual function. This study aimed to examine the effect of sexual life on the marital adjustment of 607 healthy, pregnant women using the self-administered Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female and the Marital Adjustment Scale. Results showed that 30% of the pregnant women experienced problems during sexual intercourse and 50% had painful intercourse. The median total score of the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female for pregnant women was 35.5, and the median total score of the Marital Adjustment Scale was 41.0. The authors found a positive moderate level correlation between the sexual quality of life for women and their marital adjustment for being pregnant (r = 0.468, p =.001). The results imply that the variance in the sexual activity during the childbearing period does occur and pregnant women need to be assessed regularly with regards to their sexuality by health care providers in a professional atmosphere.

  6. Religion and the Quality of Life in the Last Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Julie; Kasl, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Religious involvement in old age appears to remain quite stable until the very end of life, reflecting patterns established earlier in life. Are there differences in quality of life (QOL) for those who are religiously involved in that last year compared with those who are not? Methods We studied 499 elderly persons participating in ongoing annual interviews who died in the 12 months following an interview. We examined public and subjective religious involvement and indicators of health-related and psychosocial QOL, including health status and functional ability, family and friendship networks, depression, and well-being. Results More deeply religious respondents were more likely to see friends, and they had better self-rated health, fewer depressive feelings, and were observed by the interviewer to find life more exciting compared with the less religious. Respondents receiving strength and comfort from religion reported poorer self-rated health. Those who attended religious services often were most likely to have attended holiday parties, even after adjusting for health status. Significant interactions indicated that the disabled benefited more from both public and subjective religious involvement than the nondisabled. Discussion Overall, QOL in the last year of life is positively related to religious involvement, particularly its more subjective dimensions. PMID:19435927

  7. Rwanda 20 years on: investing in life

    PubMed Central

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Farmer, Paul E; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Karema, Corine; Gasana, Michel; de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean; Ngabo, Fidele; Wagner, Claire M; Nutt, Cameron T; Nyatanyi, Thierry; Gatera, Maurice; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Mugeni, Cathy; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Shema, Joseph; Uwaliraye, Parfait; Gaju, Erick; Muhimpundu, Marie Aimee; Dushime, Theophile; Senyana, Florent; Mazarati, Jean Baptiste; Gaju, Celsa Muzayire; Tuyisenge, Lisine; Mutabazi, Vincent; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Rusanganwa, Vincent; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Umutoni, Agathe; Kankindi, Ida; Ntizimira, Christian; Ruton, Hinda; Mugume, Nathan; Nkunda, Denis; Ndenga, Espérance; Mubiligi, Joel M; Kakoma, Jean Baptiste; Karita, Etienne; Sekabaraga, Claude; Rusingiza, Emmanuel; Rich, Michael L; Mukherjee, Joia S; Rhatigan, Joseph; Cancedda, Corrado; Bertrand-Farmer, Didi; Bukhman, Gene; Stulac, Sara N; Tapela, Neo M; van der Hoof Holstein, Cassia; Shulman, Lawrence N; Habinshuti, Antoinette; Bonds, Matthew H; Wilkes, Michael S; Lu, Chunling; Smith-Fawzi, Mary C; Swain, JaBaris D; Murphy, Michael P; Ricks, Alan; Kerry, Vanessa B; Bush, Barbara P; Siegler, Richard W; Stern, Cori S; Sliney, Anne; Nuthulaganti, Tej; Karangwa, Injonge; Pegurri, Elisabetta; Dahl, Ophelia; Drobac, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Two decades ago, the genocide against the Tutsis in Rwanda led to the deaths of 1 million people, and the displacement of millions more. Injury and trauma were followed by the effects of a devastated health system and economy. In the years that followed, a new course set by a new government set into motion equity-oriented national policies focusing on social cohesion and people-centred development. Premature mortality rates have fallen precipitously in recent years, and life expectancy has doubled since the mid-1990s. Here we reflect on the lessons learned in rebuilding Rwanda’s health sector during the past two decades, as the country now prepares itself to take on new challenges in health-care delivery. PMID:24703831

  8. Psychological and sociocultural adjustment of first-year international students: Trajectories and predictors.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Reiko; Frazier, Patricia; Syed, Moin

    2015-07-01

    Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the temporal course of international students' adjustment has not been adequately tested, and only 1 study to date has examined multiple trajectories of adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of adjustment among first-year international students using a broader range of adjustment measures (i.e., psychological distress, positive psychological adjustment, sociocultural adjustment). The second goal was to identify important predictors of trajectories. A wide range of individual and interpersonal predictor variables was examined, including academic stress and perceived control over academic stress, personality, social relationships, and language-related factors. Undergraduate and graduate international students in their first semester at a large midwestern university participated in this 5-wave longitudinal study (N = 248) that spanned 1 academic year. Multiple trajectories emerged, and the trajectories varied across the 3 adjustment measures. Average trajectories masked the trajectories of small groups of students who maintained or increased in terms of adjustment difficulties across outcomes. Contrary to popular theories, the U-shape adjustment trajectory (characterized by initial euphoria, distress, and then recovery) did not emerge. The most consistent predictors of adjustment trajectories were perceived present control over academic stress and Neuroticism.

  9. Development in the first years of life.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R A

    2001-01-01

    Any discussion on how we care for infants and toddlers must begin with the interests and needs of the children themselves. Therefore, this issue opens with an overview of the dramatic development that takes place during the first three years of life, which turns the dependent human newborn into a sophisticated three-year-old who walks, talks, solves problems, and manages relationships with adults and other children. This article explains the new understanding of brain development that has captured public attention in recent years, and links it to developments in infant behavior that are equally impressive and influential: the growth of the body (size and coordination), the growth of the mind (language and problem-solving abilities), and the growth of the person (emotional and social mastery). It emphasizes how much early experiences and relationships matter. The article highlights themes that resonate across these aspects of development: A drive to development is inborn, propelling the human infant toward learning and mastery. The opportunities for growth that enrich the early years also bring with them vulnerability to harm. The experiences that greet children in their human and physical surroundings can either enhance or inhibit the unfolding of their inborn potential. People (especially parents and other caregivers) are the essence of the infant's environment, and their protection, nurturing, and stimulation shape early development. The author envisions a society that stands beside the families and caregivers who nurture young children, equipping them with knowledge and resources, and surrounding them with supportive workplaces, welfare policies, and child care systems.

  10. The Sexual Adjustment of Coronary Bypass Surgery Patients: A 4-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurer, Shari; Thurer, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    Measured the sexual adjustment of 14 individuals before coronary bypass surgery and both four months and four years afterwards. Results showed that sexual adjustment worsened with the onset of symptomatic coronary artery disease and did not improve at either follow-up interval. (LLL)

  11. 77 FR 22340 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Annual Adjustment Factors, Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Annual Adjustment Factors, Fiscal Year... Factors (AAFs). SUMMARY: The United States Housing Act of 1937 requires that assistance contracts signed... AAFs for adjustment of contract rents on assistance contract anniversaries. The factors are based on...

  12. 42 CFR 414.42 - Adjustment for first 4 years of practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. 414.42 Section 414.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.42 Adjustment...

  13. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment Among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a stress-process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents’ mental health. We also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to children’s experiences of stressful life events. With data from 738 Mexican American early adolescents, results generally provided support for the theoretical model although the relationships of neighborhood disadvantage to stressful life events and adjustment were weaker than expected. Additional research is needed to corroborate these results and determine why neighborhood disadvantage may have different relationships to adjustment for Mexican American early adolescents than for others. PMID:20711521

  14. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A.; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Evans, Alan C.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. Methods: We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. Results: The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. Conclusions: The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. PMID:27664981

  15. Life: the first two billion years.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Andrew H; Bergmann, Kristin D; Strauss, Justin V

    2016-11-05

    Microfossils, stromatolites, preserved lipids and biologically informative isotopic ratios provide a substantial record of bacterial diversity and biogeochemical cycles in Proterozoic (2500-541 Ma) oceans that can be interpreted, at least broadly, in terms of present-day organisms and metabolic processes. Archean (more than 2500 Ma) sedimentary rocks add at least a billion years to the recorded history of life, with sedimentological and biogeochemical evidence for life at 3500 Ma, and possibly earlier; phylogenetic and functional details, however, are limited. Geochemistry provides a major constraint on early evolution, indicating that the first bacteria were shaped by anoxic environments, with distinct patterns of major and micronutrient availability. Archean rocks appear to record the Earth's first iron age, with reduced Fe as the principal electron donor for photosynthesis, oxidized Fe the most abundant terminal electron acceptor for respiration, and Fe a key cofactor in proteins. With the permanent oxygenation of the atmosphere and surface ocean ca 2400 Ma, photic zone O2 limited the access of photosynthetic bacteria to electron donors other than water, while expanding the inventory of oxidants available for respiration and chemoautotrophy. Thus, halfway through Earth history, the microbial underpinnings of modern marine ecosystems began to take shape.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.

  16. Application of Variable Life Adjusted Displays (VLAD) on Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The need to improve patient safety has been identified as a major priority for health reform in developed countries, including Australia. We investigated the implementation and appropriateness of Variable Life Adjusted Displays as a quality control procedure to monitor “in-control” versus “out-of-control” processes in Victorian public hospitals. Methods Victorian Admitted Episode Data from Department of Human Services, Victoria for 2004–7 were used. The VLAD is a plot of a cumulative sum of the difference in expected outcome (range 0–1) and observed outcome (0 or 1) for sequential separations. Three outcomes were assessed: in-hospital mortality for acute myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure. Logistic regression was used to obtain a realistic measure of expected mortality over the period 2004–5, adjusting for covariates and comorbidities, to estimate expected mortality risk for the separations between 2005–7. VLAD were plotted for the years 2005–7, by the 11 hospitals with the highest frequency of separations. Signalling limits for 30%, 50% and 75% risk decrease and risk increase were determined and plotted for each VLAD utilizing risk-adjusted cumulative sum techniques. This is a likelihood-ratio test statistic for signalling. If the VLAD signalled by intersecting with a limit, the limit was reset. Results The three logit models displayed reasonable fit to the observed data. There were n = 2999 separations in the AMI model, n = 3598 in the HF model and n = 1922 in the stroke model. The number of separations plotted by VLAD ranged from n = 126 to n = 648. No signals were observed in 64%, 55% and 18% of VLAD for AMI, HF and stroke respectively. For AMI and HF 9% of hospitals signalled at least once for each of 30%, 50% and 75% risk increase, whereas this was 45% for stroke. Hospitals signalling at least once for risk decrease ranged from 18% to 36% across the levels of risk and outcomes. No VLAD signalled

  17. Socioeconomic Outcomes in Adults Malnourished in the First Year of Life: A 40-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, Cyralene; Waber, Deborah P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Fitzmaurice, Garret M.; Eaglesfield, David

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lifelong functional, adaptive, and economic outcomes of moderate to severe infantile malnutrition are not well known. We assessed social status and income at midlife in a cohort of Barbadian adults, hospitalized for protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) during the first year of life, with good nutrition and health thereafter, in the context of a 40-year longitudinal case-control study. We also examined to what extent childhood IQ mediated any group differences. METHODS: Educational achievement, occupational status, and standard of living were assessed by the Hollingshead scales and a site-specific Ecology Questionnaire in Barbadian adults (aged 37–43 years) with a history of malnutrition (n = 80) and a matched healthy control group (n = 63), classmates of the index cases. Malnutrition effects, adjusted for childhood standard of living, were estimated by longitudinal multiple regression analyses, with and without childhood IQ, in the models. RESULTS: PEM predicted poorer socioeconomic outcomes with medium to large effect sizes (0.50–0.94), but childhood IQ substantially attenuated the magnitude of these effects (adjusted effect sizes: 0.17–0.34). The gap in weekly household income between the PEM and control groups increased substantially over the life span (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to severe PEM during the first year of life with adequate nutrition and health care thereafter is associated with significant depression of socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood, mediated in part by cognitive compromise in affected individuals. This finding underscores the potential long-term economic burden of infant malnutrition, which is of major concern given the continued high prevalence of malnutrition worldwide. PMID:22732170

  18. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1956 adjustment date. (c) Adjustment for part of terms-letter reserve applicable to property disposed... adjustment date shall be made as of that date for that part of the terms-letter reserve which was applicable... changeover date and before the taxpayer's 1956 adjustment date. This paragraph shall apply even though,...

  19. STS-47 Payload Specialist Mohri adjusts life vest during Homestead training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri adjusts his life jacket with a training instructor's assistance as backup (alternate) payload specialist Takao Doi looks on. The STS-47 prime and alternate payload specialists are participating in a special water survival training course hosted by Homestead Air Force Base in Florida. Mohri and Doi represent the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA).

  20. A comparison of confounding adjustment methods with an application to early life determinants of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Kleinman, K; Gillman, M W

    2014-12-01

    We implemented six confounding adjustment methods: (1) covariate-adjusted regression, (2) propensity score (PS) regression, (3) PS stratification, (4) PS matching with two calipers, (5) inverse probability weighting and (6) doubly robust estimation to examine the associations between the body mass index (BMI) z-score at 3 years and two separate dichotomous exposure measures: exclusive breastfeeding v. formula only (n=437) and cesarean section v. vaginal delivery (n=1236). Data were drawn from a prospective pre-birth cohort study, Project Viva. The goal is to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness, and approaches for multiple confounding adjustment methods to analyze observational data. Unadjusted (univariate) and covariate-adjusted linear regression associations of breastfeeding with BMI z-score were -0.33 (95% CI -0.53, -0.13) and -0.24 (-0.46, -0.02), respectively. The other approaches resulted in smaller n (204-276) because of poor overlap of covariates, but CIs were of similar width except for inverse probability weighting (75% wider) and PS matching with a wider caliper (76% wider). Point estimates ranged widely, however, from -0.01 to -0.38. For cesarean section, because of better covariate overlap, the covariate-adjusted regression estimate (0.20) was remarkably robust to all adjustment methods, and the widths of the 95% CIs differed less than in the breastfeeding example. Choice of covariate adjustment method can matter. Lack of overlap in covariate structure between exposed and unexposed participants in observational studies can lead to erroneous covariate-adjusted estimates and confidence intervals. We recommend inspecting covariate overlap and using multiple confounding adjustment methods. Similar results bring reassurance. Contradictory results suggest issues with either the data or the analytic method.

  1. A comparison of confounding adjustment methods with an application to early life determinants of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    We implemented 6 confounding adjustment methods: 1) covariate-adjusted regression, 2) propensity score (PS) regression, 3) PS stratification, 4) PS matching with two calipers, 5) inverse-probability-weighting, and 6) doubly-robust estimation to examine the associations between the BMI z-score at 3 years and two separate dichotomous exposure measures: exclusive breastfeeding versus formula only (N = 437) and cesarean section versus vaginal delivery (N = 1236). Data were drawn from a prospective pre-birth cohort study, Project Viva. The goal is to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness, and approaches for multiple confounding adjustment methods to analyze observational data. Unadjusted (univariate) and covariate-adjusted linear regression associations of breastfeeding with BMI z-score were −0.33 (95% CI −0.53, −0.13) and −0.24 (−0.46, −0.02), respectively. The other approaches resulted in smaller N (204 to 276) because of poor overlap of covariates, but CIs were of similar width except for inverse-probability-weighting (75% wider) and PS matching with a wider caliper (76% wider). Point estimates ranged widely, however, from −0.01 to −0.38. For cesarean section, because of better covariate overlap, the covariate-adjusted regression estimate (0.20) was remarkably robust to all adjustment methods, and the widths of the 95% CIs differed less than in the breastfeeding example. Choice of covariate adjustment method can matter. Lack of overlap in covariate structure between exposed and unexposed participants in observational studies can lead to erroneous covariate-adjusted estimates and confidence intervals. We recommend inspecting covariate overlap and using multiple confounding adjustment methods. Similar results bring reassurance. Contradictory results suggest issues with either the data or the analytic method. PMID:25171142

  2. Life Review during the College Freshman Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkoff, Abe; Meredith, Gerald M.; Bailey, Elizabeth; Cheang, Michael; Dubanoski, Richard A.; Griffin, P. Bion; Niyekawa, Agnes M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the impact of a life-review on college freshmen. Participants included a life-review group of 30 (25 women, 5 men), comparison group of 36 (29 women, 7 men), and six volunteer leaders (three retired and three current faculty or staff). Circles, each with 5 to 7 students and a leader, shared workbook assignments in 14 weekly…

  3. Assessment of the Long-Term Benefits of Life Skills Programming on Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ruby; Reddon, John R.; Hoglin, Brenda; Woodman, Mary-Ann

    2008-01-01

    The durability of the psychosocial benefits of Life Skills programming on outpatient adults with mental health/forensic issues was examined. Participants were 52 adults (28 males, 24 females) who completed 16 weeks of Life Skills at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and were re-assessed between six months and six years following treatment.…

  4. Life after High School: Adjustment of Popular Teens in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2010-01-01

    This project examines the adjustment sequelae of perceived popularity beyond high school, and the moderating role of relational aggression (RA) in this process. Yearly sociometric measures of popularity and RA were gathered across grades 9-12 for a sample of 264 adolescents in a lower-middle-class high school. In addition, data on post-high school…

  5. Surviving Job Loss: Motivation among Second Year Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Sandra Lee

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study investigated second year college students who participated in the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) program at a technical college in northeastern Pennsylvania. In order to understand how learners stayed motivated in a college setting, I selected participants who were in their second year of the TAA program. A total of…

  6. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (e) of the Act shall be made in lieu of the adjustments for depreciation otherwise required by... the amount of the terms-letter reserve applicable to such property. (c) Adjustment for depreciation... changeover date and before the 1956 adjustment date, for depreciation applicable to such property...

  7. Describing the population health burden of depression: health-adjusted life expectancy by depression status in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Steensma, C.; Loukine, L.; Orpana, H.; McRae, L.; Vachon, J.; Mo, F.; Boileau-Falardeau, M.; Reid, C.; Choi, B. C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the impact of depression in terms of losses to both premature mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) on the overall population. Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) is a summary measure of population health that combines both morbidity and mortality into a single summary statistic that describes the current health status of a population. Methods: We estimated HALE for the Canadian adult population according to depression status. National Population Health Survey (NPHS) participants 20 years and older (n = 12 373) were followed for mortality outcomes from 1994 to 2009, based on depression status. Depression was defined as having likely experienced a major depressive episode in the previous year as measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Life expectancy was estimated by building period abridged life tables by sex and depression status using the relative risks of mortality from the NPHS and mortality data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (2007–2009). The Canadian Community Health Survey (2009/10) provided estimates of depression prevalence and Health Utilities Index as a measure of HRQOL. Using the combined mortality, depression prevalence and HRQOL estimates, HALE was estimated for the adult population according to depression status and by sex. Results: For the population of women with a recent major depressive episode, HALE at 20 years of age was 42.0 years (95% CI: 40.2–43.8) compared to 57.0 years (95% CI: 56.8–57.2) for women without a recent major depressive episode. For the population of Canadian men, HALE at 20 was 39.0 years (95% CI: 36.5–41.5) for those with a recent major depressive episode compared to 53.8 years (95% CI: 53.6–54.0) for those without. For the 15.0-year difference in HALE between women with and without depression, 12.3 years can be attributed to the HRQOL gap and the remaining 2.7 years to the mortality gap. The

  8. Is the value of a life or life-year saved context specific? Further evidence from a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Duncan; Segal, Leonie

    2008-01-01

    Background A number of recent findings imply that the value of a life saved, life-year (LY) saved or quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved varies depending on the characteristics of the life, LY or QALY under consideration. Despite these findings, budget allocations continue to be made as if all healthy life-years are equivalent. This continued focus on simple health maximisation is partly attributable to gaps in the available evidence. The present study attempts to close some of these gaps. Methods Discrete choice experiment to estimate the marginal rate of substitution between cost, effectiveness and various non-health arguments. Odds of selecting profile B over profile A estimated via binary logistic regression. Marginal rates of substitution between attributes (including cost) then derived from estimated regression coefficients. Results Respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions with a strong evidence base where the beneficiary did not contribute to their illness. Results also suggest that respondents preferred prevention over cure. Interventions for young children were most preferred, followed by interventions for young adults, then interventions for working age adults and with interventions targeted at the elderly given lowest priority. Conclusion Results confirm that a trade-off exists between cost, effectiveness and non-health arguments when respondents prioritise health programs. That said, it is true that respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions – confirming that it is an adjustment to, rather than an outright rejection of, simple health maximisation that is required. PMID:18489787

  9. How to apply life adjustment factors for ball and roller bearings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crecelius, W. J., Jr.; Harris, T. A.; Moyer, C. A.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Sherlock, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Practical problems applicable to the selection, design, and lubrication of rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed. The solutions to these problems are based upon the new ASME Engineering Design Guide - Life Adjustment Factors for Ball and Roller Bearings. Design and selection criteria are based upon materials and processing factors such as melting practice, metalworking, and heat treatment. Environmental factors considered include bearing misalignment and speed. Selection of a lubricant is based upon elastohydrodynamic lubrication principles in addition to lubricant type and chemistry.

  10. What's Happened to the Price of College? Quality-Adjusted Net Price Indexes for Four Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Scafidi, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    Hedonic models of the price of college to construct quality-adjusted net price indexes for U.S. four-year colleges were estimated. A 22 percent decline in the estimated price index is reported by adjusting for financial aid, while quality adjusting results lead to a smaller decline, for academic years 1990-91 to 1994-95.

  11. Human Life Science, Years 1 - 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    Describes a Human Life Science program for the elementary school emphasizing physical, mental, emotional, and social growth. The program consists of two units: (1) The Human Body, and (2) Drugs, including Drug Information, Alcohol, and Tobacco. The guide outlines basic concepts to be developed, sets of objectives, background information, teaching…

  12. Marsupials don't adjust their thermal energetics for life in an alpine environment

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Christine E.; Withers, Philip C.; Hardie, Andrew; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Marsupials have relatively low body temperatures and metabolic rates, and are therefore considered to be maladapted for life in cold habitats such as alpine environments. We compared body temperature, energetics and water loss as a function of ambient temperature for 4 Antechinus species, 2 from alpine habitats and 2 from low altitude habitats. Our results show that body temperature, metabolic rate, evaporative water loss, thermal conductance and relative water economy are markedly influenced by ambient temperature for each species, as expected for endothermic mammals. However, despite some species and individual differences, habitat (alpine vs non-alpine) does not affect any of these physiological variables, which are consistent with those for other marsupials. Our study suggests that at least under the environmental conditions experienced on the Australian continent, life in an alpine habitat does not require major physiological adjustments by small marsupials and that they are physiologically equipped to deal with sub-zero temperatures and winter snow cover. PMID:28349088

  13. 78 FR 30322 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Annual Adjustment Factors, Fiscal Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Annual Adjustment Factors, Fiscal Year.... The mailing address for these individuals is: Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th... turnover is less...'' (see Department of Veteran Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and...

  14. Surprise, Sensemaking, and Success in the First College Year: Black Undergraduate Men's Academic Adjustment Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.; Newman, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Much has been written about Black undergraduate men's out-of-class engagement and social experiences, identity development, participation in intercollegiate athletics, and college enrollment and completion rates. Too little is known about their academic readiness and first-year college adjustment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was…

  15. Perceived Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents: A 1-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…

  16. Development and Validation of Social Provision Scale on First Year Undergraduate Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatomiwo, Oladunmoye Enoch

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the development and validation of socio provision scale on first year undergraduates adjustment among institution in Ibadan metropolis. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A sample of 300 participants was randomly selected across institutions in Ibadan. Data were collected using socio provision scale (a =0.76),…

  17. Korean Children's Cultural Adjustment during Transition to the Early Years of School in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Ngaire

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated Korean children's cultural adjustment during transition to South Australian junior primary school settings. Using case-study methodology to provide a sociocultural perspective, data were collected during interviews with a sample of South Korean international students aged five to eight years, their mothers and teachers. All…

  18. 78 FR 25515 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Transaction Fee Rates I. Background Section 31... forecast ADS of 1.0178 x $252,666,501,426 = $257,167,513,594. Multiply this figure by the 20 trading days... figure by the 22 trading days in April 2013 to obtain a total dollar volume forecast of...

  19. Predicting Future Years of Life, Health, and Functional Ability

    PubMed Central

    Diehr, Paula; Diehr, Michael; Arnold, Alice; Yee, Laura M.; Odden, Michelle C.; Hirsch, Calvin H; Thielke, Stephen; Psaty, Bruce M.; Johnson, W. Craig; Kizer, MD, Jorge R.; Newman, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To create personalized estimates of future health and ability status for older adults. Method: Data came from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a large longitudinal study. Outcomes included years of life, years of healthy life (based on self-rated health), years of able life (based on activities of daily living), and years of healthy and able life. We developed regression estimates using the demographic and health characteristics that best predicted the four outcomes. Internal and external validity were assessed. Results: A prediction equation based on 11 variables accounted for about 40% of the variability for each outcome. Internal validity was excellent, and external validity was satisfactory. The resulting CHS Healthy Life Calculator (CHSHLC) is available at http://healthylifecalculator.org. Conclusion: CHSHLC provides a well-documented estimate of future years of healthy and able life for older adults, who may use it in planning for the future. PMID:28138467

  20. A life domains perspective on acculturation and psychological adjustment: a study of refugees from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Birman, Dina; Simon, Corrina D; Chan, Wing Yi; Tran, Nellie

    2014-03-01

    The study articulates a contextual approach to research on acculturation of immigrants, suggesting that the relationship between acculturation and adjustment is dependent on the cultural demands of the life domains considered. Specifically, the study investigated the mediating effects of adjustment in occupational and social life domains on the relationship between acculturation and psychological adjustment for 391 refugees from the former Soviet Union. The study used bilinear measures of acculturation to the host (American) and heritage (Russian) cultures. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the study confirmed the hypothesized relationships, such that the positive effects of American acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by occupational adjustment, and the effects of Russian acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by satisfaction with co-ethnic social support. Psychological adjustment was measured in two ways, as psychological well-being, using a measure of life satisfaction, and as symptoms of depression and anxiety, using the Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL). Life satisfaction served as a mediator between adjustment in occupational and social domains and HSCL, suggesting that it may be an intervening variable through which environmental stress associated with immigration contributes to the development of symptoms of mental disorder.

  1. Typologies of Family Functioning and Children’s Adjustment During the Early School Years

    PubMed Central

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Guided by family systems theory, the present study sought to identify patterns of family functioning from observational assessments of interparental, parent-child, and triadic contexts. In addition, we charted the implications for patterns of family functioning for children’s developmental trajectories of adjustment in the school context across the early school years. Two-hundred and thirty-four kindergarten children (129 girls and 105 boys; mean age of 6.0 years (SD = .50) at Wave 1) and their parents participated in this multimethod, three-year longitudinal investigation. As expected, latent class analyses extracted three primary typologies of functioning including: (a) cohesive, (b) enmeshed, and (c) disengaged families. Furthermore, family patterns were differentially associated with children’s maladaptive adjustment trajectories in the school context. The findings highlight the developmental utility of incorporating pattern-based approaches to family functioning. PMID:20636698

  2. Years of life lost among Iranian people killed in the Iraq-Iran war: the 25-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Batool; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Soroush, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the years of life lost (YLL), registered deaths due to Iraq-Iran war (1980-2005) were identified considering ICD10 codes of Y36.0 to Y36.9. Estimated YLL was calculated by taking age-weighting options and discount rates. Population life expectancy in each corresponding year was retrieved from the national health database. During 1980-2005, 178,298 Iranian men and 5325 Iranian women died in war. The mean death age was 22.8 ± 9 years, 96.6% occurred during the years of war (September 1980-August 1988). In the years after the war (1988-2005) 6243 (3.4%) of deaths occurred as the result of complication of the war-related injuries or implanted landmines/unexploded ordnances (ICD10 code: Y36.8). YLL in Iraq-Iran war among Iranian victims were calculated as 10,479,405.0 years considering the age weighting and discount rate equal to 0. Age-adjusted YLL were estimated as 10,169,546.2 years in males. Female cases that comprised 2.9% of total victims lost 309,858.8 years. The mean YLL was calculated as 57.1 years for each Iranian victim killed in Iraq-Iran war. The war-related YLL was estimated more than 10 million years that comprised a majority of young men. This study is the first step in estimation of disability adjusted life year (DALY) of Iraq-Iran war on Iranian side.

  3. Earning and Learning: How Term-Time Employment Impacts on Students' Adjustment to University Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbridge, Adelina; Swanson, Vivien

    2005-01-01

    The number of students in higher education has risen sharply in recent years, and an increasing proportion of students combine paid employment with university life. In a review of studies which have investigated the relationship between "earning and learning", it is noted that the overall focus to date has been on the negative impact of…

  4. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining…

  5. Parent Discrimination Predicts Mexican-American Adolescent Psychological AdjustmentYear Later.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents 1 year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them.

  6. Interdependent Psychological Quality of Life in Dyads Adjusting to Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Segrin, Chris; Badger, Terry A.; Harrington, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prostate cancer negatively influences quality of life (QOL) in survivors and the people with whom they are close. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the degree of dyadic interdependence in psychological QOL in dyads adjusting to prostate cancer and its treatment. Method Participants were 70 prostate cancer survivors and their partners, most of whom were spouses. Assessments of psychological QOL (i.e., depression, anxiety, fatigue, and positive affect) were made at three points in time, each separated by 8 weeks. Results Survivors’ prostate specific function was associated with both their own and their partners’ psychological QOL. There was evidence of longitudinal dyadic interdependence for psychological QOL, particularly from partners to survivors between the T2 and T3 assessments. Conclusions Prostate cancer survivors’ psychological QOL is affected substantially by their partners’ psychological QOL, consistent with theories of emotional contagion. PMID:21895374

  7. Timing Is Everything: A Comparative Study of the Adjustment Process of Fall and Mid-Year Community College Transfer Students at a Public Four-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peska, Scott F.

    2009-01-01

    Many four-year institutions accept community college transfer students at mid-year (i.e., second semester) to recuperate declines in fall semester enrollments (Britt & Hirt, 1999). Students entering mid-year may face unique challenges adjusting and find that the institutional support to assist in their adjustment that is available to students…

  8. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1240 - Adjustment Procedures for State-Submitted Information (Calendar Years 1996 and 1997)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjustment Procedures for State-Submitted Information (Calendar Years 1996 and 1997) A Appendix A to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... 1240—Adjustment Procedures for State-Submitted Information (Calendar Years 1996 and 1997) A. In...

  9. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1240 - Adjustment Procedures for State-Submitted Information (Calendar Years 1996 and 1997)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustment Procedures for State-Submitted Information (Calendar Years 1996 and 1997) A Appendix A to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... 1240—Adjustment Procedures for State-Submitted Information (Calendar Years 1996 and 1997) A. In...

  10. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1240 - Adjustment Procedures for State-Submitted Information (Calendar Years 1996 and 1997)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjustment Procedures for State-Submitted Information (Calendar Years 1996 and 1997) A Appendix A to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... 1240—Adjustment Procedures for State-Submitted Information (Calendar Years 1996 and 1997) A. In...

  11. River channel adjustments in Southern Italy over the past 150 years and implications for channel recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Giano, Salvatore I.; Pisano, Luca; Robustelli, Gaetano; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs along with topographic and geomorphological surveys are used to assess evolutionary trends and key control factors of channel adjustments for five major rivers in southern Italy (the Trigno, Biferno, Volturno, Sinni and Crati rivers) to support assessment of channel recovery and river restoration. Three distinct phases of channel adjustment are identified over the past 150 years primarily driven by human disturbances. Firstly, slight channel widening dominated from the last decades of the nineteenth century to the 1950s. Secondly, from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s, altered sediment fluxes induced by in-channel mining and channel works brought about moderate to very intense incision (up to 6-7 m) accompanied by strong channel narrowing (up to 96%) and changes in channel configuration from multi-threaded to single-threaded patterns. Thirdly, the period from around 2000 to 2015 has been characterized by channel stabilization and local widening. Evolutionary trajectories of the rivers studied are quite similar to those reconstructed for other Italian rivers, particularly regarding the second phase of channel adjustments and ongoing transitions towards channel recovery in some reaches. Analyses of river dynamics, recovery potential and connectivity with sediment sources of the study reaches, framed in their catchment context, can be used as part of a wider interdisciplinary approach that views effective river restoration alongside sustainable and risk-reduced river management.

  12. Pre-Post Tornado Effects on Aggressive Children's Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment Through One-Year Postdisaster.

    PubMed

    Lochman, John E; Vernberg, Eric; Powell, Nicole P; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Jarrett, Matthew; McDonald, Kristina; Qu, Lixin; Hendrickson, Michelle; Kassing, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Using a risk-resilience framework, this study examined how varying levels of exposure to a natural disaster (EF-4 tornado) and children's characteristics (sex; anxiety) influenced the behavioral and psychological adjustment of children who shared a common risk factor predisaster (elevated aggression) prior to exposure through 1-year postdisaster. Participants included 360 children in Grades 4-6 (65% male; 78% African American) and their parents from predominantly low-income households who were already participating in a longitudinal study of indicated prevention effects for externalizing outcomes when the tornado occurred in 2011. Fourth-grade children who were screened for overt aggressive behavior were recruited in 3 annual cohorts (120 per year, beginning in 2009). Parent-rated aggression and internalizing problems were assessed prior to the tornado (Wave 1), within a half-year after the tornado (Wave 2), and at a 1-year follow-up (Wave 3). Children and parents rated their exposure to aspects of tornado-related traumatic experiences at Wave 3. Children displayed less reduction on aggression and internalizing problems if the children had experienced distress after the tornado or fears for their life, in combination with their pre-tornado level of anxiety. Higher levels of children's and parents' exposure to the tornado interacted with children's lower baseline child anxiety to predict less reduction in aggression and internalizing problems 1 year after the tornado. Higher levels of disaster exposure negatively affected at-risk children's level of improvement in aggression and internalizing problems, when life threat (parent- and child-reported) and child-reported distress after the tornado were moderated by baseline anxiety.

  13. An adjusted one year sea surface heat and water budget for the Northwestern Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniaux, Guy; Prieur, Louis; Giordani, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The problem of heat and salt budget closure is an important subject in operational and research oceanography. The closure depends crucially on surface fluxes, as they are one of the most important processes in terms of the evolution of the heat and salt content in the oceanic top layers. However, in this problem, two points have to be considered. First, surface fluxes are affected by a variety of errors: those associated with the algorithms used for computing the turbulent fluxes, those due to the data used as input of bulk algorithms and the errors associated with the time and space resolution of the fluxes themselves. The second problem is that no surface flux dataset exists, that can be used as the truth, or as a reference, i.e. that can be used for closing observed heat and water budgets at various time and space scales. Here we address the question of adjusting surface heat and water fluxes so that they are in agreement with the evolution of the thermal and salt contents deduced from the extended dataset collected during the HyMex campaigns. These experiments were conducted in the North-western Mediterranean basin in 2012 and 2013. The method is based: (1) on the one-dimensional column modelling of the experimental area, by solving specific temperature and salinity equations and (2) on the optimization of adjustable coefficients with a genetic algorithm. The surface forcings, calculated from a mix of satellite retrievals, in-situ data, numerical weather prediction model observables and a bulk algorithm are also adjusted with the genetic algorithm. Finally, the adjusted fluxes allows to simulate the domain average sea surface temperature and salinity with errors less than 0.2 percent (or 0.03°C) and 0.08 percent (or 0.03 psu) respectively over one year. The adjusted fluxes are finally compared with various NWP models over the North-western Mediterranean basin and also locally with fluxes estimated at a mooring site (LION buoy).

  14. Meaning Making and Psychological Adjustment following Cancer: The Mediating Roles of Growth, Life Meaning, and Restored Just-World Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Crystal L.; Edmondson, Donald; Fenster, Juliane R.; Blank, Thomas O.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer survivors' efforts at meaning making may influence the extent to which they successfully make meaning from their experience (i.e., experience posttraumatic growth, find life meaningful, and restore beliefs in a just world), which may, in turn, influence their psychological adjustment. Previous research regarding both meaning making…

  15. The Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Therapy on Enhancing Marital Adjustment and Quality of Life among Infertile Couples with Marital Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Maryam; Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javidi, Nasirudin; Kamkar, Elnaz Hoseini

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of emotionally fo- cused therapy (EFT-C) on promoting marital adjustment of infertile couples with marital conflicts by improving quality of life. Materials and Methods This is a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post–test design in which 30 infertile couples (60 individuals) were chosen by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly divided into two groups, sample and control, of 15 couples each. Next, couples in the sample population answered questionnaires for marital adjustment, sexual satisfaction and quality of life after which they received 10 sessions of EFT-C. Results Pre- and post-tests showed that EFT-C had a significant effect on marital adjust- ment and quality of life. Conclusion According to the results, EFT-C had a significant, positive effect on en- hancement of marital adjustment. Life quality of infertile couples significantly increased via application of EFT-C. This approach improved the physical, psychological and social relationships of infertile couples and enhanced their social environment. PMID:26246883

  16. Purpose in Life Predicts Allostatic Load Ten Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B.; Ong, Anthony D.; Gruenewald, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Objective Living a purposeful life is associated with better mental and physical health, including longevity. Accumulating evidence shows that these associations might be explained by the association between life purpose and regulation of physiological systems involved in the stress response. The aim of this study was to investigate the prospective associations between life purpose and allostatic load over a 10-year period. Methods Analyses were conducted using data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey. Assessment of life purpose, psychological covariates and demographics were obtained at baseline, while biomarkers of allostatic load were assessed at the 10-year follow-up. Results We found that greater life purpose predicted lower levels of allostatic load at follow-up, even when controlling for other aspects of psychological well-being potentially associated with allostatic load. Further, life purpose was also a strong predictor of individual differences in self-health locus of control—i.e., beliefs about how much influence individuals can exert on their own health—which, in turn, partially mediated the association between purpose and allostatic load. Although life purpose was also negatively linked to other-health locus of control —i.e., the extent to which individuals believe their health is controlled by others/chance —this association did not mediate the impact of life purpose on allostatic load. Conclusion The current study provides the first empirical evidence for the long-term physiological correlates of life purpose and supports the hypothesis that self-health locus of control acts as one proximal psychological mechanism through which life purpose may be linked to positive biological outcomes. PMID:26526322

  17. ‘I–We’ boundary fluctuations in couple adjustment to rectal cancer and life with a permanent colostomy

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Molly; Fergus, Karen; Miller, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates couples’ adjustment to rectal cancer and a colostomy using the ‘Classification System of Couple Adjustment to Cancer’, a framework delineating fluctuations in couples’ sense of ‘I’ and ‘We’ in response to cancer. Nine couples affected by rectal cancer and adjusting to life with a colostomy were interviewed. A theoretical thematic analysis of the transcripts was conducted; nearly all ‘I–We’ shifts of the Classification System of Couple Adjustment to Cancer were observed – often in unique ways in response to rectal cancer–specific challenges – and one new shift was described. The results provide a novel and experientially grounded means of conceptualizing complex dyadic coping processes. PMID:28070388

  18. 75 FR 24757 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Adjustments to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Section 6(b...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... the fee rates under Sections 31(b) and (c) of the Exchange Act in fiscal years 2002 through 2011. II... 14(g)(5) of the Exchange Act require the Commission to adjust the fee rates under Sections 13(e) and... adjustment to the fee rates under Sections 13(e) and 14(g) of the Exchange Act. \\7\\ The annual...

  19. Social Adjustment, Academic Adjustment, and the Ability to Identify Emotion in Facial Expressions of 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…

  20. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans reported higher search for meaning than Latin and European Americans. Presence of meaning was positively associated with self-esteem, academic adjustment, daily well-being, and ethnic belonging and exploration, whereas search for meaning was related to lower self-esteem and less stability in daily well-being. Presence of meaning mediated associations between ethnic identity and adjustment, explaining 28–52% of ethnic identity’s protective effect on development. Ethnic identity thus appears to affect adjustment, in part, through its role in fostering a positive sense of meaning in adolescents’ lives. PMID:19915965

  1. Meaning in life as a mediator of ethnic identity and adjustment among adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2010-11-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans reported higher search for meaning than Latin and European Americans. Presence of meaning was positively associated with self-esteem, academic adjustment, daily well-being, and ethnic belonging and exploration, whereas search for meaning was related to lower self-esteem and less stability in daily well-being. Presence of meaning mediated associations between ethnic identity and adjustment, explaining 28-52% of ethnic identity's protective effect on development. Ethnic identity thus appears to affect adjustment, in part, through its role in fostering a positive sense of meaning in adolescents' lives.

