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Sample records for adjusted models showed

  1. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  2. Overpaying morbidity adjusters in risk equalization models.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, R C; van Vliet, R C J A; van de Ven, W P M M

    2016-09-01

    Most competitive social health insurance markets include risk equalization to compensate insurers for predictable variation in healthcare expenses. Empirical literature shows that even the most sophisticated risk equalization models-with advanced morbidity adjusters-substantially undercompensate insurers for selected groups of high-risk individuals. In the presence of premium regulation, these undercompensations confront consumers and insurers with incentives for risk selection. An important reason for the undercompensations is that not all information with predictive value regarding healthcare expenses is appropriate for use as a morbidity adjuster. To reduce incentives for selection regarding specific groups we propose overpaying morbidity adjusters that are already included in the risk equalization model. This paper illustrates the idea of overpaying by merging data on morbidity adjusters and healthcare expenses with health survey information, and derives three preconditions for meaningful application. Given these preconditions, we think overpaying may be particularly useful for pharmacy-based cost groups. PMID:26420555

  3. 20 CFR 404.1562 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 404.1562 Section 404.1562 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1562 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 404.1562 Section 404.1562 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1562 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 404.1562 Section 404.1562 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1562 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 404.1562 Section 404.1562 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1562 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work. 404.1562 Section 404.1562 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and...

  8. Adjusting for treatment switching in the METRIC study shows further improved overall survival with trametinib compared with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Nicholas R; Bell, Helen; Abrams, Keith R; Amonkar, Mayur M; Casey, Michelle

    2016-05-01

    Trametinib, a selective inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) and MEK2, significantly improves progression-free survival compared with chemotherapy in patients with BRAF V600E/K mutation-positive advanced or metastatic melanoma (MM). However, the pivotal clinical trial permitted randomized chemotherapy control group patients to switch to trametinib after disease progression, which confounded estimates of the overall survival (OS) advantage of trametinib. Our purpose was to estimate the switching-adjusted treatment effect of trametinib for OS and assess the suitability of each adjustment method in the primary efficacy population. Of the patients randomized to chemotherapy, 67.4% switched to trametinib. We applied the rank-preserving structural failure time model, inverse probability of censoring weights, and a two-stage accelerated failure time model to obtain estimates of the relative treatment effect adjusted for switching. The intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis estimated a 28% reduction in the hazard of death with trametinib treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98) for patients in the primary efficacy population (data cut May 20, 2013). Adjustment analyses deemed plausible provided OS HR point estimates ranging from 0.48 to 0.53. Similar reductions in the HR were estimated for the first-line metastatic subgroup. Treatment with trametinib, compared with chemotherapy, significantly reduced the risk of death and risk of disease progression in patients with BRAF V600E/K mutation-positive advanced melanoma or MM. Adjusting for switching resulted in lower HRs than those obtained from standard ITT analyses. However, CI are wide and results are sensitive to the assumptions associated with each adjustment method. PMID:27172483

  9. Risk-Adjusted Models for Adverse Obstetric Outcomes and Variation in Risk Adjusted Outcomes Across Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Bailit, Jennifer L.; Grobman, William A.; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Spong, Catherine Y.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Thorp, John M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Caritis, Steve N.; Shubert, Phillip J.; Tita, Alan T. N.; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J.; Blackwell, Sean C.; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Van Dorsten, J. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulatory bodies and insurers evaluate hospital quality using obstetrical outcomes, however meaningful comparisons should take pre-existing patient characteristics into account. Furthermore, if risk-adjusted outcomes are consistent within a hospital, fewer measures and resources would be needed to assess obstetrical quality. Our objective was to establish risk-adjusted models for five obstetric outcomes and assess hospital performance across these outcomes. Study Design A cohort study of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals in the United States between March 2008 and February 2011. Hospitals were ranked according to their unadjusted and risk-adjusted frequency of venous thromboembolism, postpartum hemorrhage, peripartum infection, severe perineal laceration, and a composite neonatal adverse outcome. Correlations between hospital risk-adjusted outcome frequencies were assessed. Results Venous thromboembolism occurred too infrequently (0.03%, 95% CI 0.02% – 0.04%) for meaningful assessment. Other outcomes occurred frequently enough for assessment (postpartum hemorrhage 2.29% (95% CI 2.20–2.38), peripartum infection 5.06% (95% CI 4.93–5.19), severe perineal laceration at spontaneous vaginal delivery 2.16% (95% CI 2.06–2.27), neonatal composite 2.73% (95% CI 2.63–2.84)). Although there was high concordance between unadjusted and adjusted hospital rankings, several individual hospitals had an adjusted rank that was substantially different (as much as 12 rank tiers) than their unadjusted rank. None of the correlations between hospital adjusted outcome frequencies was significant. For example, the hospital with the lowest adjusted frequency of peripartum infection had the highest adjusted frequency of severe perineal laceration. Conclusions Evaluations based on a single risk-adjusted outcome cannot be generalized to overall hospital obstetric performance. PMID:23891630

  10. Coercively Adjusted Auto Regression Model for Forecasting in Epilepsy EEG

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Faloutsos, Christos; Yang, Hyung-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, data with complex characteristics such as epilepsy electroencephalography (EEG) time series has emerged. Epilepsy EEG data has special characteristics including nonlinearity, nonnormality, and nonperiodicity. Therefore, it is important to find a suitable forecasting method that covers these special characteristics. In this paper, we propose a coercively adjusted autoregression (CA-AR) method that forecasts future values from a multivariable epilepsy EEG time series. We use the technique of random coefficients, which forcefully adjusts the coefficients with −1 and 1. The fractal dimension is used to determine the order of the CA-AR model. We applied the CA-AR method reflecting special characteristics of data to forecast the future value of epilepsy EEG data. Experimental results show that when compared to previous methods, the proposed method can forecast faster and accurately. PMID:23710252

  11. De novo sequencing and characterization of Picrorhiza kurrooa transcriptome at two temperatures showed major transcriptome adjustments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is an endangered plant species of medicinal importance. The medicinal property is attributed to monoterpenoids picroside I and II, which are modulated by temperature. The transcriptome information of this species is limited with the availability of few hundreds of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public databases. In order to gain insight into temperature mediated molecular changes, high throughput de novo transcriptome sequencing and analyses were carried out at 15°C and 25°C, the temperatures known to modulate picrosides content. Results Using paired-end (PE) Illumina sequencing technology, a total of 20,593,412 and 44,229,272 PE reads were obtained after quality filtering for 15°C and 25°C, respectively. Available (e.g., De-Bruijn/Eulerian graph) and in-house developed bioinformatics tools were used for assembly and annotation of transcriptome. A total of 74,336 assembled transcript sequences were obtained, with an average coverage of 76.6 and average length of 439.5. Guanine-cytosine (GC) content was observed to be 44.6%, while the transcriptome exhibited abundance of trinucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR; 45.63%) markers. Large scale expression profiling through "read per exon kilobase per million (RPKM)", showed changes in several biological processes and metabolic pathways including cytochrome P450s (CYPs), UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) and those associated with picrosides biosynthesis. RPKM data were validated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a set of 19 genes, wherein 11 genes behaved in accordance with the two expression methods. Conclusions Study generated transcriptome of P. kurrooa at two different temperatures. Large scale expression profiling through RPKM showed major transcriptome changes in response to temperature reflecting alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways, and provided insight of GC content and SSR markers. Analysis also identified

  12. Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s newest tool, the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) – Climate Adjustment Tool (CAT) is meant to help municipal stormwater utilities better address potential climate change impacts affecting their operations. SWMM, first released in 1971, models hydrology and hydrauli...

  13. Unified Model for Academic Competence, Social Adjustment, and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Earl S.; And Others

    A unified conceptual model is needed to integrate the extensive research on (1) social competence and adaptive behavior, (2) converging conceptualizations of social adjustment and psychopathology, and (3) emerging concepts and measures of academic competence. To develop such a model, a study was conducted in which teacher ratings were collected on…

  14. 20 CFR 416.962 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... inability to make an adjustment to other work. 416.962 Section 416.962 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... adjustment to other work. (a) If you have done only arduous unskilled physical labor. If you have no more than a marginal education (see § 416.964) and work experience of 35 years or more during which you...

  15. 20 CFR 416.962 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... inability to make an adjustment to other work. 416.962 Section 416.962 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... adjustment to other work. (a) If you have done only arduous unskilled physical labor. If you have no more than a marginal education (see § 416.964) and work experience of 35 years or more during which you...

  16. Using Bibliotherapy to Help Children Adjust to Changing Role Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardeck, John T.; Pardeck, Jean A.

    One technique for helping children adjust to changing role models is bibliotherapy--the use of children's books to facilitate identification with and exploration of sex role behavior. Confronted with change in various social systems, particularly the family, children are faced with conflicts concerning their sex role development. The process…

  17. Catastrophe, Chaos, and Complexity Models and Psychosocial Adjustment to Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Randall M.; Schaller, James; Hansmann, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Rehabilitation professionals may unknowingly rely on stereotypes and specious beliefs when dealing with people with disabilities, despite the formulation of theories that suggest new models of the adjustment process. Suggests that Catastrophe, Chaos, and Complexity Theories hold considerable promise in this regard. This article reviews these…

  18. Adjustment in Mothers of Children with Asperger Syndrome: An Application of the Double ABCX Model of Family Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Samios, Christina; Sofronoff, Kate

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the applicability of the double ABCX model of family adjustment in explaining maternal adjustment to caring for a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-seven mothers completed questionnaires at a university clinic while their children were participating in an anxiety intervention. The children were aged between…

  19. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows. PMID:27142954

  1. Block adjustment of Chang'E-1 images based on rational function model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Yiliang; Di, Kaichang; Sun, Xiliang

    2014-05-01

    Chang'E-1(CE-1) is the first lunar orbiter of China's lunar exploration program. The CCD camera carried by CE-1 has acquired stereo images covering the entire lunar surface. Block adjustment and 3D mapping using CE-1 images are of great importance for morphological and other scientific research of the Moon. Traditional block adjustment based on rigorous sensor model is complicated due to a large number of parameters and possible correlations among them. To tackle this problem, this paper presents a block adjustment method using Rational Function Model (RFM). The RFM parameters are generated based on rigorous sensor model using virtual grid of control points. Afterwards, the RFM based block adjustment solves the refinement parameters through a least squares solution. Experimental results using CE-1 images located in Sinus Irdium show that the RFM can fit the rigorous sensor model with a high precision of 1% pixel level. Through the RFM-based block adjustment, the back-projection residuals in image space can be reduced from around 1.5 pixels to sub-pixel., indicating that RFM can replace rigorous sensor model for geometric processing of lunar images.

