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Sample records for adjusted life year

  1. Willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year for life-saving treatments in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Nimdet, Khachapon; Ngorsuraches, Surachat

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) value for life-saving treatments and to determine factors affecting the WTP per QALY value. Design A cross-sectional survey with multistage sampling and face-to-face interviews. Setting General population in the southern part of Thailand. Participants A total of 600 individuals were included in the study. Only 554 (92.3%) responses were usable for data analyses. Outcome measure Participants were asked for the maximum amount of WTP value for life-saving treatments by an open-ended question. EQ-5D-3L and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to estimate additional QALY. Results The amount of WTP values varied from 0 to 720 000 Baht/year (approximately 32 Baht=US$1). The averages of additional QALY obtained from VAS and EQ-5D-3L were only slightly different (0.872 and 0.853, respectively). The averages of WTP per QALY obtained from VAS and EQ-5D-3L were 244720 and 243120 Baht/QALY, respectively. As compared to male participants, female participants were more likely to pay less for an additional QALY (p=0.007). In addition, participants with higher household incomes tended to have higher WTP per QALY values (p<0.001). Conclusions Our study added another WTP per QALY value specifically for life-saving treatments, which would complement the current cost-effectiveness threshold used in Thailand and optimise patient access to innovative treatments or technologies. PMID:26438135

  2. Assessing burden of disease as disability adjusted life years in life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yumi; Peters, Greg M; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Shiels, Sean; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-10-15

    Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) have been used to quantify endpoint indicators of the human burden of disease in life cycle assessment (LCA). The purpose of this paper was to examine the current use of DALYs in LCA, and also to consider whether DALYs as used in LCA have the potential to be compatible with DALYs as used in quantitative risk assessment (QRA) to facilitate direct comparison of the results of the two approaches. A literature review of current usage of DALYs in LCA was undertaken. Two prominent methods were identified: ReCiPe 2008 and LIME2. The methods and assumptions used in their calculations were then critically reviewed. The assumptions used for the derivation of characterization factors in DALYs were found to be considerably different between LCA methods. In many cases, transparency of these calculations and assumptions is lacking. Furthermore, global average DALY values are often used in these calculations, but may not be applicable for impact categories where the local factors play a significant role. The concept of DALYs seems beneficial since it enables direct comparison and aggregation of different health impacts. However, given the different assumptions used in each LCA method, it is important that LCA practitioners are aware of the differences and select the appropriate method for the focus of their study. When applying DALYs as a common metric between LCA and QRA, understanding the background information on how DALYs were derived is crucial to ensure the consistency of DALYs used in LCA and QRA for resulting DALYs to be comparable and to minimize any double counting of effects. PMID:26042893

  3. Association between lifestyle factors and quality-adjusted life years in the EPIC-NL cohort.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Heidi P; May, Anne M; Beulens, Joline W J; Struijk, Ellen A; de Wit, G Ardine; Boer, Jolanda M A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hoekstra, Jeljer; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to relate four modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet) to health expectancy, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in a prospective cohort study. Data of the prospective EPIC-NL study were used, including 33,066 healthy men and women aged 20-70 years at baseline (1993-7), followed until 31-12-2007 for occurrence of disease and death. Smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (excluding alcohol) were investigated separately and combined into a healthy lifestyle score, ranging from 0 to 4. QALYs were used as summary measure of healthy life expectancy, combining a person's life expectancy with a weight for quality of life when having a chronic disease. For lifestyle factors analyzed separately the number of years living longer in good health varied from 0.12 year to 0.84 year, after adjusting for covariates. A combination of the four lifestyle factors was positively associated with higher QALYs (P-trend <0.0001). A healthy lifestyle score of 4 compared to a score of 0 was associated with almost a 2 years longer life in good health (1.75 QALYs [95% CI 1.37, 2.14]). PMID:25369457

  4. Incidence, prevalence, and hybrid approaches to calculating disability-adjusted life years

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    When disability-adjusted life years are used to measure the burden of disease on a population in a time interval, they can be calculated in several different ways: from an incidence, pure prevalence, or hybrid perspective. I show that these calculation methods are not equivalent and discuss some of the formal difficulties each method faces. I show that if we don’t discount the value of future health, there is a sense in which the choice of calculation method is a mere question of accounting. Such questions can be important, but they don’t raise deep theoretical concerns. If we do discount, however, choice of calculation method can change the relative burden attributed to different conditions over time. I conclude by recommending that studies involving disability-adjusted life years be explicit in noting what calculation method is being employed and in explaining why that calculation method has been chosen. PMID:22967055

  5. Quality-Adjusted Life-Years and Helmet Use Among Motorcyclists Sustaining Head Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yeh-Hsin; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Hwang, Jing-Shiang

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated loss of quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) among motorcyclists in Taiwan who sustained head injuries while wearing or not wearing a helmet. Methods. Patients with head injuries (n = 3328) were grouped into categories representing good and poor outcomes (moderate disability or death) at discharge. After linkage with the National Mortality Registry, survival functions were determined and extrapolated over a 50-year period on the basis of the survival ratio between patients and age- and gender-matched reference populations, as calculated from available Taiwan vital statistics. Survival functions were then multiplied by scores from quality-of-life measures. Results. Percentages of good and poor outcomes were 87.2% and 12.8%, respectively, in the helmeted group and 66.4% and 33.6% in the nonhelmeted group. The mean QALE for helmeted motorcyclists, calculated by weighting percentages of good and poor outcomes, was 31.7 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), with an average loss of 5.8 QALYs. For nonhelmeted motorcyclists, the mean QALE was 25.9 QALYs, with a loss of 10.7 QALYs. Conclusions. Helmet use could save approximately 5 QALYs among motorcyclists sustaining head injuries. Future cost-effectiveness analysis can calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for regulation of helmet use. PMID:19910346

  6. Quantifying the burden of disease: the technical basis for disability-adjusted life years.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed assumptions used in constructing a new indicator of the burden of disease, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY), are presented. Four key social choices in any indicator of the burden of disease are carefully reviewed. First, the advantages and disadvantages of various methods of calculating the duration of life lost due to a death at each age are discussed. DALYs use a standard expected-life lost based on model life-table West Level 26. Second, the value of time lived at different ages is captured in DALYs using an exponential function which reflects the dependence of the young and the elderly on adults. Third, the time lived with a disability is made comparable with the time lost due to premature mortality by defining six classes of disability severity. Assigned to each class is a severity weight between 0 and 1. Finally, a three percent discount rate is used in the calculation of DALYs. The formula for calculating DALYs based on these assumptions is provided. PMID:8062401

  7. The work environment disability-adjusted life year for use with life cycle assessment: a methodological approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systems-based method used to determine potential impacts to the environment associated with a product throughout its life cycle. Conclusions from LCA studies can be applied to support decisions regarding product design or public policy, therefore, all relevant inputs (e.g., raw materials, energy) and outputs (e.g., emissions, waste) to the product system should be evaluated to estimate impacts. Currently, work-related impacts are not routinely considered in LCA. The objectives of this paper are: 1) introduce the work environment disability-adjusted life year (WE-DALY), one portion of a characterization factor used to express the magnitude of impacts to human health attributable to work-related exposures to workplace hazards; 2) outline the methods for calculating the WE-DALY; 3) demonstrate the calculation; and 4) highlight strengths and weaknesses of the methodological approach. Methods The concept of the WE-DALY and the methodological approach to its calculation is grounded in the World Health Organization’s disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Like the DALY, the WE-DALY equation considers the years of life lost due to premature mortality and the years of life lived with disability outcomes to estimate the total number of years of healthy life lost in a population. The equation requires input in the form of the number of fatal and nonfatal injuries and illnesses that occur in the industries relevant to the product system evaluated in the LCA study, the age of the worker at the time of the fatal or nonfatal injury or illness, the severity of the injury or illness, and the duration of time lived with the outcomes of the injury or illness. Results The methodological approach for the WE-DALY requires data from various sources, multi-step instructions to determine each variable used in the WE-DALY equation, and assumptions based on professional opinion. Conclusions Results support the use of the WE-DALY in a

  8. Global Burden of Leptospirosis: Estimated in Terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years

    PubMed Central

    Torgerson, Paul R.; Hagan, José E.; Costa, Federico; Calcagno, Juan; Kane, Michael; Martinez-Silveira, Martha S.; Goris, Marga G. A.; Stein, Claudia; Ko, Albert I.; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonosis, occurs in diverse epidemiological settings and affects vulnerable populations, such as rural subsistence farmers and urban slum dwellers. Although leptospirosis can cause life-threatening disease, there is no global burden of disease estimate in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) available. Methodology/Principal Findings We utilised the results of a parallel publication that reported global estimates of morbidity and mortality due to leptospirosis. We estimated Years of Life Lost (YLLs) from age and gender stratified mortality rates. Years of Life with Disability (YLDs) were developed from a simple disease model indicating likely sequelae. DALYs were estimated from the sum of YLLs and YLDs. The study suggested that globally approximately 2·90 million DALYs are lost per annum (UIs 1·25–4·54 million) from the approximately annual 1·03 million cases reported previously. Males are predominantly affected with an estimated 2·33 million DALYs (UIs 0·98–3·69) or approximately 80% of the total burden. For comparison, this is over 70% of the global burden of cholera estimated by GBD 2010. Tropical regions of South and South-east Asia, Western Pacific, Central and South America, and Africa had the highest estimated leptospirosis disease burden. Conclusions/Significance Leptospirosis imparts a significant health burden worldwide, which approach or exceed those encountered for a number of other zoonotic and neglected tropical diseases. The study findings indicate that highest burden estimates occur in resource-poor tropical countries, which include regions of Africa where the burden of leptospirosis has been under-appreciated and possibly misallocated to other febrile illnesses such as malaria. PMID:26431366

  9. Factors associated with improvement in disability-adjusted life years in patients with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez-Tamayo, Clara; Martin, Jose Jesus Martin; Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Lima, Antonio Olry de Labry

    2008-01-01

    Background The epidemic of HIV/AIDS and treatments that have emerged to alleviate, have brought about a shift in the burden of disease from death to quality of life/disability. The aim was to determine which factors are associated with improvements in the level of health of male and female patients with HIV/AIDS in Andalusia, in terms of disability-adjusted life years. Methods Descriptive study based on a sample group of 8800 people on the Andalusian AIDS register between 1983 and 2004. Dependent variables: Life lost due to premature mortality (YLL), years lost due to disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life years (DALY). Independent variables: vital state, sex, age at the time of diagnosis, age at the time of death, transmission category, province of residence, AIDS-indicator disease and the period of diagnosis. A bivariate analysis was carried out to find out if the health level variables changed in accordance with the independent variables. Using the independent variables which had a statistically significant link with the level of health variables, a multivariate linear regression model, disaggregated by gender, was constructed. Results Amongst the women, we found a model which explained the level of health of 64.9%: a link was found between a higher level of health (lower DALYs) and not intravenous drug use, the province of residence, being diagnosed during the HAART era and older age at the time of diagnosis. Amongst the men, we found a model which explained the level of health of 64.4%: a link was found between a higher level of health (lower DALYs) and intravenous drug use, the province of residence, being diagnosed during the HAART era and older age at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion A higher level of health (lower DALY) amongst both men and women was found to be linked to not be intravenous drug user, the province of residence, being diagnosed during the HAART era and older age at the time of diagnosis. PMID:18939970

  10. Estimating the Burden of Cancers Attributable to Smoking Using Disability Adjusted Life Years in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kristina, Susi Ari; Endarti, Dwi; Sendjaya, Natalia; Pramestuty, Octy

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for many types of cancers. Recent data on selected cancer incidence and mortality related to smoking in the Indonesian population are provided in this study. Morbidity and mortality data were derived from GLOBOCAN 2012 and the population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated using the standard methodology developed by the World Health Organization. Using these data, we calculated disability adjusted life year (DALY) values for smoking-related cancer. The DALY was estimated by summation of the years lived with disability (YLD) and years life lost due to premature death (YLL). The cancer cases related to smoking in Indonesia numbered 45,132, accounting for 35,580 cancer deaths. The morbidity and mortality of lung cancer can be considered as the highest priority in both men and women. Furthermore the greatest YLD due to smoking in Indonesian men and women were from pancreas and lung cancers. For YLL among men, the highest years lost were from lung and liver cancers. On the other hand, among women lung oral cavity and lip were most important. Based on the DALY indicator, burden priorities for Indonesian men were lung cancer (298,980), liver cancer (60,367), and nasopharynx (46,185), while among Indonesian women they were lung cancer (34,119), cervix uteri (9,213) and pancreas cancer (5,433). In total, Indonesian burden of cancers attributed to smoking was 638,682 DALY. This study provides evidence about the burden of cancers caused by smoking as a rational basis for initiating national tobacco control policies in Indonesia. PMID:27039808

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury in the Netherlands: Incidence, Costs and Disability-Adjusted Life Years

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, Annemieke C.; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Panneman, Martien J. M.; van Beeck, Ed F.; Polinder, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability, leading to great personal suffering and huge costs to society. Integrated knowledge on epidemiology, economic consequences and disease burden of TBI is scarce but essential for optimizing healthcare policy and preventing TBI. This study aimed to estimate incidence, cost-of-illness and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of TBI in the Netherlands. Methods This study included data on all TBI patients who were treated at an Emergency Department (ED - National Injury Surveillance System), hospitalized (National Medical Registration), or died due to their injuries in the Netherlands between 2010–2012. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Disease burden was assessed by calculating years of life lost (YLL) owing to premature death, years lived with disability (YLD) and DALYs. Incidence, costs and disease burden were stratified by age and gender. Results TBI incidence was 213.6 per 100,000 person years. Total costs were €314.6 (USD $433.8) million per year and disease burden resulted in 171,200 DALYs (on average 7.1 DALYs per case). Men had highest mean costs per case (€19,540 versus €14,940), driven by indirect costs. 0–24-year-olds had high incidence and disease burden but low economic costs, whereas 25–64-year-olds had relatively low incidence but high economic costs. Patients aged 65+ had highest incidence, leading to considerable direct healthcare costs. 0–24-year-olds, men aged 25–64 years, traffic injury victims (especially bicyclists) and home and leisure injury victims (especially 0–5-year-old and elderly fallers) are identified as risk groups in TBI. Conclusions The economic and health consequences of TBI are substantial. The integrated approach of assessing incidence, costs and disease burden enables detection of important risk groups in TBI, development of prevention programs that

  12. Diminishing willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year: valuing acute foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Haninger, Kevin; Hammitt, James K

    2011-09-01

    We design and conduct a stated-preference survey to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce foodborne risk of acute illness and to test whether WTP is proportional to the corresponding gain in expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). If QALYs measure utility for health, then economic theory requires WTP to be nearly proportional to changes in both health quality and duration of illness and WTP could be estimated by multiplying the expected change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. WTP is elicited using double-bounded, dichotomous-choice questions in which respondents (randomly selected from the U.S. general adult population, n = 2,858) decide whether to purchase a more expensive food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Health risks vary by baseline probability of illness, reduction in probability, duration and severity of illness, and conditional probability of mortality. The expected gain in QALYs is calculated using respondent-assessed decrements in health-related quality of life if ill combined with the duration of illness and reduction in probability specified in the survey. We find sharply diminishing marginal WTP for severity and duration of illness prevented. Our results suggest that individuals do not have a constant rate of WTP per QALY, which implies that WTP cannot be accurately estimated by multiplying the change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. PMID:21488924

  13. Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Resign; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15–45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011–2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease. PMID:26907320

  14. Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Resign; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15-45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011-2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease. PMID:26907320

  15. [Burden of cancer in China: data on disability-adjusted life years].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jufang; Zhang, Yue; Qu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Lanwei; Dai, Min; He, Jie

    2015-04-01

    Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) has been increasingly used to estimate burden of disease worldwide. By giving a particular attention to DALYs, the objectives of the study were to review various data sources and to conduct an extended estimation on the burden of cancer in China. Based on the publications released by the GLOBOCAN 2008 program and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 (GBD 2010) program, we reviewed the methodological information and gathered DALY data associated with burden of cancer in China, and then we extracted and summarized the data and conducted an extended analysis. From a methodological perspective, both of the programs applied the utility weights mainly from populations other than China. The data from GLOBOCAN 2008 suggests that liver cancer has replaced lung cancer and became the leading cancer in males in China when using DALY rather than mortality rate as the indicator (6.3 million and 5.4 million DALYs, respectively); although the ranking is different, data from the GBD 2010 project shows DALYs caused by liver cancer is comparable to that associated with lung cancer (7.9 million and 8.0 million, respectively). The years lived with disability (YLDs) comprised 26% and 12% of the total DALYs associated with breast cancer and colorectal cancer in China. Both projects suggest that liver cancer might have become or is becoming the leading contributor to males' DALYs in China. There are indications that, along with economic development, YLD will play a more important role in estimation of burden of cancer in China; it suggests that China should consider introducing DALY into the estimation system as early as possible. It also suggests that research on quality of life and utility associated with the major cancers in China need to be systematically conducted to facilitate more accurate DALY estimation. PMID:26081549

  16. Disability adjusted life year (DALY): a useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Wang, Xiaochang C; Chen, Rong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-04-01

    Disability adjusted life year (DALY) has been widely used since 1990s for evaluating global and/or regional burden of diseases. As many environmental pollutants are hazardous to human health, DALY is also recognized as an indicator to quantify the health impact of environmental pollution related to disease burden. Based on literature reviews, this article aims to give an overview of the applicable methodologies and research directions for using DALY as a tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution. With an introduction of the methodological framework of DALY, the requirements on data collection and manipulation for quantifying disease burdens are summarized. Regarding environmental pollutants hazardous to human beings, health effect/risk evaluation is indispensable for transforming pollution data into disease data through exposure and dose-response analyses which need careful selection of models and determination of parameters. Following the methodological discussions, real cases are analyzed with attention paid to chemical pollutants and pathogens usually encountered in environmental pollution. It can be seen from existing studies that DALY is advantageous over conventional environmental impact assessment for quantification and comparison of the risks resulted from environmental pollution. However, further studies are still required to standardize the methods of health effect evaluation regarding varied pollutants under varied circumstances before DALY calculation. PMID:25549348

  17. Quality-Adjusted Life Years Lost to Road Crash Injury: Updating the Injury Impairment Index

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, Rebecca S.; Miller, Ted R.; Hendrie, Delia; Blincoe, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    The Injury Impairment Index (III) has long been used internationally to estimate the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) losses associated with crash injuries. The III has major limitations, notably its lack of detailed validation, but it is widely used and estimates from it are regularly published. It is based on physician estimates of typical impairment on 6 dimensions of functioning (cognitive, mobility, bending/grasping/lifting, sensory, pain and cosmetic), supplemented with data on work-related disability. This paper reports on a literature synthesis used to update the III scoring algorithm that converts impairment levels by dimension into a combined QALY loss score. An extensive international literature search identified 13 health status scales, some of them with multiple scorings. From the scorings, we extracted utility scores for each level of each dimension of the III. We also searched for direct utility estimates for III dimension endpoints (e.g., blindness, deafness). Median and inter-quartile ranges were computed by scale point to represent the uncertainty range of preference weights within each III dimension and level. Average QALY losses per injury by MAIS were computed using the updated preference weight ranges applied to 2000–2006 U.S. crash data. The updated QALY loss estimates are lower than those computed with the QALY weights developed in 1990. This paper’s tables of estimated average QALY losses by MAIS, injury type, and body region injured can be applied to future and existing injury data in order to estimate the impact of injury on quality of life and measure health status. PMID:22105411

  18. Reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty cost-effectiveness: A quality-adjusted life years comparison with total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Daniel; Nyland, John; Krupp, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) cost-effectiveness with total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. METHODS: This study used a stochastic model and decision-making algorithm to compare the cost-effectiveness of RSA and total hip arthroplasty. Fifteen patients underwent pre-operative, and 3, 6, and 12 mo post-operative clinical examinations and Short Form-36 Health Survey completion. Short form-36 Health Survey subscale scores were converted to EuroQual Group Five Dimension Health Outcome scores and compared with historical data from age-matched patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) improvements based on life expectancies were calculated. RESULTS: The cost/QALY was $3900 for total hip arthroplasty and $11100 for RSA. After adjusting the model to only include shoulder-specific physical function subscale items, the RSA QALY improved to 2.8 years, and its cost/QALY decreased to $8100. CONCLUSION: Based on industry accepted standards, cost/QALY estimates supported both RSA and total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. Although total hip arthroplasty remains the quality of life improvement “gold standard” among arthroplasty procedures, cost/QALY estimates identified in this study support the growing use of RSA to improve patient quality of life. PMID:26925384

  19. Allocating resources to health care: is the QALY (Quality Adjusted Life Year) a technical solution to a political problem?

    PubMed

    Carr-Hill, R A

    1991-01-01

    The allocation of health care resources has always been and will remain a contentious issue. Classically, the arguments have been posed in terms of the "need" for health care and/or the "right" to treatment. More recently, there have been attempts to shape the debate in consequentialist terms, by introducing a composite outcome measure. In the United Kingdom, the QALY (Quality Adjusted Life Year) has been promoted enthusiastically. But, like many other such proposals, it is a dodo, and one that is potentially politically dangerous. PMID:2071312

  20. Psychosocial Adjustment and Life Satisfaction until 5 Years after Severe Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorbo, Ann K.; Blomqvist, Maritha; Emanuelsson, Ingrid M.; Rydenhag, Bertil

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe psychosocial adjustment and outcome over time for severely brain-injured patients and to find suitable outcome measures for clinical practice during the rehabilitation process and for individual rehabilitation planning after discharge from hospital. The methods include a descriptive, prospective,…

  1. Impact of work-related cancers in Taiwan-Estimation with QALY (quality-adjusted life year) and healthcare costs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Hung, Mei-Chuan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-12-01

    This study estimates the annual numbers of eight work-related cancers, total losses of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and lifetime healthcare expenditures that possibly could be saved by improving occupational health in Taiwan. Three databases were interlinked: the Taiwan Cancer Registry, the National Mortality Registry, and the National Health Insurance Research Database. Annual numbers of work-related cancers were estimated based on attributable fractions (AFs) abstracted from a literature review. The survival functions for eight cancers were estimated and extrapolated to lifetime using a semi-parametric method. A convenience sample of 8846 measurements of patients' quality of life with EQ-5D was collected for utility values and multiplied by survival functions to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancies (QALEs). The loss-of-QALE was obtained by subtracting the QALE of cancer from age- and sex-matched referents simulated from national vital statistics. The lifetime healthcare expenditures were estimated by multiplying the survival probability with mean monthly costs paid by the National Health Insurance for cancer diagnosis and treatment and summing this for the expected lifetime. A total of 3010 males and 726 females with eight work-related cancers were estimated in 2010. Among them, lung cancer ranked first in terms of QALY loss, with an annual total loss-of-QALE of 28,463 QALYs and total lifetime healthcare expenditures of US$36.6 million. Successful prevention of eight work-related cancers would not only avoid the occurrence of 3736 cases of cancer, but would also save more than US$70 million in healthcare costs and 46,750 QALYs for the Taiwan society in 2010. PMID:27413666

  2. Exploring the willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life-year in the state of Penang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Lim, Yen Wei; Chua, Gin Nie; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is typically compared with a reference value to support the cost-effectiveness of a decision. One method for estimating this value is to estimate the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). This study was conducted to explore the WTP for a QALY in the Malaysian population. Methods A cross-sectional, contingent valuation study was conducted in Penang, Malaysia. Respondents were selected from randomly chosen geographical grids of Penang. Respondents’ sociodemographic information, qualities of life, and WTP for one additional QALY were collected using predesigned questionnaires in face-to-face interviews. WTP values were elicited using a double-bound dichotomous choice via a bidding game approach. The Heckman selection model was applied to the analysis of the mean WTP/QALY values, where the “protest zero” values, which may contribute to selection bias, were excluded. Results The mean value of WTP for an additional QALY gained was estimated to be MYR (Malaysian Ringgit) 29,080 (~USD 9,000). Key factors that affected the WTP include ethnicity and estimated monthly household income. Conclusion The study findings suggested that the cost-effectiveness threshold value as studied in Penang, Malaysia was estimated to be MYR 29,080. PMID:25364267

  3. Maternal depression across the first years of life compromises child psychosocial adjustment; relations to child HPA-axis functioning.

    PubMed

    Apter-Levi, Yael; Pratt, Maayan; Vakart, Adam; Feldman, Michal; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    Maternal depression across the first years of life negatively impacts children's development. One pathway of vulnerability may involve functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We utilize a community cohort of 1983 women with no comorbid risk repeatedly assessed for depression from birth to six years to form two groups; chronically depressed (N=40) and non-depressed (N=91) women. At six years, mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis, child salivary cortisol (CT) was assessed three times during a home-visit, mother-child interaction was videotaped, and child empathy was coded from behavioral paradigms. Latent Growth curve Model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) estimated the links between maternal depression and mother's negative parenting and three child outcomes; psychopathology, social withdrawal, and empathy as related to child CT baseline and variability. Depressed mothers displayed more negative parenting and their children showed more Axis-I psychopathology and social withdrawal. SEM analysis revealed that maternal depression was associated with reduced CT variability, which predicted higher child psychopathology and social withdrawal. Whereas all children exhibited similar initial levels of CT, children of controls reduced CT levels over time while children of depressed mothers maintained high, non-flexible levels. Mother negativity was related to lower initial CT levels, which predicted decreased empathy. Findings suggest that chronic maternal depression may compromise children's social-emotional adjustment by diminishing HPA-system flexibility as well as limiting the mother's capacity to provide attuned and predictable caregiving. PMID:26610204

  4. Estimating and validating disability-adjusted life years at the global level: a methodological framework for cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) link data on disease occurrence to health outcomes, and they are a useful aid in establishing country-specific agendas regarding cancer control. The variables required to compute DALYs are however multiple and not readily available in many countries. We propose a methodology that derives global DALYs and validate variables and DALYs based on data from various cancer registries. Methods We estimated DALYs for four countries (Norway, Bulgaria, India and Uganda) within each category of the human development index (HDI). The following sources (indicators) were used: Globocan2008 (incidence and mortality), various cancer registries (proportion cured, proportion treated and duration of disease), treatment guidelines (duration of treatment), specific burden of disease studies (sequelae and disability weights), alongside expert opinion. We obtained country-specific population estimates and identified resource levels using the HDI, DALYs are computed as the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disabilities. Results Using mortality:incidence ratios to estimate country-specific survival, and by applying the human development index we derived country-specific estimates of the proportion cured and the proportion treated. The fit between the estimates and observed data from the cancer registries was relatively good. The final DALY estimates were similar to those computed using observed values in Norway, and in WHO’s earlier global burden of disease study. Marked cross-country differences in the patterns of DALYs by cancer sites were observed. In Norway and Bulgaria, breast, colorectal, prostate and lung cancer were the main contributors to DALYs, representing 54% and 45%, respectively, of the totals. These cancers contributed only 27% and 18%, respectively, of total DALYs in India and Uganda. Conclusions Our approach resulted in a series of variables that can be used to estimate country-specific DALYs, enabling global

  5. The Relationship Between Disability-Adjusted Life Years of Cataracts and Ambient Erythemal Ultraviolet Radiation in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Yu, Jiaming; Gao, Qian; Wang, Yang; Hu, Liwen; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background Cataracts are one of the major public health problems worldwide. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is one of the risk factors for cataract development. We analyzed the relationship between disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rates of cataracts and UVR exposure in China. Methods DALY rates of cataracts and UVR exposure in 31 regions of China were calculated based on data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability and the United States’ National Aeronautics and Space Administration database. The relationship between the DALY rates of cataracts and UVR was estimated by Spearman rank correlation analysis and linear regression analysis. Results The elderly (≥65 years) had higher DALY rates of cataracts than the whole population. The DALY rate of cataracts in the agricultural population was higher than that observed in the non-agricultural population. The DALY rates of cataracts were positively associated with UVR The DALY rates of cataracts in regions with higher UVR were higher than those in regions with lower UVR. An increase in the daily ambient erythemal UVR of 1000 J/m2 was associated with an increase in the DALY rates of cataracts by 92 DALYs/100 000 (R2 = 0.676) among the whole population, 34 DALYs/100 000 among the population <65 years old (R2 = 0.423), 607 DALYs/100 000 among the population aged 65–74 years (R2 = 0.617), and by 1342 DALYs/100 000 among the population ≥75 years old (R2 = 0.758). Conclusions DALY rates of cataracts increased with increases in UVR exposure in 31 regions of China. Greater exposure to UVR increases the disease burden of cataracts in the whole population, especially in the elderly and among the agricultural population. PMID:25263793

  6. Assessing the burden of sexual and reproductive ill-health: questions regarding the use of disability-adjusted life years.

    PubMed Central

    AbouZahr, C.; Vaughan, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    The use of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) as the unit in which to calculate the burden of disease associated with reproductive ill-health has given rise to considerable debate. Criticisms include the failure to address the problem of missing and inadequate epidemiological data, inability to deal adequately with co-morbidities, and lack of transparency in the process of ascribing disability weights to sexual and reproductive health conditions. Many of these criticisms could be addressed within the current DALY framework and a number of suggestions to do so are made. These suggestions include: (1) developing an international research strategy to determine the incidence and prevalence of reproductive ill-health and diseases, including the risk of long-term complications; (2) undertaking a research strategy using case studies, population-based surveillance data and longitudinal studies to identify, evaluate and utilize more of the existing national data sources on sexual and reproductive health; (3) comprehensively mapping the natural history of sexual and reproductive health conditions--in males and in females--and their sequelae, whether physical or psychological; (4) developing valuation instruments that are adaptable for both chronic and acute health states, that reflect a range of severity for each health state and can be modified to reflect prognosis; (5) undertaking a full review of the DALY methodology to determine what changes may be made to reduce sources of methodological and gender bias. Despite the many criticisms of the DALY as a measurement unit, it represents a major conceptual advance since it permits the combination of life expectancy and levels of dysfunction into a single measure. Measuring reproductive ill-health by counting deaths alone is inadequate for a proper understanding of the dimensions of the problem because of the young age of many of the deaths associated with reproductive ill-health and the large component of years lived with

  7. Disability-adjusted life years in the assessment of health effects of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Ł; Badyda, A J; Gayer, A; Mucha, D

    2015-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollutants have an impact on human health and have been recognized as one of the main stressors that cause mortality and morbidity in urban areas. Research confirms that citizens living in the vicinity of main roads are strongly exposed to high concentrations of numerous air pollutants. In the present study the measurements of traffic-related parameters such as density, velocity, and structure were performed for cross-sections of selected street canyons in Warsaw, the capital city of Poland. In addition, the results of the general traffic measurements were used to describe the number of cars crossing the border of the city. Vehicle emissions of PM10 were calculated for the whole city area and changes of the PM10 concentration were modeled to present the exposure to this pollutant that could be attributable to traffic. The principles of the environmental burden of disease (EBD) were used. The assessment of the impact of traffic-related air pollutants on human health was made. The results, presented in disability-adjusted life years (DALY), were based on the outcomes of the study conducted in 2008-2012 in Warsaw, one the most congested agglomerations in Europe, and included the health damage effect of the exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants. DALY calculations were performed in accordance to the methodologies used in renowned international scientific research on EBD. PMID:25310938

  8. Willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life year: an evaluation of attitudes towards risk and preferences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines the Willingness to Pay (WTP) for a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) expressed by people who attended the healthcare system as well as the association of attitude towards risk and other personal characteristics with their response. Methods Health-state preferences, measured by EuroQol (EQ-5D-3L), were combined with WTP for recovering a perfect health state. WTP was assessed using close-ended, iterative bidding, contingent valuation method. Data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as usage of health services by the subjects were collected. The attitude towards risk was evaluated by collecting risky behaviors data, by the subject’s self-evaluation, and through lottery games. Results Six hundred and sixty two subjects participated and 449 stated a utility inferior to 1. WTP/QALY ratios varied significantly when payments with personal money (mean €10,119; median €673) or through taxes (mean €28,187; median €915) were suggested. Family income, area income, higher education level, greater use of healthcare services, and the number of co-inhabitants were associated with greater WTP/QALY ratios. Age and female gender were associated with lower WTP/QALY ratios. Risk inclination was independently associated with a greater WTP/QALY when “out of pocket” payments were suggested. Clear discrepancies were demonstrated between linearity and neutrality towards risk assumptions and experimental results. Conclusions WTP/QALY ratios vary noticeably based on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the subject, but also on their attitude towards risk. Knowing the expression of preferences by patients from this outcome measurement can be of interest for health service planning. PMID:24989615

  9. Systematic Review of the Manifestations of Congenital Rubella Syndrome in Infants and Characterization of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs).

    PubMed

    Simons, Emily A; Reef, Susan E; Cooper, Louis Z; Zimmerman, Laura; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2016-07-01

    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) continues to cause disability among unvaccinated populations in countries with no or insufficient rubella vaccine coverage to prevent transmission. We systematically reviewed the literature on birth outcomes associated with CRS to estimate the duration, severity, and frequency of combinations of morbidities. We searched PubMed, the Science Citation Index, and references from relevant articles for studies in English with primary data on the frequency of CRS manifestations for ≥20 cases and identified 65 studies representing 66 study populations that met our inclusion criteria. We abstracted available data on CRS cases with one or more hearing, heart, and/or eye defect following maternal rubella infection during the period of 0-20 weeks since the last menstrual period. We assessed the quality and weight of the available evidence using a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Most of the evidence originates from studies in developed countries of cohorts of infants identified with CRS in the 1960s and 1970s, prior to the development of standardized definitions for CRS and widespread use of vaccine. We developed estimates of undiscounted disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost per CRS case for countries of different income levels. The estimates ranged from approximately 19 to 39 for high-income countries assuming optimal treatment and from approximately 29 to 39 DALYs lost per CRS case in low- and lower- middle-income countries assuming minimal treatment, with the lower bound based on 2010 general global burden of disease disability weights and the upper bound based on 1990 age-specific and treatment-specific global burden of disease disability weights. Policymakers and analysts should appreciate the significant burden of disability caused by CRS as they evaluate opportunities to manage rubella. PMID:25115193

  10. A Systematic Review of Studies Eliciting Willingness-to-Pay per Quality-Adjusted Life Year: Does It Justify CE Threshold?

    PubMed Central

    Nimdet, Khachapon; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Vichansavakul, Kittaya; Ngorsuraches, Surachat

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of studies have been conducted to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) in patients or general population for various diseases. However, there has not been any systematic review summarizing the relationship between WTP per QALY and cost-effectiveness (CE) threshold based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation. Objective To systematically review willingness-to-pay per quality-adjusted-life-year (WTP per QALY) literature, to compare WTP per QALY with Cost-effectiveness (CE) threshold recommended by WHO, and to determine potential influencing factors. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psyinfo, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Center of Research Dissemination (CRD), and EconLit from inception through 15 July 2014. To be included, studies have to estimate WTP per QALY in health-related issues using stated preference method. Two investigators independently reviewed each abstract, completed full-text reviews, and extracted information for included studies. We compared WTP per QALY to GDP per capita, analyzed, and summarized potential influencing factors. Results Out of 3,914 articles founded, 14 studies were included. Most studies (92.85%) used contingent valuation method, while only one study used discrete choice experiments. Sample size varied from 104 to 21,896 persons. The ratio between WTP per QALY and GDP per capita varied widely from 0.05 to 5.40, depending on scenario outcomes (e.g., whether it extended/saved life or improved quality of life), severity of hypothetical scenarios, duration of scenario, and source of funding. The average ratio of WTP per QALY and GDP per capita for extending life or saving life (2.03) was significantly higher than the average for improving quality of life (0.59) with the mean difference of 1.43 (95% CI, 1.81 to 1.06). Conclusion This systematic review provides an overview summary of all studies estimating WTP per QALY studies. The

  11. An assessment of the human health impact of seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using disability adjusted life years.

    PubMed

    Scallan, E; Hoekstra, R M; Mahon, B E; Jones, T F; Griffin, P M

    2015-10-01

    We explored the overall impact of foodborne disease caused by seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using the disability adjusted life year (DALY). We defined health states for each pathogen (acute illness and sequelae) and estimated the average annual incidence of each health state using data from public health surveillance and previously published estimates from studies in the United States, Canada and Europe. These pathogens caused about 112 000 DALYs annually due to foodborne illnesses acquired in the United States. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (32 900) and Toxoplasma (32 700) caused the most DALYs, followed by Campylobacter (22 500), norovirus (9900), Listeria monocytogenes (8800), Clostridium perfringens (4000), and Escherichia coli O157 (1200). These estimates can be used to prioritize food safety interventions. Future estimates of the burden of foodborne disease in DALYs would be improved by addressing important data gaps and by the development and validation of US-specific disability weights for foodborne diseases. PMID:25633631

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of dialysis and kidney transplant in patients with renal impairment using disability adjusted life years in Iran

    PubMed Central

    YaghoubiFard, Safiye; Goudarzi, Reza; Etminan, Abbas; Baneshi, MohammadReza; Barouni, Mohsen; Jafari Sirizi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: This cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the cost-effectiveness of three therapeutic methods of long-term hemodialysis, kidney transplant from a living person and kidney transplant from a cadaver utilizing Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) using data from the records of patients referred to Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman in 2012. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilizing Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) as outcome measure, used data from the records of patients referred to Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman in 2012. The decision tree model and decision tree software (Tree Age pro 11) were used for data analysis. In this research, costs and effects were studied from the patients and healthcare providers’ perspective. Results: In the patient’s perspective, the CER of dialysis was 5.04 times greater than transplant from a living person and 6.15 times higher than transplant from a cadaveric donor. In the hospital’s perspective, the average cost-effectiveness ratio of dialysis was 8.4 times greater than transplant from a living person and 14.07 times higher than transplant from a cadaver. The smaller the C-E ratio, the greater was the cost-effectiveness. In both perspectives, the order of effectiveness of treatment methods were transplant from a cadaver, transplant from a living person and dialysis. Conclusion: Considering the results obtained in this study, measures should be taken to increase the desire for organ donation from brain-dead patients, living people and patients’ relatives PMID:27493934

  13. Application of disability-adjusted life years to predict the burden of injuries and fatalities due to public exposure to engineering technologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As a public safety regulator, the Technical Standards and Safety Authority (TSSA) of Ontario, Canada predicts and measures the burden of injuries and fatalities as its primary means of characterizing the state of public safety and for decision-making purposes through the use of a simulation model. The paper proposes a simulation-based predictive model and the use of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) as a population health metric for the purposes of reporting, benchmarking, public safety decision-making, and organizational goal setting. The proposed approach could be viewed as advancement in the application of traditional population health metrics, used primarily for public health policy decisions, for the measurement and prediction of safety risks across a wide variety of engineering technologies to which the general public is exposed. Results The proposed model is generic and applicable to a wide range of devices and technologies that are typically used by the general public. As an example, a measure of predicted risk that could result from the use of and exposure to elevating devices in the province of Ontario is presented in terms of the DALY metric. The predictions are further categorized in terms of the causal attribution of the risks for the purposes of identifying and focusing decision-making efforts. The results are also presented by taking into consideration factors such as near-misses or precursor events as termed in certain industries. Conclusions The ability to predict potential health impacts has three significant advantages for a public safety regulator – external reporting, decision-making to ensure public safety, and organizational benchmarking. The application of the well-known Monte Carlo simulation has been proposed to predict the health impacts expressed in terms of DALYs. The practicality of the proposed ideas has been demonstrated through the application of the prediction model to characterizing and managing risks associated

  14. The global burden of injury: incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and time trends from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013

    PubMed Central

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Graetz, Nicholas; Bolliger, Ian; Naghavi, Mohsen; Higashi, Hideki; Mullany, Erin C; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Adofo, Koranteng; Alsharif, Ubai; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Barrero, Lope H; Bekele, Tolesa; Bose, Dipan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Derrett, Sarah; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Petrovich Ermakov, Sergey; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L; Gabbe, Belinda; Gosselin, Richard A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hijar, Martha; Hu, Guoqing; Jayaraman, Sudha P; Jiang, Guohong; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Chanda; Lecky, Fiona E; Leung, Ricky; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Majdan, Marek; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Meaney, Peter A; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Miller, Ted R; Mock, Charles N; Norman, Rosana E; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Refaat, Amany; Rojas-Rueda, David; Roy, Nobhojit; Schwebel, David C; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Skirbekk, Vegard; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Stein, Dan J; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Theadom, Alice M; Tran, Bach Xuan; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vavilala, Monica S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990 to 2013 for 26 causes of injury, globally, by region and by country. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the extensive GBD mortality database, corrections for ill-defined cause of death and the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on inpatient and outpatient data sets, 26 cause-of-injury and 47 nature-of-injury categories, and seven follow-up studies with patient-reported long-term outcome measures. Results In 2013, 973 million (uncertainty interval (UI) 942 to 993) people sustained injuries that warranted some type of healthcare and 4.8 million (UI 4.5 to 5.1) people died from injuries. Between 1990 and 2013 the global age-standardised injury DALY rate decreased by 31% (UI 26% to 35%). The rate of decline in DALY rates was significant for 22 cause-of-injury categories, including all the major injuries. Conclusions Injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. The decline in rates for almost all injuries is so prominent that it warrants a general statement that the world is becoming a safer place to live in. However, the patterns vary widely by cause, age, sex, region and time and there are still large improvements that need to be made. PMID:26635210

  15. Applying the disability-adjusted life year to track health impact of social franchise programs in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing effective methods for measuring the health impact of social franchising programs is vital for demonstrating the value of this innovative service delivery model, particularly given its rapid expansion worldwide. Currently, these programs define success through patient volume and number of outlets, widely acknowledged as poor reflections of true program impact. An existing metric, the disability-adjusted life years averted (DALYs averted), offers promise as a measure of projected impact. Country-specific and service-specific, DALYs averted enables impact comparisons between programs operating in different contexts. This study explores the use of DALYs averted as a social franchise performance metric. Methods Using data collected by the Social Franchising Compendia in 2010 and 2011, we compared franchise performance, analyzing by region and program area. Coefficients produced by Population Services International converted each franchise's service delivery data into DALYs averted. For the 32 networks with two years of data corresponding to these metrics, a paired t-test compared all metrics. Finally, to test data reporting quality, we compared services provided to patient volume. Results Social franchising programs grew considerably from 2010 to 2011, measured by services provided (215%), patient volume (31%), and impact (couple-years of protection (CYPs): 86% and DALYs averted: 519%), but not by the total number of outlets. Non-family planning services increased by 857%, with diversification centered in Asia and Africa. However, paired t-test comparisons showed no significant increase within the networks, whether categorized as family planning or non-family planning. The ratio of services provided to patient visits yielded considerable range, with one network reporting a ratio of 16,000:1. Conclusion In theory, the DALYs averted metric is a more robust and comprehensive metric for social franchising than current program measures. As social

  16. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age–sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. Methods We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Findings Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6–6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0–65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0–71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9–5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5–59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7

  17. Life Events, Sibling Warmth, and Youths' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Evelyn B.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Sibling warmth has been identified as a protective factor from life events, but stressor-support match-mismatch and social domains perspectives suggest that sibling warmth may not efficiently protect youths from all types of life events. We tested whether sibling warmth moderated the association between each of family-wide, youths' personal, and…

  18. Factors Influencing Adjustment to Late-Life Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Keren Brown; DeShane, Michael R.

    Although the rate of divorce among older Americans has increased steadily, little attention has been paid to late life divorce. To describe the role of age and other factors which might influence adjustment to divorce in later life, data from a larger pilot study were used: 81 divorced persons over the age of 60 completed in-depth, structured…

  19. From Slogan to Anathema: Historical Representations of Life Adjustment Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    2010-01-01

    From a slogan that, from 1945 to 1954, had limited significance in education practice and, from the 1950s through the 1970s, had a small place in education histories, since 1980 life adjustment education has become, for historians, an anathema representative of the worst reform impulses in American education. By interpreting life adjustment…

  20. Employment after Spinal Cord Injury: Transition and Life Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, J. Stuart

    1996-01-01

    Tested two competing hypotheses regarding employment, adjustment, and spinal cord injury (SCI). Longitudinal data collected on 142 participants with SCI on two occasions separated by an 11-year interval showed a correlation between enhanced adjustment and a positive transition from unemployment to employment. Results support hypothesis that…

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Life Adjustment for Nigerian Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogoemeka, Obioma Helen

    2013-01-01

    In the process of educating adolescents, good emotional development and life adjustment are two significant factors for teachers to know. This study employed random cluster sampling of senior secondary school students in Ondo and Oyo States in south-western Nigeria. The Random sampling was employed to select 1,070 students. The data collected were…

  2. Recent Stressful Life Events among Bahraini Adolescents with Adjustment Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ansari, Ahmed; Matar, Ali M.

    1993-01-01

    Retrospectively examined adolescents from two time periods, diagnosed with adjustment disorder (n=72), for type of life stressors that initiated referrals to child psychiatry unit and compared them to control group of 42 referred adolescents with no psychopathology. Disappointment in relationships with family member or friend of opposite sex was…

  3. Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…

  4. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  5. The effect of acquiring life skills through humor on social adjustment rate of the female students

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Jahangir; sabour, Nazanin Hashemi; Yazdani, Mohsen; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Life skills have different effects on various aspects of the mental health. Social adjustment prepares adolescents for entering to the adulthood. On the other hand, humor and joking in the education is considered as a stress reducer and learning increaser. Therefore, the present study conducted aimed to determine the effect of acquiring life skills through humor on the social adjustment rate of the high school girls. METHODS: This was a two-group semi-experimental study including three phases. The study population included 69 first year high school female students of Isfahan Department of Education district 3 who were selected in simple random sampling. First of all, the social adjustment rate was measured using California Personality Inventory. Thereafter, life skills education was conducted using humor during five sessions. Finally, a test was taken in order to assess the acquisition of the life skills in which passing score was required for re-completing the questionnaire. The data were analyzed using software SPSS10 and independent and paired t-tests. RESULTS: The findings of the study indicated that the mean score of the social adjustment statistically had a significant difference in the intervention group before and after the intervention. Furthermore, statistically, there was a significant difference between mean score of the social adjustment in the control group and test group after conducting the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study indicated that life skills education has been increased through humor on the social adjustment rate of the high school girl students. Considering the efficacy of learning life skills on the social adjustment and results of the other studies which were in accordance with the present study, implementing such trainings with a new method comprehensively is recommended in the schools. PMID:22049280

  6. Adjusting for Year to Year Rater Variation in IRT Linking--An Empirical Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Shu Jing; Ochieng, Charles; Michaels, Hillary; Friedman, Greg

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to illustrate a polytomous IRT-based linking procedure that adjusts for rater variations. Test scores from two administrations of a statewide reading assessment were used. An anchor set of Year 1 students' constructed responses were rescored by Year 2 raters. To adjust for year-to-year rater variation in IRT…

  7. Prescriptions for Happy Marriage: Adjustments and Satisfactions of Couples Married for 50 or More Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sporakowski, Michael J.; Hughston, George A.

    1978-01-01

    Couples who were married 50 or more years were interviewed about what they felt were the most important factors in happy marriage. Their marital satisfactions were assessed over the stages of the family life cycle. Indices of their marital adjustment and personality were examined using a self-perceived, other comparison technique. (Author)

  8. The Middle Years, Development and Adjustment; A Study-Discussion Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinsasser, L.D., Comp.; Harris, Dale B., Comp.