  2. Adding years to life: effect of avoidable mortality on life expectancy at birth.

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, F G; Orts, R; Pérez, S

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine the number of years that could be gained by preventing avoidable deaths. DESIGN--The study arose from the concept of avoidable causes of death and life expectancy at birth. Four abbreviated life tables were computed. The first included all causes of death; the second excluded all avoidable causes of death; the third and fourth excluded respectively primary and secondary avoidable causes of death. SETTING--Mortality and population data were taken from Mortality Statistics Offices in Valencia Region, Spain. MAIN RESULTS--Life expectancy at birth (LEB) was 75.7 years. After removing all avoidable deaths, LEB increased by 1.74 years. This improvement is attributed to avoidable deaths by primary prevention (1.09 years) and avoidable death by secondary prevention (0.37 year). CONCLUSIONS--According to these results the greatest improvement in LEB would be gained by primary prevention. PMID:1431715

  3. Meteorological adjustment of yearly mean values for air pollutant concentration comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidik, S. M.; Neustadter, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Using multiple linear regression analysis, models which estimate mean concentrations of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide as a function of several meteorologic variables, two rough economic indicators, and a simple trend in time are studied. Meteorologic data were obtained and do not include inversion heights. The goodness of fit of the estimated models is partially reflected by the squared coefficient of multiple correlation which indicates that, at the various sampling stations, the models accounted for about 23 to 47 percent of the total variance of the observed TSP concentrations. If the resulting model equations are used in place of simple overall means of the observed concentrations, there is about a 20 percent improvement in either: (1) predicting mean concentrations for specified meteorological conditions; or (2) adjusting successive yearly averages to allow for comparisons devoid of meteorological effects. An application to source identification is presented using regression coefficients of wind velocity predictor variables.

  4. Fifteen Years of Operation at NASA's National Transonic Facility with the World's Largest Adjustable Speed Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, George H.; Bhatia, Ram; Krattiger, Hansueli; Mylius, Justus; Schafer, D.

    2012-01-01

    In September 1995, a project was initiated to replace the existing drive line at NASA's most unique transonic wind tunnel, the National Transonic Facility (NTF), with a single 101 MW synchronous motor driven by a Load Commutated Inverter (LCI). This Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) system also included a custom four-winding transformer, harmonic filter, exciter, switch gear, control system, and feeder cable. The complete system requirements and design details have previously been presented and published [1], as well as the commissioning and acceptance test results [2]. The NTF was returned to service in December 1997 with the new drive system powering the fan. Today, this installation still represents the world s largest horizontal single motor/drive combination. This paper describes some significant events that occurred with the drive system during the first 15 years of service. These noteworthy issues are analyzed and root causes presented. Improvements that have substantially increased the long term viability of the system are given.

  5. Behavioral Health and Adjustment to College Life for Student Service Members/Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; Braue, Lawrence A.; Stire, Sheryl; Gum, Amber M.; Cross, Brittany L.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Increasing numbers of student service members/veterans (SSM/Vs) are enrolling in college. However, little is known about how their previous military experience affects their adjustment to this new role. The present study tested the hypothesis that SSM/Vs who report adjustment problems in college have a higher incidence of posttraumatic…

  6. Body Representation in the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieber, Nicole; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Hayden, Angela; Kangas, Ashley; Collins, Rebecca; Bada, Henrietta

    2010-01-01

    Like faces, bodies are significant sources of social information. However, research suggests that infants do not develop body representation (i.e., knowledge about typical human bodies) until the second year of life, although they are sensitive to facial information much earlier. Yet, previous research only examined whether infants are sensitive…

  7. The Years of Uncertainty: Eighth Grade Family Life Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    The family life sex education unit for eighth graders, "The Years of Uncertainty," consists of a series of daily lesson plans that span a 29-day period of one-hour class sessions. Topics covered are: problem solving, knowledge and attitudes, male and female reproductive systems, conception, pregnancy, birth, birth defects, venereal…

  8. Factors Negatively Affecting University Adjustment from the Views of First-Year University Students: The Case of Mersin University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevinç, Seda; Gizir, Cem Ali

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study aims to investigate the most common factors that negatively affect adjustment to university and coping strategies used by first-year university students in the adaptation process from the viewpoint of first-year university students. The participants were 25 first-year university students from various faculties at Mersin…

  9. Scientific life should be measured in seven year units.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2006-01-01

    Traditional wisdom and empirical observation unite in recommending a 7 year unit for measuring human life - including individual and institutional science. But, because of astronomy and the decimal system, things tend to be measured either in years, five years or in decades. A year is too short while a decade is too long to measure the trends and transitions of individual or institutional life. And the half decade, such as the 'five year plan' beloved by politicians and bureaucrats seems too short. Therefore, seven years should become the standard unit for tracking trends and measuring attainment. Precedents for using a seven year unit include the notorious Jesuit saying: 'Give me the child until he is seven, and I will show you the man'; and the 'ninth commandment' of Leo Szilard: 'Do your work for six years; but in the seventh, go into solitude or among strangers, so that the memory of your friends does not prevent you from being what you have become'. In a scientific career, seven years is approximately the time spent at high school, the time taken for a traditional basic scientific training of first degree and doctorate, and the period after the doctorate building the knowledge to become an expert specialist. There seems to be enough anecdotal evidence to support the idea that we should reconsider the universal but un-reflective use of decimal units in planning and evaluation. For instance, seven year fellowships and program grants might replace the current five year versions. A new - and previously unconsidered - field of research beckons.

  10. Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events.

    PubMed

    Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.

  11. Influence of adjustments to amputation and artificial limb on quality of life in patients following lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Richa; van den Heuvel, Wim J A; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the relationship between adjustments to amputation and artificial limb, and quality of life (QoL), and to analyse the influence of sociodemographic, medical and amputation-related factors on this relationship. Patients with unilateral and noncongenital lower limb amputation who were using artificial limb were interviewed (n=368) using structured questionnaires. The Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales (TAPES) were used to assess adjustments to amputation and artificial limb and the MOS Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary of QoL. Absence of comorbidity and residual stump pain, being employed, young age, less functional restriction, being more adjusted to limitation, increased social adjustment and less restriction in athletic activity were related to better PCS scores. Absence of comorbidity and phantom limb pain, nonuse of assistive device, being more adjusted to limitation, increased social adjustment and being less functionally restricted were related to higher MCS scores. Comorbidity had a modifying effect on both PCS and MCS scores. In addition, age, being employed and residual stump pain had a modifying influence on PCS, whereas assistive device use and phantom limb pain had a modifying influence on MCS. Our findings show that TAPES subscales have a modifying effect on the associations between several background (sociodemographic and amputation characteristics) and QoL (PCS and MCS). This indicates that adjustments to amputation and artificial limb are the key determinants of QoL in individuals following lower limb amputation.

  12. Years of life lost due to infectious diseases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Bryla, Marek; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Bryla, Pawel; Pikala, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Purpose An evaluation of mortality due to infectious diseases in Poland in 1999–2012 and an analysis of standard expected years of life lost due to the above diseases. Methods The study material included a database created on the basis of 5,219,205 death certificates of Polish inhabitants, gathered between 1999 and 2012 and provided by the Central Statistical Office. Crude Death Rates (CDR), Standardized Death Rates (SDR) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) due to infectious and parasitic diseases were also evaluated in the study period as well as Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person (SEYLLp) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per dead person (SEYLLd). Time trends were evaluated with the application of joinpoint models and an annual percentage change in their values. Results Death certificates report that 38,261 people died due to infectious diseases in Poland in the period 1999–2012, which made up 0.73% of the total number of deaths. SDR caused by these diseases decreased, particularly in the male group: Annual Percentage Change (APC = -1.05; 95% CI:-2.0 to -0.2; p<0.05). The most positive trends were observed in mortality caused by tuberculosis (A15-A19) (APC = -5.40; 95% CI:-6.3 to -4.5; p<0.05) and also meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and encephalomyelitis (G03-G04) (APC = -3.42; 95% CI:-4.7 to -2.1; p<0.05). The most negative mortality trends were observed for intestinal infectious diseases (A00-A09) Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC = 7.3; 95% CI:3.1 to 11.7; p<0.05). SDR substantially decreased in the first half of the study period, but then significantly increased in the second half. Infectious and parasitic diseases contributed to a loss of around 37,000 standard expected years of life in 1999 and more than 28,000 in 2012. During the study period, the SEYLLp index decreased from 9.59 to 7.39 per 10,000 population and the SEYLLd index decreased from 14.26 to 10.34 years (AAPC = 2.3; 95% CI:-2,9 to -1.7; p<0

  13. Temperament, Stress and Family Factors in Behavioral Adjustment of 3-5-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrios, Michael; Prior, Margot

    1990-01-01

    Temperamental characteristics, especially low reactivity-high manageability, appeared to curtail the influence of adverse family factors on children's adjustment. Strength of relationships between temperament and children's behavioral adjustment differed as a function of time, temperamental characteristics, and the source of behavioral ratings.…

  14. 48 CFR 52.222-43 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). 52.222-43 Section 52... Standards Act and Service Contract Act—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). As prescribed...—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts) (SEP 2009) (a) This clause applies to...

  15. 48 CFR 52.222-43 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). 52.222-43 Section 52... Standards Act and Service Contract Act—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). As prescribed...—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts) (SEP 2009) (a) This clause applies to...

  16. The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse in Later Family Life; Mental Health, Parenting and Adjustment of Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ron; O'Connor, Tom; Dunn, Judy; Golding, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate links between child sexual abuse (occurring before 13 years), later mental health, family organization, parenting behaviors, and adjustment in offspring. Method: The present study investigates a subsample of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children an ongoing study of women and their families in the area of…

  17. Self-Esteem and Adjusting with Blindness: The Process of Responding to Life's Demands. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Dean W.; Tuttle, Naomi R.

    2004-01-01

    This new and expanded Third Edition analyzes blindness within the context of two overlapping theoretical constructs: the development of self-esteem and the process of adjusting to social and/or physical trauma. The book is divided into four sections. The first section, provides an overview of blindness and the essential background for subsequent…

  18. School Reorientation of Children with Disabilities: A Stressful Life Event Challenging Parental Cognitive and Behavioral Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskam, Isabelle; Zech, Emmanuelle; Nils, Frederic; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose guidelines for counselors who notify parents of children with disabilities that a school reorientation is needed. They propose a model that integrates the predictors, moderators, and mediators of parental adjustment after school reorientation notification. The article includes the risk and resource factors associated with…

  19. Helping Freshman Student Athletes Adjust to College Life Using Psychoeducational Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Henry L.; Altekruse, Michael K.; Engels, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the process of using psychoeducational groups designed to help freshman student athletes adjust to their first semester of college. Overall, 77 student athletes representing basketball, cross-country, football, golf, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, and volleyball were equally divided into 11 groups that met for…

  20. How Older Rural Adults Utilize Self-Directed Learning in Late Life Adjustments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing numbers and influence of older adults is causing many segments of western society to re-evaluate the concept of old age. Medical advances and personal lifestyles have resulted in older adults living longer and healthier lives. As one ages, adjustments in work, family, and health must be made. Self-directed learning (SDL) is one way…

  1. Deciphering the Adjustment between Environment and Life History in Annuals: Lessons from a Geographically-Explicit Approach in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-Piedras, Esperanza; Marcer, Arnald; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Picó, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The role that different life-history traits may have in the process of adaptation caused by divergent selection can be assessed by using extensive collections of geographically-explicit populations. This is because adaptive phenotypic variation shifts gradually across space as a result of the geographic patterns of variation in environmental selective pressures. Hence, large-scale experiments are needed to identify relevant adaptive life-history traits as well as their relationships with putative selective agents. We conducted a field experiment with 279 geo-referenced accessions of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana collected across a native region of its distribution range, the Iberian Peninsula. We quantified variation in life-history traits throughout the entire life cycle. We built a geographic information system to generate an environmental data set encompassing climate, vegetation and soil data. We analysed the spatial autocorrelation patterns of environmental variables and life-history traits, as well as the relationship between environmental and phenotypic data. Almost all environmental variables were significantly spatially autocorrelated. By contrast, only two life-history traits, seed weight and flowering time, exhibited significant spatial autocorrelation. Flowering time, and to a lower extent seed weight, were the life-history traits with the highest significant correlation coefficients with environmental factors, in particular with annual mean temperature. In general, individual fitness was higher for accessions with more vigorous seed germination, higher recruitment and later flowering times. Variation in flowering time mediated by temperature appears to be the main life-history trait by which A. thaliana adjusts its life history to the varying Iberian environmental conditions. The use of extensive geographically-explicit data sets obtained from field experiments represents a powerful approach to unravel adaptive patterns of variation. In a

  2. [Health appraisal for work adjustment of freshmen employees--information on health checkup just after entering the corporation and condition in the next fiscal year].

    PubMed

    Sugita, M; Fukui, T; Tatemichi, M; Minowa, H; Ikegami, Y; Miyawaki, Y; Ishizuka, Y; Izuno, T

    1995-03-01

    In 1990, 365 (males: 197, females: 168) freshmen employees at the headquarters of a large corporation were examined just after being hired in order to observe their health status. We collected (1) data of physical examinations and questionnaires for symptoms as an ordinary health checkup, (2) information on work adjustment, life patterns, and personal characteristics through interviews conducted by ten public health nurses, and (3) personal records, e.g. birth year. Statistical analyses revealed some notable findings as follows: (1) subjects with higher blood pressure had higher scores of extrovert personality among males, (2) female subjects with greater body mass index had higher scores in such manifestations of personal characteristics such as aggression and discontent with superiors, (3) higher scores of personal characteristics were noted among female subjects working in technical sections, (4) positive correlation between the scores of work adjustment and personal characteristics, (5) higher scores of undesirable life patterns among males and of work maladjustment among elder females, (6) unbalanced meal quality of subjects from rural areas, (7) higher mental tension among younger males from rural areas, and (8) higher scores of dependency and lower morale among younger female subjects. Information on health problems was collected over the 1.5 yrs that followed. More problems were detected among females than among males and among younger females than among elder females. Longitudinal analysis was carried out from just after entry into the company for approximately 1.5 yrs. Health problems in females could be predicted by the data on personal characteristics and work adjustment just after entry. Risk of health problems in male freshmen employees with hobbies and unhealthy drinking habits over the 1.5 yrs that followed was higher than in others. It was concluded that a health interview for freshmen employees by public health nurses is valuable for health care

  3. 45 CFR 158.231 - Life-years used to determine credible experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life-years used to determine credible experience... and Providing the Rebate § 158.231 Life-years used to determine credible experience. (a) The life-years used to determine the credibility of an issuer's experience are the life-years for the...

  4. Exposure to pets and atopic dermatitis during the first two years of life. A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zirngibl, Angelika; Franke, Kaethe; Gehring, Ulrike; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Bauer, Carl Peter; Reinhardt, Dietrich; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between keeping pets in early childhood and the occurrence of atopic dermatitis in an ongoing birth cohort followed up to the age of 2 years. We analyzed data of 4578 children in the intervention and observation part of an ongoing cohort study. The children were recruited at birth in the two study regions Wesel and Munich between January 1996 and June 1998. Information on atopic diseases and pet ownership was obtained by questionnaire at the child's first and second birthday. The logistic regression model showed a negative association between 'keeping any pet' and in particular 'keeping dogs' in the 1st year of life and the development of atopic dermatitis in the 1st and the 2nd years of life. The protective effects remained statistically significant after adjusting for several possible confounding variables (1st year(any) pet OR 0.71, 95% CI [0.55;0.92], 1st year(dog) OR 0.62, 95% CI [0.39;0.98], 2nd year(any) pet OR 0.74, 95% CI [0.57;0.97], 2nd year(dog) OR 0.63, 95% CI [0.40;0.98]). Ownership of small furred pets (hamster, rabbit and guinea pig) also showed a borderline protective effect for the 1st year. We assume an association between keeping pets and undefined environmental factor(s) that contribute protectively to the development of atopic dermatitis in early life, presumably by effects on the maturation of the immune system.

  5. Parental knowledge and adolescent adjustment: substance use and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Iglesias, Antonia; Moreno, Carmen; Granado-Alcón, M Carmen; López, Ana

    2012-03-01

    This study analyses two models (maternal and paternal) in which parental care and sources of parental knowledge moderated the relationship between parents' knowledge about their adolescents' lives and adolescents' substance use and health-related quality of life. The sample was made up of 15942 Spanish adolescents who participated in the 2006 edition of Health Behavior in School-aged Children Study. Results showed that increased parents' knowledge about their adolescents' lives reduced adolescents' substance use and increased their quality of life. With respect to the moderation relationship, a limited effect was found. However, parental care and sources of parental knowledge used by both parents generally had main effects on adolescents' substance use and health-related quality of life, with care being the most relevant variable in the health-related quality of life, while knowledge was the most relevant one for substance use.

  6. Social Daydreaming and Adjustment: An Experience-Sampling Study of Socio-Emotional Adaptation During a Life Transition

    PubMed Central

    Poerio, Giulia L.; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, one’s current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university) using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation. PMID:26834685

  7. [DOPPS estimate of patient life years attributable to modifiable hemodialysis practices in France].

    PubMed

    Canaud, Bernard; Combe, Christian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Eichleay, Margaret A; Pisoni, Ronald L; Port, Friedrich K

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we used a prevalent cross-sectional sample of French hemodialysis patients from Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) 2 (2002-2004) to determine the percentage of patients whose values failed to meet targets in six different areas of hemodialysis practice (dialysis dose, anemia, serum phosphorus (PO(4)), serum calcium (Ca), serum albumin and catheter use for vascular access). Cox survival models, with adjustments for patient characteristics, were used for these analyses to estimate mortality hazard ratios (HR). Based on the mortality HR, the fraction of patients outside each target and the total HD population in France, we estimated the number of patient life years that could potentially be gained if every chronic, in-center hemodialysis patient in France who is currently outside of the specified target was able to achieve it. The proportion of patients failing to meet one of the six practice targets in France varied from 15% (dialysis dose) to 75% (albumin) while the percentage of patients complying with all six targets was restricted to 1.2%. The relative risk of mortality (RR) associated with being outside these targets varied from 1.12 to 1.46. Based on these two measures the life-years survival was estimated. The projected number of patients and life years potentially gained from adherence to the six targets was estimated close to 10,600 years-patient. In conclusion, this study suggests large opportunities to improve hemodialysis patient care in France still exist. Compliance with two major practice targets, such as albumin and restriction of catheter use will save highly significant life years of hemodialysis patient. Implementing and strict adherence to national and international guidelines should serve as a basic inspiration for continual improvement of hemodialysis patient care.

  8. Outpatient radiographic exposure in the first five years of life

    SciTech Connect

    Fosarelli, P.D.; DeAngelis, C.

    1987-06-01

    Young children receive a variety of diagnostic radiographs over time. In some cases the exposure to radiation may be unwarranted because the films may yield confusing results, or may also need to be repeated because of poor technical quality. Even when the results are clearly negative, the subsequent treatment may proceed as if the film had been positive because of the child's clinical condition. The cumulative effect of such low-dose radiation on infants and children over time is unknown. The number and types of outpatient radiographs received by a cohort of poor children from a hospital-based continuity clinic during their first 5 years of life were reviewed. Also noted were the reason for obtaining the film, whether it was positive for that reason or another, whether the child had a chronic condition that prompted the use of radiograph, and the child's sex, race, and age when the film was obtained. Of the 218 children, 132 (60.6%) received 349 sets of films in their first 5 years. There was no difference in the number of films by race or sex. Chest and posttrauma bone or joint films accounted for 315 sets of films or 90.3% of the total. Overall, 25.8% of the 267 chest films were positive; this varied by age. Only 15% of the chest films were positive in the first year compared with 29 to 49% in the second through fifth years (p less than 0.001). Cough was the respiratory symptom most reliably associated with a positive chest film, both for the cohort (p less than 0.0001) and for children in the first year of life (p less than 0.01).

  9. Ten‐Year Blood Pressure Trajectories, Cardiovascular Mortality, and Life Years Lost in 2 Extinction Cohorts: the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study and the Zutphen Study

    PubMed Central

    Tielemans, Susanne M. A. J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Menotti, Alessandro; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Soedamah‐Muthu, Sabita S.; Jacobs, David R.; Blackburn, Henry; Kromhout, Daan

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) trajectories derived from measurements repeated over years have low measurement error and may improve cardiovascular disease prediction compared to single, average, and usual BP (single BP adjusted for regression dilution). We characterized 10‐year BP trajectories and examined their association with cardiovascular mortality, all‐cause mortality, and life years lost. Methods and Results Data from 2 prospective and nearly extinct cohorts of middle‐aged men—the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study (n=261) and the Zutphen Study (n=632)—were used. BP was measured annually during 1947–1957 in Minnesota and 1960–1970 in Zutphen. BP trajectories were identified by latent mixture modeling. Cox proportional hazards and linear regression models examined BP trajectories with cardiovascular mortality, all‐cause mortality, and life years lost. Associations were adjusted for age, serum cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes mellitus. Mean initial age was about 50 years in both cohorts. After 10 years of BP measurements, men were followed until death on average 20 years later. All Minnesota men and 98% of Zutphen men died. Four BP trajectories were identified, in which mean systolic BP increased by 5 to 49 mm Hg in Minnesota and 5 to 20 mm Hg in Zutphen between age 50 and 60. The third systolic BP trajectories were associated with 2 to 4 times higher cardiovascular mortality risk, 2 times higher all‐cause mortality risk, and 4 to 8 life years lost, compared to the first trajectory. Conclusions Ten‐year BP trajectories were the strongest predictors, among different BP measures, of cardiovascular mortality, all‐cause mortality, and life years lost in Minnesota. However, average BP was the strongest predictor in Zutphen. PMID:25753924

  10. Adolescent adjustment in the context of life change: the supportive role of parental structure provision.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Elizabeth S; Grolnick, Wendy S

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the associations among disruptive life events, supportive parenting practices, adolescent self-perceptions, and emotional outcomes. One-hundred and three 7th graders (68% minority, 32% European American) and their parents completed recent negative life events checklists. Parents also reported the total number of major transitions (changes in residences, schools, parent's romantic partners) that adolescents experienced since birth. Life events were related to lower adolescent-reported perceptions of competence and control, higher adolescent-reported depression and behavior problems, and higher parent-reported conduct problems. Regression analyses supported a mediational model in which competence and control perceptions explained relations between adolescent life events and symptomatology. Parental structure-the provision of clear, consistent and predictable rules and expectations-was associated with more adaptive adolescent functioning, especially among girls. Regressions indicated that structure related to higher perceptions of competence and control and fewer behavioral problems, even after accounting for the risk associated with negative life events and transitions.

  11. Trajectories of Behavioral Adjustment Following Early Placement in Foster Care: Predicting Stability and Change over 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Laura J.; Skriner, Laura C.; Roesch, Scott; Litrownik, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify trajectories of behavioral adjustment from age 6 through 14 years for youth placed in early foster care, and to examine links between trajectories and early cognitive ability and social competence, caregiver stability, and frequency, timing, and type of maltreatment. Method: Participants were 279 youth from the Southwest…

  12. Attitudes about Help-Seeking Mediate the Relation between Parent Attachment and Academic Adjustment in First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have documented an association between parent attachment and college student adjustment, less is known about the mechanisms that underlie this relation. Accordingly, this short-term longitudinal study examined first-year college students' attitudes about academic help-seeking as one possible mechanism. As predicted,…

  13. Psychosocial Adjustment over a Two-Year Period in Children Referred for Learning Problems: Risk, Resilience, and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Lisa G.; Forbes, Peter W.; Bernstein, Jane H.; Weiler, Michael D.; Mitchell, William M.; Waber, Deborah P.

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year study evaluated the relationship among psychosocial adjustment, changes in academic skills, and contextual factors in 100 children (ages 7-11) with learning problems. Contextual variables were significantly associated with psychosocial adaptation, including the effectiveness of the clinical assessment, extent of academic support, and the…

  14. An Institutional Approach to First-Year Adjustment: The "Projeto FEUP" Case Study of a Portuguese University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouraz, Ana; Sousa, Armando

    2016-01-01

    This article intends to debate the institutional modes of first-year adjustment to higher education. Specifically, the aim is to analyze and consider the need to include social and academic integration activities in the curricular programs. The presented contributions are based on the investigations over the case study course that was studied…

  15. Flavor and Taste Development in the First Years of Life.

    PubMed

    Ross, Erin Sundseth

    2017-01-01

    Across the first four years of life, infants transition from a diet of liquids to solid foods. Flavor preferences affect the acceptance of novel foods. Fetuses experience flavors in the uterine environment, and some preferences appear to be innate. Sweet and salty foods tend to be accepted by most newborns, while bitter tastes are rejected. Breast fed infants appear to have an advantage over formula fed infants, as their exposure to a varying flavor profile is influenced by the mother's diet. Infants are fairly accepting of novel foods, but rejection of new foods increases across the initial years of life. Children learn to accept novel foods through a variety of experiences, provided within social contexts. Some children are more accepting of various sensory inputs present during mealtimes. Parents report a greater challenge getting multiple taste exposures when their child exhibits less sensory adaptability. The number of foods eaten as a young child has a strong influence on the food repertoire later in childhood. Foods eaten by parents significantly predict the number and types of foods eaten by children. Strategies to help parents be more successful in achieving taste exposures in a positive social environment need to be identified.

  16. Jeff Greulich, DynCorp life support technician, adjusts a prototype helmet on a NASA Dryden pilot. F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Jeff Greulich, DynCorp life support technician, adjusts a prototype helmet on pilot Craig Bomben at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Built by Gentex Corp., Carbondale, Pa., the helmet was evaluated by five NASA pilots during the summer and fall of 2002. The objective was to obtain data on helmet fit, comfort and functionality. The inner helmet of the modular system is fitted to the individual crewmember. The outer helmet features a fully integrated spectral mounted helmet display and a binocular helmet mounted display. The helmet will be adaptable to all flying platforms. The Dryden evaluation was overseen by the Center's Life Support office. Assessments have taken place during normal proficiency flights and some air-to-air combat maneuvering. Evaluation platforms included the F-18, B-52 and C-12. The prototype helmet is being developed by the Naval Air Science and Technology Office and the Aircrew Systems Program Office, Patuxent River, Md.

  17. Kibbutz Ex-members and their Adjustment to Life outside the Kibbutz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; Orchan, Elliette

    1982-01-01

    Concern exists that youth leaving the kibbutz have no occupation skills needed to secure work in the outside world. In a survey, two opposing hypotheses were examined: (1) kibbutz-born persons will be unable to adapt to outside life because of educational limitations; and (2) because of their education, kibbutz-born persons will display…

  18. Native American Racial Identity Development and College Adjustment at Two-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joshua C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a series of simultaneous multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between racial identity development and college adjustment for a sample of 76 Choctaw community college students in the South. Results indicated that 3 of the 4 racial identity statuses (dissonance, immersion-emersion, and…

  19. Social Network Characteristics and College Adjustment among Racially and Ethnically Diverse First-Year Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Stryker, Sonia

    1996-01-01

    Examined social network characteristics of 218 college freshmen. Subjects were of European American descent or of ethnically and racially diverse backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, Native American and Asian American). The study associated social adjustment with family support characteristics for the racially and ethnically diverse students…

  20. 75 FR 2491 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms Program Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... market planning/ installation strategic business plan, financial sys- tems marketing strategy IT systems... (TAACs) to help U.S. firms apply for assistance and prepare and implement strategies to guide their... implement a marketing/sales project or production/engineering project in their Adjustment Proposals, and...

  1. Typologies of Family Functioning and Children's Adjustment during the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Guided by family systems theory, the present study sought to identify patterns of family functioning from observational assessments of interparental, parent-child, and triadic contexts. In addition, it charted the implications for patterns of family functioning for children's developmental trajectories of adjustment in the school context across…

  2. Acculturation and adaptation of Soviet Jewish refugee adolescents: predictors of adjustment across life domains.

    PubMed

    Birman, Dina; Trickett, Edison J; Vinokurov, Andrey

    2002-10-01

    This study explores how acculturation is related to adaptation across different life spheres for 162 Soviet Jewish refugee adolescents in a suburban community in Maryland. Because the different contexts of refugee adolescents' lives vary in acculturative demands, different patterns of acculturation should be related to adaptation in different life spheres. The study uses a multidimensional measure of acculturation and assesses acculturation to both American and Russian cultures as it relates to psychological adaptation, peer relations, and school and family outcomes. Findings support the general ecological thesis that acculturation to different cultures is differentially related to adaptation across life domains. Acculturation to American culture predicted better grades and perceived support from American peers. Acculturation to Russian culture predicted perceived support from Russian peers. Both American acculturation and Russian acculturation predicted reduced loneliness and perceived support from parents. Further, different dimensions of acculturation, such as language and identity, were differentially related to adaptation. Implications for acculturation theory and measurement are drawn, and cautions are offered about the interpretation of acculturation studies using single proxies such as language use or preference.

  3. Quality of Life and Marital Adjustment after Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Behavioural Marital Therapy in Couples with Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Chirumamilla; Rangan, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders may affect nearly one in four persons and may cause significant impairment of interpersonal relationships including marital relationships. The effect of the disorder on the spouse and the impact of including the spouse in therapy are not well studied. Aim: To determine if Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) improves the quality of life of participants with anxiety disorders and if marital adjustment of couples with anxiety disorders can be improved with Behavioural Marital Therapy (BMT), relative to standard care of pharmacotherapy and psychoeducation. Methods: An open label randomised controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT+BMT or standard of care. Final assessments were carried out at 3.5 months after baseline. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-Bref instrument and Marital adjustment was measured using a marital quality scale. Chi-square test, student’s t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Effect sizes with Cohen’s d were used to compare differences between groups. Results: Clinically meaningful effect sizes for the CBT+ BMT intervention were evident for the marital adjustment scores among participants (d=0.63) and their spouses (d=1.29), and for the psychological (d=0.84), social (d=0.72) and environmental (d=0.52) domains of the WHOQOL of participants and psychological (d=0.86), social (d=0.32) and environmental domains (d=1.01) of the WHOQOL of spouses of participants. Conclusion: CBT for the partner with anxiety disorder and BMT for couples with anxiety disorders and marital discord and involvement of the spouse in the therapy will be a useful addition to the management of a couple where one partner has an anxiety disorder. PMID:25302250

  4. Ensuring the 50 year life of a fissile material container

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E.; Towne, T.L.

    1997-12-01

    Sandia was presented with an opportunity in 1993 to design containers for the long term storage and transport of fissile material. This program was undertaken at the direction of the US Department of Energy and in cooperation with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory which were tasked with developing the internal fixturing for the contents. The hardware is being supplied by Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, and the packaging will occur at Mason and Hangar Corporation`s Pantex Plant. The unique challenge was to design a container that could be sealed with the fissile material contents; and, anytime during the next 50 years, the container could be transported with only the need for the pre-shipment leak test. This required not only a rigorous design capable of meeting the long term storage and transportation requirements, but also resulted in development of a surveillance program to ensure that the container continues to perform as designed over the 50-year life. This paper addresses the design of the container, the testing that was undertaken to demonstrate compliance with US radioactive materials transport regulations, and the surveillance program that has been initiated to ensure the 50-year performance.

  5. Poor adjustment to college life mediates the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consequences: a look at college adjustment, drinking motives, and drinking outcomes.

    PubMed

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Ehret, Phillip J; Hummer, Justin F; Prenovost, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    The current study examined whether the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol-related outcomes was mediated by college adjustment. Participants (N=253) completed an online survey that assessed drinking motives, degree of both positive and negative college adjustment, typical weekly drinking, and past month negative alcohol-related consequences. Structural equation modeling examined negative alcohol consequences as a function of college adjustment, drinking motives, and weekly drinking behavior in college students. Negative college adjustment mediated the relationship between coping drinking motives and drinking consequences. Positive college adjustment was not related to alcohol consumption or consequences. Positive reinforcement drinking motives (i.e. social and enhancement) not only directly predicted consequences, but were partially mediated by weekly drinking and degree of negative college adjustment. Gender specific models revealed that males exhibited more variability in drinking and their positive reinforcement drinking motives were more strongly associated with weekly drinking. Uniquely for females, coping motives were directly and indirectly (via negative adjustment) related to consequences. These findings suggest that interventions which seek to decrease alcohol-related risk may wish to incorporate discussions about strategies for decreasing stress and increasing other factors associated with better college adjustment.

  6. 76 FR 4612 - Community Trade Adjustment Assistance Program Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. The business incubator for biomedical, life... provide funding for the Western Virginia Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Competitiveness Initiative... in the global marketplace by providing technical assistance to transportation equipment...

  7. Prenatal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure and child growth during the first year of life

    SciTech Connect

    Garced, Sheyla; Torres-Sanchez, Luisa; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Claudio, Luz; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2012-02-15

    Background: Due to its long-term persistence in the environment and its ability to cross the placental barrier, prenatal p,p Prime -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) exposure continues to be a public health concern. This study aimed to evaluate the association between prenatal DDE exposure and child growth, at birth and during the first year of life. Methods: 253 pregnant women were recruited between January 2001 and June 2005 in a prospective cohort in Morelos, Mexico. Serum levels of DDE were measured during each trimester of pregnancy by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Using the generalized mixed-effects models, the association between DDE and child growth parameters (weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length, BMI-for-age and head circumference-for-age Z-scores) from birth to 1 year of age was assessed. Maternal dietary intake was considered as covariable among others. Results: DDE levels were 6.3{+-}2.8 ng/mL (first trimester), 6.6{+-}2.9 ng/mL (second trimester), and 7.6{+-}2.9 ng/mL (third trimester). After adjusting for potential confounder variables, no significant associations were observed with prenatal DDE exposure and each of the selected parameters. Conclusions: Our results show no evidence of an association between prenatal DDE exposure and child growth during the first year of life.

  8. Self-Reported Hearing in the Last Two Years of Life Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexander K.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Miao, Yinghui; Boscardin, W. John; Wallhagen, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic data on the prevalence of hearing loss near death is lacking. Objectives To assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported hearing loss during the last two years of life. Design Observational cohort study. Setting The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a longitudinal nationally representative cohort of adults age >50 (2000 to 2013). Participants Older adults Measurements The HRS interview closest to death was used (mean 12.2 months prior to death). Participants rated their hearing (excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor), and if they used hearing aids. We describe the prevalence and correlates of fair/poor ratings adjusted for age and gender. Results Of 5,895 participants (mean age at death 78 years, 53% women, 20% non-white), overall, 32% rated their hearing as fair/poor (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 31–34%), but 60% (95% CI 57–64%) of the 7% of participants that used hearing aids rated hearing as fair/poor. The prevalence of fair/poor hearing was highest among participants interviewed closest to death (29% 19–24 months prior to death, 36% 1–6 months prior to death, p for trend = 0.01). Correlates of fair/poor hearing during the last two years of life included: age at death (age 50–59 22%, 60–69 21%, 70–79 26%, 80–89 38%, ≥90 50%), gender (men 35%, women 30%), ethnicity (Latino 42%, white 33%), wealth (lowest quartile 38%, highest quartile 27%), history of heart disease (yes 38%, no 27%), dependence in activities of daily living (yes 42%, no 26%), difficulty taking medications (yes 46%, no 29%), and probable dementia (yes 44%, no cognitive impairment 24%). Conclusion Self-reported hearing loss increases during the last two years of life and is associated with physical and social vulnerability. PMID:27341383

  9. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  14. Effect of pain location and duration on life function in the year after motor vehicle collision.

    PubMed

    Bortsov, Andrey V; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Peak, David A; Jones, Jeffrey S; Swor, Robert A; Domeier, Robert M; Lee, David C; Rathlev, Niels K; Hendry, Phyllis L; Fillingim, Roger B; McLean, Samuel A

    2014-09-01

    Persistent musculoskeletal pain is common after motor vehicle collision (MVC) and often results in substantial disability. The objective of this study was to identify distributions of post-MVC pain that most interfere with specific life functions and that have the greatest interference with aggregate life function. Study data were obtained from a prospective longitudinal multicenter emergency department-based cohort of 948 European Americans experiencing MVC. Overall pain (0-10 numeric rating scale [NRS]), pain in each of 20 body regions (0-10 NRS), and pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory, 0-10 NRS) were assessed 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after MVC. After adjustment for overall pain intensity, an axial distribution of pain caused the greatest interference with most specific life functions (R(2)=0.15-0.28, association P values of <.001) and with overall function. Axial pain explained more than twice as much variance in pain interference as other pain distributions. However, not all patients with axial pain had neck pain. Moderate or severe low back pain was as common as neck pain at week 6 (prevalence 37% for each) and overlapped with neck pain in only 23% of patients. Further, pain across all body regions accounted for nearly twice as much of the variance in pain interference as neck pain alone (60% vs 34%). These findings suggest that studies of post-MVC pain should not focus on neck pain alone.

  15. Lives Through the Years; Styles of Life and Successful Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard H.; Wirths, Claudine G.

    The Kansas City Study of Adult Life developed the concept of Life styles to describe and analyze the general patterns and course of an individual's life, and defined success as the extent to which an individual contributes to, or is a burden to, others' lives. Interviews with 168 people resulted in selected case studies grouped under the life…

  16. At Stake: 500,000,000 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asimov, Isaac

    1972-01-01

    Traces the history of life on earth from the Cambrian period to present. Stresses the importance of inter-dependence of individual and species and the dependence of life upon non-life. Discusses the speed at which man has altered nature's balance and the question of how an ecological balance is to be maintained. (LK)

  17. 26 CFR 1.1314(a)-1 - Ascertainment of amount of adjustment in year of error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Readjustment of Tax Between Years and Special... of the tax previously determined for the taxpayer as to whom the error was made for the taxable year with respect to which the error was made. The tax previously determined for any taxable year may be...

  18. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Depressive Symptoms over 12 Years and Offspring Adjustment in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Susan B.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Cox, Martha J.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2009-01-01

    We used data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and latent class analysis to model patterns of maternal depressive symptoms from infant age 1 month to the transition to adolescence (age 12), and then examined adolescent adjustment at age 15 as a function of the course and severity of maternal symptoms. We identified five latent classes of symptoms in these 1357 women while also taking into account sociodemographic measures: never depressed; stable subclinical; early-decreasing; moderately elevated; chronic. Women with few symptoms were more likely to be married, better educated, and in better physical health than women with more elevated symptoms. Family size and whether the pregnancy was planned also differentiated among classes. At age 15, adolescents whose mothers were in the chronic, elevated, and stable subclinical latent classes reported more internalizing and externalizing problems and acknowledged engaging in more risky behavior than did children of never-depressed mothers. Latent class differences in self-reported loneliness and dysphoria were also found. Finally, several significant interactions between sex and latent class suggested that girls whose mothers reported elevated symptoms of depression over time experienced more internalizing distress and dysphoric mood relative to their male counterparts. Discussion focuses on adolescent adjustment, especially among offspring whose mothers report stable symptoms of depression across their childhoods. PMID:19685946

  19. Severe Psychiatric Disorders in Mid-Life and Risk of Dementia in Late-Life (Age 65-84 Years): A Population Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zilkens, Renate R.; Bruce, David G.; Duke, Janine; Spilsbury, Katrina; Semmens, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of mid-life exposure to several psychiatric disorders with the development of late-life dementia. Methods: A matched case-control study using Western Australian state-wide hospital inpatient, outpatient mental health and emergency records linked to death records. Incident dementia cases (2000-2009) aged 65 to 84 years were sex- and age-matched to an electoral roll control. Records as far back as 1970 were used to assess exposure to medical risk factors before age 65 years. Candidate psychiatric risk factors were required to be present at least 10 years before dementia onset to ensure direction of potential causality. Odds ratios were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results: 13, 568 dementia cases (median age 78.7 years, 43.4% male) were matched to a control. Depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder and alcohol dependence were found to be significant and independent risk factors for late-life dementia after adjusting for diabetes, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and smoking risk factors. The effect of a history of depression, schizophrenia and alcohol dependency on dementia risk varied with age, being strongest for earlier onset late-life dementia and waning at older ages. Conclusion: Severe depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and alcoholic dependency disorder treated by specialists in psychiatric facilities in mid-life are important risk factors for late-life dementia. These psychiatric conditions need to be considered in future studies of the risk and prevention of late-life dementia. PMID:25115541

  20. Strategic adjustment of parental care in tree swallows: life-history trade-offs and the role of glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Lendvai, Ádám Z.; Stanback, Mark; Haussmann, Mark; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that optimal strategies of parental investment will depend on ecological and social factors, such as current brood value and offspring need. Parental care strategies are also likely to be mediated in part by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and glucocorticoid hormones. Here, we present an experiment in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), a biparental songbird with wide geographical distribution, asking whether parental care is strategically adjusted in response to signals of offspring need and brood value and if so, whether glucocorticoids are involved in these adjustments. Using an automated playback system, we carried out playbacks of nestling begging calls specifically to females in two populations differing in their brood value: a northern population in Ontario, Canada (relatively higher brood value) and a southern population in North Carolina, USA (relatively lower brood value). We quantified female offspring provisioning rates before and during playbacks and plasma corticosterone levels (cort) once during late incubation and once immediately after playbacks. Females in both populations increased feeding rates temporarily during the first 2 h of playback but the increase was not sustained for the entire duration of playback (6 h). Cort levels from samples at the end of the playback did not differ between control females and females that received playbacks. However, females that had higher increases in cort between the incubation and nestling period had greater fledging success. These results suggest that females are able to strategically respond to offspring need, although the role of glucocorticoids in this strategic adjustment remains unclear. PMID:28083111

  1. Prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Stecksén-Blicks, C; Granström, E; Silfverdal, S A; West, C E

    2015-09-01

    Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by primary microbial exposure and bioactive factors in breastmilk. The aim was to explore the prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life in relation to selected exposures. Oral Candida was studied in 100 healthy infants at 4 and 8 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months of age and related to delivery mode, birth weight, infant health and feeding, antibiotics, antimycotics, steroids and probiotics in mother and infant, living conditions, maternal smoking and infections The association between lactoferrin and antisecretory factor in breastmilk and maternal serum haemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin levels in relation to oral Candida was also explored. About 11% to 15% of the infants had oral Candida at the respective age. Colonisation was fairly stable until 6 months of age. There was no conclusive impact of the investigated exposures at entry. Infants with a furry pet at home had a lower frequency of Candida at 3 months, (P < 0.05) whereas all but one colonised infant had older siblings at 12 months (P < 0.01). Lactoferrin in breastmilk was negatively associated with colonisation at 6 months of age. It is concluded that 11 to 15% had oral Candida. Exposure to furry pets and siblings impacted oral Candida.