  2. Contact angle adjustment in equation-of-state-based pseudopotential model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Anjie; Li, Longjian; Uddin, Rizwan; Liu, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The single component pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model has been widely applied in multiphase simulation due to its simplicity and stability. In many studies, it has been claimed that this model can be stable for density ratios larger than 1000. However, the application of the model is still limited to small density ratios when the contact angle is considered. The reason is that the original contact angle adjustment method influences the stability of the model. Moreover, simulation results in the present work show that, by applying the original contact angle adjustment method, the density distribution near the wall is artificially changed, and the contact angle is dependent on the surface tension. Hence, it is very inconvenient to apply this method with a fixed contact angle, and the accuracy of the model cannot be guaranteed. To solve these problems, a contact angle adjustment method based on the geometry analysis is proposed and numerically compared with the original method. Simulation results show that, with our contact angle adjustment method, the stability of the model is highly improved when the density ratio is relatively large, and it is independent of the surface tension.

  3. Analysis of Case-Parent Trios Using a Loglinear Model with Adjustment for Transmission Ratio Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lam O.; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Labbe, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of the two parental alleles to offspring deviating from the Mendelian ratio is termed Transmission Ratio Distortion (TRD), occurs throughout gametic and embryonic development. TRD has been well-studied in animals, but remains largely unknown in humans. The Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) was first proposed to test for association and linkage in case-trios (affected offspring and parents); adjusting for TRD using control-trios was recommended. However, the TDT does not provide risk parameter estimates for different genetic models. A loglinear model was later proposed to provide child and maternal relative risk (RR) estimates of disease, assuming Mendelian transmission. Results from our simulation study showed that case-trios RR estimates using this model are biased in the presence of TRD; power and Type 1 error are compromised. We propose an extended loglinear model adjusting for TRD. Under this extended model, RR estimates, power and Type 1 error are correctly restored. We applied this model to an intrauterine growth restriction dataset, and showed consistent results with a previous approach that adjusted for TRD using control-trios. Our findings suggested the need to adjust for TRD in avoiding spurious results. Documenting TRD in the population is therefore essential for the correct interpretation of genetic association studies.

  4. An interface model for dosage adjustment connects hematotoxicity to pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Meille, C; Iliadis, A; Barbolosi, D; Frances, N; Freyer, G

    2008-12-01

    When modeling is required to describe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics simultaneously, it is difficult to link time-concentration profiles and drug effects. When patients are under chemotherapy, despite the huge amount of blood monitoring numerations, there is a lack of exposure variables to describe hematotoxicity linked with the circulating drug blood levels. We developed an interface model that transforms circulating pharmacokinetic concentrations to adequate exposures, destined to be inputs of the pharmacodynamic process. The model is materialized by a nonlinear differential equation involving three parameters. The relevance of the interface model for dosage adjustment is illustrated by numerous simulations. In particular, the interface model is incorporated into a complex system including pharmacokinetics and neutropenia induced by docetaxel and by cisplatin. Emphasis is placed on the sensitivity of neutropenia with respect to the variations of the drug amount. This complex system including pharmacokinetic, interface, and pharmacodynamic hematotoxicity models is an interesting tool for analysis of hematotoxicity induced by anticancer agents. The model could be a new basis for further improvements aimed at incorporating new experimental features. PMID:19107581

  5. 8. Photocopy of photograph showing model display NIKE Hercules firing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph showing model display NIKE Hercules firing battery, ARADCOM Argus pg. 11, from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, March 1, 1961 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  6. The HHS-HCC Risk Adjustment Model for Individual and Small Group Markets under the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C; Ingber, Melvin; Freeman, Sara; Patterson, Lindsey; Cohen, Michael; Keenan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 2014, individuals and small businesses are able to purchase private health insurance through competitive Marketplaces. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides for a program of risk adjustment in the individual and small group markets in 2014 as Marketplaces are implemented and new market reforms take effect. The purpose of risk adjustment is to lessen or eliminate the influence of risk selection on the premiums that plans charge. The risk adjustment methodology includes the risk adjustment model and the risk transfer formula. This article is the second of three in this issue of the Review that describe the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) risk adjustment methodology and focuses on the risk adjustment model. In our first companion article, we discuss the key issues and choices in developing the methodology. In this article, we present the risk adjustment model, which is named the HHS-Hierarchical Condition Categories (HHS-HCC) risk adjustment model. We first summarize the HHS-HCC diagnostic classification, which is the key element of the risk adjustment model. Then the data and methods, results, and evaluation of the risk adjustment model are presented. Fifteen separate models are developed. For each age group (adult, child, and infant), a model is developed for each cost sharing level (platinum, gold, silver, and bronze metal levels, as well as catastrophic plans). Evaluation of the risk adjustment models shows good predictive accuracy, both for individuals and for groups. Lastly, this article provides examples of how the model output is used to calculate risk scores, which are an input into the risk transfer formula. Our third companion paper describes the risk transfer formula. PMID:25360387

  7. The HHS-HCC risk adjustment model for individual and small group markets under the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C; Ingber, Melvin; Freeman, Sara; Patterson, Lindsey; Cohen, Michael; Keenan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 2014, individuals and small businesses are able to purchase private health insurance through competitive Marketplaces. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides for a program of risk adjustment in the individual and small group markets in 2014 as Marketplaces are implemented and new market reforms take effect. The purpose of risk adjustment is to lessen or eliminate the influence of risk selection on the premiums that plans charge. The risk adjustment methodology includes the risk adjustment model and the risk transfer formula. This article is the second of three in this issue of the Review that describe the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) risk adjustment methodology and focuses on the risk adjustment model. In our first companion article, we discuss the key issues and choices in developing the methodology. In this article, we present the risk adjustment model, which is named the HHS-Hierarchical Condition Categories (HHS-HCC) risk adjustment model. We first summarize the HHS-HCC diagnostic classification, which is the key element of the risk adjustment model. Then the data and methods, results, and evaluation of the risk adjustment model are presented. Fifteen separate models are developed. For each age group (adult, child, and infant), a model is developed for each cost sharing level (platinum, gold, silver, and bronze metal levels, as well as catastrophic plans). Evaluation of the risk adjustment models shows good predictive accuracy, both for individuals and for groups. Lastly, this article provides examples of how the model output is used to calculate risk scores, which are an input into the risk transfer formula. Our third companion paper describes the risk transfer formula. PMID:25360387

  8. An improved bundle adjustment model and algorithm with novel block matrix partition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zemin; Li, Zhongwei; Zhong, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Sparse bundle adjustment is widely applied in computer vision and photogrammetry. However, existing implementation is based on the model of n 3D points projecting onto m different camera imaging planes at m positions, which can't be applied to commonly monocular, binocular or trinocular imaging systems. A novel design and implementation of bundle adjustment algorithm is proposed in this paper, which is based on n 3D points projecting onto the same camera imaging plane at m positions .To improve the performance of the algorithm, a novel sparse block matrix partition method is proposed. Experiments show that the improved bundle adjustment is effective, robust and has a better tolerance to pixel coordinates error.

  9. Disaster Hits Home: A Model of Displaced Family Adjustment after Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget; Marlatt, Holly

    2011-01-01

    The authors explored individual and family adjustment processes among parents (n = 30) and children (n = 55) who were displaced to Colorado after Hurricane Katrina. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 23 families, this article offers an inductive model of displaced family adjustment. Four stages of family adjustment are presented in the model: (a)…

  10. Adjusting the Adjusted X[superscript 2]/df Ratio Statistic for Dichotomous Item Response Theory Analyses: Does the Model Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Drasgow, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Two Monte Carlo simulation studies investigated the effectiveness of the mean adjusted X[superscript 2]/df statistic proposed by Drasgow and colleagues and, because of problems with the method, a new approach for assessing the goodness of fit of an item response theory model was developed. It has been previously recommended that mean adjusted…

  11. Diatom Cooccurrence Shows Less Segregation than Predicted from Niche Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Soininen, Janne; Alard, Didier; Rosebery, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    Species cooccurrence patterns give significant insights into the processes shaping communities. While biotic interactions have been widely studied using cooccurrence analyses in animals and larger plants, studies about cooccurrences among micro-organisms are still relatively rare. We examined stream diatom cooccurrences in France through a national database of samples. In order to test the relative influence of environmental, biotic and spatial constraints on species’ incidence distribution, cooccurrence and nestedness patterns of real communities were compared with the patterns generated from a set of standard and environmentally constrained null models. Real communities showed a higher level of segregation than the most conservative standard null models, but a general aggregation of cooccurrences when compared to environmentally constrained null models. We did not find any evidence of limiting similarity between cooccurring species. Aggregations of species cooccurrences were associated with the high levels of nestedness. Altogether, these results suggested that biotic interactions were not structuring cooccurrences of diatom species at our study scale. Instead, the patterns were more likely to be related with colonization patterns, mass effect, and local temporal dynamics of diatom biofilms. We further highlight that the association of standard and environmentally constrained null models may give realistic insight into the cooccurrence patterns of microbial communities. PMID:27128737

  12. Diatom Cooccurrence Shows Less Segregation than Predicted from Niche Modeling.

    PubMed

    Bottin, Marius; Soininen, Janne; Alard, Didier; Rosebery, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    Species cooccurrence patterns give significant insights into the processes shaping communities. While biotic interactions have been widely studied using cooccurrence analyses in animals and larger plants, studies about cooccurrences among micro-organisms are still relatively rare. We examined stream diatom cooccurrences in France through a national database of samples. In order to test the relative influence of environmental, biotic and spatial constraints on species' incidence distribution, cooccurrence and nestedness patterns of real communities were compared with the patterns generated from a set of standard and environmentally constrained null models. Real communities showed a higher level of segregation than the most conservative standard null models, but a general aggregation of cooccurrences when compared to environmentally constrained null models. We did not find any evidence of limiting similarity between cooccurring species. Aggregations of species cooccurrences were associated with the high levels of nestedness. Altogether, these results suggested that biotic interactions were not structuring cooccurrences of diatom species at our study scale. Instead, the patterns were more likely to be related with colonization patterns, mass effect, and local temporal dynamics of diatom biofilms. We further highlight that the association of standard and environmentally constrained null models may give realistic insight into the cooccurrence patterns of microbial communities. PMID:27128737

  13. Improving the global applicability of the RUSLE model - adjustment of the topographical and rainfall erosivity factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipal, V.; Reick, C.; Pongratz, J.; Van Oost, K.