    Based largely on research in adult development and aging, these readings and discussion questions pertain to such aspects of development and adjustment in middle life as the following: individual differences in aging; biological changes through the adult years; changes in the physical senses (vision, hearing, taste, smell, touch, and pain)…

  9. The Early Years: "Life" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

  10. Life-span adjustment of children to their parents' divorce.

    PubMed

    Amato, P R

    1994-01-01

    Children who experience parental divorce, compared with children in intact two-parent families, exhibit more conduct problems, more symptoms of psychological maladjustment, lower academic achievement, more social difficulties, and poorer self-concepts. Similarly, adults who experienced parental divorce as children, compared with adults raised in continuously intact two-parent families, score lower on a variety of indicators of psychological, interpersonal, and socioeconomic well-being. However, the overall group differences between offspring from divorced and intact families are small, with considerable diversity existing in children's reactions to divorce. Children's adjustment to divorce depends on several factors, including the amount and quality of contact with noncustodial parents, the custodial parents' psychological adjustment and parenting skills, the level of interparental conflict that precedes and follows divorce, the degree of economic hardship to which children are exposed, and the number of stressful life events that accompany and follow divorce. These factors can be used as guides to assess the probable impact of various legal and therapeutic interventions to improve the well-being of children of divorce. PMID:7922276

  11. Adjusting for dependent comorbidity in the calculation of healthy life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Mathers, Colin D; Iburg, Kim M; Begg, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Background Healthy life expectancy – sometimes called health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) – is a form of health expectancy indicator that extends measures of life expectancy to account for the distribution of health states in the population. The World Health Organization has estimated healthy life expectancy for 192 WHO Member States using information from health interview surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease Study. The latter estimates loss of health by cause, age and sex for populations. Summation of prevalent years lived with disability (PYLD) across all causes would result in overestimation of the severity of the population average health state because of comorbidity between conditions. Earlier HALE calculations made adjustments for independent comorbidity in adding PYLD across causes. This paper presents a method for adjusting for dependent comorbidity using available empirical data. Methods Data from five large national health surveys were analysed by age and sex to estimate "dependent comorbidity" factors for pairs of conditions. These factors were defined as the ratio of the prevalence of people with both conditions to the product of the two total prevalences for each of the conditions. The resulting dependent comorbidity factors were used for all Member States to adjust for dependent comorbidity in summation of PYLD across all causes and in the calculation of HALE. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out for order effects in the proposed calculation method. Results There was surprising consistency in the dependent comorbidity factors across the five surveys. The improved estimation of dependent comorbidity resulted in reductions in total PYLD per capita ranging from a few per cent in younger adult ages to around 8% in the oldest age group (80 years and over) in developed countries and up to 15% in the oldest age group in the least developed countries. The effect of the dependent comorbidity adjustment on estimated healthy life

  12. A Qualitative Analysis of Life Course Adjustment to Multiple Morbidity and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie; Taylor, Jessica; Fredland, Nina; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Janiece; Choban, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of limitations over the life course requires that women re-adapt to environmental barriers that they encounter over time. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to detail the life experiences associated with living with mobility, cognitive, and sensory loss experienced by a woman and her sister who participated in an on-going ethnographic study of mobility impairment in women. In-depth interviews were subjected to thematic, life course analysis. A family case study was interpreted as an exemplar for aging with early onset disability into multiple morbidity, which was described as a series of loss, recovery and re-engagement. Within the case study, the participant suggested that because her functional limitations were not accommodated earlier in life due to societal and family level disadvantage, functional limitations were more difficult to adjust to in later years. PMID:23437442

  13. Architectures and Evaluation for Adjustable Control Autonomy for Space-Based Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    In the past five years, a number of automation applications for control of crew life support systems have been developed and evaluated in the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This paper surveys progress on an adjustable autonomous control architecture for situations where software and human operators work together to manage anomalies and other system problems. When problems occur, the level of control autonomy can be adjusted, so that operators and software agents can work together on diagnosis and recovery. In 1997 adjustable autonomy software was developed to manage gas transfer and storage in a closed life support test. Four crewmembers lived and worked in a chamber for 91 days, with both air and water recycling. CO2 was converted to O2 by gas processing systems and wheat crops. With the automation software, significantly fewer hours were spent monitoring operations. System-level validation testing of the software by interactive hybrid simulation revealed problems both in software requirements and implementation. Since that time, we have been developing multi-agent approaches for automation software and human operators, to cooperatively control systems and manage problems. Each new capability has been tested and demonstrated in realistic dynamic anomaly scenarios, using the hybrid simulation tool.

  14. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-3 Section 1.9001-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  15. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-3 Section 1.9001-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  16. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-2 Section 1.9001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  17. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-2 Section 1.9001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  18. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-2 Section 1.9001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations §...

  19. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-3 Section 1.9001-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations §...

  20. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-2 Section 1.9001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  1. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-2 Section 1.9001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  2. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-3 Section 1.9001-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  3. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date. 1.9001-3 Section 1.9001-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General...

  4. Post-transplant adjustment--the later years.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Emily M; Zelikovsky, Nataliya; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Hames, Anna; Wray, Jo

    2014-11-01

    As survival rates for pediatric solid organ transplantation have continued to improve, researchers and healthcare providers have increasingly focused on understanding and enhancing the HRQOL and psychosocial functioning of their patients. This manuscript reviews the psychosocial functioning of pediatric transplant recipients during the "later years," defined as more than three yr post-transplant, and focuses on the day-to-day impact of living with a transplant after the immediate period of adjustment and early years after surgery. Key topics reviewed include HRQOL, cognitive functioning, impact on the family, regimen adherence, and transition of responsibility for self-management tasks. Overall, pediatric transplant recipients evidence impairment in HRQOL, neuropsychological outcomes, and family functioning as compared to non-transplant recipients. However, the degree of impairment is influenced by a variety of factors including, disease severity, age, solid organ type, and study methodologies. Studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional design, and the lack of universal assessment battery to allow for comparisons across solid organ populations. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:25220845

  5. Adjustment to Life after Spinal Cord Injury: A Comparison among Three Participant Groups Based on Employment Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relationship between work history, biographical status, and adjustment after spinal cord injury (SCI) among 286 adults who had suffered SCI of traumatic onset after age 18. Participants completed Life Situation Questionnaire at least two years postinjury. Results suggest that employed individuals felt more positively about their lives…

  6. 78 FR 54934 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Order Making Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Adjustments to Registration Fee Rates I. Background The...\\ Public Law 111-203, 124 Stat.1376 (2010). II. Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Adjustment to the Fee Rate Section...(b) for fiscal year 2014. Specifically, the Commission must adjust the fee rate under Section 6(b)...

  7. Marital Adjustment Over the Family Life Cycle: The Issue of Curvilinearity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Marital adjustment over the family life cycle is reexamined using data from probability samples of married couples studied in coordinated research projects in three different states--Iowa, Ohio, and Georgia. (Author)

  8. Marital Adjustment Over the Family Life Cycle: The Issue of Curvilinearity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.; And Others

    Marital adjustment over the family life cycle is reexamined using data from probability samples of married couples studied in coordinated research projects in three different states--Iowa, Ohio, and Georgia. A total of 1,584 respondents completed the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Scale and responded to questions about stage of the family life…

  9. Intensity of Participation in Organized Youth Activities during the High School Years: Longitudinal Associations with Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Poulin, Francois; Pedersen, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the longitudinal associations between youth activity participation and adjustment over the high school years by examining (a) correlations between participation and adjustment growth curves, and (b) bidirectional links between participation and adjustment from one year to the next. Participation was…

  10. The Relation of Marital Adjustment and Family Functions With Quality of Life in Women

    PubMed Central

    Basharpoor, Sajjad; Sheykholeslami, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Given the immense importance of marital relationships in the quality of life, this research was conducted in order to investigate the relationships between marital adjustment and family functions with quality of life in women. The design of the current study was correlational. Seven hundred and thirty women were selected randomly among all women living in the province of Western Azerbaijan (Iran) and participated in this study. The sample responded to the Family Assessment Device, Dyadic Adjustment scale and Quality of Life questionnaire, individually in their homes. Collected data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression tests. The results showed that all dimensions of family functions and dyadic adjustment were positively correlated with quality of life in women. Results of multiple regression also revealed that 33 percent of total quality of life can be explained by family functions and 24 percent of this variable can be explained by dyadic adjustment. Our study demonstrated that women’s quality of life was affected by family functions and marital adjustment in family. PMID:27247668

  11. Using Surveys to Calculate Disability-Adjusted Life-Years

    PubMed Central

    Wiedermann, Wolfgang; Frick, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Mapping a certain disease into a system of disabling attributes allows researchers to compare diseases within a common framework. To quantify the total burden of morbidity (e.g., morbidity attributable to alcohol use), so-called disability weights (DWs) must be generated. General-population surveys can be used to derive DWs from health valuation tasks. This article describes the application of three psychometric methods (i.e., pairwise comparisons, ranking tasks, and visual analog scales) in general-population surveys and outlines their strengths and weaknesses. A recently proposed health valuation framework also is presented, which highlights the underlying cognitive processes from a social-judgment perspective and presents a structured data-collection procedure that seems promising in deriving DWs from general-population surveys. PMID:24881321

  12. Effect of Intervention to Change Life Style to Increase Marital Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Etemadi, Ahmad; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Shokooh, Navabi-Nejad

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of life style changes on marital adjustment. Eighty couples who had the most determined maladjustment were selected and randomly divided to experimental and control groups. Then an intervention method for life style change was administered to the experimental group. The Enrich was questionnaire for pre and post test. The results show that, the method of life style changing was reducing marital maladjustment. The marital adjustment change score between two groups (Experimental and Control) was significantly different (p< 0.001). This effect was for dimensions of marital adjustment such as; personality issues, financial management, conflict resolution and sexual relationships. It was recommended that counselors and psychotherapists select their intervention method according to the maladjustment dimensions to help afflicted couples with maladjustment.

  13. [Interpersonal motivation in a First Year Experience class influences freshmen's university adjustment].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Rumiko; Nakanishi, Yoshifumi; Nagahama, Fumiyo; Nakajima, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined the influence of interpersonal motivation on university adjustment in freshman students enrolled in a First Year Experience (FYE) class. An interpersonal motivation scale and a university adjustment (interpersonal adjustment and academic adjustment) scale were administered twice to 116 FYE students; data from the 88 students who completed both surveys were analyzed. Results from structural equation modeling indicated a causal relationship between interpersonal, motivation and university adjustment: interpersonal adjustment served as a mediator between academic adjustment and interpersonal motivation, the latter of which was assessed using the internalized motivation subscale of the Interpersonal Motivation Scale as well as the Relative Autonomy Index, which measures the autonomy in students' interpersonal attitudes. Thus, revising the FYE class curriculum to include approaches to lowering students' feelings of obligation and/or anxiety in their interpersonal interactions might improve their adjustment to university. PMID:26182493

  14. Psychiatric Adjustment in the Year after Meningococcal Disease in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Daniel; Nadel, Simon; Gledhill, Julia; Gordon, Fabiana; Garralda, M. Elena

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess psychiatric status after meningococcal disease. Method: Cohort study of 66 children (34 boys, 32 girls) ages 4 to 17 years admitted to pediatric hospitals with meningococcal disease. The main outcome measure was psychiatric disorder (1-year period and point prevalence on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia…

  15. Quality of sexual life and its effect on marital adjustment of Turkish women in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kisa, Sezer; Zeyneloğlu, Simge; Yilmaz, Duygu; Güner, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is an important period of a woman's life that can affect marital relationships because of decrease in the sexual function. This study aimed to examine the effect of sexual life on the marital adjustment of 607 healthy, pregnant women using the self-administered Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female and the Marital Adjustment Scale. Results showed that 30% of the pregnant women experienced problems during sexual intercourse and 50% had painful intercourse. The median total score of the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female for pregnant women was 35.5, and the median total score of the Marital Adjustment Scale was 41.0. The authors found a positive moderate level correlation between the sexual quality of life for women and their marital adjustment for being pregnant (r = 0.468, p =.001). The results imply that the variance in the sexual activity during the childbearing period does occur and pregnant women need to be assessed regularly with regards to their sexuality by health care providers in a professional atmosphere. PMID:24102194

  16. College Adjustment Experiences of First-Year Students: Disengaged Athletes, Nonathletes, and Current Varsity Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubker, John R.; Etzel, Edward F.

    2007-01-01

    The freshman year of college is usually acknowledged as a stressful time of social and academic adjustment. During this period, first-year students face many social and intellectual challenges. For high school athletes, the combined impact of college transition plus disengagement from sport can further complicate first-semester adjustment and may…

  17. Adjustment to College in Nonresidential First-Year Students: The Roles of Stress, Family, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gefen, Dalia R.; Fish, Marian C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored factors related to college adjustment in nonresidential first-year students. It was hypothesized that stress, family functioning, and coping strategies would predict academic, personal-emotional, and social adjustment in addition to institutional attachment. The sample comprised 167 first-year college students (ages 18-23)…

  18. 42 CFR 414.42 - Adjustment for first 4 years of practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. 414.42 Section 414.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Other Practitioners § 414.42 Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. (a) General rule. For...

  19. 42 CFR 414.42 - Adjustment for first 4 years of practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. 414.42 Section 414.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Other Practitioners § 414.42 Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. (a) General rule. For...

  20. 42 CFR 414.42 - Adjustment for first 4 years of practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. 414.42 Section 414.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.42 Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. (a) General rule....

  1. 42 CFR 414.42 - Adjustment for first 4 years of practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. 414.42 Section 414.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.42 Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. (a) General rule....

  2. Child and family adjustment following pediatric solid organ transplantation: factors to consider during the early years post-transplant.

    PubMed

    Brosig, Cheryl; Pai, Ahna; Fairey, Elise; Krempien, Jennifer; McBride, Michael; Lefkowitz, Debra S

    2014-09-01

    Adjusting to life after transplant can be challenging to pediatric solid organ transplant recipients and their families. In this review, we discuss a number of important factors to consider during the first 2-3 yr after transplant (defined as the "early years"), including transitioning from hospital to home, returning to physical activity, feeding and nutrition, school reentry, potential cognitive effects of transplant, family functioning, and QOL. We highlight steps that providers can take to optimize child and family adjustment during this period. PMID:24923434

  3. Rwanda 20 years on: investing in life.

    PubMed

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Farmer, Paul E; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Karema, Corine; Gasana, Michel; de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean; Ngabo, Fidele; Wagner, Claire M; Nutt, Cameron T; Nyatanyi, Thierry; Gatera, Maurice; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Mugeni, Cathy; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Shema, Joseph; Uwaliraye, Parfait; Gaju, Erick; Muhimpundu, Marie Aimee; Dushime, Theophile; Senyana, Florent; Mazarati, Jean Baptiste; Gaju, Celsa Muzayire; Tuyisenge, Lisine; Mutabazi, Vincent; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Rusanganwa, Vincent; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Umutoni, Agathe; Kankindi, Ida; Ntizimira, Christian; Ruton, Hinda; Mugume, Nathan; Nkunda, Denis; Ndenga, Espérance; Mubiligi, Joel M; Kakoma, Jean Baptiste; Karita, Etienne; Sekabaraga, Claude; Rusingiza, Emmanuel; Rich, Michael L; Mukherjee, Joia S; Rhatigan, Joseph; Cancedda, Corrado; Bertrand-Farmer, Didi; Bukhman, Gene; Stulac, Sara N; Tapela, Neo M; van der Hoof Holstein, Cassia; Shulman, Lawrence N; Habinshuti, Antoinette; Bonds, Matthew H; Wilkes, Michael S; Lu, Chunling; Smith-Fawzi, Mary C; Swain, JaBaris D; Murphy, Michael P; Ricks, Alan; Kerry, Vanessa B; Bush, Barbara P; Siegler, Richard W; Stern, Cori S; Sliney, Anne; Nuthulaganti, Tej; Karangwa, Injonge; Pegurri, Elisabetta; Dahl, Ophelia; Drobac, Peter C

    2014-07-26

    Two decades ago, the genocide against the Tutsis in Rwanda led to the deaths of 1 million people, and the displacement of millions more. Injury and trauma were followed by the effects of a devastated health system and economy. In the years that followed, a new course set by a new government set into motion equity-oriented national policies focusing on social cohesion and people-centred development. Premature mortality rates have fallen precipitously in recent years, and life expectancy has doubled since the mid-1990s. Here we reflect on the lessons learned in rebuilding Rwanda's health sector during the past two decades, as the country now prepares itself to take on new challenges in health-care delivery. PMID:24703831

  4. Rwanda 20 years on: investing in life

    PubMed Central

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Farmer, Paul E; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Karema, Corine; Gasana, Michel; de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean; Ngabo, Fidele; Wagner, Claire M; Nutt, Cameron T; Nyatanyi, Thierry; Gatera, Maurice; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Mugeni, Cathy; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Shema, Joseph; Uwaliraye, Parfait; Gaju, Erick; Muhimpundu, Marie Aimee; Dushime, Theophile; Senyana, Florent; Mazarati, Jean Baptiste; Gaju, Celsa Muzayire; Tuyisenge, Lisine; Mutabazi, Vincent; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Rusanganwa, Vincent; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Umutoni, Agathe; Kankindi, Ida; Ntizimira, Christian; Ruton, Hinda; Mugume, Nathan; Nkunda, Denis; Ndenga, Espérance; Mubiligi, Joel M; Kakoma, Jean Baptiste; Karita, Etienne; Sekabaraga, Claude; Rusingiza, Emmanuel; Rich, Michael L; Mukherjee, Joia S; Rhatigan, Joseph; Cancedda, Corrado; Bertrand-Farmer, Didi; Bukhman, Gene; Stulac, Sara N; Tapela, Neo M; van der Hoof Holstein, Cassia; Shulman, Lawrence N; Habinshuti, Antoinette; Bonds, Matthew H; Wilkes, Michael S; Lu, Chunling; Smith-Fawzi, Mary C; Swain, JaBaris D; Murphy, Michael P; Ricks, Alan; Kerry, Vanessa B; Bush, Barbara P; Siegler, Richard W; Stern, Cori S; Sliney, Anne; Nuthulaganti, Tej; Karangwa, Injonge; Pegurri, Elisabetta; Dahl, Ophelia; Drobac, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Two decades ago, the genocide against the Tutsis in Rwanda led to the deaths of 1 million people, and the displacement of millions more. Injury and trauma were followed by the effects of a devastated health system and economy. In the years that followed, a new course set by a new government set into motion equity-oriented national policies focusing on social cohesion and people-centred development. Premature mortality rates have fallen precipitously in recent years, and life expectancy has doubled since the mid-1990s. Here we reflect on the lessons learned in rebuilding Rwanda’s health sector during the past two decades, as the country now prepares itself to take on new challenges in health-care delivery. PMID:24703831

  5. 3-year real-world outcomes with the Swedish adjustable gastric band™ in France.

    PubMed

    Ribaric, G; Buchwald, J N; d'Orsay, G; Daoud, F

    2013-02-01

    The study objective was to ascertain outcomes with the Swedish adjustable gastric band (SAGB) on an intention-to-treat basis in multiple centers across the French social health insurance system. SAGB results at 3-year follow-up are reported. The noncomparative, observational, prospective, consecutive cohort study design sought a 500-patient minimum recruitment geographically representative of continental France. Safety (adverse events [AEs], device-related morbidity, and mortality) and effectiveness (change in body mass index [BMI, kilograms per square meter], percentage excess weight loss, comorbidities, quality of life [QoL]) were assessed. Adjustable gastric band survival was calculated. Thirty-one surgeons in 28 multidisciplinary teams/sites enrolled patients between September 2, 2007 and April 30, 2008. SAGB was successfully implanted in 517 patients: 88.0 % female; mean age, 37.5 years; obesity duration, 15.3 years (baseline: mean BMI, 41.0; comorbidities, 773 in 74.3 % of patients; Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS), 1.4; EuroQoL 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D), 0.61; EuroQoL-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS), 52.3). At 3 years: BMI, 32.2 (mean change, -9.0; p < 0.0001); excess weight loss, 47.4 %; comorbidities, 161 in 27.2 %; BAROS, 3.6 (+2.2, p < 0.0001); EQ-5D, 0.84 (+0.22, p < 0.0001); EQ-VAS, 73.4 (+21.4, p < 0.0001). SAGB-induced weight loss was associated with substantially improved QoL. One death occurred and was unrelated to the treatment. No AE was reported in 68.3 % of patients, and no confirmed device-related AE in 77.0 %. Overall AE rate was 0.19 per patient year. Device retention was 87.0 %. Analysis of patients lost to follow-up showed a nonsignificant effect on overall study results. In a prospective, consecutive cohort, "real-world", nationwide study, the Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band was found safe and effective at 3-year follow-up. PMID:23054572

  6. Adjusting to a seizure-free "new normal" life following discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ya-Ping; Lee, Tzu-Ying; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Laadt, Virginia L

    2014-04-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand how children in adolescence adjust to their newly acquired normal life without epilepsy, following discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs during this dynamic period of growth and development. Three major themes with subthemes were identified: 1) setting the body and mind free; 2) engaging in self-regulation; and 3) protection by significant others. A sense of relief from constraints related to treatment schedules, special diets, and avoiding seizure-provoking activities was expressed by all participants. Freedom from side effects of the antiepileptic drugs improved life at home and school. Most of the participants said that they were not worried about seizure recurrence but would use caution against a possible relapse. Family members also must adjust to a new lifestyle. Medical staff needs to provide support and adequate care to adolescents during their period of identity adjustment following antiepileptic drug discontinuation. PMID:24632354

  7. Earning and Learning: Role Congruence, State/Trait Factors and Adjustment to University Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Vivien; Broadbridge, Adelina; Karatzias, Athanasios

    2006-01-01

    Background: Undertaking term-time employment is increasingly commonplace for university students. Much research suggests that combining "earning and learning" may be detrimental to university life, generating role conflicts, increasing stress and reducing academic success, participation and overall adjustment to university. Potential positive…

  8. Dimensions of Social Capital and Life Adjustment in the Transition to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Erath, Stephen A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The predictive relations between social capital depth (high-quality relationships across contexts) and breadth (friendship network extensivity) and early-adult life adjustment outcomes were examined using data from a prospective longitudinal study. Interviews at age 22 yielded (a) psychometrically sound indexes of relationship quality with…

  9. Locus of Control and Life Adjustment: Relationship Among People with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, J. Stuart; Stanwyck, Carol Anson; Maides, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the relationship of life adjustment after spinal cord injury with three components of locus of control (LOC): internality, chance, and powerful others. Internality was positively correlated with subjective well-being and powerful others was negatively correlated with health indicators. States that rehabilitation counseling will be…

  10. The End-of-Life Experience: Modifiable Predictors of Caregivers’ereavement Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Melissa M.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to determine the best set of predictors of psychological disorders, regrets, health-related quality of life, and mental health function among bereaved caregivers of patients with cancer, thereby identifying promising targets for interventions to improve bereavement adjustment. Methods Coping with Cancer is a longitudinal study of patients with advanced cancer and informal caregivers who were enrolled from 2002–2008. Our main outcome measure was bereavement adjustment of 245 caregivers (e.g., depression, anxiety, regrets) six months post-loss. The Structured Clinical Interview of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders determined if caregivers met criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or an anxiety disorder. Changes in health-related quality of life and mental health function from baseline to post-loss were assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36). Results Over half the caregivers reported regret about the cancer patient’s end-of-life care; better patient quality of death (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]= 0.77, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]= 0.67–0.88) reduced the risk of bereavement regret. The incidence of MDD or anxiety among the bereaved caregivers was 12.6% and was less likely for caregivers with better mental health pre-loss (AOR=0.03, 95% CI=0.004–0.25). Better patient quality of death also predicted improved caregiver health-related quality of life (adjusted standardized beta=0.28, p<.001). Do not resuscitate order completion predicted improved mental health from pre-loss to post-loss (adjusted standardized beta=0.29, p<.001). Conclusions Reducing caregiver distress, encouraging patient advance care planning, and improving patients’ quality of death appear promising targets of interventions to improve caregiver bereavement adjustment. PMID:24301644

  11. Psychological and sociocultural adjustment of first-year international students: Trajectories and predictors.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Reiko; Frazier, Patricia; Syed, Moin

    2015-07-01

    Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the temporal course of international students' adjustment has not been adequately tested, and only 1 study to date has examined multiple trajectories of adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of adjustment among first-year international students using a broader range of adjustment measures (i.e., psychological distress, positive psychological adjustment, sociocultural adjustment). The second goal was to identify important predictors of trajectories. A wide range of individual and interpersonal predictor variables was examined, including academic stress and perceived control over academic stress, personality, social relationships, and language-related factors. Undergraduate and graduate international students in their first semester at a large midwestern university participated in this 5-wave longitudinal study (N = 248) that spanned 1 academic year. Multiple trajectories emerged, and the trajectories varied across the 3 adjustment measures. Average trajectories masked the trajectories of small groups of students who maintained or increased in terms of adjustment difficulties across outcomes. Contrary to popular theories, the U-shape adjustment trajectory (characterized by initial euphoria, distress, and then recovery) did not emerge. The most consistent predictors of adjustment trajectories were perceived present control over academic stress and Neuroticism. PMID:25961754

  12. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment Among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a stress-process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents’ mental health. We also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to children’s experiences of stressful life events. With data from 738 Mexican American early adolescents, results generally provided support for the theoretical model although the relationships of neighborhood disadvantage to stressful life events and adjustment were weaker than expected. Additional research is needed to corroborate these results and determine why neighborhood disadvantage may have different relationships to adjustment for Mexican American early adolescents than for others. PMID:20711521

  13. Dimensions of social capital and life adjustment in the transition to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Gregory S; Erath, Stephen A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bates, John E

    2011-11-01

    The predictive relations between social capital depth (high-quality relationships across contexts) and breadth (friendship network extensivity) and early-adult, life adjustment outcomes were examined using data from a prospective longitudinal study. Interviews at age 22 yielded (a) psychometrically sound indexes of relationship quality with parents, peers, and romantic partners that served as indicators of a latent construct of social capital depth, and (b) a measure of number of close friends. In follow-up interviews at age 24, participants reported on their behavioral adjustment, educational attainment, and arrests and illicit substance use. Early-adolescent assessments of behavioral adjustment and academic performance served as controls; data on what were construed as interpersonal assets (teacher-rated social skills) and opportunities (family income) were also collected at this time. Results showed that depth was associated with overall better young-adult adjustment, net of prior adjustment, and assets and opportunities. Breadth was only modestly associated with later outcomes, and when its overlap with depth was taken into account, breadth predicted higher levels of subsequent externalizing problems. These findings are consistent with the notion that social capital is multidimensional and that elements of it confer distinct benefits during an important life transition. PMID:22822281

  14. Psychosocial Predictors of Adjustment among First Year College of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salami, Samuel O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of psychological and social factors to the prediction of adjustment to college. A total of 250 first year students from colleges of education in Kwara State, Nigeria, completed measures of self-esteem, emotional intelligence, stress, social support and adjustment. Regression analyses…

  15. 76 FR 26324 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Adjustments to Section 31 Fee Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... FR 24757 (May 5, 2010). \\7\\ The annual adjustments, as well as the mid-year adjustments required in... Table B. Next, calculate the change in the natural logarithm of ADS from month to month. The average... as t = log (ADS t /ADS t-1 ), where log (x) denotes the natural logarithm of x. 3. Calculate the...

  16. Application of Variable Life Adjusted Displays (VLAD) on Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The need to improve patient safety has been identified as a major priority for health reform in developed countries, including Australia. We investigated the implementation and appropriateness of Variable Life Adjusted Displays as a quality control procedure to monitor “in-control” versus “out-of-control” processes in Victorian public hospitals. Methods Victorian Admitted Episode Data from Department of Human Services, Victoria for 2004–7 were used. The VLAD is a plot of a cumulative sum of the difference in expected outcome (range 0–1) and observed outcome (0 or 1) for sequential separations. Three outcomes were assessed: in-hospital mortality for acute myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure. Logistic regression was used to obtain a realistic measure of expected mortality over the period 2004–5, adjusting for covariates and comorbidities, to estimate expected mortality risk for the separations between 2005–7. VLAD were plotted for the years 2005–7, by the 11 hospitals with the highest frequency of separations. Signalling limits for 30%, 50% and 75% risk decrease and risk increase were determined and plotted for each VLAD utilizing risk-adjusted cumulative sum techniques. This is a likelihood-ratio test statistic for signalling. If the VLAD signalled by intersecting with a limit, the limit was reset. Results The three logit models displayed reasonable fit to the observed data. There were n = 2999 separations in the AMI model, n = 3598 in the HF model and n = 1922 in the stroke model. The number of separations plotted by VLAD ranged from n = 126 to n = 648. No signals were observed in 64%, 55% and 18% of VLAD for AMI, HF and stroke respectively. For AMI and HF 9% of hospitals signalled at least once for each of 30%, 50% and 75% risk increase, whereas this was 45% for stroke. Hospitals signalling at least once for risk decrease ranged from 18% to 36% across the levels of risk and outcomes. No VLAD signalled

  17. Development in the first years of life.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R A

    2001-01-01

    Any discussion on how we care for infants and toddlers must begin with the interests and needs of the children themselves. Therefore, this issue opens with an overview of the dramatic development that takes place during the first three years of life, which turns the dependent human newborn into a sophisticated three-year-old who walks, talks, solves problems, and manages relationships with adults and other children. This article explains the new understanding of brain development that has captured public attention in recent years, and links it to developments in infant behavior that are equally impressive and influential: the growth of the body (size and coordination), the growth of the mind (language and problem-solving abilities), and the growth of the person (emotional and social mastery). It emphasizes how much early experiences and relationships matter. The article highlights themes that resonate across these aspects of development: A drive to development is inborn, propelling the human infant toward learning and mastery. The opportunities for growth that enrich the early years also bring with them vulnerability to harm. The experiences that greet children in their human and physical surroundings can either enhance or inhibit the unfolding of their inborn potential. People (especially parents and other caregivers) are the essence of the infant's environment, and their protection, nurturing, and stimulation shape early development. The author envisions a society that stands beside the families and caregivers who nurture young children, equipping them with knowledge and resources, and surrounding them with supportive workplaces, welfare policies, and child care systems. PMID:11712453

  18. Application of variable life adjusted display (VLAD) in early detection of deficiency in trauma care.

    PubMed

    Tan, H B; Cross, S F; Goodacre, S W

    2005-10-01

    Early detection of deficient care is an increasingly important element of trauma audit. We aimed to assess the feasibility and demonstrate the use of a variable life adjusted display (VLAD) in trauma audit. Data from the Trauma Audit and Research Network database of Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust were used to create a VLAD. A cumulative display of survival was plotted in which survivors were incorporated as a positive value equal to 1 minus the probability of survival, and deaths were incorporated as a negative value equal to the probability of survival. Downward deflections of the display thus indicated potentially deficient trauma care. Data from 191 consecutive patients over 1 year were plotted and displayed. The first 2 months of this period were characterised by a downward trend in the line, which may indicate suboptimum performance and provides an example of a trend that would prompt detailed review. The VLAD chart is a potentially useful "early warning" system for poor performance in trauma care. Further work should to be carried out to evaluate VLAD prospectively as an audit tool, perhaps involving comparison of VLAD charts from different institutions. PMID:16189037

  19. The Adjustment of New Recruits to Military Life in the Chinese Army: The Longitudinal Predictive Power of MMPI-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Lijun; Han, Jing; Han, Jian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the findings of two studies analyzing new recruits' adjustment to army life in the Chinese military. In the first exploratory study, we developed a scale to measure new recruits' adjustment to military life, and found that new soldiers' adaptation could be divided into two distinct types: interpersonal…

  20. A comparison of confounding adjustment methods with an application to early life determinants of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Kleinman, K; Gillman, M W

    2014-12-01

    We implemented six confounding adjustment methods: (1) covariate-adjusted regression, (2) propensity score (PS) regression, (3) PS stratification, (4) PS matching with two calipers, (5) inverse probability weighting and (6) doubly robust estimation to examine the associations between the body mass index (BMI) z-score at 3 years and two separate dichotomous exposure measures: exclusive breastfeeding v. formula only (n=437) and cesarean section v. vaginal delivery (n=1236). Data were drawn from a prospective pre-birth cohort study, Project Viva. The goal is to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness, and approaches for multiple confounding adjustment methods to analyze observational data. Unadjusted (univariate) and covariate-adjusted linear regression associations of breastfeeding with BMI z-score were -0.33 (95% CI -0.53, -0.13) and -0.24 (-0.46, -0.02), respectively. The other approaches resulted in smaller n (204-276) because of poor overlap of covariates, but CIs were of similar width except for inverse probability weighting (75% wider) and PS matching with a wider caliper (76% wider). Point estimates ranged widely, however, from -0.01 to -0.38. For cesarean section, because of better covariate overlap, the covariate-adjusted regression estimate (0.20) was remarkably robust to all adjustment methods, and the widths of the 95% CIs differed less than in the breastfeeding example. Choice of covariate adjustment method can matter. Lack of overlap in covariate structure between exposed and unexposed participants in observational studies can lead to erroneous covariate-adjusted estimates and confidence intervals. We recommend inspecting covariate overlap and using multiple confounding adjustment methods. Similar results bring reassurance. Contradictory results suggest issues with either the data or the analytic method. PMID:25171142

  1. A comparison of confounding adjustment methods with an application to early life determinants of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    We implemented 6 confounding adjustment methods: 1) covariate-adjusted regression, 2) propensity score (PS) regression, 3) PS stratification, 4) PS matching with two calipers, 5) inverse-probability-weighting, and 6) doubly-robust estimation to examine the associations between the BMI z-score at 3 years and two separate dichotomous exposure measures: exclusive breastfeeding versus formula only (N = 437) and cesarean section versus vaginal delivery (N = 1236). Data were drawn from a prospective pre-birth cohort study, Project Viva. The goal is to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness, and approaches for multiple confounding adjustment methods to analyze observational data. Unadjusted (univariate) and covariate-adjusted linear regression associations of breastfeeding with BMI z-score were −0.33 (95% CI −0.53, −0.13) and −0.24 (−0.46, −0.02), respectively. The other approaches resulted in smaller N (204 to 276) because of poor overlap of covariates, but CIs were of similar width except for inverse-probability-weighting (75% wider) and PS matching with a wider caliper (76% wider). Point estimates ranged widely, however, from −0.01 to −0.38. For cesarean section, because of better covariate overlap, the covariate-adjusted regression estimate (0.20) was remarkably robust to all adjustment methods, and the widths of the 95% CIs differed less than in the breastfeeding example. Choice of covariate adjustment method can matter. Lack of overlap in covariate structure between exposed and unexposed participants in observational studies can lead to erroneous covariate-adjusted estimates and confidence intervals. We recommend inspecting covariate overlap and using multiple confounding adjustment methods. Similar results bring reassurance. Contradictory results suggest issues with either the data or the analytic method. PMID:25171142

  2. 20 CFR 220.164 - Employee end-of-year adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee end-of-year adjustment. 220.164... that year, he works April through October, for which he receives $785 per month. He does not report... annuities: EC14NO91.107 Example 2: The same employee in the following year also works April through...

  3. 20 CFR 220.164 - Employee end-of-year adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employee end-of-year adjustment. 220.164... that year, he works April through October, for which he receives $785 per month. He does not report... annuities: EC14NO91.107 Example 2: The same employee in the following year also works April through...

  4. Life after High School: Adjustment of Popular Teens in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2010-01-01

    This project examines the adjustment sequelae of perceived popularity beyond high school, and the moderating role of relational aggression (RA) in this process. Yearly sociometric measures of popularity and RA were gathered across grades 9-12 for a sample of 264 adolescents in a lower-middle-class high school. In addition, data on post-high school…

  5. Survivors of a kamikaze attack: PTSD and perceived adjustment to civilian life.

    PubMed

    Chara, Paul J; Chara, Kathleen A

    2006-12-01

    30 survivors of the U.S.S. Emmons (M age = 81.3 yr., SD = 2.3), which was sunk by kamikaze attacks during World War II, were given an adapted form of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian and a set of questions regarding the effects of their World War II experiences on seven clusters of 42 interpersonal and personal characteristics (Adjustment Characteristics). Participants were categorized into two groups, those who served on the Emmons at any given time during World War II (Any Service), and those who were serving on the Emmons when it was sunk during the battle for Okinawa (Okinawa). Analyses using Mann-Whitney U tests indicated that the Okinawa group reported higher checklist scores, but the scores were unrelated to 41 of the 42 Adjustment Characteristics. Also, Spearman rank-order correlations were statistically insignificant for all comparisons between checklist scores and Adjustment Characteristic clusters, and the total number of positive responses to the 42 characteristics. In contrast, Mann-Whitney U and chi square analyses comparing the Any Service and Okinawa groups indicated statistically significant differences for 14 Adjustment Characteristics, 4 clusters of those characteristics, and the total number of positive responses: The Okinawa group reported poorer outcomes in each comparison. Many of these differences were among Adjustment Characteristics evocative of the attributes of Lee's Agape love style. The findings suggest that for the survivors of the Emmons, the presence or absence of a traumatic event was a better predictor of adjustment to civilian life than the reported severity of PTSD symptoms. PMID:17305223

  6. Is the value of a life or life-year saved context specific? Further evidence from a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Duncan; Segal, Leonie

    2008-01-01

    Background A number of recent findings imply that the value of a life saved, life-year (LY) saved or quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved varies depending on the characteristics of the life, LY or QALY under consideration. Despite these findings, budget allocations continue to be made as if all healthy life-years are equivalent. This continued focus on simple health maximisation is partly attributable to gaps in the available evidence. The present study attempts to close some of these gaps. Methods Discrete choice experiment to estimate the marginal rate of substitution between cost, effectiveness and various non-health arguments. Odds of selecting profile B over profile A estimated via binary logistic regression. Marginal rates of substitution between attributes (including cost) then derived from estimated regression coefficients. Results Respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions with a strong evidence base where the beneficiary did not contribute to their illness. Results also suggest that respondents preferred prevention over cure. Interventions for young children were most preferred, followed by interventions for young adults, then interventions for working age adults and with interventions targeted at the elderly given lowest priority. Conclusion Results confirm that a trade-off exists between cost, effectiveness and non-health arguments when respondents prioritise health programs. That said, it is true that respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions – confirming that it is an adjustment to, rather than an outright rejection of, simple health maximisation that is required. PMID:18489787

  7. 26 CFR 1.1314(a)-1 - Ascertainment of amount of adjustment in year of error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of error. 1.1314(a)-1 Section 1.1314(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Years and Special Limitations § 1.1314(a)-1 Ascertainment of amount of adjustment in year of error. (a... ascertained the amount of the tax previously determined for the taxpayer as to whom the error was made for...

  8. Surviving Job Loss: Motivation among Second Year Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Sandra Lee

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study investigated second year college students who participated in the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) program at a technical college in northeastern Pennsylvania. In order to understand how learners stayed motivated in a college setting, I selected participants who were in their second year of the TAA program. A total of…

  9. How to apply life adjustment factors for ball and roller bearings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crecelius, W. J., Jr.; Harris, T. A.; Moyer, C. A.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Sherlock, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Practical problems applicable to the selection, design, and lubrication of rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed. The solutions to these problems are based upon the new ASME Engineering Design Guide - Life Adjustment Factors for Ball and Roller Bearings. Design and selection criteria are based upon materials and processing factors such as melting practice, metalworking, and heat treatment. Environmental factors considered include bearing misalignment and speed. Selection of a lubricant is based upon elastohydrodynamic lubrication principles in addition to lubricant type and chemistry.

  10. The Relationship between Locus of Control and Personal-Emotional Adjustment and Social Adjustment to College Life in Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Lisi; Dupoux, Errol; Wolman, Clara

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between locus of control and social and personal-emotional adjustment to college life in students with and without learning disabilities (LD). Differences in locus of control in college students with and without LD were also examined. The Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal/External Locus of Control Scale…

  11. Regional patterns of disability-free life expectancy and disability-adjusted life expectancy: global Burden of Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Murray, C J; Lopez, A D

    1997-05-10

    Published and unpublished data were reviewed to estimate the incidence, prevalence, and duration of 483 disabling sequelae of 107 diseases and injuries in an attempt to quantify disability for inclusion in health policy debates. The DisMod computer program was applied many times until consistent parameters were identified. The severity of disability was measured by the person-trade-off method, disability weights were measured across groups, and the prevalence of seven classes of disability was back-calculated from the distribution of each disabling sequelae across disabilities. The prevalence for each class of disability for different age-sex groups was used to calculate seven forms of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and disability-adjusted life expectancy (DALE). The prevalence of most disability classes is highest in sub-Saharan Africa and lowest in established market economies, with low-severity disabilities being the most common. DFLE varies significantly among regions. In high-income regions, almost 90% of expected disability is due to non-communicable diseases and most of the rest to injuries. However, in poorer regions, almost half of expected disability is due to communicable diseases and injuries. The higher proportion of life span spent disabled in high-mortality populations is consistent with the compression of morbidity hypothesis. PMID:9149696

  12. 75 FR 24757 - Order Making Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Adjustments to the Fee Rates Applicable Under Section 6(b...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...), 75 FR 9964 (March 4, 2010). \\10\\ The annual adjustments, as well as the mid-year adjustments required... decade. More specifically, an ARIMA model was used to forecast the value of the aggregate...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1314(a)-1 - Ascertainment of amount of adjustment in year of error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... error. 1.1314(a)-1 Section 1.1314(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Limitations § 1.1314(a)-1 Ascertainment of amount of adjustment in year of error. (a) In computing the amount... of the tax previously determined for the taxpayer as to whom the error was made for the taxable...

  14. Korean Children's Cultural Adjustment during Transition to the Early Years of School in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Ngaire

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated Korean children's cultural adjustment during transition to South Australian junior primary school settings. Using case-study methodology to provide a sociocultural perspective, data were collected during interviews with a sample of South Korean international students aged five to eight years, their mothers and teachers. All…

  15. Surprise, Sensemaking, and Success in the First College Year: Black Undergraduate Men's Academic Adjustment Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.; Newman, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Much has been written about Black undergraduate men's out-of-class engagement and social experiences, identity development, participation in intercollegiate athletics, and college enrollment and completion rates. Too little is known about their academic readiness and first-year college adjustment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was…

  16. Perceived Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents: A 1-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…

  17. Development and Validation of Social Provision Scale on First Year Undergraduate Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatomiwo, Oladunmoye Enoch

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the development and validation of socio provision scale on first year undergraduates adjustment among institution in Ibadan metropolis. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A sample of 300 participants was randomly selected across institutions in Ibadan. Data were collected using socio provision scale (a =0.76),…

  18. Heavy Pot Use in Teen Years Linked to Shortened Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158467.html Heavy Pot Use in Teen Years Linked to Shortened Life But Swedish study couldn' ... 000 of the men died during the 42-year study period. Those who were heavy marijuana users ...

  19. [Healthy life years (HLY) comprehensive indicator of health situation--recommended by European Union].

    PubMed

    Gromulska, Lucyna; Wysocki, Mirosław J; Goryński, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    This article presents Healthy Life Years (HLY) indicator of functional health status, its application in the field of public health research and monitoring, method of calculation, idea of its construction and relation of HLY to other health status indicators e.g. life expectancy, quality adjusted life years. Current data on HLY in the EU member states are also presented. HLY indicator is one of structural indicators, recommended by European Council to deliver information on the progress of implementation of the Lisbon Strategy resolutions, which main principle is development of knowledge-based economy characterised by growth, social cohesion and respect for environment. HLY shifts the focus from quantity of years of life to its quality, full-productivity health of the population, thus conveying information not only on health status but also referring to the fields--other than medicine or social sciences--such as: finances, economy, politics, development. PMID:19209744

  20. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining…

  1. Years of life lost among Iranian people killed in the Iraq-Iran war: the 25-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Batool; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Soroush, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the years of life lost (YLL), registered deaths due to Iraq-Iran war (1980-2005) were identified considering ICD10 codes of Y36.0 to Y36.9. Estimated YLL was calculated by taking age-weighting options and discount rates. Population life expectancy in each corresponding year was retrieved from the national health database. During 1980-2005, 178,298 Iranian men and 5325 Iranian women died in war. The mean death age was 22.8 ± 9 years, 96.6% occurred during the years of war (September 1980-August 1988). In the years after the war (1988-2005) 6243 (3.4%) of deaths occurred as the result of complication of the war-related injuries or implanted landmines/unexploded ordnances (ICD10 code: Y36.8). YLL in Iraq-Iran war among Iranian victims were calculated as 10,479,405.0 years considering the age weighting and discount rate equal to 0. Age-adjusted YLL were estimated as 10,169,546.2 years in males. Female cases that comprised 2.9% of total victims lost 309,858.8 years. The mean YLL was calculated as 57.1 years for each Iranian victim killed in Iraq-Iran war. The war-related YLL was estimated more than 10 million years that comprised a majority of young men. This study is the first step in estimation of disability adjusted life year (DALY) of Iraq-Iran war on Iranian side. PMID:24344985

  2. Earning and Learning: How Term-Time Employment Impacts on Students' Adjustment to University Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbridge, Adelina; Swanson, Vivien

    2005-01-01

    The number of students in higher education has risen sharply in recent years, and an increasing proportion of students combine paid employment with university life. In a review of studies which have investigated the relationship between "earning and learning", it is noted that the overall focus to date has been on the negative impact of combining…

  3. Predicting future years of healthy life for older adults.

    PubMed

    Diehr, P; Patrick, D L; Bild, D E; Burke, G L; Williamson, J D

    1998-04-01

    Cost-effectiveness studies often need to compare the cost of a program to the lifetime benefits of the program, but estimates of lifetime benefits are not routinely available, especially for older adults. We used data from two large longitudinal studies of older adults (ages 65-100) to estimate transition probabilities from one health state to another, and used those probabilities to estimate the mean additional years of healthy life that an older adult of specified age, sex, and health status would experience. We found, for example, that 65-year-old women in excellent health can expect 16.8 years of healthy life in the future, compared to only 8.5 years for women in poor health. We also provide estimates of discounted years of healthy life and future life expectancy. These estimates may be used to extend the effective length of the study period in cost-effectiveness studies, to examine the impact of chronic diseases or risk factors on years of healthy life, or to investigate the relationship of years of life to years of healthy life. Several applications are described. PMID:9539891

  4. 26 CFR 1.481-3 - Adjustments attributable to pre-1954 years where change was not initiated by taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments attributable to pre-1954 years where change was not initiated by taxpayer. 1.481-3 Section 1.481-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Adjustments § 1.481-3 Adjustments attributable to pre-1954...

  5. Parent Discrimination Predicts Mexican-American Adolescent Psychological AdjustmentYear Later.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents 1 year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them. PMID:27224903

  6. Organized Activities During High School and Adjustment One Year Post High School: Identifying Social Mediators.

    PubMed

    Viau, Annie; Denault, Anne-Sophie; Poulin, François

    2015-08-01

    This longitudinal study investigated social capital as a way through which youths' organized activities promote their future adjustment. Specifically, we examined social mediators of the associations between intensity, duration, and breadth of participation from age 14 to 17 and adjustment at age 18. Two social mediators were tested: support from the activity leader and social integration into the activity peer group. In addition, we examined how these mediation effects vary across gender. The sample consisted of 228 French Canadian adolescents (65 % girls). Youths were surveyed yearly from age 12 to 18. Controlling for prior adjustment at age 12, greater duration of participation from age 14 to 17 was associated with lower problematic alcohol use and higher civic engagement at age 18 through support from the activity leader. In addition, for boys only, greater duration of participation was associated with fewer subsequent depressive symptoms through social integration into the activity peer group. Overall, our results suggest that sustained participation allows youths to develop positive social experiences within organized activities, which, in turn, promote their future adjustment. Moreover, boys might benefit more from social experiences in organized activities than girls, at least with respect to depressive symptoms. PMID:25404238

  7. Music Perception and Cognition in the First Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilari, Beatriz Senoi

    2002-01-01

    Reviews literature on music perception and cognition in the first year of life and examines their contribution to domains such as child development and music education. Focuses on studies examining musical features and the uses of music in the everyday life of infants and their caretakers. Critiques previous and current literature. Discusses…

  8. Social Support, Self-Esteem, and Stress as Predictors of Adjustment to University among First-Year Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Laura J.; Reid, Graham J.; Shupak, Naomi; Cribbie, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the joint effects of stress, social support, and self-esteem on adjustment to university. First-year undergraduate students (N = 115) were assessed during the first semester and again 10 weeks later, during the second semester of the academic year. Multiple regressions predicting adjustment to university from perceived…

  9. Relations between life satisfaction, adjustment to illness, and emotional distress in a sample of men with ischemic cardiopathy.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María Angeles; Sanjuan, Pilar; Pérez-García, Ana M; Rueda, Beatriz

    2011-05-01

    Fifty-two men who had suffered a first episode ischemic heart disease reported their degree of life satisfaction, the strategies they used to adjust to the illness, and the symptoms of anxiety and depression they felt. The multiple regression analyses carried out indicated that emotional distress was associated with a lower level of life satisfaction. In the analyses of anxiety symptoms, the use of negative adjustment strategies was also a significant predictor. Lastly, a significant Life Satisfaction x Type of Adjustment interaction was obtained. According to this, the patients who felt more satisfaction with their lives used more positive strategies to adjust to the illness and fewer negative ones, than the group of patients who were less satisfied. In conclusion, life satisfaction predicts emotional wellbeing of patients with ischemic heart disease and it enhances the implementation of appropriate strategies to cope with the disease. Moreover, although life satisfaction has been considered a stable measure, we suggest it may change as the experience of illness limits individuals' important goals. PMID:21568192

  10. 77 FR 77217 - Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Report to Congress on the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... December 31, 2012 Part III Department of Commerce Economic Development Administration Fiscal Year 2012... Development Administration Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Report to Congress on the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms Program AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...