  2. Use of Sleep Aids During the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Melissa M.; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Gaylor, Erika E.; Anders, Thomas F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. In an attempt to foster self-soothing during the night, a novel sleep aid infused with maternal odor was introduced to 4 groups of infants ranging in age from 3 to 12 months. Infants’ use of parent-provided sleep aids also was examined. Methodology. Nighttime sleep and waking behaviors were videotaped for 2 consecutive nights on 3 occasions over a 3-month interval. Using all-night video recording, the study examined the infant’s use of a novel sleep aid and parent-provided sleep aids during sleep onset and after nighttime awakenings. Results. Results indicated that infants of different ages differed in the types of sleep aids used when falling asleep either at the beginning of the night or after awakenings in the middle of the night. More 3-month-olds used their thumbs/fingers/hands, whereas more 6-month-olds used soft objects. The 6-month-olds were most likely to use the novel sleep aid. Almost all of the infants at all 4 ages used some type of object during the night. Intra-individual analyses showed that infants tended to change their pattern of sleep aid use over the 3-month study period. Conclusions. The data provide evidence that infants during the first year of life use sleep aids frequently and interchangeably rather than a specific favorite object. PMID:11927702

  3. Assessment of pain, acceptance of illness, adjustment to life with cancer, and coping strategies in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej; Walewska-Zielecka, Bożena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Every year more than 15,000 newly diagnosed cases of colorectal carcinoma are recorded in Poland. Aim The objective of the study was an assessment of coping strategies and pain management, acceptance of illness, and adjustment to cancer in patients diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma. The analysis was extended to include the effect of socioeconomic variables on the above-mentioned issues. Material and methods The study included 238 colorectal cancer patients treated on an outpatient basis at the Centre of Oncology, the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute in Warsaw in the year 2013. The questionnaire interview comprised demographic questions (socioeconomic variables) and the following four psychometric tests: BPCQ (Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire), CSQ (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), AIS questionnaire (Acceptance of Illness Scale), and the Mini-Mac scale (Mental Adjustment to Cancer). Results The source of pain control depends on the respondent's level of education. An increase in patient income was associated with a lower mean result in the “power of doctors” subscale. The coping self-statements and increased behavioural activity are the two most frequently selected strategies of coping with pain. The most commonly followed ways of mental adjustment to cancer in the study group were a fighting spirit (23.42) and positive re-evaluation (22.31). Conclusions Colorectal cancer patients believe that the greatest role in pain management is played by internal factors. The locus of pain control depends on the level of education. The study patients feature a constructive way of struggling with disease differentiated by the place of residence, professional status, and income. PMID:27350836

  4. Quantifying trade-offs: quality of life and quality-adjusted survival in a randomised trial of chemotherapy in postmenopausal patients with lymph node-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, J; Zahrieh, D; Coates, A S; Gelber, R D; Castiglione-Gertsch, M; Murray, E; Forbes, J F; Perey, L; Collins, J; Snyder, R; Rudenstam, C-M; Crivellari, D; Veronesi, A; Thürlimann, B; Fey, M F; Price, K N; Goldhirsch, A; Hürny, C

    2004-11-29

    We evaluated quality of life (QL) and quality-adjusted survival in International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial IX, a randomised trial including 1669 eligible patients receiving tamoxifen for 5 years or three prior cycles of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) followed by 57 months tamoxifen. During the time with CMF toxicity (Tox), without symptoms and toxicity (TWiST), and following relapse (Rel), patients scored their QL indicators and a utility indicator for subjective health estimation between 'perfect' and 'worst' health. Scores were averaged within Tox, TWiST and Rel and transformed to utilities. Mean durations for the three transition times were weighted with utilities to obtain mean quality-adjusted TWiST (Q-TWiST). Patients receiving CMF reported significantly worse scores for most QL domains at month 3, but less hot flushes. After completing chemotherapy, there were no differences by treatment groups. Benefits evaluated by Q-TWiST favoured the additional chemotherapy. CMF provided 3 more months of Q-TWiST for patients with ER-negative tumours, but CMF provided no benefit in Q-TWiST for patients with ER-positive tumours. Q-TWiST analysis based on patient ratings is feasible in large-scale cross-cultural clinical trials.

  5. 48 CFR 52.222-43 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Labor Standards-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Service Contract Labor Standards-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). 52.222-43...) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-43 Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Labor Standards—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year...

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-43 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). 52.222-43 Section 52... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-43 Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). As...

  7. [150 years of life expectancy of Dutch members of parliament; 1848-1989].

    PubMed

    Noteboom, W M; Rosendaal, F R; Vandenbroucke, J P

    1991-12-21

    To determinate whether the stressful lifestyle of members of parliament (MP) might lead to excess mortality, as suggested in British Medical Journal in 1989, we investigated the mortality and life expectancy of 1589 members of the Dutch parliament over the period 1848-1989. Total mortality (all causes) for members of parliament who had been in function for at least one year (n = 1472) was compared to that of the general population of the Netherlands, adjusted for age, sex and calendar period. We calculated a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) from beginning of exposure as well as from ten years after entry in order to correct for a healthy cohort effect. The total number of deaths was 986 (863 with follow-up after 10 years after entry) and did not exceed the expected number of deaths based on population mortality rates. We conclude that MPs have no higher death risk than those who elected them, although one might have expected a lower death risk because of their social background.

  8. 77 FR 55240 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... expressed as e t = t - - e t - 1 . The model can be estimated using standard commercially available software... year 2013 using our methodology, and then shows the purely arithmetical process of calculating the... trend established in the previous decade. More specifically, an ARIMA model was used to forecast...

  9. Students' perceptions of school climate during the middle school years: associations with trajectories of psychological and behavioral adjustment.

    PubMed

    Way, Niobe; Reddy, Ranjini; Rhodes, Jean

    2007-12-01

    A cross-domain latent growth curve model was used to examine the trajectories of change in student perceptions of four critical dimensions of school climate (i.e., teacher support, peer support, student autonomy in the classroom, and clarity and consistency in school rules and regulations) among 1,451 early adolescents from the beginning of sixth through the end of eighth grade; and the effects of such trajectories on the rate of change in psychological and behavioral adjustment. Findings indicated that all of the dimensions of perceived school climate declined over the 3 years of middle school. Furthermore, declines in each of the dimensions of perceived school climate were associated with declines over time in psychological and behavioral adjustment. Moreover, the direction of effects between each dimension of perceived school climate and psychological or behavioral adjustment were often unidirectional rather than bi-directional, underscoring the role of perceived school climate in the psychological and behavioral health of early adolescents. Gender and socioeconomic class differences in these patterns are noted.

  10. The Impact of First-Year Seminars on College Students' Life-Long Learning Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ryan D.; Keup, Jennifer R.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, this study measured the impact of first-year seminars on college students' life-long learning orientations. The findings suggest that first-year seminars enhance students' life-long learning orientations and that the effect of first-year seminars is mediated through…

  11. Early Respiratory Infections and Dental Caries in the First 27 Years of Life: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Maritta S.; Näyhä, Simo; Hugg, Timo T.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Early-life respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and dental caries are among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. The relations between early RTIs and development of caries in permanent teeth have not been studied earlier. We assessed childhood RTIs as potential predictors of caries in young adulthood in a 20-year prospective population-based cohort study (The Espoo Cohort Study). Information on lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) that had required hospitalization was retrieved from the National Hospital Discharge Registry (n = 1623). Additional information on LRTIs and upper RTIs (URTIs) was assessed based on the questionnaire reports that covered the preceding 12 months. Caries was measured as the number of teeth with fillings (i.e. filled teeth, FT) reported in the 20-year follow-up questionnaire. The absolute and relative excess numbers of FT were estimated applying negative binomial regression. The mean number of FT in young adulthood was 1.4 greater among subjects who had experienced LRTIs requiring hospitalization before the age of 2 years (SD 4.8) compared to those without any such infections (SD 3.4), and the adjusted relative excess number of FT was 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.2). LRTIs up to 7 years were associated with an absolute increase of 0.9 in the mean FT number, the adjusted relative excess being 1.3 (1.0–1.8). Also the questionnaire-based LRTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.3; 95% CI 0.9–1.8) and URTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.4, 1.0–1.8) before the age of 2 years predicted higher occurrence of FT. Findings suggest that early RTIs have a role in the development of dental caries in permanent teeth. PMID:27936203

  12. Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Life Expectancy in an Elderly Population in Beijing, China, 1992–2000: An 8-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaobing; Tang, Zhe; Jiang, Jingmei; Fang, Xianghua; Wu, Xiaoguang; Han, Wei; Guan, Shaochen; Liu, Hongjun; Diao, Lijun; Sun, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Background We assessed the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on life expectancy and active life expectancy among persons aged 55 years or older in Beijing. Methods This study included 1593 men and 1664 women who participated in the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging, which commenced in 1992 and had 4 survey waves up to year 2000. An abridged life table was used to estimate life expectancy, in which age-specific mortality and age-specific disability rates were adjusted by using a discrete-time hazard model to control confounders. Results The mean ages (SD) for men and women were 70.1 (9.25) and 70.2 (8.72) years, respectively; mortality and disability rates during follow-up were 34.7% and 8.0%, respectively. In both sexes, never smokers had the highest life expectancy and active life expectancy across ages, as compared with current and former smokers. Current heavy smokers had a shorter life expectancy and a shorter active life expectancy than light smokers. Among former smokers, male long-term quitters had a longer life expectancy and longer active life expectancy than short-term quitters, but this was not the case in women. Conclusions Older adults remain at higher risk of mortality and morbidity from smoking and can expect to live a longer and healthier life after smoking cessation. PMID:21747208

  13. Psychological adjustment and quality of life in children and adolescents following open-heart surgery for congenital heart disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Latal, Beatrice; Helfricht, Susanne; Fischer, Joachim E; Bauersfeld, Urs; Landolt, Markus A

    2009-01-01

    Background Children with congenital heart defects (CHD) requiring open-heart surgery are a group at high risk for health-related sequelae. Little consensus exists regarding their long-term psychological adjustment (PA) and health-related quality of life (QoL). Thus, we conducted a systematic review to determine the current knowledge on long-term outcome in this population. Methods We included randomized controlled trials, case control, or cohort studies published between 1990–2008 evaluating self- and proxy-reported PA and QoL in patients aged between two and 17 years with a follow-up of at least two years after open heart surgery for CHD. Results Twenty-three studies assessing psychological parameters and 12 studies assessing QoL were included. Methodological quality of the studies varied greatly with most studies showing a moderate quality. Results were as follows: (a) A considerable proportion of children experienced psychological maladjustment according to their parents; (b) studies on self-reported PA indicate a good outcome; (c) the studies on QoL suggest an impaired QoL for some children in particular for those with more severe cardiac disease; (d) parental reports of psychological maladjustment were related to severity of CHD and developmental delay. Conclusion A significant proportion of survivors of open-heart surgery for CHD are at risk for psychological maladjustment and impaired QoL. Future research needs to focus on self-reports, QoL data and adolescents. PMID:19161602

  14. Bringing Language to Life in Second-Year Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Debra Dimon

    2009-01-01

    Concerned that her students "knew" Spanish but could not use it in real life situations, the author created new learning goals, new learning activities, and new assessment activities. As a graduate student at the University of Illinois, the author was introduced to "Creating Significant Learning Experiences" (Fink, 2003) while studying with Steven…

  15. Maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child weight status in the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B; Rifas-Shiman, S L; James-Todd, T; Ertel, K; Krieger, N; Kleinman, K P; Rich-Edwards, J W; Gillman, M W; Taveras, E M

    2012-12-01

    Among US racial/ethnic minority women, we examined associations between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child growth in the first 3 years of life. We analyzed data from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. We restricted analyses to 539 mother-infant pairs; 294 were Black, 127 Hispanic, 110 Asian and 8 from additional racial/ethnic groups. During pregnancy, mothers completed the Experiences of Discrimination survey that measured lifetime experiences of racial discrimination in diverse domains. We categorized responses as 0, 1-2 or ≥3 domains. Main outcomes were birth weight for gestational age z-score; weight for age (WFA) z-score at 6 months of age; and at 3 years of age, body mass index (BMI) z-score. In multivariable analyses, we adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, nativity, education, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, household income and child sex and age. Among this cohort of mostly (58.2%) US-born and economically non-impoverished mothers, 33% reported 0 domains of discrimination, 33% reported discrimination in 1-2 domains and 35% reported discrimination in ≥3 domains. Compared with children whose mothers reported no discrimination, those whose mothers reported ≥3 domains had lower birth weight for gestational age z-score (β -0.25; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.04), lower 6 month WFA z-score (β -0.34; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.03) and lower 3-year BMI z-score (β -0.33; 95% CI: -0.66, 0.00). In conclusion, we found that among this cohort of US racial/ethnic minority women, mothers' report of experiencing lifetime discrimination in ⩾ 3 domains was associated with lower fetal growth, weight at 6 months and 3-year BMI among their offspring.

  16. Altered corpus callosum morphology associated with autism over the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jason J; Gerig, Guido; Lewis, John D; Soda, Takahiro; Styner, Martin A; Vachet, Clement; Botteron, Kelly N; Elison, Jed T; Dager, Stephen R; Estes, Annette M; Hazlett, Heather C; Schultz, Robert T; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Numerous brain imaging studies indicate that the corpus callosum is smaller in older children and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, there are no published studies examining the morphological development of this connective pathway in infants at-risk for the disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 270 infants at high familial risk for autism spectrum disorder and 108 low-risk controls at 6, 12 and 24 months of age, with 83% of infants contributing two or more data points. Fifty-seven children met criteria for ASD based on clinical-best estimate diagnosis at age 2 years. Corpora callosa were measured for area, length and thickness by automated segmentation. We found significantly increased corpus callosum area and thickness in children with autism spectrum disorder starting at 6 months of age. These differences were particularly robust in the anterior corpus callosum at the 6 and 12 month time points. Regression analysis indicated that radial diffusivity in this region, measured by diffusion tensor imaging, inversely predicted thickness. Measures of area and thickness in the first year of life were correlated with repetitive behaviours at age 2 years. In contrast to work from older children and adults, our findings suggest that the corpus callosum may be larger in infants who go on to develop autism spectrum disorder. This result was apparent with or without adjustment for total brain volume. Although we did not see a significant interaction between group and age, cross-sectional data indicated that area and thickness differences diminish by age 2 years. Regression data incorporating diffusion tensor imaging suggest that microstructural properties of callosal white matter, which includes myelination and axon composition, may explain group differences in morphology.

  17. Channel adjustments in a Mediterranean river over the last 150 years in the context of anthropic and natural controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-12-01

    Evolutionary trajectories and related control factors of the Fortore River (southern Italy) are analyzed over a 150-year period as to assess channel modifications. A multitemporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs together with topographic and geomorphological field surveys were performed. Attention was focused on the impact caused by human disturbance, above all the presence of the Occhito dam at only 40 km upstream of the Fortore mouth (central Adriatic coast). Results show that channel adjustments occurred in three distinct phases and were primarily driven by human disturbance that diversely affected reaches located upstream and downstream of the dam. From the last decades of the nineteenth century to the 1950s (phase 1), channel widening prevailed along upstream reaches whilst narrowing along downstream reaches. Major channel adjustments occurred from the 1950s until the end of the 1990s (phase 2), especially channel narrowing of up to 81% in upstream reaches and 98% in downstream reaches. Narrowing was accompanied by channel-bed lowering of 1 to 5 m and by pattern changes in prevalence from multithread to largely prevailing single-thread channel configurations. In-channel mining, channel works, and hydraulic interventions are considered key driving factors of observed channel adjustments. The closure of the Occhito dam in 1966 had significant and permanent effects on downstream reaches through overall discharge regulation and permanent sediment trapping as also proved by the progressive retreat of the Fortore river mouth area. From 2000 to 2015 (phase 3), a substantial trend inversion was observed with overall channel widening and partial aggradation of upstream reaches and total stabilization of downstream reaches. As highlighted by an integrated multitemporal analysis of recent channel changes and flood events, the latter have played an important role in channel recovery of upstream reaches. Comparison between the Fortore River and

  18. The load of genetic and partially genetic disorders in man. I. Congenital anomalies: estimates of detriment in terms of years of life lost and years of impaired life.

    PubMed

    Czeizel, A; Sankaranarayanan, K

    1984-08-01

    This paper represents an attempt to estimate quantitatively, the detriment associated with spontaneously arising congenital anomalies in man. The system used in the International Classification of Diseases (Chapter XIV, entries 740-759) has been followed to classify the congenital anomalies. Detriment was assessed using estimates of the years of life lost, years of life potentially impaired and years of life actually impaired, as indicators. The data on birth prevalences for the various conditions were derived from several epidemiological surveys carried out in Hungary and from the Hungarian Congenital Malformation Registry. Most of the information on mortality profiles was obtained from the records of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, Budapest. An overall comparison of the prevalence figures in Hungary with those for the U.S. (this study aimed at complete ascertainment) and for the Canadian province of British Columbia (in this study, ascertainment is believed to be incomplete) showed that, in Hungary, at least certain classes of congenital anomalies, particularly some of the less severe ones, have been under-ascertained. Since detriment estimates are heavily dependent on accurate estimates of birth prevalences, we believe that the estimates of detriment arrived at using the Hungarian data may also be underestimates. In Hungary, the total birth prevalence of all isolated major congenital anomalies is of the order of about 600/10(4). Our calculations show that these congenital anomalies may cause, per 10(4) livebirths, about 4800 years of life loss, about 37000 years of potentially impaired life and about 4500 years of actually impaired life. In these calculations, it has been assumed that the average life-expectancy at live birth for the general population is 70 years. These estimates are considerably higher than those made by Carter for detriment associated with spontaneously arising monogenic disorders.

  19. The Best Years of Life: A Study of Older Hong Kong Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jik-Joen

    2011-01-01

    This study examines elderly respondents' self-reported best years of life and the reasons to support their choices. A total of 842 Chinese people aged 60 and over participated in this cross-sectional study, giving an overall response rate of 91%. This study used information from an index entitled "The Best Years of Life", which was…

  20. Stability and Change in Parental Attachment and Adjustment Outcomes during the First Semester Transition to College Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiester, Marnie; Nordstrom, Alicia; Swenson, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental attachment, changes in parental attachment, and psychological functioning and adjustment for college freshmen. Twice during the first semester, 271 freshmen completed self-report measures of parental attachment, psychological distress, self-competence, and college adjustment. Higher attachment…

  1. Adjustment of a Population of South African Children of Mothers Living With/and Without HIV Through Three Years Post-Birth.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tomlinson, Mark; Scheffler, Aaron; Harris, Danielle M; Nelson, Sandahl

    2016-06-03

    Mothers living with HIV (MLH) and their children are typically studied to ensure that perinatal HIV transmission is blocked. Yet, HIV impacts MLH and their children lifelong. We examine child outcomes from pregnancy to 3 years post-birth among a peri-urban population of pregnant MLH and mothers without HIV (MWOH). Almost all pregnant women in 12 neighborhoods (98 %; N = 584) in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited and repeatedly assessed within 2 weeks of birth (92 %), at 6 months (88 %), 18 months (84 %), and 3 years post-birth (86 %). There were 186 MLH and 398 MWOH. Controlling for neighborhood and repeated measures, child and maternal outcomes were contrasted over time using longitudinal random effects regression analyses. For measures collected only at 3 years, outcomes were analyzed using multiple regressions. Compared to MWOH, MLH had less income, more informal housing and food insecurity, used alcohol more often during pregnancy, and were more depressed during pregnancy and over time. Only 4.8 % of MLH's children were seropositive; seropositive children were excluded from additional analyses. Children of MLH tended to have significantly lower weights (p < .10) over time (i.e., lower weight-for-age Z-scores) and were also hospitalized significantly more often than children of MWOH (p < .01). Children of MLH and MWOH died at similar rates (8.5 %) and were similar in social and behavioral adjustment, vocabulary, and executive functioning at 3 years post-birth. Despite living in households with fewer resources and having more depressed mothers, only the physical health of children of MLH is compromised, compared to children of MWOH. In township neighborhoods with extreme poverty, social, behavioral, language, and cognitive functioning appear similar over the first three years of life between children of MLH and MWOH.

  2. A Year in the Life of an Infrared Echo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A One Year Apart

    These Spitzer Space Telescope images, taken one year apart, show the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (yellow ball) and surrounding clouds of dust (reddish orange). The pictures illustrate that a blast of light from Cassiopeia A is waltzing outward through the dusty skies. This dance, called an 'infrared echo,' began when the remnant erupted about 50 years ago.

    Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion 325 years ago. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died. This remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the northern constellation Cassiopeia.

    Infrared echoes are created when a star explodes or erupts, flashing light into surrounding clumps of dust. As the light zips through the dust clumps, it heats them up, causing them to glow successively in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light. Echoes are distinct from supernova shockwaves, which are made up material that is swept up and hurled outward by exploding stars.

    This infrared echo is the largest ever seen, stretching more than 50 light-years away from Cassiopeia A. If viewed from Earth, the entire movie frame would take up the same amount of space as two full moons.

    Hints of an older infrared echo from Cassiopeia A's supernova explosion hundreds of years ago can also be seen.

    The top Spitzer image was taken on November 30, 2003, and the bottom, on December 2, 2004.

  3. Years of Life Lost due to exposure: Causal concepts and empirical shortcomings

    PubMed Central

    Morfeld, P

    2004-01-01

    Excess Years of Life Lost due to exposure is an important measure of health impact complementary to rate or risk statistics. I show that the total excess Years of Life Lost due to exposure can be estimated unbiasedly by calculating the corresponding excess Years of Potential Life Lost given conditions that describe study validity (like exchangeability of exposed and unexposed) and assuming that exposure is never preventive. I further demonstrate that the excess Years of Life Lost conditional on age at death cannot be estimated unbiasedly by a calculation of conditional excess Years of Potential Life Lost without adopting speculative causal models that cannot be tested empirically. Furthermore, I point out by example that the excess Years of Life Lost for a specific cause of death, like lung cancer, cannot be identified from epidemiologic data without assuming non-testable assumptions about the causal mechanism as to how exposure produces death. Hence, excess Years of Life Lost estimated from life tables or regression models, as presented by some authors for lung cancer or after stratification for age, are potentially biased. These points were already made by Robins and Greenland 1991 reasoning on an abstract level. In addition, I demonstrate by adequate life table examples designed to critically discuss the Years of Potential Life Lost analysis published by Park et al. 2002 that the potential biases involved may be fairly extreme. Although statistics conveying information about the advancement of disease onset are helpful in exposure impact analysis and especially worthwhile in exposure impact communication, I believe that attention should be drawn to the difficulties involved and that epidemiologists should always be aware of these conceptual limits of the Years of Potential Life Lost method when applying it as a regular tool in cohort analysis. PMID:15601477

  4. An opportune life: 50 years in human cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    This article is one person's view of human cytogenetics over the past 50 years. The flowering of human cytogenetics led the way to the establishment of clinical genetics as one of the most important developments in medicine in the twentieth century. The article is written from the viewpoint of a scientist who never tired of analyzing the images of dividing cells on the light microscope and interpreting the wealth of information contained in them.

  5. Behavioral assessment of language brain processing in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Guzzetta, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    An up-to-date review of the behavioral assessments of language development in the first year of life is reported. After recalling the anatomical bases of the early development of the auditory system, the different stages of language development during the first year of life are considered: discrimination, transition and perception. The different kinds of behavioral assessment during the course of the first year are then described by stressing their indications and limitations.

  6. End-of-life decision making in Taiwan: healthcare practice is rooted in local culture and laws that should be adjusted to patients' best interests.

    PubMed

    Tang, Siew Tzuh

    2013-06-01

    The observed Taiwanese neonatal professionals' more conservative attitudes than their worldwide colleagues towards end-of-life (EOL) decision making may stem from cultural attitudes toward death in children and concerns about medicolegal liability. Healthcare practice is rooted in local culture and laws; however that should be adjusted to patients' best interests. Improving Taiwanese neonatal professionals' knowledge and competence in EOL care may minimize ethical dilemmas, allow appropriate EOL care decision making, avoid infants' suffering, and ease parents' bereavement grief.

  7. Basic life support knowledge of first-year university students from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, S V; Margarido, M R R A; Caires, I S; Santos, R A N; Souza, S G; Souza, J M A; Martimiano, R R; Dutra, C S K; Palha, P; Zanetti, A C G; Pazin-Filho, A

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate knowledge of first aid among new undergraduates and whether it is affected by their chosen course. A questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of how to activate the Mobile Emergency Attendance Service - MEAS (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência; SAMU), recognize a pre-hospital emergency situation and the first aid required for cardiac arrest. The students were also asked about enrolling in a first aid course. Responses were received from 1038 of 1365 (76.04%) new undergraduates. The questionnaires were completed in a 2-week period 1 month after the beginning of classes. Of the 1038 respondents (59.5% studying biological sciences, 11.6% physical sciences, and 28.6% humanities), 58.5% knew how to activate the MEAS/SAMU (54.3% non-biological vs 61.4% biological, P=0.02), with an odds ratio (OR)=1.39 (95%CI=1.07-1.81) regardless of age, sex, origin, having a previous degree or having a relative with cardiac disease. The majority could distinguish emergency from non-emergency situations. When faced with a possible cardiac arrest, 17.7% of the students would perform chest compressions (15.5% non-biological vs 19.1% biological first-year university students, P=0.16) and 65.2% would enroll in a first aid course (51.1% non-biological vs 74.7% biological, P<0.01), with an OR=2.61 (95%CI=1.98-3.44) adjusted for the same confounders. Even though a high percentage of the students recognized emergency situations, a significant proportion did not know the MEAS/SAMU number and only a minority had sufficient basic life support skills to help with cardiac arrest. A significant proportion would not enroll in a first aid course. Biological first-year university students were more prone to enroll in a basic life support course.

  8. Basic life support knowledge of first-year university students from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, S. V.; Margarido, M. R. R. A.; Caires, I. S.; Santos, R. A. N.; Souza, S. G.; Souza, J. M. A.; Martimiano, R. R.; Dutra, C. S. K.; Palha, P.; Zanetti, A. C. G.; Pazin-Filho, A.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate knowledge of first aid among new undergraduates and whether it is affected by their chosen course. A questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of how to activate the Mobile Emergency Attendance Service - MEAS (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência; SAMU), recognize a pre-hospital emergency situation and the first aid required for cardiac arrest. The students were also asked about enrolling in a first aid course. Responses were received from 1038 of 1365 (76.04%) new undergraduates. The questionnaires were completed in a 2-week period 1 month after the beginning of classes. Of the 1038 respondents (59.5% studying biological sciences, 11.6% physical sciences, and 28.6% humanities), 58.5% knew how to activate the MEAS/SAMU (54.3% non-biological vs 61.4% biological, P=0.02), with an odds ratio (OR)=1.39 (95%CI=1.07-1.81) regardless of age, sex, origin, having a previous degree or having a relative with cardiac disease. The majority could distinguish emergency from non-emergency situations. When faced with a possible cardiac arrest, 17.7% of the students would perform chest compressions (15.5% non-biological vs 19.1% biological first-year university students, P=0.16) and 65.2% would enroll in a first aid course (51.1% non-biological vs 74.7% biological, P<0.01), with an OR=2.61 (95%CI=1.98-3.44) adjusted for the same confounders. Even though a high percentage of the students recognized emergency situations, a significant proportion did not know the MEAS/SAMU number and only a minority had sufficient basic life support skills to help with cardiac arrest. A significant proportion would not enroll in a first aid course. Biological first-year university students were more prone to enroll in a basic life support course. PMID:26397971

  9. Evaluation of Life Skills Training and Infused-Life Skills Training in a Rural Setting: Outcomes at Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward A.; Swisher, John D.; Vicary, Judith R.; Bechtel, Lori J.; Minner, Daphne; Henry, Kimberly L.; Palmer, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    This study reports on findings from the first two years of a study to compare a standard Life Skill Training (LST) program with an infused (I-LST) approach. Nine small, rural school districts were randomly assigned to LST, I-LST, or control conditions in grade seven. The LST program significantly reduced alcohol use, binge drinking, marijuana use,…

  10. Smelling the future: subtle life-history adjustments in response to environmental conditions and perceived transmission opportunities in a trematode.

    PubMed

    Lagrue, C; Rinnevalli, R; Poulin, R

    2017-04-01

    A number of parasites with complex life cycles can abbreviate their life cycles to increase the likelihood of reproducing. For example, some trematodes can facultatively skip the definitive host and produce viable eggs while still inside their intermediate host. The resulting shorter life cycle is clearly advantageous when transmission probabilities to the definitive hosts are low. Coitocaecum parvum can mature precociously (progenesis), and produce eggs by selfing inside its amphipod second intermediate host. Environmental factors such as definitive host density and water temperature influence the life-history strategy adopted by C. parvum in their crustacean host. However, it is also possible that information about transmission opportunities gathered earlier in the life cycle (i.e. by cercariae-producing sporocysts in the first intermediate host) could have priming effects on the adoption of one or the other life strategy. Here we document the effects of environmental parameters (host chemical cues and temperature) on cercarial production within snail hosts and parasite life-history strategy in the amphipod host. We found that environmental cues perceived early in life have limited priming effects on life-history strategies later in life and probably account for only a small part of the variation among conspecific parasites. External cues gathered at the metacercarial stage seem to largely override potential effects of the environmental conditions experienced by early stages of the parasite.

  11. Effects of pet exposure in the first year of life on respiratory and allergic symptoms in 7-yr-old children. The SIDRIA-2 study.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Enrico; Simoni, Marzia; La Grutta, Stefania; Viegi, Giovanni; Bisanti, Luigi; Chellini, Elisabetta; Dell'Orco, Valerio; Migliore, Enrica; Petronio, Maria Grazia; Pistelli, Riccardo; Rusconi, Franca; Sestini, Piersante; Forastiere, Francesco; Galassi, Claudia

    2010-03-01

    The effects of pet exposure on the development of respiratory symptoms have recently been the matter of vivid discussion. Our objective was to determine the effects of exposure to cat or dog in the first year of life on subsequent respiratory/allergic symptoms in children in a large Italian multicentre study. As part of the SIDRIA-2 Study (Studi Italiani sui Disturbi Respiratori dell'Infanzia e l'Ambiente 2002), the parents of 20016 children (median age 7 yr) provided information on indoor exposures at different times in life and respiratory/allergic symptoms through questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were performed taking into account cat or dog exposure at different times in life and adjusting for the presence of the other pet, mould exposure, gender, age, parental education, maternal smoking during the first year of life, current passive smoking, family history of asthma/rhinitis/eczema and other potential confounders. Neither significant effects of dog exposure in the first year of life nor in other periods were found on respiratory/allergic symptoms after adjusting for the other covariates. Cat exposure in the first year of life was significantly and independently associated with current wheezing [OR (95% CI) 1.88 (1.33-2.68), p < 0.001] and current asthma [1.74 (1.10-2.78), p < 0.05] and border-line associated with current rhinoconjunctivitis [1.43 (0.97-2.11), p = 0.07]. No other effects of cat exposure were found on respiratory/allergic symptoms. Cat, but not dog, exposure in the first year of life is an independent risk factor for current wheezing, current asthma and current rhinoconjunctivitis at the age of 7.

  12. Making the Adjustment: A Qualitative Investigation of the Potential of Community College Developmental Summer Bridge Programs in Facilitating Student Adjustment to Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    This study qualitatively examines whether participation in a summer bridge program situated at a community college can help students acquire the academic and college knowledge as well as "social know-how" needed to attend and succeed at a four-year higher education institution. The study's theoretical framework helps to elucidate the…

  13. Humor and College Adjustment: The Predictive Nature of Humor, Academic Achievement, Authoritative Parenting Styles on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.

    2003-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life among Abused Women One Year after Leaving a Violent Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E.; Kristoffersen, Kjell

    2008-01-01

    This is the first follow up study measuring quality of life among abused women who have left their abusive partner. The women (n = 22) answered a questionnaire while staying at women's shelter and one year later. The aim was to examine long-term effects of intimate partner violence against women on health-related quality of life. Health-related…

  15. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  16. How Shall I Live? Constructing a Life Story in the College Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Dan P.; Guo, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This chapter applies the concept of narrative identity to college student development. The authors describe a narrative interview method that can be used to promote the development of a purposeful life story in the college years.

  17. [Infantile idiopathic scoliosis with onset in the 1st year of life].

    PubMed

    Franchini, F; Cristiano, R; Pitta, D; Pozzessere, A; Cocchi, C

    1994-01-01

    The clinical and radiological characteristics of idiopathic scoliosis with onset in the first year of life is described. The importance of a careful objective examination of nurslings with respect to scoliosis is stressed.

  18. A prospective trial for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in morbidly obese adolescents: an interim report of weight loss, metabolic and quality of life outcomes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outcome of patients completing 12 months of follow-up in a prospective longitudinal trial of the safety/efficacy of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), for morbidly obese adolescents aged 14 to 17 years using a Food and Drug Administration Institutional Device Exemption for the use o...

  19. Children of Adolescent Mothers: Exposure to Negative Life Events and the Role of Social Supports on Their Socioemotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carothers, Shannon S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Children born to adolescent mothers have heightened vulnerability for exposure to multiple stressful life events owing to factors associated with teenaged parenthood such as poverty and low levels of maternal education. This study investigated whether early exposure to negative life events such as parental divorce, residential instability, and…

  20. Student Adjustment to Higher Education: The Role of Alternative Educational Pathways in Coping with the Demands of Student Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankland, Rebecca; Genolini, Christophe; Franca, Lionel Riou; Guelfi, Julien-Daniel; Ionescu, Serban

    2010-01-01

    The present longitudinal study measured student adjustment to higher education, comparing 50 participants from alternative schools (Steiner, Montessori, New Schools) with 80 students from the traditional school system. We hypothesized that students from alternative schools adapt better, because of greater perceived social support, academic…

  1. Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Mental Health Problems: Behaviour, Self-Concept, Quality of Life and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, R. A.; Hunter, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality…

  2. Height and age adjustment for cross sectional studies of lung function in children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, S; Rona, R J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No standard exists for the adjustment of lung function for height and age in children. Multiple regression should not be used on untransformed data because, for example, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), though normally distributed for height, age, and sex, has increasing standard deviation. A solution to the conflict is proposed. METHODS: Spirometry on representative samples of children aged 6.5 to 11.99 years in primary schools in England. After exclusion of children who did not provide two repeatable blows 910 white English boys and 722 girls had data on FEV1 and height. Means and standard deviations of FEV1 divided by height were plotted to determine whether logarithmic transformation of FEV1 was appropriate. Multiple regression was used to give predicted FEV1 for height and age on the transformed scale; back transformation gave predicted values in litres. Other lung function measures were analysed, and data on inner city children, children from ethnic minority groups, and Scottish children were described. RESULTS: After logarithmic (ln) transformation of FEV1 standard deviation was constant. The ratios of actual and predicted values of FEV1 were normally distributed in boys and girls. From the means and standard deviations of these distributions, and the predicted values, centiles and standard deviation scores can be calculated. CONCLUSION: The method described is valid because the assumption of stable variance for multiple regression was satisfied on the log scale and the variation of ratios of actual to predicted values on the original scale was well described by a normal distribution. The adoption of the method will lead to uniformity and greater ease of comparison of research findings. PMID:1440464

  3. 26 CFR 1.803-2 - Adjusted reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-2 Adjusted reserves. For the purpose of determining “required interest” for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, but before January...

  4. 26 CFR 1.803-2 - Adjusted reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-2 Adjusted reserves. For the purpose of determining “required interest” for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, but before January 1, 1955,...

  5. The effect of different public health interventions on longevity, morbidity, and years of healthy life

    PubMed Central

    Diehr, Paula; Derleth, Ann; Cai, Liming; Newman, Anne B

    2007-01-01

    Background Choosing cost-effective strategies for improving the health of the public is difficult because the relative effects of different types of interventions are not well understood. The benefits of one-shot interventions may be different from the benefits of interventions that permanently change the probability of getting sick, recovering, or dying. Here, we compare the benefits of such types of public health interventions. Methods We used multi-state life table methods to estimate the impact of five types of interventions on mortality, morbidity (years of life in fair or poor health), and years of healthy life (years in excellent, very good, or good health). Results A one-shot intervention that makes all the sick persons healthy at baseline would increase life expectancy by 3 months and increase years of healthy life by 6 months, in a cohort beginning at age 65. An equivalent amount of improvement can be obtained from an intervention that either decreases the probability of getting sick each year by 12%, increases the probability of a sick person recovering by 16%, decreases the probability that a sick person dies by 15%, or decreases the probability that a healthy person dies by 14%. Interventions aimed at keeping persons healthy increased longevity and years of healthy life, while decreasing morbidity and medical expenditures. Interventions focused on preventing mortality had a greater effect on longevity, but had higher future morbidity and medical expenditures. Results differed for older and younger cohorts and depended on the value to society of an additional year of sick life. Conclusion Interventions that promote health and prevent disease performed well, but other types of intervention were sometimes better. The value to society of interventions that increase longevity but also increase morbidity needs further research. More comprehensive screening and treatment of new Medicare enrollees might improve their health and longevity without increasing

  6. Evidence for life on Earth more than 3850 million years ago.

    PubMed

    Holland, H D

    1997-01-03

    A recent study by Mojzsis et al., (Nature 384, 55, 1996) found evidence of life in rocks in Greenland estimated by new isotopic data to be more than 3800 million years old. The author examines this study in relation to studies conducted on rocks between 3250 and 3800 million years old and presents reasons to agree and disagree with the interpretation of data.

  7. Is My Armor Straight: A Year in the Life of a University President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berendzen, Richard

    A personal account of Richard Berendzen's life as president of The American University (AU) in Washington, D.C. during the 1983-1984 academic year is presented in diary form. The account describes his interactions with faculty, students, administrators, and people outside the university to further the goals of the institution. In the year prior to…

  8. Telling Their Stories: Representation and Reenactment of Traumatic Experiences Occurring in the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensbauer, Theodore J.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on infants in the first year of life who have experienced single or very circumscribed episodes of trauma in the context of otherwise relatively normal developmental trajectories. Young infants who experience pain may show heightened reactions to pain even years later. Children may remember, and may even reenact, traumatic…

  9. [Years of potential life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonildo Severino da; Menezes, Maria Lúcia Neto de; Lopes, Cyntia Lins de Almeida; Corrêa, Maria Suely Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to calculate the potential years of life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2003-2007. A database was used from the Operational Division for Information on Births and Deaths under the Recife Municipal Health Department. All death certificates for childbearing-age women were reviewed for the five-year period. The results showed a total of 12,120 potential years of life lost by these women, mostly young, black (88%), with unknown levels of schooling (78.2%), single (80%), in District III of the city, and murdered with firearms in their own homes. The specific mortality rate was 10.8 homicides per 100,000 childbearing-age women. The 43.3 years of life lost per woman express the city's characteristics, poverty levels, unemployment, population density, residential instability, and social inequality, exposing residents to social strife, crime, and violence.

  10. Teacher Self-Efficacy and Its Effects on Classroom Processes, Student Academic Adjustment, and Teacher Well-Being: A Synthesis of 40 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, Marjolein; Koomen, Helma M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study integrates 40 years of teacher self-efficacy (TSE) research to explore the consequences of TSE for the quality of classroom processes, students' academic adjustment, and teachers' psychological well-being. Via a criteria-based review approach, 165 eligible articles were included for analysis. Results suggest that TSE shows positive…

  11. Does Being Assigned to a Low School Track Negatively Affect Psychological Adjustment? A Longitudinal Study in the First Year of Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Christoph Michael; Hofmann, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the 1st year in secondary school for some students goes hand in hand with an increase in adjustment difficulties. One factor that might influence this process on an individual, compositional, and institutional level is the academic track a student attends. It was hypothesized that being assigned to a low-qualifying…

  12. Hope Lives in the Heart: Refugee and Immigrant Children's Perceptions of Hope and Hope-Engendering Sources during Early Years of Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yohani, Sophie C.; Larsen, Denise J.

    2009-01-01

    Children's adjustment to resettlement countries is vitally important to future outcomes, yet little attention is given to the role of hope in this process. This research focused on expressions of hope in 10 refugee and immigrant children during early years of resettlement. Using case study methods that employed arts-based data collection,…

  13. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  14. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  15. Two years after cancer diagnosis, what is the relationship between health-related quality of life, coping strategies and spirituality?