    2015-03-01

    Large uncertainties exist in estimated rates and the extent of soil erosion by surface runoff on a global scale, and this limits our understanding of the global impact that soil erosion might have on agriculture and climate. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model is due to its simple structure and empirical basis a frequently used tool in estimating average annual soil erosion rates at regional to global scales. However, large spatial scale applications often rely on coarse data input, which is not compatible with the local scale at which the model is parameterized. This study aimed at providing the first steps in improving the global applicability of the RUSLE model in order to derive more accurate global soil erosion rates. We adjusted the topographical and rainfall erosivity factors of the RUSLE model and compared the resulting soil erosion rates to extensive empirical databases on soil erosion from the USA and Europe. Adjusting the topographical factor required scaling of slope according to the fractal method, which resulted in improved topographical detail in a coarse resolution global digital elevation model. Applying the linear multiple regression method to adjust rainfall erosivity for various climate zones resulted in values that are in good comparison with high resolution erosivity data for different regions. However, this method needs to be extended to tropical climates, for which erosivity is biased due to the lack of high resolution erosivity data. After applying the adjusted and the unadjusted versions of the RUSLE model on a global scale we find that the adjusted RUSLE model not only shows a global higher mean soil erosion rate but also more variability in the soil erosion rates. Comparison to empirical datasets of the USA and Europe shows that the adjusted RUSLE model is able to decrease the very high erosion rates in hilly regions that are observed in the unadjusted RUSLE model results. Although there are still some regional

  14. Improving the global applicability of the RUSLE model - adjustment of the topographical and rainfall erosivity factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipal, V.; Reick, C.; Pongratz, J.; Van Oost, K.

    2015-09-01

    Large uncertainties exist in estimated rates and the extent of soil erosion by surface runoff on a global scale. This limits our understanding of the global impact that soil erosion might have on agriculture and climate. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model is, due to its simple structure and empirical basis, a frequently used tool in estimating average annual soil erosion rates at regional to global scales. However, large spatial-scale applications often rely on coarse data input, which is not compatible with the local scale on which the model is parameterized. Our study aims at providing the first steps in improving the global applicability of the RUSLE model in order to derive more accurate global soil erosion rates. We adjusted the topographical and rainfall erosivity factors of the RUSLE model and compared the resulting erosion rates to extensive empirical databases from the USA and Europe. By scaling the slope according to the fractal method to adjust the topographical factor, we managed to improve the topographical detail in a coarse resolution global digital elevation model. Applying the linear multiple regression method to adjust rainfall erosivity for various climate zones resulted in values that compared well to high resolution erosivity data for different regions. However, this method needs to be extended to tropical climates, for which erosivity is biased due to the lack of high resolution erosivity data. After applying the adjusted and the unadjusted versions of the RUSLE model on a global scale we find that the adjusted version shows a global higher mean erosion rate and more variability in the erosion rates. Comparison to empirical data sets of the USA and Europe shows that the adjusted RUSLE model is able to decrease the very high erosion rates in hilly regions that are observed in the unadjusted RUSLE model results. Although there are still some regional differences with the empirical databases, the results indicate that the

  15. Lithium-ion Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve modelling and its ageing adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, L.; Sabatier, J.; Francisco, J. Mbala; Guillemard, F.; Noury, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a contribution to lithium-ion batteries modelling taking into account aging effects. It first analyses the impact of aging on electrode stoichiometry and then on lithium-ion cell Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. Through some hypotheses and an appropriate definition of the cell state of charge, it shows that each electrode equilibrium potential, but also the whole cell equilibrium potential can be modelled by a polynomial that requires only one adjustment parameter during aging. An adjustment algorithm, based on the idea that for two fixed OCVs, the state of charge between these two equilibrium states is unique for a given aging level, is then proposed. Its efficiency is evaluated on a battery pack constituted of four cells.

  16. Curcumin shows excellent therapeutic effect on psoriasis in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Di; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Jiang, Wenbing; Lu, Qiumin; Rong, Mingqing; Lai, Ren

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin is an active herbal ingredient possessing surprisingly wide range of beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity. Recently, it has been reported to exhibit inhibitory activity on potassium channel subtype Kv1.3. As Kv1.3 channels are mainly expressed in T cells and play a key role in psoriasis, the effects of curcumin were investigated on inflammatory factors secretion in T cells and psoriasis developed in keratin (K) 14-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transgenic mouse model. Results showed that, 10 μM of curcumin significantly inhibited secretion of inflammatory factors including interleukin (IL)-17,IL-22, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α in T cells by 30-60% in vitro. Notably, more than 50% of T cells proliferation was inhibited by application of 100 μM curcumin. Compared with severe psoriatic symptoms observed in the negative control mice, all psoriasis indexes including ear redness, weight, thickness and lymph node weight were significantly improved by oral application of curcumin in treatment mouse group. Histological examination indicated that curcumin had anti-inflammatory function in the experimental animals. More than 50% level of inflammatory factors including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, IL-22 and IL-23 in mouse serum was decreased by curcumin treatment as well as cyclosporine. Compared with renal fibrosis observed in the mouse group treated by cyclosporine, no obvious side effect in mouse kidney was found after treated by curcumin. Taken together, curcumin, with high efficacy and safety, has a great potential to treat psoriasis. PMID:26826458

  17. Adjusting for Network Size and Composition Effects in Exponential-Family Random Graph Models.

    PubMed

    Krivitsky, Pavel N; Handcock, Mark S; Morris, Martina

    2011-07-01

    Exponential-family random graph models (ERGMs) provide a principled way to model and simulate features common in human social networks, such as propensities for homophily and friend-of-a-friend triad closure. We show that, without adjustment, ERGMs preserve density as network size increases. Density invariance is often not appropriate for social networks. We suggest a simple modification based on an offset which instead preserves the mean degree and accommodates changes in network composition asymptotically. We demonstrate that this approach allows ERGMs to be applied to the important situation of egocentrically sampled data. We analyze data from the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). PMID:21691424

  18. Adjusting for unmeasured confounding due to either of two crossed factors with a logistic regression model.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Brumback, Babette A; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar

    2016-08-15

    Motivated by an investigation of the effect of surface water temperature on the presence of Vibrio cholerae in water samples collected from different fixed surface water monitoring sites in Haiti in different months, we investigated methods to adjust for unmeasured confounding due to either of the two crossed factors site and month. In the process, we extended previous methods that adjust for unmeasured confounding due to one nesting factor (such as site, which nests the water samples from different months) to the case of two crossed factors. First, we developed a conditional pseudolikelihood estimator that eliminates fixed effects for the levels of each of the crossed factors from the estimating equation. Using the theory of U-Statistics for independent but non-identically distributed vectors, we show that our estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal, but that its variance depends on the nuisance parameters and thus cannot be easily estimated. Consequently, we apply our estimator in conjunction with a permutation test, and we investigate use of the pigeonhole bootstrap and the jackknife for constructing confidence intervals. We also incorporate our estimator into a diagnostic test for a logistic mixed model with crossed random effects and no unmeasured confounding. For comparison, we investigate between-within models extended to two crossed factors. These generalized linear mixed models include covariate means for each level of each factor in order to adjust for the unmeasured confounding. We conduct simulation studies, and we apply the methods to the Haitian data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26892025

  19. The learning advantage: bird species that learn their song show a tighter adjustment of song to noisy environments than those that do not learn.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Chelén, Alejandro Ariel; Salaberria, C; Barbosa, I; Macías Garcia, C; Gil, D

    2012-11-01

    Song learning has evolved within several avian groups. Although its evolutionary advantage is not clear, it has been proposed that song learning may be advantageous in allowing birds to adapt their songs to the local acoustic environment. To test this hypothesis, we analysed patterns of song adjustment to noisy environments and explored their possible link to song learning. Bird vocalizations can be masked by low-frequency noise, and birds respond to this by singing higher-pitched songs. Most reports of this strategy involve oscines, a group of birds with learning-based song variability, and it is doubtful whether species that lack song learning (e.g. suboscines) can adjust their songs to noisy environments. We address this question by comparing the degree of song adjustment to noise in a large sample of oscines (17 populations, 14 species) and suboscines (11 populations, 7 species), recorded in Brazil (Manaus, Brasilia and Curitiba) and Mexico City. We found a significantly stronger association between minimum song frequency and noise levels (effect size) in oscines than in suboscines, suggesting a tighter match in oscines between song transmission capacity and ambient acoustics. Suboscines may be more vulnerable to acoustic pollution than oscines and thus less capable of colonizing cities or acoustically novel habitats. Additionally, we found that species whose song frequency was more divergent between populations showed tighter noise-song frequency associations. Our results suggest that song learning and/or song plasticity allows adaptation to new habitats and that this selective advantage may be linked to the evolution of song learning and plasticity. PMID:22905893

  20. Interfacial free energy adjustable phase field crystal model for homogeneous nucleation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Huang, Yunhao

    2016-05-18

    To describe the homogeneous nucleation process, an interfacial free energy adjustable phase-field crystal model (IPFC) was proposed by reconstructing the energy functional of the original phase field crystal (PFC) methodology. Compared with the original PFC model, the additional interface term in the IPFC model effectively can adjust the magnitude of the interfacial free energy, but does not affect the equilibrium phase diagram and the interfacial energy anisotropy. The IPFC model overcame the limitation that the interfacial free energy of the original PFC model is much less than the theoretical results. Using the IPFC model, we investigated some basic issues in homogeneous nucleation. From the viewpoint of simulation, we proceeded with an in situ observation of the process of cluster fluctuation and obtained quite similar snapshots to colloidal crystallization experiments. We also counted the size distribution of crystal-like clusters and the nucleation rate. Our simulations show that the size distribution is independent of the evolution time, and the nucleation rate remains constant after a period of relaxation, which are consistent with experimental observations. The linear relation between logarithmic nucleation rate and reciprocal driving force also conforms to the steady state nucleation theory. PMID:27117814

  1. Models of traumatic experiences and children's psychological adjustment: the roles of perceived parenting and the children's own resources and activity.