  11. A longitudinal study of emotional adjustment, quality of life and adaptive function in attenuated MPS II

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Elsa G.; Rudser, Kyle; Ahmed, Alia; Steiner, Robert D.; Delaney, Kathleen A.; Yund, Brianna; King, Kelly; Kunin-Batson, Alicia; Eisengart, Julie; Whitley, Chester B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The behavioral, adaptive and quality of life characteristics of attenuated mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) have not been well studied. Understanding changes over time in the attenuated phenotype may assist in helping achieve better outcomes in long-term function. This longitudinal study investigates these outcomes in relation to age, somatic disease burden, and IQ. Specifically, somatic disease burden is a major challenge for these patients, even with treatment with enzyme replacement therapy. Methods 15 patients, 10 between ages 6 and < 12 and 5 between ages ≥ 12 and 18, were selected who had at least 2 yearly visits. The occurrence of physical signs, the Physical Symptom Score, and IQ in these two groups was studied as well as the longitudinal association of age with standardized measures of quality of life, adaptive function, and behavioral symptoms as rated by parents and the child's self-report. Slopes by age across and within patients were calculated for these measures. Results All but one child had hearing loss, most had joint contractures and short stature. Somatic disease burden increased with age. IQ, although normal for most, also improved with age in those under 12 years of age. Physical quality of life decreased while psychosocial quality of life increased with age. Although other adaptive skills were in the broad average range, daily living skills were low at baseline relative to normative data and decreased over time. Behavior ratings indicated improvement in attention and hyperactivity over time. No patient had severe psychopathology, but older children reported an increasing sense of inadequacy and low self-esteem on self-report, presumably due to increasing awareness of differences from peers over time. Conclusions Attenuated MPS II patients have increasing somatic disease burden and poor physical quality of life as they develop as well as decreasing self-esteem and sense of adequacy. Psychosocial quality of life, adaptive

  12. 45 CFR 158.231 - Life-years used to determine credible experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reporting year plus the life-years for the two prior MLR reporting years. (b) For the 2011 MLR reporting... 2011 MLR reporting year plus the life-years for the 2012 MLR reporting year. (d) For the 2013 MLR... determine credibility are the life-years for the 2013 MLR reporting year plus the life-years for the...

  13. River channel adjustments in Southern Italy over the past 150 years and implications for channel recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Giano, Salvatore I.; Pisano, Luca; Robustelli, Gaetano; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs along with topographic and geomorphological surveys are used to assess evolutionary trends and key control factors of channel adjustments for five major rivers in southern Italy (the Trigno, Biferno, Volturno, Sinni and Crati rivers) to support assessment of channel recovery and river restoration. Three distinct phases of channel adjustment are identified over the past 150 years primarily driven by human disturbances. Firstly, slight channel widening dominated from the last decades of the nineteenth century to the 1950s. Secondly, from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s, altered sediment fluxes induced by in-channel mining and channel works brought about moderate to very intense incision (up to 6-7 m) accompanied by strong channel narrowing (up to 96%) and changes in channel configuration from multi-threaded to single-threaded patterns. Thirdly, the period from around 2000 to 2015 has been characterized by channel stabilization and local widening. Evolutionary trajectories of the rivers studied are quite similar to those reconstructed for other Italian rivers, particularly regarding the second phase of channel adjustments and ongoing transitions towards channel recovery in some reaches. Analyses of river dynamics, recovery potential and connectivity with sediment sources of the study reaches, framed in their catchment context, can be used as part of a wider interdisciplinary approach that views effective river restoration alongside sustainable and risk-reduced river management.

  14. Do Afterlife Beliefs Affect Psychological Adjustment to Late-Life Spousal Loss?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We explore whether beliefs about the existence and nature of an afterlife affect 5 psychological symptoms (anxiety, anger, depression, intrusive thoughts, and yearning) among recently bereaved older spouses. Method. We conduct multivariate regression analyses using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC), a prospective study of spousal loss. The CLOC obtained data from bereaved persons prior to loss and both 6 and 18 months postloss. All analyses are adjusted for health, sociodemographic characteristics, and preloss marital quality. Results. Bleak or uncertain views about the afterlife are associated with multiple aspects of distress postloss. Uncertainty about the existence of an afterlife is associated with elevated intrusive thoughts, a symptom similar to posttraumatic distress. Widowed persons who do not expect to be reunited with loved ones in the afterlife report significantly more depressive symptoms, anger, and intrusive thoughts at both 6 and 18 months postloss. Discussion. Beliefs in an afterlife may be maladaptive for coping with late-life spousal loss, particularly if one is uncertain about its existence or holds a pessimistic view of what the afterlife entails. Our findings are broadly consistent with recent work suggesting that “continuing bonds” with the decedent may not be adaptive for older bereaved spouses. PMID:23811692

  15. Meaning Making and Psychological Adjustment following Cancer: The Mediating Roles of Growth, Life Meaning, and Restored Just-World Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Crystal L.; Edmondson, Donald; Fenster, Juliane R.; Blank, Thomas O.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer survivors' efforts at meaning making may influence the extent to which they successfully make meaning from their experience (i.e., experience posttraumatic growth, find life meaningful, and restore beliefs in a just world), which may, in turn, influence their psychological adjustment. Previous research regarding both meaning making…

  16. The Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Therapy on Enhancing Marital Adjustment and Quality of Life among Infertile Couples with Marital Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Maryam; Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javidi, Nasirudin; Kamkar, Elnaz Hoseini

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of emotionally fo- cused therapy (EFT-C) on promoting marital adjustment of infertile couples with marital conflicts by improving quality of life. Materials and Methods This is a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post–test design in which 30 infertile couples (60 individuals) were chosen by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly divided into two groups, sample and control, of 15 couples each. Next, couples in the sample population answered questionnaires for marital adjustment, sexual satisfaction and quality of life after which they received 10 sessions of EFT-C. Results Pre- and post-tests showed that EFT-C had a significant effect on marital adjust- ment and quality of life. Conclusion According to the results, EFT-C had a significant, positive effect on en- hancement of marital adjustment. Life quality of infertile couples significantly increased via application of EFT-C. This approach improved the physical, psychological and social relationships of infertile couples and enhanced their social environment. PMID:26246883

  17. An adjusted one year sea surface heat and water budget for the Northwestern Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniaux, Guy; Prieur, Louis; Giordani, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The problem of heat and salt budget closure is an important subject in operational and research oceanography. The closure depends crucially on surface fluxes, as they are one of the most important processes in terms of the evolution of the heat and salt content in the oceanic top layers. However, in this problem, two points have to be considered. First, surface fluxes are affected by a variety of errors: those associated with the algorithms used for computing the turbulent fluxes, those due to the data used as input of bulk algorithms and the errors associated with the time and space resolution of the fluxes themselves. The second problem is that no surface flux dataset exists, that can be used as the truth, or as a reference, i.e. that can be used for closing observed heat and water budgets at various time and space scales. Here we address the question of adjusting surface heat and water fluxes so that they are in agreement with the evolution of the thermal and salt contents deduced from the extended dataset collected during the HyMex campaigns. These experiments were conducted in the North-western Mediterranean basin in 2012 and 2013. The method is based: (1) on the one-dimensional column modelling of the experimental area, by solving specific temperature and salinity equations and (2) on the optimization of adjustable coefficients with a genetic algorithm. The surface forcings, calculated from a mix of satellite retrievals, in-situ data, numerical weather prediction model observables and a bulk algorithm are also adjusted with the genetic algorithm. Finally, the adjusted fluxes allows to simulate the domain average sea surface temperature and salinity with errors less than 0.2 percent (or 0.03°C) and 0.08 percent (or 0.03 psu) respectively over one year. The adjusted fluxes are finally compared with various NWP models over the North-western Mediterranean basin and also locally with fluxes estimated at a mooring site (LION buoy).

  18. Use of the Satisfaction With Amplification in Daily Life Questionnaire to Assess Patient Satisfaction Following Remote Hearing Aid Adjustments (Telefitting)

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2014-01-01

    Background Hearing loss can affect approximately 15% of the pediatric population and up to 40% of the adult population. The gold standard of treatment for hearing loss is amplification of hearing thresholds by means of a hearing aid instrument. A hearing aid is an electronic device equipped with a topology of only three major components of aggregate cost. The gold standard of hearing aid fittings is face-to-face appointments in hearing aid centers, clinics, or hospitals. Telefitting encompasses the programming and adjustments of hearing aid settings remotely. Fitting hearing aids remotely is a relatively simple procedure, using minimal computer hardware and Internet access. Objective This project aimed to examine the feasibility and outcomes of remote hearing aid adjustments (telefitting) by assessing patient satisfaction via the Portuguese version of the Satisfaction With Amplification in Daily Life (SADL) questionnaire. Methods The Brazilian Portuguese version of the SADL was used in this experimental research design. Participants were randomly selected through the Rehabilitation Clinical (Espaco Reouvir) of the Otorhinolaryngology Department Medical School University of Sao Paulo. Of the 8 participants in the study, 5 were female and 3 were male, with a mean age of 71.5 years. The design consisted of two face-to-face sessions performed within 15 working days of each other. The remote assistance took place 15 days later. Results The average scores from this study are above the mean scores from the original SADL normative data. These indicate a high level of satisfaction in participants who were fitted remotely. Conclusions The use of an evaluation questionnaire is a simple yet effective method to objectively assess the success of a remote fitting. Questionnaire outcomes can help hearing stakeholders improve the National Policy on Hearing Health Care in Brazil. The results of this project indicated that patient satisfaction levels of those fitted remotely were

  19. Early Respiratory Infections and the Development of Asthma in the First 27 Years of Life.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Aino K; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have provided contradictory evidence on the role of early childhood respiratory infections in the development of asthma and other allergic diseases during childhood. We investigated early-life respiratory infections as predictors of the development of asthma in a 20-year prospective cohort study (the Espoo Cohort Study, 1991-2011). Information on upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) was collected with a parent-administered baseline questionnaire covering the preceding 12 months (part 1; n = 2,228), and information on LRTIs leading to hospitalization was obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Registry (part 2; n = 2,568). The incidence of asthma was assessed on the basis of 6-year and 20-year follow-up questionnaires. Adjusted hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Both URTIs (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 2.19) and LRTIs (adjusted HR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.48, 3.00) in early childhood were strong predictors of asthma incidence up to young adulthood (ages 20-27 years). A declining age trend was present for both URTIs (P-trend < 0.01) and LRTIs (P-trend < 0.001). In part 2 of our analysis, a significant risk of asthma was found in relation to LRTIs requiring hospitalization (adjusted HR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.38). The results provide new evidence that respiratory tract infections in early life predict the development of asthma through childhood to young adulthood. PMID:26362307

  20. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans reported higher search for meaning than Latin and European Americans. Presence of meaning was positively associated with self-esteem, academic adjustment, daily well-being, and ethnic belonging and exploration, whereas search for meaning was related to lower self-esteem and less stability in daily well-being. Presence of meaning mediated associations between ethnic identity and adjustment, explaining 28–52% of ethnic identity’s protective effect on development. Ethnic identity thus appears to affect adjustment, in part, through its role in fostering a positive sense of meaning in adolescents’ lives. PMID:19915965

  1. Behavioral Health and Adjustment to College Life for Student Service Members/Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; Braue, Lawrence A.; Stire, Sheryl; Gum, Amber M.; Cross, Brittany L.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Increasing numbers of student service members/veterans (SSM/Vs) are enrolling in college. However, little is known about how their previous military experience affects their adjustment to this new role. The present study tested the hypothesis that SSM/Vs who report adjustment problems in college have a higher incidence of posttraumatic…

  2. Body Representation in the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieber, Nicole; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Hayden, Angela; Kangas, Ashley; Collins, Rebecca; Bada, Henrietta

    2010-01-01

    Like faces, bodies are significant sources of social information. However, research suggests that infants do not develop body representation (i.e., knowledge about typical human bodies) until the second year of life, although they are sensitive to facial information much earlier. Yet, previous research only examined whether infants are sensitive…

  3. The Years of Uncertainty: Eighth Grade Family Life Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    The family life sex education unit for eighth graders, "The Years of Uncertainty," consists of a series of daily lesson plans that span a 29-day period of one-hour class sessions. Topics covered are: problem solving, knowledge and attitudes, male and female reproductive systems, conception, pregnancy, birth, birth defects, venereal disease,…

  4. Social Adjustment, Academic Adjustment, and the Ability to Identify Emotion in Facial Expressions of 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…

  5. An effect of physical activity-based recreation programs on children’s optimism, humor styles, and school life adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Jae-Eun; Lee, Gwang-Uk

    2015-01-01

    This study puts its purpose in identifying the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the optimism of children, humor styles, and school life adjustment. To achieve the study purpose, this study selected 190 subjects as samples were extracted targeting senior students of elementary schools who participated in the physical activity-based recreation in the metropolitan areas as of 2014. As research methods, questionnaire papers were used and reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted by utilizing SPSS 18.0 after inputting analysis data into the computer. The study results, obtained in this study are as follows: First, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on optimism, participation frequency and participation intensity would have an effect on optimism, while participation period would have a significant effect on being positive among the sub-factors of optimism. Second, participation in physical activity-based recreation programs might have a significant effect on humor styles. Third, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the school life adjustment, it was demonstrated that participation period and participation intensity would have a significant effect on school life adjustment, while participation frequency would have a significant effect on regulation-observance and school life satisfaction. PMID:26171384

  6. An effect of physical activity-based recreation programs on children's optimism, humor styles, and school life adjustment.

    PubMed

    Koo, Jae-Eun; Lee, Gwang-Uk

    2015-06-01

    This study puts its purpose in identifying the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the optimism of children, humor styles, and school life adjustment. To achieve the study purpose, this study selected 190 subjects as samples were extracted targeting senior students of elementary schools who participated in the physical activity-based recreation in the metropolitan areas as of 2014. As research methods, questionnaire papers were used and reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted by utilizing SPSS 18.0 after inputting analysis data into the computer. The study results, obtained in this study are as follows: First, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on optimism, participation frequency and participation intensity would have an effect on optimism, while participation period would have a significant effect on being positive among the sub-factors of optimism. Second, participation in physical activity-based recreation programs might have a significant effect on humor styles. Third, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the school life adjustment, it was demonstrated that participation period and participation intensity would have a significant effect on school life adjustment, while participation frequency would have a significant effect on regulation-observance and school life satisfaction. PMID:26171384

  7. Meteorological adjustment of yearly mean values for air pollutant concentration comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidik, S. M.; Neustadter, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Using multiple linear regression analysis, models which estimate mean concentrations of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide as a function of several meteorologic variables, two rough economic indicators, and a simple trend in time are studied. Meteorologic data were obtained and do not include inversion heights. The goodness of fit of the estimated models is partially reflected by the squared coefficient of multiple correlation which indicates that, at the various sampling stations, the models accounted for about 23 to 47 percent of the total variance of the observed TSP concentrations. If the resulting model equations are used in place of simple overall means of the observed concentrations, there is about a 20 percent improvement in either: (1) predicting mean concentrations for specified meteorological conditions; or (2) adjusting successive yearly averages to allow for comparisons devoid of meteorological effects. An application to source identification is presented using regression coefficients of wind velocity predictor variables.

  8. Fifteen Years of Operation at NASA's National Transonic Facility with the World's Largest Adjustable Speed Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, George H.; Bhatia, Ram; Krattiger, Hansueli; Mylius, Justus; Schafer, D.

    2012-01-01

    In September 1995, a project was initiated to replace the existing drive line at NASA's most unique transonic wind tunnel, the National Transonic Facility (NTF), with a single 101 MW synchronous motor driven by a Load Commutated Inverter (LCI). This Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) system also included a custom four-winding transformer, harmonic filter, exciter, switch gear, control system, and feeder cable. The complete system requirements and design details have previously been presented and published [1], as well as the commissioning and acceptance test results [2]. The NTF was returned to service in December 1997 with the new drive system powering the fan. Today, this installation still represents the world s largest horizontal single motor/drive combination. This paper describes some significant events that occurred with the drive system during the first 15 years of service. These noteworthy issues are analyzed and root causes presented. Improvements that have substantially increased the long term viability of the system are given.

  9. Supportive Parenting, Ecological Context, and Children's Adjustment: A Seven-Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    1997-01-01

    Examined effects of early supportive parenting on children's school adjustment. Found that supportive parenting (maternal warmth, proactive teaching, inductive discipline, and positive involvement) predicted adjustment (behavior problems, social skills, and academic performance) in grade 6, even after controlling for kindergarten adjustment and…

  10. Factors Negatively Affecting University Adjustment from the Views of First-Year University Students: The Case of Mersin University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevinç, Seda; Gizir, Cem Ali

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study aims to investigate the most common factors that negatively affect adjustment to university and coping strategies used by first-year university students in the adaptation process from the viewpoint of first-year university students. The participants were 25 first-year university students from various faculties at Mersin…

  11. Parent psychological adjustment, donor conception and disclosure: a follow-up over 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Blake, L.; Jadva, V.; Golombok, S.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the relationship between parent psychological adjustment, type of gamete donation (donor insemination, egg donation) and parents' disclosure of their use of donated gametes to their children. SUMMARY ANSWER Disclosure of donor origins to the child was not always associated with optimal levels of psychological adjustment, especially for fathers in donor insemination families. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Cross-sectional analyses have found mothers and fathers who conceived a child using donated sperm or eggs to be psychologically well-adjusted, with few differences emerging between parents in gamete donation families and parents in families in which parents conceived naturally. The relationship between mothers' and fathers' psychological well-being, type of gamete donation (donor insemination, egg donation) and parents' disclosure decisions has not yet been examined. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION In this follow-up study, data were obtained from mothers and fathers in donor insemination and egg donation families at 5 time points; when the children in the families were aged 1, 2, 3, 7 and 10. In the first phase of the study, 50 donor insemination families and 51 egg donation families with a 1-year-old child participated. By age 10, the study included 34 families with a child conceived by donor insemination and 30 families with a child conceived by egg donation, representing 68 and 58% of the original sample, respectively. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Families were recruited through nine fertility clinics in the UK. Standardized questionnaires assessing depression, stress and anxiety were administered to mothers and fathers in donor insemination and egg donation families. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Mothers and fathers in both donor insemination and egg donation families were found to be psychologically well-adjusted; for the vast majority of parents' levels of depression, anxiety and parenting stress were found to be within the

  12. In the Face of Conflict: Work-Life Conflict and Desired Work Hour Adjustments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    This study helps integrate the work-life and work hours literatures by examining competing predictions about the relationship between work-life conflict and the desire for paid work. Using data from the 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 2,178), I find that work-life conflict makes women want to decrease the number of hours they…

  13. Scientific life should be measured in seven year units.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2006-01-01

    Traditional wisdom and empirical observation unite in recommending a 7 year unit for measuring human life - including individual and institutional science. But, because of astronomy and the decimal system, things tend to be measured either in years, five years or in decades. A year is too short while a decade is too long to measure the trends and transitions of individual or institutional life. And the half decade, such as the 'five year plan' beloved by politicians and bureaucrats seems too short. Therefore, seven years should become the standard unit for tracking trends and measuring attainment. Precedents for using a seven year unit include the notorious Jesuit saying: 'Give me the child until he is seven, and I will show you the man'; and the 'ninth commandment' of Leo Szilard: 'Do your work for six years; but in the seventh, go into solitude or among strangers, so that the memory of your friends does not prevent you from being what you have become'. In a scientific career, seven years is approximately the time spent at high school, the time taken for a traditional basic scientific training of first degree and doctorate, and the period after the doctorate building the knowledge to become an expert specialist. There seems to be enough anecdotal evidence to support the idea that we should reconsider the universal but un-reflective use of decimal units in planning and evaluation. For instance, seven year fellowships and program grants might replace the current five year versions. A new - and previously unconsidered - field of research beckons. PMID:16524670

  14. Influence of adjustments to amputation and artificial limb on quality of life in patients following lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Richa; van den Heuvel, Wim J A; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the relationship between adjustments to amputation and artificial limb, and quality of life (QoL), and to analyse the influence of sociodemographic, medical and amputation-related factors on this relationship. Patients with unilateral and noncongenital lower limb amputation who were using artificial limb were interviewed (n=368) using structured questionnaires. The Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales (TAPES) were used to assess adjustments to amputation and artificial limb and the MOS Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary of QoL. Absence of comorbidity and residual stump pain, being employed, young age, less functional restriction, being more adjusted to limitation, increased social adjustment and less restriction in athletic activity were related to better PCS scores. Absence of comorbidity and phantom limb pain, nonuse of assistive device, being more adjusted to limitation, increased social adjustment and being less functionally restricted were related to higher MCS scores. Comorbidity had a modifying effect on both PCS and MCS scores. In addition, age, being employed and residual stump pain had a modifying influence on PCS, whereas assistive device use and phantom limb pain had a modifying influence on MCS. Our findings show that TAPES subscales have a modifying effect on the associations between several background (sociodemographic and amputation characteristics) and QoL (PCS and MCS). This indicates that adjustments to amputation and artificial limb are the key determinants of QoL in individuals following lower limb amputation. PMID:24157864

  15. Course of autism signs in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Maestro, S; Muratori, F; Cesari, A; Cavallaro, M C; Paziente, A; Pecini, C; Grassi, C; Manfredi, A; Sommario, C

    2005-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are thought to be present right from birth, even if a minority of children displays a normal course during infancy followed by a regression during the second year of life. However, established criteria are not yet available to differentiate these different courses of ASD, and data coming from different sources have not yet been organized into a clear definition. The aim of this study was to elucidate the time of onset, as well as type, frequency and stability of symptoms during the first year of life in ASD. The behavioral summarized evaluation scale, applied to 40 home movies of children later diagnosed as having ASD, showed that most of the subjects (87.5%) display symptoms within the first year of life, when only a small group (12.5%) is completely symptom free. A group of more rated symptoms was found, constituting a typical pattern characterized by being withdrawn, and displaying poor social initiative, hypoactivity, and lack of emotional modulation. The importance of these findings is discussed in relation to early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:15731570

  16. The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse in Later Family Life; Mental Health, Parenting and Adjustment of Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ron; O'Connor, Tom; Dunn, Judy; Golding, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate links between child sexual abuse (occurring before 13 years), later mental health, family organization, parenting behaviors, and adjustment in offspring. Method: The present study investigates a subsample of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children an ongoing study of women and their families in the area of…

  17. Self-Esteem and Adjusting with Blindness: The Process of Responding to Life's Demands. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Dean W.; Tuttle, Naomi R.

    2004-01-01

    This new and expanded Third Edition analyzes blindness within the context of two overlapping theoretical constructs: the development of self-esteem and the process of adjusting to social and/or physical trauma. The book is divided into four sections. The first section, provides an overview of blindness and the essential background for subsequent…

  18. Helping Freshman Student Athletes Adjust to College Life Using Psychoeducational Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Henry L.; Altekruse, Michael K.; Engels, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the process of using psychoeducational groups designed to help freshman student athletes adjust to their first semester of college. Overall, 77 student athletes representing basketball, cross-country, football, golf, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, and volleyball were equally divided into 11 groups that met for…

  19. How Older Rural Adults Utilize Self-Directed Learning in Late Life Adjustments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing numbers and influence of older adults is causing many segments of western society to re-evaluate the concept of old age. Medical advances and personal lifestyles have resulted in older adults living longer and healthier lives. As one ages, adjustments in work, family, and health must be made. Self-directed learning (SDL) is one way…

  20. Temperament, Stress and Family Factors in Behavioral Adjustment of 3-5-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrios, Michael; Prior, Margot

    1990-01-01

    Temperamental characteristics, especially low reactivity-high manageability, appeared to curtail the influence of adverse family factors on children's adjustment. Strength of relationships between temperament and children's behavioral adjustment differed as a function of time, temperamental characteristics, and the source of behavioral ratings.…

  1. Academic Self-Regulation, Academic Performance, and College Adjustment: What Is the First-Year Experience for College Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Colleen Janette

    2010-01-01

    First-year students experience academic, social, and emotional adjustments as they transition to college. First-year experience courses support students in this transitional phase by helping them integrate into the campus environment and by teaching them college-appropriate learning strategies. This study explored the role that participation in a…

  2. Adult Adjustment of Individuals with Behavioral Disorders. Three vs. One Year Out of School. Iowa Statewide Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.; And Others

    This study investigated the adjustment of randomly selected Iowa students with behavioral disorders in the classes of 1984 and 1985, 1 and 3 years after exiting high school. Ninety-five (86 percent of those selected) individuals from the class of 1984 were interviewed 1 year out of high school; 50 students from this same class were interviewed 3…

  3. 48 CFR 52.222-43 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). 52.222-43 Section 52... Standards Act and Service Contract Act—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts). As prescribed...—Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option Contracts) (SEP 2009) (a) This clause applies to...

  4. The development and adjustment of 7-year-old children adopted in infancy.

    PubMed

    Stams, G J; Juffer, F; Rispens, J; Hoksbergen, R A

    2000-11-01

    The present study (N = 159) provides evidence of an increased risk for behavior problems of infant-placed 7-year-old internationally, transracially adopted children in the Netherlands. However, parents reported more behavior problems for adopted boys than for adopted girls. Notably, about 30% of the adopted children were classified as clinical on the CBCL scale for total problems, which is a much larger percentage than the 10% found in the normative population. It was suggested that these results could be explained by the operation of multiple risk factors before and after adoption placement, e.g. the child's genetic disposition, pre-natal and pre-adoption care, or the child's cognitive understanding of adoption in middle childhood. Also, results suggest that maternal sensitive responsiveness in adoptive families declines in the transition from early to middle childhood. In contrast to the home setting, the adopted children showed favorable behavioral and socioemotional adjustment at school, while their academic achievement and intelligence were in the normal range or above average. In particular Korean children had high IQs: 31% of these children obtained an intelligence score above 120. It was suggested that adoptive parents seem to offer their children sufficient or even more than average cognitive stimulation. Furthermore, adopted girls scored higher in optimal ego-control, social competence, and peer group popularity than nonadopted girls from the general population: 30% of the adopted girls were rated as popular by their classmates, which compares favorably to the 13% found in the general school population. PMID:11099119

  5. Deciphering the Adjustment between Environment and Life History in Annuals: Lessons from a Geographically-Explicit Approach in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-Piedras, Esperanza; Marcer, Arnald; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Picó, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The role that different life-history traits may have in the process of adaptation caused by divergent selection can be assessed by using extensive collections of geographically-explicit populations. This is because adaptive phenotypic variation shifts gradually across space as a result of the geographic patterns of variation in environmental selective pressures. Hence, large-scale experiments are needed to identify relevant adaptive life-history traits as well as their relationships with putative selective agents. We conducted a field experiment with 279 geo-referenced accessions of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana collected across a native region of its distribution range, the Iberian Peninsula. We quantified variation in life-history traits throughout the entire life cycle. We built a geographic information system to generate an environmental data set encompassing climate, vegetation and soil data. We analysed the spatial autocorrelation patterns of environmental variables and life-history traits, as well as the relationship between environmental and phenotypic data. Almost all environmental variables were significantly spatially autocorrelated. By contrast, only two life-history traits, seed weight and flowering time, exhibited significant spatial autocorrelation. Flowering time, and to a lower extent seed weight, were the life-history traits with the highest significant correlation coefficients with environmental factors, in particular with annual mean temperature. In general, individual fitness was higher for accessions with more vigorous seed germination, higher recruitment and later flowering times. Variation in flowering time mediated by temperature appears to be the main life-history trait by which A. thaliana adjusts its life history to the varying Iberian environmental conditions. The use of extensive geographically-explicit data sets obtained from field experiments represents a powerful approach to unravel adaptive patterns of variation. In a

  6. [Health appraisal for work adjustment of freshmen employees--information on health checkup just after entering the corporation and condition in the next fiscal year].

    PubMed

    Sugita, M; Fukui, T; Tatemichi, M; Minowa, H; Ikegami, Y; Miyawaki, Y; Ishizuka, Y; Izuno, T

    1995-03-01

    In 1990, 365 (males: 197, females: 168) freshmen employees at the headquarters of a large corporation were examined just after being hired in order to observe their health status. We collected (1) data of physical examinations and questionnaires for symptoms as an ordinary health checkup, (2) information on work adjustment, life patterns, and personal characteristics through interviews conducted by ten public health nurses, and (3) personal records, e.g. birth year. Statistical analyses revealed some notable findings as follows: (1) subjects with higher blood pressure had higher scores of extrovert personality among males, (2) female subjects with greater body mass index had higher scores in such manifestations of personal characteristics such as aggression and discontent with superiors, (3) higher scores of personal characteristics were noted among female subjects working in technical sections, (4) positive correlation between the scores of work adjustment and personal characteristics, (5) higher scores of undesirable life patterns among males and of work maladjustment among elder females, (6) unbalanced meal quality of subjects from rural areas, (7) higher mental tension among younger males from rural areas, and (8) higher scores of dependency and lower morale among younger female subjects. Information on health problems was collected over the 1.5 yrs that followed. More problems were detected among females than among males and among younger females than among elder females. Longitudinal analysis was carried out from just after entry into the company for approximately 1.5 yrs. Health problems in females could be predicted by the data on personal characteristics and work adjustment just after entry. Risk of health problems in male freshmen employees with hobbies and unhealthy drinking habits over the 1.5 yrs that followed was higher than in others. It was concluded that a health interview for freshmen employees by public health nurses is valuable for health care

  7. Social Daydreaming and Adjustment: An Experience-Sampling Study of Socio-Emotional Adaptation During a Life Transition

    PubMed Central

    Poerio, Giulia L.; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, one’s current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university) using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation. PMID:26834685

  8. Outpatient radiographic exposure in the first five years of life

    SciTech Connect

    Fosarelli, P.D.; DeAngelis, C.

    1987-06-01

    Young children receive a variety of diagnostic radiographs over time. In some cases the exposure to radiation may be unwarranted because the films may yield confusing results, or may also need to be repeated because of poor technical quality. Even when the results are clearly negative, the subsequent treatment may proceed as if the film had been positive because of the child's clinical condition. The cumulative effect of such low-dose radiation on infants and children over time is unknown. The number and types of outpatient radiographs received by a cohort of poor children from a hospital-based continuity clinic during their first 5 years of life were reviewed. Also noted were the reason for obtaining the film, whether it was positive for that reason or another, whether the child had a chronic condition that prompted the use of radiograph, and the child's sex, race, and age when the film was obtained. Of the 218 children, 132 (60.6%) received 349 sets of films in their first 5 years. There was no difference in the number of films by race or sex. Chest and posttrauma bone or joint films accounted for 315 sets of films or 90.3% of the total. Overall, 25.8% of the 267 chest films were positive; this varied by age. Only 15% of the chest films were positive in the first year compared with 29 to 49% in the second through fifth years (p less than 0.001). Cough was the respiratory symptom most reliably associated with a positive chest film, both for the cohort (p less than 0.0001) and for children in the first year of life (p less than 0.01).

  9. Ten‐Year Blood Pressure Trajectories, Cardiovascular Mortality, and Life Years Lost in 2 Extinction Cohorts: the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study and the Zutphen Study

    PubMed Central

    Tielemans, Susanne M. A. J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Menotti, Alessandro; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Soedamah‐Muthu, Sabita S.; Jacobs, David R.; Blackburn, Henry; Kromhout, Daan

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) trajectories derived from measurements repeated over years have low measurement error and may improve cardiovascular disease prediction compared to single, average, and usual BP (single BP adjusted for regression dilution). We characterized 10‐year BP trajectories and examined their association with cardiovascular mortality, all‐cause mortality, and life years lost. Methods and Results Data from 2 prospective and nearly extinct cohorts of middle‐aged men—the Minnesota Business and Professional Men Study (n=261) and the Zutphen Study (n=632)—were used. BP was measured annually during 1947–1957 in Minnesota and 1960–1970 in Zutphen. BP trajectories were identified by latent mixture modeling. Cox proportional hazards and linear regression models examined BP trajectories with cardiovascular mortality, all‐cause mortality, and life years lost. Associations were adjusted for age, serum cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes mellitus. Mean initial age was about 50 years in both cohorts. After 10 years of BP measurements, men were followed until death on average 20 years later. All Minnesota men and 98% of Zutphen men died. Four BP trajectories were identified, in which mean systolic BP increased by 5 to 49 mm Hg in Minnesota and 5 to 20 mm Hg in Zutphen between age 50 and 60. The third systolic BP trajectories were associated with 2 to 4 times higher cardiovascular mortality risk, 2 times higher all‐cause mortality risk, and 4 to 8 life years lost, compared to the first trajectory. Conclusions Ten‐year BP trajectories were the strongest predictors, among different BP measures, of cardiovascular mortality, all‐cause mortality, and life years lost in Minnesota. However, average BP was the strongest predictor in Zutphen. PMID:25753924

  10. Adolescent adjustment in the context of life change: the supportive role of parental structure provision.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Elizabeth S; Grolnick, Wendy S

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the associations among disruptive life events, supportive parenting practices, adolescent self-perceptions, and emotional outcomes. One-hundred and three 7th graders (68% minority, 32% European American) and their parents completed recent negative life events checklists. Parents also reported the total number of major transitions (changes in residences, schools, parent's romantic partners) that adolescents experienced since birth. Life events were related to lower adolescent-reported perceptions of competence and control, higher adolescent-reported depression and behavior problems, and higher parent-reported conduct problems. Regression analyses supported a mediational model in which competence and control perceptions explained relations between adolescent life events and symptomatology. Parental structure-the provision of clear, consistent and predictable rules and expectations-was associated with more adaptive adolescent functioning, especially among girls. Regressions indicated that structure related to higher perceptions of competence and control and fewer behavioral problems, even after accounting for the risk associated with negative life events and transitions. PMID:24011106

  11. Kibbutz Ex-members and their Adjustment to Life outside the Kibbutz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; Orchan, Elliette

    1982-01-01

    Concern exists that youth leaving the kibbutz have no occupation skills needed to secure work in the outside world. In a survey, two opposing hypotheses were examined: (1) kibbutz-born persons will be unable to adapt to outside life because of educational limitations; and (2) because of their education, kibbutz-born persons will display…

  12. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  13. Depression and the Family Life Cycle: Adjusting the System at Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shean, Glenn

    This document uses family systems constructs to explain the onset and maintenance of clinical symptoms such as depression and their relation to life cycle issues among the elderly. The basic assumptions of family systems thinking about structure and function are summarized. Figures and tables are used to illustrate changing family circumstances…

  14. Older people's views on what they need to successfully adjust to life with a hearing aid

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Timothy B; Tolson, Debbie; Day, Tracy; McColgan, Gillian; Kroll, Thilo; Maclaren, William

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a study exploring what older people believe would enable them to adjust to and gain maximum benefit from wearing a hearing aid. A mixed methods approach was employed during 2006 involving interviews with key stakeholders, a survey across three Scottish health board areas and focus groups. Nine key stakeholders from six national and local organisations were interviewed about the needs of older people being fitted with hearing aids. In total, 240 older people belonging to three different types of hearing impaired older people were surveyed: long-term users of hearing aids, new hearing aid users, and those on a waiting list from urban and rural areas (response rate = 24%). A series of eight follow-up focus groups with 31 audiology patients was held. Health professionals appeared to neglect appropriate provision of information and overly rely on technological interventions. Of 154 older people already fitted with hearing aids, only 52% of hearing aid users reported receiving enough practical help post fitting and only 41% reported receiving enough support. Approximately 40% reported not feeling confident in the use of their aids or their controls. Older people wanted more information than they received both before and after hearing aid fitting. Information provision and attention to the psychosocial aspects of care are key to enabling older people to adjust and optimise hearing aid benefit. PMID:23373520

  15. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    PubMed Central

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37–43 years of age (mean 40.3 years, SD 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had experienced moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) in the first year of life (n=77) with healthy controls, who were former classmates of the index cases and were matched for age, sex and handedness in childhood (n=57). The previously malnourished participants had been rehabilitated, with good health and nutrition documented to 12 years of age, and study participants were followed longitudinally from childhood to 40 y. Group comparisons were adjusted for childhood and adolescent standard of living, with and without correcting for IQ. Results At the broad domain or factor level, previously malnourished participants had higher scores on Neuroticism and lower scores on Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness than did the healthy controls At the sub-domain or facet level, previously malnourished participants reported more anxiety, vulnerability, shyness and lowered sociability, less intellectual curiosity, greater suspiciousness of others, a more egocentric than altruistic orientation, and a lowered sense of efficacy or competence. Conclusions Malnutrition limited to the first year of life with good health and nutrition documented to 12 years of age, is associated with a significant overrepresentation of adult personality trait scores outside of the average range. This outcome has important implications for a variety of important life and mental health outcomes. PMID:23488644

  16. Trajectories of Behavioral Adjustment Following Early Placement in Foster Care: Predicting Stability and Change over 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Laura J.; Skriner, Laura C.; Roesch, Scott; Litrownik, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify trajectories of behavioral adjustment from age 6 through 14 years for youth placed in early foster care, and to examine links between trajectories and early cognitive ability and social competence, caregiver stability, and frequency, timing, and type of maltreatment. Method: Participants were 279 youth from the Southwest…

  17. 76 FR 5811 - Adjusted Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP) Rate for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...This notice provides the adjusted Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP) rate for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11) as required under Section 5001 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). Section 5001 of the ARRA provides for temporary increases in the FMAP rates to provide fiscal relief to states and to protect and maintain state Medicaid and certain......

  18. Treatment of Adjustment Disorder with Anxiety: A September 11, 2001, Case Study with a 1-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Shawn; McCone, Dave

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of a 20-year-old White male manifesting an adjustment disorder with anxiety, who initially presented on September 11, 2001, following the terrorist attacks. The initial treatment regime lasted 8 weeks. In addition, follow-up sessions at 6, 11, and 12 months…

  19. An Institutional Approach to First-Year Adjustment: The "Projeto FEUP" Case Study of a Portuguese University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouraz, Ana; Sousa, Armando

    2016-01-01

    This article intends to debate the institutional modes of first-year adjustment to higher education. Specifically, the aim is to analyze and consider the need to include social and academic integration activities in the curricular programs. The presented contributions are based on the investigations over the case study course that was studied…

  20. Attitudes about Help-Seeking Mediate the Relation between Parent Attachment and Academic Adjustment in First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have documented an association between parent attachment and college student adjustment, less is known about the mechanisms that underlie this relation. Accordingly, this short-term longitudinal study examined first-year college students' attitudes about academic help-seeking as one possible mechanism. As predicted,…

  1. Prediction of Delinquency, Adjustment, and Academic Achievement Over a Five Year Period with the Kvaraceus Delinquency Proneness Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benning, James J.; And Others

    The Kvaraceus Delinquency Proneness Scale (KD Scale) was developed as an instrument designed to aid in prediction of future juvenile delinquents. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the predictive validity of the instrument over a 5-year period. Indexes of delinquency adjustment and academic achievement served as the validational…

  2. Native American Racial Identity Development and College Adjustment at Two-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joshua C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a series of simultaneous multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between racial identity development and college adjustment for a sample of 76 Choctaw community college students in the South. Results indicated that 3 of the 4 racial identity statuses (dissonance, immersion-emersion, and…

  3. Typologies of Family Functioning and Children's Adjustment during the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Guided by family systems theory, the present study sought to identify patterns of family functioning from observational assessments of interparental, parent-child, and triadic contexts. In addition, it charted the implications for patterns of family functioning for children's developmental trajectories of adjustment in the school context across…

  4. Social Network Characteristics and College Adjustment among Racially and Ethnically Diverse First-Year Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Stryker, Sonia

    1996-01-01

    Examined social network characteristics of 218 college freshmen. Subjects were of European American descent or of ethnically and racially diverse backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, Native American and Asian American). The study associated social adjustment with family support characteristics for the racially and ethnically diverse students…

  5. Masculinity, Femininity, and Psychosocial Adjustment in Medical Students: Two-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldow, Peter B.; And Others

    Although research on masculinity and femininity has increased over the past decade, longitudinal studies addressing predictive elements are lacking. The Rush Medical College Longitudinal Study examines the correlation between masculinity and femininity on the one hand and adjustment, interpersonal functioning, and impairment on the other. During…

  6. [First year of life. Human milk and human milk substitutes].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M

    2016-09-01

    The nutritional improvement of mothers and their children is one of the most cost-effective tools to achieve optimal human growth and development. The World Health Organization recommends offering «exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, and then begin the introduction of safe and nutritious food while breastfeeding continues until the second year of life.» Since the second half of the 20th century to date extraordinary progress in the manufacturing and formulation of substitutes for human milk has been accomplished, these being partial or complete substitutes for human milk, whether or not suitable for this purpose. Whole (cow´s) milk is not an adequate substitute for human milk during the first six months of life because of its great nutritional disparity and excess solutes with potential deleterious effects in infants. Therefore, it is an ethical responsibility of health professional to educate and advise parents and caregivers on the proper and timely use of human milk substitutes available in our country. PMID:27603882

  7. The Health Education for Lupus Patients Study: A Randomized Controlled Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Adjustment and Quality of Life in Adolescent Females with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald T.; Shaftman, Stephanie R.; Tilley, Barbara C.; Anthony, Kelly K.; Kral, Mary C.; Maxson, Bonnie; Mee, Laura; Bonner, Melanie J.; Vogler, Larry B.; Schanberg, Laura E.; Connelly, Mark A.; Wagner, Janelle L.; Silver, Richard M.; Nietert, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Examine in a randomize controlled feasibility clinical trial the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to manage pain, enhance disease adjustment and adaptation, and improve quality of life among female adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Female adolescents (N = 53) ranging in age from 12 to 18 years were randomized to one of three groups including a cognitive-behavioral intervention, an education-only arm, and a no-contact control group. Participants were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at three-and six-month intervals following completion of the intervention. Results No significant differences were revealed among the three treatment arms for any of the dependent measures at any of the assessment points. For the mediator variables, a post-hoc secondary analysis did reveal increases in coping skills from baseline to post-intervention among the participants in the cognitive-behavioral intervention group compared to both the no-contact control group and the education-only group. Conclusion Although no differences were detected in the primary outcome, a possible effect on female SLE adolescent coping was detected in this feasibility study. Whether the impact of training in the area of coping was of sufficient magnitude to generalize to other areas of functioning, such as adjustment and adaptation, is unclear. Future Phase III randomized trials will be needed to assess additional coping models, and to evaluate the dose of training and its influence on pain management, adjustment, and health-related quality of life. PMID:22996139

  8. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years

    PubMed Central

    Dratva, Julia; Zemp, Elisabeth; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Accordini, Simone; Burdet, Luc; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Janson, Christer; Jarvis, Deborah; de Marco, Roberto; Norbäck, Dan; Pons, Marco; Real, Francisco Gómez; Sunyer, Jordi; Villani, Simona; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Svanes, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied. Methods Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9–11 years) and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28–73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705) and ECRHS (n = 7157). The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1) decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression. Results Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80]), of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49]) of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]). Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18]), and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]). High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age. Conclusion Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further. PMID:26811913

  9. Prenatal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure and child growth during the first year of life

    SciTech Connect

    Garced, Sheyla; Torres-Sanchez, Luisa; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Claudio, Luz; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2012-02-15

    Background: Due to its long-term persistence in the environment and its ability to cross the placental barrier, prenatal p,p Prime -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) exposure continues to be a public health concern. This study aimed to evaluate the association between prenatal DDE exposure and child growth, at birth and during the first year of life. Methods: 253 pregnant women were recruited between January 2001 and June 2005 in a prospective cohort in Morelos, Mexico. Serum levels of DDE were measured during each trimester of pregnancy by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Using the generalized mixed-effects models, the association between DDE and child growth parameters (weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length, BMI-for-age and head circumference-for-age Z-scores) from birth to 1 year of age was assessed. Maternal dietary intake was considered as covariable among others. Results: DDE levels were 6.3{+-}2.8 ng/mL (first trimester), 6.6{+-}2.9 ng/mL (second trimester), and 7.6{+-}2.9 ng/mL (third trimester). After adjusting for potential confounder variables, no significant associations were observed with prenatal DDE exposure and each of the selected parameters. Conclusions: Our results show no evidence of an association between prenatal DDE exposure and child growth during the first year of life.

  10. Self-Reported Hearing in the Last Two Years of Life Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexander K.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Miao, Yinghui; Boscardin, W. John; Wallhagen, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic data on the prevalence of hearing loss near death is lacking. Objectives To assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported hearing loss during the last two years of life. Design Observational cohort study. Setting The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a longitudinal nationally representative cohort of adults age >50 (2000 to 2013). Participants Older adults Measurements The HRS interview closest to death was used (mean 12.2 months prior to death). Participants rated their hearing (excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor), and if they used hearing aids. We describe the prevalence and correlates of fair/poor ratings adjusted for age and gender. Results Of 5,895 participants (mean age at death 78 years, 53% women, 20% non-white), overall, 32% rated their hearing as fair/poor (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 31–34%), but 60% (95% CI 57–64%) of the 7% of participants that used hearing aids rated hearing as fair/poor. The prevalence of fair/poor hearing was highest among participants interviewed closest to death (29% 19–24 months prior to death, 36% 1–6 months prior to death, p for trend = 0.01). Correlates of fair/poor hearing during the last two years of life included: age at death (age 50–59 22%, 60–69 21%, 70–79 26%, 80–89 38%, ≥90 50%), gender (men 35%, women 30%), ethnicity (Latino 42%, white 33%), wealth (lowest quartile 38%, highest quartile 27%), history of heart disease (yes 38%, no 27%), dependence in activities of daily living (yes 42%, no 26%), difficulty taking medications (yes 46%, no 29%), and probable dementia (yes 44%, no cognitive impairment 24%). Conclusion Self-reported hearing loss increases during the last two years of life and is associated with physical and social vulnerability. PMID:27341383

  11. 45 CFR 158.231 - Life-years used to determine credible experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for the 2013 MLR reporting year only. (e) For the 2014 MLR reporting year for the student market only— (1) If an issuer's experience for the 2014 MLR reporting year is fully credible, the life-years used to determine credibility are the life-years for the 2014 MLR reporting year only; (2) If an...