    PubMed

    Préau, Marie; Bouhnik, Anne Deborah; Le Coroller Soriano, Anne Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the relationship between spirituality, coping strategies and health-related quality of life (HRQL) among a large representative sample of patients two years after cancer diagnosis. Using a cross-sectional design, medical and self-reported data were collected by physicians and a patient telephone interview, respectively. Among 4270 participants, 54.6% reported that spirituality was not a source of comfort at all during the disease, 23.4% stated that it was a source of moderate comfort and 22.5% a source of great comfort. After adjustment for age, gender, educational level and living in a couple, a multivariate analysis showed that a lower mental HRQL score was independently associated with finding moderate comfort in spirituality when compared with finding no comfort at all. After multiple adjustment, a lower score of physical HRQL and a higher score of fighting spirit were independently associated with having found great comfort in spirituality when compared with those who found no comfort at all. This study aimed to understand the dynamics of religious beliefs among cancer patients over the disease duration and to understand how these beliefs could be considered and utilized by patients as a source of comfort and support. The results highlight not only the role spirituality may play in disease management and the extent to which it may be a valuable source of comfort during the follow-up of cancer patients, but also its role in the evaluation of the different dimensions of HRQL.

  16. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric: Fiscal Year 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2003. As such, the values herein are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents. The Metric is one of several measures employed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to assess the Agency s progress as mandated by the United States Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. Because any measure must have a reference point, whether explicitly defined or implied, the Metric is a comparison between a selected ALS Project life support system and an equivalently detailed life support system using technology from the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS). More specifically, the Metric is the ratio defined by the equivalent system mass (ESM) of a life support system for a specific mission using the ISS ECLSS technologies divided by the ESM for an equivalent life support system using the best ALS technologies. As defined, the Metric should increase in value as the ALS technologies become lighter, less power intensive, and require less volume. For Fiscal Year 2003, the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric value is 1.47 for an Orbiting Research Facility and 1.36 for an Independent Exploration Mission.

  17. Early Peer Interaction as a Predictor of Later Social Adjustment: Results from a Five-Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; And Others

    This study tested the predictive links between children's interactions with peers in early elementary school and their social and emotional adjustment at the end of elementary school. A sample of 231 boys starting kindergarten and first grade were observed during this longitudinal study, on three separate occasions: kindergarten and first grade,…

  18. Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

  19. Three-Year Trajectories of Parenting Behaviors among Physically Abusive Parents and Their Link to Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okado, Yuko; Haskett, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited knowledge about how positive and negative parenting practices differ across individuals and change over time in parents with substantiated physical abuse history, and how trajectories of these parenting practices affect child adjustment. Objective: The present study examined latent trajectories of positive and negative…

  20. Hold on Tight or Let Go: Exploring the Parental Role in First-Year Students' College Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sax, Linda J.; Weintraub, Dayna S.

    2016-01-01

    Using a sample of 995 students living in residential housing at a selective, public research university, this study examined the relationship between student-parent interactions and adjustment to college and investigated differences between student-mother interactions and student-father interactions. Results indicate that students are generally…

  1. The Cost of an Additional Disability-Free Life Year for Older Americans: 1992–2005

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Liming

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost of an additional disability-free life year for older Americans in 1992–2005. Data Source This study used 1992–2005 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, a longitudinal survey of Medicare beneficiaries with a rotating panel design. Study Design This analysis used multistate life table model to estimate probabilities of transition among a discrete set of health states (nondisabled, disabled, and dead) for two panels of older Americans in 1992 and 2002. Health spending incurred between annual health interviews was estimated by a generalized linear mixed model. Health status, including death, was simulated for each member of the panel using these transition probabilities; the associated health spending was cross-walked to the simulated health changes. Principal Findings Disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) increased significantly more than life expectancy during the study period. Assuming that 50 percent of the gains in DFLE between 1992 and 2005 were attributable to increases in spending, the average discounted cost per additional disability-free life year was $71,000. There were small differences between gender and racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions The cost of an additional disability-free life year was substantially below previous estimates based on mortality trends alone. PMID:22670874

  2. Years of life lived with disease and years of potential life lost in children who die of cancer in the United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    de Blank, Peter M; Ostrom, Quinn T; Rouse, Chaturia; Wolinsky, Yingli; Kruchko, Carol; Salcido, Joanne; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-04-01

    Incidence and survival rates are commonly reported statistics, but these may fail to capture the full impact of childhood cancers. We describe the years of potential life lost (YPLL) and years of life lived with disease (YLLD) in children and adolescents who died of cancer in the United States to estimate the impact of childhood cancer in the United States in 2009. We examined mortality data in 2009 among children and adolescents <20 years old in both the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) datasets. YPLL and YLLD were calculated for all deaths due to cancer. Histology-specific YPLL and YLLD of central nervous system (CNS) tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma were estimated using SEER. There were 2233 deaths and 153,390.4 YPLL due to neoplasm in 2009. CNS tumors were the largest cause of YPLL (31%) among deaths due to cancer and were the cause of 1.4% of YPLL due to all causes. For specific histologies, the greatest mean YPLL per death was due to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (78.0 years lost). The histology with the highest mean YLLD per death in children and adolescents who died of cancer was primitive neuroectodermal tumor (4.6 years lived). CNS tumors are the most common solid malignancy in individuals <20 years old and have the highest YPLL cost of all cancers. This offers the first histology-specific description of YPLL in children and adolescents and proposes a new measure of cancer impact, YLLD, in individuals who die of their disease. YPLL and YLLD complement traditional indicators of mortality and help place CNS tumors in the context of other childhood malignancies.

  3. Monograph use at an academic health sciences library: the first three years of shelf life

    PubMed Central

    Blecic, Deborah D.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the circulation of monographs during the first three years of shelf life at an academic health sciences library. Method: A record was kept of monographs added to the circulating collection from mid-1994 to mid-1995. After three years, each monograph was located and the number of times it circulated during the first, second, and third year of shelf life determined by counting checkout stamps on the circulation slip. Results: Of the 1,958 monographs studied, 1,674 had complete data for the first three years of shelf life. Of those 1,674 titles, 81.48% circulated at least once. A total of 7,659 circulations were recorded; 38.69% occurred in the first year of shelf life, 32.37% in the second year, and 28.95% in the third year. The data did not fit the well-known 80/20 rule. Instead, approximately 38% of monographs accounted for 80% of circulation. A small percentage, 2.21%, of monographs accounted for a substantial percentage of circulation, 21.84%. Conclusions: A large percentage of the monographs circulated and use did not decline sharply with age within the first three years of shelf life, indicating a high demand for monographs at this academic health sciences library. These results, combined with the findings of earlier studies, suggested two possibilities. First, academic health sciences libraries might exhibit use of a higher percentage of monograph acquisitions than other types of libraries; or, second, a low monograph-to-user ratio might result in a higher percentage of monographs being used. Perhaps both factors contributed to the results found in this study. Further investigation would be needed to determine the extent to which library type and monograph-to-user ratio influenced monograph use. PMID:10783969

  4. Effect of malnutrition during the first year of life on adult plasma insulin and glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    González-Barranco, J; Ríos-Torres, J M; Castillo-Martínez, L; López-Alvarenga, J C; Aguilar-Salinas, C A; Bouchard, C; Deprès, J P; Tremblay, A

    2003-08-01

    There is evidence linking intrauterine growth retardation with increased cardiovascular risk and diabetes mellitus (DM) later in life. However, little is known about the association between malnutrition during the first year of life and metabolic abnormalities in adulthood. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of documented malnutrition during the first year of life on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, lipid profile, and blood pressure in early adulthood, as well as to assess the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and malnutrition on these variables. A study group of young men with a documented history of malnutrition during their first year of life was recruited from 4 pediatric hospitals in Mexico City and compared with a control group. Subjects included were 52 men, aged 20.2 +/- 3.6 years, with a mean birth weight of 3.0 +/- 0.7 kg and documented malnutrition in their first year of life; controls were 50 men, aged 23.3 +/- 1.8 years, with a mean birth weight of 3.2 +/- 0.5 kg. Insulin and glucose concentrations, fasting and in response to an oral glucose load, plasma lipids, blood pressure, and an insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were measured. The areas under the curves of glucose (AUCG) and insulin (AUCI) were significantly higher in cases (P =.012 and <.002, respectively), independent of birth weight, BMI, or age. BMI was significantly associated with fasting plasma insulin (FPI), AUCI, ISI, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations in cases, but not in controls. These data suggest that early malnutrition in extrauterine life, independently of birth weight, has an adverse effect on insulin metabolism and glucose tolerance in young men, and it worsens as body mass increases even within the normal range of BMI. Therefore, it is advisable to prevent obesity in individuals exposed to early malnutrition.

  5. The Influence of Gestational Diabetes on Neurodevelopment of Children in the First Two Years of Life: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Anqi; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Wong, Eric Qinlong; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Saw, Seang Mei; Soh, Shu-E; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael J.; Kramer, Michael S.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objective Analyze the relation of gestational diabetes and maternal blood glucose levels to early cognitive functions in the first two years of life. Methods In a prospective Singaporean birth cohort study, pregnant women were screened for gestational diabetes at 26–28 weeks gestation using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Four hundred and seventy three children (n = 74 and n = 399 born to mothers with and without gestational diabetes respectively) underwent neurocognitive assessments at 6, 18, and/or 24 month, including electrophysiology during an attentional task and behavioral measures of attention, memory and cognition. Results Gestational diabetes is related to left hemisphere EPmax amplitude differences (oddball versus standard) at both six (P = 0.039) and eighteen months (P = 0.039), with mean amplitudes suggesting offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes exhibit greater neuronal activity to standard stimuli and less to oddball stimuli. Associations between 2-hour maternal glucose levels and the difference in EPmax amplitude were marginal at 6 months [adjusted β = -0.19 (95% CI: -0.42 to +0.04) μV, P = 0.100] and significant at 18 months [adjusted β = -0.27 (95% CI: -0.49 to -0.06) μV, P = 0.014], and the EPmax amplitude difference (oddball-standard) associated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and toddler Development-III cognitive score at 24 months [β = 0.598 (95% CI: 0.158 to 1.038), P = 0.008]. Conclusion Gestational diabetes and maternal blood glucose levels are associated with offspring neuronal activity during an attentional task at both six and eighteen months. Such electrophysiological differences are likely functionally important, having been previously linked to attention problems later in life. PMID:27603522

  6. Quality of life and adjustment in youths with asthma: the contributions of family rituals and the family environment.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susana; Crespo, Carla; Silva, Neuza; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the relationships among family ritual meaning, cohesion, conflict, and health-related quality of life (both specific to chronic health conditions and in general), and the emotional and behavioral problems reported by youths with asthma. Participants included 149 Portuguese children and adolescents between the ages of 8 and 18 who had been diagnosed with asthma and attended outpatient services at three public hospitals. The results showed that stronger family ritual meaning predicted a more positive family environment (i.e., higher cohesion levels and lower conflict levels), better health-related quality of life, and fewer emotional and behavior problems in youths. Furthermore, family cohesion and conflict mediated the links between family ritual meaning and health-related quality of life, and emotional and behavioral problems. These results did not change after controlling for participant age, gender, and asthma severity. The findings of this study suggest that family ritual meaning contributes to the adaptation of youths with asthma via its positive association with the family environment. The implications for multicontextual interventions with families are briefly discussed with regard to the positive role of family rituals and of their potential as a modifiable factor in families with increased health challenges.

  7. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  8. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  9. Randomized trial on the effectiveness of long- and short-term psychotherapy on psychosocial functioning and quality of life during a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Knekt, Paul; Heinonen, Erkki; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Järvikoski, Aila; Virtala, Esa; Rissanen, Julius; Lindfors, Olavi; Helsinki Psychotherapy Study Group

    2015-09-30

    Knowledge is incomplete on whether long-term psychotherapy is more effective than short-term therapy in treating mood and anxiety disorder, when measured by improvements in psychosocial functioning and life quality. In the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, 326 outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder were randomized to solution-focused therapy (SFT), short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP), or long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LPP), and followed up for 5 years from the start of treatment. The outcome measures comprised 4 questionnaires on psychosocial functioning, assessing global social functioning (Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR), sense of coherence (Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC)), perceived competence (Self-Performance Survey), dispositional optimism (Life Orientation Test (LOT)), and 1 questionnaire assessing quality of life (Life Situation Survey (LSS)). Short-term therapies improved psychosocial functioning and quality of life more than LPP during the first year. The only exceptions were LOT and perceived competence, which did not differ between SPP and LPP. Later in the follow-up, SOC and perceived competence showed significantly more improvement in LPP than in the short-term therapy groups. No direct differences between SFT and SPP were noted. Short-term therapy has consistently more short-term effects on psychosocial functioning and quality of life than LPP, whereas LPP has some additional long-term benefits on psychosocial functioning.

  10. Life Years Lost – Comparing potentially fatal late complications after radiotherapy for pediatric medulloblastoma on a common scale

    PubMed Central

    Patrik Brodin, N.; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Maraldo, Maja V.; Rosenschöld, Per Munck af; Aznar, Marianne C.; Kiil-Berthelsen, Anne; Nilsson, Per; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Specht, Lena; Bentzen, Søren M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A framework for estimating and comparing risks of various long-term complications on a common scale is developed and applied to three different techniques for cranio-spinal irradiation of pediatric medulloblastoma patients. Methods Radiation dose-response parameters related to excess hazard ratios for secondary breast, lung, stomach and thyroid cancer, heart failure and myocardial infarction were derived from large published clinical series. Combined with age- and sex-specific hazards in the U.S. general population this yielded excess hazards of complications for a cancer survivor, as a function of attained age. After adjusting for competing risks of death, life years lost (LYL) were estimated based on excess hazard and prognosis of a complication, for 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Results Lung cancer contributed most to the estimated LYL, followed by myocardial infarction and stomach cancer. Breast or thyroid cancer incidence was estimated higher than lung and stomach cancer incidence but LYL was lower due to the relatively good prognosis. Estimated LYL ranged between 1.90 years for 3D CRT to 0.28 years with IMPT. In a paired comparison, IMPT was associated with significantly fewer LYL than both photon techniques. Conclusions Estimating the risk of late complications is associated with considerable uncertainty but including prognosis and attained age at an event, to obtain the more informative LYL estimate, adds relatively little to this uncertainty. PMID:22517408

  11. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Renewal of Term Insurance § 8.26 Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. (a)...

  12. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Renewal of Term Insurance § 8.26 Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. (a)...

  13. 26 CFR 25.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary interests. 25.7520-1 Section 25.7520-1... annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary interests... of certain gifts after April 30, 1989, the fair market value of annuities, interests for life or...

  14. 26 CFR 1.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary interests. 1.7520-1 Section 1.7520-1... interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary interests. (a) General... after April 30, 1989, subject to income tax, the fair market value of annuities, interests for life...

  15. 26 CFR 1.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary interests. 1.7520-1 Section 1.7520-1... interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary interests. (a) General... after April 30, 1989, subject to income tax, the fair market value of annuities, interests for life...

  16. 26 CFR 25.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary interests. 25.7520-1 Section 25.7520-1... annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary interests... of certain gifts after April 30, 1989, the fair market value of annuities, interests for life or...

  17. On the derivation of a full life table from mortality data recorded in five-year age groups.

    PubMed

    Pollard, J H

    1989-01-01

    Mortality data are often gathered using 5-year age groups rather than individual years of life. Furthermore, it is common practice to use a large open-ended interval (such as 85 and over) for mortality data at the older ages. These limitations of the data pose problems for the actuary or demographer who wishes to compile a full and accurate life table using individual years of life. The author devises formulae which handle these problems. He also devises methods for handling mortality during the 1st year of life and for dealing with other technical problems which arise in the compilation of the full life table from grouped data.

  18. Years of life lost due to malignant neoplasms characterized by the highest mortality rate

    PubMed Central

    Pikala, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The analysis of premature deaths measured with years of life lost between the studied and referential populations helps to emphasize the social and economic aspect of a loss caused by deaths due to malignant neoplasms. The aim of the study was to analyze years of life lost by inhabitants of the Lodz province due to malignant neoplasms. Material and methods The study material included a database which contained information gathered from 313,144 death certificates (including 66,899 people who died of malignant neoplasms) of inhabitants of the Lodz province who died between 1999 and 2008. The SEYLLp (Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person) method was used to determine years of life lost. Jointpoint models were used to analyze time trends. Results In males the diseases which mostly contributed to death were tracheal, bronchial and lung malignant neoplasms (SEYLLp = 170.7) and cancer of the large intestine, rectum and anus (SEYLLp = 47.5). In females the principal diseases were tracheal, bronchial and lung malignant neoplasms (SEYLLp = 61.6), breast cancer (SEYLLp = 60.4) and cancer of the large intestine, rectum and anus (SEYLLp = 42.3). The years of life lost were growing in the period under study. Conclusions The number of years lost due to malignant neoplasms in the Lodz province between 1999 and 2008 was growing. The main reasons for deaths in females were tracheal, bronchial and lung malignant neoplasms as well as breast cancer and in males – cancer of the large intestine, rectum and anus as well as prostate cancer. PMID:25395953

  19. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis-related years of potential life lost before age 65 years - United States, 1968-2006.

    PubMed

    2009-12-25

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a preventable, slowly progressive parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation and deposition of coal mine dust in the lungs. The incidence and rate of CWP progression is related to the amount of respirable coal dust to which miners were exposed during their working lifetime. Early pneumoconiosis can be asymptomatic, but advanced disease often leads to disability and premature death. To characterize the impact of premature mortality attributed to CWP in the United States, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed annual underlying cause of death data from 1968-2006, the most recent years for which complete data were available. Years of potential life lost before age 65 years (YPLL), and mean YPLL were calculated using standard methodology. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicate that during 1968-2006, a total of 22,625 YPLL were attributed to CWP (mean per decedent: 5.7). Annual YPLL attributed to CWP decreased 91.2%, from an average of 1,484 YPLL per year during 1968-1972 to 154 per year during 2002-2006. However, annual YPLL from CWP have been increasing since 2002, from 135 in that year to 169 YPLL in 2006, suggesting a need for strengthening CWP prevention measures. CDC intends to maintain surveillance of CWP deaths to determine future trends and promote safer work environments.

  20. Early Years: Young Children Deserve the Best Possible Start in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Leena

    2015-01-01

    That all young children should have the best possible start in life is a statement that tends to be met with universal agreement. This article, however, argues there are very many different kinds of ideologies that shape the kinds of "best starts" early years teachers should strive for at a time when childhood poverty is rising and when…

  1. Syllable-Related Breathing in Infants in the Second Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parham, Douglas F.; Buder, Eugene H.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Boliek, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether breathing behaviors of infants within the 2nd year of life differ between tidal breathing and breathing supporting single unarticulated syllables and canonical/articulated syllables. Method: Vocalizations and breathing kinematics of 9 infants between 53 and 90 weeks of age were recorded. A strict selection…

  2. Pre-Birth Parent Characteristics and Family Development in the First Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinicke, Christoph M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Findings support the general hypothesis that the nature of parent/infant interaction and infant development assessed at 12 months is anticipated by a complex pattern of variables, beginning with the parents' characteristics before the birth of their first child and extending via parent/infant and infant behavior throughout the first year of life.…

  3. Outpatient Health Care Utilization of Suicide Decedents in Their Last Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui-Li; Chen, Lih-Hwa; Huang, Shiuh-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of health care utilization during the last year of life by Taiwanese who died by suicide were analyzed. The degree of health services utilization was evaluated by extracting the data of National Health Insurance (NHI) outpatient cohort records in 2006. A total of 4,406 fatal suicide cases were matched with the 17,587,901…

  4. Developmental Trajectories for Mother-Infant Coregulation in the Second Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aureli, Tiziana; Presaghi, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    Ten dyads were observed biweekly from 10 to 24 months of infant age while playing together at home with a set of toys. The aim was to examine whether mother-infant coregulation changes over the second year of the infant's life and whether there are individual differences in that process. Normative trends as well as variability between and within…

  5. Perceptual Narrowing of Linguistic Sign Occurs in the 1st Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephanie Baker; Fais, Laurel; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Werker, Janet F.

    2012-01-01

    Over their 1st year of life, infants' "universal" perception of the sounds of language narrows to encompass only those contrasts made in their native language (J. F. Werker & R. C. Tees, 1984). This research tested 40 infants in an eyetracking paradigm and showed that this pattern also holds for infants exposed to seen language--American Sign…

  6. Predictors and Characteristics of Erikson's Life Cycle Model Among Men: A 32-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2004-01-01

    To assess Erikson's life cycle model, 86 men, initially selected for health, were prospectively studied at age 21, and reassessed 32 years later at age 53. Using the Vaillant and Milofsky (1980) modification of Erikson's model, 48 men (56%) achieved generativity, an advanced developmental stage, at follow-up. Results generally support Erikson's…

  7. How Useful Are Skeletal Surveys in the Second Year of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karen Kirhofer; Campbell, Kristine A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of skeletal surveys in cases of possible physical abuse in the second year of life. Methods: Radiology records for all children under 24 months of age referred to our child protection team from January 2002 through November 2006, who had a skeletal survey performed and/or interpreted by the pediatric radiologists…

  8. Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

  9. Temperament and Parenting during the First Year of Life Predict Future Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Keenan, Kate; Rathouz, Paul J.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2008-01-01

    Predictive associations between parenting and temperament during the first year of life and child conduct problems were assessed longitudinally in 1,863 offspring of a representative sample of women. Maternal ratings of infant fussiness, activity level, predictability, and positive affect each independently predicted maternal ratings of conduct…

  10. [THE FORMATION OF HEALTHY LIFE-STYLE OF SOVIET YOUTH IN 1920S-1930s YEARS].

    PubMed

    Sakharov, V A; Sakharova, L G

    2015-01-01

    The article considers analysis of social pedagogical aspects of problem of formation of healthy life-style in youth in the Soviet Russia in 1920-1930s years in the course of public policy and as well as in theory and practice of national pedagogics.

  11. Quality of Life in South Africa--The First Ten Years of Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    South Africa celebrated ten years of democracy in 2004. This special issue of "Social Indicators Research" ("SIR") reviews developments that have impacted on the quality of life of ordinary South Africans during the transition period. The issue updates an earlier volume of "SIR" (Volume 41) published in 1997 and as a…

  12. Proximity Seeking in the First Year of Life as Related to Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Russel L.; And Others

    This paper presents some findings of a detailed analysis of infants' approach behavior in a familiar, naturalistic setting. A total of 26, white, middle-class infant-mother pairs were observed in the home every three weeks during the first year of the child's life. Instances of infant approach to both mother and observer were coded from the…

  13. Academic Performance and Pass Rates: Comparison of Three First-Year Life Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, C. T.

    2009-01-01

    First year students' academic performance in three Life Science courses (Botany, Zoology and Bioscience) was compared. Pass rates, as well as the means and distributions of final marks were analysed. Of the three components (coursework, practical and theory examinations) contributing to the final mark of each course, students performed best in the…

  14. Growth of Head Circumference in Autistic Infants during the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukumoto, Aya; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Ito, Hiromichi; Nishimura, Mio; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Miyazaki, Masahito; Mori, Kenji; Arisawa, Kokichi; Kagami, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the increase in head circumference (HC) of 85 autistic infants (64 boys and 21 girls) during their first year of life. The data were collected from their "mother-and-baby" notebooks. This notebook is a medical record of the baby's growth and development delivered to the parents of all babies born in Japan. This is a…

  15. Risk of Mother-Reported Child Abuse in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Amy M.; Rosenberg, Leon; Fuddy, Loretta; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Sia, Calvin; Duggan, Anne K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate, within an at-risk population, parent and child characteristics associated with a mother's self-reports of severe physical assault and assault on the self-esteem of the child in the first 3 years of life. Design: The study population consisted of a community-based sample of mothers of…

  16. Effects of fat mass on motor development during the first two years of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: This study characterized total body fat mass and motor development during the first two years of life in healthy infants. Design: Participants (N=469) from the Beginnings’ cohort, a prospective, longitudinal study of early infant feeding, were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months of age...

  17. Antibiotic exposure in the first year of life and later treated asthma, a population based birth cohort study of 143,000 children.

    PubMed

    Pitter, Gisella; Ludvigsson, Jonas Filip; Romor, Pierantonio; Zanier, Loris; Zanotti, Renzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies reported an association between antibiotic consumption in the first year of life and later asthma, but results are conflicting and affected by potential biases. We examined this controversial issue in a population-based birth cohort. Using administrative data, we identified 143,163 children born in 1995-2011 in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy) (median follow-up 5.25 years, 927,350 person-years). Antibiotic prescriptions in the first year of life and subsequent treated asthma (defined as ≥2 anti-asthmatic drug prescriptions within a 12-month period) were retrieved from drug prescription records. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) using Poisson regression models, adjusted for perinatal variables and for hospitalizations for infections in the first year of life. We identified 34,957 new-onset asthma cases. Antibiotic consumption in the first year of life increased the risk of new-onset asthma [IRR 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-1.54] with a dose-response relationship (p-trend <0.001). The risk was highest for asthma identified at 13-35 months of life (IRR 2.07, 95% CI 2.00-2.14), but remained statistically significant for asthma identified at 36-71 months (IRR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.21) and at ≥72 months (IRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). Antibiotics increased the risk of current asthma at ≥6 years (IRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.30-1.41) and at ≥13 years of age (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.33). Antibiotic exposure in infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma up to adolescence. The association detected at older ages is not explained by reverse causation; however, confounding by respiratory infections not leading to hospital admission cannot be excluded.

  18. Contribution of Excessive Alcohol Consumption to Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roeber, Jim; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D.; Zhang, Xingyou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of premature mortality in the United States. The objectives of this study were to update national estimates of alcohol-attributable deaths (AAD) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) in the United States, calculate age-adjusted rates of AAD and YPLL in states, assess the contribution of AAD and YPLL to total deaths and YPLL among working-age adults, and estimate the number of deaths and YPLL among those younger than 21 years. Methods We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Alcohol-Related Disease Impact application for 2006–2010 to estimate total AAD and YPLL across 54 conditions for the United States, by sex and age. AAD and YPLL rates and the proportion of total deaths that were attributable to excessive alcohol consumption among working-age adults (20-64 y) were calculated for the United States and for individual states. Results From 2006 through 2010, an annual average of 87,798 (27.9/100,000 population) AAD and 2.5 million (831.6/100,000) YPLL occurred in the United States. Age-adjusted state AAD rates ranged from 51.2/100,000 in New Mexico to 19.1/100,000 in New Jersey. Among working-age adults, 9.8% of all deaths in the United States during this period were attributable to excessive drinking, and 69% of all AAD involved working-age adults. Conclusions Excessive drinking was responsible for 1 in 10 deaths among working-age adults in the United States. AAD rates vary across states, but excessive drinking remains a leading cause of premature mortality nationwide. Strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force can help reduce excessive drinking and harms related to it. PMID:24967831

  19. Mortality and potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries in Brazil, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; de Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries three years after the beginning of the Decade of Action for Traffic Safety. METHODS We analyzed the data of the Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM – Mortality Information System) related to road traffic injuries, in 2013. We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates for Brazil and geographic regions. We calculated, for the Country, the proportional mortality according to age groups, education level, race/skin color, and type or quality of the victim while user of the public highway. We estimated the potential years of life lost according to sex. RESULTS The mortality rate in 2013 was of 21.0 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants for the Country. The Midwest region presented the highest rate (29.9 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants). Most of the deaths by road traffic injuries took place with males (34.9 deaths per 100,000 males). More than half of the people who have died because of road traffic injuries were of black race/skin color, young adults (24.2%), individuals with low schooling (24.0%), and motorcyclists (28.5%). The mortality rate in the triennium 2011-2013 decreased 4.1%, but increased among motorcyclists. Across the Country, more than a million of potential years of life were lost, in 2013, because of road traffic injuries, especially in the age group of 20 to 29 years. CONCLUSIONS The impact of the high mortality rate is of over a million of potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries, especially among adults in productive age (early mortality), in only one year, representing extreme social cost arising from a cause of death that could be prevented. Despite the reduction of mortality by road traffic injuries from 2011 to 2013, the mortality rates increased among motorcyclists. PMID:27706375

  20. How Stable Is the Personal Past? Stability of Most Important Autobiographical Memories and Life Narratives Across Eight Years in a Life Span Sample.

    PubMed

    Köber, Christin; Habermas, Tilmann

    2017-03-23

    Considering life stories as the most individual layer of personality (McAdams, 2013) implies that life stories, similar to personality traits, exhibit some stability throughout life. Although stability of personality traits has been extensively investigated, only little is known about the stability of life stories. We therefore tested the influence of age, of the proportion of normative age-graded life events, and of global text coherence on the stability of the most important memories and of brief entire life narratives as 2 representations of the life story. We also explored whether normative age-graded life events form more stable parts of life narratives. In a longitudinal life span study covering up to 3 measurements across 8 years and 6 age groups (N = 164) the stability of important memories and of entire life narratives was measured as the percentage of events and narrative segments which were repeated in later tellings. Stability increased between ages 8 and 24, leveling off in middle adulthood. Beyond age, stability of life narratives was also predicted by proportion of normative age-graded life events and by causal-motivational text coherence in younger participants. Memories of normative developmental and social transitional life events were more stable than other memories. Stability of segments of life narratives exceeded the stability of single most important memories. Findings are discussed in terms of cognitive, personality, and narrative psychology and point to research questions in each of these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Purpose in life and reduced risk of myocardial infarction among older U.S. adults with coronary heart disease: a two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric S; Sun, Jennifer K; Park, Nansook; Kubzansky, Laura D; Peterson, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    This study examined whether purpose in life was associated with myocardial infarction among a sample of older adults with coronary heart disease after adjusting for relevant sociodemographic, behavioral, biological, and psychological factors. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study-a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50-were used. Analyses were conducted on the subset of 1,546 individuals who had coronary heart disease at baseline. Greater baseline purpose in life was associated with lower odds of having a myocardial infarction during the 2-year follow-up period. On a six-point purpose in life measure, each unit increase was associated with a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of 0.73 for myocardial infarction (95% CI, 0.57-0.93, P = .01). The association remained significant after controlling for coronary heart disease severity, self-rated health, and a comprehensive set of possible confounds. Higher purpose in life may play an important role in protecting against myocardial infarction among older American adults with coronary heart disease.

  2. Post-Test Analysis of a 10-Year Sodium Heat Pipe Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Locci, Ivan E.; Sanzi, James L.; Hull, David R.; Geng, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 years) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described. Lessons learned and future life test plans are also discussed.

  3. The Predictive Relationship between Temperament, School Adjustment, and Academic Achievement: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Children At-Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hendawi, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in temperament can be a risk or a protective factor for a child, especially for children at-risk who possess single or multiple risk factors that may interfere with their educational success and affect their healthy development and their life-long outcomes. This research study examined the concurrent and longitudinal…

  4. Timing Is Everything: A Comparative Study of the Adjustment Process of Fall and Mid-Year Community College Transfer Students at a Public Four-Year University. Working Paper Series. Number 1-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peska, Scott F.

    2009-01-01

    This sequential mixed method study (Creswell, 2003) compared the adjustment process of community college transfer students who began in the fall to those who began mid-year, beginning with a quantitative phase and extending to a qualitative phase of data collection in the fall semester and repeating this same sequence of data gathering with…

  5. Reciprocal influences between maternal parenting and child adjustment in a high-risk population: a 5-year cross-lagged analysis of bidirectional effects.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-09-01

    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress, and their child's adjustment, in a 2-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive 4 broad parenting constructs (involvement, control, rejection, and stress) and 3 child adjustment constructs (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influences were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, and child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bidirectional influences and their potential for practical applications.

  6. Reciprocal Influences Between Maternal Parenting and Child Adjustment in a High-risk Population: A Five-Year Cross-Lagged Analysis of Bidirectional Effects

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress and their child's adjustment, in a two-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive four broad parenting constructs (Involvement, Control, Rejection, and Stress) and three child adjustment constructs (Internalizing problems, Externalizing problems, and Social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influence were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, while child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bi-directional influences, and their potential for practical applications. PMID:25089759

  7. Biomechanical Analysis of Normal Brain Development during the First Year of Life Using Finite Strain Theory

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Lin, Weili

    2016-01-01

    The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and shear strains) were measured to reveal directional growth information every 3 months during the first year of life. Directional normal strain maps revealed that, during the first 6 months, the growth pattern of gray matter is anisotropic and spatially inhomogeneous with higher left-right stretch around the temporal lobe and interhemispheric fissure, anterior-posterior stretch in the frontal and occipital lobes, and superior-inferior stretch in right inferior occipital and right inferior temporal gyri. In contrast, anterior lateral ventricles and insula showed an isotropic stretch pattern. Volumetric and directional growth rates were linearly decreased with age for most of the cortical regions. Our results revealed anisotropic and inhomogeneous brain growth patterns of the human brain during the first year of life using longitudinal MRI and a biomechanical framework. PMID:27910866

  8. Biomechanical Analysis of Normal Brain Development during the First Year of Life Using Finite Strain Theory.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Lin, Weili

    2016-12-02

    The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and shear strains) were measured to reveal directional growth information every 3 months during the first year of life. Directional normal strain maps revealed that, during the first 6 months, the growth pattern of gray matter is anisotropic and spatially inhomogeneous with higher left-right stretch around the temporal lobe and interhemispheric fissure, anterior-posterior stretch in the frontal and occipital lobes, and superior-inferior stretch in right inferior occipital and right inferior temporal gyri. In contrast, anterior lateral ventricles and insula showed an isotropic stretch pattern. Volumetric and directional growth rates were linearly decreased with age for most of the cortical regions. Our results revealed anisotropic and inhomogeneous brain growth patterns of the human brain during the first year of life using longitudinal MRI and a biomechanical framework.

  9. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2010 - 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028.

  10. Thirty-five years of end-of-life issues in US medical schools.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, George E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine US medical school offerings on end-of-life issues between 1975 and 2010. Data were obtained from a mailed survey to the US medical schools in 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Survey response rates for the 8 points in time (in percentages) were 95, 96, 90, 90, 93, 92, 81, and 79, respectively. Between 1975 and 2010, the overall offerings in death and dying increased so that 100% of US medical schools, beginning in 2000, offered something on death and dying. A multidisciplinary-team approach continued over the 35-year period. Palliative care is offered to some extent in 99% of US medical schools today. Numerous end-of-life topics are currently covered in the curriculum. Increased attention to end-of-life issues in medical schools should enhance medical students' relationship with terminally ill patients and their families.

  11. Dynamics and Stabilization of the Human Gut Microbiome during the First Year of Life.

    PubMed

    Bäckhed, Fredrik; Roswall, Josefine; Peng, Yangqing; Feng, Qiang; Jia, Huijue; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Li, Yin; Xia, Yan; Xie, Hailiang; Zhong, Huanzi; Khan, Muhammad Tanweer; Zhang, Jianfeng; Li, Junhua; Xiao, Liang; Al-Aama, Jumana; Zhang, Dongya; Lee, Ying Shiuan; Kotowska, Dorota; Colding, Camilla; Tremaroli, Valentina; Yin, Ye; Bergman, Stefan; Xu, Xun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Wang, Jun; Jun, Wang

    2015-05-13

    The gut microbiota is central to human health, but its establishment in early life has not been quantitatively and functionally examined. Applying metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from a large cohort of Swedish infants and their mothers, we characterized the gut microbiome during the first year of life and assessed the impact of mode of delivery and feeding on its establishment. In contrast to vaginally delivered infants, the gut microbiota of infants delivered by C-section showed significantly less resemblance to their mothers. Nutrition had a major impact on early microbiota composition and function, with cessation of breast-feeding, rather than introduction of solid food, being required for maturation into an adult-like microbiota. Microbiota composition and ecological network had distinctive features at each sampled stage, in accordance with functional maturation of the microbiome. Our findings establish a framework for understanding the interplay between the gut microbiome and the human body in early life.

  12. Weight status in the first 2 years of life and neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely low gestational age newborns

    PubMed Central

    Belfort, Mandy B.; Kuban, Karl C.K.; O'Shea, T. Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Engelke, Stephen C.; Leviton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which weight gain and weight status in the first 2 years of life relate to the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely preterm infants. Study Design In a cohort of 1070 infants born between 23 and 27 weeks’ gestation, we examined weight gain from 7-28 days of life (in quartiles) and weight z-score at 12 and 24 months corrected age (in categories: <−2; ≥−2, <−1; ≥1, <1; ≥1) in relation to these adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes: Bayley-II mental development index <55, Bayley-II psychomotor development index <55, cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) ≥1 (cannot walk without assistance), microcephaly. We adjusted for confounders in logistic regression, stratified by sex, and performed separate analyses including the entire sample, and excluding children unable to walk without assistance (motor impairment). Results Weight gain in the lowest quartile from 7-28 days was not associated with higher risk of adverse outcomes. Children with a 12-month weight z-score <−2 were at increased risk for all adverse outcomes in girls, and for microcephaly and GMFCS ≥1 in boys. However, excluding children with motor impairment attenuated all associations except that of weight z-score <−2 with microcephaly in girls. Similarly, most associations of low weight z-score at 24 months with adverse outcomes were attenuated with exclusion of children with motor impairment. Conclusion Excluding children who have gross motor impairment appears to eliminate the association of low weight status with neurodevelopmental impairments at 2 years in extremely preterm infants. PMID:26470687

  13. Couple and Individual Adjustment for 2 Years Following a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Traditional versus Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Andrew; Atkins, David C.; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H.; George, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Follow-up data across 2 years were obtained on 130 of 134 couples who were originally part of a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional versus integrative behavioral couple therapy (TBCT vs. IBCT; A. Christensen et al., 2004). Both treatments produced similar levels of clinically significant improvement at 2 years posttreatment (69% of…

  14. Tobacco smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Gvinianidze, K; Tsereteli, D

    2012-05-01

    Smoking-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost were estimated using the formula adopted to estimate UK and US deaths caused by smoking. These estimates are based on sex-specific proportions by age of current and ex-smokers and rates of relative risk. For prevalence data we used data of 2010 STEPS survey in Georgia and Georgia Reproductive Health Survey 2005. Relative risks for potentially fatal diseases due to smoking are those that were used to estimate UK 1995 deaths. They were derived from years 1984-1988 of the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS II). Smoking attributable mortality was estimated for year 2008, period when registration of deaths was done by adopted methods and institutions. By the calculations according to mortality data of year 2008 number of active smoking attributable deaths were 4331. Smoking is related with 10,1% of all deaths. By causes of death smoking attributed is 30% of all deaths caused by cancers, 10% of cardiovascular diseases, 9% of respiratory and 7% of digestive diseases. About 72500 potential years of life is lost in Georgia during year 2008 due to active smoking. Great majority of this burden is related with cardio vascular diseases and cancers.

  15. No association between mean telomere length and life stress observed in a 30 year birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Jodczyk, Sarah; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Pearson, John F; Kennedy, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are specialised structures that cap the ends of chromosomes. They shorten with each cell division and have been proposed as a marker of cellular aging. Previous studies suggest that early life stressors increase the rate of telomere shortening with potential impact on disease states and mortality later in life. This study examined the associations between telomere length and exposure to a number of stressors that arise during development from the antenatal/perinatal period through to young adulthood. Participants were from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a New Zealand longitudinal birth cohort which has followed participants from birth until age 30. Telomere length was obtained on DNA from peripheral blood samples collected from consenting participants (n = 677) at age 28-30, using a quantitative PCR assay. These data were assessed for associations with 26 measures of life course adversity or stress which occurred prior to 25 years of age. No associations were found between telomere length measured at age 28-30 years and life course adversity or stress for specific measures and for the summary risk scores for each developmental domain. The correlations were very small ranging from -0.06 to 0.06 with a median of 0.01, and none were statistically significant. Our results in this well-studied birth cohort do not support prior reports of such associations, and underscore the need for more extensive replication of proposed links between stress and telomere biology in larger cohorts with appropriate phenotypic data.

  16. Nutrition through the life span. Part 3: adults aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Alison

    The UK has an ageing population, but this is not being matched by a similar increase in healthy life expectancy. The greatest challenge in the 21st century will be to improve the quality of life as ageing occurs. Health is the most important prerequisite for people to enjoy life in their older years (Brundtland, 1988). Diet is one factor that is believed to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with ageing. The third and final part of this series addressing the concept of nutrition through the lifespan seeks to educate health-care professionals as to what constitutes a healthy diet for the elderly population, and gives practical guidance as to how to try and prevent the ever-growing problem of malnutrition within this age group. It is suggested that when the older adult is hospitalized their risk of malnutrition increases. Therefore, some guidance for the use of oral nutritional supplements in this population is given. Good nutrition and physical exercise are essential for healthy ageing from both a physical and psychological perspective (NICE, 2008). Therefore a multidisciplinary life course approach to ageing is vital to minimizing its complications for quality of life and subsequent public health (Denny, 2008).