    PubMed

    Punamäki, R L; Qouta, S; el Sarraj, E

    1997-08-01

    The relations between traumatic events, perceived parenting styles, children's resources, political activity, and psychological adjustment were examined among 108 Palestinian boys and girls of 11-12 years of age. The results showed that exposure to traumatic events increased psychological adjustment problems directly and via 2 mediating paths. First, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more negative parenting they experienced. And, the poorer they perceived parenting, the more they suffered from high neuroticism and low self-esteem. Second, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more active they were, the more they suffered from psychological adjustment problems. Good perceived parenting protected children's psychological adjustment by making them less vulnerable in two ways. First, traumatic events decreased their intellectual, creative, and cognitive resources, and a lack of resources predicted many psychological adjustment problems in a model excluding perceived parenting. Second, political activity increased psychological adjustment problems in the same model, but not in the model including good parenting. PMID:9306648

  2. Covariate-Adjusted Linear Mixed Effects Model with an Application to Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Danh V.; Şentürk, Damla; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Linear mixed effects (LME) models are useful for longitudinal data/repeated measurements. We propose a new class of covariate-adjusted LME models for longitudinal data that nonparametrically adjusts for a normalizing covariate. The proposed approach involves fitting a parametric LME model to the data after adjusting for the nonparametric effects of a baseline confounding covariate. In particular, the effect of the observable covariate on the response and predictors of the LME model is modeled nonparametrically via smooth unknown functions. In addition to covariate-adjusted estimation of fixed/population parameters and random effects, an estimation procedure for the variance components is also developed. Numerical properties of the proposed estimators are investigated with simulation studies. The consistency and convergence rates of the proposed estimators are also established. An application to a longitudinal data set on calcium absorption, accounting for baseline distortion from body mass index, illustrates the proposed methodology. PMID:19266053

  3. A New Climate Adjustment Tool: An update to EPA’s Storm Water Management Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s newest tool, the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) – Climate Adjustment Tool (CAT) is meant to help municipal stormwater utilities better address potential climate change impacts affecting their operations.

  4. Obtaining diverse behaviors in a climate model without the use of flux adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Rowlands, D. J.; Williamson, D.; Allen, M.

    2011-12-01

    Efforts have been made in past research to attain a wide range of atmosphere and ocean model behaviors by perturbing the model physics of Global Climate Models. However, obtaining a large spread of behaviors of the ocean model has so far been unsuccessful. In an ongoing project within RAPID-WATCH, physical parameters of HadCM3 have been perturbed within plausible ranges across the Latin-hypercube to generate a 10,000 member ensemble, which have been running on the distributed computing platform of climateprediction.net. In this work we resample and run a second, 20,000 member ensemble of model variants that have been identified not to drift significantly away from a realistic initial base state, a key step since we are not using flux adjustment. To this end, they are conditioned on the diagnosed fluxes from the first ensemble by statistical methods to sample regions of parameter space that are predicted to exhibit low top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux imbalance. Specifically, we constrain the distribution of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and reflected shortwave radiation (RSR) by laying an uncertainty ellipse at the 99% significance level, using the error analysis from Tett et al. (2011), over the standard configuration. In addition, parameters are sampled to generate a wide spread in estimated climate sensitivities, informed by results from a separate, coupled atmosphere-thermodynamic ocean coupled model ensemble. The results from the conditioned ensemble show that its members have successfully attained the distribution of OLR and RSR very similar to those predicted, while exhibiting a wide range of behaviors in both the atmosphere and the ocean. The spread of estimated effective climate sensitivity with the balanced TOA fluxes shows that the range of sensitivities of the conditioned ensemble is substantially smaller than that obtained with flux adjustment, but still as large or larger than the range in an ensemble of opportunity. This confirms that flux adjustment

  5. Procedures for adjusting regional regression models of urban-runoff quality using local data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, Anne B.; Lizarraga, Joy S.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical operations termed model-adjustment procedures can be used to incorporate local data into existing regression modes to improve the predication of urban-runoff quality. Each procedure is a form of regression analysis in which the local data base is used as a calibration data set; the resulting adjusted regression models can then be used to predict storm-runoff quality at unmonitored sites. Statistical tests of the calibration data set guide selection among proposed procedures.

  6. Modeling fluvial incision and transient landscape evolution: Influence of dynamic channel adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attal, M.; Tucker, G. E.; Whittaker, A. C.; Cowie, P. A.; Roberts, G. P.

    2008-09-01

    Channel geometry exerts a fundamental control on fluvial processes. Recent work has shown that bedrock channel width depends on a number of parameters, including channel slope, and is not solely a function of drainage area as is commonly assumed. The present work represents the first attempt to investigate the consequences of dynamic, gradient-sensitive channel adjustment for drainage-basin evolution. We use the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model to analyze the response of a catchment to a given tectonic perturbation, using, as a template, the topography of a well-documented catchment in the footwall of an active normal fault in the Apennines (Italy) that is known to be undergoing a transient response to tectonic forcing. We show that the observed transient response can be reproduced to first order with a simple detachment-limited fluvial incision law. Transient landscape is characterized by gentler gradients and a shorter response time when dynamic channel adjustment is allowed. The differences in predicted channel geometry between the static case (width dependent solely on upstream area) and dynamic case (width dependent on both drainage area and channel slope) lead to contrasting landscape morphologies when integrated at the scale of a whole catchment, particularly in presence of strong tilting and/or pronounced slip-rate acceleration. Our results emphasize the importance of channel width in controlling fluvial processes and landscape evolution. They stress the need for using a dynamic hydraulic scaling law when modeling landscape evolution, particularly when the relative uplift field is nonuniform.

  7. Modeling of an Adjustable Beam Solid State Light Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni

    2015-01-01

    This proposal is for the development of a computational model of a prototype variable beam light source using optical modeling software, Zemax Optics Studio. The variable beam light source would be designed to generate flood, spot, and directional beam patterns, while maintaining the same average power usage. The optical model would demonstrate the possibility of such a light source and its ability to address several issues: commonality of design, human task variability, and light source design process improvements. An adaptive lighting solution that utilizes the same electronics footprint and power constraints while addressing variability of lighting needed for the range of exploration tasks can save costs and allow for the development of common avionics for lighting controls.

  8. Circumplex and Spherical Models for Child School Adjustment and Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Earl S.; Edgerton, Marianna

    The goal of this study is to broaden the scope of a conceptual model for child behavior by analyzing constructs relevant to cognition, conation, and affect. Two samples were drawn from school populations. For the first sample, 28 teachers from 8 rural, suburban, and urban schools rated 193 kindergarten children. Each teacher rated up to eight…

  9. A General Linear Model Approach to Adjusting the Cumulative GPA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John W.

    A general linear model (GLM), using least-squares techniques, was used to develop a criterion measure to replace freshman year grade point average (GPA) in college admission predictive validity studies. Problems with the use of GPA include those associated with the combination of grades from different courses and disciplines into a single measure,…

  10. Development of a charge adjustment model for cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Andrew; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Connor, Jean; O'Connell, Cheryl; David, Sthuthi; Almodovar, Melvin; DiNardo, James; Banka, Puja; Mayer, John E; Marshall, Audrey C; Bergersen, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    A methodology that would allow for comparison of charges across institutions has not been developed for catheterization in congenital heart disease. A single institution catheterization database with prospectively collected case characteristics was linked to hospital charges related and limited to an episode of care in the catheterization laboratory for fiscal years 2008-2010. Catheterization charge categories (CCC) were developed to group types of catheterization procedures using a combination of empiric data and expert consensus. A multivariable model with outcome charges was created using CCC and additional patient and procedural characteristics. In 3 fiscal years, 3,839 cases were available for analysis. Forty catheterization procedure types were categorized into 7 CCC yielding a grouper variable with an R (2) explanatory value of 72.6%. In the final CCC, the largest proportion of cases was in CCC 2 (34%), which included diagnostic cases without intervention. Biopsy cases were isolated in CCC 1 (12%), and percutaneous pulmonary valve placement alone made up CCC 7 (2%). The final model included CCC, number of interventions, and cardiac diagnosis (R (2) = 74.2%). Additionally, current financial metrics such as APR-DRG severity of illness and case mix index demonstrated a lack of correlation with CCC. We have developed a catheterization procedure type financial grouper that accounts for the diverse case population encountered in catheterization for congenital heart disease. CCC and our multivariable model could be used to understand financial characteristics of a population at a single point in time, longitudinally, and to compare populations. PMID:25113520

  11. Adjusting Satellite Rainfall Error in Mountainous Areas for Flood Modeling Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Astitha, M.; Vergara, H. J.; Gourley, J. J.; Hong, Y.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the use of high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) for evaluating biases of satellite rainfall estimates of flood-inducing storms in mountainous areas and associated improvements in flood modeling. Satellite-retrieved precipitation has been considered as a feasible data source for global-scale flood modeling, given that satellite has the spatial coverage advantage over in situ (rain gauges and radar) observations particularly over mountainous areas. However, orographically induced heavy precipitation events tend to be underestimated and spatially smoothed by satellite products, which error propagates non-linearly in flood simulations.We apply a recently developed retrieval error and resolution effect correction method (Zhang et al. 2013*) on the NOAA Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) product based on NWP analysis (or forecasting in the case of real-time satellite products). The NWP rainfall is derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) set up with high spatial resolution (1-2 km) and explicit treatment of precipitation microphysics.In this study we will show results on NWP-adjusted CMORPH rain rates based on tropical cyclones and a convective precipitation event measured during NASA's IPHEX experiment in the South Appalachian region. We will use hydrologic simulations over different basins in the region to evaluate propagation of bias correction in flood simulations. We show that the adjustment reduced the underestimation of high rain rates thus moderating the strong rainfall magnitude dependence of CMORPH rainfall bias, which results in significant improvement in flood peak simulations. Further study over Blue Nile Basin (western Ethiopia) will be investigated and included in the presentation. *Zhang, X. et al. 2013: Using NWP Simulations in Satellite Rainfall Estimation of Heavy Precipitation Events over Mountainous Areas. J. Hydrometeor, 14, 1844-1858.

  12. Comparison of the Properties of Regression and Categorical Risk-Adjustment Models

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Richard F.; Muldoon, John H.; Hughes, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical risk-adjustment, the ability to standardize the comparison of individuals with different health needs, is based upon 2 main alternative approaches: regression models and clinical categorical models. In this article, we examine the impact of the differences in the way these models are constructed on end user applications. PMID:26945302

  13. Using Wherry's Adjusted R Squared and Mallow's C (p) for Model Selection from All Possible Regressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olejnik, Stephen; Mills, Jamie; Keselman, Harvey

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated the use of Mallow's C(p) and Wherry's adjusted R squared (R. Wherry, 1931) statistics to select a final model from a pool of model solutions using computer generated data. Neither statistic identified the underlying regression model any better than, and usually less well than, the stepwise selection method, which itself was poor for…

  14. Development of a winter wheat adjustable crop calendar model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. After parameter estimation, tests were conducted with variances from the fits, and on independent data. From these tests, it was generally concluded that exponential functions have little advantage over polynomials. Precipitation was not found to significantly affect the fits. The Robertson's triquadratic form, in general use for spring wheat, was found to show promise for winter wheat, but special techniques and care were required for its use. In most instances, equations with nonlinear effects were found to yield erratic results when utilized with daily environmental values as independent variables.