  12. SP-100 operational life model. Fiscal Year 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Ewell, R.; Awaya, H.

    1990-12-14

    This report covers the initial year`s effort in the development of an Operational Life Model (OLM) for the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System. The initial step undertaken in developing the OLM was to review all available documentation from GE on their plans for the OLM and on the degradation and failure mechanisms envisioned for the SP-100. In addition, the DEGRA code developed at JPL, which modelled the degradation of the General Purpose Heat Source based Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG), was reviewed. Based on the review of the degradation and failure mechanisms, a list of the most pertinent degradation effects along with their key degradation mechanisms was compiled. This was done as a way of separating the mechanisms from the effects and allowing all of the effects to be incorporated into the OLM. The emphasis was on parameters which will tend to change performance as a function of time and not on those that are simply failures without any prior degradation.

  13. At Stake: 500,000,000 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asimov, Isaac

    1972-01-01

    Traces the history of life on earth from the Cambrian period to present. Stresses the importance of inter-dependence of individual and species and the dependence of life upon non-life. Discusses the speed at which man has altered nature's balance and the question of how an ecological balance is to be maintained. (LK)

  14. A Year in the Life of International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The past twelve months (October 2005 to September 2006) have been among the busiest in the life of the International Space Station (ISS), both in terms of on-orbit operations as well as future planning, for both ISS systems and research. The Expedition 12 and 13 crews completed their missions successfully, carrying out research for Russia, the United States, Europe and Japan, and bringing continuous ISS occupancy to nearly six years. The European Space Agency's (ESA) first Long Duration Mission on ISS is underway, involving significant international research. The Expedition 14 crew completed its training and is embarking on its own 6-month mission with a full slate of international research. Future crews are in training for their respective assembly and research missions. Shuttle flights resumed after a 10-month hiatus, delivering new research facilities and resuming assembly of ISS. ESA's Columbus research module was delivered to the Kennedy Space Center, joining Japan's Kibo research module already there. Following preflight testing, the two modules will launch in 2007 and 2008, respectively, joining Destiny as ISS's research infrastructure. A revised ISS configuration and assembly sequence were endorsed by all the Partners, with a reduced number of Shuttle flights, but for the first time including plans for post-Shuttle ISS operations after 2010. The new plan will pose significant challenges to the ISS research community. As Europe and Japan build their on-orbit research infrastructure, and long-term plans become firmer, the next 12 months should prove to be equally challenging and exciting.

  15. Prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Stecksén-Blicks, C; Granström, E; Silfverdal, S A; West, C E

    2015-09-01

    Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by primary microbial exposure and bioactive factors in breastmilk. The aim was to explore the prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life in relation to selected exposures. Oral Candida was studied in 100 healthy infants at 4 and 8 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months of age and related to delivery mode, birth weight, infant health and feeding, antibiotics, antimycotics, steroids and probiotics in mother and infant, living conditions, maternal smoking and infections The association between lactoferrin and antisecretory factor in breastmilk and maternal serum haemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin levels in relation to oral Candida was also explored. About 11% to 15% of the infants had oral Candida at the respective age. Colonisation was fairly stable until 6 months of age. There was no conclusive impact of the investigated exposures at entry. Infants with a furry pet at home had a lower frequency of Candida at 3 months, (P < 0.05) whereas all but one colonised infant had older siblings at 12 months (P < 0.01). Lactoferrin in breastmilk was negatively associated with colonisation at 6 months of age. It is concluded that 11 to 15% had oral Candida. Exposure to furry pets and siblings impacted oral Candida. PMID:26214300

  16. Mixed Feelings about the Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Consequence of Adjusting To Health Related Quality Of Life

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lee Lan; Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore patients’ reactions to the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and their health related quality of life. We adopted a qualitative exploratory study design using a thematic analysis. Twelve patients with T2DM for more than a 2-year duration were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Both purposive and theoretical samplings were used for data collection. The in-depth interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim, followed by line-by-line coding and constant comparison to identify the themes. Data management was facilitated using Nvivo 10. Patients shared their mixed feelings about the diagnosis of T2DM. Six domains of quality of life emerged from these interviews, namely physical and social functioning, work function and social obligations, dietary freedom and conforming to treatment standard. Diabetes management needs to take these themes and patients’ feelings associated with their quality of life into consideration. PMID:24851592

  17. Comprehensive Assessment of Quality of Life and Psychosocial Adjustment in Patients with Renal Tumors Undergoing Open, Laparoscopic, and Nephron-Sparing Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Patricia A.; Swartz, Richard; Fellman, Bryan; Urbauer, Diana; Li, Yisheng; Pisters, Louis L.; Rosser, Charles J.; Wood, Christopher G.; Matin, Surena F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We prospectively evaluated the general and cancer-specific quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial adjustment of patients with a renal mass who underwent radical versus partial nephrectomy performed by laparoscopic or open approaches. Materials and Methods 172 patients with renal tumors completed questionnaires before surgery and again at 3 weeks, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months post-surgery. We assessed general QOL (SF-36), cancer-specific-QOL (CARES-SF), intrusive thoughts and avoidance behaviors, and fear of recurrence. We used mixed model regression analyses to compare these measures across surgery types over the course of the study and adjusted for tumor size, histology, stage and renal function. Results The physical component score of the SF-36 different significantly by surgery type over time (p = 0.04). Patients who had laparoscopy improved by month 2 whereas those who had open surgery had poorer QOL until month 3. Better cancer-specific QOL was reported in patients undergoing radical versus partial nephrectomy. Age also had significant effects on outcomes. Conclusions We report on one of the most comprehensive patient-reported prospective QOL studies in RCC patients. There were significant differences in QOL and psychosocial adjustment outcomes over the course of one year among patients who had one of four commonly accepted surgical renal procedures, and we show that these outcomes must be evaluated in the context of tumor characteristics, cancer-specific outcomes and renal function. These QOL issues may be important to consider when choosing surgical procedures for patients with renal tumors. PMID:22245327

  18. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  19. 20 CFR 418.1235 - When will we stop using your more recent tax year's modified adjusted gross income to determine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will we stop using your more recent tax... Part B Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount Determinations Using A More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted Gross Income § 418.1235 When will we stop using your more recent tax year's modified...

  20. Heavy Pot Use in Teen Years Linked to Shortened Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shortened Life But Swedish study couldn't prove marijuana caused premature deaths To use the sharing features ... as long as those who did not use marijuana when they were young, a new study suggests. ...

  1. 1-year prospective real life monitoring of asthma control and quality of life in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed at prospectively evaluating the evolution of asthma control in Italy, to evaluate the reasons for lack of asthma control, perceived quality of life (QoL) and association with level of asthma control, the impact of pharmacological treatment, the number of exacerbations and the healthcare resource consumption. Methods PRISMA (PRospectIve Study on asthMA control) was an observational study performed in asthmatic patients including a cross-sectional phase and a 12-month prospective phase. Asthma control was assessed with the Asthma Control Test™ (ACT) and QoL was evaluated with EuroQoL-5D questionnaire filled in and collected during 5 clinic visits together with all the other data. Results The prospective phase included 1017 patients with uncontrolled (55.7%) or partly controlled asthma (44.3%). Out of the 739 patients evaluable after 12 months, 22.2% achieved full asthma control (ACT score = 25) and 58.7% reached a good control (ACT score: 20–24). The improvement in asthma control was associated with improved QoL and reduced hospital visits. The main reasons for lack of asthma control were comorbidities, continued exposure to irritants/triggers and poor adherence to therapy. The frequency of exacerbations was lower in patients with controlled asthma. A fixed combination therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 agonist was reported by 77.0% of patients. A better asthma control and improved QoL were achieved with extrafine beclomethasone/formoterol compared to either budesonide/formoterol or fluticasone/salmeterol. Conclusions An improvement in asthma control and QoL can be achieved during a 1-year monitoring in a real life setting. Extrafine beclomethasone/formoterol was associated with significant benefit in terms of asthma control and QoL compared to large-particles combinations. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01110460. PMID:23216798

  2. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers. PMID:26027850

  3. 76 FR 4614 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms Program Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... $10.3 million, average employment was 73, and average productivity was $140,977 (sales per employee... percent, average employment decreased by 10 percent, and average productivity increased by 11 percent. The..., average employment decreased 12 percent and average productivity increased by 4 percent. Two years...

  4. Different Host Exploitation Strategies in Two Zebra Mussel-Trematode Systems: Adjustments of Host Life History Traits

    PubMed Central

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Buronfosse, Thierry; Giambérini, Laure

    2012-01-01

    The zebra mussel is the intermediate host for two digenean trematodes, Phyllodistomum folium and Bucephalus polymorphus, infecting gills and the gonad respectively. Many gray areas exist relating to the host physiological disturbances associated with these infections, and the strategies used by these parasites to exploit their host without killing it. The aim of this study was to examine the host exploitation strategies of these trematodes and the associated host physiological disturbances. We hypothesized that these two parasite species, by infecting two different organs (gills or gonads), do not induce the same physiological changes. Four cellular responses (lysosomal and peroxisomal defence systems, lipidic peroxidation and lipidic reserves) in the host digestive gland were studied by histochemistry and stereology, as well as the energetic reserves available in gonads. Moreover, two indices were calculated related to the reproductive status and the physiological condition of the organisms. Both parasites induced adjustments of zebra mussel life history traits. The host-exploitation strategy adopted by P. folium would occur during a short-term period due to gill deformation, and could be defined as “virulent.” Moreover, this parasite had significant host gender-dependent effects: infected males displayed a slowed-down metabolism and energetic reserves more allocated to growth, whereas females displayed better defences and would allocate more energy to reproduction and maintenance. In contrast, B. polymorphus would be a more “prudent” parasite, exploiting its host during a long-term period through the consumption of reserves allocated to reproduction. PMID:22448287

  5. Different host exploitation strategies in two zebra mussel-trematode systems: adjustments of host life history traits.

    PubMed

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Buronfosse, Thierry; Giambérini, Laure

    2012-01-01

    The zebra mussel is the intermediate host for two digenean trematodes, Phyllodistomum folium and Bucephalus polymorphus, infecting gills and the gonad respectively. Many gray areas exist relating to the host physiological disturbances associated with these infections, and the strategies used by these parasites to exploit their host without killing it. The aim of this study was to examine the host exploitation strategies of these trematodes and the associated host physiological disturbances. We hypothesized that these two parasite species, by infecting two different organs (gills or gonads), do not induce the same physiological changes. Four cellular responses (lysosomal and peroxisomal defence systems, lipidic peroxidation and lipidic reserves) in the host digestive gland were studied by histochemistry and stereology, as well as the energetic reserves available in gonads. Moreover, two indices were calculated related to the reproductive status and the physiological condition of the organisms. Both parasites induced adjustments of zebra mussel life history traits. The host-exploitation strategy adopted by P. folium would occur during a short-term period due to gill deformation, and could be defined as "virulent." Moreover, this parasite had significant host gender-dependent effects: infected males displayed a slowed-down metabolism and energetic reserves more allocated to growth, whereas females displayed better defences and would allocate more energy to reproduction and maintenance. In contrast, B. polymorphus would be a more "prudent" parasite, exploiting its host during a long-term period through the consumption of reserves allocated to reproduction. PMID:22448287

  6. Alcohol-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost--11 States, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Katherine; Roeber, Jim; Kanny, Dafna; Tran, Annie; Saiki, Cathy; Johnson, Hal; Yeoman, Kristin; Safranek, Tom; Creppage, Kathleen; Lepp, Alicia; Miller, Tracy; Tarkhashvili, Nato; Lynch, Kristine E; Watson, Joanna R; Henderson, Danielle; Christenson, Megan; Geiger, Sarah Dee

    2014-03-14

    Excessive alcohol consumption, the fourth leading preventable cause of death in the United States, resulted in approximately 88,000 deaths and 2.5 million years of potential life lost (YPLL) annually during 2006-2010 and cost an estimated $223.5 billion in 2006. To estimate state-specific average annual rates of alcohol-attributable deaths (AAD) and YPLL caused by excessive alcohol use, 11 states analyzed 2006-2010 data (the most recent data available) using the CDC Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) application. The age-adjusted median AAD rate was 28.5 per 100,000 population (range = 50.9 per 100,000 in New Mexico to 22.4 per 100,000 in Utah). The median YPLL rate was 823 per 100,000 (range = 1,534 YPLL per 100,000 for New Mexico to 634 per 100,000 in Utah). The majority of AAD (median = 70%) and YPLL (median = 82%) were among working-age (20-64 years) adults. Routine monitoring of alcohol-attributable health outcomes, including deaths and YPLL, in states could support the planning and implementation of evidence-based prevention strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force to reduce excessive drinking and related harms. Such strategies include increasing the price of alcohol, limiting alcohol outlet density, and holding alcohol retailers liable for harms related to the sale of alcoholic beverages to minors and intoxicated patrons (dram shop liability). PMID:24622285

  7. Control of Emotional Expressivity in the First Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendersky, Margaret; And Others

    Evidence suggests that the neurological substrate of emotional behavior is lateralized by brain hemisphere early in life. A study examined the emotional expressions of preterm infants, some of whom had unilateral periventrical echodensities (PVE), as a model for addressing this issue. The study population of 25 preterm infants was videotaped at 3…

  8. Bringing Language to Life in Second-Year Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Debra Dimon

    2009-01-01

    Concerned that her students "knew" Spanish but could not use it in real life situations, the author created new learning goals, new learning activities, and new assessment activities. As a graduate student at the University of Illinois, the author was introduced to "Creating Significant Learning Experiences" (Fink, 2003) while studying with Steven…

  9. Life testing of the ABI cryocooler: Two years complete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Perry G.; Swanson, Kirsten S.

    2012-04-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is a prime payload for the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Spacecraft) series of meteorological satellites. Focal plane temperature control is provided by a two-stage cryocooler based on the NGAS HEC (Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems High Efficiency Cryocooler) design. To demonstrate the long-term operation of this cooler, a dedicated life test is being performed. The life test cooler is close to the flight design, differing only in minor details of the cold head structure. The test concept simulates continuous operation the cooler at flight like conditions. Long term testing started on 12 June 2009, and has continued to this date. Test performance and anomalies are discussed.

  10. Prognostics and Life Beyond 60 Years for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Tawfik, Magdy; Lybeck, Nancy

    2011-09-23

    Safe, secure, reliable and sustainable energy supply is vital for advanced and industrialized life styles. To meet growing energy demand there is interest in longer term operation (LTO) for the existing nuclear power plant fleet and enhancing capabilities in new build. There is increasing use of condition based maintenance (CBM) for active components and growing interest in deploying on-line monitoring instead of periodic in service inspection (ISI) for passive systems. Opportunities exist to move beyond monitoring and diagnosis based on pattern recognition and anomaly detection to prognostics with the ability to provide an estimate of remaining useful life (RUL). The adoption of digital I&C systems provides a framework within which added functionality including on-line monitoring can be deployed, and used to maintain and even potentially enhance safety, while at the same time improving planning and reducing both operations and maintenance costs.

  11. Altered corpus callosum morphology associated with autism over the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jason J; Gerig, Guido; Lewis, John D; Soda, Takahiro; Styner, Martin A; Vachet, Clement; Botteron, Kelly N; Elison, Jed T; Dager, Stephen R; Estes, Annette M; Hazlett, Heather C; Schultz, Robert T; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Numerous brain imaging studies indicate that the corpus callosum is smaller in older children and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, there are no published studies examining the morphological development of this connective pathway in infants at-risk for the disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 270 infants at high familial risk for autism spectrum disorder and 108 low-risk controls at 6, 12 and 24 months of age, with 83% of infants contributing two or more data points. Fifty-seven children met criteria for ASD based on clinical-best estimate diagnosis at age 2 years. Corpora callosa were measured for area, length and thickness by automated segmentation. We found significantly increased corpus callosum area and thickness in children with autism spectrum disorder starting at 6 months of age. These differences were particularly robust in the anterior corpus callosum at the 6 and 12 month time points. Regression analysis indicated that radial diffusivity in this region, measured by diffusion tensor imaging, inversely predicted thickness. Measures of area and thickness in the first year of life were correlated with repetitive behaviours at age 2 years. In contrast to work from older children and adults, our findings suggest that the corpus callosum may be larger in infants who go on to develop autism spectrum disorder. This result was apparent with or without adjustment for total brain volume. Although we did not see a significant interaction between group and age, cross-sectional data indicated that area and thickness differences diminish by age 2 years. Regression data incorporating diffusion tensor imaging suggest that microstructural properties of callosal white matter, which includes myelination and axon composition, may explain group differences in morphology. PMID:25937563

  12. Stability and Change in Parental Attachment and Adjustment Outcomes during the First Semester Transition to College Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiester, Marnie; Nordstrom, Alicia; Swenson, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental attachment, changes in parental attachment, and psychological functioning and adjustment for college freshmen. Twice during the first semester, 271 freshmen completed self-report measures of parental attachment, psychological distress, self-competence, and college adjustment. Higher attachment…

  13. Identification Of Four Unique Spending Patterns Among Older Adults In The Last Year Of Life Challenges Standard Assumptions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew Allen; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Banerjee, Mousumi; Bynum, Julie P W

    2016-07-01

    The assumption that health care spending skyrockets at the end of life might suggest that policy makers should target the last few months of life to control costs. However, spending patterns leading up to death have not been fully examined. We applied a new methodology to administrative claims data for older Medicare beneficiaries who died in 2012 to characterize trajectories of health care spending in the last year of life. After adjustment, we identified four unique spending trajectories among decedents: 48.7 percent had high persistent spending, 29.0 percent had moderate persistent spending, 10.2 percent had progressive spending, and 12.1 percent had late rise spending. High spending throughout the full year before death (approximately half of all decedents) was associated with having multiple chronic conditions but not any specific diseases. These findings suggest that spending at the end of life is a marker of general spending patterns often set in motion long before death. PMID:27307350

  14. A Year in the Life of an Infrared Echo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A One Year Apart

    These Spitzer Space Telescope images, taken one year apart, show the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (yellow ball) and surrounding clouds of dust (reddish orange). The pictures illustrate that a blast of light from Cassiopeia A is waltzing outward through the dusty skies. This dance, called an 'infrared echo,' began when the remnant erupted about 50 years ago.

    Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion 325 years ago. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died. This remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the northern constellation Cassiopeia.

    Infrared echoes are created when a star explodes or erupts, flashing light into surrounding clumps of dust. As the light zips through the dust clumps, it heats them up, causing them to glow successively in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light. Echoes are distinct from supernova shockwaves, which are made up material that is swept up and hurled outward by exploding stars.

    This infrared echo is the largest ever seen, stretching more than 50 light-years away from Cassiopeia A. If viewed from Earth, the entire movie frame would take up the same amount of space as two full moons.

    Hints of an older infrared echo from Cassiopeia A's supernova explosion hundreds of years ago can also be seen.

    The top Spitzer image was taken on November 30, 2003, and the bottom, on December 2, 2004.

  15. 45 CFR 158.231 - Life-years used to determine credible experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life-years used to determine credible experience. 158.231 Section 158.231 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING... and Providing the Rebate § 158.231 Life-years used to determine credible experience. (a) The...

  16. 45 CFR 158.231 - Life-years used to determine credible experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life-years used to determine credible experience. 158.231 Section 158.231 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING... and Providing the Rebate § 158.231 Life-years used to determine credible experience. (a) The...

  17. The Best Years of Life: A Study of Older Hong Kong Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jik-Joen

    2011-01-01

    This study examines elderly respondents' self-reported best years of life and the reasons to support their choices. A total of 842 Chinese people aged 60 and over participated in this cross-sectional study, giving an overall response rate of 91%. This study used information from an index entitled "The Best Years of Life", which was developed in…

  18. Development of sleep spindles in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J R

    1996-07-01

    Spindles develop in a man at 6 weeks conceptional age, at first at a low amplitude, gradually increasing in amplitude but especially in duration to a maximum at 13 weeks (mean, 6 sec; longest, 21 sec), rapidly decreasing in duration with age to 23 weeks (mean, 2.5 sec) and then slowly decreasing to the end of the first year (mean, 1.5 sec). The pause between the spindles is usually inversely related to the spindle duration and stabilizes after 23 weeks at 7 sec. The complex of spindle and pause is the longest at 10 weeks (12.5 sec), decreasing with age and stabilizing at 17 weeks at 8.1 sec. Thus, from 17 weeks until the end of the first year, spindles tend to recur every 8-9 sec, although variability is evident, especially in the duration of the pause. Synchronous spindles develop from a low value of 10% to around a 30% value until the end of the year, and asynchronous ones tend to have the same value (30%) for most of the year, except in the youngest patients. The reticular nucleus of the thalamus is known to be the generator of spindles and an increase in some size may be related to the great increase in duration, peaking at 13 weeks, and an increase in the development of the dendritic tree of this nucleus may be related to the many changes that stabilize at 23 weeks of age. PMID:8828973

  19. Two Years in the Life of a Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    Key features of the College of Education at the University of Saskatchewan in 1976 and actions that were taken in light of these features over the subsequent two-year period are considered by the College's dean, who began the appointment in 1976. Three major objectives established by the dean were to: increase the institution's productivity in all…

  20. An opportune life: 50 years in human cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    This article is one person's view of human cytogenetics over the past 50 years. The flowering of human cytogenetics led the way to the establishment of clinical genetics as one of the most important developments in medicine in the twentieth century. The article is written from the viewpoint of a scientist who never tired of analyzing the images of dividing cells on the light microscope and interpreting the wealth of information contained in them. PMID:25184528

  1. Iowa Statewide Follow-Up Study. Changes in the Adult Adjustment of Graduates with Mental Disabilities, One vs. Three Years Out of School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.; And Others

    This study investigated the adult adjustment of students with mental disabilities in high-school graduating classes of 1984 and 1985, 1 and 3 years after they exited high school. Two hundred sixty students from the class of 1984 were interviewed 1 year out of high school; 166 from this same class were interviewed 3 years out of school. Three…

  2. Population-based trends in systemic therapy use and cost for cancer patients in the last year of life

    PubMed Central

    Pataky, R.E.; Cheung, W.Y.; de Oliveira, C.; Bremner, K.E.; Chan, K.K.W.; Hoch, J.S.; Krahn, M.D.; Peacock, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of systemic therapy near the end of life can expose cancer patients to severe toxicity for minimal survival gain and comes with a high cost. Early palliative care is recommended, but there is evidence that aggressive care remains common. To better understand those patterns, the present study set out to describe trends in systemic therapy use and cost for cancer patients in the last year of life. Methods Using the BC Cancer Registry, a retrospective population-based cohort of cancer decedents (2002–2007) was identified and linked to systemic therapy records. The outcomes of interest were any systemic therapy use and total systemic therapy costs during the last year of life. Multiple logistic regression (systemic therapy use) and generalized linear regression (costs) were conducted, adjusting for age, sex, and survival. Subgroup analyses were performed for patients with primary colorectal, lung, prostate, or breast cancer. Results From 2002 to 2007, use of systemic therapy in the last 12–4 months of life increased by 21% (95% ci: 10% to 33%); no significant change in use in the last 3 months of life was observed. Costs for both periods increased over time, by 48% (95% ci: 36% to 63%) and by 33% (95% ci: 19% to 49%) respectively. The trends varied across cancer sites, with the greatest increases being observed for lung and colorectal cancer patients. Conclusions The use and costs of systemic therapy have generally been increasing, putting pressure on health care providers and payers, but the quality-of-life implications for patients must be better understood. PMID:26985144

  3. Factor structure of temperament in the third year of life.

    PubMed

    Bagley, C R

    1991-07-01

    The hypothesis that the nine dimensions of temperament defined by Chess and Thomas (1984) would emerge in a principal components analysis of maternal descriptions of 763 two-year-olds in a longitudinal study was not confirmed. The only component that bore any resemblance to the a priori dimensions of temperament proposed by Chess and Thomas was the sixth component--defining rhythmicity--in a Promax rotation. A higher order rotation to a two-factor solution produced components representing sociability and difficult behavior, respectively. It is argued that in the long term, these dimensions of temperament will, through the process of interaction with others, provide dimensions of personality identified by Hans Eysenck and his colleagues (1985). PMID:1757784

  4. Basic life support knowledge of first-year university students from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, S. V.; Margarido, M. R. R. A.; Caires, I. S.; Santos, R. A. N.; Souza, S. G.; Souza, J. M. A.; Martimiano, R. R.; Dutra, C. S. K.; Palha, P.; Zanetti, A. C. G.; Pazin-Filho, A.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate knowledge of first aid among new undergraduates and whether it is affected by their chosen course. A questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of how to activate the Mobile Emergency Attendance Service - MEAS (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência; SAMU), recognize a pre-hospital emergency situation and the first aid required for cardiac arrest. The students were also asked about enrolling in a first aid course. Responses were received from 1038 of 1365 (76.04%) new undergraduates. The questionnaires were completed in a 2-week period 1 month after the beginning of classes. Of the 1038 respondents (59.5% studying biological sciences, 11.6% physical sciences, and 28.6% humanities), 58.5% knew how to activate the MEAS/SAMU (54.3% non-biological vs 61.4% biological, P=0.02), with an odds ratio (OR)=1.39 (95%CI=1.07-1.81) regardless of age, sex, origin, having a previous degree or having a relative with cardiac disease. The majority could distinguish emergency from non-emergency situations. When faced with a possible cardiac arrest, 17.7% of the students would perform chest compressions (15.5% non-biological vs 19.1% biological first-year university students, P=0.16) and 65.2% would enroll in a first aid course (51.1% non-biological vs 74.7% biological, P<0.01), with an OR=2.61 (95%CI=1.98-3.44) adjusted for the same confounders. Even though a high percentage of the students recognized emergency situations, a significant proportion did not know the MEAS/SAMU number and only a minority had sufficient basic life support skills to help with cardiac arrest. A significant proportion would not enroll in a first aid course. Biological first-year university students were more prone to enroll in a basic life support course. PMID:26397971

  5. Basic life support knowledge of first-year university students from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, S V; Margarido, M R R A; Caires, I S; Santos, R A N; Souza, S G; Souza, J M A; Martimiano, R R; Dutra, C S K; Palha, P; Zanetti, A C G; Pazin-Filho, A

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate knowledge of first aid among new undergraduates and whether it is affected by their chosen course. A questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of how to activate the Mobile Emergency Attendance Service - MEAS (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência; SAMU), recognize a pre-hospital emergency situation and the first aid required for cardiac arrest. The students were also asked about enrolling in a first aid course. Responses were received from 1038 of 1365 (76.04%) new undergraduates. The questionnaires were completed in a 2-week period 1 month after the beginning of classes. Of the 1038 respondents (59.5% studying biological sciences, 11.6% physical sciences, and 28.6% humanities), 58.5% knew how to activate the MEAS/SAMU (54.3% non-biological vs 61.4% biological, P=0.02), with an odds ratio (OR)=1.39 (95%CI=1.07-1.81) regardless of age, sex, origin, having a previous degree or having a relative with cardiac disease. The majority could distinguish emergency from non-emergency situations. When faced with a possible cardiac arrest, 17.7% of the students would perform chest compressions (15.5% non-biological vs 19.1% biological first-year university students, P=0.16) and 65.2% would enroll in a first aid course (51.1% non-biological vs 74.7% biological, P<0.01), with an OR=2.61 (95%CI=1.98-3.44) adjusted for the same confounders. Even though a high percentage of the students recognized emergency situations, a significant proportion did not know the MEAS/SAMU number and only a minority had sufficient basic life support skills to help with cardiac arrest. A significant proportion would not enroll in a first aid course. Biological first-year university students were more prone to enroll in a basic life support course. PMID:26397971

  6. The effects of prenatal oxidative stress levels on infant adiposity development during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Loy, S L; Sirajudeen, K N S; Hamid Jan, J M

    2014-04-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted to examine the causal factors of childhood obesity, the implications of intrauterine oxidative stress on early postnatal adiposity development remain to be elucidated. The Universiti Sains Malaysia Birth Cohort Study aimed to investigate the effects of prenatal oxidative stress levels on the development of infant adiposity during the first year of life. This study was conducted on the healthy pregnant women aged 19-40 years, from April 2010 to December 2012 in Kelantan, Malaysia. Maternal blood samples were drawn in the second trimester to analyse for oxidative stress markers. Infant anthropometric measurements were taken at birth, 2, 6 and 12 months of age. A total of 153 pregnant women and full-term infants were included in the analysis. Statistical test was conducted by using multiple linear regression. Through the infant first year of life, as maternal DNA damage level in the second trimester increased, infant weights at birth (β=-0.122, P<0.001), 2 months (β=-0.120, P=0013), 6 months (β=-0.209, P=0.003) and 12 months of age (β=-0.241, P=0.006) decreased after adjusting for confounders. Similar results were noted when infant body mass index-for-age Z-scores and triceps skinfold-for-age Z-scores were used as the adiposity indicators. In conclusion, the present study shows a consistent inverse association between maternal DNA damage and infant adiposity during the first year of life. These infants with reduced growth and adiposity in early postnatal life may have a high tendency to experience catch-up growth during childhood, which could be strongly associated with later obesity. PMID:24847700

  7. Contributions of social context to inequalities in years of life lost to heart disease in Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Franzini, Luisa; Spears, William

    2003-11-01

    Several recent articles have pointed to the effect of social context on heart disease mortality after adjusting for individual level indicators. This study investigates the contributions of individual socioeconomic factors (sex, race, and education) and social context at the neighborhood level (wealth, education, social capital, and racial/ethnic composition), and the county level (social inequality, human and social capital, economic and demographic characteristics) on premature cardiovascular mortality. Death certificate information was obtained for all those who died of heart disease in Texas, USA, in 1991. Deaths were geocoded to obtain block-group, census tract, and county social context from the census. Multilevel hierarchical models quantified the contributions of individual characteristics and block-group, tract, and county social context on years of potential life lost to heart disease. Cross-level analyses investigated the interaction between individual and contextual factors. Being female, having more education, and residing in areas with higher median house value were associated with less premature mortality. Although blacks and Hispanics lost more years of life to heart disease than whites, blacks and Hispanics living in tracts with higher own racial/ethnic group density lost fewer years of life than their peers living in less homogenous tracts. At the county level, premature mortality was negatively associated with social capital. The tract and county level variances were statistically significant indicating the importance of social context to premature heart disease mortality. Plausible mechanisms through which these effects operate are explored. Social context at the block-group, tract, and county level played an important role, though a smaller role than individual factors, in explaining years of life lost to heart disease. PMID:14499510

  8. Hospitalizations Among Nursing Home Residents in the Last Year of Life: Nursing Home Characteristics and Variation in Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jingping; Mukamel, Dana B.; Temkin-Greener, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Objectives 1) To examine the incidence, variations, and costs in potentially avoidable hospitalizations (PAHs) among nursing home (NH) residents at the end-of-life. 2) To identify the association between NH characteristics and a facility-level quality measure (QM) for PAH. Design Retrospective study. Setting Hospitalizations originating from NHs. Participants Long-term care NH residents who died in 2007. Measurements We constructed a risk-adjusted QM for PAH. Poisson regression model was used to predict the count of PAH given residents’ risk factors. For each facility, the QM was defined as the difference between the observed facility-specific rate (per 1,000 person-years) of PAH (O) and the expected risk-adjusted rate (E). We then fit a logistic regression model with state fixed-effects to examine the association between facility characteristics and the likelihood of having higher than expected rates of PAH (O-E>0). QM values higher than 0 indicate worse than average quality. Results Almost 50% of hospital admissions for NH residents in their last year of life were for potentially avoidable diagnoses, costing Medicare $1billion. Five conditions were responsible for over 80% of PAHs. PAH QM across facilities showed significant variation (mean=11.96; std dev=142.26; range: −399.48-398.09). Chain and hospital-based facilities were more likely to exhibit better performance (O-E<0). Facilities with higher nursing staffing were more likely to have better performance, as did facilities with higher skilled staff ratio, facilities with nurse practitioners/physician assistants, and those with on-site x-ray services. Conclusion Variations in facility-level PAHs suggest that a potential for reducing hospital admissions for these conditions may exist. Presence of modifiable facility characteristics associated with PAH performance provides insights into possible interventions for reducing PAHs at the end-of-life. PMID:24219191

  9. Report From The Congress On The Quality of Life---The Later Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivian, Valerie; Wesley, Wallace Ann

    1975-01-01

    The Congress on the Quality of Life considered the relationship of the later years to the whole of life's continuum including normal aging, pathology, prevention of some conditions through exercise, good nutrition and dental care, and special considerations relating to mental and emotional health and economic and social conditions. (RC)

  10. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life among Abused Women One Year after Leaving a Violent Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E.; Kristoffersen, Kjell

    2008-01-01

    This is the first follow up study measuring quality of life among abused women who have left their abusive partner. The women (n = 22) answered a questionnaire while staying at women's shelter and one year later. The aim was to examine long-term effects of intimate partner violence against women on health-related quality of life. Health-related…

  12. Life in the Community: Four Years after the Closure of an Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, John; Pedlar, Alison

    1991-01-01

    Life experiences of 18 people with severe mental retardation are reported 4 years after their deinstitutionalization from Tranquille, a facility in Kamloops, British Columbia (Canada). Four themes are identified and discussed: planning and grouping people, leadership, community integration, and social networks. Quality of life had improved for 13…

  13. Independent and additive association of prenatal famine exposure and intermediary life conditions with adult mortality age 18–63 years

    PubMed Central

    Ekamper, P.; van Poppel, F.; Stein, A.D.; Lumey, L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the relation between prenatal famine exposure and adult mortality, taking into account mediating effects of intermediary life conditions. Design Historical follow-up study. Setting The Dutch famine (Hunger Winter) of 1944–1945 which occurred towards the end of WWII in occupied Netherlands. Study population From 408,015 Dutch male births born 1944–1947, examined for military service at age 18, we selected for follow-up all men born at the time of the famine in six affected cities in the Western Netherlands (n=25,283), and a sample of unexposed time (n=10,667) and place (n=9,087) controls. These men were traced and followed for mortality through the national population and death record systems. Outcome measure All-cause mortality between ages 18 and 63 years using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for intermediary life conditions. Results An increase in mortality was seen after famine exposure in early gestation (HR 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01 to 1.24) but not late gestation (HR 1.04; 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.13). Among intermediary life conditions at age 18 years, educational level was inversely associated with mortality and mortality was elevated in men with fathers with a manual versus non-manual occupations (HR 1.08; CI: 1.02 to 1.16) and in men who were declared unfit for military service (HR 1.44; CI: 1.31 to 1.58). Associations of intermediate factors with mortality were independent of famine exposure in early life and associations between prenatal famine exposure and adult mortality were independent of social class and education at age 18. Conclusions Timing of exposure in relation to the stage of pregnancy may be of critical importance for later health outcomes independent of intermediary life conditions. PMID:24262812

  14. How Shall I Live? Constructing a Life Story in the College Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Dan P.; Guo, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This chapter applies the concept of narrative identity to college student development. The authors describe a narrative interview method that can be used to promote the development of a purposeful life story in the college years.

  15. 42 CFR 495.211 - Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.211 Section 495... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.211 Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and MA-affiliated...

  16. 42 CFR 495.211 - Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.211 Section 495... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.211 Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and MA-affiliated...

  17. 42 CFR 495.211 - Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. 495.211 Section 495... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.211 Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and MA-affiliated...

  18. Ten-year change in plasma amyloid β levels and late-life cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Okereke, Olivia I.; Xia, Weiming; Selkoe, Dennis J.; Grodstein, Francine

    2009-01-01

    Background Plasma levels of the amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) are potential biomarkers of early cognitive impairment and decline, and of Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. Objective To relate mid-life plasma Aβ measures, and ten-year change in plasma Aβ since mid-life, to later-life cognitive decline. Design, setting, participants Plasma Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 levels were measured in 481 Nurses’ Health Study participants in late mid-life (mean age=63.6 years) and again 10 years later (mean age=74.6 years). Cognitive testing also began 10 years after the initial blood draw. Participants completed three repeated telephone-based assessments (average span=4.1 years). Multivariable linear mixed effects models were used to estimate relations of mid-life plasma Aβ-40:Aβ-42 ratios and Aβ-42 levels to later-life cognitive decline, and to relate ten-year change in Aβ-40:Aβ-42 and Aβ-42 to cognitive decline. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcomes were: the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS); a global score averaging all tests (TICS, immediate and delayed verbal recall, category fluency, and attention); and a verbal memory score averaging four tests of verbal recall. Results Higher mid-life plasma Aβ-40:Aβ-42 ratio was associated with worse later-life decline on the global score (p-trend=0.04). Furthermore, an increase in Aβ-40:Aβ-42 since mid-life predicted greater decline on the global score (p-trend=0.03) and the TICS (p-trend=0.02). There was no association between mid-life plasma Aβ-42 levels alone – or change in Aβ-42 since mid-life – and cognitive decline. Conclusions In this large community-dwelling sample, higher plasma Aβ-40:Aβ-42 ratios in late mid-life, and increases in Aβ-40:Aβ-42 ten years later, were significantly associated with greater decline in global cognition at late-life. PMID:19822780

  19. A prospective trial for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in morbidly obese adolescents: an interim report of weight loss, metabolic and quality of life outcomes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outcome of patients completing 12 months of follow-up in a prospective longitudinal trial of the safety/efficacy of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), for morbidly obese adolescents aged 14 to 17 years using a Food and Drug Administration Institutional Device Exemption for the use o...

  20. Children of Adolescent Mothers: Exposure to Negative Life Events and the Role of Social Supports on Their Socioemotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carothers, Shannon S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Children born to adolescent mothers have heightened vulnerability for exposure to multiple stressful life events owing to factors associated with teenaged parenthood such as poverty and low levels of maternal education. This study investigated whether early exposure to negative life events such as parental divorce, residential instability, and…

  1. Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Mental Health Problems: Behaviour, Self-Concept, Quality of Life and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, R. A.; Hunter, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality…

  2. Rural Worker Adjustment to Urban Life: An Assessment of the Research. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Varden

    This document is a compilation resulting from studies of how well the rural labor force has adjusted to the urban setting. Topics presented include: (1) Concepts, Definitions, and Magnitude, (2) The Basic Expellant: Agricultural Technological Advance, (3) Opportunities and Uncertainties in the Economic Environment for Off-Farm Migrants, (4)…

  3. Student Adjustment to Higher Education: The Role of Alternative Educational Pathways in Coping with the Demands of Student Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankland, Rebecca; Genolini, Christophe; Franca, Lionel Riou; Guelfi, Julien-Daniel; Ionescu, Serban

    2010-01-01

    The present longitudinal study measured student adjustment to higher education, comparing 50 participants from alternative schools (Steiner, Montessori, New Schools) with 80 students from the traditional school system. We hypothesized that students from alternative schools adapt better, because of greater perceived social support, academic…

  4. Humor and College Adjustment: The Predictive Nature of Humor, Academic Achievement, Authoritative Parenting Styles on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.

    2003-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…

  5. Making the Adjustment: A Qualitative Investigation of the Potential of Community College Developmental Summer Bridge Programs in Facilitating Student Adjustment to Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    This study qualitatively examines whether participation in a summer bridge program situated at a community college can help students acquire the academic and college knowledge as well as "social know-how" needed to attend and succeed at a four-year higher education institution. The study's theoretical framework helps to elucidate the…

  6. Influence of float and charge voltage adjustment on the service life of AGM VRLA batteries depending on the conditions of use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneret, X.; Gobé, V.; Lemoine, C.

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries with absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators have been in use for over 20 years in different standby applications. These applications are increasingly varied, especially regarding environmental conditions. Standby batteries are not only for use in applications where conditions are strictly defined and controlled (air conditioning) and it is therefore necessary to review and clarify the key parameters for the use of VRLA batteries with respect to the optimum conditions. Several series of chemical and electrochemical reactions occur in VRLA batteries particularly when in a charge or float charge condition. These reactions give specific properties such as minimal water loss (low maintenance) but also create specific precautions for use. VRLA battery functioning is limited by four main phenomena that are positive grid corrosion, irreversible active mass sulfation, active mass degradation by cycling and dry-out by loss of water. Positive grid corrosion is the usual failure mode in float operation or due to persistent overcharge. Irreversible active mass sulfation occurs due to lack of charge. In cycling, dependent upon the frequency and depth of discharge, the active mass undergoes numerous structural changes that cause degradation. These four limiting phenomena define a framework inside which several parameters determine the service life of VRLA batteries. These parameters are commissioning, temperature, and frequency and depth of discharge. Commissioning is necessary to equalise and fully charge the cells before use. Temperature, and temperature dispersion, is the main factor determining the rate of corrosion. The frequency and depth of discharge determine how the active mass is utilised. This paper, by considering these parameters both qualitatively and quantitatively, attempts to indicate how and why to adjust the charge and float voltages to optimise the use of AGM VRLA batteries according to the environmental conditions.

  7. Quality of life in stroke survivors under the sixty years of age.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Mirjana; Sinanović, Osman; Smajlović, Dzevdet

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the quality of life six months after stroke in survivors under sixty years of age, to determine which life activities was the most affected, as well as to correlate the neurological insufficiency and the quality of life. It monitored 200 stroke survivors under sixty years of age treated at the Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla. Average age was 51,83 years (+/-7,02). The ischemic stroke was diagnosed in 77,5% stroke survivors, cerebral hemorrhage in 15%, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 7,5%. Five stroke survivors suffered hemiplegia (2,5%), 24 (12%) experienced moderate consequences and 143 (71,5%) had mild consequences. No neurological deficit had 28 (14%) stroke survivors. Six months after the onset of disease all stroke survivors have been followed-up and evaluated about quality of life by filling in a modified questionnaire: Questionnaire on Quality of Life after Stroke (2). The questionnaire contained 20 questions covering four fields of life: Working Ability, Home Activity, Family Relations and Leisure Activities. Six months after the onset of stroke a worse quality of life in comparison to the period before the disease was noted in 172 (86%) stroke survivors, the unchanged in 19 (9,5%) and better in 9 (4,5%). The most affected is the field "Leisure Activities", followed by "Family Relations", "Home Activity", and the least affected is "Work Ability". The neurological deficit significantly correlates to the "Home Activities" and "Leisure Activities". PMID:17848152

  8. Is My Armor Straight: A Year in the Life of a University President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berendzen, Richard

    A personal account of Richard Berendzen's life as president of The American University (AU) in Washington, D.C. during the 1983-1984 academic year is presented in diary form. The account describes his interactions with faculty, students, administrators, and people outside the university to further the goals of the institution. In the year prior to…

  9. Disability-Free Life Expectancy Over 30 Years: A Growing Female Disadvantage in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Douglas A.; Spillman, Brenda C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine changes in active life expectancy in the United States over 30 years for older men and women (aged ≥ 65 years). Methods. We used the 1982 and 2004 National Long Term Care Survey and the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study to estimate age-specific mortality and disability rates, the overall chances of survival and of surviving without disability, and years of active life for men and women. Results. For older men, longevity has increased, disability has been postponed to older ages, disability prevalence has fallen, and the percentage of remaining life spent active has increased. However, for older women, small longevity increases have been accompanied by even smaller postponements in disability, a reversal of a downward trend in moderate disability, and stagnation of active life as a percentage of life expectancy. As a consequence, older women no longer live more active years than men, despite their longer lives. Conclusions. Neither a compression nor expansion of late-life disability is inevitable. Public health measures directed at older women to postpone disability may be needed to offset impending long-term care pressures related to population aging. PMID:26985619

  10. [Years of potential life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonildo Severino da; Menezes, Maria Lúcia Neto de; Lopes, Cyntia Lins de Almeida; Corrêa, Maria Suely Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to calculate the potential years of life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2003-2007. A database was used from the Operational Division for Information on Births and Deaths under the Recife Municipal Health Department. All death certificates for childbearing-age women were reviewed for the five-year period. The results showed a total of 12,120 potential years of life lost by these women, mostly young, black (88%), with unknown levels of schooling (78.2%), single (80%), in District III of the city, and murdered with firearms in their own homes. The specific mortality rate was 10.8 homicides per 100,000 childbearing-age women. The 43.3 years of life lost per woman express the city's characteristics, poverty levels, unemployment, population density, residential instability, and social inequality, exposing residents to social strife, crime, and violence. PMID:21986600

  11. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  12. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  13. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric: Fiscal Year 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2003. As such, the values herein are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents. The Metric is one of several measures employed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to assess the Agency s progress as mandated by the United States Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. Because any measure must have a reference point, whether explicitly defined or implied, the Metric is a comparison between a selected ALS Project life support system and an equivalently detailed life support system using technology from the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS). More specifically, the Metric is the ratio defined by the equivalent system mass (ESM) of a life support system for a specific mission using the ISS ECLSS technologies divided by the ESM for an equivalent life support system using the best ALS technologies. As defined, the Metric should increase in value as the ALS technologies become lighter, less power intensive, and require less volume. For Fiscal Year 2003, the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric value is 1.47 for an Orbiting Research Facility and 1.36 for an Independent Exploration Mission.

  14. Psychological Adjustment among Israeli Adolescent Immigrants: A Report on Life Satisfaction, Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Chana; Tatar, Moshe

    2001-01-01

    Examined self-concept, self-esteem, and life satisfaction among 119 immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union and 135 Israeli classmates. Immigrant adolescents reported less satisfaction with their lives and less congruence between their self-concept and the ways in which they were perceived by others. (SLD)

  15. 24 CFR 1000.532 - What are the adjustments HUD makes to a recipient's future year's grant amount under section 405...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are the adjustments HUD makes to a recipient's future year's grant amount under section 405 of NAHASDA? 1000.532 Section 1000.532 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE...

  16. 24 CFR 1000.532 - What are the adjustments HUD makes to a recipient's future year's grant amount under section 405...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the adjustments HUD makes to a recipient's future year's grant amount under section 405 of NAHASDA? 1000.532 Section 1000.532 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE...

  17. 24 CFR 1000.532 - What are the adjustments HUD makes to a recipient's future year's grant amount under section 405...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the adjustments HUD makes to a recipient's future year's grant amount under section 405 of NAHASDA? 1000.532 Section 1000.532 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE...

  18. Intellectual and Emotional Development and School Adjustment in Preterm Children at 6 and 7 Years of Age. Continuation of a Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria

    1984-01-01

    Continues a previous five-year follow-up of preterm and full-term children by studying the continuity in their intellectual and emotional development. Prematurity was predictive for school adjustment at ages six and seven only when regression was performed on the preterm group, but failed to be predictive when mixed groups of preterm and full-term…

  19. An Ex Post Facto Study Exploring the Impact of Parental Level of Education and Parental Support on First-Year College Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntley, Kristy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact that parental levels of education and parental support have on college adjustment for first-year students. An ex post facto design was used to examine parental level of education and parental support as variables. Parental level of education is a categorical variable based on report from the student. Parental support…

  20. Hope Lives in the Heart: Refugee and Immigrant Children's Perceptions of Hope and Hope-Engendering Sources during Early Years of Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yohani, Sophie C.; Larsen, Denise J.