  17. Application of a Modified Garbage Code Algorithm to Estimate Cause-Specific Mortality and Years of Life Lost in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Years of life lost (YLLs) are estimated based on mortality and cause of death (CoD); therefore, it is necessary to accurately calculate CoD to estimate the burden of disease. The garbage code algorithm was developed by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to redistribute inaccurate CoD and enhance the validity of CoD estimation. This study aimed to estimate cause-specific mortality rates and YLLs in Korea by applying a modified garbage code algorithm. CoD data for 2010–2012 were used to calculate the number of deaths. The garbage code algorithm was then applied to calculate target cause (i.e., valid CoD) and adjusted CoD using the garbage code redistribution. The results showed that garbage code deaths accounted for approximately 25% of all CoD during 2010–2012. In 2012, lung cancer contributed the most to cause-specific death according to the Statistics Korea. However, when CoD was adjusted using the garbage code redistribution, ischemic heart disease was the most common CoD. Furthermore, before garbage code redistribution, self-harm contributed the most YLLs followed by lung cancer and liver cancer; however, after application of the garbage code redistribution, though self-harm was the most common leading cause of YLL, it is followed by ischemic heart disease and lung cancer. Our results showed that garbage code deaths accounted for a substantial amount of mortality and YLLs. The results may enhance our knowledge of burden of disease and help prioritize intervention settings by changing the relative importance of burden of disease. PMID:27775249

  18. End of Life Operations for LEO and GEO Satellites: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremeaux, Claire; Moussi, Aurelie; Vintenat, Lionel; Moulin, Michel

    2013-08-01

    CNES is celebrating in 2013 its 40th year of satellites operations with nearly 40 satellites cared for from Symphony 1 (1973) to Pleiades 1B (2012). Half of them reached its end of mission. Although they were not designed for it, CNES imagined, prepared and executed end-of life operations for geostationary and low earth orbit satellites, in accordance with its strong involvement at international level in favour of space activity sustainability and space debris mitigation. With increasing experience, efficiency and completeness of operations have strongly improved: optimization of resources, precise orbit and eccentricity management, collision risk concern, controlled fluidic and electric passivation, concern for degraded or emergency cases… This paper presents the evolution and improvement of end of life operations handled by CNES for 30 years, with a highlight on the last evolutions in the whole process since the French Space Act came into force.

  19. Neuroticism and Extraversion in Youth Predict Mental Wellbeing and Life Satisfaction 40 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Gale, Catharine R; Booth, Tom; Mõttus, René; Kuh, Diana; Deary, Ian J

    2013-12-01

    Neuroticism and Extraversion are linked with current wellbeing, but it is unclear whether these traits in youth predict wellbeing decades later. We applied structural equation modelling to data from 4583 people from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. We examined the effects of Neuroticism and Extraversion at ages 16 and 26 years on mental wellbeing and life satisfaction at age 60-64 and explored the mediating roles of psychological and physical health. Extraversion had direct, positive effects on both measures of wellbeing. The impact of Neuroticism on both wellbeing and life satisfaction was largely indirect through susceptibility to psychological distress and physical health problems. Personality dispositions in youth have enduring influence on wellbeing assessed about forty years later.

  20. Neuroticism and Extraversion in Youth Predict Mental Wellbeing and Life Satisfaction 40 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R; Booth, Tom; Mõttus, René; Kuh, Diana; Deary, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Neuroticism and Extraversion are linked with current wellbeing, but it is unclear whether these traits in youth predict wellbeing decades later. We applied structural equation modelling to data from 4583 people from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. We examined the effects of Neuroticism and Extraversion at ages 16 and 26 years on mental wellbeing and life satisfaction at age 60-64 and explored the mediating roles of psychological and physical health. Extraversion had direct, positive effects on both measures of wellbeing. The impact of Neuroticism on both wellbeing and life satisfaction was largely indirect through susceptibility to psychological distress and physical health problems. Personality dispositions in youth have enduring influence on wellbeing assessed about forty years later. PMID:24563560

  1. Effect of exacerbations on quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 2 year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Miravitlles, M; Ferrer, M; Pont, A; Zalacain, R; Alvarez-Sala, J; Masa, F; Verea, H; Murio, C; Ros, F; Vidal, R

    2004-01-01

    Background: A study was undertaken to evaluate exacerbations and their impact on the health related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: A 2 year follow up study was performed in 336 patients with COPD of mean (SD) age 66 (8.2) years and mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 33 (8)% predicted. Spirometric tests, questions regarding exacerbations of COPD, and HRQL measurements (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and SF-12 Health Survey) were conducted at 6 month intervals. Results: A total of 1015 exacerbations were recorded, and 103 (30.7%) patients required at least one hospital admission during the study. After adjustment for baseline characteristics and season of assessment, frequent exacerbations had a negative effect on HRQL in patients with moderate COPD (FEV1 35–50% predicted); the change in SGRQ total score of moderate patients with ⩾3 exacerbations was almost two points per year greater (worse) than those with <3 exacerbations during the follow up (p = 0.042). For patients with severe COPD (FEV1 <35% predicted) exacerbations had no effect on HRQL. The change in SGRQ total score of patients admitted to hospital was almost 2 points per year greater (worse) than patients not admitted, but this effect failed to show statistical significance in any severity group. There was a significant and independent seasonal effect on HRQL since SGRQ total scores were, on average, 3 points better in measurements performed in spring/summer than in those measured in the winter (p<0.001). Conclusions: Frequent exacerbations significantly impair HRQL of patients with moderate COPD. A significant and independent effect of seasonality was also observed. PMID:15115864

  2. Impact of Prenatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Neurodevelopment in the First 3 Years of Life Among Inner-City Children

    PubMed Central

    Rauh, Virginia A.; Garfinkel, Robin; Perera, Frederica P.; Andrews, Howard F.; Hoepner, Lori; Barr, Dana B.; Whitehead, Ralph; Tang, Deliang; Whyatt, Robin W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on 3-year neurodevelopment and behavior in a sample of inner-city minority children. METHODS As part of an ongoing prospective cohort study in an inner-city minority population, neurotoxicant effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos were evaluated in 254 children through the first 3 years of life. This report examined cognitive and motor development at 12, 24, and 36 months (measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II) and child behavior at 36 months (measured with the Child Behavior Checklist) as a function of chlorpyrifos levels in umbilical cord plasma. RESULTS Highly exposed children (chlorpyrifos levels of >6.17 pg/g plasma) scored, on average, 6.5 points lower on the Bayley Psychomotor Development Index and 3.3 points lower on the Bayley Mental Development Index at 3 years of age compared with those with lower levels of exposure. Children exposed to higher, compared with lower, chlorpyrifos levels were also significantly more likely to experience Psychomotor Development Index and Mental Development Index delays, attention problems, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder problems, and pervasive developmental disorder problems at 3 years of age. CONCLUSIONS The adjusted mean 36-month Psychomotor Development Index and Mental Development Index scores of the highly and lower exposed groups differed by only 7.1 and 3.0 points, respectively, but the proportion of delayed children in the high-exposure group, compared with the low-exposure group, was 5 times greater for the Psychomotor Development Index and 2.4 times greater for the Mental Development Index, increasing the number of children possibly needing early intervention services. PMID:17116700

  3. Healthy Life-Years Lost and Excess Bed-Days Due to 6 Patient Safety Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaolin; Vincent, Charles; Smith, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is little satisfactory evidence on the harm of safety incidents to patients, in terms of lost potential health and life-years. Objective: To estimate the healthy life-years (HLYs) lost due to 6 incidents in English hospitals between the years 2005/2006 and 2009/2010, to compare burden across incidents, and estimate excess bed-days. Research Design: The study used cross-sectional analysis of the medical records of all inpatients treated in 273 English hospitals. Patients with 6 types of preventable incidents were identified. Total attributable loss of HLYs was estimated through propensity score matching by considering the hypothetical remaining length and quality of life had the incident not occurred. Results: The 6 incidents resulted in an annual loss of 68 HLYs and 934 excess bed-days per 100,000 population. Preventable pressure ulcers caused the loss of 26 HLYs and 555 excess bed-days annually. Deaths in low-mortality procedures resulted in 25 lost life-years and 42 bed-days. Deep-vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolisms cost 12 HLYs, and 240 bed-days. Postoperative sepsis, hip fractures, and central-line infections cost <6 HLYs and 100 bed-days each. Discussion: The burden caused by the 6 incidents is roughly comparable with the UK burden of Multiple Sclerosis (80 DALYs per 100,000), HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis (63 DALYs), and Cervical Cancer (58 DALYs). There were marked differences in the harm caused by the incidents, despite the public attention all of them receive. Decision makers can use the results to prioritize resources into further research and effective interventions. PMID:27753744

  4. [Differential physical growth during the first years of life. III. Body composition].

    PubMed

    Rosales-López, A; Martínez-Meza, A; Sánchez-Aguilar, G; Chávez-Rojas, G; Guízar-Vázquez, J

    1992-12-01

    The present article report the results of longitudinally research, on growth children, of both sex and ages from 0 to 1 year of extrauterine life. We obtained measures that appraisal the muscular and fat tissues: upper arm and leg circumferences; muscle and fat of upper arm areas; triceps, subscapular and supra-iliac skinfolds. Moreover, we report relationship dates between weight and stature, which is a good indicator for morphological body equilibrium.

  5. Longitudinal Study of Sleep Behavior in Normal Infants during the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Oliviero; Baumgartner, Emma; Sette, Stefania; Ancona, Mario; Caso, Gianni; Di Cosimo, Maria Elisabetta; Mannini, Andrea; Ometto, Mariangela; Pasquini, Anna; Ulliana, Antonella; Ferri, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To longitudinally examine sleep patterns, habits, and parent-reported sleep problems during the first year of life. Methods: Seven hundred four parent/child pairs participated in a longitudinal cohort study. Structured interview recording general demographic data, feeding habits, intercurrent diseases, family history, sleep habits, and parental evaluation of the infant's sleep carried out at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months Results: Nocturnal, daytime, and total sleep duration showed a high inter-individual variability in the first year of life associated with changes in the first 6 months and stability from 6 to 12 months. Bedtime was at around 22:00 and remained stable at 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Approximately 20% of the infants had more than 2 awakenings and slept more often in the parent bed. Nearly 10% of the infants were considered as having a problematic sleep by parents and this significantly correlated with nocturnal awakenings and difficulties falling asleep. Conclusions: Sleep patterns change during the first year of life but most sleep variables (i.e., sleep latency and duration) show little variation from 6 to 12 months. Our data provide a context for clinicians to discuss sleep issues with parents and suggest that prevention efforts should focus to the first 3-6 months, since sleep patterns show stability from that time point to 12 months. Citation: Bruni O, Baumgartner E, Sette S, Ancona M, Caso G, Di Cosimo ME, Mannini A, Ometto M, Pasquini A, Ulliana A, Ferri R. Longitudinal study of sleep behavior in normal infants during the first year of life. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1119-1127. PMID:25317093

  6. Presence and Quality of Kindergarten Children's Friendships: Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations with Child Adjustment in the Early School Years.

    PubMed

    Engle, Jennifer M; McElwain, Nancy L; Lasky, Nicole

    2011-07-01

    The presence and quality of friendships are posited to have developmental significance, yet little is known about the extent to which children without friends versus low-quality friendships compare on socioemotional adjustment. The current study utilized data from a subsample of 567 children (289 boys) participating in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Based on maternal reports at kindergarten, four friendship groups were formed: no friends, low quality, average quality, and high quality, and these groups were used to predict teacher-reported behavior problems and social skills concurrently (in kindergarten) and longitudinally (in first and third grade). Concurrently, low-quality friendships were associated with greater externalizing behavior, whereas high-quality friendships were associated with greater social skills. Longitudinally, having no friends in kindergarten was associated with higher levels of externalizing behavior for boys, but lower levels for girls. Children without friends also showed more internalizing problems at first grade. Lastly, having a high-quality friendship in kindergarten was associated with greater social skills in first and third grades, but only for boys. Results underscore high-quality friendship as a context for the development of social skills and indicate different trajectories of problem behavior for kindergarten children with no friends versus low-quality friendships.

  7. Diseases Attributable to Asbestos Exposure: Years of Potential Life Lost, United States, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Ki Moon; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Wood, John M.; Hendricks, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although asbestos use has been restricted in recent decades, asbestos-associated deaths continue to occur in the United States. Objectives We evaluated premature mortality and loss of potentially productive years of life attributable to asbestos-associated diseases. Methods Using 1999–2010 National Center for Health Statistics mortality data, we identified decedents aged ≥25 years whose death certificate listed asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma as the underlying cause of death. We computed years of potential life lost to life expectancy (YPLL) and to age 65 (YPLL65). Results During 1999–2010, a total of 427,005 YPLL and 55,184 YPLL65 were attributed to asbestosis (56,907 YPLL and 2,167 YPLL65), malignant mesothelioma (370,098 YPPL and 53,017 YPLL65). Overall and disease-specific asbestos-attributable total YPLL and YPLL65 and median YPLL and YPLL65 per decedent did not change significantly from 1999 to 2010. Conclusions The continuing occurrence of asbestos-associated diseases and their substantial premature mortality burden underscore the need for maintaining prevention efforts and for ongoing surveillance to monitor temporal trends in these diseases. PMID:24108494

  8. 75 FR 9964 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2010 Mid-Year Adjustment to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Sections 31(b...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ...% (or more) greater or less than the actual aggregate dollar volume of sales for fiscal year 2010.\\8\\ To... fiscal year 2010. \\8\\ The amount $84,822,877,437,603 is the baseline estimate of the aggregate dollar... forecast of $5,777,749,094,716. 8. Repeat this procedure for subsequent months. B. Using the forecasts...

  9. Avoidable mortality measured by years of potential life lost (YPLL) aged 5 before 65 years in Kyrgyzstan, 1989-2003.

    PubMed

    Bozgunchievz, Maratbek; Ito, Katsuki

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable willingness in the entire medical society of Kyrgyzstan, which was directly involved in the reform process, to obtain reliable information about changes in population health that have occurred in the last decade, as well as about changes in mortality, which is the basic component of population health. The objective of this paper is to introduce the Year of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) in Kyrgyzstan caused by avoidable mortality in the population between 5 and 65 years of age during 1989-2003, and to provide a basis for setting the priorities for the reducing YPLL in the coming years. YPLL was calculated using data from the annual mortality tables according to causes of deaths and age for 1989, 1996, 1999 and 2003. YPLL is defined as the summation of the difference between 65 years of age and the age at death from the age of 5 and before 65. In 2003, the total number of YPLL due to avoidable mortality among those who died was 216,860, which represents a decline of 5.0% in comparison with 228,266 in 1989. During the study years, the largest proportion of YPLL in the population between 5 and 65 years of age resulted from injury and poisoning. In 2003, this proportion represented 41.5% of the total amount of YPLL due to all the causes studied here, followed by infections and parasitic diseases (12.0%), circulatory disturbance of the brain (11.5%), chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (11.4%), diseases of the respiratory system (9.2%), and malignant neoplasm of the upper airways and digestive tract (4.6%). The decline in avoidable mortality caused by injury and poisoning, infections disease, malignant neoplasm of the female breast and uterus has to be priority-driven direction for developing Health Policy in the coming years in Kyrgyzstan. Attention also has to be given to reducing of avoidable mortality caused by malignant neoplasm of the female breast by implementing screening programs.

  10. Life Stress and the Long-Term Treatment Course of Recurrent Depression: III. Nonsevere Life Events Predict Recurrence for Medicated Patients over 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott M.; Torres, Leandro D.; Guillaumot, Julien; Harkness, Kate L.; Roberts, John E.; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David

    2006-01-01

    Research has consistently documented the significance of severe life events for onset of major depression. Theory, however, suggests other forms of stress are relevant for depression's recurrence. Nonsevere life events were tested in relation to depression for 126 patients with recurrent depression in a 3-year randomized maintenance protocol. Life…

  11. Examination of Factors That Predict Academic Adjustment and Success of Community College Transfer Students in STEM at 4-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Carlos; Jones, Stephanie J.

    2017-01-01

    There are a limited number of individuals who possess the skills to fulfill the workforce demand in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) in the United States. Therefore, community colleges and 4-year institutions must be able to identify academic and social factors that impact students' participation in the areas of STEM. These…

  12. Satisfaction of life and late psycho-social outcome after severe brain injury: a nine-year follow-up study in Aquitaine.

    PubMed

    Mazaux, J M; Croze, P; Quintard, B; Rouxel, L; Joseph, P A; Richer, E; Debelleix, X; Barat, M

    2002-01-01

    In view of assessing their late outcome and satisfaction of life, 79 out of 158 severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) patients who received inpatient rehabilitation in Aquitaine in 1993 were followed by phone interview. Results showed that 9 years on average after their injury, 65 to 85% of these patients were independent for daily living, whereas 35 to 55% only were independent in social life. Most of the patients were satisfied with their autonomy (67%), family life (66%) and financial status (41%), but they were dissatisfied with leisures (36%), vocational adjustment (28%) and sexual life (32%). Satisfaction of life was mostly related to age, gender, physical autonomy, need of help because of cognitive impairment and functional outcome as assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) stands in industrialised countries as a major Public Health problem and a dreadful human drama for the patients, their families and the community [2]. A great number of STBI patients survive with severe disability, most of them being young adults. The most severely impaired may live only with their parents or in high-cost nursing homes. From a psychological point of view, STBI causes a total and sudden breakdown of the mental states, personality and conditions of life. Life plans and projects are definitively disrupted, satisfaction of life is deeply changed. Rehabilitation aims at improving functional outcome of persons with STBI, and at improving their overall quality of life. Planning for rehabilitation and re-entry into community of STBI patients need to be provided with precise data on their late outcome and disability level. Despite that the concepts of quality and satisfaction of life are difficult to define and moreover to assess, these are also major factors to take into account. The aims of the present study were to assess the late psycho-social outcome of patients hospitalized in Aquitaine for rehabilitation of a STBI 7 to 10 years after their

  13. Early Adolescents' Unique Perspectives of Maternal and Paternal Rejection: Examining Their Across-Dyad Generalizability and Relations with AdjustmentYear Later.

    PubMed

    Jager, Justin; Mahler, Alissa; An, Danming; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Skinner, Ann T; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2016-10-01

    Parental rejection is linked to deep and enduring adjustment problems during adolescence. This study aims to further clarify this relation by demonstrating what has long been posited by parental acceptance/rejection theory but never validated empirically-namely that adolescents' unique or subjective experience of parental rejection independently informs their future adjustment. Among a longitudinal, multi-informant sample of 161 families (early adolescents were 47 % female and 40 % European American) this study utilized a multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis to isolate for each early adolescent-parent dyad, the adolescent's distinct view of parental rejection (i.e., the adolescent unique perspective) from the portion of his or her view that overlaps with his or her parent's view. The findings indicated that adolescents' unique perspectives of maternal rejection were not differentiated from their unique perspectives of paternal rejection. Also, consistent with parental acceptance-rejection theory, early adolescents' unique perspectives of parental rejection were associated with worse adjustment (internalizing and externalizing) 1 year later. This study further demonstrates the utility and validity of the multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis approach for identifying and examining adolescent unique perspectives. Both conceptually and analytically, this study also integrates research focused on unique perspectives with a distinct but related line of research focused on discrepancies in perspectives.

  14. An Exploratory Study of Resting Cardiac Rate and Variability from the Last Trimester of Prenatal Life Through the First Year of Postnatal Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; And Others

    1970-01-01

    The data indicate no relationship between maternal and fetal data. Moreover, there are clear developmental patterns of resting cardiac response over the first year of life, with rate and variability showing linear decreases. (Author/WY)

  15. Quality of life after laparoscopic gastric banding: Prospective study (152 cases) with a follow-up of 2 years.

    PubMed

    Champault, Axèle; Duwat, Olivier; Polliand, Claude; Rizk, Nabil; Champault, Gérard G

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate influence of laparoscopic gastric banding (LGB) on quality of life (QOL) in patients with morbid obesity. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is a popular bariatric operation in Europe. The objectives of surgical therapy in patients with morbid obesity are reduction of body weight, and a positive influence on the obesity-related comorbidity as well the concomitant psychologic and social restrictions of these patients. In a prospective clinical trial, development of the individual patient QOL was analyzed, after LGB in patients with morbid obesity. From October 1999 to January 2001, 152 patients [119 women, 33 men, mean age 38.4 y (range 24 to 62), mean body mass index 44.3 (range 38 to 63)] underwent evaluation for LGB according the following protocol: history of obesity; concise counseling of patients and relative on nonsurgical treatment alternatives, risk of surgery, psychologic testing, questionnaire for eating habits, necessity of lifestyle change after surgery; medical evaluation including endocrinologic and nutritionist work-up, upper GI endoscopy, evaluation of QOL using the Gastro Intestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Decision for surgery was a multidisciplinary consensus. This group was follow-up at least 2 years, focusing on weight loss and QOL. Mean operative time was 82 minutes; mean hospital stay was 2.3 days and the mean follow-up period was 34 months. The BMI dropped from 44.3 to 29.6 kg/m and all comorbid conditions improved markedly: diabetes melitus resolved in 71% of the patients, hypertension in 33%, and sleep apnea in 90%. However, 26 patients (17%) had late complications requiring reoperation. Preoperative global GIQLI score was 95 (range 56 to 140), significant different of the healthy volunteers score (120) (70 to 140) P < 0.001. Correlated with weight loss (percentage loss of overweight and BMI), the global score of the group increased to 100 at 3 months, 104 at 6, 111 at 1 year to reach 119 at 2 years which is no

  16. Insomnia, Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Outcomes in Children: A Seven Year Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Shetty, Safal; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia is common in children, and is associated with decreased school performance and increased psychopathology. Although adult insomnia is linked to worsened health-related quality of life (HRQOL), there is insufficient data evaluating insomnia and HRQOL in children. We examined the HRQOL and health associations of insomnia in a longitudinal cohort of 194 children (96 girls, age at study start 8.7 ± 1.6 years, age at data analysis 15.0 ± 1.8 years) over 7 years. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition (ICSD2) derived insomnia was seen intermittently in 27% of children, and was persistent in 4%. Children reporting ICSD2-derived insomnia had lower HRQOL. Additionally, the presence of insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medical condition (intermittent insomnia odds ratio 5.9 [95% CI 1.3–26.7, p = 0.04], persistent insomnia odds ratio 8 [95% CI 2.3–27.7, p = 0.001]). Persistent ICSD2-derived insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medication (odds ratio 4.9 (95% CI 1.0–23.6), p = 0.049), and reporting a new psychiatric medication (odds ratio 13.7, 95% CI: 2.6–73.5, p = 0.002). These associations were present even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. Insomnia in children is associated with worsened HRQOL and health outcomes. PMID:27295263

  17. [Quality of life of over 60-year-old patients with breast and uterine carcinoma, 5 years after primary operation].

    PubMed

    Neises, M; Soedradjat, F; Strittmatter, H J; Wischnik, A; Melchert, F

    1996-01-01

    In the 5-year follow-up period, we studied the quality of life of 145 patients who were at least 60 years old at the time of primary operation. Of the patients, 70 women had breast cancer and 75 endometrium cancer. We used the questionnaire "short form health survey: medical outcomes study". The areas which were analyzed were stress due to therapy, body image/femininity and social contacts. The Karnofsky-Index was determined by the physician. In both groups, most stress was felt due to the operation and at the first knowledge of the diagnosis. In the area of emotional stress 1/3 of the patients of both groups declared continuous stress due to feelings of fear, helplessness and passivity. In the area of body image/femininity half the patients with breast cancer and 2/3 with endometrial cancer felt stress. In the area of social contact 2/3 of the patients felt uncertainty in contact with others and this led to social retreat in 1/3 of the women. The Karnofsky-Index of all patients was between 50-100%. Our study supports the view that older patients with cancer should also be offered psychosocial counseling.

  18. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Effective June 25, 1970, a 5-year level premium term policy which lapsed for nonpayment of the premium due... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Renewal of Term...

  19. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Effective June 25, 1970, a 5-year level premium term policy which lapsed for nonpayment of the premium due... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Renewal of Term...

  20. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Effective June 25, 1970, a 5-year level premium term policy which lapsed for nonpayment of the premium due... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Renewal of Term...

  1. Seven-Year Life Outcomes of Adolescent Offenders in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Morral, Andrew R.; Becker, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined important life outcomes for adolescent offenders to describe how they were faring in young adulthood. Methods. We assessed 449 adolescent offenders (aged 13–17 years) in Los Angeles, CA, whose cases had been adjudicated by the Los Angeles Superior Court and who had been referred to group homes between February 1999 and May 2000. We used the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs to interview respondents at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, 72, and 87 months after baseline. A total of 395 respondents (88%) were interviewed or confirmed as dead at the final interview. Results. At final interview, 12 respondents had died, 7 of them from gunshot wounds. Thirty-six percent of respondents reported recent hard drug use, and 27% reported 5 or more symptoms of substance dependence. Sixty-six percent reported committing an illegal activity within the previous year, 37% reported being arrested within the previous year, and 25% reported being in jail or prison every day for the previous 90 days. Fifty-eight percent had completed high school or obtained a GED, and 63% reported working at a job in the previous year. Conclusions. The high rates of negative life outcomes presented here suggest the need for more effective rehabilitation programs for juvenile offenders. PMID:19299674

  2. The quest for identity in adolescence: Heterogeneity in daily identity formation and psychosocial adjustment across 5 years.

    PubMed

    Becht, Andrik I; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Branje, Susan J T; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Koot, Hans M; Denissen, Jaap J A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-12-01

    Identity formation is one of the key developmental tasks in adolescence. According to Erikson (1968) experiencing identity uncertainty is normative in adolescence. However, empirical studies investigating identity uncertainty on a daily basis are lacking. Hence, studying individual differences in daily certainty (i.e., identity commitment levels) and uncertainty (i.e., identity commitment fluctuations and identity reconsideration) in the identity formation process may advance our knowledge about the extent to which adolescents' identity uncertainty is part of normative identity development. Therefore, this longitudinal study examined heterogeneity in certainty and uncertainty dynamics of adolescents' daily identity formation using a longitudinal microlevel approach. Dutch adolescents (N = 494; Mage = 13.03 years at T1; 56.7% boys) reported on 2 key dimensions of identity formation (i.e., commitment and reconsideration) in both the educational and interpersonal domain on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year, across 5 successive years. Multivariate latent class growth analyses suggested both in the educational and interpersonal identity domain a class of adolescents displaying a "crisis-like" identity formation process, and an "identity synthesis" class. Classes revealed differential development of (global and school) anxiety, aggression, and best friend support. Taken together, the present study confirmed Erikson's notion that experiencing daily identity uncertainty is common during adolescence. However, a substantial amount of adolescents also showed a process toward identity maturation already during adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities.

  4. Everyday Interactions with University Authorities: Authority Treatment Quality, Outcome Favorability and First-Year Students’ University Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heather J.; Olson, Gerryann; Agronick, Gail; Tyler, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve first-year undergraduates completed an authority interaction checklist every time they had a (self-defined) meaningful interaction with university authorities during the first two weeks of their first semester. Students’ degree of university identification before they began the term moderated the influence of campus authorities’ treatment quality on academic engagement three months later. These longitudinal data provide support for the argument that people who identify with the group the authority represents will interpret the authority’s behavior as indicative of their value to the group. PMID:20228896

  5. Quality of life in families of Croatian veterans 15 years after the war.

    PubMed

    Zdjelarević, Ana; Komar, Zoran; Loncar, Mladen; Plasć, Ivana Dijanić; Hrabac, Pero; Groznica, Ivana; Marcinko, Darko

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war trauma with its consequences such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and disability due to combat injuries poses a significant problem for modern Croatian society. However, this is also a public health problem requiring continuous study of effective treatment strategies to achieve an increase in quality of life of most war-affected groups. Aim of this study was to examine the quality of life of population most affected by war - families of Croatian veterans. Present study included 126 female participants, who agreed to complete physical and psychiatric examination organized by the Ministry of Family, War Veterans and Intergenerational Solidarity. Included were participants with status of either wife of war veteran suffering from PTSD, wife who lost her husband in war circumstances or wife of war veteran with physical disabilities resulting from war activities. All three groups were asked to fill out the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire - short form (WHOQOL-BREF). Results indicate that assumed intensity of secondary trauma is not associated with quality of life. Namely, the highest level of satisfaction was found in wives of the most seriously affected invalids of war (M=3.77; sd=0.741), folowed by the wives of deceased soldiers (M=3.5; sd= 0.697), while the lowest quality of life results were found in wives of veterans suffering from PTSD (M=3.12; sd=0.608). Our results confirm that, nearly 15 years after the war, wives of disabled or killed Croatian soldiers have a (comparatively) satisfactory quality of their everyday lives, compared to the wives of veterans suffering from PTSD.

  6. Group-based parent-training programmes for improving emotional and behavioural adjustment in children from birth to three years old

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jane; Smailagic, Nadja; Ferriter, Michael; Bennett, Cathy; Jones, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Emotional and behavioural problems in children are common. Research suggests that parenting has an important role to play in helping children to become well-adjusted, and that the first few months and years are especially important. Parenting programmes may have a role to play in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of infants and toddlers. This review is applicable to parents and carers of children up to three years eleven months although some studies included children up to five years old. Objectives To: establish whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of children three years of age or less (i.e. maximum mean age of 3 years 11 months);assess the role of parenting programmes in the primary prevention of emotional and behavioural problems. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociofile, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, National Research Register (NRR) and ERIC. The searches were originally run in 2000 and then updated in 2007/8. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of group-based parenting programmes that had used at least one standardised instrument to measure emotional and behavioural adjustment. Data collection and analysis The results for each outcome in each study have been presented, with 95% confidence intervals. Where appropriate the results have been combined in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Main results Eight studies were included in the review. There were sufficient data from six studies to combine the results in a meta-analysis for parent-reports and from three studies to combine the results for independent assessments of children’s behaviour post-intervention. There was in addition, sufficient information from three studies to conduct a meta-analysis of both parent-report and independent follow-up data. Both parent-report (SMD −0.25; CI −0.45 to −0.06), and independent observations (SMD

  7. Relationship between tongue strength and 1-year life expectancy in elderly people needing nursing care.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Yuri; Kikutani, Takeshi; Tamura, Fumiyo; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-01-05

    Tongue strength is a useful indicator of oral function and has been found to decrease with aging and reduced physical functioning. The present study aimed to assess the relationships of tongue strength with physical function, mental function, and nutritional status, and also between these factors and 1-year outcomes, to determine whether tongue strength is related to life expectancy in elderly people needing nursing care. The subjects were 140 elderly individuals requiring needing nursing care (49 men and 91 women; ≥65 years). The investigated items included sex, age, activities of daily living (ADL), comorbidity, cognitive function, nutritional status, eating function, occlusal support, and tongue strength. Furthermore, a follow-up study was conducted 1 year later, and factors related to death were identified. The mean tongue strength of the total 140 subjects was 20.3 ± 8.6 kPa. Tongue strength was assessed relative to each of the investigated items, using the t test and one-way analysis of variance. Tongue strength was significantly related to ADL, comorbidity, cognitive function, calf circumference, food intake, and occlusal support. Fifteen subjects were found to have died at the 1-year follow-up study. We assessed the relationships of 1-year outcomes with each of the factors examined, and 1-year outcomes were found to be significantly related to ADL and tongue strength.

  8. Can infant lung function predict respiratory morbidity during the first year of life in preterm infants?

    PubMed

    Proietti, Elena; Riedel, Thomas; Fuchs, Oliver; Pramana, Isabelle; Singer, Florian; Schmidt, Anne; Kuehni, Claudia; Latzin, Philipp; Frey, Urs

    2014-06-01

    Compared with term-born infants, preterm infants have increased respiratory morbidity in the first year of life. We investigated whether lung function tests performed near term predict subsequent respiratory morbidity during the first year of life and compared this to standard clinical parameters in preterms. The prospective birth cohort included randomly selected preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Lung function (tidal breathing and multiple-breath washout) was measured at 44 weeks post-menstrual age during natural sleep. We assessed respiratory morbidity (wheeze, hospitalisation, inhalation and home oxygen therapy) after 1 year using a standardised questionnaire. We first assessed the association between lung function and subsequent respiratory morbidity. Secondly, we compared the predictive power of standard clinical predictors with and without lung function data. In 166 preterm infants, tidal volume, time to peak tidal expiratory flow/expiratory time ratio and respiratory rate were significantly associated with subsequent wheeze. In comparison with standard clinical predictors, lung function did not improve the prediction of later respiratory morbidity in an individual child. Although associated with later wheeze, noninvasive infant lung function shows large physiological variability and does not add to clinically relevant risk prediction for subsequent respiratory morbidity in an individual preterm.

  9. Forms of vitality play and symbolic play during the third year of life.

    PubMed

    Español, Silvia; Bordoni, Mariana; Martínez, Mauricio; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    This article focuses on the development of forms of vitality play, a recently described type of play, and links it to the development of symbolic play, one of the most studied types of play in developmental psychology. Two adult-infant dyads were videotaped longitudinally during in-house free play meetings every 15 days during the third year of life. Convergence technique was applied in order to accelerate the longitudinal study. A total of 17h 48min were registered in 28 sessions. An observational code with categories of forms of vitality play (a non-figurative play frame in which child and adult play together with the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form), symbolic play, and categories of combined patterns of both types of play was applied. The rate of each play was calculated for different age periods. Forms of vitality play is present at a constant rate during the third year of life. Symbolic play flourishes during this period. Combined play patterns are not the most frequent but are present from the beginning to the end of the third year. We suggest that FoVP favours intimate and intersubjective experiences essential to the understanding and the development of the interpersonal world; that it can be thought of as a good runway for the development of symbolic play; and that it prepares the child to participate in the temporal arts that belong to his culture.

  10. Rat Kidney Cancers Determined by Dietary Ochratoxin A in the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    An experiment to explore renal carcinogenic efficacy of male rat exposure to dietary ochratoxin A (OTA) only in the first year of life has been made in comparison to lifetime exposure. Ten months exposure to OTA at 300 µg/kg b.w. was sufficient to cause high incidence of tumours which became apparent clinically after a latency of up to a year. As a putative model for human kidney cancer, the study shows a silent organ-specific carcinogenic effect through protracted exposure up to middle age and focused probably on very few nephrons. So far, tumourigenesis has not been recognised until in the last quarter of natural rat life, but for OTA, rat renal carcinogenesis requires both long exposure and only during the first year of normal longevity. The present findings offer an experimental framework within which systematic histopathology during tumourigenesis might show whether findings of mechanistic studies in key focal neoplasms can reasonably be applied to OTA as a putative renal carcinogen for idiopathic kidney cancer in humans. Already, the rat tumours mimic those occurring spontaneously in the Eker rat, and there is disparity between the large necessary OTA exposure in the rat and the trace amounts of OTA consumed by humans. In all such complex considerations it is important to adhere rigorously to established principles of disease epidemiology. PMID:28326281

  11. Subjective Evaluation of Life Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Alan F.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Surveyed medical/surgical patients concerning life events during the preceding year. Subjective evaluations of events were obtained for dimensions of desirability, adjustment, anticipation, and control. Psychological impairment was associated with subjective evaluations, specifically desirability and adjustment. Inclusion of anticipation and…

  12. Extracorporeal Life Support for Refractory Cardiac Arrest or Shock: A 10-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Jennifer; Valette, Xavier; Ivascau, Calin; Lehoux, Philippe; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Dalibert, Yves; Masson, Romain; Sabatier, Remi; Buklas, Dimitrios; Seguin, Amélie; Terzi, Nicolas; du Cheyron, Damien; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Daubin, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to identify factors associated with hospital mortality among patients receiving extracorporeal life support (ECLS). All consecutive patients treated with ECLS for refractory cardiac arrest or shock in the Caen University Hospital in northwestern France during the last decade were included in a retrospective cohort study. Sixty-four patients were included: 29 with refractory cardiac arrest and 35 with refractory shock. The main reasons for ECLS were acute coronary syndrome (n = 23) and severe poisoning caused by drug intoxication (n = 19). At ECLS initiation, the left ventricular ejection fraction was 16% (±11). Initial blood test results were arterial pH = 7.19 (±0.20) and plasma lactate = 8.02 (±5.88) mmol/L. Forty (63%) patients died including 33 under ECLS. In a multivariate analysis, two factors were independently associated with survival: drug intoxication as the reason for ECLS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.07; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.01-0.28; p < 0.001) and arterial pH (an increase of 0.1 point [AOR, 0.013; 95% CI, <0.001-0.27; p < 0.01]). This study supports early ECLS as a last resort therapeutic option in a highly selected group of patients with refractory cardiac arrest or shock, in particular before profound acidosis occurs and when the cause is reversible.

  13. Is breast feeding a risk factor for eczema during the first year of life?

    PubMed

    Sariachvili, Manana; Droste, Jos; Dom, Sandra; Wieringa, Marjan; Vellinga, Akke; Hagendorens, Margo; Bridts, Chris; Stevens, Wim; Sprundel, Marc Van; Desager, Kristine; Weyler, Joost

    2007-08-01

    Breast feeding (BF) provides many advantages to the offspring; however, at present there is an ongoing debate as to whether or not it prevents allergic diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of duration of BF on eczema in the first year of life. A birth cohort of 1128 infants was followed prospectively from 5 months of pregnancy. Data were collected using questionnaires, a medical examination and blood tests for allergy at the age of 1 yr. Breast feeding was not statistically significant associated with eczema in the first year of life [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 0.8 (0.4-1.3), 0.8 (0.5-1.3) and 1.0 (0.6-1.5) for BF duration of 1-6 wk, 7-12 wk and > or = 13 wk, respectively]. Eczema was positively associated with atopy and educational level of the mother, use of antibiotics in pregnancy and passive smoking by the child during the first 12 months. Regular postnatal contact of the infants with dogs was inversely associated with eczema. Breast feeding was positively associated with eczema among children with non-atopic parents [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 2.1 (0.4-10.6), 2.2 (0.4-11.3) and 1.9 (0.4-8.5) for BF duration of 1-6 wk, 7-12 wk and > or = 13 wk, respectively], whereas an inverse association was found among children with atopic parents [adj ORs with 95% CIs: 0.6 (0.3-1.3), 0.7 (0.3-1.4) and 0.9 (0.5-1.7) for the same BF durations]. However, these associations were not statistically significant. Breast feeding has no significant effect on the prevalence of eczema in the first year of life. The effect of BF on eczema in children depends on parental atopy.

  14. A year in the life of German patients with COPD: the DACCORD observational study

    PubMed Central

    Buhl, Roland; Criée, Carl-Peter; Kardos, Peter; Vogelmeier, Claus; Lossi, Nadine; Mailänder, Claudia; Worth, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Randomized interventional trials generally recruit highly selected patients. In contrast, long-term, noninterventional studies can reflect standard of care of real-life populations. DACCORD (Die ambulante Versorgung mit langwirksamen Bronchodilatatoren: COPD-Register in Deutschland [Outpatient Care With Long-Acting Bronchodilators: COPD Registry in Germany]) is an ongoing observational study, conducted in primary and secondary care in Germany, aiming to describe the impact of disease and treatments on real-life patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Patients had a clinical and spirometry diagnosis of COPD, were aged ≥40 years, and were initiating or changing COPD maintenance medication. The only exclusion criteria were asthma and participation in a randomized clinical trial. Exacerbation data were collected every 3 months. COPD medication, COPD Assessment Test, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were recorded at the end of the 1 year period. Results In the 6 months prior to baseline, 26.5% of the 3,974 patients experienced ≥1 exacerbation, compared with 26.1% over the 1-year follow-up (annualized rate 0.384). Importantly, only previous exacerbations and not poor lung function alone predicted an increased exacerbation risk. There was a general shift to lower disease severity from baseline to 1 year, predominantly as a consequence of a lower proportion of patients considered at high risk due to exacerbations. COPD Assessment Test mean change from baseline was −1.9, with 48.9% of patients reporting a clinically relevant improvement. Overall persistence to medication was high, with 77.2% of patients still receiving the same class of medication at 1 year. Conclusion DACCORD suggests that in clinical practice, the large majority of COPD patients are symptomatic but seldom exacerbate and that widely used tools and treatment recommendations do not reflect this fully. PMID:27499620

  15. The shadow of the future: 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, adjust their sharing in anticipation of reciprocation.

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation can be maintained if individuals reciprocate favors over repeated interactions. However, it is not known when during development the psychological capacities to engage in contingent reciprocation emerge. Therefore, we tested when children begin to differentiate between reciprocal and nonreciprocal interactions in their resource sharing. We compared the sharing behavior of 3- and 5-year-olds in two situations. In an experimental condition, the child and a puppet partner alternated the roles of donor and recipient. In a control condition, the puppet had no opportunity to reciprocate. Results showed that 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, increased their sharing toward a potential reciprocator. In addition, we found that children's ability to delay gratification was positively related to their tendency to share in both conditions. These findings show that reciprocity in anticipation of repeated interactions emerges during middle childhood. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of the ability to delay gratification as a prerequisite for children's sharing. We discuss how children's emerging cognitive abilities enable reciprocal sharing in situations where a child must react to or anticipate a partner's behavior.

  16. Adjustment to Acute Leukemia: The Impact of Social Support and Marital Satisfaction on Distress and Quality of Life Among Newly Diagnosed Patients and Their Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Pailler, Megan E; Johnson, Teresa M; Kuszczak, Sarah; Attwood, Kristopher M; Zevon, Michael A; Griffiths, Elizabeth; Thompson, James; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the specific patterns of adjustment among newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients and their caregivers. This study examined the trajectories of patient and caregiver distress over time as well as the extent to which marital satisfaction and social support moderated these trajectories among those with significant-other caregivers. Forty six patient-caregiver dyads provided ratings at four time points: within 1 week of diagnosis (T1), 2 week follow-up (T2), 6 week follow-up (T3) and 12 week follow-up (T4). As anticipated, patients and caregivers reported higher levels of distress around the time of diagnosis than they did during subsequent time points. Marital satisfaction was a significant predictor of distress among patients, whereas among caregivers, social support predicted distress and quality of life. Results support the inclusion of relational variables such as social support and relationship satisfaction in the assessment of newly diagnosed patients and families in order to best identify those at risk for distress over time.