  15. Propagation of biases in climate models from the synoptic to the regional scale: Implications for bias adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addor, Nans; Rohrer, Marco; Furrer, Reinhard; Seibert, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Bias adjustment methods usually do not account for the origins of biases in climate models and instead perform empirical adjustments. Biases in the synoptic circulation are for instance often overlooked when postprocessing regional climate model (RCM) simulations driven by general circulation models (GCMs). Yet considering atmospheric circulation helps to establish links between the synoptic and the regional scale, and thereby provides insights into the physical processes leading to RCM biases. Here we investigate how synoptic circulation biases impact regional climate simulations and influence our ability to mitigate biases in precipitation and temperature using quantile mapping. We considered 20 GCM-RCM combinations from the ENSEMBLES project and characterized the dominant atmospheric flow over the Alpine domain using circulation types. We report in particular a systematic overestimation of the frequency of westerly flow in winter. We show that it contributes to the generalized overestimation of winter precipitation over Switzerland, and this wet regional bias can be reduced by improving the simulation of synoptic circulation. We also demonstrate that statistical bias adjustment relying on quantile mapping is sensitive to circulation biases, which leads to residual errors in the postprocessed time series. Overall, decomposing GCM-RCM time series using circulation types reveals connections missed by analyses relying on monthly or seasonal values. Our results underscore the necessity to better diagnose process misrepresentation in climate models to progress with bias adjustment and impact modeling.

  16. On the hydrologic adjustment of climate-model projections: The potential pitfall of potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic models often are applied to adjust projections of hydroclimatic change that come from climate models. Such adjustment includes climate-bias correction, spatial refinement ("downscaling"), and consideration of the roles of hydrologic processes that were neglected in the climate model. Described herein is a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrologic adjustment on the projections of runoff change associated with projected twenty-first-century climate change. In a case study including three climate models and 10 river basins in the contiguous United States, the authors find that relative (i.e., fractional or percentage) runoff change computed with hydrologic adjustment more often than not was less positive (or, equivalently, more negative) than what was projected by the climate models. The dominant contributor to this decrease in runoff was a ubiquitous change in runoff (median 211%) caused by the hydrologic model's apparent amplification of the climate-model-implied growth in potential evapotranspiration. Analysis suggests that the hydrologic model, on the basis of the empirical, temperature-based modified Jensen-Haise formula, calculates a change in potential evapotranspiration that is typically 3 times the change implied by the climate models, which explicitly track surface energy budgets. In comparison with the amplification of potential evapotranspiration, central tendencies of other contributions from hydrologic adjustment (spatial refinement, climate-bias adjustment, and process refinement) were relatively small. The authors' findings highlight the need for caution when projecting changes in potential evapotranspiration for use in hydrologic models or drought indices to evaluate climatechange impacts on water. Copyright ?? 2011, Paper 15-001; 35,952 words, 3 Figures, 0 Animations, 1 Tables.

  17. On the Hydrologic Adjustment of Climate-Model Projections: The Potential Pitfall of Potential Evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, Paul C.; Dunne, Krista A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic models often are applied to adjust projections of hydroclimatic change that come from climate models. Such adjustment includes climate-bias correction, spatial refinement ("downscaling"), and consideration of the roles of hydrologic processes that were neglected in the climate model. Described herein is a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrologic adjustment on the projections of runoff change associated with projected twenty-first-century climate change. In a case study including three climate models and 10 river basins in the contiguous United States, the authors find that relative (i.e., fractional or percentage) runoff change computed with hydrologic adjustment more often than not was less positive (or, equivalently, more negative) than what was projected by the climate models. The dominant contributor to this decrease in runoff was a ubiquitous change in runoff (median -11%) caused by the hydrologic model’s apparent amplification of the climate-model-implied growth in potential evapotranspiration. Analysis suggests that the hydrologic model, on the basis of the empirical, temperature-based modified Jensen–Haise formula, calculates a change in potential evapotranspiration that is typically 3 times the change implied by the climate models, which explicitly track surface energy budgets. In comparison with the amplification of potential evapotranspiration, central tendencies of other contributions from hydrologic adjustment (spatial refinement, climate-bias adjustment, and process refinement) were relatively small. The authors’ findings highlight the need for caution when projecting changes in potential evapotranspiration for use in hydrologic models or drought indices to evaluate climate-change impacts on water.

  18. Adjustment of regional regression models of urban-runoff quality using data for Chattanooga, Knoxville, and Nashville, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, Anne B.; Patel, Anant R.

    1996-01-01

    Model-adjustment procedures were applied to the combined data bases of storm-runoff quality for Chattanooga, Knoxville, and Nashville, Tennessee, to improve predictive accuracy for storm-runoff quality for urban watersheds in these three cities and throughout Middle and East Tennessee. Data for 45 storms at 15 different sites (five sites in each city) constitute the data base. Comparison of observed values of storm-runoff load and event-mean concentration to the predicted values from the regional regression models for 10 constituents shows prediction errors, as large as 806,000 percent. Model-adjustment procedures, which combine the regional model predictions with local data, are applied to improve predictive accuracy. Standard error of estimate after model adjustment ranges from 67 to 322 percent. Calibration results may be biased due to sampling error in the Tennessee data base. The relatively large values of standard error of estimate for some of the constituent models, although representing significant reduction (at least 50 percent) in prediction error compared to estimation with unadjusted regional models, may be unacceptable for some applications. The user may wish to collect additional local data for these constituents and repeat the analysis, or calibrate an independent local regression model.

  19. Assessment and Indirect Adjustment for Confounding by Smoking in Cohort Studies Using Relative Hazards Models

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, David B.; Laurier, Dominique; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Cole, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Workers' smoking histories are not measured in many occupational cohort studies. Here we discuss the use of negative control outcomes to detect and adjust for confounding in analyses that lack information on smoking. We clarify the assumptions necessary to detect confounding by smoking and the additional assumptions necessary to indirectly adjust for such bias. We illustrate these methods using data from 2 studies of radiation and lung cancer: the Colorado Plateau cohort study (1950–2005) of underground uranium miners (in which smoking was measured) and a French cohort study (1950–2004) of nuclear industry workers (in which smoking was unmeasured). A cause-specific relative hazards model is proposed for estimation of indirectly adjusted associations. Among the miners, the proposed method suggests no confounding by smoking of the association between radon and lung cancer—a conclusion supported by adjustment for measured smoking. Among the nuclear workers, the proposed method suggests substantial confounding by smoking of the association between radiation and lung cancer. Indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking resulted in an 18% decrease in the adjusted estimated hazard ratio, yet this cannot be verified because smoking was unmeasured. Assumptions underlying this method are described, and a cause-specific proportional hazards model that allows easy implementation using standard software is presented. PMID:25245043

  20. Emotional closeness to parents and grandparents: A moderated mediation model predicting adolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2015-09-01

    Warm and emotionally close relationships with parents and grandparents have been found in previous studies to be linked with better adolescent adjustment. The present study, informed by Family Systems Theory and Intergenerational Solidarity Theory, uses a moderated mediation model analyzing the contribution of the dynamics of these intergenerational relationships to adolescent adjustment. Specifically, it examines the mediating role of emotional closeness to the closest grandparent in the relationship between emotional closeness to a parent (the offspring of the closest grandparent) and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The model also examines the moderating role of emotional closeness to parents in the relationship between emotional closeness to grandparents and adjustment difficulties. The study was based on a sample of 1,405 Jewish Israeli secondary school students (ages 12-18) who completed a structured questionnaire. It was found that emotional closeness to the closest grandparent was more strongly associated with reduced adjustment difficulties among adolescents with higher levels of emotional closeness to their parents. In addition, adolescent adjustment and emotional closeness to parents was partially mediated by emotional closeness to grandparents. Examining the family conditions under which adolescents' relationships with grandparents is stronger and more beneficial for them can help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties and expand our understanding of the mechanisms that shape child outcomes. PMID:26237053

  1. Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…

  2. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  3. A Model of Divorce Adjustment for Use in Family Service Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Ruth Griffith

    1987-01-01

    Presents a combined educationally and therapeutically oriented model of treatment to (1) control and lessen disruptive experiences associated with divorce; (2) enable individuals to improve their skill in coping with adjustment reactions to divorce; and (3) modify the pressures and response of single parenthood. Describes the model's four-session…

  4. School Adjustment in the Early Grades: Toward an Integrated Model of Neighborhood, Parental, and Child Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Saundra Murray; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; O'Campo, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    Examining recent research on neighborhood influences on child development, this review focuses on social influences on school adjustment in the early elementary years. A model to guide community research and intervention is presented. The components of the model of integrated processes are neighborhoods and their effects on academic outcomes and…

  5. Risk adjustment of Medicare capitation payments using the CMS-HCC model.

    PubMed

    Pope, Gregory C; Kautter, John; Ellis, Randall P; Ash, Arlene S; Ayanian, John Z; Lezzoni, Lisa I; Ingber, Melvin J; Levy, Jesse M; Robst, John

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the CMS hierarchical condition categories (HCC) model implemented in 2004 to adjust Medicare capitation payments to private health care plans for the health expenditure risk of their enrollees. We explain the model's principles, elements, organization, calibration, and performance. Modifications to reduce plan data reporting burden and adaptations for disabled, institutionalized, newly enrolled, and secondary payer subpopulations are discussed. PMID:15493448

  6. Community Influences on Adjustment in First Grade: An Examination of an Integrated Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra M.; O'Campo, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of neighborhood characteristics both directly and indirectly as mediated by parent coaching and the parent/child affective relationship on behavioral and school adjustment in a sample of urban dwelling first graders. We used structural equations modeling to assess model fit and estimate direct, indirect, and total effects of…

  7. Filling Gaps in the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: Heritage Cultural Maintenance and Adjustment in Mexican-American Families.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Yuen, Cynthia; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate faster than do their parents, resulting in an acculturation gap that leads to family and youth maladjustment. However, empirical support for the acculturation gap-distress model has been inconclusive. In the current study, 428 Mexican-American adolescents (50.2 % female) and their primary caregivers independently completed questionnaires assessing their levels of American and Mexican cultural orientation, family functioning, and youth adjustment. Contrary to the acculturation gap-distress model, acculturation gaps were not associated with poorer family or youth functioning. Rather, adolescents with higher levels of Mexican cultural orientations showed positive outcomes, regardless of their parents' orientations to either American or Mexican cultures. Findings suggest that youths' heritage cultural maintenance may be most important for their adjustment. PMID:26759225

  8. Testing a Social Ecological Model for Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of inter-relations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M= 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children’s regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members’ reports of current sectarian and non-sectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children’s emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children’s adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world. PMID:20423550