    2009-01-01

    Children's adjustment to resettlement countries is vitally important to future outcomes, yet little attention is given to the role of hope in this process. This research focused on expressions of hope in 10 refugee and immigrant children during early years of resettlement. Using case study methods that employed arts-based data collection,…

  1. Does Being Assigned to a Low School Track Negatively Affect Psychological Adjustment? A Longitudinal Study in the First Year of Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Christoph Michael; Hofmann, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the 1st year in secondary school for some students goes hand in hand with an increase in adjustment difficulties. One factor that might influence this process on an individual, compositional, and institutional level is the academic track a student attends. It was hypothesized that being assigned to a low-qualifying…

  2. Years of Life Lost Due to External Causes of Death in the Lodz Province, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Pikala, Malgorzata; Bryla, Marek; Bryla, Pawel; Maniecka-Bryla, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is the analysis of years of life lost due to external causes of death, particularly due to traffic accidents and suicides. Materials and Methods The study material includes a database containing information gathered from 376,281 death certificates of inhabitants of the Lodz province who died between 1999 and 2010. The Lodz province is characterized by the highest mortality rates in Poland. The SEYLLp (Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person) and the SEYLLd (per death) indices were used to determine years of life lost. Joinpoint models were used to analyze time trends. Results In 2010, deaths due to external causes constituted 6.0% of the total number of deaths. The standardized death rate (SDR) due to external causes was 110.0 per 100,000 males and was five times higher than for females (22.0 per 100,000 females). In 2010, the SEYLLp due to external causes was 3746 per 100,000 males and 721 per 100,000 females. Among males, suicides and traffic accidents were the most common causes of death (the values of the SEYLLp were: 1098 years and 887 years per 100,000 people, respectively). Among females, the SEYLLp values were 183 years due to traffic accidents and 143 years due to suicides (per 100,000 people). Conclusions A decrease in the number of years of life lost due to external causes is much higher among females. The authors observe that a growing number of suicides contribute to an increase in the value of the SEYLLp index. This directly contributes to over-mortality of males due to external causes. The analysis of the years of life lost focuses on the social and economic aspects of premature mortality due to external causes. PMID:24810942

  3. Review: surgery for transposition of the great arteries in the first year of life.

    PubMed Central

    Zavanella, C; Subramanian, S

    1978-01-01

    Elective intracardiac repair by the Mustard operation is recommented in patients with transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum in the first year of life (Fig. 1). In patients with associated ventricular septal defect in the first three months of life, early banding followed by early debanding before the first year of life is recommended. When the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is discrete at valvular or subvalvular level, Mustard operation, closure of the ventricular septal defect and direct relief of out-flow obstruction is acceptable, but in patients with an unfavorable left ventricular outflow tract anatomy, a preliminary shunt followed by a Rastelli operation after the age of four years will probably result in a greater salvage. The utilization of surface induced profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest allows for more precise and rapid surgery and is shown to be a definite advantage in the very young infant. PMID:75716

  4. Monograph use at an academic health sciences library: the first three years of shelf life

    PubMed Central

    Blecic, Deborah D.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the circulation of monographs during the first three years of shelf life at an academic health sciences library. Method: A record was kept of monographs added to the circulating collection from mid-1994 to mid-1995. After three years, each monograph was located and the number of times it circulated during the first, second, and third year of shelf life determined by counting checkout stamps on the circulation slip. Results: Of the 1,958 monographs studied, 1,674 had complete data for the first three years of shelf life. Of those 1,674 titles, 81.48% circulated at least once. A total of 7,659 circulations were recorded; 38.69% occurred in the first year of shelf life, 32.37% in the second year, and 28.95% in the third year. The data did not fit the well-known 80/20 rule. Instead, approximately 38% of monographs accounted for 80% of circulation. A small percentage, 2.21%, of monographs accounted for a substantial percentage of circulation, 21.84%. Conclusions: A large percentage of the monographs circulated and use did not decline sharply with age within the first three years of shelf life, indicating a high demand for monographs at this academic health sciences library. These results, combined with the findings of earlier studies, suggested two possibilities. First, academic health sciences libraries might exhibit use of a higher percentage of monograph acquisitions than other types of libraries; or, second, a low monograph-to-user ratio might result in a higher percentage of monographs being used. Perhaps both factors contributed to the results found in this study. Further investigation would be needed to determine the extent to which library type and monograph-to-user ratio influenced monograph use. PMID:10783969

  5. 26 CFR 1.481-3 - Adjustments attributable to pre-1954 years where change was not initiated by taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Adjustments § 1.481-3... required by section 481(a) and § 1.481-1 are attributable to a change in method of accounting which was not... change in method of accounting which is not initiated by the taxpayer amount to $10,000, of which...

  6. Three-Year Trajectories of Parenting Behaviors among Physically Abusive Parents and Their Link to Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okado, Yuko; Haskett, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited knowledge about how positive and negative parenting practices differ across individuals and change over time in parents with substantiated physical abuse history, and how trajectories of these parenting practices affect child adjustment. Objective: The present study examined latent trajectories of positive and negative…

  7. Presence and Quality of Kindergarten Children's Friendships: Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations with Child Adjustment in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Jennifer M.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Lasky, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The presence and quality of friendships are posited to have developmental significance, yet little is known about the extent to which children without friends versus low-quality friendships compare on socioemotional adjustment. The current study utilized data from a subsample of 567 children (289 boys) participating in the NICHD Study of Early…

  8. 77 FR 66966 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2014-2015 Proposed Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments; Public Hearing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... (BPA or Bonneville), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTIONS: Notice of FY 2014-2015 Proposed Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments. SUMMARY: BPA is holding a consolidated rate proceeding, Docket No. BP- 14, to... Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act) provides that BPA must establish and periodically review and revise...

  9. Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

  10. Hospital admissions from birth to early adolescence and early-life risk factors: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M. B.; Noal, Ricardo B.; Cesar, Juraci A.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Dumith, Samuel C.; Barros, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective analysis was to describe the cumulative incidence of hospital admissions in the first year of life and between 1 and 11 years of age and to explore associated factors. Hospital admissions were collected through regular monitoring in the first year of life, and through maternal report on admissions between 1 and 11 years. Analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for confounding factors. 18.1% of children were hospitalized in the first year of life, and 30.7% between ages 1 and 11 years. Among boys, hospital admission in the first year was associated with low family income, paternal smoking during pregnancy, preterm delivery, and low birthweight. Among girls, in addition to the variables described for boys, black/mixed skin color was also a risk factor for hospital admission. For admissions between 1 and 11 years of age, low family income and gestational age ≥ 37 weeks were found to be significant risk factors. PMID:20963296

  11. Randomized trial on the effectiveness of long- and short-term psychotherapy on psychosocial functioning and quality of life during a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Knekt, Paul; Heinonen, Erkki; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Järvikoski, Aila; Virtala, Esa; Rissanen, Julius; Lindfors, Olavi; Helsinki Psychotherapy Study Group

    2015-09-30

    Knowledge is incomplete on whether long-term psychotherapy is more effective than short-term therapy in treating mood and anxiety disorder, when measured by improvements in psychosocial functioning and life quality. In the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, 326 outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder were randomized to solution-focused therapy (SFT), short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP), or long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LPP), and followed up for 5 years from the start of treatment. The outcome measures comprised 4 questionnaires on psychosocial functioning, assessing global social functioning (Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR), sense of coherence (Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC)), perceived competence (Self-Performance Survey), dispositional optimism (Life Orientation Test (LOT)), and 1 questionnaire assessing quality of life (Life Situation Survey (LSS)). Short-term therapies improved psychosocial functioning and quality of life more than LPP during the first year. The only exceptions were LOT and perceived competence, which did not differ between SPP and LPP. Later in the follow-up, SOC and perceived competence showed significantly more improvement in LPP than in the short-term therapy groups. No direct differences between SFT and SPP were noted. Short-term therapy has consistently more short-term effects on psychosocial functioning and quality of life than LPP, whereas LPP has some additional long-term benefits on psychosocial functioning. PMID:26162657

  12. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  13. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  14. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  15. The risk of losing 10 years of life put in perspective: views of college student smokers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Hui; Huang, Song-Lih

    2015-03-01

    Health messages have limited effects on young smokers. The health effects typically have long latent periods, and the appreciation of risk depends on the meaning given to longevity. This study aims to understand how college student smokers interpreted the risks of losing 10 years of life because of smoking. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 male smokers from a relatively low-achieving college in southern Taiwan. The participants had vague ideas about the future; were not expecting a successful life, thought life was stressful and boring; and expressed that there was no need to live too long. Many believed that removing the stress and having a composed lifestyle was the way to becoming healthy, which could be achieved only by people with economic success. They would quit had they been rich. Empowerment to help young smokers gain control over their life events may be the key to tobacco control. PMID:23695539

  16. Explanatory style across the life span: evidence for stability over 52 years.

    PubMed

    Burns, M O; Seligman, M E

    1989-03-01

    Analyzed explanatory style across the life span. 30 Ss whose average age was 72 responded to questions about their current life and provided diaries or letters written in their youth, an average of 52 years earlier. A blind content analysis of explanatory style derived from these 2 sources revealed that explanatory style for negative events was stable throughout adult life (r = .54, p less than .002). In contrast, there appeared to be no stability of explanatory style for positive events between the same 2 time periods. These results suggest that explanatory style for negative events may persist across the life span and may constitute an enduring risk factor for depression, low achievement, and physical illness. PMID:2926642

  17. Years of life lost due to malignant neoplasms characterized by the highest mortality rate

    PubMed Central

    Pikala, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The analysis of premature deaths measured with years of life lost between the studied and referential populations helps to emphasize the social and economic aspect of a loss caused by deaths due to malignant neoplasms. The aim of the study was to analyze years of life lost by inhabitants of the Lodz province due to malignant neoplasms. Material and methods The study material included a database which contained information gathered from 313,144 death certificates (including 66,899 people who died of malignant neoplasms) of inhabitants of the Lodz province who died between 1999 and 2008. The SEYLLp (Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person) method was used to determine years of life lost. Jointpoint models were used to analyze time trends. Results In males the diseases which mostly contributed to death were tracheal, bronchial and lung malignant neoplasms (SEYLLp = 170.7) and cancer of the large intestine, rectum and anus (SEYLLp = 47.5). In females the principal diseases were tracheal, bronchial and lung malignant neoplasms (SEYLLp = 61.6), breast cancer (SEYLLp = 60.4) and cancer of the large intestine, rectum and anus (SEYLLp = 42.3). The years of life lost were growing in the period under study. Conclusions The number of years lost due to malignant neoplasms in the Lodz province between 1999 and 2008 was growing. The main reasons for deaths in females were tracheal, bronchial and lung malignant neoplasms as well as breast cancer and in males – cancer of the large intestine, rectum and anus as well as prostate cancer. PMID:25395953

  18. Syllable-Related Breathing in Infants in the Second Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parham, Douglas F.; Buder, Eugene H.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Boliek, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether breathing behaviors of infants within the 2nd year of life differ between tidal breathing and breathing supporting single unarticulated syllables and canonical/articulated syllables. Method: Vocalizations and breathing kinematics of 9 infants between 53 and 90 weeks of age were recorded. A strict selection…

  19. Predictors and Characteristics of Erikson's Life Cycle Model Among Men: A 32-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2004-01-01

    To assess Erikson's life cycle model, 86 men, initially selected for health, were prospectively studied at age 21, and reassessed 32 years later at age 53. Using the Vaillant and Milofsky (1980) modification of Erikson's model, 48 men (56%) achieved generativity, an advanced developmental stage, at follow-up. Results generally support Erikson's…

  20. Growth of Head Circumference in Autistic Infants during the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukumoto, Aya; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Ito, Hiromichi; Nishimura, Mio; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Miyazaki, Masahito; Mori, Kenji; Arisawa, Kokichi; Kagami, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the increase in head circumference (HC) of 85 autistic infants (64 boys and 21 girls) during their first year of life. The data were collected from their "mother-and-baby" notebooks. This notebook is a medical record of the baby's growth and development delivered to the parents of all babies born in Japan. This is a…

  1. Effects of fat mass on motor development during the first two years of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: This study characterized total body fat mass and motor development during the first two years of life in healthy infants. Design: Participants (N=469) from the Beginnings’ cohort, a prospective, longitudinal study of early infant feeding, were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months of age...

  2. Quality of Life in South Africa--The First Ten Years of Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    South Africa celebrated ten years of democracy in 2004. This special issue of "Social Indicators Research" ("SIR") reviews developments that have impacted on the quality of life of ordinary South Africans during the transition period. The issue updates an earlier volume of "SIR" (Volume 41) published in 1997 and as a stand-alone volume. The…

  3. Perceptual Narrowing of Linguistic Sign Occurs in the 1st Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephanie Baker; Fais, Laurel; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Werker, Janet F.

    2012-01-01

    Over their 1st year of life, infants' "universal" perception of the sounds of language narrows to encompass only those contrasts made in their native language (J. F. Werker & R. C. Tees, 1984). This research tested 40 infants in an eyetracking paradigm and showed that this pattern also holds for infants exposed to seen language--American Sign…

  4. EFFECTS OF EARLY INFANT DIET ON DEVELOPMENT OF EEG DURING THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if diet influences development of brain electrical activity (resting EEG) during the first year of life, high density EEG recordings (128 channels) were made during at 3, 6, and 12 months of age in the same 113 full-term healthy infants [42 breast-fed (20 males), 45 milk-formula-fed (27...

  5. Cochlear Implant in the Second Year of Life: Lexical and Grammatical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caselli, Maria Cristina; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Varuzza, Cristiana; Giuliani, Anna; Burdo, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors studied the effect of the cochlear implant (CI) on language comprehension and production in deaf children who had received a CI in the 2nd year of life. Method: The authors evaluated lexical and morphosyntactic skills in comprehension and production in 17 Italian children who are deaf (M = 54 months of age) with a CI and in 2…

  6. Early Years: Young Children Deserve the Best Possible Start in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Leena

    2015-01-01

    That all young children should have the best possible start in life is a statement that tends to be met with universal agreement. This article, however, argues there are very many different kinds of ideologies that shape the kinds of "best starts" early years teachers should strive for at a time when childhood poverty is rising and when…

  7. Outpatient Health Care Utilization of Suicide Decedents in Their Last Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui-Li; Chen, Lih-Hwa; Huang, Shiuh-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of health care utilization during the last year of life by Taiwanese who died by suicide were analyzed. The degree of health services utilization was evaluated by extracting the data of National Health Insurance (NHI) outpatient cohort records in 2006. A total of 4,406 fatal suicide cases were matched with the 17,587,901…

  8. How Useful Are Skeletal Surveys in the Second Year of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karen Kirhofer; Campbell, Kristine A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of skeletal surveys in cases of possible physical abuse in the second year of life. Methods: Radiology records for all children under 24 months of age referred to our child protection team from January 2002 through November 2006, who had a skeletal survey performed and/or interpreted by the pediatric radiologists…

  9. Temperament and Parenting during the First Year of Life Predict Future Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Keenan, Kate; Rathouz, Paul J.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2008-01-01

    Predictive associations between parenting and temperament during the first year of life and child conduct problems were assessed longitudinally in 1,863 offspring of a representative sample of women. Maternal ratings of infant fussiness, activity level, predictability, and positive affect each independently predicted maternal ratings of conduct…

  10. Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

  11. Academic Performance and Pass Rates: Comparison of Three First-Year Life Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, C. T.

    2009-01-01

    First year students' academic performance in three Life Science courses (Botany, Zoology and Bioscience) was compared. Pass rates, as well as the means and distributions of final marks were analysed. Of the three components (coursework, practical and theory examinations) contributing to the final mark of each course, students performed best in the…

  12. Risk of Mother-Reported Child Abuse in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Amy M.; Rosenberg, Leon; Fuddy, Loretta; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Sia, Calvin; Duggan, Anne K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate, within an at-risk population, parent and child characteristics associated with a mother's self-reports of severe physical assault and assault on the self-esteem of the child in the first 3 years of life. Design: The study population consisted of a community-based sample of mothers of…

  13. Communicative Acts of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Second Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumway, Stacy; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the communicative profiles of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the second year of life. Method: Communicative acts were examined in 125 children 18 to 24 months of age: 50 later diagnosed with ASD; 25 with developmental delays (DD); and 50 with typical development (TD). Precise measures of rate, functions, and…

  14. Antibiotic exposure in the first year of life and later treated asthma, a population based birth cohort study of 143,000 children.

    PubMed

    Pitter, Gisella; Ludvigsson, Jonas Filip; Romor, Pierantonio; Zanier, Loris; Zanotti, Renzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies reported an association between antibiotic consumption in the first year of life and later asthma, but results are conflicting and affected by potential biases. We examined this controversial issue in a population-based birth cohort. Using administrative data, we identified 143,163 children born in 1995-2011 in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy) (median follow-up 5.25 years, 927,350 person-years). Antibiotic prescriptions in the first year of life and subsequent treated asthma (defined as ≥2 anti-asthmatic drug prescriptions within a 12-month period) were retrieved from drug prescription records. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) using Poisson regression models, adjusted for perinatal variables and for hospitalizations for infections in the first year of life. We identified 34,957 new-onset asthma cases. Antibiotic consumption in the first year of life increased the risk of new-onset asthma [IRR 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-1.54] with a dose-response relationship (p-trend <0.001). The risk was highest for asthma identified at 13-35 months of life (IRR 2.07, 95% CI 2.00-2.14), but remained statistically significant for asthma identified at 36-71 months (IRR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.21) and at ≥72 months (IRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). Antibiotics increased the risk of current asthma at ≥6 years (IRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.30-1.41) and at ≥13 years of age (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.33). Antibiotic exposure in infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma up to adolescence. The association detected at older ages is not explained by reverse causation; however, confounding by respiratory infections not leading to hospital admission cannot be excluded. PMID:25957084

  15. Health-related quality of life as a predictor of pediatric healthcare costs: A two-year prospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seid, Michael; Varni, James W; Segall, Darron; Kurtin, Paul S

    2004-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to test the primary hypothesis that parent proxy-report of pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQL) would prospectively predict pediatric healthcare costs over a two-year period. The exploratory hypothesis tested anticipated that a relatively small group of children would account for a disproportionately large percent of healthcare costs. Methods 317 children (157 girls) ages 2 to 18 years, members of a managed care health plan with prospective payment participated in a two-year prospective longitudinal study. At Time 1, parents reported child HRQL using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™ 4.0) Generic Core Scales, and chronic health condition status. Costs, based on health plan utilization claims and encounters, were derived for 6, 12, and 24 months. Results In multiple linear regression equations, Time 1 parent proxy-reported HRQL prospectively accounted for significant variance in healthcare costs at 6, 12, and 24 months. Adjusted regression models that included both HRQL scores and chronic health condition status accounted for 10.1%, 14.4%, and 21.2% of the variance in healthcare costs at 6, 12, and 24 months. Parent proxy-reported HRQL and chronic health condition status together defined a 'high risk' group, constituting 8.7% of the sample and accounting for 37.4%, 59.2%, and 62% of healthcare costs at 6, 12, and 24 months. The high risk group's per member per month healthcare costs were, on average, 12 times that of other enrollees' at 24 months. Conclusions While these findings should be further tested in a larger sample, our data suggest that parent proxy-reported HRQL can be used to prospectively predict healthcare costs. When combined with chronic health condition status, parent proxy-reported HRQL can identify an at risk group of children as candidates for proactive care coordination. PMID:15361252

  16. Contribution of Excessive Alcohol Consumption to Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roeber, Jim; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D.; Zhang, Xingyou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of premature mortality in the United States. The objectives of this study were to update national estimates of alcohol-attributable deaths (AAD) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) in the United States, calculate age-adjusted rates of AAD and YPLL in states, assess the contribution of AAD and YPLL to total deaths and YPLL among working-age adults, and estimate the number of deaths and YPLL among those younger than 21 years. Methods We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Alcohol-Related Disease Impact application for 2006–2010 to estimate total AAD and YPLL across 54 conditions for the United States, by sex and age. AAD and YPLL rates and the proportion of total deaths that were attributable to excessive alcohol consumption among working-age adults (20-64 y) were calculated for the United States and for individual states. Results From 2006 through 2010, an annual average of 87,798 (27.9/100,000 population) AAD and 2.5 million (831.6/100,000) YPLL occurred in the United States. Age-adjusted state AAD rates ranged from 51.2/100,000 in New Mexico to 19.1/100,000 in New Jersey. Among working-age adults, 9.8% of all deaths in the United States during this period were attributable to excessive drinking, and 69% of all AAD involved working-age adults. Conclusions Excessive drinking was responsible for 1 in 10 deaths among working-age adults in the United States. AAD rates vary across states, but excessive drinking remains a leading cause of premature mortality nationwide. Strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force can help reduce excessive drinking and harms related to it. PMID:24967831

  17. Post-Test Analysis of a 10-Year Sodium Heat Pipe Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Locci, Ivan E.; Sanzi, James L.; Hull, David R.; Geng, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 years) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described. Lessons learned and future life test plans are also discussed.

  18. Silicosis-related years of potential life lost before age 65 years--United States, 1968-2005.

    PubMed

    2008-07-18

    Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica occurs in construction, mining, manufacturing, and other industries and can result in silicosis and other lung diseases. Classic (chronic) silicosis results from exposure to relatively low concentrations of respirable crystalline silica for >/=years. Exposure to higher concentrations of silica for 5-10 years can cause accelerated silicosis, and symptoms of acute silicosis can sometimes develop within weeks of initial exposure to extreme concentrations of silica. Deaths in young adults from acute or accelerated silicosis generally reflect more recent and intense exposures. Silicosis is incurable, but preventable through effective control and elimination of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. To characterize recent trends in premature mortality attributed to silicosis in the United States, CDC analyzed annual mortality data from 1968-2005, the most recent years for which complete data were available. Years of potential life lost before age 65 years (YPLL) and mean YPLL were calculated using standard methodology. During 1968-2005, total annual YPLL attributed to silicosis (17,130) declined 90.2%, from 1,441 (mean per decedent: 7.7 YPLL) to 141 (mean per decedent: 11.8), with an annual average of 8.6 YPLL per decedent for the period. However, the proportion of YPLL attributable to young silicosis decedents increased; an estimated 3,600-7,300 new silicosis cases occur annually. Hazard surveillance, workplace-specific interventions, and further silicosis prevention and elimination efforts, especially among young adults, are needed. PMID:18636065

  19. Comfort for the dying: five year retrospective and one year prospective studies of end of life experiences.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Peter; Lovelace, Hilary; Brayne, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Many cultures have reported end-of-life experiences (ELEs) as part of the dying process. However, few studies have examined the mental states of the dying in the weeks and days before death. Following an ELE pilot study with a palliative care team, 38 nurses, doctors and end-of-life carers from two hospices and a nursing home took part in a 5-year retrospective followed by a 1-year prospective ELE study. Interviewees' reports (first-hand and second-hand accounts from relatives, patients and residents) suggested that ELEs are not uncommon. ELEs included deathbed phenomena (DBP) such as visions, coincidences and the desire to reconcile with estranged family members. These experiences seemed to comfort both the dying and the bereaved. Interviewees described other phenomena such as clocks stopping synchronistically at the time of death, shapes leaving the body, light surrounding the body and strange animal behavior. Interviewees confirmed that ELEs differed from drug-induced hallucinations and occurred in clear consciousness. Most expressed concern about a lack of specialist ELE training and education and recommended that ELE modules be included in their training courses. ELEs provided comfort and hope for the dying and consolation for the bereaved. Further research is required to find the true prevalence and range of ELE phenomena. PMID:19913927

  20. The Predictive Relationship between Temperament, School Adjustment, and Academic Achievement: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Children At-Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hendawi, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in temperament can be a risk or a protective factor for a child, especially for children at-risk who possess single or multiple risk factors that may interfere with their educational success and affect their healthy development and their life-long outcomes. This research study examined the concurrent and longitudinal…

  1. Investigating the Potential of Community College Developmental Summer Bridge Programs in Facilitating Student Adjustment to Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Claire E.; Alozie, Nonye M.; Wathington, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether community college developmental summer bridge programs (DSBPs) can help students acquire the academic and college knowledge needed to attend and succeed at a four-year higher education institution. In-depth interviews with 14 participants at nine four-year institutions in Texas were conducted two years after their…

  2. The Impact of First-Year Seminars on College Students' Life-Long Learning Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ryan D.; Keup, Jennifer R.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, this study measured the impact of first-year seminars on college students' life-long learning orientations. The findings suggest that first-year seminars enhance students' life-long learning orientations and that the effect of first-year seminars is…

  3. Reciprocal Influences Between Maternal Parenting and Child Adjustment in a High-risk Population: A Five-Year Cross-Lagged Analysis of Bidirectional Effects

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress and their child's adjustment, in a two-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive four broad parenting constructs (Involvement, Control, Rejection, and Stress) and three child adjustment constructs (Internalizing problems, Externalizing problems, and Social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influence were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, while child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bi-directional influences, and their potential for practical applications. PMID:25089759

  4. Reciprocal influences between maternal parenting and child adjustment in a high-risk population: a 5-year cross-lagged analysis of bidirectional effects.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-09-01

    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress, and their child's adjustment, in a 2-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive 4 broad parenting constructs (involvement, control, rejection, and stress) and 3 child adjustment constructs (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influences were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, and child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bidirectional influences and their potential for practical applications. PMID:25089759

  5. Dynamics and Stabilization of the Human Gut Microbiome during the First Year of Life.

    PubMed

    Bäckhed, Fredrik; Roswall, Josefine; Peng, Yangqing; Feng, Qiang; Jia, Huijue; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Li, Yin; Xia, Yan; Xie, Hailiang; Zhong, Huanzi; Khan, Muhammad Tanweer; Zhang, Jianfeng; Li, Junhua; Xiao, Liang; Al-Aama, Jumana; Zhang, Dongya; Lee, Ying Shiuan; Kotowska, Dorota; Colding, Camilla; Tremaroli, Valentina; Yin, Ye; Bergman, Stefan; Xu, Xun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Wang, Jun; Jun, Wang

    2015-05-13

    The gut microbiota is central to human health, but its establishment in early life has not been quantitatively and functionally examined. Applying metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from a large cohort of Swedish infants and their mothers, we characterized the gut microbiome during the first year of life and assessed the impact of mode of delivery and feeding on its establishment. In contrast to vaginally delivered infants, the gut microbiota of infants delivered by C-section showed significantly less resemblance to their mothers. Nutrition had a major impact on early microbiota composition and function, with cessation of breast-feeding, rather than introduction of solid food, being required for maturation into an adult-like microbiota. Microbiota composition and ecological network had distinctive features at each sampled stage, in accordance with functional maturation of the microbiome. Our findings establish a framework for understanding the interplay between the gut microbiome and the human body in early life. PMID:25974306

  6. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2010 - 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028.

  7. Safety, efficacy, and life satisfaction following epilepsy surgery in patients aged 60 years and older.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Sandra; Eliashiv, Dawn; Walshaw, Patricia D; Engel, Jerome; Fried, Itzhak; Moseley, Brian D

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Despite its potential to offer seizure freedom, resective epilepsy surgery (RES) is seldom performed in patients 60 years of age or older. Demonstrating successful outcomes including an improved quality of life may raise awareness about the advantages of referring this underrepresented population for specialized evaluation. Accordingly, the authors investigated outcomes and life fulfillment in patients with an age ≥ 60 years who had undergone RES. METHODS All patients who, at the age of 60 years or older, had undergone RES for medically refractory focal onset seizures at the authors' center were evaluated. A modified Liverpool Life Fulfillment (LLF) tool was administered postoperatively (maximum score 32). Seizure outcomes were classified according to the Engel classification system. RESULTS Twelve patients underwent RES. The majority of patients (9 [75%] of 12) had at least 1 medical comorbidity in addition to seizures. The mean follow-up was 3.1 ± 2.1 years. At the time of the final follow-up, 11 (91.7%) of 12 patients were documented as having a good postsurgical outcome (Engel Class I-II). Half (6 of 12 patients) were completely seizure free (Engel Class IA). Liverpool Life Fulfillment (LLF) data were available for 11 patients. Following surgery, the mean LLF score was 26.7 ± 6. Eight patients (72.7%) noted excellent satisfaction with their RES, with 5 (45.5%) noting postoperative improvements in overall health. CONCLUSIONS Resective epilepsy surgery is safe and effective in patients with an age ≥ 60 years. Over 90% had a good surgical outcome, with 50% becoming completely seizure free despite 1 or more medical comorbidities in the majority. The study data indicated that an advancing age should not negatively influence consideration for RES. PMID:26381254

  8. Safety, efficacy, and life satisfaction following epilepsy surgery in patients aged 60 years and older

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Sandra; Eliashiv, Dawn; Walshaw, Patricia D.; Engel, Jerome; Fried, Itzhak; Moseley, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite its potential to offer seizure freedom, resective epilepsy surgery (RES) is seldom performed in patients 60 years of age or older. Demonstrating successful outcomes including an improved quality of life may raise awareness about the advantages of referring this underrepresented population for specialized evaluation. Accordingly, the authors investigated outcomes and life fulfillment in patients with an age ≥ 60 years who had undergone RES. METHODS All patients who, at the age of 60 years or older, had undergone RES for medically refractory focal onset seizures at the authors’ center were evaluated. A modified Liverpool Life Fulfillment (LLF) tool was administered postoperatively (maximum score 32). Seizure outcomes were classified according to the Engel classification system. RESULTS Twelve patients underwent RES. The majority of patients (9 [75%] of 12) had at least 1 medical comorbidity in addition to seizures. The mean follow-up was 3.1 ± 2.1 years. At the time of the final follow-up, 11 (91.7%) of 12 patients were documented as having a good postsurgical outcome (Engel Class I–II). Half (6 of 12 patients) were completely seizure free (Engel Class IA). Liverpool Life Fulfillment (LLF) data were available for 11 patients. Following surgery, the mean LLF score was 26.7 ± 6. Eight patients (72.7%) noted excellent satisfaction with their RES, with 5 (45.5%) noting postoperative improvements in overall health. CONCLUSIONS Resective epilepsy surgery is safe and effective in patients with an age ≥ 60 years. Over 90% had a good surgical outcome, with 50% becoming completely seizure free despite 1 or more medical comorbidities in the majority. The study data indicated that an advancing age should not negatively influence consideration for RES. PMID:26381254

  9. 26 CFR 1.801-6 - Adjustments in reserves for policy loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... taxable year 1958: Jan. 1 Dec. 31 Mean of year 1. Life insurance reserves $1,000 $2,000 $1,500 2. Policy...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-6 Adjustments in... whether or not an insurance company is a life insurance company (as defined in section 801(a)...

  10. 26 CFR 1.801-6 - Adjustments in reserves for policy loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... taxable year 1958: Jan. 1 Dec. 31 Mean of year 1. Life insurance reserves $1,000 $2,000 $1,500 2. Policy...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-6 Adjustments in... whether or not an insurance company is a life insurance company (as defined in section 801(a)...

  11. 26 CFR 1.801-6 - Adjustments in reserves for policy loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... taxable year 1958: Jan. 1 Dec. 31 Mean of year 1. Life insurance reserves $1,000 $2,000 $1,500 2. Policy...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-6 Adjustments in... whether or not an insurance company is a life insurance company (as defined in section 801(a)...

  12. 26 CFR 1.801-6 - Adjustments in reserves for policy loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... taxable year 1958: Jan. 1 Dec. 31 Mean of year 1. Life insurance reserves $1,000 $2,000 $1,500 2. Policy...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-6 Adjustments in... whether or not an insurance company is a life insurance company (as defined in section 801(a)...

  13. [The End-of-life Clinic: results from the first year].

    PubMed

    Snijdewind, Marianne C; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Willems, Dick L

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 the Dutch Dying with Dignity Society (NVVE) founded the End-of-life Clinic, which provides euthanasia or help with assisted suicide at the request of people whose own doctor will not carry out euthanasia if the legal requirements of due care can been fulfilled. As part of an independent evaluation, we looked at the applications received by the End-of-life Clinic during its first year and at the outcomes of these applications. We wrote an extensive article on this subject which was published in JAMA Internal Medicine. One of the most important outcomes is that the End-of-life Clinic rejected a large percentage of the requests for its services, mainly as these came from people with psychiatric conditions. This means that the fears that some people have concerning the alleged End-of-life Clinic policy 'you ask, we comply', appear to be unfounded. On the other hand, the End-of-life Clinic is certainly not the solution for all those people whose requests to their own doctor fall on deaf ears. PMID:26840939

  14. Nutrition through the life span. Part 3: adults aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Alison

    The UK has an ageing population, but this is not being matched by a similar increase in healthy life expectancy. The greatest challenge in the 21st century will be to improve the quality of life as ageing occurs. Health is the most important prerequisite for people to enjoy life in their older years (Brundtland, 1988). Diet is one factor that is believed to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with ageing. The third and final part of this series addressing the concept of nutrition through the lifespan seeks to educate health-care professionals as to what constitutes a healthy diet for the elderly population, and gives practical guidance as to how to try and prevent the ever-growing problem of malnutrition within this age group. It is suggested that when the older adult is hospitalized their risk of malnutrition increases. Therefore, some guidance for the use of oral nutritional supplements in this population is given. Good nutrition and physical exercise are essential for healthy ageing from both a physical and psychological perspective (NICE, 2008). Therefore a multidisciplinary life course approach to ageing is vital to minimizing its complications for quality of life and subsequent public health (Denny, 2008). PMID:19273990

  15. Determinants of an impaired quality of life five years after coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Herlitz, J; Wiklund, I; Caidahl, K; Karlson, B; Sjoland, H; Hartford, M; Haglid, M; Karlsson, T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify determinants of an inferior quality of life (QoL) five years after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
SETTING—University hospital.
PARTICIPANTS—Patients from western Sweden who underwent CABG between 1988 and 1991.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Questionnaires for evaluating QoL before CABG and five years after operation. Three different instruments were used: the Nottingham health profile (NHP), the psychological general wellbeing index (PGWI), and the physical activity score (PAS).
RESULTS—2121 patients underwent CABG, of whom 310 died during five years' follow up. Information on QoL after five years was available in 1431 survivors (79%). There were three independent predictors for an inferior QoL with all three instruments: female sex, a history of diabetes mellitus, and a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Multivariate analysis showed that a poor preoperative QoL was a strong independent predictor for an impaired QoL five years after CABG. An impaired QoL was also predicted by previous disease.
CONCLUSIONS—Female sex, an impaired QoL before surgery, and other diseases such as diabetes mellitus are independent predictors for an impaired QoL after CABG in survivors five years after operation.

 Keywords: coronary artery bypass surgery; predictors; quality of life PMID:10092557

  16. Pulmonary Support On Day Of Life 30 Is A Strong Predictor Of Increased 1 And 5-Year Morbidity In Survivors Of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Cauley, Ryan P.; Potanos, Kristina; Fullington, Nora; Bairdain, Sigrid; Sheils, Catherine A.; Finkelstein, Jonathan A.; Graham, Dionne A.; Wilson, Jay M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pulmonary support (PS) on day-of-life-30 (DOL-30) has been shown to be the strongest predictor of subsequent morbidity and in-patient mortality in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH). We hypothesized that PS on DOL-30 can also predict long-term outcomes in CDH survivors. Methods We analyzed records of 201 CDH survivors followed by a single multidisciplinary clinic (1995–2010). Follow-up was 83% and 70% at 1 and 5 years respectively. PS was defined as: (1) invasive support (n=44), (2) noninvasive support (n=54), or (3) room air (n=103). Logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association of PS on DOL-30 with outcomes at 1 and 5-years. Results Use of PS on DOL-30 was significantly associated with pulmonary and developmental morbidities at 1 and 5-years. Even after adjusting for defect-size and presence of ventilation/perfusion mismatch, greater PS on DOL-30 was associated with a significantly increased odds of requiring supplemental oxygen and developmental referral at 1-year, and asthma and developmental referral at 5-years. Conclusion CDH survivors continue to have significant long-term pulmonary and developmental morbidities. PS on DOL-30 is a strong independent predictor of morbidity at 1 and 5-years and may be used as a simple prognostic tool to identify high-risk infants. PMID:25783313

  17. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  18. Neuroticism and Extraversion in Youth Predict Mental Wellbeing and Life Satisfaction 40 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R; Booth, Tom; Mõttus, René; Kuh, Diana; Deary, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Neuroticism and Extraversion are linked with current wellbeing, but it is unclear whether these traits in youth predict wellbeing decades later. We applied structural equation modelling to data from 4583 people from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. We examined the effects of Neuroticism and Extraversion at ages 16 and 26 years on mental wellbeing and life satisfaction at age 60-64 and explored the mediating roles of psychological and physical health. Extraversion had direct, positive effects on both measures of wellbeing. The impact of Neuroticism on both wellbeing and life satisfaction was largely indirect through susceptibility to psychological distress and physical health problems. Personality dispositions in youth have enduring influence on wellbeing assessed about forty years later. PMID:24563560

  19. Staphylococcal resistance against five groups of life saving antibiotics in the year 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Anab; Shyum-Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Perveen, Shaheen; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Saeed, Rehana

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2003 to 2005 a prospective study was conducted to find out the predominance of Staphylococcus (Staphylococcus aureus) resistance pattern in opposition to five life saving antibiotics as these are the sole agents to treat critically ill patients in hospitals. During the period of two years almost 2500 samples of bacterial culture were taken from different pathological laboratories and hospitals in Karachi. Among these 1500 were Gram positive cocci and 1000 samples were identified as Staphylococcus aureus. Life saving antibiotics were taken from five different groups and by mean of disk diffusion technique antibiogram of Staphylococcus aureus against these antibiotic were determined. During the course of study imipenem showed 11%, amikacin exhibited 58%, cefipime showed 31%, vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam displayed 24% resistance against Staphylococcus aureus. Imipenem was found to be most effective against Staphylococcus aureus.Resistance to other antibiotics developed quickly in Staphylococcus aureus collected from clinical areas where these antimicrobial agents are extensively used. PMID:24191318

  20. The diving reflex in healthy infants in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Fleming S; Riesgo, Rudimar S; Gatiboni, Tanira; Rotta, Newra T

    2012-02-01

    A cohort study was conducted with a random sample of 33 healthy infants evaluated at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 months to determine the frequency of respiratory rate changes in response to air blown over the face (diving reflex) in the first year of life, and to standardize the description of diving reflex occurrence. All 33 infants remained neurologically normal throughout follow-up. Diving reflex was observed in 95.3% of newborns and in 100% of infants between 2 and 6 months of age. At 6 months, it started to decrease but persisted in 90% of the infants up to 12 months. The diving reflex is highly prevalent in the first year of life and can be easily elicited by applying a flow of air over the infant's face, particularly during crying. PMID:21881008

  1. Longitudinal Study of Sleep Behavior in Normal Infants during the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Oliviero; Baumgartner, Emma; Sette, Stefania; Ancona, Mario; Caso, Gianni; Di Cosimo, Maria Elisabetta; Mannini, Andrea; Ometto, Mariangela; Pasquini, Anna; Ulliana, Antonella; Ferri, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To longitudinally examine sleep patterns, habits, and parent-reported sleep problems during the first year of life. Methods: Seven hundred four parent/child pairs participated in a longitudinal cohort study. Structured interview recording general demographic data, feeding habits, intercurrent diseases, family history, sleep habits, and parental evaluation of the infant's sleep carried out at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months Results: Nocturnal, daytime, and total sleep duration showed a high inter-individual variability in the first year of life associated with changes in the first 6 months and stability from 6 to 12 months. Bedtime was at around 22:00 and remained stable at 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Approximately 20% of the infants had more than 2 awakenings and slept more often in the parent bed. Nearly 10% of the infants were considered as having a problematic sleep by parents and this significantly correlated with nocturnal awakenings and difficulties falling asleep. Conclusions: Sleep patterns change during the first year of life but most sleep variables (i.e., sleep latency and duration) show little variation from 6 to 12 months. Our data provide a context for clinicians to discuss sleep issues with parents and suggest that prevention efforts should focus to the first 3-6 months, since sleep patterns show stability from that time point to 12 months. Citation: Bruni O, Baumgartner E, Sette S, Ancona M, Caso G, Di Cosimo ME, Mannini A, Ometto M, Pasquini A, Ulliana A, Ferri R. Longitudinal study of sleep behavior in normal infants during the first year of life. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1119-1127. PMID:25317093

  2. Couple and Individual Adjustment for 2 Years Following a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Traditional versus Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Andrew; Atkins, David C.; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H.; George, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Follow-up data across 2 years were obtained on 130 of 134 couples who were originally part of a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional versus integrative behavioral couple therapy (TBCT vs. IBCT; A. Christensen et al., 2004). Both treatments produced similar levels of clinically significant improvement at 2 years posttreatment (69% of…

  3. Predictors of the Adjustment of First-Year Students to College: The Role of Early Involvement and Type of Residence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenzel, L. Mickey

    This study examined the benefits of early involvement in co-curricular activities and first-year seminars among first-year college students with respect to alcohol and other drug use, self-worth perceptions, attitudes toward social justice, engagement in the academic process, and community service involvement approximately 6 weeks into the fall…

  4. Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Social and School Adjustment in Chinese Children: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Li, Dan; Wang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations between early behavioral inhibition and social and school outcomes in Chinese children (N = 200). Data on behavioral inhibition were collected from a sample of 2-year-olds in China. Follow-up data on social behaviors, peer relationships, and school performance were collected from multiple sources at 7 years of age.…

  5. Diseases Attributable to Asbestos Exposure: Years of Potential Life Lost, United States, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Ki Moon; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Wood, John M.; Hendricks, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although asbestos use has been restricted in recent decades, asbestos-associated deaths continue to occur in the United States. Objectives We evaluated premature mortality and loss of potentially productive years of life attributable to asbestos-associated diseases. Methods Using 1999–2010 National Center for Health Statistics mortality data, we identified decedents aged ≥25 years whose death certificate listed asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma as the underlying cause of death. We computed years of potential life lost to life expectancy (YPLL) and to age 65 (YPLL65). Results During 1999–2010, a total of 427,005 YPLL and 55,184 YPLL65 were attributed to asbestosis (56,907 YPLL and 2,167 YPLL65), malignant mesothelioma (370,098 YPPL and 53,017 YPLL65). Overall and disease-specific asbestos-attributable total YPLL and YPLL65 and median YPLL and YPLL65 per decedent did not change significantly from 1999 to 2010. Conclusions The continuing occurrence of asbestos-associated diseases and their substantial premature mortality burden underscore the need for maintaining prevention efforts and for ongoing surveillance to monitor temporal trends in these diseases. PMID:24108494

  6. Symptom trends in the last year of life, 1998-2010: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Adam E.; Meeker, Daniella; Teno, Joan M.; Lynn, Joanne; Lunney, June R.; Lorenz, Karl A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research in the 1990s described serious symptoms at the end of life, and a 1997 Institute of Medicine report called for improvement. Hospice and palliative care have grown considerably since then. Objective To describe changes in pain intensity and symptom prevalence during the last year of life from 1998 to 2010. Design Observational study. Setting Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents aged 51 and older. Participants 7,204 HRS participants who died while enrolled in the study, and their family respondents. Measurements Proxy-reported pain during the last year of life; depression, confusion, dyspnea, incontinence, fatigue, anorexia, and vomiting for a period of at least one month during the last year of life. Trends in pain intensity and symptom prevalence were analyzed among all decedents and those within cancer, congestive heart failure or chronic lung disease, frailty, and sudden death. Results Between 1998 and 2010, proxy reports of the prevalence of any pain (mild, moderate, or severe) increased for all decedents by 11.9% (95% CI: 3.1%, 21.4%). Reported prevalence of depression increased for all decedents by 26.6% (14.5%, 40.1%), for congestive heart failure or chronic lung disease by 27.0% (8.1%, 49.3%), and for frailty by 39.4% (9.9%, 79.8%). Reported prevalence of periodic confusion increased for all decedents by 31.3% (18.6%, 45.1%), for congestive heart failure or chronic lung disease by 24.9% (6.0%, 47.6%), for frailty by 20.3% (5.9%, 39.1%), and for sudden death by 45.7% (5.9%, 106.1%). Trends in the reported prevalence of most other symptoms in most groups of decedents were positive but not significant. Moderate or severe pain, severe fatigue, anorexia, and frequent vomiting did not show significant changes in any group of decedents. There were no significant changes for cancer. Limitation Proxy reports, mostly yes/no symptom questions. Conclusion Despite

  7. Life Stress and the Long-Term Treatment Course of Recurrent Depression: III. Nonsevere Life Events Predict Recurrence for Medicated Patients over 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott M.; Torres, Leandro D.; Guillaumot, Julien; Harkness, Kate L.; Roberts, John E.; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David

    2006-01-01

    Research has consistently documented the significance of severe life events for onset of major depression. Theory, however, suggests other forms of stress are relevant for depression's recurrence. Nonsevere life events were tested in relation to depression for 126 patients with recurrent depression in a 3-year randomized maintenance protocol. Life…

  8. Junior doctors in their first year: mental health, quality of life, burnout and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Henning, Marcus A; Sollers, John; Strom, Joanna M; Hill, Andrew G; Lyndon, Mataroria P; Cumin, David; Hawken, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in, and evidence of, quality of life and burnout issues among doctors. It was hypothesized that the junior doctors in this study would experience psychosocial and physiological changes over time, and that the obtained measures would indicate psychosocial and physiological anomalies. In addition, it was hypothesized that their psychosocial perceptions would be significantly associated with their physiological measures. A total sample of 17 junior doctors in their first year of training volunteered for this study. Over four time periods separated by 6 week phases, the doctors completed a set of quality of life and psychosocial inventories and wore a Polar RS800 Heart Rate Monitor over a day and night time interval. The findings showed that this sample of doctors did not report any problems associated with depression, anxiety, stress, burnout or quality of life (psychosocial measures). In addition, their heart rate variability scores (physiological measures) did not show any significant fluctuations. Furthermore, the responses from the self-report instruments measuring stress, anxiety, depression, quality of life and burnout did not consistently correlate with the HRV information suggesting a mind-body disconnection. More work needs to be done on larger samples to investigate these findings further given that the literature shows that junior doctors are likely to be stressed and working in stress-provoking environments. PMID:24706177

  9. Physical Activity at Mid-Life in Relation to Successful Survival in Women at Age 70 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K.; Okereke, Olivia I.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hu, Frank B.; Grodstein, Francine

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases and premature death. Whether physical activity is also associated with improved overall health among those who survive to older ages is unclear. Methods A total of 13,535 Nurses’ Health Study participants who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline in 1986 and had survived to age 70 years or older as of 1995–2001 comprised the study population. We defined successful survival as no history of 11 major chronic diseases and no cognitive impairment, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results After multivariate adjustment for covariates, higher physical activity levels at mid-life, as measured by metabolic equivalent tasks, were significantly associated with better odds of successful survival. Significant increases in successful survival were observed beginning at the third quintile of activity: Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) in the lowest to highest quintiles were 1.00 (reference), 0.98 (0.80, 1.20), 1.37 (1.13, 1.65), 1.34 (1.11, 1.61), and 1.99 (1.66, 2.38; P for trend < 0.0001). Increasing energy expenditure from walking was associated with a similar elevation in odds of successful survival: The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of successful survival across quintiles of walking were 1.00 (reference), 0.99 (0.80, 1.21), 1.19 (0.97, 1.45), 1.50 (1.24, 1.82), and 1.47 (1.22, 1.79; P for trend < 0.0001). Conclusion These data provide evidence that higher levels of mid-life physical activity are associated with exceptional health status among women who survive to older ages, and corroborate the potential role of physical activity in improving overall health. PMID:20101015

  10. Insomnia, Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Outcomes in Children: A Seven Year Longitudinal Cohort.