  17. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  18. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  19. Novel coronary heart disease risk factors at 60-64 years and life course socioeconomic position: the 1946 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rebecca; Hardy, Rebecca; Sattar, Naveed; Deanfield, John E; Hughes, Alun; Kuh, Diana; Murray, Emily T; Whincup, Peter H; Thomas, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Social disadvantage across the life course is associated with a greater risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and with established CHD risk factors, but less is known about whether novel CHD risk factors show the same patterns. The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development was used to investigate associations between occupational socioeconomic position during childhood, early adulthood and middle age and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), endothelial function (E-selectin, tissue-plasminogen activator), adipocyte function (leptin, adiponectin) and pancreatic beta cell function (proinsulin) measured at 60-64 years. Life course models representing sensitive periods, accumulation of risk and social mobility were compared with a saturated model to ascertain the nature of the relationship between social class across the life course and each of these novel CHD risk factors. For interleukin-6 and leptin, low childhood socioeconomic position alone was associated with high risk factor levels at 60-64 years, while for C-reactive protein and proinsulin, cumulative effects of low socioeconomic position in both childhood and early adulthood were associated with higher (adverse) risk factor levels at 60-64 years. No associations were observed between socioeconomic position at any life period with either endothelial marker or adiponectin. Associations for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, leptin and proinsulin were reduced considerably by adjustment for body mass index and, to a lesser extent, cigarette smoking. In conclusion, socioeconomic position in early life is an important determinant of several novel CHD risk factors. Body mass index may be an important mediator of these relationships.

  20. Years off your life? The effects of homicide on life expectancy by neighborhood and race/ethnicity in Los Angeles county.

    PubMed

    Redelings, Matthew; Lieb, Loren; Sorvillo, Frank

    2010-07-01

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County and is known to be elevated in low-income urban neighborhoods and in black males. However, because homicide occurs primarily among young adults, mortality rate statistics may underrepresent its importance. We estimated the impact of homicide on life expectancy by demographic group and geographic area in Los Angeles County, 2001-2006. Life expectancy estimates were calculated using mortality records and population estimates for Los Angeles County. Cause elimination techniques were used to estimate the impact of homicide on life expectancy. Homicide was estimated to reduce life expectancy by 0.4 years for Los Angeles County residents and by 2.1 years for black males. The impact of homicide on life expectancy was higher in low-income neighborhoods. In some low-income urban neighborhoods, homicide was estimated to decrease life expectancy in black males by nearly 5 years. Homicide causes substantial reductions in life expectancy in Los Angeles County. Its impact is magnified among black males and in low-income urban areas, underscoring the need for homicide reduction in urban centers.

  1. Living with thalidomide: health status and quality of life at 40 years.

    PubMed

    Bent, N; Tennant, A; Neumann, V; Chamberlain, M A

    2007-06-01

    children. Almost half (46%) were in work, but 32% reported they were permanently unable to work because of disability. Current levels of impairment were found to be similar across groups defined by the original compensation band. In contrast, the activity limitation measures showed a steep gradient across bands but only 37% considered themselves disabled. Nevertheless, despite the restriction in activities for some, levels of participation were similar across bands; likewise simple summary items on health status and quality of life were similar and 70% reported their quality of life (QoL) was good or better than good. Yet nine in ten believed that their body was less flexible than in the past. Almost as many reported they were less able to carry things. It turns out that when compensation bands were grouped (1 - 3, 4 - 5) to highlight those most severely affected according to the original assessment, then those in the higher band grouping reported significantly more musculoskeletal problems, high levels of fatigue and increasing dependency and feelings of vulnerability. It is clear that the original ranking of disability severity, as expressed through the compensation, bands (allocated in early childhood in most cases), is consistent with current ranking of limitations in activity and participation. Nevertheless, despite high levels of disability amongst some survivors, lifelong adjustments to the original impairments have resulted in more than two thirds reporting at least a good quality of life. However, survivors expressed increasing concern about emerging musculoskeletal and other problems which may compromise hard-won independence.

  2. Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Landa, Rebecca J

    2008-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a class of neurodevelopmental disorders defined by qualitative impairments in social functioning and communication, often accompanied by repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests. The term 'ASD' encompasses autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, and Asperger's syndrome. ASDs show etiologic heterogeneity, and there is no definitive medical test or cure for these conditions. Around 1 in 150 children have an ASD, with males being affected three to four times more frequently than females. The age at diagnosis of ASD ranges from 3 to 6 years, but there is increasing evidence that diagnosis in the second year of life is possible in some children. Early diagnosis will lead to earlier behavior-based intervention, which is associated with improvements in core areas, such as social functioning and communication. Early detection of-and intervention to treat-ASD is crucial because it is likely to lead to an improved outcome.

  3. A Mechanistic Approach to Cross-Domain Perceptual Narrowing in the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Hillary; Rost, Gwyneth C.; Fava, Eswen; Scott, Lisa S.

    2014-01-01

    Language and face processing develop in similar ways during the first year of life. Early in the first year of life, infants demonstrate broad abilities for discriminating among faces and speech. These discrimination abilities then become tuned to frequently experienced groups of people or languages. This process of perceptual development occurs between approximately 6 and 12 months of age and is largely shaped by experience. However, the mechanisms underlying perceptual development during this time, and whether they are shared across domains, remain largely unknown. Here, we highlight research findings across domains and propose a top-down/bottom-up processing approach as a guide for future research. It is hypothesized that perceptual narrowing and tuning in development is the result of a shift from primarily bottom-up processing to a combination of bottom-up and top-down influences. In addition, we propose word learning as an important top-down factor that shapes tuning in both the speech and face domains, leading to similar observed developmental trajectories across modalities. Importantly, we suggest that perceptual narrowing/tuning is the result of multiple interacting factors and not explained by the development of a single mechanism. PMID:25521763

  4. ``Long-life`` aluminium brazing alloys for automotive radiators -- a ten-year retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.C.; Woods, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    A class of corrosion-resistant brazing sheet materials, generally referred to as ``long-life alloys,`` has been in widespread use in brazed aluminum automobile radiators for over ten years. K319 tube material was initially introduced in 1986 to address the problem of road-salt-induced, outside-in corrosion of tubes in vacuum-brazed aluminum radiators, The development history, metallurgy, and field performance of long-life radiator brazing sheet are reviewed. This material utilizes the familiar sacrificial layer concept to improve corrosion resistance; however, it is unusual in that the layer is not introduced by conventional cladding means during sheet manufacture, but rather develops in situ by metallurgical transformations which occur during the brazing cycle. The sacrificial layer, about 25 mV anodic to the core alloy, increases by an order of magnitude the time-to-perforation of radiator tube sheet tested in cyclic acidified salt spray (SWAAT), which mimics the corrosion morphology observed in the field. Radiators examined after ten years of field service show excellent corrosion resistance, as predicted by SWAAT.

  5. Postnatal testosterone levels and disorder relevant behavior in the second year of life.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Janet; Alexander, Gerianne M

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the relationship between testosterone collected at 3-4 months of age and sex-linked disorder-relevant behaviors in the second year of life. Eighty-four children participated at 3-4 (when salivary testosterone levels were obtained and second to fourth digit ratios were measured) and 18-24 months of age (when behavioral ratings of aggression and verbal ability were coded from two 8-min play sessions). Parents also completed the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, and the four subscales (Internalizing, Externalizing, Dysregulation, and Autism Spectrum Disorder) were used to indicate child specific problems. Greater postnatal testosterone levels in early infancy were predictive of more male-typical behaviors in the second year of life (i.e., more autism spectrum behaviors, less time vocalizing, and more Internalizing Problems). These results support the hypothesis that early infancy may be another critical period for the development of gender-linked behavior.

  6. Association between child cortisol levels in saliva and neuropsychological development during the second year of life.

    PubMed

    Forns, Joan; Vegas, Oscar; Julvez, Jordi; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Rivera, Marcela; Lertxundi, Nerea; Guxens, Mònica; Fano, Eduardo; Ferrer, Muriel; Grellier, James; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to highly elevated levels of cortisol has been linked with impairments in cognitive capacities in both children and adults. By contrast, moderate levels of cortisol may engender beneficial effects. The main aim of this study was to assess the association between child cortisol levels and neuropsychological development during the second year of life. A population-based birth cohort was established in the city of Sabadell (Catalonia, Spain) as part of the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Project. We assessed the cognitive and psychomotor development at the age of 14 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). We included 302 children assessed during their second year of life for whom we had information on neuropsychological assessment and measurements of cortisol in saliva. Higher levels of cortisol were associated with better scores in BSID's mental scale. There was no association between cortisol levels and psychomotor test scores. We found a small positive association between duration of breastfeeding and child cortisol levels. This association was only found in boys. The results of this study suggest that moderate levels of cortisol in children could have small beneficial effects on their early neuropsychological development.

  7. Quality of life after open-heart surgery in patients over 75 years old.

    PubMed

    Chocron, S; Rude, N; Dussaucy, A; Leplege, A; Clement, F; Alwan, K; Viel, J F; Etievent, J P

    1996-01-01

    In a postal study we used the Nottingham Health Profile questionnaire to assess the quality of life of elderly survivors of open-heart surgery. From January 1984 to October 1993, 146 patients over 75 years of age underwent open-heart surgery in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at Beasançon (France). Eleven patients (7. 5%) died in the immediate post-operative course. Patients' mean follow-up was 3.4 +/- 2.4 years. Fourteen patients died during follow-up. One hundred and four completed Nottingham Health Profile questionnaires were returned. Five per cent of the patients lived in an old people's home. Six per cent of the patients were unable to walk at all. One patient out of five felt isolated. Fifteen per cent of the patients were in constant pain. Half of the patients took sleeping pills. Conversely, 87% of the patients felt an improvement after surgery. Sixty-two per cent continued to drive. Ninety-seven patients (92%) did at least one of the following three activities: watched television, listened to the radio, read books or magazines. Fifty-eight patients (56%) walked on a regular basis. The different types of pathology, of surgical procedures and whether or not a pacemaker was implanted during the post-operative course were not reflected in the quality of life (QOL) scores. After cardiac surgery, most of the patients were physically autonomous and related to their exterior world.

  8. Episodic Heavy Drinking and 20-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Analyses of moderate drinking have focused overwhelmingly on average consumption, which masks diverse underlying drinking patterns. This study examined the association between episodic heavy drinking and total mortality among moderate-drinking older adults. Methods At baseline, the sample was comprised of 446 adults aged 55 to 65: 74 moderate drinkers who engaged in episodic heavy drinking and 372 regular moderate drinkers. The database at baseline also included a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Death across a 20-year follow-up period was confirmed primarily by death certificate. Results In multiple logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for all covariates, as well as overall alcohol consumption, moderate drinkers who engaged in episodic heavy drinking had more than two times higher odds of 20-year mortality in comparison to regular moderate drinkers. Conclusions Among older moderate drinkers, those who engage in episodic heavy drinking show significantly increased total mortality risk compared to regular moderate drinkers. Episodic heavy drinking—even when average consumption remains moderate—is a significant public health concern. PMID:24588326

  9. Mid-life occupational grade and quality of life following retirement: a 16-year follow-up of the French GAZEL study

    PubMed Central

    Platts, Loretta G.; Webb, Elizabeth; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This article aims to contribute to the literature on life course influences upon quality of life by examining pathways linking social position in middle age to quality of life following retirement in French men and women. Method: Data are from the GAZEL cohort study of employees at the French national gas and electricity company. A finely grained measure of occupational grade in 1989 was obtained from company records. Annual self-completion questionnaires provided information on quality of life in 2005, measured with the CASP-19 scale, and on participants’ recent circumstances 2002–2005: mental health, physical functioning, wealth, social status, neighbourhood characteristics, social support and social participation. Path analysis using full information maximum likelihood estimation was performed on 11,293 retired participants. Results: Higher occupational grade in 1989 was associated, in a graded relationship, with better quality of life 16 years later. This association was accounted for by individuals’ more recent circumstances, particularly their social status, mental health, physical functioning and wealth. Conclusion: The graded relationship between occupational grade in mid-life and quality of life after labour market exit was largely accounted for by more recent socio-economic circumstances and state of health. The results support a pathway model for the development of social disparities in quality of life, in which earlier social position shapes individual circumstances in later life. PMID:25220504

  10. Disease management index of potential years of life lost as a tool for setting priorities in national disease control using OECD health data.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung-In; Nam, Jung-Mo; Choi, Jongwon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-03-01

    Limited healthcare resources make it necessary to maximize efficiency in disease management at the country level by priority-setting according to disease burden. To make the best priority settings, it is necessary to measure health status and have standards for its judgment, as well as consider disease management trends among nations. We used 17 International Classification of Diseases (ICD) categories of potential years of life lost (YPLL) from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) health data for 2012, 37 disease diagnoses YPLL from OECD health data for 2009 across 22 countries and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) from the World Health Organization (WHO). We set a range of 1-1 for each YPLL per disease in a nation (position value for relative comparison, PARC). Changes over 5 years were also accounted for in this disease management index (disease management index, DMI). In terms of ICD categories, the DMI indicated specific areas for priority setting for different countries with regard to managing disease treatment and diagnosis. Our study suggests that DMI is a realistic index that reflects trend changes over the past 5 years to the present state, and PARC is an easy index for identifying relative status. Moreover, unlike existing indices, DMI and PARC make it easy to conduct multiple comparisons among countries and diseases. DMI and PARC are therefore useful tools for policy implications and for future studies incorporating them and other existing indexes.

  11. Quality of life 10 years after liver transplantation: The impact of graft histology

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Vincent; Sebagh, Mylène; Rifai, Kinan; Yilmaz, Funda; Bhangui, Prashant; Danet, Colette; Saliba, Faouzi; Samuel, Didier; Castaing, Denis; Adam, René; Feray, Cyrille

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the relationship between the state of transplanted liver graft and the recipient quality of life (QOL) of histologically proven lesions in a 10-year post liver transplantation (LT) cohort of patients. METHODS Seventy-two recipients with a functional first graft at 10 years post-LT underwent liver biopsy and completed a QOL questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore associations between histological, clinical and QOL criteria. RESULTS Ten years after LT, fibrosis was detected in 53% of patients, and affected the general health perception, while ductopenia, present in 36%, affected the well-being (P = 0.05). Hepatic steatosis (HS) was present in 33% of patients and was associated with the worst QOL score on multiple domains. When compared to patients without HS, patients with HS had significantly higher incidence of fibrosis (P = 0.03), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (P = 0.007), and more patients had retired from their job (P = 0.03). Recurrent or de novo HCV-associated fibrosis and patient retirement as objective variables, and abdominal pain or discomfort and joint aches or pains as subjective variables, emerged as independent determinants of HS. CONCLUSION Long-term liver graft lesions, mainly HS presumably as a surrogate marker of HCV infection, may have a substantial impact on QOL 10 years after LT. PMID:28058221

  12. Five-year study of quality of life in myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Peric, S; Vujnic, M; Dobricic, V; Marjanovic, A; Basta, I; Novakovic, I; Lavrnic, D; Rakocevic-Stojanovic, V

    2016-11-01

    Background - Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults. There is a complete lack of studies that assessed quality of life (QoL) trajectory during time in DM1 cohorts. Aim - To analyze changes of QoL in patients with DM1 during a 5-year follow-up period and to assess responsiveness of the SF-36 questionnaire. Patients and Method - At the baseline, this study comprised 84 DM1 patients, of whom 62 were retested after the mean period of 64.2 ± 3.9 months. Severity of muscular weakness was assessed using the Muscular Impairment Rating Scale (MIRS). Patients completed Serbian version of the SF-36 questionnaire as a measure of health-related QoL. Results - After 5 years, MIRS score of our DM1 patients showed significant progression of 0.5 grade (P < 0.01). All mental subdomains, role physical, and total SF-36 scores significantly improved after 5 years (P < 0.01). Unexpectedly, worsening of muscular weakness from mild to severe was in association with improvement of QoL. Conclusion - QoL improved in our cohort of DM1 patients during a 5-year period despite the progression of the disease. SF-36 should be used with caution as a patient-reported outcome measure in DM1 clinical trials.

  13. Drinking Level, Drinking Pattern, and Twenty-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Research on moderate drinking has focused on the average level of drinking. Recently, however, investigators have begun to consider the role of the pattern of drinking, particularly heavy episodic drinking, in mortality. The present study examined the combined roles of average drinking level (moderate vs. high) and drinking pattern (regular vs. heavy episodic) in 20-year total mortality among late-life drinkers. Method: The sample comprised 1,121 adults ages 55–65 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and total mortality was indexed across 20 years. We used multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Results: Among individuals whose high level of drinking placed them at risk, a heavy episodic drinking pattern did not increase mortality odds compared with a regular drinking pattern. Conversely, among individuals who engage in a moderate level of drinking, prior findings showed that a heavy episodic drinking pattern did increase mortality risk compared with a regular drinking pattern. Correspondingly, a high compared with a moderate drinking level increased mortality risk among individuals maintaining a regular drinking pattern, but not among individuals engaging in a heavy episodic drinking pattern, whose pattern of consumption had already placed them at risk. Conclusions: Findings highlight that low-risk drinking requires that older adults drink low to moderate average levels of alcohol and avoid heavy episodic drinking. Heavy episodic drinking is frequent among late-middle-aged and older adults and needs to be addressed along with average consumption in understanding the health risks of late-life drinkers. PMID:26098030

  14. Growing Up Indian: Stories from the Life of Louie Gingras, an 82 Year Old Kootenai Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingras, Louie

    Eleven short stories from the life of Louie Gingras, an 82-year-old Kootenai Indian, illustrate many aspects of Indian culture. Accompanied by black and white drawings, ths stories describe daily life, mission schools, the Carlisle Indian School, Indian medicine, discipline for children, spiritual powers, beliefs, and several ceremonies. The book…

  15. Work Values during the Transition to Adulthood and Mid-Life Satisfaction: Cascading Effects across 25 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Angela; Galambos, Nancy L.; Krahn, Harvey J.

    2017-01-01

    This 25-year longitudinal study of a sample of Canadian high school seniors (N = 373) examined pathways from work values at age 18 to mid-life (age 43) career satisfaction and life satisfaction through several possible mediators: age 25 and 32 work values, months of postsecondary education (PSE) by age 25, and age 43 work rewards. Gender and…

  16. Preparing the Ground: Contributions of the Preclinical Years to Medical Education for Care Near the End of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, David; Quill, Timothy; Hafferty, Frederic W.; Arnold, Robbert; Plumb, James; Bulger, Roger; Field, Marilyn

    1999-01-01

    The Working Group on the Pre-Clinical Years of the 1997 National Consensus Conference on Medical Education for Care Near the End of Life identifies promising settings and suggests how they might be used for maximum benefit in end-of-life education. Basic-care competencies are in five domains: psychological/social/cultural/spiritual issues;…

  17. Life Satisfaction and Perceived Meaningfulness of Learning Experience among First-Year Traditional Graduate Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakunmoju, Sunday; Donahue, Gilpatrick R.; McCoy, Shandria; Mengel, Alison S.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about life satisfaction and learning experience among first-year graduate students is sparse, despite its relevance to instructional decisions, academic support, and success of students. Adequate knowledge is crucial, as it may help graduate students manage personal and professional life changes associated with graduate education. Using…

  18. The Influence of Environmental Factors on Behavioural Problems in 8-Year-Old Children Exposed to Amphetamine during Fetal Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billing, Lars; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-five children born to Swedish women who used amphetamines during pregnancy were followed to the age of eight years. Statistical correlations were seen between the extent of amphetamine exposure and psychometric tests, aggressive behavior, adjustment, and general assessment. Alcohol use during pregnancy and attitude toward pregnancy also…

  19. Narrative story stems with high risk six year-olds: differential associations with mother- and teacher-reported psycho-social adjustment.

    PubMed

    Page, Timothy; Boris, Neil W; Heller, Sherryl; Robinson, Lara; Hawkins, Shantice; Norwood, Rhonda

    2011-07-01

    Children's responses on a Narrative Story Stem Technique (NSST) were coded using scales reflecting essential attachment constructs, specifically, attachment, exploratory, sociability, and caregiving behavioral systems, as originally conceived by Bowlby ( 1973 , 1982 ) and elaborated upon by his followers (Cassidy, 2008 ). NSST responses were examined in relation to both mother- and teacher-reported psycho-social adjustment and risk using the MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire (HBQ). Forty-six children participated (average age 6 years 10 months), 19 of whom had high-risk backgrounds, and the rest demographically matched. Findings indicate that NSST scales were associated with behavior on certain HBQ scales, in expected directions. NSST responses appeared to differentiate socially competent children from children with the specific psycho-social risks of externalizing behavior problems and social isolation, according to mother-reports, on the one hand, and peer vulnerability and internalizing problems, according to teacher-reports, on the other. Implications for clinical applications are discussed.

  20. Children's intellectual and emotional-behavioral adjustment at 4 years as a function of cocaine exposure, maternal characteristics, and environmental risk.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David S; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2002-09-01

    The authors examined 223 children at age 4 years for the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, exposure to other substances, maternal and environmental risk factors, and neonatal medical problems on IQ, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Regression analyses showed that maternal verbal IQ and low environmental risk predicted child IQ. Cocaine exposure negatively predicted children's overall IQ and verbal reasoning scores, but only for boys. Cocaine exposure also predicted poorer short-term memory. Maternal harsh discipline, maternal depressive symptoms, and increased environmental risk predicted externalizing problems. In contrast, only maternal depressive symptoms predicted internalizing problems. These findings indicate that early exposure to substances is largely unrelated to subsequent IQ or adjustment, particularly for girls.

  1. Evidence for Early Life in ˜3.5 Billion-Year-Old Pillow Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, N. R.; Furnes, H.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Staudigel, H.; de Wit, M.

    2004-12-01

    Recently discovered biosignatures in the formerly glassy rims of ˜3.5 billion-year-old pillow lavas from the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) in South Africa suggest they were colonized by microbes early in Earth's history. These subaqueous volcanic rocks represent a new geological setting in the search for early life on Earth. This is not entirely surprising since microbial alteration of basaltic glass in pillow lavas and volcaniclastic rocks has been well documented from recent oceanic crust and well-preserved ophiolites. The BGB magmatic sequence contains exceptionally well-preserved mafic to ultramafic pillow lavas, sheet flows, and intrusions interpreted to represent 3.48 to 3.22 billion-year-old oceanic crust and island arc assemblages. We observed micron-sized tubular structures mineralized by titanite in the formerly glassy rims of the BGB pillow lavas. Based on their similarity to textures observed in recent glassy pillow basalts we interpret these structures to represent ancient traces of microbial activity formed during biogenic etching of the originally glassy pillow rims as microbes colonized the glass surface. Petrographic observations coupled with overlapping metamorphic and magmatic dates indicate this process occurred soon after eruption of the pillow lavas. Subsequent greenschist facies seafloor hydrothermal alteration caused the structures to be mineralized by titanite; a process also observed in ophiolitic pillow lavas of much younger age. X-ray mapping reveals the presence of carbon along the margins of the tubular structures interpreted as residual organic material. Disseminated carbonates within the microbially-altered BGB pillow rims have low carbon isotope values consistent with microbial oxidation of organic matter. In contrast, disseminated carbonate in the crystalline pillow interiors have carbon isotope values bracketed between Archean marine carbonate and mantle carbon dioxide. It remains to be seen how deep into the Archean oceanic

  2. A 3.5 year diary study: Remembering and life story importance are predicted by different event characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Jensen, Thomas; Holm, Tine; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Forty-five participants described and rated two events each week during their first term at university. After 3.5 years, we examined whether event characteristics rated in the diary predicted remembering, reliving, and life story importance at the follow-up. In addition, we examined whether ratings of life story importance were consistent across a three year interval. Approximately 60% of events were remembered, but only 20% of these were considered above medium importance to life stories. Higher unusualness, rehearsal, and planning predicted whether an event was remembered 3.5 years later. Higher goal-relevance, importance, emotional intensity, and planning predicted life story importance 3.5 years later. There was a moderate correlation between life story importance rated three months after the diary and rated at the 3.5 year follow-up. The results suggest that autobiographical memory and life stories are governed by different mechanisms and that life story memories are characterized by some degree of stability.

  3. Chiropractic Adjustment

    MedlinePlus

    ... structural alignment and improve your body's physical function. Low back pain, neck pain and headache are the most common ... treated. Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only ...

  4. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from other people Skipped heartbeats and other physical complaints Trembling or twitching To have adjustment disorder, you ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  5. The long-term impact of early life poverty on orbitofrontal cortex volume in adulthood: results from a prospective study over 25 years.

    PubMed

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Baumeister, Sarah; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Converging evidence has highlighted the association between poverty and conduct disorder (CD) without specifying neurobiological pathways. Neuroimaging research has emphasized structural and functional alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as one key mechanism underlying this disorder. The present study aimed to clarify the long-term influence of early poverty on OFC volume and its association with CD symptoms in healthy participants of an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth. At age 25 years, voxel-based morphometry was applied to study brain volume differences. Poverty (0=non-exposed (N=134), 1=exposed (N=33)) and smoking during pregnancy were determined using a standardized parent interview, and information on maternal responsiveness was derived from videotaped mother-infant interactions at the age of 3 months. CD symptoms were assessed by diagnostic interview from 8 to 19 years of age. Information on life stress was acquired at each assessment and childhood maltreatment was measured using retrospective self-report at the age of 23 years. Analyses were adjusted for sex, parental psychopathology and delinquency, obstetric adversity, parental education, and current poverty. Individuals exposed to early life poverty exhibited a lower OFC volume. Moreover, we replicated previous findings of increased CD symptoms as a consequence of childhood poverty. This effect proved statistically mediated by OFC volume and exposure to life stress and smoking during pregnancy, but not by childhood maltreatment and maternal responsiveness. These findings underline the importance of studying the impact of early life adversity on brain alterations and highlight the need for programs to decrease income-related disparities.

  6. Development Trends of White Matter Connectivity in the First Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Pew-Thian; Fan, Yong; Chen, Yasheng; Gilmore, John H.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is organized into a collection of interacting networks with specialized functions to support various cognitive functions. Recent research has reached a consensus that the brain manifests small-world topology, which implicates both global and local efficiency at minimal wiring costs, and also modular organization, which indicates functional segregation and specialization. However, the important questions of how and when the small-world topology and modular organization come into existence remain largely unanswered. Taking a graph theoretic approach, we attempt to shed light on this matter by an in vivo study, using diffusion tensor imaging based fiber tractography, on 39 healthy pediatric subjects with longitudinal data collected at average ages of 2 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Our results indicate that the small-world architecture exists at birth with efficiency that increases in later stages of development. In addition, we found that the networks are broad scale in nature, signifying the existence of pivotal connection hubs and resilience of the brain network to random and targeted attacks. We also observed, with development, that the brain network seems to evolve progressively from a local, predominantly proximity based, connectivity pattern to a more distributed, predominantly functional based, connectivity pattern. These observations suggest that the brain in the early years of life has relatively efficient systems that may solve similar information processing problems, but in divergent ways. PMID:21966364

  7. SAVY-4000 Surveillance and Life Extension Program Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy A.; Blair, Michael W.; Weis, Eric; Veirs, Douglas K.; Smith, Paul Herrick; Moore, Murray E.; Reeves, Kirk P.; Kelly, Elizabeth J.; Prochnow, David A.; Worl, Laura A.

    2014-03-03

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the DOE M441.1-1/sup>1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE, 2008) requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.” In order to ensure continuing safe storage of nuclear material and the maximization of risk reduction, TA-55 has established a Surveillance Program to ensure storage container integrity for operations within its specified design life. The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan2 defines the near-term field surveillance plan for SAVY-4000 containers as required by the Manual. A long-term surveillance plan will be established based on the results of the first several years of surveillance and the results of the lifetime extension studies as defined in the Accelerated Aging Plan3. This report details progress in positioning the Surveillance Program for successful implementation in FY14 and status of the Design Life Extension Program in terms of its implementation and data collection for FY13.

  8. Perception of visual-tactile colocation in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Freier, Livia; Mason, Luke; Bremner, Andrew J

    2016-12-01

    An ability to perceive tactile and visual stimuli in a common spatial frame of reference is a crucial ingredient in forming a representation of one's own body and the interface between bodily and external space. In this study, the authors investigated young infants' abilities to perceive colocation between tactile and visual stimuli presented on the hands. They examined infants' visual preferences for spatially congruent and incongruent visual-tactile events across two age groups (6 months and 10-months). They observed increased duration of looking to incongruent stimuli displays in both age groups, indicating that infants from at least 6 months of age demonstrate the ability to determine whether simultaneously presented visual-tactile perceptual events are colocated or not. These findings indicate that an ability to perceive visual and tactile stimuli within a common spatial frame of reference is available by the end of the first half year of life. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Change in mortality and years of life lost attributable to tobacco in Japan, 1985 and 1995.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K

    1999-01-01

    Despite the secular trend of decreasing prevalence of smoking and consumption of tobacco in most industrialized countries, the prevalence of smoking in Japan continues to be one of the highest. Based on the alternative measure of population attributable fractions, the present study gives an estimate of the number of deaths and the years of life lost (YLLs) attributable to tobacco in Japan for both 1985 and 1995. This study shows a considerable increase in mortality from tobacco-related diseases over the decade, in particular from lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a consequence of the intensified exposure to tobacco in the early 1960s. Although the period of the highest exposure to tobacco was in the late 1970s, prevalence of smoking is still considerably high in Japan and the burden from tobacco will persist if proper anti-smoking measures are not implemented immediately.

  10. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  11. [Eating habits in the first year of life: social representations of young mothers].

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Paula Esmeraldo; Javorski, Marly; Amorim, Rosemary de Jesus Machado; de Oliveira, Sheyla Costa; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena

    2014-01-01

    This is qualitative research that investigates the social representations of adolescent mothers on child eating habits in the first year of life. Its subjects were 10 adolescent mothers, whose children were aged seven to twelve months. Data were collected through semi-structured interview, besides the use of visual material. The analysis followed the technique of content analysis, relying on the framework of Social Representations Theory. That analysis revealed four themes: the conflict of breastfeeding versus consecration of porridge; establishing complementary feeding of the child; crystallized speech: "yogurt is better than a little steak"; the (un)definition of maternal eating habits: implications for infant feeding. The representations that drive maternal practices in selecting, preparing and offering food follow a particular logic, where adolescents reinterpret technical speeches in terms of their culture.

  12. [The acoustic aspect of the speech development in children during the third year of life].

    PubMed

    Liakso, E E; Gromova, A D; Frolova, O V; Romanova, O D

    2004-01-01

    The current part of a Russian language acquisition longitudinal study based on auditory, phonetic and instrumental analysis is devoted to the third year of child's life. We examined the development of supplementary acoustic and phonetic features of the child's speech providing for the possibility for the speech to be recognized. The instrumental analysis and statistical processing of vowel formant dynamics as well as stress, palatalization and VOT development, has been performed for the first time in Russian children. We showed that the high probability of children words recognition by auditors was due to establishment of a system of acoustically stable features which, in combination with each other, provide for the informative sufficiency of a message.

  13. Influenza virus infections in the tropics during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Libraty, Daniel H; Zhang, Lei; Caponpon, Mercydina; Capeding, Rosario Z

    2015-08-01

    Pediatric influenza virus infections in the tropics, particularly during infancy, are not well described. We identified influenza virus infections among infants with non-dengue acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses in San Pablo, Laguna, Philippines, as part of an ongoing clinical study of dengue virus infections during infancy. We found that 31% of infants with non-dengue acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses in San Pablo, Laguna, Philippines, had influenza virus infections. The majority were influenza A virus infections and outpatient cases. The infant ages were 11.1 [9.8-13.0] months (median [95% confidence interval]), and the cases clustered between June and December. Influenza episodes are a common cause of non-dengue acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses in the tropics during the first year of life.

  14. Years of potential life lost (YPLL) before age 65 in Italy.

    PubMed

    Arcà, M; di Orio, F; Forastiere, F; Tasco, C; Perucci, C A

    1988-09-01

    The Italian death rates and years of potential life lost (YPLL) for all causes and for 12 selected aggregations of causes are reported for 1979 and 1983, with the latter compared to United States data. Cancer is the leading cause of YPLL in Italy (23.8 per cent of total YPLL), followed by unintentional injuries (16.3 per cent) and heart disease (11.2 per cent). Rates of YPLL for all causes decreased 12.0 per cent from 1979 to 1983, the strongest declines in absolute terms being observed for prematurity and unintentional injuries, and in percentage decline for pneumonia and influenza, and infectious diseases; during the same period, YPLL for diabetes increased. The rates of YPLL are higher for males than for females (rate ratio = 1.9) especially for causes related to lifestyle factors. Premature mortality is lower in Italy than in the USA, because of the striking difference in mortality from injuries and heart diseases.

  15. Human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) efficacy in the first two years of life

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong-cheng; Huang, Teng; Li, Yan-Ping; Luo, Dong; Tao, Junhui; Fu, Botao; Si, Guoai; Nong, Yi; Mo, Zhao-Jun; Liao, Xue-Yan; Luan, Ivy; Tang, Haiwen; Rathi, Niraj; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay

    2014-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RV) are a major cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE) in children aged <5 y. For the first time in China, we assessed the efficacy of two oral doses of the human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) in infants during the first two years of life (113808/NCT01171963). Healthy infants aged 6–16 weeks were randomized (1:1) to receive two oral doses of either the RIX4414 vaccine/placebo according to a 0, 1 month schedule. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against severe RVGE was assessed from two weeks post-Dose 2 up until the end of the second RV season and calculated with its 95% confidence intervals (CI). The primary efficacy objective was met if the lower limit of the 95% CI on VE was ≥10%. Unsolicited symptoms reported during the 31-d post-vaccination follow-up period and serious adverse events (SAEs) reported throughout the study were assessed. Of 3333 enrolled infants, 3148 were included in the according-to-protocol efficacy cohort. Over two consecutive RV seasons, fewer severe RVGE episodes were reported in the RIX4414 group (n = 21) vs. the placebo group (n = 75). VE against severe RVGE was 72% (95% CI: 54.1–83.6); the lower limit of the 95% CI on VE was >10%. The number of unsolicited symptoms and SAEs reported was similar between both groups. Thirteen deaths (RIX4414 = 6; placebo = 7) occurred during the study. All SAEs and deaths in the RIX4414 group were considered unrelated to vaccination. Two oral doses of RIX4414 vaccine provided a substantial level of protection against severe RVGE in Chinese children during the first two years of life. PMID:24013441

  16. Wine Consumption and 20-Year Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; North, Rebecca J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined level of wine consumption and total mortality among 802 older adults ages 55–65 at baseline, controlling for key sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors. Despite a growing consensus that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced total mortality, whether wine consumption provides an additional, unique protective effect is unresolved. Method: Participants were categorized in three subsamples: abstainers, high-wine-consumption moderate drinkers, and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers. Alcohol consumption, sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health problems were assessed at baseline; total mortality was indexed across an ensuing 20-year period. Results: After adjusting for all covariates, both high-wine-consumption and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers showed reduced mortality risks compared with abstainers. Further, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine were older, were more likely to be male, reported more health problems, were more likely to be tobacco smokers, scored lower on socioeconomic status, and (statistical trend) reported engaging in less physical activity. Controlling only for overall ethanol consumption, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine showed a substantially increased 20-year mortality risk of 85%. However, after controlling for all covariates, the initial mortality difference associated with wine consumption was no longer significant. Conclusions: Among older adults who are moderate drinkers, the apparent unique effects of wine on longevity may be explained by confounding factors correlated with wine consumption. PMID:22152665

  17. Distress and Self-Restraint as Measures of Adjustment across the Life Span: Confirmatory Factor Analyses in Clinical and Nonclinical Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberger, Daniel A.

    1997-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses were used to study whether the structure of Weinberger Adjustment Inventory subscales would be comparable across clinical patient and nonclinical samples of youth, young adults, and adults (six samples, 1,486 subjects). Results suggest little need to use different measures of general adjustment when studying children…

  18. Subsystem Details for the Fiscal Year 2004 Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    This document provides values at the assembly level for the subsystems described in the Fiscal Year 2004 Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric (Hanford, 2004). Hanford (2004) summarizes the subordinate computational values for the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development (ALS R&TD) Metric at the subsystem level, while this manuscript provides a summary at the assembly level. Hanford (2004) lists mass, volume, power, cooling, and crewtime for each mission examined by the ALS R&TD Metric according to the nominal organization for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) elements. The values in the tables below, Table 2.1 through Table 2.8, list the assemblies, using the organization and names within the Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) for each ALS element. These tables specifically detail mass, volume, power, cooling, and crewtime. Additionally, mass and volume are designated in terms of values associated with initial hardware and resupplied hardware just as they are within ALSSAT. The overall subsystem values are listed on the line following each subsystem entry. These values are consistent with those reported in Hanford (2004) for each listed mission. Any deviations between these values and those in Hanford (2004) arise from differences in when individual numerical values are rounded within each report, and therefore the resulting minor differences should not concern even a careful reader. Hanford (2004) u es the uni ts kW(sub e) and kW(sub th) for power and cooling, respectively, while the nomenclature below uses W(sub e) and W(sub th), which is consistent with the native units within ALSSAT. The assemblies, as specified within ALSSAT, are listed in bold below their respective subsystems. When recognizable assembly components are not listed within ALSSAT, a summary of the assembly is provided on the same line as the entry for the assembly. Assemblies with one or more recognizable components are further

  19. Influence of the psychological state of relatives on the quality of life of patients at 1 year after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-San-Gregorio, M A; Martín-Rodríguez, A; Pérez-Bernal, J

    2008-11-01

    We analyzed the influence of the psychological state of relatives on the quality of life of patients at 1 year after transplantation. We selected 2 groups: 94 transplant patients (47.9% liver, 40.4% kidney, and 11.7% heart) of mean age 49.42 years (SD, 11.21 years) and their close relatives (n = 94). All participants were assessed at 1 year after transplantation, using a Psychological Survey (both groups); the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Quality of Life Questionnaire (transplant patients); and the Leeds Scales for the Self-Assessment of Anxiety and Depression (relatives). The results revealed that transplant patients whose relatives had more symptoms of anxiety and depression at 1 year after transplantation showed a decreased quality of life.

  20. Mutual reinforcement between neuroticism and life experiences: a five-wave, 16-year study to test reciprocal causation.

    PubMed

    Jeronimus, Bertus F; Riese, Harriëtte; Sanderman, Robbert; Ormel, Johan

    2014-10-01

    High neuroticism predicts psychopathology and physical health problems. Nongenetic factors, including major life events and experiences, explain approximately half of the variance in neuroticism. Conversely, neuroticism also predicts these life experiences. In this study, we aimed to quantify the reciprocal causation between neuroticism and life experiences and to gauge the magnitude and persistence of these associations. This longitudinal cohort study included 5 assessment waves over 16 years in a random sample of 296 Dutch participants (47% women) with a mean age of 34 years (SD = 12, range 16-63 years). Neuroticism was assessed with the Amsterdam Biographic Questionnaire. The experiences measured included positive and negative life events, long-term difficulties (LTDs), and change in life quality, all assessed by contextual rating procedures adapted from the Life Event and Difficulties Schedule. We fit structural equation models in Mplus. Results showed that neuroticism consistently predicted negative experiences, decreased life quality, and LTDs (β = 0.15 to 0.39), whereas effects on positive experiences were variable (β = 0.14). LTDs and deteriorated life quality each predicted small but persistent increases in neuroticism (β = 0.18), whereas improved life quality predicted small but persistent decreases (β = -0.13). This suggests set point change in neuroticism. Life event aggregates showed no persistent effects on the neuroticism set point. Neuroticism and life experiences showed persistent, bidirectional associations. Experience-driven changes in neuroticism lasted over a decade. Results support the corresponsive principle (reciprocal causation), suggesting a mixed model of change in neuroticism that distinguishes temporary changes in neuroticism from persistent changes in an individual's neuroticism set point.