  9. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world. PMID:20423550

  10. It takes two to replicate: a mediational model for the impact of parents' stress on adolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Conger, R D; Patterson, G R; Ge, X

    1995-02-01

    In this study of parental stress and adolescent adjustment, experiences of negative life events during the recent past were used to generate a measure of acute stress. In addition, multiple indicators based on reports from various informants were used to estimate latent constructs for parental depression, discipline practices, and adolescent adjustment. Employing 2 independent samples of families from 2 different regions of the country (rural Iowa and a medium-sized city in Oregon), structural equation models were used to test the hypothesis that in intact families acute stress experienced by parents is linked to boys' adjustment (average age equaled 11.8 years in the Oregon sample, 12.7 years in the Iowa sample) through 2 different causal mechanisms. The findings showed that parental stress was related to adjustment through stress-related parental depression that is, in turn, correlated with disrupted discipline practices. Poor discipline appears to provide the direct link with developmental outcomes. The structural equation model (SEM) used to test the proposed mediational process was consistent with the data for mothers and boys from both the Oregon and the Iowa samples. The similarity in results was less clear for fathers and boys. Implications of these results for future replication studies are discussed. PMID:7497831

  11. Two Models of Caregiver Strain and Bereavement Adjustment: A Comparison of Husband and Daughter Caregivers of Breast Cancer Hospice Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Lori L.; Guarnaccia, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Caregiver bereavement adjustment literature suggests opposite models of impact of role strain on bereavement adjustment after care-recipient death--a Complicated Grief Model and a Relief Model. This study tests these competing models for husband and adult-daughter caregivers of breast cancer hospice patients. Design and Methods: This…

  12. Model Minority Stereotyping, Perceived Discrimination, and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Asian American Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Thompson, Taylor L

    2016-07-01

    The model minority image is a common and pervasive stereotype that Asian American adolescents must navigate. Using multiwave data from 159 adolescents from Asian American backgrounds (mean age at initial recruitment = 15.03, SD = .92; 60 % female; 74 % US-born), the current study targeted unexplored aspects of the model minority experience in conjunction with more traditionally measured experiences of negative discrimination. When examining normative changes, perceptions of model minority stereotyping increased over the high school years while perceptions of discrimination decreased. Both experiences were not associated with each other, suggesting independent forms of social interactions. Model minority stereotyping generally promoted academic and socioemotional adjustment, whereas discrimination hindered outcomes. Moreover, in terms of academic adjustment, the model minority stereotype appears to protect against the detrimental effect of discrimination. Implications of the complex duality of adolescents' social interactions are discussed. PMID:26251100

  13. A Four-Part Model of Autonomy during Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Susie D.; Groh, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    We found support for a four-part model of autonomy that links connectedness, separation, detachment, and agency to adjustment during emerging adulthood. Based on self-report surveys of 285 American college students, expected associations among the autonomy variables were found. In addition, agency, as measured by self-reliance, predicted lower…

  14. A Threshold Model of Social Support, Adjustment, and Distress after Breast Cancer Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Armer, Jane M.; Heppner, P. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a threshold model that proposes that social support exhibits a curvilinear association with adjustment and distress, such that support in excess of a critical threshold level has decreasing incremental benefits. Women diagnosed with a first occurrence of breast cancer (N = 154) completed survey measures of perceived support…

  15. Ice loading model for Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in the Barents Sea constrained by GRACE gravity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Bart; Tarasov, Lev; van der Wal, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    The global ice budget is still under discussion because the observed 120-130 m eustatic sea level equivalent since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) can not be explained by the current knowledge of land-ice melt after the LGM. One possible location for the missing ice is the Barents Sea Region, which was completely covered with ice during the LGM. This is deduced from relative sea level observations on Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and the North coast of Scandinavia. However, there are no observations in the middle of the Barents Sea that capture the post-glacial uplift. With increased precision and longer time series of monthly gravity observations of the GRACE satellite mission it is possible to constrain Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in the center of the Barents Sea. This study investigates the extra constraint provided by GRACE data for modeling the past ice geometry in the Barents Sea. We use CSR release 5 data from February 2003 to July 2013. The GRACE data is corrected for the past 10 years of secular decline of glacier ice on Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and Frans Joseph Land. With numerical GIA models for a radially symmetric Earth, we model the expected gravity changes and compare these with the GRACE observations after smoothing with a 250 km Gaussian filter. The comparisons show that for the viscosity profile VM5a, ICE-5G has too strong a gravity signal compared to GRACE. The regional calibrated ice sheet model (GLAC) of Tarasov appears to fit the amplitude of the GRACE signal. However, the GRACE data are very sensitive to the ice-melt correction, especially for Novaya Zemlya. Furthermore, the ice mass should be more concentrated to the middle of the Barents Sea. Alternative viscosity models confirm these conclusions.

  16. Testing the compatibility of constraints for parameters of a geodetic adjustment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Rüdiger; Neitzel, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Geodetic adjustment models are often set up in a way that the model parameters need to fulfil certain constraints. The normalized Lagrange multipliers have been used as a measure of the strength of constraint in such a way that if one of them exceeds in magnitude a certain threshold then the corresponding constraint is likely to be incompatible with the observations and the rest of the constraints. We show that these and similar measures can be deduced as test statistics of a likelihood ratio test of the statistical hypothesis that some constraints are incompatible in the same sense. This has been done before only for special constraints (Teunissen in Optimization and Design of Geodetic Networks, pp. 526-547, 1985). We start from the simplest case, that the full set of constraints is to be tested, and arrive at the advanced case, that each constraint is to be tested individually. Every test is worked out both for a known as well as for an unknown prior variance factor. The corresponding distributions under null and alternative hypotheses are derived. The theory is illustrated by the example of a double levelled line.

  17. [Construction and validation of a multidimensional model of students' adjustment to college context].

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula; Guisande, M Adelina; Diniz, António M; Almeida, Leandro S

    2006-05-01

    This article presents a model of interaction of personal and contextual variables in the prediction of academic performance and psychosocial development of Portuguese college students. The sample consists of 560 first-year college students of the University of Minho. The path analysis results suggest that initial expectations of the students' involvement in academic life constituted an effective predictor of their involvement during their first year; as well as the social climate of the classroom influenced their involvement, well-being and levels of satisfaction obtained. However, these relationships were not strong enough to influence the criterion variables integrated in the model (academic performance and psychosocial development). Academic performance was predicted by the high school grades and college entrance examination scores, and the level of psychosocial development was determined by the level of development showed at the time they entered college. Though more research is needed, these results point to the importance of students' pre-college characteristics when we are considering the quality of their college adjustment process. PMID:17296040

  18. An assessment of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) glacial isostatic adjustment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, A.; Tregoning, P.; Dehecq, A.

    2016-05-01

    The recent release of the next-generation global ice history model, ICE6G_C(VM5a), is likely to be of interest to a wide range of disciplines including oceanography (sea level studies), space gravity (mass balance studies), glaciology, and, of course, geodynamics (Earth rheology studies). In this paper we make an assessment of some aspects of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model and show that the published present-day radial uplift rates are too high along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula (by ˜8.6 mm/yr) and beneath the Ross Ice Shelf (by ˜5 mm/yr). Furthermore, the published spherical harmonic coefficients—which are meant to represent the dimensionless present-day changes due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)—contain excessive power for degree ≥90, do not agree with physical expectations and do not represent accurately the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model. We show that the excessive power in the high-degree terms produces erroneous uplift rates when the empirical relationship of Purcell et al. (2011) is applied, but when correct Stokes coefficients are used, the empirical relationship produces excellent agreement with the fully rigorous computation of the radial velocity field, subject to the caveats first noted by Purcell et al. (2011). Using the Australian National University (ANU) groups CALSEA software package, we recompute the present-day GIA signal for the ice thickness history and Earth rheology used by Peltier et al. (2015) and provide dimensionless Stokes coefficients that can be used to correct satellite altimetry observations for GIA over oceans and by the space gravity community to separate GIA and present-day mass balance change signals. We denote the new data sets as ICE6G_ANU.

  19. Modeling Fluvial Incision and Transient Landscape Evolution: Influence of Dynamic Channel Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attal, M.; Tucker, G. E.; Cowie, P. A.; Whittaker, A. C.; Roberts, G. P.

    2007-12-01

    Channel geometry exerts a fundamental control on fluvial processes. Recent work has shown that bedrock channel width (W) depends on a number of parameters, including channel slope, and is not only a function of drainage area (A) as is commonly assumed. The present work represents the first attempt to investigate the consequences, for landscape evolution, of using a static expression of channel width (W ~ A0.5) versus a relationship that allows channels to dynamically adjust to changes in slope. We consider different models for the evolution of the channel geometry, including constant width-to-depth ratio (after Finnegan et al., Geology, v. 33, no. 3, 2005), and width-to-depth ratio varying as a function of slope (after Whittaker et al., Geology, v. 35, no. 2, 2007). We use the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model to analyze the response of a catchment to a given tectonic disturbance. The topography of a catchment in the footwall of an active normal fault in the Apennines (Italy) is used as a template for the study. We show that, for this catchment, the transient response can be fairly well reproduced using a simple detachment-limited fluvial incision law. We also show that, depending on the relationship used to express channel width, initial steady-state topographies differ, as do transient channel width, slope, and the response time of the fluvial system. These differences lead to contrasting landscape morphologies when integrated at the scale of a whole catchment. Our results emphasize the importance of channel width in controlling fluvial processes and landscape evolution. They stress the need for using a dynamic hydraulic scaling law when modeling landscape evolution, particularly when the uplift field is non-uniform.