    PubMed

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L; Quan, Stuart F; Morgan, Wayne J; Shetty, Safal; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia is common in children, and is associated with decreased school performance and increased psychopathology. Although adult insomnia is linked to worsened health-related quality of life (HRQOL), there is insufficient data evaluating insomnia and HRQOL in children. We examined the HRQOL and health associations of insomnia in a longitudinal cohort of 194 children (96 girls, age at study start 8.7 ± 1.6 years, age at data analysis 15.0 ± 1.8 years) over 7 years. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition (ICSD2) derived insomnia was seen intermittently in 27% of children, and was persistent in 4%. Children reporting ICSD2-derived insomnia had lower HRQOL. Additionally, the presence of insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medical condition (intermittent insomnia odds ratio 5.9 [95% CI 1.3-26.7, p = 0.04], persistent insomnia odds ratio 8 [95% CI 2.3-27.7, p = 0.001]). Persistent ICSD2-derived insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medication (odds ratio 4.9 (95% CI 1.0-23.6), p = 0.049), and reporting a new psychiatric medication (odds ratio 13.7, 95% CI: 2.6-73.5, p = 0.002). These associations were present even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. Insomnia in children is associated with worsened HRQOL and health outcomes. PMID:27295263

  11. Insomnia, Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Outcomes in Children: A Seven Year Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Shetty, Safal; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia is common in children, and is associated with decreased school performance and increased psychopathology. Although adult insomnia is linked to worsened health-related quality of life (HRQOL), there is insufficient data evaluating insomnia and HRQOL in children. We examined the HRQOL and health associations of insomnia in a longitudinal cohort of 194 children (96 girls, age at study start 8.7 ± 1.6 years, age at data analysis 15.0 ± 1.8 years) over 7 years. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition (ICSD2) derived insomnia was seen intermittently in 27% of children, and was persistent in 4%. Children reporting ICSD2-derived insomnia had lower HRQOL. Additionally, the presence of insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medical condition (intermittent insomnia odds ratio 5.9 [95% CI 1.3–26.7, p = 0.04], persistent insomnia odds ratio 8 [95% CI 2.3–27.7, p = 0.001]). Persistent ICSD2-derived insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medication (odds ratio 4.9 (95% CI 1.0–23.6), p = 0.049), and reporting a new psychiatric medication (odds ratio 13.7, 95% CI: 2.6–73.5, p = 0.002). These associations were present even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. Insomnia in children is associated with worsened HRQOL and health outcomes. PMID:27295263

  12. Four-year prospective evaluation of the relationship between meaning in life and smoking status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, all investigations on the relationship between smoking and perceived level of meaning in life have used cross-sectional designs. Therefore, the purpose of the present prospective study, conducted with a four-year time lag, was to test the predictive power of the life meaning construct concerning changes in smoking status. Methods The data of 4,294 respondents (40.3% male, Mage = 54.7 ± 16.5 yrs) from the Hungarian Epidemiological Panel Survey were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann–Whitney U-test and structural equation modeling (SEM) with a nominal outcome variable. Gender, age, and educational level were included in the study as covariates. Results On the bivariate level, results showed that both baseline and follow-up meaning in life scores were higher in stable non-smokers when compared to stable smokers. However, quitters and starters differed from stable non-smokers in their baseline but not in follow-up life meaning scores. The other relationships (stable smokers vs. quitters; stable smokers vs. starters, starters vs. quitters) were non-significant in both time points. According to the SEM-analysis, a higher sense of meaning in life measured at baseline and follow-up is associated with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.54, z = 2.80, p = 0.005; OR = 0.64, z = 2.88, p = 0.004, respectively) of being a stable smoker compared to being a stable non-smoker, confirming the expected relationship between smoking and decreased level of meaning in life. However, neither baseline nor follow-up life meaning scores predicted significantly quitting and uptake of smoking. Conclusions If future research from other cultures verifies the protective role of a higher level of meaning in life against smoking, then smoking prevention and cessation programs will also have to include such components that help individuals experience more meaning in their lives. PMID:23433067

  13. Seven-Year Life Outcomes of Adolescent Offenders in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Morral, Andrew R.; Becker, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined important life outcomes for adolescent offenders to describe how they were faring in young adulthood. Methods. We assessed 449 adolescent offenders (aged 13–17 years) in Los Angeles, CA, whose cases had been adjudicated by the Los Angeles Superior Court and who had been referred to group homes between February 1999 and May 2000. We used the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs to interview respondents at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, 72, and 87 months after baseline. A total of 395 respondents (88%) were interviewed or confirmed as dead at the final interview. Results. At final interview, 12 respondents had died, 7 of them from gunshot wounds. Thirty-six percent of respondents reported recent hard drug use, and 27% reported 5 or more symptoms of substance dependence. Sixty-six percent reported committing an illegal activity within the previous year, 37% reported being arrested within the previous year, and 25% reported being in jail or prison every day for the previous 90 days. Fifty-eight percent had completed high school or obtained a GED, and 63% reported working at a job in the previous year. Conclusions. The high rates of negative life outcomes presented here suggest the need for more effective rehabilitation programs for juvenile offenders. PMID:19299674

  14. 26 CFR 20.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary interests prior to May 1, 2009. 20.7520-1 Section 20.7520-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Valuations § 20.7520-1 Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years,...

  15. 26 CFR 20.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary interests prior to May 1, 2009. 20.7520-1 Section 20.7520-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Valuations § 20.7520-1 Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years,...

  16. Problem-Solving Appraisal and Human Adjustment: A Review of 20 Years of Research Using the Problem Solving Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews and synthesizes more than 120 studies from 20 years (1982-2002) of research that has examined problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). The goals of the article are fourfold: (a) introduce the construct of problem-solving appraisal and the PSI within the applied problem-solving literature,…

  17. The Achievement and Social Adjustment of Accelerated Students: The Impact of Academic Talent Search after Seven Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Terry A.

    Academic Talent Search (ATS) provided advanced instruction in a 6-week summer school for talented middle school students on the campus of California State University, Sacramento. A survey was conducted to examine the long-term impact of the ATS program on students over a period of 7 years. Data were collected pertaining to high school and college…

  18. Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities. PMID:22218266

  19. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it. PMID:27162927

  20. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) in Hungary; The First 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Endre; Endre, Endre; Kószó, Balázs; Pető, Zoltán; Ágoston, Zsuzsanna; Gyura, Erika; Nardai, Gábor; Boa, Kristóf; Süveges, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programs are recognized as the standard educational trauma program worldwide. Data suggest that ATLS has a positive impact on the value of trauma care. The ATLS Hungary program has been started in 2005, celebrating its 10-year anniversary this year. In the present brief communication a brief overview is provided on the program.Student evaluation and statistical data about the participants were collected throughout the 10-year history of the Hungarian program.Student evaluation shows a high level of satisfaction amongst the participating doctors. Most participants are working in higher level centers. The Hungarian program shows good quality according to the participants. Establishing at least one new center is crucial to be able to provide the course for every professional interested in it or required to take it. PMID:27162927

  1. Differential changes in quality of life components over 5 years in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Katsura; Makita, Hironi; Suzuki, Masaru; Shimizu, Kaoruko; Konno, Satoshi; Ito, Yoichi M; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine the longitudinal change in quality of life components of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods In the Hokkaido COPD Cohort Study, 261 subjects were appropriately treated and followed over 5 years with a 74% follow-up rate at the end. The longitudinal changes in St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores were annually evaluated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). The subjects were classified into the rapid decliners, slow decliners, and sustainers based on ΔFEV1/year. Results The activity component of SGRQ generally deteriorated over time, and its annual decline was the greatest in the rapid decliners (<25th percentile). In contrast, the symptom component improved significantly year by year in the sustainers (>75 percentile), and it did not deteriorate even in the rapid decliners. Of the baseline data, predictors for worsening of the activity component were older age and lower body mass index. Larger reversibility was related to symptom component improvement. Of the follow-up data, ΔFEV1/year was the best predictor for worsening of the components of SGRQ. Continuous smoking was another factor for worsening of the activity component. For the symptom component, a history of exacerbation by admission definition was the determinant of its deterioration, whereas use of beta agonists was related to improvement. Conclusion The longitudinal changes of quality of life and their determinants are markedly different and independent between its components. The activity component of SGRQ generally deteriorated over years, while the symptom component rather improved in some patients with COPD under appropriate treatment. PMID:25914531

  2. Forms of vitality play and symbolic play during the third year of life.

    PubMed

    Español, Silvia; Bordoni, Mariana; Martínez, Mauricio; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    This article focuses on the development of forms of vitality play, a recently described type of play, and links it to the development of symbolic play, one of the most studied types of play in developmental psychology. Two adult-infant dyads were videotaped longitudinally during in-house free play meetings every 15 days during the third year of life. Convergence technique was applied in order to accelerate the longitudinal study. A total of 17h 48min were registered in 28 sessions. An observational code with categories of forms of vitality play (a non-figurative play frame in which child and adult play together with the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form), symbolic play, and categories of combined patterns of both types of play was applied. The rate of each play was calculated for different age periods. Forms of vitality play is present at a constant rate during the third year of life. Symbolic play flourishes during this period. Combined play patterns are not the most frequent but are present from the beginning to the end of the third year. We suggest that FoVP favours intimate and intersubjective experiences essential to the understanding and the development of the interpersonal world; that it can be thought of as a good runway for the development of symbolic play; and that it prepares the child to participate in the temporal arts that belong to his culture. PMID:26196471

  3. Can infant lung function predict respiratory morbidity during the first year of life in preterm infants?

    PubMed

    Proietti, Elena; Riedel, Thomas; Fuchs, Oliver; Pramana, Isabelle; Singer, Florian; Schmidt, Anne; Kuehni, Claudia; Latzin, Philipp; Frey, Urs

    2014-06-01

    Compared with term-born infants, preterm infants have increased respiratory morbidity in the first year of life. We investigated whether lung function tests performed near term predict subsequent respiratory morbidity during the first year of life and compared this to standard clinical parameters in preterms. The prospective birth cohort included randomly selected preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Lung function (tidal breathing and multiple-breath washout) was measured at 44 weeks post-menstrual age during natural sleep. We assessed respiratory morbidity (wheeze, hospitalisation, inhalation and home oxygen therapy) after 1 year using a standardised questionnaire. We first assessed the association between lung function and subsequent respiratory morbidity. Secondly, we compared the predictive power of standard clinical predictors with and without lung function data. In 166 preterm infants, tidal volume, time to peak tidal expiratory flow/expiratory time ratio and respiratory rate were significantly associated with subsequent wheeze. In comparison with standard clinical predictors, lung function did not improve the prediction of later respiratory morbidity in an individual child. Although associated with later wheeze, noninvasive infant lung function shows large physiological variability and does not add to clinically relevant risk prediction for subsequent respiratory morbidity in an individual preterm. PMID:24696112

  4. Temperament and parenting during the first year of life predict future child conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Van Hulle, Carol A; Keenan, Kate; Rathouz, Paul J; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Waldman, Irwin D

    2008-11-01

    Predictive associations between parenting and temperament during the first year of life and child conduct problems were assessed longitudinally in 1,863 offspring of a representative sample of women. Maternal ratings of infant fussiness, activity level, predictability, and positive affect each independently predicted maternal ratings of conduct problems during ages 4-13 years. Furthermore, a significant interaction indicated that infants who were both low in fussiness and high in predictability were at very low risk for future conduct problems. Fussiness was a stronger predictor of conduct problems in boys whereas fearfulness was a stronger predictor in girls. Conduct problems also were robustly predicted by low levels of early mother-report cognitive stimulation when infant temperament was controlled. Interviewer-rated maternal responsiveness was a robust predictor of conduct problems, but only among infants low in fearfulness. Spanking during infancy predicted slightly more severe conduct problems, but the prediction was moderated by infant fussiness and positive affect. Thus, individual differences in risk for mother-rated conduct problems across childhood are already partly evident in maternal ratings of temperament during the first year of life and are predicted by early parenting and parenting-by-temperament interactions. PMID:18568397

  5. Creep fatigue life prediction for engine hot section materials (isotropic): Third year progress review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Richard S.; Schoendorf, John F.

    1985-01-01

    This program is designed to investigate fundamental damage processes, identify modeling strategies, and develop practical models which can be used to guide the early design and development of new engines and to increase the durability of existing engines. A review is given of the base program, completed in 1984, which included the comparison and evaluation of several popular high-temperature life prediction approaches as applied to continuously cycled isothermal specimen tests. The option program, of which one year is completed, is designed to develop models which can account for complex cycles and loadings, such as thermomechanical cycling, cumulative damage, multiaxial stress/strain rates, and environmental effects.

  6. Fifteen years SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics: life science databases, tools and support.

    PubMed

    Stockinger, Heinz; Altenhoff, Adrian M; Arnold, Konstantin; Bairoch, Amos; Bastian, Frederic; Bergmann, Sven; Bougueleret, Lydie; Bucher, Philipp; Delorenzi, Mauro; Lane, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Lisacek, Frédérique; Michielin, Olivier; Palagi, Patricia M; Rougemont, Jacques; Schwede, Torsten; von Mering, Christian; van Nimwegen, Erik; Walther, Daniel; Xenarios, Ioannis; Zavolan, Mihaela; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zoete, Vincent; Appel, Ron D

    2014-07-01

    The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (www.isb-sib.ch) was created in 1998 as an institution to foster excellence in bioinformatics. It is renowned worldwide for its databases and software tools, such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PROSITE, SWISS-MODEL, STRING, etc, that are all accessible on ExPASy.org, SIB's Bioinformatics Resource Portal. This article provides an overview of the scientific and training resources SIB has consistently been offering to the life science community for more than 15 years. PMID:24792157

  7. Fifteen years SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics: life science databases, tools and support

    PubMed Central

    Stockinger, Heinz; Altenhoff, Adrian M.; Arnold, Konstantin; Bairoch, Amos; Bastian, Frederic; Bergmann, Sven; Bougueleret, Lydie; Bucher, Philipp; Delorenzi, Mauro; Lane, Lydie; Mercier, Philippe Le; Lisacek, Frédérique; Michielin, Olivier; Palagi, Patricia M.; Rougemont, Jacques; Schwede, Torsten; von Mering, Christian; van Nimwegen, Erik; Walther, Daniel; Xenarios, Ioannis; Zavolan, Mihaela; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Zoete, Vincent; Appel, Ron D.

    2014-01-01

    The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (www.isb-sib.ch) was created in 1998 as an institution to foster excellence in bioinformatics. It is renowned worldwide for its databases and software tools, such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PROSITE, SWISS-MODEL, STRING, etc, that are all accessible on ExPASy.org, SIB's Bioinformatics Resource Portal. This article provides an overview of the scientific and training resources SIB has consistently been offering to the life science community for more than 15 years. PMID:24792157

  8. Everyday Interactions with University Authorities: Authority Treatment Quality, Outcome Favorability and First-Year Students' University Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Heather J; Olson, Gerryann; Agronick, Gail; Tyler, Tom

    2009-03-01

    Two hundred and twelve first-year undergraduates completed an authority interaction checklist every time they had a (self-defined) meaningful interaction with university authorities during the first two weeks of their first semester. Students' degree of university identification before they began the term moderated the influence of campus authorities' treatment quality on academic engagement three months later. These longitudinal data provide support for the argument that people who identify with the group the authority represents will interpret the authority's behavior as indicative of their value to the group. PMID:20228896

  9. Everyday Interactions with University Authorities: Authority Treatment Quality, Outcome Favorability and First-Year Students’ University Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heather J.; Olson, Gerryann; Agronick, Gail; Tyler, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve first-year undergraduates completed an authority interaction checklist every time they had a (self-defined) meaningful interaction with university authorities during the first two weeks of their first semester. Students’ degree of university identification before they began the term moderated the influence of campus authorities’ treatment quality on academic engagement three months later. These longitudinal data provide support for the argument that people who identify with the group the authority represents will interpret the authority’s behavior as indicative of their value to the group. PMID:20228896

  10. A year in the life of German patients with COPD: the DACCORD observational study

    PubMed Central

    Buhl, Roland; Criée, Carl-Peter; Kardos, Peter; Vogelmeier, Claus; Lossi, Nadine; Mailänder, Claudia; Worth, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Randomized interventional trials generally recruit highly selected patients. In contrast, long-term, noninterventional studies can reflect standard of care of real-life populations. DACCORD (Die ambulante Versorgung mit langwirksamen Bronchodilatatoren: COPD-Register in Deutschland [Outpatient Care With Long-Acting Bronchodilators: COPD Registry in Germany]) is an ongoing observational study, conducted in primary and secondary care in Germany, aiming to describe the impact of disease and treatments on real-life patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Patients had a clinical and spirometry diagnosis of COPD, were aged ≥40 years, and were initiating or changing COPD maintenance medication. The only exclusion criteria were asthma and participation in a randomized clinical trial. Exacerbation data were collected every 3 months. COPD medication, COPD Assessment Test, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were recorded at the end of the 1 year period. Results In the 6 months prior to baseline, 26.5% of the 3,974 patients experienced ≥1 exacerbation, compared with 26.1% over the 1-year follow-up (annualized rate 0.384). Importantly, only previous exacerbations and not poor lung function alone predicted an increased exacerbation risk. There was a general shift to lower disease severity from baseline to 1 year, predominantly as a consequence of a lower proportion of patients considered at high risk due to exacerbations. COPD Assessment Test mean change from baseline was −1.9, with 48.9% of patients reporting a clinically relevant improvement. Overall persistence to medication was high, with 77.2% of patients still receiving the same class of medication at 1 year. Conclusion DACCORD suggests that in clinical practice, the large majority of COPD patients are symptomatic but seldom exacerbate and that widely used tools and treatment recommendations do not reflect this fully. PMID:27499620

  11. Early life determinants of physical activity in 11 to 12 year olds: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine factors in early life (up to age 5 years) that are associated with objectively measured physical activity in 11-12 year olds. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. Participants Children aged 11-12 years from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children. Main outcome measure Physical activity levels in counts per minute (cpm) and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity for seven days measured with a uniaxial actigraph accelerometer. Results Valid actigraph data, defined as at least three days of physical activity for at least 10 hours a day, were collected from 5451 children. Several factors were associated with physical activity at ages 11-12 years. Regression coefficients are compared with the baseline of “none” for categorical variables: maternal brisk walking during pregnancy (regression coefficient 5.0, 95% confidence interval −8.5 to 18.5; cpm for <1 h/wk and ≥2 h/wk of physical activity 17.7, 5.3 to 30.1), maternal swimming during pregnancy (21.5, 10.9 to 32.1 and cpm for <1 h/wk and ≥2 h/wk of physical activity 24.2, 7.8 to 40.7), parents’ physical activity when the child was aged 21 months (28.5, 15.2 to 41.8 and cpm of physical activity for either parent active and both parents active 33.5, 17.8 to 49.3), and parity assessed during pregnancy (2.9, −7.6 to 13.4 and cpm of physical activity for 1 and ≥2 parity 21.2, 7.1 to 35.3). Conclusions Few factors in early life predicted later physical activity in 11-12 year olds. Parents’ physical activity during pregnancy and early in the child’s life showed a modest association with physical activity of the child at age 11-12 years, suggesting that active parents tend to raise active children. Helping parents to increase their physical activity therefore may promote children’s activity. PMID:18037616

  12. Comorbid Development of Disruptive Behaviors from age 1½ to 5 Years in a Population Birth-Cohort and Association with School Adjustment in First Grade.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Rene; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Nagin, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Comorbidity is frequent among disruptive behaviors (DB) and leads to mental health problems during adolescence and adulthood. However, the early developmental origins of this comorbidity have so far received little attention. This study investigated the developmental comorbidity of three DB categories during early childhood: hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression. Joint developmental trajectories of DB were identified based on annual mother interviews from age 1½ to 5 years, in a population-representative birth-cohort (N = 2045). A significant proportion of children (13 % to 21 %, depending on the type of DB) consistently displayed high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, or physical aggression from age 1½ to 5 years. Developmental comorbidity was frequent, especially for boys: 10 % of boys and 3.7 % of girls were on a stable trajectory with high levels of symptoms for the three categories of DB. Significant associations were observed between preschool joint-trajectories of DB and indicators of DB and school adjustment assessed by teachers in first grade. Preschoolers who maintained high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression, displayed the highest number of DB symptoms in first grade for all categories according to their teacher. They were also among the most disadvantaged of their class for school adjustment indicators. Thus, DB manifestations and developmental comorbidity of DB are highly prevalent in infancy. Early childhood appears to be a critical period to prevent persistent and comorbid DB that leads to impairment at the very beginning of school attendance and to long-term serious health and social adjustment problems. PMID:26311619

  13. Group-based parent-training programmes for improving emotional and behavioural adjustment in children from birth to three years old

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jane; Smailagic, Nadja; Ferriter, Michael; Bennett, Cathy; Jones, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Emotional and behavioural problems in children are common. Research suggests that parenting has an important role to play in helping children to become well-adjusted, and that the first few months and years are especially important. Parenting programmes may have a role to play in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of infants and toddlers. This review is applicable to parents and carers of children up to three years eleven months although some studies included children up to five years old. Objectives To: establish whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving the emotional and behavioural adjustment of children three years of age or less (i.e. maximum mean age of 3 years 11 months);assess the role of parenting programmes in the primary prevention of emotional and behavioural problems. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociofile, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, National Research Register (NRR) and ERIC. The searches were originally run in 2000 and then updated in 2007/8. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of group-based parenting programmes that had used at least one standardised instrument to measure emotional and behavioural adjustment. Data collection and analysis The results for each outcome in each study have been presented, with 95% confidence intervals. Where appropriate the results have been combined in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Main results Eight studies were included in the review. There were sufficient data from six studies to combine the results in a meta-analysis for parent-reports and from three studies to combine the results for independent assessments of children’s behaviour post-intervention. There was in addition, sufficient information from three studies to conduct a meta-analysis of both parent-report and independent follow-up data. Both parent-report (SMD −0.25; CI −0.45 to −0.06), and independent observations (SMD

  14. Life Course and Intergenerational Continuity of Intimate Partner Aggression and Physical Injury: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Kelly E; Menard, Scott; Simmons, Sara B; Bouffard, Leana A; Orsi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine continuity of intimate partner aggression (IPA), which is defined as repeated annual involvement in IPA, across respondents' life course and into the next generation, where it may emerge among adult children. A national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,401 individuals and their adult children is analyzed. Annual data on IPA severity and physical injury were collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study across a 20-year period from 1984 to 2004. Three hypotheses and biological sex differences are tested and effect sizes are estimated. First, findings reveal evidence for life course continuity (IPA is a strong predictor of subsequent IPA), but the overall trend decreases over time. Second, intergenerational continuity is documented (parents' IPA predicts adult children's IPA), but the effect is stronger for female than for male adult children. Third, results from combined and separate, more restrictive, measures of victimization and perpetration are nearly identical except in the intergenerational analyses. Fourth, evidence for continuity is not found when assessing physical injury alone. Together, these findings imply that some but not all forms of IPA are common, continuous, and intergenerational. Life course continuity appears stronger than intergenerational continuity. PMID:27076093

  15. Living with thalidomide: health status and quality of life at 40 years.

    PubMed

    Bent, N; Tennant, A; Neumann, V; Chamberlain, M A

    2007-06-01

    children. Almost half (46%) were in work, but 32% reported they were permanently unable to work because of disability. Current levels of impairment were found to be similar across groups defined by the original compensation band. In contrast, the activity limitation measures showed a steep gradient across bands but only 37% considered themselves disabled. Nevertheless, despite the restriction in activities for some, levels of participation were similar across bands; likewise simple summary items on health status and quality of life were similar and 70% reported their quality of life (QoL) was good or better than good. Yet nine in ten believed that their body was less flexible than in the past. Almost as many reported they were less able to carry things. It turns out that when compensation bands were grouped (1 - 3, 4 - 5) to highlight those most severely affected according to the original assessment, then those in the higher band grouping reported significantly more musculoskeletal problems, high levels of fatigue and increasing dependency and feelings of vulnerability. It is clear that the original ranking of disability severity, as expressed through the compensation, bands (allocated in early childhood in most cases), is consistent with current ranking of limitations in activity and participation. Nevertheless, despite high levels of disability amongst some survivors, lifelong adjustments to the original impairments have resulted in more than two thirds reporting at least a good quality of life. However, survivors expressed increasing concern about emerging musculoskeletal and other problems which may compromise hard-won independence. PMID:17520492

  16. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  17. Speech perception in infancy predicts language development in the second year of life: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Feng-Ming; Liu, Huei-Mei; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2004-01-01

    Infants' early phonetic perception is hypothesized to play an important role in language development. Previous studies have not assessed this potential link in the first 2 years of life. In this study, speech discrimination was measured in 6-month-old infants using a conditioned head-turn task. At 13, 16, and 24 months of age, language development was assessed in these same children using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Results demonstrated significant correlations between speech perception at 6 months of age and later language (word understanding, word production, phrase understanding). The finding that speech perception performance at 6 months predicts language at 2 years supports the idea that phonetic perception may play an important role in language acquisition. PMID:15260865

  18. The Onset of Autism: Patterns of Symptom Emergence in the First Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Ozonoff, Sally; Heung, Kelly; Byrd, Robert; Hansen, Robin; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-01-01

    Previous conceptualizations of autism have suggested that symptoms are evident either early in the first year of life or later in the second year, after a loss of previously acquired skills. New research suggests, however, that these two patterns do not capture all the different ways autism can emerge. For example, some children show a developmental plateau marked by failure to progress, while other children display mixed features, with both early delays and later losses evident. This paper reviews the literature on autism onset, discusses problems with the traditional ways in which onset has been conceptualized, and provides recommendations for future research. We suggest that onset is better thought of as a dimensional process rather than dichotomous categories. PMID:19360687

  19. Mid-life occupational grade and quality of life following retirement: a 16-year follow-up of the French GAZEL study

    PubMed Central

    Platts, Loretta G.; Webb, Elizabeth; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This article aims to contribute to the literature on life course influences upon quality of life by examining pathways linking social position in middle age to quality of life following retirement in French men and women. Method: Data are from the GAZEL cohort study of employees at the French national gas and electricity company. A finely grained measure of occupational grade in 1989 was obtained from company records. Annual self-completion questionnaires provided information on quality of life in 2005, measured with the CASP-19 scale, and on participants’ recent circumstances 2002–2005: mental health, physical functioning, wealth, social status, neighbourhood characteristics, social support and social participation. Path analysis using full information maximum likelihood estimation was performed on 11,293 retired participants. Results: Higher occupational grade in 1989 was associated, in a graded relationship, with better quality of life 16 years later. This association was accounted for by individuals’ more recent circumstances, particularly their social status, mental health, physical functioning and wealth. Conclusion: The graded relationship between occupational grade in mid-life and quality of life after labour market exit was largely accounted for by more recent socio-economic circumstances and state of health. The results support a pathway model for the development of social disparities in quality of life, in which earlier social position shapes individual circumstances in later life. PMID:25220504

  20. The shadow of the future: 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, adjust their sharing in anticipation of reciprocation.

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation can be maintained if individuals reciprocate favors over repeated interactions. However, it is not known when during development the psychological capacities to engage in contingent reciprocation emerge. Therefore, we tested when children begin to differentiate between reciprocal and nonreciprocal interactions in their resource sharing. We compared the sharing behavior of 3- and 5-year-olds in two situations. In an experimental condition, the child and a puppet partner alternated the roles of donor and recipient. In a control condition, the puppet had no opportunity to reciprocate. Results showed that 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, increased their sharing toward a potential reciprocator. In addition, we found that children's ability to delay gratification was positively related to their tendency to share in both conditions. These findings show that reciprocity in anticipation of repeated interactions emerges during middle childhood. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of the ability to delay gratification as a prerequisite for children's sharing. We discuss how children's emerging cognitive abilities enable reciprocal sharing in situations where a child must react to or anticipate a partner's behavior. PMID:25240748

  1. The Burden of Health Care Costs in the Last 5 Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Amy S.; McGarry, Kathleen; Gorges, Rebecca; Skinner, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Common diseases, particularly dementia, entail large social costs, previously well described for the U.S. population. Less is known about end-of-life costs of specific diseases and the associated financial risk for individual households. Objective To examine social costs and financial risks faced by Medicare beneficiaries five years before death. Design Retrospective cohort. Setting Health and Retirement Study. Participants Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, aged 70 years or older, who died 2005-2010 (N = 1702), stratified into four cohorts: individuals with high probability of dementia, or with either heart disease, cancer, or other causes of death. Measurements Total social costs and its components: Medicare, Medicaid, private insurance, out-of-pocket, and informal care, measured over the last 5 years of life; and out-of-pocket spending as a proportion of household wealth. Results Average total cost per decedent for dementia ($287,038) was significantly greater than for those who died of heart disease ($175,136), cancer ($173,383), or other causes ($197,286), p<0.001. While Medicare expenditures were similar across groups, average out-of-pocket spending for dementia patients ($61,522) was 81% higher than for non-dementia patients ($34,068); a similar pattern held for informal care. Out-of-pocket spending for the dementia group (median, $36,919) represented 32% of wealth measured five years before death, compared to 11% for non-dementia decedents (p<0.001). This proportion was greater for Blacks (84%), those with less than high school education (48%), and unmarried/widowed women (58%). Limitations Imputed Medicaid, private insurance and informal care costs Conclusions Healthcare expenditures among those with dementia were substantially larger than for other diseases, with much of those expenses uninsured, thus placing a large financial burden on families. These burdens are particularly pronounced among demographic groups least prepared for

  2. Care in the Last Year of Life for Community Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Dunlay, Shannon M.; Redfield, Margaret M.; Jiang, Ruoxiang; Weston, Susan A.; Roger, Véronique L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care utilization peaks at the end-of-life (EOL) in patients with heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear what factors impact EOL utilization in patients with HF and if utilization has changed over time. Methods and Results Southeastern Minnesota residents with HF were prospectively enrolled into a longitudinal cohort study from 2003-2011. Patients who died before December 31, 2012 were included in the analysis. Information on hospitalizations and outpatient visits in the last year of life was obtained using administrative sources. Negative binomial regression was used to assess the association between patient characteristics and utilization. The 698 decedents (47.3% men, 53.4% preserved ejection fraction [EF]) experienced 1528 hospitalizations (median 2 per person, range 0-12, 37.6% due to cardiovascular causes) and 12,927 outpatient visits (median 14 per person, range 0-119) in their last year of life. Most patients (81.5%) were hospitalized at least once and 28.4% died in the hospital. Patients who were older and those with dementia had lower utilization. Patients who were married, resided in a skilled nursing facility, and had more comorbidities had higher utilization. Patients with preserved EF had higher rates of non-cardiovascular hospitalizations though other utilization was similar. Over time, rates of hospitalizations and outpatient visits decreased, while palliative care consults and enrollment in hospice increased. Conclusions While patient factors remain associated with differential health care utilization at the EOL, utilization declined over time and use of palliative care services increased. These results are encouraging given the high resource use in patients with HF. PMID:25834184

  3. A year on Mars: Life science investigations using a laboratory simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul; Kurk, Michael Andy

    2012-07-01

    A planetary environment simulator in Indiana, USA has been in use for about 5 years with visiting investigators having logged nearly one year of exposure time in intervals ranging from 7 days to 5 weeks. More than 20 investigators have studied a similar number of organisms in experiments ranging from the chemistry of the origin of life to the survival of invertebrate organisms in regolith. The simulator allows investigators to canvass several independent planetary variables, including diurnal temperature cycle, solar spectrum, light intensity, daytime shade, day length, depth and compositon of regolith, atmospheric pressure and composition, and moisture level. Gravity and ionizing radiation, of course, are not variable. Many experiments were performed at higher atmospheric pressure and moisture level than found on Mars, for example. The most popular conditions were simulations of light and temperature cycles resembling those at equatiorial and low latitudes and medium altitudes on Mars. Examples of completed and published studies include amino acid evolution, macroscopic microbial viability assays, the role of microbial community relationships in survival in extreme conditions, genomics of microbial communities, biological photoprotection by regolith, adaptability of cyanobacteria, and survival of extremophiles and small invertebrates as a function of regolith depth. Investigators have worked individually and as consortia exposing sometimes a few hundred samples at a time. As a general result, the survival of extremophiles has been found to be highly dependent on regolith cover, which is the dominant factor in affecting ultraviolet radiation exposure and moisture. A summary of the results of these investigations points the way toward further utilization of simulated extreme conditions relevant to the chemical origin of life, cellular evolution, gene expression in environmental adaptation, habitability parameters, life support systems, ecopoiesis and terraforming

  4. Resolution rate of isolated low-grade hydronephrosis diagnosed within the first year of life

    PubMed Central

    Madden-Fuentes, Ramiro J.; McNamara, Erin R.; Nseyo, Unwanaobong; Wiener, John S.; Routh, Jonathan C.; Ross, Sherry S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diagnosis of low-grade hydronephrosis often occurs prenatally, during evaluation after urinary tract infection (UTI), or imaging for non-urologic reasons within the first year of life. Its significance in terms of resolution, need for antibiotic prophylaxis, or progression to surgery remains uncertain. We hypothesized that isolated low-grade hydronephrosis in this population frequently resolves, UTIs are infrequent, and progression to surgical intervention is minimal. Patients and methods Children <12 months old diagnosed hydronephrosis (Society for Fetal Urology [SFU] grade 1 or 2) between January 2004 and December 2009 were identified by ICD9 code. Patients with other urological abnormalities were excluded. Stability of hydronephrosis, UTI (≥100,000 CFU/mL bacterial growth) or need for surgical intervention was noted. Results Of 1496 infants with hydronephrosis, 416 (623 renal units) met inclusion criteria. Of 398 renal units with grade 1 hydronephrosis, 385 (96.7%) resolved or remained stable. Only 13 (3.3%) worsened, of which one underwent ureteroneocystostomy. Of 225 renal units with grade 2 hydro-nephrosis, 222 (98.7%) resolved, improved or remained stable, three (1.3%) worsened, of which one required pyeloplasty. Only 0.7% of patients in the ambulatory setting had a febrile UTI. Conclusions Low-grade hydronephrosis diagnosed within the first year of life remains stable or improves in 97.4% of renal units. Given the low rate of recurrent UTI in the ambulatory setting, antibiotic prophylaxis has a limited role in management. PMID:25185821

  5. Syllable-Related Breathing in Infants in the Second Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Parham, Douglas F.; Buder, Eugene H.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Boliek, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study explored whether breathing behaviors of infants within the second year of life differ between tidal breathing and breathing supporting single unarticulated syllables and canonical/articulated syllables. Method Vocalizations and breathing kinematics of nine infants between 53 and 90 weeks of age were recorded. A strict selection protocol was used to identify analyzable breath cycles. Syllables were categorized based on consensus coding. Inspiratory and expiratory durations, excursions, and slopes were calculated for the three breath cycle types and normalized using mean tidal breath measures. Results Tidal breathing cycles were significantly different from syllable-related cycles on all breathing measures. There were no significant differences between unarticulated syllable cycles and canonical syllable cycles, even after controlling for utterance duration and sound pressure level. Conclusions Infants in the second year of life exhibit clear differences between tidal breathing and speech-related breathing, but categorically distinct breath support for syllable types with varying articulatory demands was not evident in the current findings. Speech development introduces increasingly complex utterances, so older infants may produce detectable articulation-related adaptations of breathing kinematics. For younger infants, breath support may vary systematically among utterance types, due more to phonatory variations than to articulatory demands. PMID:21173390

  6. Mapping changes in cortical activity during sleep in the first 4 years of life.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Luana; D'atri, Aurora; Marzano, Cristina; Finotti, Elena; Ferrara, Michele; Bruni, Oliviero; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2016-08-01

    A coherent body of evidence supports the notion that sleep is a local and use-dependent process. Significant changes in brain morphology and function occur in the first years of life, revealing a postero-anterior trajectory of cortical maturation. On this basis, a recent study demonstrated that regional cortical maturation between early childhood and late adolescence is reflected in regional changes of sleep slow wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Our hypothesis is that changes of electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms during sleep from birth to childhood are also mirrored by parallel regional changes in the EEG rhythms of sleep according to the assumption of a postero-anterior gradient in cortical maturation. We studied all-night EEG of 39 healthy, full-term, infants and children aged between 0 and 48 months, evaluating regional differences in NREM sleep. We confirmed the strictly local nature of sleep with frequency-specific regional differences. Specifically, we found a general shift of maxima of the upper alpha activity from occipital to prefrontal regions, expressed mainly by the ~11 Hz frequency. This shift corresponds to a postero-anterior trajectory of the so-called 'slow spindles'. The theta and alpha EEG activity of the frontal cortex exhibits a clear, positive, correlation with age. We conclude that specific local differences during NREM sleep, parallel cortical maturation also in the first 4 years of life. PMID:26854271

  7. ``Long-life`` aluminium brazing alloys for automotive radiators -- a ten-year retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.C.; Woods, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    A class of corrosion-resistant brazing sheet materials, generally referred to as ``long-life alloys,`` has been in widespread use in brazed aluminum automobile radiators for over ten years. K319 tube material was initially introduced in 1986 to address the problem of road-salt-induced, outside-in corrosion of tubes in vacuum-brazed aluminum radiators, The development history, metallurgy, and field performance of long-life radiator brazing sheet are reviewed. This material utilizes the familiar sacrificial layer concept to improve corrosion resistance; however, it is unusual in that the layer is not introduced by conventional cladding means during sheet manufacture, but rather develops in situ by metallurgical transformations which occur during the brazing cycle. The sacrificial layer, about 25 mV anodic to the core alloy, increases by an order of magnitude the time-to-perforation of radiator tube sheet tested in cyclic acidified salt spray (SWAAT), which mimics the corrosion morphology observed in the field. Radiators examined after ten years of field service show excellent corrosion resistance, as predicted by SWAAT.

  8. A Mechanistic Approach to Cross-Domain Perceptual Narrowing in the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Hillary; Rost, Gwyneth C.; Fava, Eswen; Scott, Lisa S.

    2014-01-01

    Language and face processing develop in similar ways during the first year of life. Early in the first year of life, infants demonstrate broad abilities for discriminating among faces and speech. These discrimination abilities then become tuned to frequently experienced groups of people or languages. This process of perceptual development occurs between approximately 6 and 12 months of age and is largely shaped by experience. However, the mechanisms underlying perceptual development during this time, and whether they are shared across domains, remain largely unknown. Here, we highlight research findings across domains and propose a top-down/bottom-up processing approach as a guide for future research. It is hypothesized that perceptual narrowing and tuning in development is the result of a shift from primarily bottom-up processing to a combination of bottom-up and top-down influences. In addition, we propose word learning as an important top-down factor that shapes tuning in both the speech and face domains, leading to similar observed developmental trajectories across modalities. Importantly, we suggest that perceptual narrowing/tuning is the result of multiple interacting factors and not explained by the development of a single mechanism. PMID:25521763

  9. Five years' real-life experience with raltegravir in a large HIV centre.

    PubMed

    van Halsema, Clare; Whitfield, Thomas; Lin, Naomi; Ashton, Kathryn; Torkington, Adele; Ustianowski, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Raltegravir was the first licensed integrase inhibitor. Real-life experience is informative and complements trial data. We therefore evaluated raltegravir use in adults in a large HIV treatment centre. From pharmacy and departmental HIV database records, we identified all adults taking ≥1 dose of raltegravir from first availability to the end of November 2012. Data were collected using a standardised case report form. Two hundred and fifteen individuals provided 502 patient-years (median 2.6 years/person) of raltegravir use. Of 215 individuals, 166 (77%) were male, median age 43 years; 189 (88%) were antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced and 26 (12%) ART-naive, with median baseline CD4 counts of 324 and 54 cells/µL, respectively. Of ten individuals using once-daily raltegravir, four, with good adherence remained virologically suppressed after a median 28 months, four stopped against medical advice, one stopped to simplify and one failed virologically. In hepatitis co-infection, 35 individuals (92 patient-years) took raltegravir without evidence of hepatotoxicity. Six women started raltegravir during pregnancy for intensification (5/6) or switch for tolerability without complications. Of ten individuals stopping raltegravir after virological failure, 2/4 with successful sequencing showed resistance. Raltegravir appears safe and effective, without evidence of toxicity above that in published trials, including in pregnancy and co-infections. Once-daily dosing seems effective where adherence is good. PMID:25931236

  10. Life Satisfaction and Perceived Meaningfulness of Learning Experience among First-Year Traditional Graduate Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakunmoju, Sunday; Donahue, Gilpatrick R.; McCoy, Shandria; Mengel, Alison S.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about life satisfaction and learning experience among first-year graduate students is sparse, despite its relevance to instructional decisions, academic support, and success of students. Adequate knowledge is crucial, as it may help graduate students manage personal and professional life changes associated with graduate education. Using…

  11. Growing Up Indian: Stories from the Life of Louie Gingras, an 82 Year Old Kootenai Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingras, Louie

    Eleven short stories from the life of Louie Gingras, an 82-year-old Kootenai Indian, illustrate many aspects of Indian culture. Accompanied by black and white drawings, ths stories describe daily life, mission schools, the Carlisle Indian School, Indian medicine, discipline for children, spiritual powers, beliefs, and several ceremonies. The book…

  12. Preparing the Ground: Contributions of the Preclinical Years to Medical Education for Care Near the End of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, David; Quill, Timothy; Hafferty, Frederic W.; Arnold, Robbert; Plumb, James; Bulger, Roger; Field, Marilyn

    1999-01-01

    The Working Group on the Pre-Clinical Years of the 1997 National Consensus Conference on Medical Education for Care Near the End of Life identifies promising settings and suggests how they might be used for maximum benefit in end-of-life education. Basic-care competencies are in five domains: psychological/social/cultural/spiritual issues;…

  13. Life-Course Transitions, Social Class, and Gender: A 15-Year Perspective of the Lived Lives of Canadian Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley; Adamuti-Trache, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, through the theoretical lens of life-course research and reproduction theory, we employ 15 years of longitudinal data from the British Columbia, Canada "Paths on Life's Way" project to examine the extent to which educational and career pathways of this cohort of 1988 high school graduates are gendered, individualized, prolonged,…

  14. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES... useful life. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(A)(i) of the Act provides for a permanent exemption...

  15. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES... useful life. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(A)(i) of the Act provides for a permanent exemption...

  16. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES... useful life. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(A)(i) of the Act provides for a permanent exemption...

  17. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES... useful life. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(A)(i) of the Act provides for a permanent exemption...

  18. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES... useful life. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(A)(i) of the Act provides for a permanent exemption...

  19. A 3.5 year diary study: Remembering and life story importance are predicted by different event characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Jensen, Thomas; Holm, Tine; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Forty-five participants described and rated two events each week during their first term at university. After 3.5 years, we examined whether event characteristics rated in the diary predicted remembering, reliving, and life story importance at the follow-up. In addition, we examined whether ratings of life story importance were consistent across a three year interval. Approximately 60% of events were remembered, but only 20% of these were considered above medium importance to life stories. Higher unusualness, rehearsal, and planning predicted whether an event was remembered 3.5 years later. Higher goal-relevance, importance, emotional intensity, and planning predicted life story importance 3.5 years later. There was a moderate correlation between life story importance rated three months after the diary and rated at the 3.5 year follow-up. The results suggest that autobiographical memory and life stories are governed by different mechanisms and that life story memories are characterized by some degree of stability. PMID:26164104

  20. The Long-Term Impact of Early Life Poverty on Orbitofrontal Cortex Volume in Adulthood: Results from a Prospective Study Over 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Baumeister, Sarah; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence has highlighted the association between poverty and conduct disorder (CD) without specifying neurobiological pathways. Neuroimaging research has emphasized structural and functional alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as one key mechanism underlying this disorder. The present study aimed to clarify the long-term influence of early poverty on OFC volume and its association with CD symptoms in healthy participants of an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth. At age 25 years, voxel-based morphometry was applied to study brain volume differences. Poverty (0=non-exposed (N=134), 1=exposed (N=33)) and smoking during pregnancy were determined using a standardized parent interview, and information on maternal responsiveness was derived from videotaped mother–infant interactions at the age of 3 months. CD symptoms were assessed by diagnostic interview from 8 to 19 years of age. Information on life stress was acquired at each assessment and childhood maltreatment was measured using retrospective self-report at the age of 23 years. Analyses were adjusted for sex, parental psychopathology and delinquency, obstetric adversity, parental education, and current poverty. Individuals exposed to early life poverty exhibited a lower OFC volume. Moreover, we replicated previous findings of increased CD symptoms as a consequence of childhood poverty. This effect proved statistically mediated by OFC volume and exposure to life stress and smoking during pregnancy, but not by childhood maltreatment and maternal responsiveness. These findings underline the importance of studying the impact of early life adversity on brain alterations and highlight the need for programs to decrease income-related disparities. PMID:25315195

  1. The long-term impact of early life poverty on orbitofrontal cortex volume in adulthood: results from a prospective study over 25 years.

    PubMed

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Baumeister, Sarah; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Converging evidence has highlighted the association between poverty and conduct disorder (CD) without specifying neurobiological pathways. Neuroimaging research has emphasized structural and functional alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as one key mechanism underlying this disorder. The present study aimed to clarify the long-term influence of early poverty on OFC volume and its association with CD symptoms in healthy participants of an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth. At age 25 years, voxel-based morphometry was applied to study brain volume differences. Poverty (0=non-exposed (N=134), 1=exposed (N=33)) and smoking during pregnancy were determined using a standardized parent interview, and information on maternal responsiveness was derived from videotaped mother-infant interactions at the age of 3 months. CD symptoms were assessed by diagnostic interview from 8 to 19 years of age. Information on life stress was acquired at each assessment and childhood maltreatment was measured using retrospective self-report at the age of 23 years. Analyses were adjusted for sex, parental psychopathology and delinquency, obstetric adversity, parental education, and current poverty. Individuals exposed to early life poverty exhibited a lower OFC volume. Moreover, we replicated previous findings of increased CD symptoms as a consequence of childhood poverty. This effect proved statistically mediated by OFC volume and exposure to life stress and smoking during pregnancy, but not by childhood maltreatment and maternal responsiveness. These findings underline the importance of studying the impact of early life adversity on brain alterations and highlight the need for programs to decrease income-related disparities. PMID:25315195

  2. SAVY-4000 Surveillance and Life Extension Program Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy A.; Blair, Michael W.; Weis, Eric; Veirs, Douglas K.; Smith, Paul Herrick; Moore, Murray E.; Reeves, Kirk P.; Kelly, Elizabeth J.; Prochnow, David A.; Worl, Laura A.

    2014-03-03

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the DOE M441.1-1/sup>1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE, 2008) requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.” In order to ensure continuing safe storage of nuclear material and the maximization of risk reduction, TA-55 has established a Surveillance Program to ensure storage container integrity for operations within its specified design life. The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan2 defines the near-term field surveillance plan for SAVY-4000 containers as required by the Manual. A long-term surveillance plan will be established based on the results of the first several years of surveillance and the results of the lifetime extension studies as defined in the Accelerated Aging Plan3. This report details progress in positioning the Surveillance Program for successful implementation in FY14 and status of the Design Life Extension Program in terms of its implementation and data collection for FY13.