  1. Efficacy of Entecavir Treatment for up to 5 Years in Nucleos(t)ide-Naïve Chronic Hepatitis B Patients in Real Life

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Li, Xiangyong; Wu, Yuankai; Lin, Guoli; Pang, Yihua; Zhang, Xiao; Ao, Yunlong; Du, Zhan; Zhao, Zhixin; Chong, Yutian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the efficacy and safety of entecavir (ETV) treatment for up to 5 years in nucleos(t)ide-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients in real life. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 230 nucleos(t)ide naïve chronic hepatitis B patients who received ETV 0.5 mg/day monotherapy for at least 3 months, of whom 113 were HBeAg positive and 117 were HBeAg negative. The primary endpoints was cumulative probability of achieving a virological response (undetectable serum HBV DNA, <100IU/mL). Secondary endpoints were rates of ALT normalization (ALT < upper limit of normal), HBeAg seroconversion, resistance, and safety. Results: The median follow-up duration was 27.5 months (3-73 months) and mean age was 42 years. With 230, 214, 180, 142, 88, 42 and 11 patients followed-up for at least 3 months,6 months, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years, respectively. In all, Incremental increases were observed in the rates of undetectable HBV DNA. 67.0%, 85.0%, 89.4%, 94.4%, 95.5%, 97.6%, 100% had undetectable HBV DNA at month 3, month 6, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and 5 years. Proportions of patients achieving normal ALT were 73.9%, 85.5%, 82.8%, 89.4%, 80.7%, 85.7%, 100%, respectively. The rate of HBeAg seroconversion reached 21.4% and 15.4% at year2, 3, respectively. One patient achieved HBsAg seroclearance after 1 year, and achieved anti-HBs seroconversion at year 3. Of 180 patients, HBV DNA was detectable (partial virological response, PVR) in 19 patients at year 1 of follow-up, twelve of 14 (85.7%) patients with PVR need more than 1 year of continuous ETV therapy to achieved VR. At baseline, no ETV-resistance was detected in 25 ETV-naïve patients. One patient developed ETV-resistance mutations due to noncompliance. No serious adverse event was reported. Conclusion: Long-term ETV treatment of nucleos(t)ide-naïve was effective and safe in real life. Adjustment of ETV monotherapy in nucleos(t)ide-naïve patients with a partial virological response at 1 year may be unnecessary

  2. Remaining life assessment of a 37 year old catalytic reforming reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.K.; Bagdasarian, A.J.; Malhotra, V.K.

    1994-12-31

    Metallographic studies and mechanical tests, including isostress rupture tests, were conducted on 1Cr-1/2Mo steel samples removed from a 37 year old catalytic reforming reactor vessel. The vessel operates in a hydrogen environment at 900 F (482 C) maximum. The base metal and to a lesser extent the heat affected zone (HAZ) exhibited some isolated grain boundary voids. Fissures or microcracks were not observed. No significant changes were found in the tensile strength and ductility but a small reduction in yield strength was noted. Both base metal and the weld metal had low toughness. However, HAZ exhibited good impact properties. Deembrittlement heat treatment resulted in only moderate improvement in the impact properties. The actual fracture time for the reactor material in the isostress rupture tests and the fracture time for unused 1Cr-1/2Mo steel calculated from the curve published in ASTM DS 50 differed only by 20%. Extrapolation of the isostress rupture test data indicated that the remaining life of the reactor vessel is in excess of 20 years if the current operating temperature of 900 F (482 C) is maintained. To further ensure operation safety a periodic nondestructive examination of critical areas is recommended.

  3. [Quality of life two years after myocardial infarction. 2. Examination of affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Arendarczyk, M; Loboz-Grudzień, K

    2000-02-01

    This study aimed at determining these factors--ventricular fibrillation (VF) in acute phase of myocardial infarction MI), thrombolytic therapy, beta-blockers after MI, cardiac rehabilitation--affect quality of life (QOL) during the follow-up. The study involved 100 patients (mean age 45.5 years), on the average 2 years after MI, MI has complicated VF in 50 patients. Questionnaire of QOL after MI developed internally, taking into account 26 features (clinical, emotional and social status), and estimating anxiety level (STAI) were used. Computer medical diagnostics "SyntMED" (Krefft's method) was used. In both groups after MI (complicated and not complicated VF) beneficial effect of: thrombolytic treatments in acute phase MI (0.65 vs conventional 0.45, p > 0.05), use of beta-blockers after MI (0.56 vs 0.41 p < 0.05), and cardiac rehabilitation (0.64 vs 0.44 p < 0.05) on value QOL were noted. Patients after MI complicated VF had higher level of anxiety. Patients who returned to work had higher index QOL (0.62 vs 0.39). Ventricular fibrillation complicated the acute phase of MI had no significant effect on follow-up QL.

  4. The burden of ambient temperature on years of life lost in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Ou, Chun-Quan; Guo, Yuming; Li, Li; Guo, Cui; Chen, Ping-Yan; Lin, Hua-Liang; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2015-08-01

    Limited evidence is available on the association between temperature and years of life lost (YLL). We applied distributed lag non-linear model to assess the nonlinear and delayed effects of temperature on YLL due to cause-/age-/education-specific mortality in Guangzhou, China. We found that hot effects appeared immediately, while cold effects were more delayed and lasted for 14 days. On average, 1 °C decrease from 25th to 1st percentile of temperature was associated with an increase of 31.15 (95%CI: 20.57, 41.74), 12.86 (8.05, 17.68) and 6.64 (3.68, 9.61) YLL along lag 0-14 days for non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively. The corresponding estimate of cumulative hot effects (1 °C increase from 75th to 99th percentile of temperature) was 12.71 (-2.80, 28.23), 4.81 (-2.25, 11.88) and 2.81 (-1.54, 7.16). Effect estimates of cold and hot temperatures-related YLL were higher in people aged up to 75 years and persons with low education level than the elderly and those with high education level, respectively. The mortality risks associated with cold and hot temperatures were greater on the elderly and persons with low education level. This study highlights that YLL provides a complementary method for assessing the death burden of temperature.

  5. Assessing Planning Ability Across the Adult Life Span: Population-Representative and Age-Adjusted Reliability Estimates for the Tower of London (TOL-F).

    PubMed

    Kaller, Christoph P; Debelak, Rudolf; Köstering, Lena; Egle, Johanna; Rahm, Benjamin; Wild, Philipp S; Blettner, Maria; Beutel, Manfred E; Unterrainer, Josef M

    2016-03-01

    Planning ahead the consequences of future actions is a prototypical executive function. In clinical and experimental neuropsychology, disc-transfer tasks like the Tower of London (TOL) are commonly used for the assessment of planning ability. Previous psychometric evaluations have, however, yielded a poor reliability of measuring planning performance with the TOL. Based on theory-grounded task analyses and a systematic problem selection, the computerized TOL-Freiburg version (TOL-F) was developed to improve the task's psychometric properties for diagnostic applications. Here, we report reliability estimates for the TOL-F from two large samples collected in Mainz, Germany (n = 3,770; 40-80 years) and in Vienna, Austria (n = 830; 16-84 years). Results show that planning accuracy on the TOL-F possesses an adequate internal consistency and split-half reliability (>0.7) that are stable across the adult life span while the TOL-F covers a broad range of graded difficulty even in healthy adults, making it suitable for both research and clinical application.

  6. Estimating years of life lost from cardiovascular mortality related to air pollution in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Ou, Chun-Quan; Song, Yu-Feng; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2016-12-15

    Previous studies have mainly used mortality or morbidity as the health outcome to examine the air pollution-health association. Little evidence is available on relationships between air pollutants and years of life lost (YLL). We aimed to estimate the YLL from cardiovascular mortality due to air pollution. Daily data on weather and air pollutants and individual data of all registered deaths for years 2004-2007 were obtained in Guangzhou, China. The generalized additive model was used to assess the YLL associated with 10μg/m(3) increases in NO2, SO2 and PM10. We found that the mean daily YLL was 248, 87.5 and 73.7 for deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke and ischemic heart disease (IHD), respectively. A significant linear correlation was observed between air pollution and YLL due to cardiovascular disease. The effects of air pollutants on YLL were immediate and lasted for two days. A 10μg/m(3) increase above the corresponding threshold of 55.6μg/m(3), 40.4μg/m(3) and 0μg/m(3) in NO2, PM10 and SO2 was related to YLL increase of 1.8 (95% CI: 0.8-2.9), 2.8 (1.7-3.8) and 2.6 (1.2-4.0) years at lag 0-1days for CVD, respectively. The estimates of YLL associated with NO2 and PM10 were higher in men than women. The air pollutants-related YLL was higher among young people and those with low education level, compared to the elderly and those with high education level, respectively. These findings confirmed YLL provides a complementary strategy for assessing the health effect of air pollution. This study underscores the necessity of the reduction of air pollution benefiting public health.

  7. Quality of life in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy: one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pekmezović, Tatjana; Ječmenica-Lukić, Milica; Petrović, Igor; Špica, Vladana; Tomić, Aleksandra; Kostić, Vladimir S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study that included 46 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) was to estimate which demographic and clinical factors were the main contributors to the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and how did the HRQoL change over a follow-up period of 1 year in these patients. The hierarchical regression analyses showed that the final models demonstrated that gender, included clinical variables and psychiatric/neuropsychological scales, accounted for 68% of the variance in the Physical Composite Score and 73% of the variance of the Mental Composite Score of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Among variables in both final models, only the score of the Apathy Evaluation Scale showed statistically significant negative predictive value (p < 0.05). Changes in the HRQoL scores were assessed in 28 PSP patients who completed 1-year follow-up period after the baseline examination. Statistically significant decline in the HRQoL was detected for the following scales of the SF-36: physical functioning, vitality, social functioning, and role emotional, as well as in both composite scores (Physical Composite Score and Mental Composite Score). The analyses of magnitude of changes in the HRQoL during 1-year follow-up period showed large effect size (≥0.80) for total scores, as well as for the physical functioning, vitality, and social functioning. In conclusion, despite certain limitations, our study provided some new insights into potential predictors of the HRQoL and its longitudinal changes in patients with PSP.

  8. Infantile Overnutrition in the First Year of Life: A Field Study in Dudley, Worcestershire

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, A.; Forsyth, H. A.; Anderson, Charlotte M.; Marwah, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    A survey of feeding patterns and nutrient intake in relation to the growth of 300 normal infants up to 1 year of age in Dudley, Worcestershire, highlights a problem of overnutrition in the group; 50 (16·7%) were found to be suffering from infantile obesity and a further 83 (27·7%) were overweight. During the first three months of life the daily energy intakes of 136 cal/kg body weight for boys and 149 for girls were markedly greater than the level of 120/kg recommended by the Department of Health and Social Security. This coincided with the early addition of solid foods to a full milk intake. 119 babies (39·7%) were offered solids before they were 4 weeks old and 280 (93·3%) before 13 weeks of age. Some babies had solids from the first week after birth. Protein intake was persistently high throughout the first year, and the mean intake of 32·7 g/day was much greater than the intake of 20 g for infants aged up to 1 year recommended by the Department of Health. Standards for fat and carbohydrate intake are not available but in comparison with the levels reported in breast-fed babies intake of fat and carbohydrate was high in the first three months and came closer to the desired level for the former and remained slightly high for the latter in the subsequent age quarters. The relation of childhood and subsequent adult obesity to infant feeding patterns is not yet clear, but there is a high correlation between obese parents and obese and overweight babies; had these babies not been overfed the condition might have been prevented. PMID:4642789

  9. Flow-adjusted trends in dissolved selenium load and concentration in the Gunnison and Colorado Rivers near Grand Junction, Colorado, water years 1986--2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, John W.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of elevated selenium concentrations, many western Colorado rivers and streams are on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Colorado 303(d) list, including the main stem of the Colorado River from the Gunnison River confluence to the Utah border. Selenium is a trace metal that bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains and can cause reproductive failure, deformities, and other adverse impacts in birds and fish, including several threatened and endangered fish species. Salinity in the upper Colorado River has been the focus of source-control efforts for many years. Although salinity loads and concentrations have been previously characterized at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations at the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colo., and at the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line, trends in selenium load and concentration at these two stations have not been studied. The USGS, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Colorado River Water Conservation District, evaluated dissolved selenium (herein referred to as "selenium") load and concentration trends at these two sites to inform decision makers on the status and trends of selenium. This report presents results of the evaluation of trends in selenium load and concentration for two USGS streamflow-gaging stations: the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colo. ("Gunnison River site"), USGS site 09152500, and the Colorado River near Colorado-Utah State line ("Colorado River site"), USGS site 09163500. Flow-adjusted selenium loads were estimated for the beginning water year (WY) of the study, 1986, and the ending WY of the study, 2008. The difference between flow-adjusted selenium loads for WY 1986 and WY 2008 was selected as the method of analysis because flow adjustment removes the natural variations in load caused by changes in mean-daily streamflow, emphasizing human-caused changes in selenium load and concentration. Overall changes in human-caused effects

  10. Purpose in Life among Men and Women Aged 85 Years and Older

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, Pia; Gustafson, Yngve; Brulin, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate purpose in life in relation to psychological well-being, social relations, and physical and psychological symptoms among very old women (n = 120) and men (n = 69). Their purpose in life was evaluated using the Purpose in Life (PIL) scale. Women scored lower on this PIL scale than men (102 vs. 108 p =…

  11. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  12. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed. PMID:26834654

  13. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  14. 26 CFR 25.2512-5 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary interests. 25.2512-5 Section 25.2512-5... interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary interests. (a) In general... of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years, remainders, and...

  15. Mediterranean diet adherence during pregnancy and risk of wheeze and eczema in the first year of life: INMA (Spain) and RHEA (Greece) mother-child cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Chatzi, Leda; Garcia, Raquel; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basterrechea, Mikel; Begiristain, Haizea; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesus; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-12-14

    Maternal diet during pregnancy might influence the development of childhood allergic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence during pregnancy on wheeze and eczema in the first year of life in two population-based mother-child cohorts in Spain and Greece. We studied 1771 mother-newborn pairs from the Spanish multi-centre 'INMA' (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) study (Gipuzkoa, Sabadell and Valencia) and 745 pairs from the 'RHEA' study in Crete, Greece. The symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by FFQ and MD adherence was evaluated through an a priori score. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to adjust for several confounders in each cohort and summary estimates were obtained by a meta-analysis. MD adherence was not associated with the risk of wheeze and eczema in any cohort, and similar results were identified in the meta-analysis approach. High meat intake (relative risk (RR) 1·22, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·49) and 'processed' meat intake (RR 1·18, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·37) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with a decreased risk of infantile wheeze (RR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·96). The results of the present study show that high meat intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products may decrease it.

  16. Life in the Atacama - Year 2: Geologic Reconnaissance Through Long-Range Roving and Implications on the Search for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Moersch, J.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Coppin, P.; Fisher, G.; Hock, A. N.; Ori, G. G.

    2005-01-01

    The "Life in the Atacama" (LITA) project included two field trials during the 2004 field season, each of which lasted about a week. The remote science team had no prior knowledge of the local geology, and relied entirely on orbital images and rover-acquired data to make interpretations. The sites for these trials were in different locations, and are designated "Site B" and "Site C" respectively. The primary objective of the experiment is to develop and test the means to locate, characterize, and identify habitats and life remotely through long-range roving, which included field testing the rover, named Zoe. Zoe has onboard autonomous navigation for long-range roving, a plow to overturn rocks and expose near-surface rock materials, and high-resolution imaging, spectral, and fluorescence sampling capabilities. Highlights from the experiment included characterizing the geology in and near the landing ellipse, assessing pre-mission, satellite-based hypotheses, and improving the approach and procedures used by the remote and field teams for upcoming experiments through combined satellite, field-based, and microscopic perspectives and long-range roving.

  17. Clinical practice. Later orthodontic complications caused by risk factors observed in the early years of life.

    PubMed

    Emerich, Katarzyna; Wojtaszek-Slominska, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Primary preventive strategies for oral health are an essential public health priority. Paediatricians have frequent contact with families during routine preventive visits in the child's first few years of life and are in an ideal and unique position, to advise families about the prevention of oral diseases in their children. Primary prevention is always recommended in very young children, to promote positive outcomes during childhood and later adulthood. The knowledge paediatricians acquire about orofacial growth may enhance the implementation and eventual success of a preventive programme. In view of the widespread lack of any orthodontic knowledge amongst paediatricians, this paper describes most common and distinctive symptoms appearing frequently in the early stages of a child's development that are easily detectable by clinicians. It is difficult to define preventive strategies to prevent malocclusion owing to its multifactorial origin. There are some recognised behaviours, however, that should be discouraged to allow for ideal craniofacial development and some that require early referral to the orthodontist. The following disorders are easily diagnosed by the paediatrician or parents and represent conditions in which early intervention might be appropriate to prevent future possible orofacial dysfunction: different sucking habits persisting beyond 3 years of age, mouth breathing and significant deviations from established teeth eruption norms. It is suggested that early referral to a paediatric dentist or orthodontist is indicated when any of these conditions are observed. In general, measures to prevent malocclusion should be based on providing good incentives to promote normal growth and development of the face and the elimination of potential interferences that may harm these processes.

  18. Residence Life Programs and the First-Year Experience. The Freshman Year Experience. Monograph Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, William, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph contains papers which suggest means of implementing residential programs, services, and facilities that will help to meet the needs of first-year college students. Fourteen papers are presented and are as follows: "Reflections on the First Year Residential Experience" (John N. Gardner); "The Role of Residential Programs in the…

  19. Five-year quality of life assessment after carbon ion radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Katsuya; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nomiya, Takuma; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kamada, Tadashi; Wakatsuki, Masaru; Akakura, Koichiro; Shimazaki, Jun; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess 5-year health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients treated with carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for clinically localized prostate cancer. A total of 417 patients received carbon ion radiotherapy at a total dose of 63-66 Gray-equivalents (GyE) in 20 fractions over 5 weeks, and neoadjuvant and adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were administered for intermediate and high-risk patients. A HRQOL assessment was performed at five time points (immediately before the initiation of C-ion RT, immediately after, and at 12, 36 and 60 months after completion of C-ion RT) using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) questionnaires. FACT-G and FACT-P scores were significantly decreased; however, the absolute change after 60 months was minimal. The transient decreases in the Trial Outcome Index (TOI) score returned to their baseline levels. Use of ADT, presence of adverse events, and biochemical failure were related to lower scores. Scores of subdomains of FACT instruments indicated characteristic changes. The pattern of HRQOL change after C-ion RT was similar to that of other modalities. Further controlled studies focusing on a HRQOL in patients with prostate cancer are warranted.

  20. Antarctic station life: The first 15 years of mixed expeditions to the Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarris, Aspa

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the experiences of women who lived and worked on remote and isolated Antarctic stations for up to 15 months at a time. The study employed purposeful sampling and a longitudinal - processual approach to study women's experiences over the first 15 years of mixed gender Antarctic expeditions. The retrospective analysis was based on a semi-structured interview administered to 14 women upon their return to Australia. The results showed that women referred to the natural physical Antarctic environment as one of the best aspects of their experience and the reason they would recommend the Antarctic to their friends as a good place to work. In describing the worst aspect of their experience, women referred to aspects of Antarctic station life, including: (i) the male dominated nature of station culture; (ii) the impact of interpersonal conflict, including gender based conflict and friction between scientists and trades workers; and (iii) the lack of anonymity associated with living and working with the same group of individuals, mainly men, for up to 12 months or more. The results are discussed within the context of the evolution of Antarctic station culture and recommendations are made in terms of the demography of expeditions, expeditioner selection and recruitment and the ongoing monitoring of Antarctic station culture. The study presents a framework that can be applied to groups and teams living and working in analogous isolated, confined and extreme work environments, including outer space missions.

  1. Temporal and spatial evolution of brain network topology during the first two years of life.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Giovanello, Kelly S; Smith, Jeffery Keith; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili

    2011-01-01

    The mature brain features high wiring efficiency for information transfer. However, the emerging process of such an efficient topology remains elusive. With resting state functional MRI and a large cohort of normal pediatric subjects (n = 147) imaged during a critical time period of brain development, 3 wk- to 2 yr-old, the temporal and spatial evolution of brain network topology is revealed. The brain possesses the small world topology immediately after birth, followed by a remarkable improvement in whole brain wiring efficiency in 1 yr olds and becomes more stable in 2 yr olds. Regional developments of brain wiring efficiency and the evolution of functional hubs suggest differential development trend for primary and higher order cognitive functions during the first two years of life. Simulations of random errors and targeted attacks reveal an age-dependent improvement of resilience. The lower resilience to targeted attack observed in 3 wk old group is likely due to the fact that there are fewer well-established long-distance functional connections at this age whose elimination might have more profound implications in the overall efficiency of information transfer. Overall, our results offer new insights into the temporal and spatial evolution of brain topology during early brain development.

  2. Etiology of Diarrhea in Bangladeshi Infants in the First Year of Life Analyzed Using Molecular Methods

    PubMed Central

    Taniuchi, Mami; Sobuz, Shihab U.; Begum, Sharmin; Platts-Mills, James A.; Liu, Jie; Yang, Zhengyu; Wang, Xin-Qun; Petri, William A.; Haque, Rashidul; Houpt, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Diarrhea causes enormous morbidity and mortality in developing countries, yet the relative importance of multiple potential enteropathogens has been difficult to ascertain. Methods. We performed a longitudinal cohort study from birth to 1 year of age in 147 infants in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed 420 episodes of diarrhea and 1385 monthly surveillance stool specimens for 32 enteropathogen gene targets. For each infant we examined enteropathogen quantities over time to ascribe each positive target as a probable or less-likely contributor to diarrhea. Results. Multiple enteropathogens were detected by the first month of life. Diarrhea was associated with a state of overall pathogen excess (mean number of enteropathogen gene targets (±SE), 5.6 ± 0.1 vs 4.3 ± 0.1 in surveillance stool specimens; P < .05). After a longitudinal, quantitative approach was applied to filter out less-likely contributors, each diarrheal episode still had an average of 3.3 probable or dominant targets. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, enteropathogenic E. coli, rotavirus, and Entamoeba histolytica were the most frequent probable contributors to diarrhea. Rotavirus was enriched in moderate to severe diarrheal episodes. Conclusions. In this community-based study diarrhea seemed to be a multipathogen event and a state of enteropathogen excess above a high carriage baseline. PMID:24041797

  3. [Differential physical growth during the 1st year of life. II. Growth of the head].

    PubMed

    Rosales-López, A; Martínez-Meza, A; Sánchez-Aguilar, G; Chávez-Rojas, G; Guízar-Vázquez, J J

    1992-11-01

    The corporal segment that display the major growth velocity before and after born is the head; that is, once a baby is born, it represents the fourth part of the stature, it has the greater corporal circumference, and their development is superior than other corporal segments. However, the growth shape of the craniofacial structures is different; so, the growth gradient of brain, is the responsible of the morphological view described previously; the facial structures follow the general growth curve; moreover, the facial bone that contributes with the growth of brain, describes mixed growth gradients. This complex shape of the head growth, requires the existence of growth standards for these structures. The present paper describes the results of longitudinal research on head growth. We studied 200 children of both sex and ages from 0 to 1 year of extrauterine life. We got 18 growth measures of the head, such as: head circumference, head length and width, minimum frontal diameter; head, total facial, upper facial, and nose height; bizygomatic, bigonial, external bipalpebral, internal bipalpebral and nose widths; length and width of lips and ear. Moreover, we report the final increments and the differences on sexual dimorphism.

  4. [Differential physical growth during the first year of life. I. Body growth].

    PubMed

    Rosales-López, A; Martínez-Meza, A; Sánchez-Aguilar, G; Chávez-Rojas, G; Guízar-Vázquez, J J

    1992-10-01

    Keeping up to date the children growth and development standards, it is a necessity of main order for Health Secretary, because of it is possible an adequate pediatric evaluation. The present study, reports the results of a longitudinal research on growth in children of both sexes and ages from 0 to 1 year of extrauterine life. In all, we got 44 growth measures of the body, head and corporal composition. This report describes the shape of growth body, illustrates the general parameters of growth: stature and weight. Also it includes the dates correspondent to corporal segment growth: sitting height, upper and lower segments; upper extremity, upper arm, lower arm, hand, lower extremity, thigh, leg and foot lengths; ankle height; biacromial, bicrestal, thorax, elbow, wrist, hand, knee, ankle and foot breadths; and thorax depth. Moreover, we report the final increments for corporal segments studied, and the differences on sexual dimorphism. We describe the methodology, socioeconomic and cultural custom results. The sample was classificated within middle lower social class.

  5. [Years of potential life lost in Mexico. Applications in the planning of health services].

    PubMed

    Borja-Aburto, V H; Bustamante-Montes, P; López Carrillo, L; Lona Zamora, A; López Cervantes, M

    1989-01-01

    During health care services planning, rational and coherent information is required in order to allocate resources in accordance with local relative need. In an attempt to recognize the national condition, Stone's method was used. This is a semi-quantitative method for analysing the relationship between health care resources and need. Years of potential life lost index was used for need assessment among the states, and confronted to its Federal Public Health Investment. The optimum resource/need ratio is regarded as that pertaining to the reference population, the nation as a whole. Deviation from the optimum ratio in the states is interpreted as a manifestation of inequitable resource distribution. The results show striking differences in needs and resources. Resource/need ratio varied from 0.21 in Oaxaca to 3.79 in Distrito Federal. The states least favoured in resource sharing were Oaxaca, Puebla, Hidalgo and México. On the other hand, Tamaulipas, Baja California Sur, Quintana Roo and Distrito Federal exceeded the optimum. These indexes permit a quantitative expression of the relationship between need and resources in order to reach geographical equity.

  6. Celebrating fifty years of research and applications in reminiscence and life review: state of the art and new directions.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2014-04-01

    Fifty years ago, psychiatrist Robert Butler (1963) published an influential article on the recollection and evaluation of personal memories in later life. We discuss the major insights and applications in psychological gerontology that were inspired by Butler. Reminiscence and life review serve to create bonds between people, to cope with important life events, and to attribute meaning to life. We discuss a heuristic framework that relates reminiscence and life review to individual and contextual characteristics as well as to psychological resources and mental health and well-being. The increasing evidence is discussed that different types of interventions can effectively promote mental health and well-being in later life. We propose that processes of reminiscence and life review need further study. This can partly be achieved within the current research tradition by longitudinal studies and good trials that also address the processes accounting for effects of interventions. Synergy with psychological studies on autobiographical remembering and life stories will provide further innovation in the field, as these studies provide new methods and evidence of processes linked to the recollection and evaluation of personal memories.

  7. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  8. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  9. Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Veterans' Group Life Insurance regulation update--ABO, VGLI application, SGLI 2-year disability extension. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-07-31

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) insurance regulations concerning Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) to reflect the statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Act of 2010, which became law on October 13, 2010, and resulted in the need for amendments to change the SGLI Disability Extension period from 1 year to 2 years in duration; provide SGLI Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) retroactive coverage effective from October 7, 2001, for all qualifying injuries regardless of the geographic location and military operation in which the injuries were incurred; and remove the SGLI and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) Accelerated Benefits Option (ABO) discount rate. This rule also clarifies that ``initial premium'' refers to ``initial Veterans' Group Life Insurance premium,'' updates the current address of the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (OSGLI), managed by Prudential Insurance Company of America, to reflect where the ABO application is mailed for processing, and corrects the OSGLI phone number. Finally, this rule removes the ABO application form from the regulation, and it corrects and clarifies language concerning the VGLI application period that was inadvertently incorrectly modified in a prior amendment of the regulations.

  10. [To maintain or to withdraw life support? Variations on the methods of ending life in a pediatric intensive care unit over a period of 6 years].

    PubMed

    Vernaz, S; Casanova, L; Blanc, F; Lebel, S; Ughetto, F; Paut, O

    2014-06-01

    Since 2005, forgoing live-support (FLS) is allowed by the French law (known as the Leonetti law) for end-of-life patients only. This study aims at describing the variations over time in the use of the following methods to end life: FLS, brain death and cardiopulmonary resuscitation failure (CPR failure). It is a single retrospective study from 2007 to 2012. The Cochran-Armitage trend test is used in the statistical analysis. Over six years, 263 of the 5100 children who were hospitalized in our intensive care unit died, which represents a 5.2% mortality rate. FLS increased yearly from 31% of the deaths in 2007, to 71% in 2012 (P=0.0008). The rate of CPR failure decreased over the same period (P=0.0015). The rate of brain death remained constant. Following to the Leonetti law, FLS increase, and palliative cares develop without any increase of mortality.

  11. Improving First-Year Intervention Strategies at Universities by Focusing on Meaning and Purpose in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Joo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Research has increasingly appreciated the potential benefits of having a higher sense of meaning in life for positive college student development. Drawing on Steger's (2009) meaning development model, this study investigated the effects of a 6-week web-based intervention designed to enhance a sense of meaning in life among college freshmen. The…

  12. Genetic spectrum of hereditary neuropathies with onset in the first year of life

    PubMed Central

    Baets, Jonathan; Deconinck, Tine; De Vriendt, Els; Zimoń, Magdalena; Yperzeele, Laetitia; Van Hoorenbeeck, Kim; Peeters, Kristien; Spiegel, Ronen; Parman, Yesim; Ceulemans, Berten; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Pou-Serradell, Adolf; Bernert, Günther; Dinopoulos, Argirios; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Sallinen, Satu-Leena; Fabrizi, Gian Maria; Pauly, Fernand; Van den Bergh, Peter; Bilir, Birdal; Battaloglu, Esra; Madrid, Ricardo E.; Kabzińska, Dagmara; Kochanski, Andrzej; Topaloglu, Haluk; Miller, Geoffrey; Jordanova, Albena; Timmerman, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Early onset hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies are rare disorders encompassing congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy with disease onset in the direct post-natal period and Dejerine–Sottas neuropathy starting in infancy. The clinical spectrum, however, reaches beyond the boundaries of these two historically defined disease entities. De novo dominant mutations in PMP22, MPZ and EGR2 are known to be a typical cause of very early onset hereditary neuropathies. In addition, mutations in several other dominant and recessive genes for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease may lead to similar phenotypes. To estimate mutation frequencies and to gain detailed insights into the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of early onset hereditary neuropathies, we selected a heterogeneous cohort of 77 unrelated patients who presented with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy within the first year of life. The majority of these patients were isolated in their family. We performed systematic mutation screening by means of direct sequencing of the coding regions of 11 genes: MFN2, PMP22, MPZ, EGR2, GDAP1, NEFL, FGD4, MTMR2, PRX, SBF2 and SH3TC2. In addition, screening for the Charcot–Marie–Tooth type 1A duplication on chromosome 17p11.2-12 was performed. In 35 patients (45%), mutations were identified. Mutations in MPZ, PMP22 and EGR2 were found most frequently in patients presenting with early hypotonia and breathing difficulties. The recessive genes FGD4, PRX, MTMR2, SBF2, SH3TC2 and GDAP1 were mutated in patients presenting with early foot deformities and variable delay in motor milestones after an uneventful neonatal period. Several patients displaying congenital foot deformities but an otherwise normal early development carried the Charcot–Marie–Tooth type 1A duplication. This study clearly illustrates the genetic heterogeneity underlying hereditary neuropathies with infantile onset. PMID:21840889

  13. Ambient air pollution and years of life lost in Ningbo, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tianfeng; Yang, Zuyao; Liu, Tao; Shen, Yueping; Fu, Xiaohong; Qian, Xujun; Zhang, Yuelun; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Shankuan; Mao, Chen; Xu, Guozhang; Tang, Jinling

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the burden of air pollution on years of life lost (YLL) in addition to mortality, we conducted a time series analysis based on the data on air pollution, meteorological conditions and 163,704 non-accidental deaths of Ningbo, China, 2009–2013. The mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were 84.0 μg/m3, 60.1 μg/m3, 25.1 μg/m3 and 41.7 μg/m3, respectively. An increase of 10-μg/m3 in particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide was associated with 4.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–7.38), 2.97 (95% CI ‑2.01–7.95), 29.98 (95% CI 19.21–40.76) and 16.58 (95% CI 8.19–24.97) YLL, respectively, and 0.53% (95% CI 0.29–0.76%), 0.57% (95% CI 0.20–0.95%), 2.89% (95% CI 2.04–3.76%), and 1.65% (95% CI 1.01–2.30%) increase of daily death counts, respectively. The impact of air pollution lasted for four days (lag 0–3), and were more significant in the elderly than in the young population for both outcomes. These findings clarify the burden of air pollution on YLL and highlight the importance and urgency of air pollution control in China.

  14. Prenatal and postnatal energetic conditions and sex steroids levels across the first year of life

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Amanda L.; Lampl, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Human biologists have documented variability in reproductive maturation, fertility, and cancer risk related to developmental conditions. Yet no previous studies have directly examined the impact of pre- and post-natal energetic environments on sex steroids in infancy, a critical period for hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis development. Thus, we examined the impact of maternal characteristics, birth size, and feeding practices on fecal sex steroid production in a longitudinal sample of 31 American infants followed from 2 weeks to 12 months of age. Methods Maternal characteristics and birth size were collected at study enrollment, infant diet was assessed through weekly 24-hr food diaries, and anthropometrics were measured weekly. Fecal estradiol and testosterone levels were assessed weekly using validated microassay RIA techniques. Mixed models were used to test for associations between maternal and birth characteristics, feeding practices, and sex steroids across the first year of life. Formal mediation analysis examined whether the relationship between infant feeding and hormone levels was mediated by infant size. Results Maternal and birth characteristics had persistent effects on fecal sex steroid levels, with taller maternal height and larger birth size associated with lower estradiol levels in girls and higher testosterone levels in boys. Infant diet was also associated with sex steroid levels independently of infant size. Formula feeding was associated with higher estradiol levels in boys and girls and with higher testosterone in girls. Conclusion These results suggest that markers of early energy availability influence sex hormone levels with potential long-term consequences for reproductive development and function. PMID:23904043

  15. Sleep and morningness-eveningness in the 'middle' years of life (20-59 y)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    The following four issues were assessed in a group of 110 adults between the age of 20 and 59y: (1) the effect of age (regarded as a continuous variable) on polysomnographic sleep characteristics, habitual sleep-diary patterns, and subjective sleep quality; (2) the effects of age on morningness-eveningness; (3) the effects of morningness-eveningness on sleep, after controlling for the effects of age; and (4) the role of morningness-eveningness as a mediator of the age and sleep relationship. Increasing age was related to earlier habitual waketime, earlier bedtime, less time in bed and better mood and alertness at waketime. In the laboratory, increasing age was associated with less time asleep, increased number of awakenings, decreased sleep efficiency, lower percentages of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, higher percentages of Stage 1 and 2, shorter REM latency and reduced REM activity and density. Increasing age was also associated with higher morningness scores. After controlling for the effects of age, morningness was associated with earlier waketime, earlier bedtime, less time in bed, better alertness at waketime, less time spent asleep, more wake in the last 2 h of sleep, decreased REM activity, less stage REM (min and percentage), more Stage 1 (min and percentage) and fewer minutes of Stage 2. For one set of variables (night time in bed, waketime, total sleep time, wake in the last 2 h of sleep and minutes of REM and REM activity), morningness-eveningness accounted for about half of the relationship between age and sleep. For another set of variables (bedtime, alertness at waketime, percentages of REM and Stage 1), morningness-eveningness accounted for the entire relationship between age and sleep. In conclusion, age and morningness were both important predictors of the habitual sleep patterns and polysomnographic sleep characteristics of people in the middle years of life (20-59 y).

  16. Ambient air pollution and years of life lost in Ningbo, China.

    PubMed

    He, Tianfeng; Yang, Zuyao; Liu, Tao; Shen, Yueping; Fu, Xiaohong; Qian, Xujun; Zhang, Yuelun; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Shankuan; Mao, Chen; Xu, Guozhang; Tang, Jinling

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the burden of air pollution on years of life lost (YLL) in addition to mortality, we conducted a time series analysis based on the data on air pollution, meteorological conditions and 163,704 non-accidental deaths of Ningbo, China, 2009-2013. The mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were 84.0 μg/m(3), 60.1 μg/m(3), 25.1 μg/m(3) and 41.7 μg/m(3), respectively. An increase of 10-μg/m(3) in particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide was associated with 4.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-7.38), 2.97 (95% CI -2.01-7.95), 29.98 (95% CI 19.21-40.76) and 16.58 (95% CI 8.19-24.97) YLL, respectively, and 0.53% (95% CI 0.29-0.76%), 0.57% (95% CI 0.20-0.95%), 2.89% (95% CI 2.04-3.76%), and 1.65% (95% CI 1.01-2.30%) increase of daily death counts, respectively. The impact of air pollution lasted for four days (lag 0-3), and were more significant in the elderly than in the young population for both outcomes. These findings clarify the burden of air pollution on YLL and highlight the importance and urgency of air pollution control in China.

  17. Communicating hunger and satiation in the first 2 years of life: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McNally, Janet; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Maternal and Infant care produced 27 papers. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed qualitative and/or quantitative publications on feeding behaviours, hunger, and satiation/satiety cues of typically developing children in the first 2 years of life. Papers published between 1966 and 2013 were included in the review. The review revealed that feeding cues and behaviours are shaped by numerous issues, such as infants' physical attributes, individual psychological factors and environmental factors. Meanwhile, infant characteristics, external cues and mothers' own characteristics affect how feeding cues are perceived. The existing literature provides insights into many aspects of hunger and satiation in infancy; however, there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There is a lack of validated tools for measuring hunger and satiation, a need to understand how different infant characteristics impact on feeding behaviour and a need to extricate the respective contributions of infant and maternal characteristics to perceptions of hunger and satiation. Further research is also recommended to differentiate between feeding driven by liking and that driven by hunger.

  18. Communicating hunger and satiation in the first 2 years of life: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hugh‐Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Maternal and Infant care produced 27 papers. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed qualitative and/or quantitative publications on feeding behaviours, hunger, and satiation/satiety cues of typically developing children in the first 2 years of life. Papers published between 1966 and 2013 were included in the review. The review revealed that feeding cues and behaviours are shaped by numerous issues, such as infants' physical attributes, individual psychological factors and environmental factors. Meanwhile, infant characteristics, external cues and mothers' own characteristics affect how feeding cues are perceived. The existing literature provides insights into many aspects of hunger and satiation in infancy; however, there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There is a lack of validated tools for measuring hunger and satiation, a need to understand how different infant characteristics impact on feeding behaviour and a need to extricate the respective contributions of infant and maternal characteristics to perceptions of hunger and satiation. Further research is also recommended to differentiate between feeding driven by liking and that driven by hunger. PMID:26620159

  19. Ambient air pollution and years of life lost in Ningbo, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Tianfeng; Yang, Zuyao; Liu, Tao; Shen, Yueping; Fu, Xiaohong; Qian, Xujun; Zhang, Yuelun; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Shankuan; Mao, Chen; Xu, Guozhang; Tang, Jinling

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the burden of air pollution on years of life lost (YLL) in addition to mortality, we conducted a time series analysis based on the data on air pollution, meteorological conditions and 163,704 non-accidental deaths of Ningbo, China, 2009–2013. The mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were 84.0 μg/m3, 60.1 μg/m3, 25.1 μg/m3 and 41.7 μg/m3, respectively. An increase of 10-μg/m3 in particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide was associated with 4.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–7.38), 2.97 (95% CI −2.01–7.95), 29.98 (95% CI 19.21–40.76) and 16.58 (95% CI 8.19–24.97) YLL, respectively, and 0.53% (95% CI 0.29–0.76%), 0.57% (95% CI 0.20–0.95%), 2.89% (95% CI 2.04–3.76%), and 1.65% (95% CI 1.01–2.30%) increase of daily death counts, respectively. The impact of air pollution lasted for four days (lag 0–3), and were more significant in the elderly than in the young population for both outcomes. These findings clarify the burden of air pollution on YLL and highlight the importance and urgency of air pollution control in China. PMID:26927539

  20. Cognitive function, social functioning and quality of life in first-episode psychosis: A 1-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Popolo, Raffaele; Vinci, Giancarlo; Balbi, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Objective. The majority of patients with schizophrenia have cognitive deficits early in the disease. We evaluated the relationship between cognitive function, social functioning and quality of life in patients with first-episode psychosis. Methods. This was a longitudinal study in 15 patients aged 18-30 years who had recently experienced a first psychotic episode and were treated with the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole, cognitive-behavioural therapy, psycho-educational sessions, family supportive sessions and social interventions. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. Cognitive assessment included attention, memory, language skills and problem solving. Social functioning, quality of life, and psychopathological evaluation were performed with validated tools. Results. At baseline, patients had a severe impairment of social functioning and a low quality of life, while a specific pattern of cognitive functions was not identified. After 1-year, we observed a significant improvement in social functioning and quality of life, without a significant decrease in cognitive function. Conclusion. Contrary to previous findings, we found that social functioning and quality of life are related, but independent of cognitive impairment. The use of antipsychotic agents that do not interefere with cognitive function plus psychological assistance is a valuable treatment approach in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

  1. Bowel perforation due to break and distal passage of the safety ring of an adjustable intra-gastric balloon: A potentially life threatening situation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubaidi, Ali M; Alghamdi, Hassan U; Alzobydi, Abdu H; Dhiloon, Irshad A; Qureshi, Laeeque A

    2015-01-01

    A 45-year-old man of Middle Eastern origin, morbid obese, with a body mass index of 39 had an intra-gastric balloon, filled with 500 mL of saline/methylene blue and intended as definite therapy, inserted some 8 wk previously. He was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal cramps. An ultrasound of the abdomen was performed in ER which confirmed the balloon to be in place without any abnormality. He was discharged home on symptomatic medication. Patient remains symptomatic therefore he reported back to ER 2 d later. Computed tomography scan was performed this time for further evaluation which revealed a metallic ring present in the small bowel while the intra-gastric balloon was in its proper position. There was no clinical or radiological sign of intestinal obstruction. Patient was hospitalized for observation and conservative management. The following night, patient experienced sudden and severe abdominal pain, therefore an X-ray of the abdomen in erect position was done, which showed free air under the right dome of diaphragm. Patient was transferred to O.R for emergency laparotomy. There were two small perforations identified at the site of the metallic ring entrapment. The ring was removed and the perforations were repaired. Due to increasing prevalence of obesity and advances in modalities for its management, physicians should be aware of treatment options, their benefits, complications and clinical presentation of the known complications. Physicians need to be updated to approach these complications within time, to avoid life-threatening situations caused by these appliances. PMID:25901223

  2. Discovering Genes Essential to the Hypothalamic Regulation of Human Reproduction Using a Human Disease Model: Adjusting to Life in the "-Omics" Era.