  20. Verification and adjustment of regional regression models for urban storm-runoff quality using data collected in Little Rock, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barks, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Storm-runoff water-quality data were used to verify and, when appropriate, adjust regional regression models previously developed to estimate urban storm- runoff loads and mean concentrations in Little Rock, Arkansas. Data collected at 5 representative sites during 22 storms from June 1992 through January 1994 compose the Little Rock data base. Comparison of observed values (0) of storm-runoff loads and mean concentrations to the predicted values (Pu) from the regional regression models for nine constituents (chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, total nitrogen, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, and total recoverable zinc) shows large prediction errors ranging from 63 to several thousand percent. Prediction errors for six of the regional regression models are less than 100 percent, and can be considered reasonable for water-quality models. Differences between 0 and Pu are due to variability in the Little Rock data base and error in the regional models. Where applicable, a model adjustment procedure (termed MAP-R-P) based upon regression with 0 against Pu was applied to improve predictive accuracy. For 11 of the 18 regional water-quality models, 0 and Pu are significantly correlated, that is much of the variation in 0 is explained by the regional models. Five of these 11 regional models consistently overestimate O; therefore, MAP-R-P can be used to provide a better estimate. For the remaining seven regional models, 0 and Pu are not significanfly correlated, thus neither the unadjusted regional models nor the MAP-R-P is appropriate. A simple estimator, such as the mean of the observed values may be used if the regression models are not appropriate. Standard error of estimate of the adjusted models ranges from 48 to 130 percent. Calibration results may be biased due to the limited data set sizes in the Little Rock data base. The relatively large values of

  1. Glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia from GRACE data and comparison with geodynamical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Holger; Denker, Heiner; Müller, Jürgen

    2008-10-01

    The Earth's gravity field observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission shows variations due to the integral effect of mass variations in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere. Several institutions, such as the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) Potsdam, the University of Texas at Austin, Center for Space Research (CSR) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, provide GRACE monthly solutions, which differ slightly due to the application of different reduction models and centre-specific processing schemes. The GRACE data are used to investigate the mass variations in Fennoscandia, an area which is strongly influenced by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Hence the focus is set on the computation of secular trends. Different filters (e.g. isotropic and non-isotropic filters) are discussed for the removal of high frequency noise to permit the extraction of the GIA signal. The resulting GRACE based mass variations are compared to global hydrology models (WGHM, LaDWorld) in order to (a) separate possible hydrological signals and (b) validate the hydrology models with regard to long period and secular components. In addition, a pattern matching algorithm is applied to localise the uplift centre, and finally the GRACE signal is compared with the results from a geodynamical modelling. The GRACE data clearly show temporal gravity variations in Fennoscandia. The secular variations are in good agreement with former studies and other independent data. The uplift centre is located over the Bothnian Bay, and the whole uplift area comprises the Scandinavian Peninsula and Finland. The secular variations derived from the GFZ, CSR and JPL monthly solutions differ up to 20%, which is not statistically significant, and the largest signal of about 1.2 μGal/year is obtained from the GFZ solution. Besides the GIA signal, two peaks with positive trend values of about 0.8 μGal/year exist in central eastern Europe, which are not GIA-induced, and

  2. Adjusting lidar-derived digital terrain models in coastal marshes based on estimated aboveground biomass density

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, Stephen; Hagen, Scott; Weishampel, John; Angelo, James

    2015-03-25

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red), an interferometric SAR (IfSAR) digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three-class scheme (high, medium and low) and a two-class scheme (high and low). Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer to true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 ± 0.24 m and 0.32 ± 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.

  3. Adjusting lidar-derived digital terrain models in coastal marshes based on estimated aboveground biomass density

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Medeiros, Stephen; Hagen, Scott; Weishampel, John; Angelo, James

    2015-03-25

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red), an interferometric SAR (IfSAR) digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three-class scheme (high, medium and low) and a two-class scheme (high and low). Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer tomore » true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 ± 0.24 m and 0.32 ± 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.« less

  4. An appraisal-based coping model of attachment and adjustment to arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sirois, Fuschia M; Gick, Mary L

    2016-05-01

    Guided by pain-related attachment models and coping theory, we used structural equation modeling to test an appraisal-based coping model of how insecure attachment was linked to arthritis adjustment in a sample of 365 people with arthritis. The structural equation modeling analyses revealed indirect and direct associations of anxious and avoidant attachment with greater appraisals of disease-related threat, less perceived social support to deal with this threat, and less coping efficacy. There was evidence of reappraisal processes for avoidant but not anxious attachment. Findings highlight the importance of considering attachment style when assessing how people cope with the daily challenges of arthritis. PMID:24984717

  5. Executive function and psychosocial adjustment in healthy children and adolescents: A latent variable modelling investigation.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish latent executive function (EF) and psychosocial adjustment factor structure, to examine associations between EF and psychosocial adjustment, and to explore potential development differences in EF-psychosocial adjustment associations in healthy children and adolescents. Using data from the multisite National Institutes of Health (NIH) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development, the current investigation examined latent associations between theoretically and empirically derived EF factors and emotional and behavioral adjustment measures in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents (7-18 years old; N = 352). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was the primary method of data analysis. CFA results revealed that, in the whole sample, the proposed five-factor model (Working Memory, Shifting, Verbal Fluency, Externalizing, and Internalizing) provided a close fit to the data, χ(2)(66) = 114.48, p < .001; RMSEA = .046; NNFI = .973; CFI = .980. Significant negative associations were demonstrated between Externalizing and both Working Memory and Verbal Fluency (p < .01) factors. A series of increasingly restrictive tests led to the rejection of the hypothesis of invariance, thereby precluding formal statistical examination of age-related differences in latent EF-psychosocial adjustment associations. Findings indicate that childhood EF skills are best conceptualized as a constellation of interconnected yet distinguishable cognitive self-regulatory skills. Individual differences in certain domains of EF track meaningfully and in expected directions with emotional and behavioral adjustment indices. Externalizing behaviors, in particular, are associated with latent Working Memory and Verbal Fluency factors. PMID:25569593

  6. Portable document format file showing the surface models of cadaver whole body.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Sangho; Moon, Young Lae; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2012-08-01

    In the Visible Korean project, 642 three-dimensional (3D) surface models have been built from the sectioned images of a male cadaver. It was recently discovered that popular PDF file enables users to approach the numerous surface models conveniently on Adobe Reader. Purpose of this study was to present a PDF file including systematized surface models of human body as the beneficial contents. To achieve the purpose, fitting software packages were employed in accordance with the procedures. Two-dimensional (2D) surface models including the original sectioned images were embedded into the 3D surface models. The surface models were categorized into systems and then groups. The adjusted surface models were inserted to a PDF file, where relevant multimedia data were added. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive data of a whole body could be explored in varying manners. The PDF file, downloadable freely from the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr), is expected to be used as a satisfactory self-learning tool of anatomy. Raw data of the surface models can be extracted from the PDF file and employed for various simulations for clinical practice. The technique to organize the surface models will be applied to manufacture of other PDF files containing various multimedia contents. PMID:22876049

  7. Stress and Personal Resource as Predictors of the Adjustment of Parents to Autistic Children: A Multivariate Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siman-Tov, Ayelet; Kaniel, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    The research validates a multivariate model that predicts parental adjustment to coping successfully with an autistic child. The model comprises four elements: parental stress, parental resources, parental adjustment and the child's autism symptoms. 176 parents of children aged between 6 to 16 diagnosed with PDD answered several questionnaires…

  8. What's the Risk? A Simple Approach for Estimating Adjusted Risk Measures from Nonlinear Models Including Logistic Regression

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Lawrence C; Norton, Edward C

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a general method (called regression risk analysis) to estimate adjusted risk measures from logistic and other nonlinear multiple regression models. We show how to estimate standard errors for these estimates. These measures could supplant various approximations (e.g., adjusted odds ratio [AOR]) that may diverge, especially when outcomes are common. Study Design Regression risk analysis estimates were compared with internal standards as well as with Mantel–Haenszel estimates, Poisson and log-binomial regressions, and a widely used (but flawed) equation to calculate adjusted risk ratios (ARR) from AOR. Data Collection Data sets produced using Monte Carlo simulations. Principal Findings Regression risk analysis accurately estimates ARR and differences directly from multiple regression models, even when confounders are continuous, distributions are skewed, outcomes are common, and effect size is large. It is statistically sound and intuitive, and has properties favoring it over other methods in many cases. Conclusions Regression risk analysis should be the new standard for presenting findings from multiple regression analysis of dichotomous outcomes for cross-sectional, cohort, and population-based case–control studies, particularly when outcomes are common or effect size is large. PMID:18793213

  9. Bias adjustment of satellite rainfall data through stochastic modeling: Methods development and application to Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Marc F.; Thompson, Sally E.

    2013-10-01

    Estimating precipitation over large spatial areas remains a challenging problem for hydrologists. Sparse ground-based gauge networks do not provide a robust basis for interpolation, and the reliability of remote sensing products, although improving, is still imperfect. Current techniques to estimate precipitation rely on combining these different kinds of measurements to correct the bias in the satellite observations. We propose a novel procedure that, unlike existing techniques, (i) allows correcting the possibly confounding effects of different sources of errors in satellite estimates, (ii) explicitly accounts for the spatial heterogeneity of the biases and (iii) allows the use of non overlapping historical observations. The proposed method spatially aggregates and interpolates gauge data at the satellite grid resolution by focusing on parameters that describe the frequency and intensity of the rainfall observed at the gauges. The resulting gridded parameters can then be used to adjust the probability density function of satellite rainfall observations at each grid cell, accounting for spatial heterogeneity. Unlike alternate methods, we explicitly adjust biases on rainfall frequency in addition to its intensity. Adjusted rainfall distributions can then readily be applied as input in stochastic rainfall generators or frequency domain hydrological models. Finally, we also provide a procedure to use them to correct remotely sensed rainfall time series. We apply the method to adjust the distributions of daily rainfall observed by the TRMM satellite in Nepal, which exemplifies the challenges associated with a sparse gauge network and large biases due to complex topography. In a cross-validation analysis on daily rainfall from TRMM 3B42 v6, we find that using a small subset of the available gauges, the proposed method outperforms local rainfall estimations using the complete network of available gauges to directly interpolate local rainfall or correct TRMM by adjusting

  10. Biologically Inspired Visual Model With Preliminary Cognition and Active Attention Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hong; Xi, Xuanyang; Li, Yinlin; Wu, Wei; Li, Fengfu

    2015-11-01

    Recently, many computational models have been proposed to simulate visual cognition process. For example, the hierarchical Max-Pooling (HMAX) model was proposed according to the hierarchical and bottom-up structure of V1 to V4 in the ventral pathway of primate visual cortex, which could achieve position- and scale-tolerant recognition. In our previous work, we have introduced memory and association into the HMAX model to simulate visual cognition process. In this paper, we improve our theoretical framework by mimicking a more elaborate structure and function of the primate visual cortex. We will mainly focus on the new formation of memory and association in visual processing under different circumstances as well as preliminary cognition and active adjustment in the inferior temporal cortex, which are absent in the HMAX model. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) in the memory and association part, we apply deep convolutional neural networks to extract various episodic features of the objects since people use different features for object recognition. Moreover, to achieve a fast and robust recognition in the retrieval and association process, different types of features are stored in separated clusters and the feature binding of the same object is stimulated in a loop discharge manner and 2) in the preliminary cognition and active adjustment part, we introduce preliminary cognition to classify different types of objects since distinct neural circuits in a human brain are used for identification of various types of objects. Furthermore, active cognition adjustment of occlusion and orientation is implemented to the model to mimic the top-down effect in human cognition process. Finally, our model is evaluated on two face databases CAS-PEAL-R1 and AR. The results demonstrate that our model exhibits its efficiency on visual recognition process with much lower memory storage requirement and a better performance compared with the traditional purely computational

  11. Using Green's Functions to initialize and adjust a global, eddying ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brix, H.; Menemenlis, D.; Hill, C.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Jahn, O.; Wang, D.; Bowman, K.; Zhang, H.