  3. Development Trends of White Matter Connectivity in the First Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Pew-Thian; Fan, Yong; Chen, Yasheng; Gilmore, John H.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is organized into a collection of interacting networks with specialized functions to support various cognitive functions. Recent research has reached a consensus that the brain manifests small-world topology, which implicates both global and local efficiency at minimal wiring costs, and also modular organization, which indicates functional segregation and specialization. However, the important questions of how and when the small-world topology and modular organization come into existence remain largely unanswered. Taking a graph theoretic approach, we attempt to shed light on this matter by an in vivo study, using diffusion tensor imaging based fiber tractography, on 39 healthy pediatric subjects with longitudinal data collected at average ages of 2 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Our results indicate that the small-world architecture exists at birth with efficiency that increases in later stages of development. In addition, we found that the networks are broad scale in nature, signifying the existence of pivotal connection hubs and resilience of the brain network to random and targeted attacks. We also observed, with development, that the brain network seems to evolve progressively from a local, predominantly proximity based, connectivity pattern to a more distributed, predominantly functional based, connectivity pattern. These observations suggest that the brain in the early years of life has relatively efficient systems that may solve similar information processing problems, but in divergent ways. PMID:21966364

  4. Functional status and quality of life in patients surviving 10 years after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Robert M; Fisher, Andrew J; Hilton, Colin; Forty, Jonathan; Hasan, Asif; Gould, Francis K; Dark, John H; Corris, Paul A

    2005-05-01

    Although many lung allograft recipients achieve long-term survival, there is a lack of published data regarding these patients' functional status and quality of life (QoL). We evaluated all 10-year survivors at our institution and, utilizing the SF-36 questionnaire, compared their QoL to population normative and chronic illness data. Twenty-eight (29%) of 96 patients survived > or =10 years following 11 single, 6 bilateral and 11 heart-lung procedures. At the most recent evaluation, median FEV(1) in single and double lung recipients was predicted to be 54% and 74%, respectively. Five (18%) patients had BOS score 0, 13 (46%) BOS 1, 5 (18%) BOS 2 and 5 (18%) BOS 3 and median time to BOS was 7 years. Four (14%) patients required renal replacement therapy. Three patients (11%) developed symptomatic osteoporosis, 2 (7%) post-transplant lymphoma and 1 (4%) an ischaemic stroke. Scores for physical function, role-physical/emotional and general health, but not mental health and bodily pain, were significantly lower compared to normative and chronic illness data. Energy and social-function scores were significantly lower than normative data alone. Long-term survival after lung transplantation is characterized by an absence or delayed development of BOS, low iatrogenic morbidity and preserved mental, but reduced physical health status. PMID:15816892

  5. Sleep/wake patterns of breast-fed infants in the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Elias, M F; Nicolson, N A; Bora, C; Johnston, J

    1986-03-01

    Published norms for infant sleep/wake patterns during the first 2 years of life include an increase in length of maximum sleep bout from four to five to eight to ten hours by 4 months but little decrease in total sleep in 24 hours from 13 to 15 hours. Thirty-two breast-fed infants were followed for 2 years and data collected on 24-hour patterns of nursing and sleep. Infants who were breast-fed into the second year did not develop sleep/wake patterns in conformance with the norms. Instead of having long unbroken night sleep, they continued to sleep in short bouts with frequent wakings. Their total sleep in 24 hours was less than that of weaned infants. This pattern was most pronounced in infants who both nursed and shared a bed with the mother, common practices in many nonwestern cultures. The sleep/wake development accepted as the physiologic norm may be attributable to the early weaning and separated sleeping practiced in western culture. As prolonged breast-feeding becomes more popular in our society, the norms of sleep/wake patterns in infancy will have to be revised. PMID:3951913

  6. Ten years of life in compost: temporal and spatial variation of North German Caenorhabditis elegans populations

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Carola; Saebelfeld, Manja; Barbosa, Camilo; Pees, Barbara; Hermann, Ruben Joseph; Schalkowski, Rebecca; Strathmann, Eike Andreas; Dirksen, Philipp; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a central laboratory model system in almost all biological disciplines, yet its natural life history and population biology are largely unexplored. Such information is essential for in-depth understanding of the nematode's biology because its natural ecology provides the context, in which its traits and the underlying molecular mechanisms evolved. We characterized natural phenotypic and genetic variation among North German C. elegans isolates. We used the unique opportunity to compare samples collected 10 years apart from the same compost heap and additionally included recent samples for this and a second site, collected across a 1.5-year period. Our analysis revealed significant population genetic differentiation between locations, across the 10-year time period, but for only one location a trend across the shorter time frame. Significant variation was similarly found for phenotypic traits of likely importance in nature, such as choice behavior and population growth in the presence of pathogens or naturally associated bacteria. Phenotypic variation was significantly influenced by C. elegans genotype, time of isolation, and sampling site. The here studied C. elegans isolates may provide a valuable, genetically variable resource for future dissection of naturally relevant gene functions. PMID:26380661

  7. Influenza virus infections in the tropics during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Libraty, Daniel H; Zhang, Lei; Caponpon, Mercydina; Capeding, Rosario Z

    2015-08-01

    Pediatric influenza virus infections in the tropics, particularly during infancy, are not well described. We identified influenza virus infections among infants with non-dengue acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses in San Pablo, Laguna, Philippines, as part of an ongoing clinical study of dengue virus infections during infancy. We found that 31% of infants with non-dengue acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses in San Pablo, Laguna, Philippines, had influenza virus infections. The majority were influenza A virus infections and outpatient cases. The infant ages were 11.1 [9.8-13.0] months (median [95% confidence interval]), and the cases clustered between June and December. Influenza episodes are a common cause of non-dengue acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses in the tropics during the first year of life. PMID:25828834

  8. [Eating habits in the first year of life: social representations of young mothers].

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Paula Esmeraldo; Javorski, Marly; Amorim, Rosemary de Jesus Machado; de Oliveira, Sheyla Costa; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena

    2014-01-01

    This is qualitative research that investigates the social representations of adolescent mothers on child eating habits in the first year of life. Its subjects were 10 adolescent mothers, whose children were aged seven to twelve months. Data were collected through semi-structured interview, besides the use of visual material. The analysis followed the technique of content analysis, relying on the framework of Social Representations Theory. That analysis revealed four themes: the conflict of breastfeeding versus consecration of porridge; establishing complementary feeding of the child; crystallized speech: "yogurt is better than a little steak"; the (un)definition of maternal eating habits: implications for infant feeding. The representations that drive maternal practices in selecting, preparing and offering food follow a particular logic, where adolescents reinterpret technical speeches in terms of their culture. PMID:25590888

  9. GEO And LEO Life Tests Of Saft Lithium Ion Batteries After Ten Years Of Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, G.; Hendel, B.; Borthomieu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    In the period 1999 - 2000 several life tests were started to support the qualification of the SAFT VES140 S lithium ion cell for GEO and LEO applications. Most are still continuing and all have demonstrated excellent performance. For example a real-time GEO test after the equivalent of 10 years in orbit shows a cell internal resistance increase of less than 20% and the cell capacity and energy are still higher than the values measured after the first season.Accelerated GEO tests have reached 90 seasons. A real-time LEO test has exceeded 48000 cycles at 30% depth of discharge (DoD) and 108000 cycles under an accelerated variable DoD profile of between 10 and 30 %. The evolution of performance will be described and in particular measurements of cell internal resistance and can strain.

  10. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  11. Quality of life impacts on 16-year survival of an older ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gurland, Barry; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Maurer, Mathew S.; Reid, M. Carrington

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine the prediction of mortality, over 16 years, by the domains and domain elements underlying generic measures of quality of life (QoL). Methods The method used was an analysis of mortality in an older (65 + years) representative sample (N = 2130) of a multicultural community in North Manhattan. Five conventional QoL domains were measured by in-home, rater-administered, and computer-assisted questionnaire: depressed mood, pain, self-perceived health, and function and social relationships. Results Some domain scales that qualitatively express distress, such as depressed mood and widespread pain, significantly predicted lower mortality (were protective) and felt isolation trended in that direction, whereas domains indicating quantitative limitations such as impairment of functioning in daily tasks, stair climbing, as well as social disengagements and lack of support network significantly predicted higher mortality. Domain elements also mattered; contrary to their domain predictions, increased mortality was predicted by the domain elements of somatic symptoms of depression. Self-perceived poor health reflected the predictive (higher mortality) direction of the limitations cluster. Conclusions The internal complexity of QoL is underscored by differential impacts of domains and elements on mortality. Clinical implications include setting distress domains as important clinical goals, whereas strengthening limiting domains could result in lengthening life and secondarily relieving distress. The relative weighting of these goals could be derived from patient preferences and clinical efficacy. Fundamental implications lie in the interaction between the person’s qualitative evaluations of choices and the quantitative building of desired choices for a better QoL. PMID:24167085

  12. Wine Consumption and 20-Year Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; North, Rebecca J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined level of wine consumption and total mortality among 802 older adults ages 55–65 at baseline, controlling for key sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors. Despite a growing consensus that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced total mortality, whether wine consumption provides an additional, unique protective effect is unresolved. Method: Participants were categorized in three subsamples: abstainers, high-wine-consumption moderate drinkers, and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers. Alcohol consumption, sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health problems were assessed at baseline; total mortality was indexed across an ensuing 20-year period. Results: After adjusting for all covariates, both high-wine-consumption and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers showed reduced mortality risks compared with abstainers. Further, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine were older, were more likely to be male, reported more health problems, were more likely to be tobacco smokers, scored lower on socioeconomic status, and (statistical trend) reported engaging in less physical activity. Controlling only for overall ethanol consumption, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine showed a substantially increased 20-year mortality risk of 85%. However, after controlling for all covariates, the initial mortality difference associated with wine consumption was no longer significant. Conclusions: Among older adults who are moderate drinkers, the apparent unique effects of wine on longevity may be explained by confounding factors correlated with wine consumption. PMID:22152665

  13. Distress and Self-Restraint as Measures of Adjustment across the Life Span: Confirmatory Factor Analyses in Clinical and Nonclinical Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberger, Daniel A.

    1997-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses were used to study whether the structure of Weinberger Adjustment Inventory subscales would be comparable across clinical patient and nonclinical samples of youth, young adults, and adults (six samples, 1,486 subjects). Results suggest little need to use different measures of general adjustment when studying children…

  14. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  15. Subsystem Details for the Fiscal Year 2004 Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    This document provides values at the assembly level for the subsystems described in the Fiscal Year 2004 Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric (Hanford, 2004). Hanford (2004) summarizes the subordinate computational values for the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development (ALS R&TD) Metric at the subsystem level, while this manuscript provides a summary at the assembly level. Hanford (2004) lists mass, volume, power, cooling, and crewtime for each mission examined by the ALS R&TD Metric according to the nominal organization for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) elements. The values in the tables below, Table 2.1 through Table 2.8, list the assemblies, using the organization and names within the Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) for each ALS element. These tables specifically detail mass, volume, power, cooling, and crewtime. Additionally, mass and volume are designated in terms of values associated with initial hardware and resupplied hardware just as they are within ALSSAT. The overall subsystem values are listed on the line following each subsystem entry. These values are consistent with those reported in Hanford (2004) for each listed mission. Any deviations between these values and those in Hanford (2004) arise from differences in when individual numerical values are rounded within each report, and therefore the resulting minor differences should not concern even a careful reader. Hanford (2004) u es the uni ts kW(sub e) and kW(sub th) for power and cooling, respectively, while the nomenclature below uses W(sub e) and W(sub th), which is consistent with the native units within ALSSAT. The assemblies, as specified within ALSSAT, are listed in bold below their respective subsystems. When recognizable assembly components are not listed within ALSSAT, a summary of the assembly is provided on the same line as the entry for the assembly. Assemblies with one or more recognizable components are further

  16. Ontogeny of Toll-like receptor mediated cytokine responses of South African infants throughout the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Reikie, Brian A; Adams, Rozanne C M; Ruck, Candice E; Ho, Kevin; Leligdowicz, Aleksandra; Pillay, Santoshan; Naidoo, Shalena; Fortuno, Edgardo S; de Beer, Corena; Preiser, Wolfgang; Cotton, Mark F; Speert, David P; Esser, Monika; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2012-01-01

    The first year of life represents a time of marked susceptibility to infections; this is particularly true for regions in sub-Saharan Africa. As innate immunity directs the adaptive immune response, the observed increased risk for infection as well as a suboptimal response to vaccination in early life may be due to less effective innate immune function. In this study, we followed a longitudinal cohort of infants born and raised in South Africa over the first year of life, employing the most comprehensive analysis of innate immune response to stimulation published to date. Our findings reveal rapid changes in innate immune development over the first year of life. This is the first report depicting dramatic differences in innate immune ontogeny between different populations in the world, with important implications for global vaccination strategies. PMID:23028609

  17. Expected years of life free of chronic condition-induced activity limitations - United States, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Molla, Michael T

    2013-11-22

    Over the 20th century, the U.S. population has witnessed major changes in fatal and nonfatal health outcomes. Mortality has declined, and life expectancy has increased continuously; chronic conditions have replaced acute diseases as leading causes of both illness and death. During 1900-2008, average life expectancy at birth for the total U.S. population increased from 47.3 years in 1900 to 78.1 years in 2008, a gain of 30.8 years. In addition, an increasing proportion of the U.S. population is aged >65 years. According to the U.S. Census Bureau estimates, at the beginning of the 20th century, the U.S. population aged >65 years constituted only 4.1 percent of the total population; by 2008, the percentage of the total U.S. population aged >65 years was 12.8%. However, declines in mortality are not necessarily associated with declines in morbidity or the consequences of chronic conditions on life activities. The possibility that longer life might be accompanied by poor health makes it essential to develop measures that account for both mortality and morbidity at the same time. Hence, over the past 40 years, a new set of health measures (e.g., "healthy life expectancies") have been developed that account for both mortality and life spent free of the consequences of ill health. One of these newly developed set of measures (called "active life expectancy") is the average number of years expected to be lived without activity limitations. PMID:24264496

  18. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Three-Year Quality of Life Outcomes in United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Smith, Sharon M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine 3-year quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes among United States adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder (CD) before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis), or no antisocial behavioral syndrome at baseline. Method Face-to-face interviews (n= 34,653). Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule – DSM-IV Version. Health-related QOL was assessed using the Short-Form 12-Item Health Survey, version 2 (SF-12v2). Other outcomes included past-year Perceived Stress Scale-4 (PSS-4) scores, employment, receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI), welfare, and food stamps, and participation in social relationships. Results ASPD and AABS predicted poorer employment, financial dependency, social relationship, and physical health outcomes. Relationships of antisociality to SSI and food stamp receipt and physical health scales were modified by baseline age. Both antisocial syndromes predicted higher PSS-4, AABS predicted lower SF-12v2 Vitality, and ASPD predicted lower SF-12v2 Social Functioning scores in women. Conclusion Similar prediction of QOL by ASPD and AABS suggests limited utility of requiring CD before age 15 to diagnose ASPD. Findings underscore the need to improve prevention and treatment of antisocial syndromes. PMID:22375904

  19. Patterns of β-Cell Autoantibody Appearance and Genetic Associations During the First Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Ilonen, Jorma; Hammais, Anna; Laine, Antti-Pekka; Lempainen, Johanna; Vaarala, Outi; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Knip, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed demographic and genetic differences between children with various diabetes-associated autoantibodies reflecting the autoimmune process. In a prospective birth cohort comprising children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D), the pattern of autoantibody appearance was analyzed in 520 children with advanced β-cell autoimmunity associated with high risk for disease. In 315 cases, a single biochemical autoantibody could be identified in the first positive sample as insulin (insulin autoantibody [IAA]) in 180, as GAD (GAD antibody [GADA]) in 107, and as IA-2 antigen (IA-2 antibody [IA-2A]) in 28. The age at seroconversion differed significantly between the three groups (P = 0.003). IAA as the first autoantibody showed a peak time of appearance during the second year of life, whereas GADA as the first autoantibody peaked later, between 3 and 5 years of age. The risk-associated insulin gene rs689 A/A genotypes were more frequent in children with IAA as the first autoantibody compared with the other children (P = 0.002). The primary autoantigen in the development of β-cell autoimmunity and T1D seems to strongly correlate with age and genetic factors, indicating heterogeneity in the initiation of the disease process. PMID:23835325

  20. The burden of ambient temperature on years of life lost in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Ou, Chun-Quan; Guo, Yuming; Li, Li; Guo, Cui; Chen, Ping-Yan; Lin, Hua-Liang; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2015-08-01

    Limited evidence is available on the association between temperature and years of life lost (YLL). We applied distributed lag non-linear model to assess the nonlinear and delayed effects of temperature on YLL due to cause-/age-/education-specific mortality in Guangzhou, China. We found that hot effects appeared immediately, while cold effects were more delayed and lasted for 14 days. On average, 1 °C decrease from 25th to 1st percentile of temperature was associated with an increase of 31.15 (95%CI: 20.57, 41.74), 12.86 (8.05, 17.68) and 6.64 (3.68, 9.61) YLL along lag 0-14 days for non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively. The corresponding estimate of cumulative hot effects (1 °C increase from 75th to 99th percentile of temperature) was 12.71 (-2.80, 28.23), 4.81 (-2.25, 11.88) and 2.81 (-1.54, 7.16). Effect estimates of cold and hot temperatures-related YLL were higher in people aged up to 75 years and persons with low education level than the elderly and those with high education level, respectively. The mortality risks associated with cold and hot temperatures were greater on the elderly and persons with low education level. This study highlights that YLL provides a complementary method for assessing the death burden of temperature.

  1. Predictors for Half-Year Outcome of Impairment in Daily Life for Back Pain Patients Referred for Physiotherapy: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Karstens, Sven; Hermann, Katja; Froböse, Ingo; Weiler, Stephan W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective From observational studies, there is only sparse information available on the predictors of development of impairment in daily life for patients receiving physiotherapy. Therefore, our aim was to identify factors which predict impairment in daily life for patients with back pain 6 months after receiving physiotherapy. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study with 6-month follow-up. Patients were enrolled for treatment in private physiotherapy practices. Patients with a first physiotherapy referral because of thoracic or low back pain, aged 18 to 65 years were included. Primary outcome impairment was measured utilising the 16-item version of the Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire. Therapy was documented on a standardized form. Baseline scores for impairment in daily life, symptom characteristics, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, physical activity, nicotine consumption, intake of analgesics, comorbidity and delivered primary therapy approach were investigated as possible predictors. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Results A total of 792 patients participated in the study (59% female, mean age 44.4 (SD 11.4), with 6-month follow-up results available from 391 patients. In univariate analysis 17 variables reached significance. In multiple linear regression identified predictors were: impairment in daily life before therapy, mental disorders, duration of the complaints, self-prognosis on work ability, rheumatoid arthritis, age, form of stress at work and physical activity. The variables explain 34% of variance (adjusted R2, p<0.001). Conclusions With minimal information available from observational studies on the predictors of development of back problems for physiotherapy patients, this study adds new knowledge for forming appropriate referral guidelines. Impairment in daily life before therapy, mental disorder as comorbidity and the duration of the complaints can be named as

  2. Alcohol Use Patterns and Trajectories of Health-Related Quality of Life in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A 14- Year Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; Feeny, David; McFarland, Bentson H.; Caetano, Raul; Bernier, Julie; Giesbrecht, Norman; Oliver, Lisa; Ross, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A 14-year multiwave panel design was used to examine relationships between longitudinal alcohol-consumption patterns, especially persistent moderate use, and change in health-related quality of life among middle-aged and older adults. Method: A nationally representative sample of 5,404 community-dwelling Canadians ages 50 and older at baseline (1994/1995) was obtained from the longitudinal National Population Health Survey. Alcohol-consumption patterns were developed based on the quantity and frequency of use in the 12 months before the interview. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3). Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate the change in HUI3 for each alcohol pattern after adjusting for covariates measured at baseline. Results: Most participants showed stable alcohol-consumption patterns over 6 years. Persistent nonusers, persistent former users, those decreasing their consumption levels, and those with unstable patterns (i.e., U shaped and inverted U shaped) had lower HUI3 scores at baseline compared with persistent moderate drinkers. A more rapid decline in HUI3 scores than that observed for persistent moderate users was seen only in those with decreasing consumption (p < .001). In a subgroup identified as consistently healthy before follow-up, longitudinal drinking patterns were associated with initial HUI3 scores but not rates of change. Conclusions: Persistent moderate drinkers had higher initial levels of health-related quality of life than persistent nonusers, persistent former users, decreasing users, U-shaped users, and inverted U-shaped users. However, rates of decline over time were similar for all groups except those decreasing their consumption, who had a greater decline in their level of health-related quality of life than persistent moderate users. PMID:22630796

  3. Early-Life Cadmium Exposure and Child Development in 5-Year-Old Girls and Boys: A Cohort Study in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kippler, Maria; Tofail, Fahmida; Hamadani, Jena D.; Gardner, Renee M.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M.; Bottai, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cadmium is a commonly occurring toxic food contaminant, but health consequences of early-life exposure are poorly understood. Objectives: We evaluated the associations between cadmium exposure and neurobehavioral development in preschool children. Methods: In our population-based mother–child cohort study in rural Bangladesh, we assessed cadmium exposure in 1,305 women in early pregnancy and their children at 5 years of age by measuring concentrations in urine (U-Cd), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Children’s IQ at 5 years of age, including Verbal (VIQ), Performance (PIQ), and Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), were measured by Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Behavior was assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: In multiple linear regression models, adjusted for sex, home stimulation, socioeconomic status (SES), and maternal and child characteristics, a doubling of maternal U-Cd was inversely associated with VIQ (–0.84 points; 95% confidence interval: –1.3, –0.40), PIQ (–0.64 points; –1.1, –0.18), and FSIQ (–0.80 points; –1.2, –0.39). Concurrent child U-Cd showed somewhat weaker association with VIQ and FSIQ, but not PIQ. Stratification by sex and SES indicated slightly stronger associations with PIQ and FSIQ in girls than in boys and in higher-income compared with lower-income families. Concurrent U-Cd was inversely associated with SDQ-prosocial behavior and positively associated with SDQ-difficult behavior, but associations were close to the null after adjustment. Quantile regression analysis showed similar associations across the whole range of each developmental outcome. Conclusion: Early-life low-level cadmium exposure was associated with lower child intelligence scores in our study cohort. Further research in this area is warranted. PMID:22759600

  4. Prediction of Expected Years of Life Using Whole-Genome Markers

    PubMed Central

    de los Campos, Gustavo; Klimentidis, Yann C.; Vazquez, Ana I.; Allison, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic factors are believed to account for 25% of the interindividual differences in Years of Life (YL) among humans. However, the genetic loci that have thus far been found to be associated with YL explain a very small proportion of the expected genetic variation in this trait, perhaps reflecting the complexity of the trait and the limitations of traditional association studies when applied to traits affected by a large number of small-effect genes. Using data from the Framingham Heart Study and statistical methods borrowed largely from the field of animal genetics (whole-genome prediction, WGP), we developed a WGP model for the study of YL and evaluated the extent to which thousands of genetic variants across the genome examined simultaneously can be used to predict interindividual differences in YL. We find that a sizable proportion of differences in YL—which were unexplained by age at entry, sex, smoking and BMI—can be accounted for and predicted using WGP methods. The contribution of genomic information to prediction accuracy was even higher than that of smoking and body mass index (BMI) combined; two predictors that are considered among the most important life-shortening factors. We evaluated the impacts of familial relationships and population structure (as described by the first two marker-derived principal components) and concluded that in our dataset population structure explained partially, but not fully the gains in prediction accuracy obtained with WGP. Further inspection of prediction accuracies by age at death indicated that most of the gains in predictive ability achieved with WGP were due to the increased accuracy of prediction of early mortality, perhaps reflecting the ability of WGP to capture differences in genetic risk to deadly diseases such as cancer, which are most often responsible for early mortality in our sample. PMID:22848416

  5. Relationships between muscle morphology and insulin sensitivity are improved after adjustment for intra-individual variability in 70-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Hedman, A; Berglund, L; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Reneland, R; Lithell, H

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine to what extent variability in the muscle morphology and insulin sensitivity influence the correlation between them. Reproducibility of muscle characteristics was estimated in duplicate biopsies from the same thigh of 23 subjects from a cohort of 70-year-old men. The coefficient of variation (CV) for different characteristics of muscle morphology was between 11 and 42% in duplicate biopsies. Coefficient of variation for markers of insulin sensitivity ranged between 12 and 39%. The variability reflected by intra-class correlation ranged from 0.23 to 0.60 for muscle morphology and from 0.68 to 0.96 for estimates of insulin sensitivity. The correlation analysis between muscle morphology and insulin resistance was performed in a sample of 515 men from the cohort, correlation coefficients were calculated with (rtrue) and without (r) adjustment for intra-individual variation. Insulin sensitivity showed a positive relationship with percentage of type I fibres (rtrue=0.33, r=0.21; P < 0.0001) and capillary density (rtrue=0.43, r=0.21; P < 0. 0001) and negative correlations with percentage of type IIB fibres (rtrue=-0.35, r=-0.24; P < 0.0001). Capillary density was inversely correlated to insulin. Thus, an obvious improvement of the correlation was seen after correcting intra-individual variation. In conclusion, owing to the low degree of reproducibility of muscle morphology variables and insulin sensitivity, implying a noticeable underestimation of correlations, the r-values should be adjusted for within-subject variation in order to demonstrate a more accurate estimate of the strength of the relationships studied. PMID:10848642

  6. The development of emotion expression during the first two years of life.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, C Z; Culver, C; Tesman, J R; Shepard, B

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the course of emotion expression development over the first 2 years of life in a sample of full-term and preterm children. 58 mother/infant pairs were videotaped at infant ages of 2 1/2, 5, 7 1/2, and 22 months, recording face-to-face interaction involving play and separation/reunion sessions. The tapes were coded on a second-to-second basis using Izard's facial affect coding system. Data analysis focused on (1) differences in expressive behavior at 22 months as a function of risk status, gender, attachment status, and patterns of earlier maternal contingency behavior; (2) stability of specific emotional expressive patterns across assessment periods; and (3) the relation of expressive behavior and security of attachment at 2 years to qualities of earlier affective interchange. Mother's contingency behavior (both general level and specific contingency patterns) appeared to have a material effect on the course of emotional development, as did birth status and gender. Prematurity was associated with differential socioemotional development well into the second year, much in contrast to the "catch-up effect" observed in linguistic and cognitive functioning. Discrete emotions analysis of attachment groups yielded differentiation along a broad negative/positive dimension, but it also showed that insecurely attached children can be characterized as showing inhibited anger expression. The results of this study are discussed within the framework of organizational models of infant affective development; attachment theory and discrete emotions approaches were found to yield different yet equally informative data on the course of socioemotional development. PMID:2770755

  7. Assessing Planning Ability Across the Adult Life Span: Population-Representative and Age-Adjusted Reliability Estimates for the Tower of London (TOL-F).

    PubMed

    Kaller, Christoph P; Debelak, Rudolf; Köstering, Lena; Egle, Johanna; Rahm, Benjamin; Wild, Philipp S; Blettner, Maria; Beutel, Manfred E; Unterrainer, Josef M

    2016-03-01

    Planning ahead the consequences of future actions is a prototypical executive function. In clinical and experimental neuropsychology, disc-transfer tasks like the Tower of London (TOL) are commonly used for the assessment of planning ability. Previous psychometric evaluations have, however, yielded a poor reliability of measuring planning performance with the TOL. Based on theory-grounded task analyses and a systematic problem selection, the computerized TOL-Freiburg version (TOL-F) was developed to improve the task's psychometric properties for diagnostic applications. Here, we report reliability estimates for the TOL-F from two large samples collected in Mainz, Germany (n = 3,770; 40-80 years) and in Vienna, Austria (n = 830; 16-84 years). Results show that planning accuracy on the TOL-F possesses an adequate internal consistency and split-half reliability (>0.7) that are stable across the adult life span while the TOL-F covers a broad range of graded difficulty even in healthy adults, making it suitable for both research and clinical application. PMID:26715472

  8. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  9. Infants' Responses to Facial Stimuli During the First Year of Life: Exploratory Studies in the Development of a Face Schema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; And Others

    Fixation time, smiling, vocalization, and fret/cry were recorded to obtain a complete picture of infants' responses to facial stimuli over the first year of life. Four stimuli were presented to 120 infants. Results of fixation data indicate that (1) there is a marked decrease in fixation toward facial stimuli within the first year, (2) at all ages…

  10. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed. PMID:26834654

  11. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed. PMID:26834654

  12. Life in the Atacama - Year 2: Geologic Reconnaissance Through Long-Range Roving and Implications on the Search for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Moersch, J.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Coppin, P.; Fisher, G.; Hock, A. N.; Ori, G. G.

    2005-01-01

    The "Life in the Atacama" (LITA) project included two field trials during the 2004 field season, each of which lasted about a week. The remote science team had no prior knowledge of the local geology, and relied entirely on orbital images and rover-acquired data to make interpretations. The sites for these trials were in different locations, and are designated "Site B" and "Site C" respectively. The primary objective of the experiment is to develop and test the means to locate, characterize, and identify habitats and life remotely through long-range roving, which included field testing the rover, named Zoe. Zoe has onboard autonomous navigation for long-range roving, a plow to overturn rocks and expose near-surface rock materials, and high-resolution imaging, spectral, and fluorescence sampling capabilities. Highlights from the experiment included characterizing the geology in and near the landing ellipse, assessing pre-mission, satellite-based hypotheses, and improving the approach and procedures used by the remote and field teams for upcoming experiments through combined satellite, field-based, and microscopic perspectives and long-range roving.

  13. Obesity and Life Expectancy with and without Diabetes in Adults Aged 55 Years and Older in the Netherlands: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ligthart, Symen; Peeters, Anna; Hofman, Albert; Nusselder, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Limited evidence exists regarding the effect of excess weight on years lived with and without diabetes. We aimed to determine the association of overweight and obesity with the number of years lived with and without diabetes in a middle-aged and elderly population. Methods and Findings The study included 6,499 individuals (3,656 women) aged 55 y and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We developed a multistate life table to calculate life expectancy for individuals who were normal weight, overweight, and obese and the difference in years lived with and without diabetes. For life table calculations, we used prevalence, incidence rate, and hazard ratios (HRs) for three transitions (healthy to diabetes, healthy to death, and diabetes to death), stratifying by body mass index (BMI) at baseline and adjusting for confounders. During a median follow-up of 11.1 y, we observed 697 incident diabetes events and 2,192 overall deaths. Obesity was associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes (HR: 2.13 [p < 0.001] for men and 3.54 [p < 0.001] for women). Overweight and obesity were not associated with mortality in men and women with or without diabetes. Total life expectancy remained unaffected by overweight and obesity. Nevertheless, men with obesity aged 55 y and older lived 2.8 (95% CI −6.1 to −0.1) fewer y without diabetes than normal weight individuals, whereas, for women, the difference between obese and normal weight counterparts was 4.7 (95% CI −9.0 to −0.6) y. Men and women with obesity lived 2.8 (95% CI 0.6 to 6.2) and 5.3 (95% CI 1.6 to 9.3) y longer with diabetes, respectively, compared to their normal weight counterparts. Since the implications of these findings could be limited to middle-aged and older white European populations, our results need confirmation in other populations. Conclusions Obesity in the middle aged and elderly is associated

  14. Trajectories of maternal harsh parenting in the first 3 years of life

    PubMed Central

    Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their related longitudinal risk factors (contextual and intrapersonal). Partner aggression was also tested as a time-varying predictor to examine its time-specific influence on maternal harsh parenting. Methods Longitudinal data from four assessments of a community sample of 488 at-risk mothers were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Maternal risk factors and harsh parenting behaviors were assessed at birth and at ages 1, 2, and 3 years. Results There was a significant increase in maternal harsh parenting from birth to age 3, particularly between ages 1 and 2. There was a significant direct effect of maternal alcohol use and abuse history on maternal harsh parenting at age 3, and maternal age was positively associated with change in maternal harsh parenting over time. In addition, partner aggression was significantly and positively associated with maternal harsh parenting at each time point. Conclusions The findings suggest possible developmental trends in the emergence of maternal harsh parenting during infancy and toddlerhood. Further investigation is needed to elucidate individual differences in the developmental patterns and to differentiate predictive factors that persist across time and factors that are unique to specific developmental stages. Practice implications The overall high prevalence rates of harsh parenting behavior and growth of such behavior in infancy and toddlerhood support the need for developmentally sensitive early intervention programs. PMID:21030081

  15. Communicative Acts of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Second Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Shumway, Stacy; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the communicative profiles of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the second year of life. Method Communicative acts were examined in 125 children 18 to 24 months of age: 50 later diagnosed with ASD; 25 with developmental delays (DD); and 50 with typical development (TD). Precise measures of rate, functions, and means of communication were obtained through systematic observation of videotaped Behavior Samples from the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile (Wetherby & Prizant, 2002). Results Children with ASD communicated at a significantly lower rate than children with DD and TD. The ASD group used a significantly lower proportion of acts for joint attention and a significantly lower proportion of deictic gestures with a reliance on more primitive gestures compared to DD and TD. Children with ASD who did communicate for joint attention were as likely as other children to coordinate vocalizations, eye gaze, and gestures. Rate of communicative acts and joint attention were the strongest predictors of verbal outcome at age 3. Conclusions By 18 to 24 months of age, children later diagnosed with ASD showed a unique profile of communication, with core deficits in communication rate, joint attention, and communicative gestures. PMID:19635941

  16. How many well-baby visits are necessary in the first 2 years of life?

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, J. R.; Feldman, W.; Siegel, L. S.; Mills, D. A.; Dunnett, C.; Stoddart, G.

    1984-01-01

    Since we could find no scientific basis for the 10 well-baby visits recommended in the first 2 years of life in Ontario, we carried out a randomized trial in 570 healthy, low-risk newborns to determine the efficacy and safety of decreasing the number of scheduled well-baby visits from 10 to 5. Among the 466 babies still in the trial at the end of the study period those in the 10-visit group had had a mean of 7.63 scheduled and 0.26 unscheduled well-baby visits and those in the 5-visit group a mean of 4.77 scheduled and 1.42 unscheduled well-baby visits. Reducing the recommended number of visits did not result in an increased incidence of illness or an increased prevalence of undetected abnormality, and the physical development of the babies in the two groups was almost identical. The mean scores of the two groups in assessments of mental development, maternal-child relations, maternal anxiety and parental satisfaction with health care were close. The results suggest that the recommended number of well-baby visits for healthy, low-risk newborns can be reduced to five for children of multiparas and six for children of primiparas. Any additional well-baby visits should be scheduled according to the needs and experience of the parents. PMID:6704838

  17. [A neurophysiologic study of sleep in children during the first year of life].

    PubMed

    Fantalova, V L; Sheĭnkman, O G; Molodtsova, E M

    1976-01-01

    Polygraphic investigation of day sleep has been carried out in thirty suckling infants (aged from 25 days to 12 months). EEG, OCG, SGR, respiration ECG, muscular activity, and in some infants, also rheographic parameters (REG and RG of the shin) have shown that already at an early nursing age, states of drowsiness, falling asleep, light and medium depth and deep slow sleep set in, as well as the so-called rapid sleep which occurs only after slow sleep. The denotation of the slow sleep stages is based on the classification by Loomis et al., though their electroenecepholographic expression in the infant is in many ways peculiar and undergoes certain dynamics during the first year of life. Peculiarities of the central area EEG have been exhibited in all the age groups, and it has been assumed that the central parts of the cortex of a suckling infant are a kind of "window" into the subcortical parts. While EEG, displaying new forms of activity at certain stages of sleep undergo distinct age changes, vegetative sleep manifestations display only some age depending quantitative differences. Thus, at the nursing age the mechanisms of electroencephalographic and vegetative sleep manifestations are of different degree of maturity: they possess a considerable autonomy, although they function in concord. PMID:1274430

  18. Assessing seasonal variations and age patterns in mortality during the first year of life in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rumisha, S F; Smith, T; Abdulla, S; Masanja, H; Vounatsou, P

    2013-04-01

    Lack of birth and death registries in most of developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa led to the establishment of Demographic Surveillance Systems (DSS) sites which monitor large population cohorts within defined geographical areas. DSS collects longitudinal data on migration, births, deaths and their causes via verbal autopsies. DSS data provide an opportunity to monitor many health indicators including mortality trends. Mortality rates in Sub-Sahara Africa show seasonal patterns due to high infant and child malaria-related mortality which is influenced by seasonal features present in environmental and climatic factors. However, it is unclear whether seasonal patterns differ by age in the first few months of life. This study provides an overview of approaches to assess, capture and detect seasonality peaks and patterns in mortality using the infant mortality data from the Rufiji DSS, Tanzania. Seasonality was best captured using Bayesian negative binomial models with time and cycle dependent seasonal parameters and autoregressive temporal error terms. Seasonal patterns are similar among different age groups during infancy and timing of their mortality peaks do not differ. Seasonality in mortality rates with two peaks per year is pronounced which corresponds to rainy seasons. Understanding of these trends is important for public health preparedness. PMID:23247213

  19. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  20. Residence Life Programs and the First-Year Experience. The Freshman Year Experience. Monograph Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, William, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph contains papers which suggest means of implementing residential programs, services, and facilities that will help to meet the needs of first-year college students. Fourteen papers are presented and are as follows: "Reflections on the First Year Residential Experience" (John N. Gardner); "The Role of Residential Programs in the…

  1. Employment outcomes and social integration of students with mild handicaps: the quality of life two years after high school.

    PubMed

    Scuccimarra, D J; Speece, D L

    1990-04-01

    The employment outcomes and social adjustment of mildly handicapped students were examined in a sample of 65 randomly selected youths who exited high school in 1984. Personal and telephone interviews were conducted to obtain current employment data such as income, employment and training history, and use of community and social services in securing employment. Postschool social adjustment data included marital status, place of residence, types and frequency of social activities, friendship patterns, and satisfaction with social life. Seventy-eight percent of the respondents were employed. The majority worked on a full-time basis for minimum wage or better, were satisfied with their jobs, and relied on a self-family-friend network to secure employment. The majority of respondents were single, resided at home, and engaged in a variety of social activities on a regular basis. When the employment and social activity variables were combined, it was found that over 60% of the respondents were employed and held positive perceptions of their social life. PMID:2324632

  2. Variations in Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and survival 1 year after stroke: five European population-based registers

    PubMed Central

    Ayis, Salma; Wellwood, Ian; Rudd, Anthony G; McKevitt, Christopher; Parkin, David; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2015-01-01

    Objective There were two main objectives: to describe and compare clinical outcomes and Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) collected using standardised procedures across the European Registers of Stroke (EROS) at 3 and 12 months after stroke; and to examine the relationship between patients’ Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) at 3 months after stroke and survival up to 1 year across the 5 populations. Design Analysis of data from population-based stroke registers. Setting European populations in Dijon (France); Kaunas (Lithuania); London (UK); Warsaw (Poland) and Sesto Fiorentino (Italy). Participants Patients with ischaemic or intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) stroke, registered between 2004 and 2006. Outcome measures (1) HRQoL, assessed by the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), mapped into the EQ-5D to estimate responses on 5 dimensions (mobility, activity, pain, anxiety and depression, and self-care) and utility scores. (2) Mortality within 3 months and within 1 year of stroke. Results Of 1848 patients, 325 were lost to follow-up and 500 died within a year of stroke. Significant differences in mortality, HRQoL and utility scores were found, and remained after adjustments. Kaunas had an increased risk of death; OR 2.34, 95% CI (1.32 to 4.14) at 3 months after stroke in Kaunas, compared with London. Sesto Fiorentino had the highest adjusted PCS: 43.54 (SD=0.96), and Dijon had the lowest adjusted MCS: 38.67 (SD=0.67). There are strong associations between levels of the EQ-5D at 3 months and survival within the year. The trend across levels suggests a dose–response relationship. Conclusions The study demonstrated significant variations in survival, HRQoL and utilities across populations that could not be explained by stroke severity and sociodemographic factors. Strong associations between HRQoL at 3 months and survival to 1 year after stroke were identified

  3. Celebrating fifty years of research and applications in reminiscence and life review: state of the art and new directions.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2014-04-01

    Fifty years ago, psychiatrist Robert Butler (1963) published an influential article on the recollection and evaluation of personal memories in later life. We discuss the major insights and applications in psychological gerontology that were inspired by Butler. Reminiscence and life review serve to create bonds between people, to cope with important life events, and to attribute meaning to life. We discuss a heuristic framework that relates reminiscence and life review to individual and contextual characteristics as well as to psychological resources and mental health and well-being. The increasing evidence is discussed that different types of interventions can effectively promote mental health and well-being in later life. We propose that processes of reminiscence and life review need further study. This can partly be achieved within the current research tradition by longitudinal studies and good trials that also address the processes accounting for effects of interventions. Synergy with psychological studies on autobiographical remembering and life stories will provide further innovation in the field, as these studies provide new methods and evidence of processes linked to the recollection and evaluation of personal memories. PMID:24655678

  4. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  5. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  6. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  7. Surgery for congenital mitral valve disease in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Uva, M S; Galletti, L; Gayet, F L; Piot, D; Serraf, A; Bruniaux, J; Comas, J; Roussin, R; Touchot, A; Binet, J P

    1995-01-01

    incompetence of greater than moderate degree in one patient and no significant residual mitral stenosis. Overall, six patients have mitral prosthetic valves with a mean transprosthetic gradient of 6.2 +/- 3.7 mm Hg. These results show that surgical treatment for congenital mitral valve disease in the first year of life can be performed with low mortality. Valve repair is a realistic goal in about 70% of patients and possibly more with increased experience. Reoperation rate is still high and is related to complexity of mitral lesions and associated anomalies, but late functional results are encouraging. PMID:7815793

  8. Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Veterans' Group Life Insurance regulation update--ABO, VGLI application, SGLI 2-year disability extension. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-07-31

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) insurance regulations concerning Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) to reflect the statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Act of 2010, which became law on October 13, 2010, and resulted in the need for amendments to change the SGLI Disability Extension period from 1 year to 2 years in duration; provide SGLI Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) retroactive coverage effective from October 7, 2001, for all qualifying injuries regardless of the geographic location and military operation in which the injuries were incurred; and remove the SGLI and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) Accelerated Benefits Option (ABO) discount rate. This rule also clarifies that ``initial premium'' refers to ``initial Veterans' Group Life Insurance premium,'' updates the current address of the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (OSGLI), managed by Prudential Insurance Company of America, to reflect where the ABO application is mailed for processing, and corrects the OSGLI phone number. Finally, this rule removes the ABO application form from the regulation, and it corrects and clarifies language concerning the VGLI application period that was inadvertently incorrectly modified in a prior amendment of the regulations. PMID:25122940

  9. Potential Years of Life Lost Due to Premature Mortality Among Treatment-Seeking Illicit Drug Users in Finland.

    PubMed

    Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Beynon, Caryl M; Vohlonen, Ilkka; Tiihonen, Jari; Föhr, Jaana; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2015-12-01

    Premature death is a serious public health concern. The primary objective of this study was to examine premature deaths in terms of potential years of life lost (PYLL) in a cohort of 4817 treatment-seeking illicit drug users. Clients' data were linked to the Finnish national cause-of-death register and the follow-up period ranged from 31 January 1997 to 31 December 2010. PYLL before 70 years was calculated for all deaths and cause-specific deaths by gender. We observed 496 deaths (417 males and 79 females) at the end of 2010. The mean age at death was 33.8 years, 34.3 years for males (range 18-68) and 31.4 years for females (range 16-53). Overall, 17,951 life years were lost; 14,898 among males and 3053 among females. The overall PYLL rate for males was more than twice that of females (513.0/1000 vs. 243.7/1000 person-years) but the mean PYLL was higher in females than males (38.6 vs. 35.7 years). Of the total PYLL, 34.8 % was due to accidental overdose, and 24.0 % to suicide. In both genders, accidental overdose and suicide were the two top-ranking causes of PYLL. Premature deaths among drug users are a potential loss to the society. Our findings suggest that measures targeting accidental overdose and suicide are top priorities for reducing preventable loss of life. PMID:25967278

  10. Improving First-Year Intervention Strategies at Universities by Focusing on Meaning and Purpose in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Joo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Research has increasingly appreciated the potential benefits of having a higher sense of meaning in life for positive college student development. Drawing on Steger's (2009) meaning development model, this study investigated the effects of a 6-week web-based intervention designed to enhance a sense of meaning in life among college freshmen. The…

  11. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  12. Ambient air pollution and years of life lost in Ningbo, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tianfeng; Yang, Zuyao; Liu, Tao; Shen, Yueping; Fu, Xiaohong; Qian, Xujun; Zhang, Yuelun; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Shankuan; Mao, Chen; Xu, Guozhang; Tang, Jinling

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the burden of air pollution on years of life lost (YLL) in addition to mortality, we conducted a time series analysis based on the data on air pollution, meteorological conditions and 163,704 non-accidental deaths of Ningbo, China, 2009-2013. The mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were 84.0 μg/m3, 60.1 μg/m3, 25.1 μg/m3 and 41.7 μg/m3, respectively. An increase of 10-μg/m3 in particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide was associated with 4.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-7.38), 2.97 (95% CI -2.01-7.95), 29.98 (95% CI 19.21-40.76) and 16.58 (95% CI 8.19-24.97) YLL, respectively, and 0.53% (95% CI 0.29-0.76%), 0.57% (95% CI 0.20-0.95%), 2.89% (95% CI 2.04-3.76%), and 1.65% (95% CI 1.01-2.30%) increase of daily death counts, respectively. The impact of air pollution lasted for four days (lag 0-3), and were more significant in the elderly than in the young population for both outcomes. These findings clarify the burden of air pollution on YLL and highlight the importance and urgency of air pollution control in China.

  13. Communicating hunger and satiation in the first 2 years of life: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McNally, Janet; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Maternal and Infant care produced 27 papers. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed qualitative and/or quantitative publications on feeding behaviours, hunger, and satiation/satiety cues of typically developing children in the first 2 years of life. Papers published between 1966 and 2013 were included in the review. The review revealed that feeding cues and behaviours are shaped by numerous issues, such as infants' physical attributes, individual psychological factors and environmental factors. Meanwhile, infant characteristics, external cues and mothers' own characteristics affect how feeding cues are perceived. The existing literature provides insights into many aspects of hunger and satiation in infancy; however, there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There is a lack of validated tools for measuring hunger and satiation, a need to understand how different infant characteristics impact on feeding behaviour and a need to extricate the respective contributions of infant and maternal characteristics to perceptions of hunger and satiation. Further research is also recommended to differentiate between feeding driven by liking and that driven by hunger. PMID:26620159

  14. Ambient air pollution and years of life lost in Ningbo, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Tianfeng; Yang, Zuyao; Liu, Tao; Shen, Yueping; Fu, Xiaohong; Qian, Xujun; Zhang, Yuelun; Wang, Yong; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Shankuan; Mao, Chen; Xu, Guozhang; Tang, Jinling

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the burden of air pollution on years of life lost (YLL) in addition to mortality, we conducted a time series analysis based on the data on air pollution, meteorological conditions and 163,704 non-accidental deaths of Ningbo, China, 2009–2013. The mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were 84.0 μg/m3, 60.1 μg/m3, 25.1 μg/m3 and 41.7 μg/m3, respectively. An increase of 10-μg/m3 in particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide was associated with 4.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–7.38), 2.97 (95% CI −2.01–7.95), 29.98 (95% CI 19.21–40.76) and 16.58 (95% CI 8.19–24.97) YLL, respectively, and 0.53% (95% CI 0.29–0.76%), 0.57% (95% CI 0.20–0.95%), 2.89% (95% CI 2.04–3.76%), and 1.65% (95% CI 1.01–2.30%) increase of daily death counts, respectively. The impact of air pollution lasted for four days (lag 0–3), and were more significant in the elderly than in the young population for both outcomes. These findings clarify the burden of air pollution on YLL and highlight the importance and urgency of air pollution control in China. PMID:26927539

  15. Prenatal and postnatal energetic conditions and sex steroids levels across the first year of life

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Amanda L.; Lampl, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Human biologists have documented variability in reproductive maturation, fertility, and cancer risk related to developmental conditions. Yet no previous studies have directly examined the impact of pre- and post-natal energetic environments on sex steroids in infancy, a critical period for hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis development. Thus, we examined the impact of maternal characteristics, birth size, and feeding practices on fecal sex steroid production in a longitudinal sample of 31 American infants followed from 2 weeks to 12 months of age. Methods Maternal characteristics and birth size were collected at study enrollment, infant diet was assessed through weekly 24-hr food diaries, and anthropometrics were measured weekly. Fecal estradiol and testosterone levels were assessed weekly using validated microassay RIA techniques. Mixed models were used to test for associations between maternal and birth characteristics, feeding practices, and sex steroids across the first year of life. Formal mediation analysis examined whether the relationship between infant feeding and hormone levels was mediated by infant size. Results Maternal and birth characteristics had persistent effects on fecal sex steroid levels, with taller maternal height and larger birth size associated with lower estradiol levels in girls and higher testosterone levels in boys. Infant diet was also associated with sex steroid levels independently of infant size. Formula feeding was associated with higher estradiol levels in boys and girls and with higher testosterone in girls. Conclusion These results suggest that markers of early energy availability influence sex hormone levels with potential long-term consequences for reproductive development and function. PMID:23904043

  16. Sleep and morningness-eveningness in the 'middle' years of life (20-59 y)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    The following four issues were assessed in a group of 110 adults between the age of 20 and 59y: (1) the effect of age (regarded as a continuous variable) on polysomnographic sleep characteristics, habitual sleep-diary patterns, and subjective sleep quality; (2) the effects of age on morningness-eveningness; (3) the effects of morningness-eveningness on sleep, after controlling for the effects of age; and (4) the role of morningness-eveningness as a mediator of the age and sleep relationship. Increasing age was related to earlier habitual waketime, earlier bedtime, less time in bed and better mood and alertness at waketime. In the laboratory, increasing age was associated with less time asleep, increased number of awakenings, decreased sleep efficiency, lower percentages of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, higher percentages of Stage 1 and 2, shorter REM latency and reduced REM activity and density. Increasing age was also associated with higher morningness scores. After controlling for the effects of age, morningness was associated with earlier waketime, earlier bedtime, less time in bed, better alertness at waketime, less time spent asleep, more wake in the last 2 h of sleep, decreased REM activity, less stage REM (min and percentage), more Stage 1 (min and percentage) and fewer minutes of Stage 2. For one set of variables (night time in bed, waketime, total sleep time, wake in the last 2 h of sleep and minutes of REM and REM activity), morningness-eveningness accounted for about half of the relationship between age and sleep. For another set of variables (bedtime, alertness at waketime, percentages of REM and Stage 1), morningness-eveningness accounted for the entire relationship between age and sleep. In conclusion, age and morningness were both important predictors of the habitual sleep patterns and polysomnographic sleep characteristics of people in the middle years of life (20-59 y).