    PubMed

    Stamou, M I; Cox, K H; Crowley, William F

    2015-12-01

    The neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction is an intricate process requiring the exquisite coordination of an assortment of cellular networks, all converging on the GnRH neurons. These neurons have a complex life history, migrating mainly from the olfactory placode into the hypothalamus, where GnRH is secreted and acts as the master regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Much of what we know about the biology of the GnRH neurons has been aided by discoveries made using the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency (IGD), a family of rare Mendelian disorders that share a common failure of secretion and/or action of GnRH causing hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Over the last 30 years, research groups around the world have been investigating the genetic basis of IGD using different strategies based on complex cases that harbor structural abnormalities or single pleiotropic genes, endogamous pedigrees, candidate gene approaches as well as pathway gene analyses. Although such traditional approaches, based on well-validated tools, have been critical to establish the field, new strategies, such as next-generation sequencing, are now providing speed and robustness, but also revealing a surprising number of variants in known IGD genes in both patients and healthy controls. Thus, before the field moves forward with new genetic tools and continues discovery efforts, we must reassess what we know about IGD genetics and prepare to hold our work to a different standard. The purpose of this review is to: 1) look back at the strategies used to discover the "known" genes implicated in the rare forms of IGD; 2) examine the strengths and weaknesses of the methodologies used to validate genetic variation; 3) substantiate the role of known genes in the pathophysiology of the disease; and 4) project forward as we embark upon a widening use of these new and powerful technologies for gene discovery.

  3. Discovering Genes Essential to the Hypothalamic Regulation of Human Reproduction Using a Human Disease Model: Adjusting to Life in the “-Omics” Era

    PubMed Central

    Stamou, M. I.; Cox, K. H.

    2015-01-01

    The neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction is an intricate process requiring the exquisite coordination of an assortment of cellular networks, all converging on the GnRH neurons. These neurons have a complex life history, migrating mainly from the olfactory placode into the hypothalamus, where GnRH is secreted and acts as the master regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Much of what we know about the biology of the GnRH neurons has been aided by discoveries made using the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency (IGD), a family of rare Mendelian disorders that share a common failure of secretion and/or action of GnRH causing hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Over the last 30 years, research groups around the world have been investigating the genetic basis of IGD using different strategies based on complex cases that harbor structural abnormalities or single pleiotropic genes, endogamous pedigrees, candidate gene approaches as well as pathway gene analyses. Although such traditional approaches, based on well-validated tools, have been critical to establish the field, new strategies, such as next-generation sequencing, are now providing speed and robustness, but also revealing a surprising number of variants in known IGD genes in both patients and healthy controls. Thus, before the field moves forward with new genetic tools and continues discovery efforts, we must reassess what we know about IGD genetics and prepare to hold our work to a different standard. The purpose of this review is to: 1) look back at the strategies used to discover the “known” genes implicated in the rare forms of IGD; 2) examine the strengths and weaknesses of the methodologies used to validate genetic variation; 3) substantiate the role of known genes in the pathophysiology of the disease; and 4) project forward as we embark upon a widening use of these new and powerful technologies for gene discovery. PMID:26394276

  4. 26 CFR 25.2512-5A - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary interests transferred before May 1, 2009... Before May 1, 2009 § 25.2512-5A Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of... annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary interests transferred...

  5. 26 CFR 25.2512-5A - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary interests transferred before May 1, 2009... Before May 1, 2009 § 25.2512-5A Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of... annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary interests transferred...

  6. Maternal behavior and infant physiology during feeding in premature and term infants over the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ashley M; Harrison, Tondi M

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the relationship between maternal behavior and the stability of premature infants' physiologic responses during feeding. In a secondary data analysis, we examined relationships between quality of maternal behavior and cardiorespiratory physiology during feeding in 61 premature and 53 term infants at four times over the first year of life. Measures included heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and oxygen saturation; Child Feeding Skills Checklist; and Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment. Birthweight, gestational age, and neurodevelopmental risk were covariates. Quality of maternal behavior did not predict infants' physiologic response to feeding. However, birthweight was related to infant feeding physiology among all infants over the first year of life. Stress during fetal life, which may lead to impaired intrauterine growth and low birthweight, may have longitudinal effects on cardiorespiratory functioning of premature infants. Research is needed to further investigate the biological pathways by which maternal-infant interaction supports behavioral and physiologic feeding outcomes of premature infants.

  7. Life goals and alcohol use among first-year college students: the role of motives to limit drinking.

    PubMed

    Palfai, Tibor P; Ralston, Timothy E

    2011-11-01

    The main objective of the present study was to advance our understanding of how life goals are associated with hazardous alcohol use among first-year university students. One-hundred and seventeen students rated a series of self-generated life goals on meaning and efficacy and then completed alcohol assessments. Higher goal meaning ratings were associated with less alcohol use and fewer heavy drinking episodes. Tests of indirect effects showed that the associations between goal meaning ratings and alcohol use indices were mediated by motives to limit drinking, particularly the motive to maintain self-control/standards. These results replicate and extend previous work on goal meaning and hazardous drinking among students. Findings are consistent with the view that engagement in university life goals may serve as a protective factor against hazardous drinking among first-year students due to greater concern with the impact of drinking on their ability to attain goal standards.

  8. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  9. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  10. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  11. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  12. The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p < 0.05) to 1.62 years (p < 0.001) at different stages. Male residents were more vulnerable to the effects of industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

  13. Development of Empathy in Girls during the Second Year of Life: Associations with Parenting, Attachment, and Temperament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Mark, Ingrid L.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development, antecedents, and concomitants of empathic concern in the second year of life among 125 first-born girls. Findings indicated that empathic concern for mother's simulated distress increased from 16 to 22 months, whereas empathy for a stranger's simulated distress decreased. Fearful temperament and…

  14. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  15. Parental Retrospective Assessment of Development and Behavior in Asperger Syndrome during the First 2 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewrang, Petra; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2010-01-01

    Development and behavior during the first 2 years of life was assessed retrospectively by the parents to 23 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 13 typically developing adolescents and young adults. The groups were matched on chronological age and the participants were within the normal range of intelligence. The questionnaire,…

  16. Diary Reports of Concerns in Mothers of Infant Siblings of Children with Autism across the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbott, Meagan R.; Nelson, Charles A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    We examined the home-based concerns reported by mothers of infant siblings of children with autism across the first year of life. At all three ages measured, mothers of high-risk infants were significantly more likely than mothers of low-risk infants to report language, social communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior concerns but were…

  17. An Overview of Concepts Concerning the Development of Self-Identity during the First Two Years of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maar, Joyce

    This paper traces some of the major theories and research findings concerning the development of self-identity during the first two years of life. The discussion begins with some basic assumptions of identity formation, offers an historical perspective with discussion of William James' major aspects of self, and concludes with observations on the…

  18. Quality of Life: Domains for Understanding Maths Anxiety in First Year Pre-Service Teachers through Identity Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety in primary pre-service teachers' affects their future teaching of mathematics and achievement of students. Data collected via Critical Incident Technique were used to investigate this anxiety as perceived and identified by first year pre-service teachers. This paper proposes the application of the Quality of Life conceptual…

  19. The Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher, 1999: Violence in America's Public Schools--Five Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Katherine; Markow, Dana

    1999-01-01

    "The Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher, 1999: Violence in America's Public Schools: Five Years Later" revisits issues addressed in a 1993 study (ED397190), and compares findings of the two studies on the issue of school violence from the perspectives of students, teachers, and law enforcement officers across the country,…

  20. Longitudinal Trajectories of Gestural and Linguistic Abilities in Very Preterm Infants in the Second Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Broccoli, Serena; Justice, Laura; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    The present study involved a systematic longitudinal analysis, with three points of assessment in the second year of life, of gestures/actions, word comprehension, and word production in a sample of very preterm infants compared to a sample of full-term infants. The relationships among these competencies as well as their predictive value on…

  1. What's Going On in There? How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Lise

    Drawing upon the burgeoning research in neurology, as well as stories of real children, this book charts the brain's development, from conception through the critical first 5 years of life. In examining the many factors that play crucial roles in that process, the book explores the evolution of the senses, motor skills, social and emotional…

  2. English Usage in Daily Life by Turkish Students between 15-19 Years of Age: A Scale Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deha Dogan, C.; Canan Karababa, Z.; Fulya Soguksu, A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale to assess the level of English usage in daily life by students between 15 and 19 years of age, and to compare these students' scale scores according to their achievement levels in an English course. Five hundred and ninety-five participants were randomly selected from a universe.…

  3. Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of the Voice across the Life Span: Measures from Individuals 4-93 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine acoustic voice changes across the life span. Previous voice production investigations used small numbers of participants, had limited age ranges, and produced contradictory results. Method: Voice recordings were made from 192 male and female participants 4-93 years of age. Acoustic…

  4. Challenges in Implementing Technology-Rich Curricular High School Biology Materials: First Year Findings from the "Exploring Life" Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Betsy; Cates, Ward M.; Bodzin, Alex

    Eighteen high school biology teachers from a stratified sample of 13 distinct geographical United States regions participated in evaluation of the first year prototypes of Exploring Life, a biology program that includes a textbook with an accompanying Internet component and wet-lab investigations. Web activities explain and reinforce the text and…

  5. Medication-related factors associated with health-related quality of life in patients older than 65 years with polypharmacy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In the current public health framework, the importance of medication as a determinant of citizens’ health has emerged as a factor warranting special attention. Most studies investigating the relationship between medication and quality of life do so from the perspective of adherence. However, other medication-related factors identified at home visits may be associated with health-related quality of life. Methods and design Objective: To describe the relationship between medication-related factors and the health-related quality of life in patients older than 65 years who use multiple medications (polypharmacy). Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Primary care. Participants: Patients older than 65 years who use multiple medications (n = 375). Measurements: The main outcome measure was health-related quality of life according to the EuroQol-5D instrument. Sociodemographic, clinical and medication-related variables were recorded during home interviews. Results Mean age was 74.72 ± 5.59 years, and 65.5% of our participants were women. The global level of health-related quality of life according to the EQ-5D visual analog scale was 59.25 ± 20.92. Of the five EuroQol dimensions, anxiety/depression and pain were the most frequently reported, while mobility and self-care were the dimensions with the greatest impact on self-reported quality of life. Multivariate analysis indicated that functional independence was the factor most strongly associated (β = 14.27 p < 0.001) with better health-related quality of life, while illiteracy (β = −13.58 p < 0.001), depression (β = −10.13 p < 0.001), social risk (β = −7.23 p = 0.004) and using more than 10 medicines (β = −4.85 p = 0.009) were strongly associated with a poorer health-related quality of life. Conclusions Factors inherent within the patient such as functional incapacity, cognitive impairment and social and emotional problems were the main constraints to quality of life in our study population

  6. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for retrospective estimation of diet during the first 2 years of life

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; García-Guerra, Armando; Quezada-Sanchez, Amado D.; Orjuela, Manuela A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to validate a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), specifically designed to retrospectively estimate dietary intake and supplement consumption during the first two years of life in children from resource poor households in semi-rural Mexico. Methods The FFQ querying about diet during the first 2 years of life was administered to mothers of children (N=84), who participated in a prospective study 3 to 5 years earlier, in which complementary feeding practice questionnaires and 24-hour recall (24hrR) were collected at several time points during the first 2 years of life to evaluate dietary and vitamin supplement intake. The resulting FFQ data were compared to intake data collected during the original study using Spearman correlations, deattenuated correlations and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Total energy intake, as estimated by the retrospective and original instruments, did not differ in the second year (Yr2); correlations between the measures were significant (r=0.40, p<0.001). The 24hrR and FFQ-Yr2 were significantly correlated for dietary intake of vitamins B6, B12 (p<0.001) and folate (p<0.01); however, after including vitamin supplement intake, the two dietary instruments were correlated only for vitamins A and B12 (p<0.05). Conclusions The FFQ provides a reasonable estimate of a child’s dietary intake of energy and key micronutrients during the second year of life, and permits accurate ranking of intake 3 to 5 years after birth. PMID:23532627

  7. How Do Maternal Subclinical Symptoms Influence Infant Motor Development during the First Year of Life?

    PubMed Central

    Piallini, Giulia; Brunoro, Stefania; Fenocchio, Chiara; Marini, Costanza; Simonelli, Alessandra; Biancotto, Marina; Zoia, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    An unavoidable reciprocal influence characterizes the mother-child dyad. Within this relationship, the presence of depression, somatization, hostility, paranoid ideation, and interpersonal sensitivity symptoms at a subclinical level and their possible input on infant motor competences has not been yet considered. Bearing in mind that motor abilities represent not only an indicator of the infant's health-status, but also the principal field to infer his/her needs, feelings and intentions, in this study the quality of infants' movements were assessed and analyzed in relationship with the maternal attitudes. The aim of this research was to investigate if/how maternal symptomatology may pilot infant's motor development during his/her first year of life by observing the characteristics of motor development in infants aged 0–11 months. Participants included 123 mothers and their infants (0–11 months-old). Mothers' symptomatology was screened with the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), while infants were tested with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Second Edition. All dyads belonged to a non-clinical population, however, on the basis of SCL-90-R scores, the mothers' sample was divided into two groups: normative and subclinical. Descriptive, t-test, correlational analysis between PDMS-2 scores and SCL-90-R results are reported, as well as regression models results. Both positive and negative correlations were found between maternal perceived symptomatology, Somatization (SOM), Interpersonal Sensitivity (IS), Depression (DEP), Hostility (HOS), and Paranoid Ideation (PAR) and infants' motor abilities. These results were further verified by applying regression models to predict the infant's motor outcomes on the basis of babies' age and maternal status. The presence of positive symptoms in the SCL-90-R questionnaire (subclinical group) predicted good visual-motor integration and stationary competences in the babies. In particular, depressive and hostility

  8. Precursors to language in preterm infants: speech perception abilities in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Language development in infants born very preterm is often compromised. Poor language skills have been described in preschoolers and differences between preterms and full terms, relative to early vocabulary size and morphosyntactical complexity, have also been identified. However, very few data are available concerning early speech perception abilities and their predictive value for later language outcomes. An overview of the results obtained in a prospective study exploring the link between early speech perception abilities and lexical development in the second year of life in a population of very preterm infants (≤32 gestation weeks) is presented. Specifically, behavioral measures relative to (a) native-language recognition and discrimination from a rhythmically distant and a rhythmically close nonfamiliar languages, and (b) monosyllabic word-form segmentation, were obtained and compared to data from full-term infants. Expressive vocabulary at two test ages (12 and 18 months, corrected age for gestation) was measured using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Behavioral results indicated that differences between preterm and control groups were present, but only evident when task demands were high in terms of language processing, selective attention to relevant information and memory load. When responses could be based on acquired knowledge from accumulated linguistic experience, between-group differences were no longer observed. Critically, while preterm infants responded satisfactorily to the native-language recognition and discrimination tasks, they clearly differed from full-term infants in the more challenging activity of extracting and retaining word-form units from fluent speech, a fundamental ability for starting to building a lexicon. Correlations between results from the language discrimination tasks and expressive vocabulary measures could not be systematically established. However, attention time to novel words in the word segmentation

  9. UV Radiation: a new first year physics/life sciences laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, S. V.; Siddaway, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Unfortunately, Australia leads the world in the number of skin cancer cases per capita. Three major factors that contribute to this are: 1) the level of damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation in Australia is higher than in many other countries. This is caused, among other factors, by the stratospheric ozone depletion and Antarctic ozone hole; 2) many people in Australia are of Irish-Scottish origin and their skin can not repair the damage caused by the UV radiation as effectively as the skin of people of other origins; 3) Australia is one of the world’s leaders in the outdoor activities where people tend to spend more time outside. As our experience has shown, most Australian University students, high school students, and even high school teachers were largely unaware of the UV damage details and effective safety measures. Therefore, a need for new ways to educate people became apparent. The general aim of this new 1st year laboratory experiment, developed and first offered at La Trobe University (Melbourne, Australia) in 2009, is to investigate how UV-B radiation levels change under various solar illumination conditions and how effective different types of protection are. After pre-lab readings on physical concepts and biological effects of UV radiation, and after solving all pre-lab problems, the students go outside and measure the actual change in UV-B and UV-A radiation levels under various conditions. Some of these conditions are: direct sun, shade from a building, shade under the roof, reflection from various surfaces, direct sun through cheap and expensive sunglasses and eyeglasses, direct sun through various types of cloth and hair. The equipment used is the UV-Probe manufactured by sglux SolGel Technologies GmbH. The students’ feedback on this new laboratory experiment was very positive. It was ranked top among all physics experiments offered as part of that subject (Physics for Life Sciences) in 2009 and top among all physics experiments presented for

  10. Challenging the 10-year rule: The accuracy of patient life expectancy predictions by physicians in relation to prostate cancer management

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kevin M.Y.B.; Hopman, Wilma M; Kawakami, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We assess physicians’ ability to accurately predict life expectancies. In prostate cancer this prediction is especially important as it affects screening decisions. No previous studies have examined accuracy in the context of real cases and concrete end points. Methods: Seven clinical scenarios were summarized from charts of deceased patients. We recruited 100 medical professionals to review these scenarios and estimate each patient’s life expectancy. Responses were analyzed with respect to the patients’ actual survival end points, then stratified based on the demographic information provided. Results: Respondent factors, such as sex, level of training, location of work or specialty, made no significant difference on prediction accuracy. Furthermore, respondents were typically pessimistic in their estimations with a negative linear trend between estimated life expectancy and actual survival. Overall, respondents were within 1 year of actual life expectancy only 15.9% of the time; on average, respondents were 67.4% inaccurate in relation to actual survival. If framed in terms of correctly identifying which patients would live more than or less than 10 years (dichotomous accuracy), physicians were correct 68.3% of the time. Conclusions: Physicians do poorly at predicting life expectancy and tend to underestimate how long patients have left to live. This overall inaccuracy raises the question of whether physicians should refine screening and treatment criteria, find a better proxy or dispose of the criteria altogether. PMID:23093629

  11. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  12. Cortical specialisation to social stimuli from the first days to the second year of life: A rural Gambian cohort.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Fox, S; Begus, K; Halliday, D; Pirazzoli, L; Blasi, A; Papademetriou, M; Darboe, M K; Prentice, A M; Johnson, M H; Moore, S E; Elwell, C E

    2016-11-27

    Brain and nervous system development in human infants during the first 1000days (conception to two years of age) is critical, and compromised development during this time (such as from under nutrition or poverty) can have life-long effects on physical growth and cognitive function. Cortical mapping of cognitive function during infancy is poorly understood in resource-poor settings due to the lack of transportable and low-cost neuroimaging methods. Having established a signature cortical response to social versus non-social visual and auditory stimuli in infants from 4 to 6 months of age in the UK, here we apply this functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) paradigm to investigate social responses in infants from the first postnatal days to the second year of life in two contrasting environments: rural Gambian and urban UK. Results reveal robust, localized, socially selective brain responses from 9 to 24 months of life to both the visual and auditory stimuli. In contrast at 0-2 months of age infants exhibit non-social auditory selectivity, an effect that persists until 4-8 months when we observe a transition to greater social stimulus selectivity. These findings reveal a robust developmental curve of cortical specialisation over the first two years of life.

  13. Cervical cancer as a priority for prevention in different world regions: an evaluation using years of life lost.

    PubMed

    Yang, Binh H; Bray, Freddie I; Parkin, D Maxwell; Sellors, John W; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2004-04-10

    The relative importance of cancer of the cervix among several important causes of mortality (from cancer and other diseases) has been evaluated by estimating the years of life lost (YLL) by young and middle-aged women (25-64 years old) in different regions of the world. The life years were weighted to reflect their importance to the individual and to society. On a global basis, cancer of the cervix is responsible for about 2% of the total (weighted) YLL, fewer than for other causes of mortality in this age group. However, it is the most important cause of YLL in Latin America and the Caribbean. It also makes the largest contribution to YLL from cancer in the populous regions of SubSaharan Africa and South-Central Asia where the actual risk of loss of life from this cause is higher, although overshadowed by noncancer deaths (from AIDS, TB and maternal conditions). The overall picture is not very sensitive to the age weighting function used. The fact that most of the loss of life is preventable, and that simple technologies have been developed that make this practicable, means that cervical cancer has an even higher profile from the perspective of resource allocation in low income settings.

  14. Effect of maternal dietary counselling during the 1st year of life on glucose profile and insulin resistance at the age of 8 years: a randomised field trial.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cintia S; Campagnolo, Paula D B; Lumey, L H; Vitolo, Marcia R

    2017-01-01

    Education interventions that stimulate complementary feeding practices can improve the nutritional status of children and may protect against future chronic diseases. We assessed the long-term effectiveness of dietary intervention during the 1st year of life on insulin resistance levels, and investigated the relationship between insulin resistance and weight changes over time. A randomised field trial was conducted among 500 mothers who gave birth to full-term infants between October 2001 and June 2002 in a low-income area in São Leopoldo, Brazil. Mother-child pairs were randomly assigned to intervention (n 200) and control groups (n 300), and the mothers in the intervention group received dietary counselling on breast-feeding and complementary feeding of their children during the 1st year of life. Fieldworkers blinded to assignment assessed socio-demographic, dietary and anthropometric data during follow-up at ages 1, 4 and 8 years. Blood tests were performed in 305 children aged 8 years to measure fasting serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the homoeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). At the age of 8 years, the intervention group showed no changes in glucose and insulin concentrations or HOMA-IR values (change 0·07; 95 % CI -0·06, 0·21 for girls; and change -0·07; 95 % CI -0·19, 0·04 for boys) compared with study controls. Insulin resistance was highly correlated, however, with increases in BMI between birth and 8 years of age. Although this dietary intervention had no impact on glucose profile at age 8 years, our findings suggest that BMI changes in early childhood can serve as an effective marker of insulin resistance.

  15. Estimation of Life-Year Loss and Lifetime Costs for Different Stages of Colon Adenocarcinoma in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Chuan; Lee, Jenq-Chang; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Life-expectancy of colon cancer patients cannot be accurately answered due to the lack of both large datasets and long-term follow-ups, which impedes accurate estimation of lifetime cost to treat colon cancer patients. In this study, we applied a method to estimate life-expectancy of colon cancer patients in Taiwan and calculate the lifetime costs by different stages and age groups. Methods A total of 17,526 cases with pathologically verified colon adenocarcinoma between 2002 and 2009 were extracted from Taiwan Cancer Registry database for analysis. All patients were followed-up until the end of 2011. Life-expectancy, expected-years-of-life-lost and lifetime costs were estimated, using a semi-parametric survival extrapolation method and borrowing information from life tables of vital statistics. Results Patients with more advanced stages of colon cancer were generally younger and less co-morbid with major chronic diseases than those with stages I and II. The LE of stage I was not significantly different from that of the age- and sex-matched general population, whereas those of stages II, III, and IV colon cancer patients after diagnosis were 16.57±0.07, 13.35±0.07, and 4.05±0.05 years, respectively; the corresponding expected-years-of-life-lost were 1.28±0.07, 5.93±0.07 and 16.42±0.06 years, significantly shorter than the general population after accounting for lead time bias. Besides, the lifetime cost of managing stage II colon cancer patients would be US $8,416±1939, 14,334±1,755, and 21,837±1,698, respectively, indicating a big saving for early diagnosis and treatment after stratification for age and sex. Conclusions Treating colon cancer at younger age and earlier stage saves more life-years and healthcare costs. Future studies are indicated to apply these quantitative results into the cost-effectiveness evaluation of screening program for colon cancers. PMID:26207912

  16. [Female life courses and health--results of a study of national survey data of 50-69-year-old women in East and West Germany].

    PubMed

    Bammann, K; Babitsch, B; Jahn, I; Maschewsky-Schneider, U

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the impact of different forms of combining family and paid work on the health status of women. The study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the National Health Survey and included 1530 women, aged 50 to 69 years, from East and West Germany. Three groups were composed to describe different forms of family and occupation in the life course (family or occupational career, combination of family and occupation). Additionally, aspects of the social situation, resources and burdens as well as indicators of health behaviour were included in the analyses. The most remarkable result was a significantly worse state of health of employed and childless women (occupational career), aged 50 to 59 years. This finding remained after adjustment for different potential factors of influence. Considering the increasing proportion of women without children in modern societies, longitudinal analyses would be necessary to investigate the long term effect of familial and occupational factors on the health status of women.

  17. Capping risk adjustment?

    PubMed

    Eugster, Patrick; Sennhauser, Michèle; Zweifel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    When premiums are community-rated, risk adjustment (RA) serves to mitigate competitive insurers' incentive to select favorable risks. However, unless fully prospective, it also undermines their incentives for efficiency. By capping its volume, one may try to counteract this tendency, exposing insurers to some financial risk. This in term runs counter the quest to refine the RA formula, which would increase RA volume. Specifically, the adjuster, "Hospitalization or living in a nursing home during the previous year" will be added in Switzerland starting 2012. This paper investigates how to minimize the opportunity cost of capping RA in terms of increased incentives for risk selection.

  18. A Comparative Study of the Adjustment of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devika R.

    2014-01-01

    Education is the ability to meet one's life. How the child adjusts with varying situations determines the success of life. The child's adjustment is determined by a number of factors like Home, Social, Educational and Financial adjustment. The investigator here aims to make a comparative study on the adjustment of secondary school students. The…

  19. Dissociation: adjustment or distress? Dissociative phenomena, absorption and quality of life among Israeli women who practice channeling compared to women with similar traumatic history.

    PubMed

    Stolovy, Tali; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Witztum, Eliezer

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between traumatic history, dissociative phenomena, absorption and quality of life among a population of channelers, in comparison with a population of non-channelers with similar traumatic history. The study sample included 150 women. The measures included Traumatic Experiences Scale, Dissociative Experience Scale, Absorption Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and Quality of Life (QOL) Assessment. Channelers presented significantly higher levels of dissociation, absorption and psychological health compared to the other group. Dissociation and absorption were trauma-related only among the comparison group. Hence, dissociation has different qualities among different people, and spiritual practice contributes to QOL.

  20. 42 CFR 495.211 - Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and....211 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY...

  1. William Lester Bodine: The Honorary Life Presidential Years, 1917-1946

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullagh, James G.; Niehaus, Rebecca L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to share with the reader the beliefs, on a variety of topics, of William Lester Bodine, co-founder, first president, and first Honorary Life President of the National League of Compulsory Education Officials. The convention's annual proceedings are the source for his reflections, ideas, aspirations, and…

  2. Equally Prepared for Life? How 15-Year-Old Boys and Girls Perform in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    In the past few decades there has been an increasing interest in the different educational experiences, success and eventual outcomes that prevail for males and females. Women often excel at school, however men often earn more and are more likely to hold positions of power in political and economic life. Looking at these inequalities, government…

  3. A Look Back: A Retrospective Analysis of the Sequence of Life Course Events over 22 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    At both the provincial and federal levels, a lively policy debate on the types of education, training, and skill acquisition required to meet the demands of the British Columbia and Canadian workforce is taking place. Despite acknowledgement of the need for lifelong learning and reskilling in light of frequent career changes over the life course,…

  4. FY04 Advanced Life Support Architecture and Technology Studies: Mid-Year Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Duffield, Bruce; Hanford, Tony; Jeng, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Long-Term Objective: Identify optimal advanced life support system designs that meet existing and projected requirements for future human spaceflight missions. a) Include failure-tolerance, reliability, and safe-haven requirements. b) Compare designs based on multiple criteria including equivalent system mass (ESM), technology readiness level (TRL), simplicity, commonality, etc. c) Develop and evaluate new, more optimal, architecture concepts and technology applications.

  5. Spanish Family Quality of Life Scales: Under and over 18 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gine, Climent; Vilaseca, Rosa; Gracia, Marta; Mora, Joaquin; Orcasitas, Jose Ramon; Simon, Cecilia; Torrecillas, Ana Maria; Beltran, Francesc S.; Dalmau, Mariona; Pro, Maria Teresa; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Mas, Joana Maria; Adam-Alcocer, Ana Luisa; Simo-Pinatella, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers, professionals, and families have shown increasing concern with the family quality of life (FQoL) of people with intellectual disability (ID) and their families. The goals of this research were (a) to explore how Spanish families understand FQoL by developing 2 different measurement tools for families with a member with ID…

  6. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2010-2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028.

  7. Rapid emergence of life shown by discovery of 3,700-million-year-old microbial structures.

    PubMed

    Nutman, Allen P; Bennett, Vickie C; Friend, Clark R L; Van Kranendonk, Martin J; Chivas, Allan R

    2016-09-22

    Biological activity is a major factor in Earth's chemical cycles, including facilitating CO2 sequestration and providing climate feedbacks. Thus a key question in Earth's evolution is when did life arise and impact hydrosphere-atmosphere-lithosphere chemical cycles? Until now, evidence for the oldest life on Earth focused on debated stable isotopic signatures of 3,800-3,700 million year (Myr)-old metamorphosed sedimentary rocks and minerals from the Isua supracrustal belt (ISB), southwest Greenland. Here we report evidence for ancient life from a newly exposed outcrop of 3,700-Myr-old metacarbonate rocks in the ISB that contain 1-4-cm-high stromatolites-macroscopically layered structures produced by microbial communities. The ISB stromatolites grew in a shallow marine environment, as indicated by seawater-like rare-earth element plus yttrium trace element signatures of the metacarbonates, and by interlayered detrital sedimentary rocks with cross-lamination and storm-wave generated breccias. The ISB stromatolites predate by 220 Myr the previous most convincing and generally accepted multidisciplinary evidence for oldest life remains in the 3,480-Myr-old Dresser Formation of the Pilbara Craton, Australia. The presence of the ISB stromatolites demonstrates the establishment of shallow marine carbonate production with biotic CO2 sequestration by 3,700 million years ago (Ma), near the start of Earth's sedimentary record. A sophistication of life by 3,700 Ma is in accord with genetic molecular clock studies placing life's origin in the Hadean eon (>4,000 Ma).

  8. Economics in “Global Health 2035”: a sensitivity analysis of the value of a life year estimates

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Angela Y; Robinson, Lisa A; Hammitt, James K; Resch, Stephen C

    2017-01-01

    Background In “Global health 2035: a world converging within a generation,” The Lancet Commission on Investing in Health (CIH) adds the value of increased life expectancy to the value of growth in gross domestic product (GDP) when assessing national well–being. To value changes in life expectancy, the CIH relies on several strong assumptions to bridge gaps in the empirical research. It finds that the value of a life year (VLY) averages 2.3 times GDP per capita for low– and middle–income countries (LMICs) assuming the changes in life expectancy they experienced from 2000 to 2011 are permanent. Methods The CIH VLY estimate is based on a specific shift in population life expectancy and includes a 50 percent reduction for children ages 0 through 4. We investigate the sensitivity of this estimate to the underlying assumptions, including the effects of income, age, and life expectancy, and the sequencing of the calculations. Findings We find that reasonable alternative assumptions regarding the effects of income, age, and life expectancy may reduce the VLY estimates to 0.2 to 2.1 times GDP per capita for LMICs. Removing the reduction for young children increases the VLY, while reversing the sequencing of the calculations reduces the VLY. Conclusion Because the VLY is sensitive to the underlying assumptions, analysts interested in applying this approach elsewhere must tailor the estimates to the impacts of the intervention and the characteristics of the affected population. Analysts should test the sensitivity of their conclusions to reasonable alternative assumptions. More work is needed to investigate options for improving the approach.

  9. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group.

  10. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-08-12

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase).

  11. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life 2 Years After Treatment With Radical Prostatectomy, Prostate Brachytherapy, or External Beam Radiotherapy in Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Montserrat Suarez, Jose Francisco; Guedea, Ferran; Fernandez, Pablo; Macias, Victor; Marino, Alfonso; Hervas, Asuncion; Herruzo, Ismael; Ortiz, Maria Jose; Villavicencio, Humberto; Craven-Bratle, Jordi; Garin, Olatz; Aguilo, Ferran

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with localized prostate cancer, from before treatment to 2 years after the intervention. Methods and Materials: This was a longitudinal, prospective study of 614 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy (134), three-dimensional external conformal radiotherapy (205), and brachytherapy (275). The HRQL questionnaires administered before and after treatment (months 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24) were the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (General and Prostate Specific), the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC), and the American Urological Association Symptom Index. Differences between groups were tested by analysis of variance and within-group changes by univariate repeated-measures analysis of variance. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were constructed to assess between-group differences in HRQL at 2 years of follow-up after adjusting for clinical variables. Results: In each treatment group, HRQL initially deteriorated after treatment with subsequent partial recovery. However, some dimension scores were still significantly lower after 2 years of treatment. The GEE models showed that, compared with the brachytherapy group, radical prostatectomy patients had worse EPIC sexual summary and urinary incontinence scores (-20.4 and -14.1; p < 0.001), and external radiotherapy patients had worse EPIC bowel, sexual, and hormonal summary scores (-3.55, -5.24, and -1.94; p < 0.05). Prostatectomy patients had significantly better EPIC urinary irritation scores than brachytherapy patients (+4.16; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Relevant differences between treatment groups persisted after 2 years of follow-up. Radical prostatectomy had a considerable negative effect on sexual functioning and urinary continence. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy had a moderate negative impact on bowel

  13. Effect of Multimorbidity on Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults Aged 55 Years or Older: Results from the SU.VI.MAX 2 Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Perret-Guillaume, Christine; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Agrinier, Nelly; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Assmann, Karen E.; Briançon, Serge; Rotonda, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multimorbid chronic diseases are usually considered separately in trials. Here, we aimed to describe overall multimorbidity patterns in adults aged 55 years or older and assess their effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods We used data for 5,647 participants included in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants 2 (SU.VI.MAX 2) population-based trial. HRQoL was assessed by the French versions of the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 and the Duke Health Profile. An exploratory factor analysis was used to determine multimorbidity patterns, and a multimorbidity score for each resulting pattern was calculated. Adjusted multiple linear regression was used to examine the association between the identified multimorbidity and HRQoL scores by gender and for each age group (55–59, 60–64, 65–69, ≥ 70 years). Results More than 63% of the sample reported two or more chronic conditions (from 55.8% for those 55–59 years to 74.4% for those ≥ 70 years). Multimorbidity was more common among women than men (67.3% vs 60%). Two different multimorbidity patterns were identified. Pattern A was represented mainly by mental illness and bone impairments. Pattern B was represented mainly by cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. After adjusting for covariates, a high pattern A score was associated with reduced HRQoL for the physical and mental components of each HRQoL questionnaire, and a high pattern B score was associated with reduced HRQoL for only the physical component of each questionnaire. These multimorbidity scores affected HRQoL differently by age group. Conclusion Our study used a novel methodological approach to account for multimorbidity patterns in determining the link with chronic conditions. These multimorbidity scores (counted and weighted) can be used in clinical research to control for the effect of multimorbidity on patients’ HRQoL and may be useful for clinical practice. Clinical Trial Registration

  14. Evidence for life on Earth before 3,800 million years ago.

    PubMed

    Mojzsis, S J; Arrhenius, G; McKeegan, K D; Harrison, T M; Nutman, A P; Friend, C R

    1996-11-07

    It is unknown when life first appeared on Earth. The earliest known microfossils (approximately 3,500 Myr before present) are structurally complex, and if it is assumed that the associated organisms required a long time to develop this degree of complexity, then the existence of life much earlier than this can be argued. But the known examples of crustal rocks older than 3,500 Myr have experienced intense metamorphism, which would have obliterated any fragile microfossils contained therein. It is therefore necessary to search for geochemical evidence of past biotic activity that has been preserved within minerals that are resistant to metamorphism. Here we report ion-microprobe measurements of the carbon-isotope composition of carbonaceous inclusions within grains of apatite (basic calcium phosphate) from the oldest known sediment sequences--a approximately 3,800-Myr-old banded iron formation from the Isua supracrustal belt, West Greenland, and a similar formation from the nearby Akilia island that is possibly older than 3,850 Myr. The carbon in the carbonaceous inclusions is isotopically light, indicative of biological activity; no known abiotic process can explain the data. Unless some unknown abiotic process exists which is able both to create such isotopically light carbon and then selectively incorporate it into apatite grains, our results provide evidence for the emergence of life on Earth by at least 3,800 Myr before present.

  15. Evidence for Life on Earth before 3,800 Million Years Ago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojzsis, S. J.; Arrhenius, G.; McKeegan, K. D.; Harrison, T. M.; Nutman, A. P.; Friend, C. R. L.

    1996-01-01

    It is unknown when life first appeared on Earth. The earliest known microfossils (approx. 3,500 Myr before present) are structurally complex, and if it is assumed that the associated organisms required a long time to develop this degree of complexity, then the existence of life much earlier than this can be argued. But the known examples of crustal rocks older than approx. 3,500 Myr have experienced intense metamorphism, which would have obliterated any fragile microfossils contained therein. It is therefore necessary to search for geochemical evidence of past biotic activity that has been preserved within minerals that are resistant to metamorphism. Here we report ion-microprobe measurements of the carbon-isotope composition of carbonaceous inclusions within grains of apatite (basic calcium phosphate) from the oldest known sediment sequences a approx. 3,800 Myr-old banded iron formation from the Isua supracrustal belt, West Greenland, and a similar formation from the nearby Akilia island that is possibly older than 3,850 Myr. The carbon in the carbonaceous inclusions is isotopically light, indicative of biological activity; no known abiotic process can explain the data. Unless some unknown abiotic process exists which is able both to create such isotopically light carbon and then selectively incorporate it into apatite grains, our results provide evidence for the emergence of life on Earth by at least 3,800 Myr before present.

  16. Years of Life Lost (YLL) in Colombia 1998-2011: Overall and Avoidable Causes of Death Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Díaz-Jiménez, Diana; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos; De la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estimate the Years of Life Lost (YLL) for overall and avoidable causes of death (CoD) in Colombia for the period 1998-2011. Methods From the reported deaths to the Colombian mortality database during 1998-2011, we classified deaths from avoidable causes. With the reference life table of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 study, we estimated the overall YLL and YLL due to avoidable causes. Calculations were performed with the difference between life expectancy and the age of death. Results are reported by group of cause of death, events, sex, year and department. Comparative analysis between number of deaths and YLL was carried out. Results A total of 83,856,080 YLL were calculated in Colombia during period 1998-2011, 75.9% of them due to avoidable CoD. The year 2000 reported the highest number of missed YLL by both overall and avoidable CoD. The departments with the highest YLL rates were Caquetá, Guaviare, Arauca, Meta, and Risaralda. In men, intentional injuries and cardiovascular and circulatory diseases had the higher losses, while in women YLL were mainly due to cardiovascular and circulatory diseases. Conclusions The public health priorities should focus on preventing the loss of YLL due to premature death and differentiated interventions by sex. PMID:25942009

  17. Examining executive function in the second year of life: coherence, stability, and relations to joint attention and language.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie E; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Several theories of executive function (EF) propose that EF development corresponds to children's ability to form representations and reflect on represented stimuli in the environment. However, research on early EF is primarily conducted with preschoolers, despite the fact that important developments in representation (e.g., language, gesture, shared joint attention) occur within the 1st years of life. In the present study, EF performance and the relationship between EF and early representation (i.e., joint attention, language) were longitudinally examined in 47 children at 14 and 18 months of age. Results suggest that the 2nd year of life is a distinct period of EF development in which children exhibit very little coherence or stability across a battery of EF tasks. However, by 18 months, a subset of child participants consistently passed the majority of EF tasks, and superior EF performance was predicted by 14-month representational abilities (i.e., language comprehension and some episodes of initiating joint attention). This research suggests that the transition from foundational behavioral control in infancy to the more complex EF observed in preschool is supported by representational abilities in the 2nd year of life.

  18. Years in the Life: Former Presidents Reflect on the American Association of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleazer, Edmund J., Jr.; Parnell, Dale; Pierce, David R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper offers the reflections of three past presidents of the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) during the year of the American community college's 100th anniversary. President emeritus Edmund J. Gleazer, Jr., describes some of the changes that altered the AACC during the years 1951-1981. In 1951, when Gleazer was hired as…

  19. Health and Quality of Life of Older People, a Replication after Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Hatch, P. Maurine; Hemingway, Dawn; Lavallee, Loraine; Hogan, Anne; Christensen, Bev

    2007-01-01

    Replicating a survey of 875 people 55 years old or more undertaken in September 1999 throughout the former Northern Interior Health Region (NIHR) of British Columbia, in September 2005 a sample of 656 people completed a 22-page questionnaire. The average age of the respondents was 68, with a range running from 55 to 96 years, and 64% were women.…

  20. The Defense Life-Cycle Logistics Journey: A 10-Year Retrospective of Product Support Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    future-Air Force Gen. George Babbitt reviewed the previous 20 years of DoD policy and guidance. He identified “two basic objectives of [what was...consistent for nearly 60 years. Indeed, then-Maj. Babbitt went on, … the concept of ILS was formulated by the Services and indus- try during the late