  17. Communicating hunger and satiation in the first 2 years of life: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hugh‐Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Maternal and Infant care produced 27 papers. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed qualitative and/or quantitative publications on feeding behaviours, hunger, and satiation/satiety cues of typically developing children in the first 2 years of life. Papers published between 1966 and 2013 were included in the review. The review revealed that feeding cues and behaviours are shaped by numerous issues, such as infants' physical attributes, individual psychological factors and environmental factors. Meanwhile, infant characteristics, external cues and mothers' own characteristics affect how feeding cues are perceived. The existing literature provides insights into many aspects of hunger and satiation in infancy; however, there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There is a lack of validated tools for measuring hunger and satiation, a need to understand how different infant characteristics impact on feeding behaviour and a need to extricate the respective contributions of infant and maternal characteristics to perceptions of hunger and satiation. Further research is also recommended to differentiate between feeding driven by liking and that driven by hunger. PMID:26620159

  18. In Italy, healthy life expectancy drop dramatically: from 2004 to 2008 there was a 10 years drop among newborn girls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In this short essay, we would like to address a severe divergence observed in Italy between Life Expectancy (LE) and Healthy Life Expectancy (Healthy LE) and a unique trend of worsening in Healthy LE, compared to the other European countries. Both issues emerge in recent data by EUROSTAT Report. Methods The analysis used by the authors of the EUROSTAT report is based on Sullivan method which combines 2 type of variables: mortality and morbidity data. Results While several European countries started to deal with comparable data about LE since 1960, in Italy, analogous data were available for the first time in EUROSTAT Report only in 1985. In Italy, in the period 1985-2008, there was a good progressive increase in L.E., following the best European values. Nevertheless, while until 2004 Italy was among the European best countries in terms of both LE and Healthy LE at birth, four years later in 2008 there was a shocking loss of 10 years of Healthy LE at birth in newborn girls. In the process, they lost their 2-years previous advantage with respect to males (the latter lost only 6 years of Healthy LE, in the same time span). Looking at healthy LE at age 65 in respect to 2004, Italian women in 2008 could expect to live healthy only about 7 years (as much as men) versus the almost 15 years of the European best values (14 years for men). Conclusions It is legitimate to wonder why no one official comment has been produced as a reaction after the first year of spectacular decline in Healthy Life Years in Italy: in counter-tendency with European values, from 2004 to 2008 there is a clear evidence of a 10 years drop in Healthy LE among newborn girls. The problem has not been taken into consideration even when the situation clearly appeared to worsen in the following years, dropping 4-6 more years for males and females in 2006 (for newborn babies); two more years of healthy life expectancy have been lost between 2006 and 2007 for each gender. One more year of

  19. Life on Mars, Where do we stand after seven years of investigations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, E.

    2003-04-01

    The question "Is there life on Mars?" is one of the most challenging questions for the scientific community to answer. Until documented samples are returned to Earth from Mars by space probes, the only samples available for study are twenty-six undocumented, randomly selected Martian samples delivered to Earth. Martian meteorites offer a unique opportunity to study near-surface samples from Mars. Martian meteorites of widely differing ages (ALH84001 - crystallization age of 4.5 Gy. with 3.9 Gy. old carbonates; Nakhla D crystallization age of 1.3 Gy. and clays of possibly 600-700 Ma. years age; and Shergotty D 165 Ma. crystallization age) contain evidence of water produced alteration products (hydrates, clays, sulfates, carbonates, halites, etc.). ALH84001 and Nakhla has been shown to contain indigenous reduced carbon compounds with isotopic compositions which are not products of terrestrial contaminants. Unique magnetite biomarkers are found within the ALH84001 low-temperature carbonate globules and display six unique properties of magnetites produced by the reference MV-1 magnetosome bacteria. Recently, the three-dimensional morphologies of the magnetites from both MV-1 magnetosome bacteria and the "biogenic" population of magnetites within the carbonates of ALH84001 have been show to be crystallographically equivalent. The determination that the properties of both MV-1 and ALH84001 magnetites are essentially identical provides further support for our interpretation that these Martian magnetites were produced by similar biogenic processes on Mars. To date, all of the models presented utilizing thermal decomposition of iron-rich carbonates to produce magnetites within ALH84001's carbonates fail to produce the unique properties of the biogenic magnetites. In addition, morphological structures are present within the three Martian meteorites which are identical to fossilized bacteria. Despite more than seven years of extensive research by the scientific community, the

  20. Facilitating the Adjustment to and Participation in the Life of the School and Community by Newly Arrived Puerto Rican Pupils and their Parents. Maxi I Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Margaret A.; Duncan, Nellie R.

    This document describes the planning and implementation of a comprehensive program to facilitate the adjustment of newly arrived Puerto Rican pupils and parents to the school and the surrounding East New York community. The program encompassed the following areas: improvement of school atmosphere, training of teachers and para-professionals, more…

  1. Cognitive function, social functioning and quality of life in first-episode psychosis: A 1-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Popolo, Raffaele; Vinci, Giancarlo; Balbi, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Objective. The majority of patients with schizophrenia have cognitive deficits early in the disease. We evaluated the relationship between cognitive function, social functioning and quality of life in patients with first-episode psychosis. Methods. This was a longitudinal study in 15 patients aged 18-30 years who had recently experienced a first psychotic episode and were treated with the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole, cognitive-behavioural therapy, psycho-educational sessions, family supportive sessions and social interventions. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. Cognitive assessment included attention, memory, language skills and problem solving. Social functioning, quality of life, and psychopathological evaluation were performed with validated tools. Results. At baseline, patients had a severe impairment of social functioning and a low quality of life, while a specific pattern of cognitive functions was not identified. After 1-year, we observed a significant improvement in social functioning and quality of life, without a significant decrease in cognitive function. Conclusion. Contrary to previous findings, we found that social functioning and quality of life are related, but independent of cognitive impairment. The use of antipsychotic agents that do not interefere with cognitive function plus psychological assistance is a valuable treatment approach in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. PMID:24917230

  2. Quality of life of patients with chronic stable angina before and four years after coronary revascularisation compared with a normal population

    PubMed Central

    Brorsson, B; Bernstein, S J; Brook, R H; Werkö, L

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of coronary revascularisation on the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with chronic stable angina compared with data from “community” norms four years following revascularisation. Design: Prospective survey and review of medical records. Setting: Seven of the eight public Swedish heart centres that performed coronary artery interventions. Subjects: 827 patients aged 55–79 years with chronic stable angina who underwent coronary artery revascularisation in 1994 or 1995 and completed the four year HRQOL survey. Main outcome measures: Five components of the Swedish quality of life survey. Results: Compared with age and sex adjusted population norms, patients at baseline had significantly lower mean scores on all five functioning and wellbeing scales (p < 0.001). Four years after revascularisation, the mean levels of functioning and wellbeing were similar to those in the normative population (p > 0.05) except for quality of sleep (p < 0.001). The improvements were the same across age groups and for men and women. However, 36% of men and 55% of women were not completely free from angina by four years (p < 0.001). Men without angina after four years had better HRQOL than their community norms (p < 0.001) on all dimensions except quality of sleep (p > 0.05). Women without angina had less pain (p < 0.01) and better general health perception (p < 0.05) but similar physical functioning, quality of sleep, and emotional wellbeing compared with their community counterparts. Both men and women who had suffered at least one anginal attack during the preceding four weeks had significantly worse HRQOL by four years than their community norms (p < 0.01). Conclusions: By four years following revascularisation, three fifths of patients with chronic stable angina were free of angina and their HRQOL was the same as or better than that of the general Swedish population. However, fewer than half of all women and two thirds of men who

  3. Creep fatigue life prediction for engine hot section materials (isotropic): Two year update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, V.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements for increased durability of gas turbine hot section components have placed a greater degree of importance on accurate structural analysis and life prediction. Various life prediction approaches for high temperature applications were investigated. Basic models were selected and developed for simple-cycle, isothermal loading conditions. Models will be developed which address thermomechanical cycling, multiaxial conditions, cumulative loading, environmental effects, and cyclic mean stress. Verification tests of models will be conducted on an alternate material and coating system.

  4. Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of the Voice across the Life Span: Measures from Individuals 4-93 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine acoustic voice changes across the life span. Previous voice production investigations used small numbers of participants, had limited age ranges, and produced contradictory results. Method: Voice recordings were made from 192 male and female participants 4-93 years of age. Acoustic…

  5. An Overview of Concepts Concerning the Development of Self-Identity during the First Two Years of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maar, Joyce

    This paper traces some of the major theories and research findings concerning the development of self-identity during the first two years of life. The discussion begins with some basic assumptions of identity formation, offers an historical perspective with discussion of William James' major aspects of self, and concludes with observations on the…

  6. Dynamics of Mothers' Goals for Children in Ethnically Diverse Populations across the First Three Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Godfrey, Erin B.; Hunter, Cristina J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Parents' socialization goals are important for cultural transmission across generations, but whether such goals vary by ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds and change over children's first years of life remains unexamined. In Study 1, African-American, Dominican immigrant, and Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 300) reported on the qualities deemed…

  7. The Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher, 1999: Violence in America's Public Schools--Five Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Katherine; Markow, Dana

    1999-01-01

    "The Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher, 1999: Violence in America's Public Schools: Five Years Later" revisits issues addressed in a 1993 study (ED397190), and compares findings of the two studies on the issue of school violence from the perspectives of students, teachers, and law enforcement officers across the country, about the…

  8. Diary Reports of Concerns in Mothers of Infant Siblings of Children with Autism across the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbott, Meagan R.; Nelson, Charles A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    We examined the home-based concerns reported by mothers of infant siblings of children with autism across the first year of life. At all three ages measured, mothers of high-risk infants were significantly more likely than mothers of low-risk infants to report language, social communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior concerns but were…

  9. Parental Retrospective Assessment of Development and Behavior in Asperger Syndrome during the First 2 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewrang, Petra; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2010-01-01

    Development and behavior during the first 2 years of life was assessed retrospectively by the parents to 23 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 13 typically developing adolescents and young adults. The groups were matched on chronological age and the participants were within the normal range of intelligence. The questionnaire,…

  10. What's Going On in There? How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Lise

    Drawing upon the burgeoning research in neurology, as well as stories of real children, this book charts the brain's development, from conception through the critical first 5 years of life. In examining the many factors that play crucial roles in that process, the book explores the evolution of the senses, motor skills, social and emotional…

  11. Development of Empathy in Girls during the Second Year of Life: Associations with Parenting, Attachment, and Temperament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Mark, Ingrid L.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development, antecedents, and concomitants of empathic concern in the second year of life among 125 first-born girls. Findings indicated that empathic concern for mother's simulated distress increased from 16 to 22 months, whereas empathy for a stranger's simulated distress decreased. Fearful temperament and…

  12. The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p < 0.05) to 1.62 years (p < 0.001) at different stages. Male residents were more vulnerable to the effects of industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

  13. Longitudinal Trajectories of Gestural and Linguistic Abilities in Very Preterm Infants in the Second Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Broccoli, Serena; Justice, Laura; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    The present study involved a systematic longitudinal analysis, with three points of assessment in the second year of life, of gestures/actions, word comprehension, and word production in a sample of very preterm infants compared to a sample of full-term infants. The relationships among these competencies as well as their predictive value on…

  14. Perceived Life Satisfaction of Workplace Specialist I Faculty and Mentors Participating in a First-Year STEM Teacher Training Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickolich, David; Feldhaus, Charles; Cotton, Sam; Barrett, Andrew, II; Smallwood, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure perceived professional and personal life satisfaction of Indiana Workplace Specialist I (WS I) faculty and their mentors. Workplace Specialist I teachers are all first-year career and technical education (CTE) faculty who must complete the WS I training program to be eligible for the Workplace Specialist II…

  15. The Social Life of Britain's Five-Year-Olds: A Report of the Child Health and Education Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, A. F.; And Others

    This national longitudinal study follows the first 5 years of life of 13,135 children in England, Scotland, and Wales who were born during a single week in April 1970. Part One examines the concept and extent of social inequality in the sample of children and compares the social circumstances of this third cohort with those of the earlier two…

  16. Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes within the first five years of life influences quality of life and risk of severe hypoglycemia in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Trento, M; Trevisan, M; Coppo, E; Raviolo, A; Zanone, M M; Cavallo, F; Porta, M

    2014-01-01

    Progressive adaptation to disease is paramount to improve quality of life (QoL) and other psychological dimensions in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). This study aimed at identifying possible correlations between QoL, locus of control (LoC) and clinical variables in patients with T1DM followed up for 16 years. Fifty-nine patients (27 women) with T1DM, part of a cohort of 112 followed since 1996, accepted to participate. Patients were divided into those in whom onset of T1DM had been during the first 5 years of life (n = 16) or later. They were also stratified into worsened, stable and improved, based on whether their HbA1c had increased/decreased by 1 percentage point between baseline and last follow-up visit. QoL was measured by the Diabetes Quality of Life questionnaire (DQOL), translated into Italian and re-validated. The LoC was measured by the Peyrot- and Rubin-specific questionnaire. Patients who developed T1DM before age 5 had a better total DQOL score than those who developed it later in life, mainly due to the satisfaction dimension and a tendency to decreased fatalism in adult age. All subjects whose HbA1c had worsened from baseline had had their diagnosis after age 5 and reported more frequent episodes of hypoglycemia. Onset of diabetes after age 5 and more frequent hypoglycemia was more likely in subjects with worsened HbA1c (ORs 7.6, p < 0.10 and 20.3, p < 0.01, respectively, from a multivariate logistic model with HbA1c, dichotomized in 'worsened' vs all others, as dependent variable). Onset of T1DM during the first 5 years of life may result in better QoL and less fatalism in the long term. Presumably, these patients have no memory of disease onset, which may reduce trauma and facilitate adaptation to managing life with diabetes. PMID:24241339

  17. Body mass index in early and middle adult life: prospective associations with myocardial infarction, stroke and diabetes over a 30-year period: the British Regional Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Wathern, Andrea K; Lennon, Lucy; Papacosta, Olia; Cook, Derek G; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adiposity in middle age is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes; less is known about the impact of adiposity from early adult life. We examined the effects of high body mass index (BMI) in early and middle adulthood on myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and diabetes risks. Design A prospective cohort study. Participants 7735 men with BMI measured in middle age (40–59 years) and BMI ascertained at 21 years from military records or participant recall. Primary and secondary outcome measures 30-year follow-up data for type 2 diabetes, MI and stroke incidence; Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the effect of BMI at both ages on these outcomes, adjusted for age and smoking status. Results Among 4846 (63%) men (with complete data), a 1 kg/m2 higher BMI at 21 years was associated with a 6% (95% CI 4% to 9%) higher type 2 diabetes risk, compared with a 21% (95% CI 18% to 24%) higher diabetes risk for a 1 kg/m2 higher BMI in middle age (hazard ratio (HR) 1.21, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.24). Higher BMI in middle age was associated with a 6% (95% CI 4% to 8%) increase in MI and a 4% (95% CI 1% to 7%) increase in stroke; BMI at 21 years showed no associations with MI or stroke risk. Conclusions Higher BMI at 21 years of age is associated with later diabetes incidence but not MI or stroke, while higher BMI in middle age is strongly associated with all outcomes. Early obesity prevention may reduce later type 2 diabetes risk, more than MI and stroke. PMID:26373398

  18. Current Treatment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Should We Add Life to the Remaining Years or Add Years to the Remaining Life?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Blankenberg, Stefan; Westermann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    According to the ejection fraction, patients with heart failure may be divided into two different groups: heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. In recent years, accumulating studies showed that increased mortality and morbidity rates of these two groups are nearly equal. More importantly, despite decline in mortality after treatment in regard to current guideline in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, there are still no trials resulting in improved outcome in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction so far. Thus, novel pathophysiological mechanisms are under development, and other new viewpoints, such as multiple comorbidities resulting in increased non-cardiac deaths in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction, were presented recently. In this review, we will focus on the tested as well as the promising therapeutic options that are currently studied in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, along with a brief discussion of pathophysiological mechanisms and diagnostic options that are helpful to increase our understanding of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24251065

  19. UV Radiation: a new first year physics/life sciences laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, S. V.; Siddaway, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Unfortunately, Australia leads the world in the number of skin cancer cases per capita. Three major factors that contribute to this are: 1) the level of damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation in Australia is higher than in many other countries. This is caused, among other factors, by the stratospheric ozone depletion and Antarctic ozone hole; 2) many people in Australia are of Irish-Scottish origin and their skin can not repair the damage caused by the UV radiation as effectively as the skin of people of other origins; 3) Australia is one of the world’s leaders in the outdoor activities where people tend to spend more time outside. As our experience has shown, most Australian University students, high school students, and even high school teachers were largely unaware of the UV damage details and effective safety measures. Therefore, a need for new ways to educate people became apparent. The general aim of this new 1st year laboratory experiment, developed and first offered at La Trobe University (Melbourne, Australia) in 2009, is to investigate how UV-B radiation levels change under various solar illumination conditions and how effective different types of protection are. After pre-lab readings on physical concepts and biological effects of UV radiation, and after solving all pre-lab problems, the students go outside and measure the actual change in UV-B and UV-A radiation levels under various conditions. Some of these conditions are: direct sun, shade from a building, shade under the roof, reflection from various surfaces, direct sun through cheap and expensive sunglasses and eyeglasses, direct sun through various types of cloth and hair. The equipment used is the UV-Probe manufactured by sglux SolGel Technologies GmbH. The students’ feedback on this new laboratory experiment was very positive. It was ranked top among all physics experiments offered as part of that subject (Physics for Life Sciences) in 2009 and top among all physics experiments presented for

  20. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for retrospective estimation of diet during the first 2 years of life

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; García-Guerra, Armando; Quezada-Sanchez, Amado D.; Orjuela, Manuela A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to validate a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), specifically designed to retrospectively estimate dietary intake and supplement consumption during the first two years of life in children from resource poor households in semi-rural Mexico. Methods The FFQ querying about diet during the first 2 years of life was administered to mothers of children (N=84), who participated in a prospective study 3 to 5 years earlier, in which complementary feeding practice questionnaires and 24-hour recall (24hrR) were collected at several time points during the first 2 years of life to evaluate dietary and vitamin supplement intake. The resulting FFQ data were compared to intake data collected during the original study using Spearman correlations, deattenuated correlations and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Total energy intake, as estimated by the retrospective and original instruments, did not differ in the second year (Yr2); correlations between the measures were significant (r=0.40, p<0.001). The 24hrR and FFQ-Yr2 were significantly correlated for dietary intake of vitamins B6, B12 (p<0.001) and folate (p<0.01); however, after including vitamin supplement intake, the two dietary instruments were correlated only for vitamins A and B12 (p<0.05). Conclusions The FFQ provides a reasonable estimate of a child’s dietary intake of energy and key micronutrients during the second year of life, and permits accurate ranking of intake 3 to 5 years after birth. PMID:23532627

  1. Levels of household particulate matter and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the first year of life for a cohort at risk for asthma in urban Syracuse, NY.

    PubMed

    Hunt, A; Crawford, J A; Rosenbaum, P F; Abraham, J L

    2011-10-01

    The Syracuse, NY, AUDIT (Assessment of Urban Dwellings for Indoor Toxics) study was designed to quantify asthma agent levels in the inner-city homes of a birth cohort whose mothers had a diagnosis of asthma. Risk of exposure to particulate matter (PM), particle number and tobacco smoke was assessed in 103 infants' homes. Repeat measurements were made in 44% of the homes. Infants also were examined on a quarterly basis during the first year of life to monitor their respiratory health and urine cotinine levels. Overall geometric mean (GM) values for PM(2.5) of 21.2 μg/m(3) and for PM(10) of 31.8 μg/m(3) were recorded in homes at visit 1. GM values for PM(2.5) and PM(10) in smoking homes were higher at 26.3 and 37.7 μg/m(3), while values in non-smoking homes were 12.7 and 21.2 μg/m(3) respectively. Fifty-four percent of mothers (55/103) smoked at some point in pregnancy (39% smoked throughout pregnancy). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure occurred in 68% of homes during the infants' first year. Significant to this study was the size- and time-resolved monitoring of PM at 140 home visits and the classification of PM count data. PM number counts ranged from continuously low levels (little indoor activity) to continuously high counts (constant indoor activity), and recorded apparent instances of prolonged repeated cigarette smoking. Wheezing in the first year of life was recorded for 38% of the infants (39/103). Adjusted logistic regression modeling demonstrated that elevated levels of indoor PM(2.5) (≥ 15 μg/m(3)) were a significant risk factor for infant wheezing after controlling for infant gender, mothers' age and education level, season of home visit and presence of carpeting (OR 4.21; 95% CI 1.36-13.03; p=0.013). An elevated level of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in infant urine also was associated with infant wheezing after adjusting for infant gender, mothers' age and education level (OR 5.10; 95% CI 0.96-27.24; p=0.057). ETS exposure was

  2. 26 CFR 1.803-2 - Adjusted reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-2 Adjusted reserves. For the purpose of determining... insurance, no adjustment is to be made. The reserves are thus adjusted, and the rate of interest on...

  3. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  4. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  5. Does cancer survivors' health-related quality of life depend on cancer type? Findings from a large French national sample 2 years after cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Le Corroller-Soriano, A-G; Bouhnik, A-D; Preau, M; Malavolti, L; Julian-Reynier, C; Auquier, P; Moatti, J-P

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether health-related quality of life (HRQL) depends on cancer type, after adjustment for demographic and medical variables. A French national population-based survey was conducted between November and December 2004 to assess surviving cancer patients' HRQL 2 years after diagnosis. HRQL was measured by the 36-Item Short Form Survey scale. The sample included 3900 persons. All cancer diagnoses were entered in the study. We demonstrated that medical and treatment variables have an impact on patients' physical HRQL but not on mental HRQL. Cancer type impacted on physical HRQL, with those suffering from upper aerodigestive tract /lung cancers and haematological malignancies being affected to a greater degree. Disturbing side effects impacted both HRQL domains. Socio-demographic variables had statistically significant effects but not clinically meaningful ones. Socio-economic variables led to potentially clinically meaningful differences for cancer patients' HRQL and represented a socio-economic gradient in HRQL among cancer survivors. From our results, we may assert that cancer survivors, 2 years after cancer diagnosis, share a similar pattern of psychological morbidity, independent of cancer type. Patients disproportionately affected by cancer, such as those with lower educational levels and income, need to be identified and targeted and interventions which address their unique needs and concerns need to be developed. PMID:20345457

  6. [Female life courses and health--results of a study of national survey data of 50-69-year-old women in East and West Germany].

    PubMed

    Bammann, K; Babitsch, B; Jahn, I; Maschewsky-Schneider, U

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the impact of different forms of combining family and paid work on the health status of women. The study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the National Health Survey and included 1530 women, aged 50 to 69 years, from East and West Germany. Three groups were composed to describe different forms of family and occupation in the life course (family or occupational career, combination of family and occupation). Additionally, aspects of the social situation, resources and burdens as well as indicators of health behaviour were included in the analyses. The most remarkable result was a significantly worse state of health of employed and childless women (occupational career), aged 50 to 59 years. This finding remained after adjustment for different potential factors of influence. Considering the increasing proportion of women without children in modern societies, longitudinal analyses would be necessary to investigate the long term effect of familial and occupational factors on the health status of women. PMID:10407954

  7. A Comparative Study of the Adjustment of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devika R.

    2014-01-01

    Education is the ability to meet one's life. How the child adjusts with varying situations determines the success of life. The child's adjustment is determined by a number of factors like Home, Social, Educational and Financial adjustment. The investigator here aims to make a comparative study on the adjustment of secondary school students. The…

  8. Family Diversity in 50 Years of Storybook Images of Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, Nancy M.; Hildreth, Gladys J.

    2002-01-01

    Content analysis of a sample of 100 picture storybooks about family life published 1943-1993 reveals no significant differences in the frequency of appearance of different family types or ethnicities over time. Dominant images remained the nuclear (63%) and Caucasian (67%) family. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)

  9. Equally Prepared for Life? How 15-Year-Old Boys and Girls Perform in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    In the past few decades there has been an increasing interest in the different educational experiences, success and eventual outcomes that prevail for males and females. Women often excel at school, however men often earn more and are more likely to hold positions of power in political and economic life. Looking at these inequalities, government…

  10. A Look Back: A Retrospective Analysis of the Sequence of Life Course Events over 22 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    At both the provincial and federal levels, a lively policy debate on the types of education, training, and skill acquisition required to meet the demands of the British Columbia and Canadian workforce is taking place. Despite acknowledgement of the need for lifelong learning and reskilling in light of frequent career changes over the life course,…

  11. Quality of Life as Perceived by 30 Year Old Army Veterans: Supplementary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sandra Reitz; Flanagan, John C.

    The supplementary report serves as documentation for the summary version (CE 005 383) and provides greater detail regarding study procedures and results. The investigation concerns the impact Army service has had on the quality of life of a representative sample of young Americans, which has been ascertained through interviews, data collection,…

  12. Education's Contribution to the Quality of Life of a National Sample of 30 Year-olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, John C.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary data on the longitudinal study, Project Talent, indicate that education is making a large and important contribution to the quality of life of those sampled. Two main areas in which a large discrepancy exists between needs and present status are cited. (AM)

  13. Quality of Life as Perceived by 30 Year Old Army Veterans. Technical Paper No. 263.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sandra Reitz; And Others

    An intensive investigation of the impact Army service has had on the quality of life for a representative sample of young Americans is analyzed in terms of possible improvement in Army personnel procedures. A total of 166 men (of a potential 200) and 49 women (of a potential 50) were interviewed. The information from these interviews; a review of…

  14. Life-Involvement Model (LIM) Project for the 1973-74 Project Year. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapfer, Philip G.; Kapfer, Miriam B.

    The Life-Involvement Model (LIM) Project consisted of four major thrusts: a school-based operational program; a university-based, but field-centered, preservice teacher education program; a school-based in-service teacher education program; and curricular and instructional developmental work designed to support the above three operational programs…

  15. Spanish Family Quality of Life Scales: Under and over 18 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gine, Climent; Vilaseca, Rosa; Gracia, Marta; Mora, Joaquin; Orcasitas, Jose Ramon; Simon, Cecilia; Torrecillas, Ana Maria; Beltran, Francesc S.; Dalmau, Mariona; Pro, Maria Teresa; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Mas, Joana Maria; Adam-Alcocer, Ana Luisa; Simo-Pinatella, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers, professionals, and families have shown increasing concern with the family quality of life (FQoL) of people with intellectual disability (ID) and their families. The goals of this research were (a) to explore how Spanish families understand FQoL by developing 2 different measurement tools for families with a member with ID…

  16. FY04 Advanced Life Support Architecture and Technology Studies: Mid-Year Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Duffield, Bruce; Hanford, Tony; Jeng, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Long-Term Objective: Identify optimal advanced life support system designs that meet existing and projected requirements for future human spaceflight missions. a) Include failure-tolerance, reliability, and safe-haven requirements. b) Compare designs based on multiple criteria including equivalent system mass (ESM), technology readiness level (TRL), simplicity, commonality, etc. c) Develop and evaluate new, more optimal, architecture concepts and technology applications.

  17. William Lester Bodine: The Honorary Life Presidential Years, 1917-1946

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullagh, James G.; Niehaus, Rebecca L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to share with the reader the beliefs, on a variety of topics, of William Lester Bodine, co-founder, first president, and first Honorary Life President of the National League of Compulsory Education Officials. The convention's annual proceedings are the source for his reflections, ideas, aspirations, and…

  18. The Women's Life-Paths Study: Role-Innovation over Fourteen Years. Symposium Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangri, Sandra S.; And Others

    Four symposium papers report the results of a longitudinal study of career development and life changes for a sample of 1,967 female college graduates in the Michigan Student Study who were studied in 1967, 1970 and 1981. The first of the papers, entitled "Where Are They Now? Career Outcomes for the Original Role-Innovators," by Sandra S. Tangri,…

  19. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2010-2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028.

  20. Quality of life of breast cancer patients medicated with anti-estrogens, 2 years after acupuncture treatment: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hervik, Jill; Mjåland, Odd

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the quality of life of breast cancer patients medicated with estrogen antagonists, 2 years after having acupuncture treatment for hot flashes. Methods and materials Our sample was taken from women who had recently participated in a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of acupuncture on hot flashes, a side effect of estrogen-antagonist treatment. Forty-one women from the true acupuncture treatment group and 41 women from the control group (sham acupuncture), who had 2 years previously received a course of 15 acupuncture treatments over a period of 10 weeks, were asked to answer an open question. The question, “Would you like to share your thoughts and experiences related to your breast cancer diagnosis, treatments or anything else?” was by being open, broad, and nonspecific, intended to stimulate subjective information, which was not included in the original, or future quantitative studies. Qualitative data were analyzed using systematic text condensation. Results Most women were troubled by two or more side effects due to anti-estrogen medication, negatively affecting their life quality. Symptoms included hot flashes, sleep problems, muscle and joint pain, arm edema, fatigue, weight gain, depression, and lack of sexual desire. Women previously treated with sham acupuncture complained that hot flashes were still problematic, whilst those previously treated with traditional Chinese acupuncture found them less of a problem and generally had a more positive outlook on life. These results compare favorably with the findings from our original study that measured quantitatively health related quality of life. Conclusion Side effects due to anti-estrogen treatment seriously affect the quality of life of breast cancer operated patients. Patients who had previously been treated with traditional Chinese acupuncture complained less of hot flashes, and had a more positive outlook on life, than women who had

  1. Physical performance and life quality in postmenopausal women supplemented with vitamin D: a two-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li-hong; Zhu, Wen-jun; Liu, Yu-juan; Gu, Jie-mei; Zhang, Zhen-lin; Wang, Ou; Xing, Xiao-ping; Xu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone turnover marker levels, muscle strength and quality of life in postmenopausal Chinese women. Methods: A total of 485 healthy postmenopausal Chinese women (63.44±5.04 years) were enrolled in this open-label, 2-year, prospective, community-based trial. The participants were divided into group A, B, C, which were treated with calcium (600 mg/d) alone, calcium (600 mg/d) and cholecalciferol (800 IU/d) or calcium (600 mg/d) and calcitriol (0.25 μg/d), respectively, for 2 years. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, β-CTX and P1NP were measured, and the muscle strength and quality of life were assessed at baseline and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Results: Four hundred and sixty one participants completed this study. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly increased in group C, but not changed in groups A and B at 24-month follow-up. Serum levels of parathyroid hormone, bone turnover marker β-CTX and bone formation marker P1NP were significantly decreased in group C, while serum levels of β-CTX were increased in group A at 24-month follow-up. The participants in group C maintained the grip strength, while those in groups A and B exhibited decreased grip strength at 24-month follow-up. The quality of life for the participants in groups B and C remained consistent, but that in group A was deteriorated at 24-month follow-up. Conclusion: Supplementation with calcitriol and calcium modifies the bone turnover marker levels, and maintains muscle strength and quality of life in postmenopausal Chinese women, whereas supplementation with cholecalciferol and calcium prevents aging-mediated deterioration in quality of life. PMID:26279157

  2. Gene-Environment Interaction Effects on the Development of Immune Responses in the 1st Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Hoffjan, Sabine; Nicolae, Dan; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Roberg, Kathy; Evans, Michael; Mirel, Daniel B.; Steiner, Lori; Walker, Karen; Shult, Peter; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Gern, James E.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Ober, Carole

    2005-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease that results from both genetic and environmental risk factors. Children attending day care in the 1st year of life have lower risks for developing asthma, although the mechanism for this “day care” effect is largely unknown. We investigated the interactions between day care exposure in the 1st 6 mo of life and genotypes for 72 polymorphisms at 45 candidate loci and their effects on cytokine response profiles and on the development of atopic phenotypes in the 1st year of life in the Childhood Onset of Asthma (COAST) cohort of children. Six interactions (at four polymorphisms in three loci) with “day care” that had an effect on early-life immune phenotypes were significant at P<.001. The estimated false-discovery rate was 33%, indicating that an estimated four P values correspond to true associations. Moreover, the “day care” effect at some loci was accounted for by the increased number of viral infections among COAST children attending day care, whereas interactions at other loci were independent of the number of viral infections, indicating the presence of additional risk factors associated with day care environment. This study identified significant gene-environment interactions influencing the early patterning of the immune system and the subsequent development of asthma and highlights the importance of considering environmental risk factors in genetic analyses. PMID:15726497

  3. Life history and production of walleyes of the 1959 year-class in western Lake Erie, 1959-62

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1972-01-01

    Because of the near collapse of the fishery for walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in Lake Erie in the late 1950's, walleyes of the 1959 year-class were studied to gain a better understanding of the life history of the species and the dynamics of the population. In the summer of 1959 most walleyes of the year-class were in water 10 to 20 feet deep along the south and west shores of the western basin. By fall they averaged about 10 inches long and were rather widely distributed throughout the basin. By September 1960 most had reached legal length (then 13 inches in Ohio), and in October they made up nearly the entire commercial walleye production and made the highest monthly contribution during the life of the year-class. Walleyes of the 1959 year-class were cropped intensively and remained in the fishery for only a relatively short time. Estimated Ohio trap net production of the year-class was 261,000 fish in 1960, 168,000 in 1961, and 21,000 in 1962. Few fish survived beyond the spring of 1962. About 97% of the females of the year-class were caught before they had spawned once.

  4. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted..., INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Annual Funding Agreements for Bureau of...

  5. Self-reported ballet classes undertaken at age 10-12 years and hip bone mineral density in later life.

    PubMed

    Khan, K M; Bennell, K L; Hopper, J L; Flicker, L; Nowson, C A; Sherwin, A J; Crichton, K J; Harcourt, P R; Wark, J D

    1998-01-01

    The major effect of weightbearing exercise on adult bone mass may be exerted during childhood. We examined the relationship between reported hours of ballet classes per week undertaken as a child and adult bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip, spine, and forearm. We performed a retrospective cohort study in 99 female retired dancers (mean age 51 years, SD 14 years) and 99 normal controls, derived from a twin study, matched hierarchically for age, height, weight and menopausal status. Starting age of ballet was recalled and weekly hours of ballet as a child was self-reported on two occasions. BMD was measured using dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry and reported as a Z-score. Self-reported hours of ballet class undertaken per week at each age between 10 and 12 years was positively associated with a difference in BMD between dancers and controls at both the femoral neck site (beta = 0.73, p = 0.001) and the total hip site (beta = 0.55, p < 0.01). These associations were unaffected by adjustment for covariates including measures of adult activity (current physical activity, years of fulltime ballet), measures of menstrual disturbance (age of menarche, history of irregular menses), dietary history (calcium intake as a child, adolescent or adult) or lifestyle factors (lifetime smoking, lifetime alcohol). Although starting age of ballet was negatively associated with weight-adjusted within-pair hip BMD difference, it was no longer associated after adjustment for weekly hours of ballet. There was no relationship between hours of ballet undertaken as a child and differences in BMD at the lumbar spine or upper limb, at any age. Our data suggest that classical ballet classes undertaken between the ages of 10 and 12 years are independently and positively associated with a difference in hip BMD between dancers and controls. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this age range identifies a stage of development when the proximal femur is particularly responsive to

  6. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  7. Evidence for Life on Earth before 3,800 Million Years Ago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojzsis, S. J.; Arrhenius, G.; McKeegan, K. D.; Harrison, T. M.; Nutman, A. P.; Friend, C. R. L.

    1996-01-01

    It is unknown when life first appeared on Earth. The earliest known microfossils (approx. 3,500 Myr before present) are structurally complex, and if it is assumed that the associated organisms required a long time to develop this degree of complexity, then the existence of life much earlier than this can be argued. But the known examples of crustal rocks older than approx. 3,500 Myr have experienced intense metamorphism, which would have obliterated any fragile microfossils contained therein. It is therefore necessary to search for geochemical evidence of past biotic activity that has been preserved within minerals that are resistant to metamorphism. Here we report ion-microprobe measurements of the carbon-isotope composition of carbonaceous inclusions within grains of apatite (basic calcium phosphate) from the oldest known sediment sequences a approx. 3,800 Myr-old banded iron formation from the Isua supracrustal belt, West Greenland, and a similar formation from the nearby Akilia island that is possibly older than 3,850 Myr. The carbon in the carbonaceous inclusions is isotopically light, indicative of biological activity; no known abiotic process can explain the data. Unless some unknown abiotic process exists which is able both to create such isotopically light carbon and then selectively incorporate it into apatite grains, our results provide evidence for the emergence of life on Earth by at least 3,800 Myr before present.

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life 2 Years After Treatment With Radical Prostatectomy, Prostate Brachytherapy, or External Beam Radiotherapy in Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Montserrat Suarez, Jose Francisco; Guedea, Ferran; Fernandez, Pablo; Macias, Victor; Marino, Alfonso; Hervas, Asuncion; Herruzo, Ismael; Ortiz, Maria Jose; Villavicencio, Humberto; Craven-Bratle, Jordi; Garin, Olatz; Aguilo, Ferran

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with localized prostate cancer, from before treatment to 2 years after the intervention. Methods and Materials: This was a longitudinal, prospective study of 614 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy (134), three-dimensional external conformal radiotherapy (205), and brachytherapy (275). The HRQL questionnaires administered before and after treatment (months 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24) were the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (General and Prostate Specific), the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC), and the American Urological Association Symptom Index. Differences between groups were tested by analysis of variance and within-group changes by univariate repeated-measures analysis of variance. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were constructed to assess between-group differences in HRQL at 2 years of follow-up after adjusting for clinical variables. Results: In each treatment group, HRQL initially deteriorated after treatment with subsequent partial recovery. However, some dimension scores were still significantly lower after 2 years of treatment. The GEE models showed that, compared with the brachytherapy group, radical prostatectomy patients had worse EPIC sexual summary and urinary incontinence scores (-20.4 and -14.1; p < 0.001), and external radiotherapy patients had worse EPIC bowel, sexual, and hormonal summary scores (-3.55, -5.24, and -1.94; p < 0.05). Prostatectomy patients had significantly better EPIC urinary irritation scores than brachytherapy patients (+4.16; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Relevant differences between treatment groups persisted after 2 years of follow-up. Radical prostatectomy had a considerable negative effect on sexual functioning and urinary continence. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy had a moderate negative impact on bowel

  9. Comorbidity Structure of Psychological Disorders in the Online e-PASS Data as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment Measures: Psychological Distress, Adequate Social Support, Self-Confidence, Quality of Life, and Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2014-01-01

    Background A relative newcomer to the field of psychology, e-mental health has been gaining momentum and has been given considerable research attention. Although several aspects of e-mental health have been studied, 1 aspect has yet to receive attention: the structure of comorbidity of psychological disorders and their relationships with measures of psychosocial adjustment including suicidal ideation in online samples. Objective This exploratory study attempted to identify the structure of comorbidity of 21 psychological disorders assessed by an automated online electronic psychological assessment screening system (e-PASS). The resulting comorbidity factor scores were then used to assess the association between comorbidity factor scores and measures of psychosocial adjustments (ie, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, adequate social support, self-confidence in dealing with mental health issues, and quality of life). Methods A total of 13,414 participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) diagnoses for 21 psychological disorders on dimensional severity scales. The scores on these severity scales were used in a principal component analysis (PCA) and the resulting comorbidity factor scores were related to 4 measures of psychosocial adjustments. Results A PCA based on 17 of the 21 psychological disorders resulted in a 4-factor model of comorbidity: anxiety-depression consisting of all anxiety disorders, major depressive episode (MDE), and insomnia; substance abuse consisting of alcohol and drug abuse and dependency; body image–eating consisting of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders; depression–sleep problems consisting of MDE, insomnia, and hypersomnia. All comorbidity factor scores were significantly associated with psychosocial measures of adjustment (P<.001). They were

  10. Maternal dietary counseling in the first year of life is associated with a higher healthy eating index in childhood.

    PubMed

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Rauber, Fernanda; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Hoffman, Daniel J

    2010-11-01

    Food preferences are established in early childhood and track later in life. Therefore, it is important to promote healthy feeding practices as early as possible. A randomized field trial was conducted with 500 mother-child pairs from a low-income area of São Leopoldo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the impact of a nutritional intervention in the first year of life on the dietary quality of 3- to 4-y-old children. Mother-child pairs were randomized either to intervention and control groups and dietary counseling was provided for mothers in the intervention group during 10 home visits in the course of the first year of life. These visits were carried out by fieldworkers who counseled the mothers about the Ten Steps for Healthy Feeding from Birth to Two Years of Age, based on the WHO guidelines. Dietary intake was assessed at 3-4 y of age for 345 children using two 24-h food recalls. Overall diet quality was determined by the Healthy Eating Index. The prevalence of poor diet in the intervention group was lower compared with the control group [relative risk (RR) = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.13-0.71). The number of children who achieved the 75th percentile for the vegetable and fruit component score was higher in the intervention than in control group (RR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.31-2.89 and RR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.07-2.07, respectively). Such data provide evidence that dietary counseling for mothers during the first year of life improves the overall dietary quality of children in a low-income population. PMID:20844187

  11. Years of Life Lost (YLL) in Colombia 1998-2011: Overall and Avoidable Causes of Death Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Díaz-Jiménez, Diana; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos; De la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estimate the Years of Life Lost (YLL) for overall and avoidable causes of death (CoD) in Colombia for the period 1998-2011. Methods From the reported deaths to the Colombian mortality database during 1998-2011, we classified deaths from avoidable causes. With the reference life table of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 study, we estimated the overall YLL and YLL due to avoidable causes. Calculations were performed with the difference between life expectancy and the age of death. Results are reported by group of cause of death, events, sex, year and department. Comparative analysis between number of deaths and YLL was carried out. Results A total of 83,856,080 YLL were calculated in Colombia during period 1998-2011, 75.9% of them due to avoidable CoD. The year 2000 reported the highest number of missed YLL by both overall and avoidable CoD. The departments with the highest YLL rates were Caquetá, Guaviare, Arauca, Meta, and Risaralda. In men, intentional injuries and cardiovascular and circulatory diseases had the higher losses, while in women YLL were mainly due to cardiovascular and circulatory diseases. Conclusions The public health priorities should focus on preventing the loss of YLL due to premature death and differentiated interventions by sex. PMID:25942009

  12. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  13. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  14. Health and Quality of Life of Older People, a Replication after Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Hatch, P. Maurine; Hemingway, Dawn; Lavallee, Loraine; Hogan, Anne; Christensen, Bev

    2007-01-01

    Replicating a survey of 875 people 55 years old or more undertaken in September 1999 throughout the former Northern Interior Health Region (NIHR) of British Columbia, in September 2005 a sample of 656 people completed a 22-page questionnaire. The average age of the respondents was 68, with a range running from 55 to 96 years, and 64% were women.…

  15. The Good-Bye Window: A Year in the Life of a Day-Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Harriet N.

    Started 25 years ago by a group of parents in Madison, Wisconsin, the Red Caboose is one of the oldest independent day-care centers in the United States. This book recounts observations of the activities at the center for 1 year, exploring what makes a good day care center successful and what obstacles a center is up against. Interspersed among…

  16. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  17. Relationship of Pretreatment Rorschach Factors to Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Real-Life Functioning in a 3-Year Follow-Up of Traumatized Refugee Patients

    PubMed Central

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Varvin, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Response to mental health treatment varies highly among refugee patients. Research has not established which factors relate to differences in outcome. This study is a follow-up of Opaas and Hartmann's (2013) Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Exner, 2003) pretreatment study of traumatized refugees, where 2 RIM principal components, Trauma Response and Reality Testing, were found descriptive of participants’ trauma-related personality functioning. This study's aims were to examine relationships of the RIM components with measures of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, quality of life (QOL), employment, and exile language skills throughout 3 years. We found that impaired Reality Testing was related to more mental health symptoms and poorer QOL; furthermore, individuals with adequate Reality Testing improved in posttraumatic stress symptoms the first year and retained their improvement. Individuals with impaired Reality Testing deteriorated the first year and improved only slightly the next 2 years. The results of this study imply that traumatized refugee patients with impaired Reality Testing might need specific treatment approaches. Research follow-up periods should be long enough to detect changes. The reality testing impairment revealed by the RIM, mainly perceptual in quality, might not be easily detected by diagnostic interviews and self-report. PMID:26528822

  18. Relationship of Pretreatment Rorschach Factors to Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Real-Life Functioning in a 3-Year Follow-Up of Traumatized Refugee Patients.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Varvin, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    Response to mental health treatment varies highly among refugee patients. Research has not established which factors relate to differences in outcome. This study is a follow-up of Opaas and Hartmann's (2013) Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Exner, 2003) pretreatment study of traumatized refugees, where 2 RIM principal components, Trauma Response and Reality Testing, were found descriptive of participants' trauma-related personality functioning. This study's aims were to examine relationships of the RIM components with measures of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, quality of life (QOL), employment, and exile language skills throughout 3 years. We found that impaired Reality Testing was related to more mental health symptoms and poorer QOL; furthermore, individuals with adequate Reality Testing improved in posttraumatic stress symptoms the first year and retained their improvement. Individuals with impaired Reality Testing deteriorated the first year and improved only slightly the next 2 years. The results of this study imply that traumatized refugee patients with impaired Reality Testing might need specific treatment approaches. Research follow-up periods should be long enough to detect changes. The reality testing impairment revealed by the RIM, mainly perceptual in quality, might not be easily detected by diagnostic interviews and self-report. PMID:26528822

  19. The role of positive cognitions in Egyptian elders' relocation adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bekhet, Abir K; Fouad, Rasha; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2011-02-01

    Relocation is a major life event for elders and it has been found to adversely affect their adjustment. Resilience theory suggests that adverse effects can be minimized if elders have positive cognitions. In addition, research has shown that positive cognitions are related to independence and healthy, productive lifestyles in older adults. Yet no studies have determined whether the relationship between relocation and adjustment is mediated or moderated by positive cognitions. This study examined these relationships in a sample of 94 cognitively intact elders (aged 60+ years) who had relocated to retirement communities in Alexandria, Egypt. Results showed that relocation controllability had direct effects on positive cognitions and on relocation adjustment. Positive cognitions had a moderating and a partial mediating effect on the relationship between relocation controllability and relocation adjustment. These findings suggest that it is imperative to develop interventions to enhance positive thinking for elders facing the need to relocate. PMID:20935215

  20. Creep fatigue life prediction for engine hot section materials (ISOTROPIC) fifth year progress review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Richard S.; Harvey, Peter R.

    1987-01-01

    The need for advanced life prediction methods for hot section components for gas turbine engines is becoming more and more evident. The complex local strain and temperature histories at critical locations must be accurately interpreted to account for the effects of various damage mechanisms and their possible interactions. This program is designed to investigate these fundamental damage processes, identify modeling strategies, and develop practical models which can be used to guide the early design and development of new engines and to increase the durability of existing engines.