    2015-11-01

    The NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Flux Project aims to attribute changes in the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide to spatially resolved fluxes by utilizing the full suite of NASA data, models, and assimilation capabilities. For the oceanic part of this project, we introduce ECCO2-Darwin, a new ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model based on combining the following pre-existing components: (i) a full-depth, eddying, global-ocean configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), (ii) an adjoint-method-based estimate of ocean circulation from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II (ECCO2) project, (iii) the MIT ecosystem model "Darwin", and (iv) a marine carbon chemistry model. Air-sea gas exchange coefficients and initial conditions of dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and oxygen are adjusted using a Green's Functions approach in order to optimize modeled air-sea CO2 fluxes. Data constraints include observations of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) for 2009-2010, global air-sea CO2 flux estimates, and the seasonal cycle of the Takahashi et al. (2009) Atlas. The model sensitivity experiments (or Green's Functions) include simulations that start from different initial conditions as well as experiments that perturb air-sea gas exchange parameters and the ratio of particulate inorganic to organic carbon. The Green's Functions approach yields a linear combination of these sensitivity experiments that minimizes model-data differences. The resulting initial conditions and gas exchange coefficients are then used to integrate the ECCO2-Darwin model forward. Despite the small number (six) of control parameters, the adjusted simulation is significantly closer to the data constraints (37% cost function reduction, i.e., reduction in the model-data difference, relative to the baseline simulation) and to independent observations (e.g., alkalinity). The adjusted air-sea gas

  12. Glacial isostatic adjustment model with composite 3-D Earth rheology for Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Barnhoorn, Auke; Stocchi, Paolo; Gradmann, Sofie; Wu, Patrick; Drury, Martyn; Vermeersen, Bert

    2013-07-01

    Models for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) can provide constraints on rheology of the mantle if past ice thickness variations are assumed to be known. The Pleistocene ice loading histories that are used to obtain such constraints are based on an a priori 1-D mantle viscosity profile that assumes a single deformation mechanism for mantle rocks. Such a simplified viscosity profile makes it hard to compare the inferred mantle rheology to inferences from seismology and laboratory experiments. It is unknown what constraints GIA observations can provide on more realistic mantle rheology with an ice history that is not based on an a priori mantle viscosity profile. This paper investigates a model for GIA with a new ice history for Fennoscandia that is constrained by palaeoclimate proxies and glacial sediments. Diffusion and dislocation creep flow law data are taken from a compilation of laboratory measurements on olivine. Upper-mantle temperature data sets down to 400 km depth are derived from surface heatflow measurements, a petrochemical model for Fennoscandia and seismic velocity anomalies. Creep parameters below 400 km are taken from an earlier study and are only varying with depth. The olivine grain size and water content (a wet state, or a dry state) are used as free parameters. The solid Earth response is computed with a global spherical 3-D finite-element model for an incompressible, self-gravitating Earth. We compare predictions to sea level data and GPS uplift rates in Fennoscandia. The objective is to see if the mantle rheology and the ice model is consistent with GIA observations. We also test if the inclusion of dislocation creep gives any improvements over predictions with diffusion creep only, and whether the laterally varying temperatures result in an improved fit compared to a widely used 1-D viscosity profile (VM2). We find that sea level data can be explained with our ice model and with information on mantle rheology from laboratory experiments

  13. A finite element model updating technique for adjustment of parameters near boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwinn, Allen Fort, Jr.

    Even though there have been many advances in research related to methods of updating finite element models based on measured normal mode vibration characteristics, there is yet to be a widely accepted method that works reliably with a wide range of problems. This dissertation focuses on the specific class of problems having to do with changes in stiffness near the clamped boundary of plate structures. This class of problems is especially important as it relates to the performance of turbine engine blades, where a change in stiffness at the base of the blade can be indicative of structural damage. The method that is presented herein is a new technique for resolving the differences between the physical structure and the finite element model. It is a semi-iterative technique that incorporates a "physical expansion" of the measured eigenvectors along with appropriate scaling of these expanded eigenvectors into an iterative loop that uses the Engel's model modification method to then calculate adjusted stiffness parameters for the finite element model. Three example problems are presented that use eigenvalues and mass normalized eigenvectors that have been calculated from experimentally obtained accelerometer readings. The test articles that were used were all thin plates with one edge fully clamped. They each had a cantilevered length of 8.5 inches and a width of 4 inches. The three plates differed from one another in thickness from 0.100 inches to 0.188 inches. These dimensions were selected in order to approximate a gas turbine engine blade. The semi-iterative modification technique is shown to do an excellent job of calculating the necessary adjustments to the finite element model so that the analytically determined eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the adjusted model match the corresponding values from the experimental data with good agreement. Furthermore, the semi-iterative method is quite robust. For the examples presented here, the method consistently converged

  14. Remote Sensing-based Methodologies for Snow Model Adjustments in Operational Streamflow Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Miller, W. P.; Bernard, B.; Stokes, M.; Oaida, C. M.; Painter, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Water management agencies rely on hydrologic forecasts issued by operational agencies such as NOAA's Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). The CBRFC has partnered with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under funding from NASA to incorporate research-oriented, remotely-sensed snow data into CBRFC operations and to improve the accuracy of CBRFC forecasts. The partnership has yielded valuable analysis of snow surface albedo as represented in JPL's MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) data, across the CBRFC's area of responsibility. When dust layers within a snowpack emerge, reducing the snow surface albedo, the snowmelt rate may accelerate. The CBRFC operational snow model (SNOW17) is a temperature-index model that lacks explicit representation of snowpack surface albedo. CBRFC forecasters monitor MODDRFS data for emerging dust layers and may manually adjust SNOW17 melt rates. A technique was needed for efficient and objective incorporation of the MODDRFS data into SNOW17. Initial development focused in Colorado, where dust-on-snow events frequently occur. CBRFC forecasters used retrospective JPL-CBRFC analysis and developed a quantitative relationship between MODDRFS data and mean areal temperature (MAT) data. The relationship was used to generate adjusted, MODDRFS-informed input for SNOW17. Impacts of the MODDRFS-SNOW17 MAT adjustment method on snowmelt-driven streamflow prediction varied spatially and with characteristics of the dust deposition events. The largest improvements occurred in southwestern Colorado, in years with intense dust deposition events. Application of the method in other regions of Colorado and in "low dust" years resulted in minimal impact. The MODDRFS-SNOW17 MAT technique will be implemented in CBRFC operations in late 2015, prior to spring 2016 runoff. Collaborative investigation of remote sensing-based adjustment methods for the CBRFC operational hydrologic forecasting environment will continue over the next several years.

  15. “A model of mother-child Adjustment in Arab Muslim Immigrants to the US”

    PubMed Central

    Hough, Edythe s; Templin, Thomas N; Kulwicki, Anahid; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Katz, Anne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the mother-child adjustment and child behavior problems in Arab Muslim immigrant families residing in the U.S.A. The sample of 635 mother-child dyads was comprised of mothers who emigrated from 1989 or later and had at least one early adolescent child between the ages of 11 to 15 years old who was also willing to participate. Arabic speaking research assistants collected the data from the mothers and children using established measures of maternal and child stressors, coping, and social support; maternal distress; parent-child relationship; and child behavior problems. A structural equation model (SEM) was specified a priori with 17 predicted pathways. With a few exceptions, the final SEM model was highly consistent with the proposed model and had a good fit to the data. The model accounted for 67% of the variance in child behavior problems. Child stressors, mother-child relationship, and maternal stressors were the causal variables that contributed the most to child behavior problems. The model also accounted for 27% of the variance in mother-child relationship. Child active coping, child gender, mother’s education, and maternal distress were all predictive of the mother-child relationship. Mother-child relationship also mediated the effects of maternal distress and child active coping on child behavior problems. These findings indicate that immigrant mothers contribute greatly to adolescent adjustment, both as a source of risk and protection. These findings also suggest that intervening with immigrant mothers to reduce their stress and strengthening the parent-child relationship are two important areas for promoting adolescent adjustment. PMID:19758737

  16. A spatial model of bird abundance as adjusted for detection probability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P.M.; Mcmillan, G.P.; Camp, R.J.; Pratt, T.K.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling the spatial distribution of animals can be complicated by spatial and temporal effects (i.e. spatial autocorrelation and trends in abundance over time) and other factors such as imperfect detection probabilities and observation-related nuisance variables. Recent advances in modeling have demonstrated various approaches that handle most of these factors but which require a degree of sampling effort (e.g. replication) not available to many field studies. We present a two-step approach that addresses these challenges to spatially model species abundance. Habitat, spatial and temporal variables were handled with a Bayesian approach which facilitated modeling hierarchically structured data. Predicted abundance was subsequently adjusted to account for imperfect detection and the area effectively sampled for each species. We provide examples of our modeling approach for two endemic Hawaiian nectarivorous honeycreepers: 'i'iwi Vestiaria coccinea and 'apapane Himatione sanguinea. ?? 2009 Ecography.

  17. Data Assimilation and Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Model of VTEC Map over Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinngam, Somjai; Maruyama, Takashi; Tsugawa, Takuya; Ishii, Mamoru; Supnithi, Pornchai; Chiablaem, Athiwat

    2016-07-01

    The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and high frequency (HF) communication are vulnerable to the ionospheric irregularities, especially when the signal travels through the low-latitude region and around the magnetic equator known as equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region. In order to study the ionospheric effects to the communications performance in this region, the regional map of the observed total electron content (TEC) can show the characteristic and irregularities of the ionosphere. In this work, we develop the two-dimensional (2D) map of vertical TEC (VTEC) over Thailand using the adjusted spherical harmonic model (ASHM) and the data assimilation technique. We calculate the VTEC from the receiver independent exchange (RINEX) files recorded by the dual-frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers on July 8th, 2012 (quiet day) at 12 stations around Thailand: 0° to 25°E and 95°N to 110°N. These stations are managed by Department of Public Works and Town & Country Planning (DPT), Thailand, and the South East Asia Low-latitude ionospheric Network (SEALION) project operated by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan, and King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL). We compute the median observed VTEC (OBS-VTEC) in the grids with the spatial resolution of 2.5°x5° in latitude and longitude and time resolution of 2 hours. We assimilate the OBS-VTEC with the estimated VTEC from the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-VTEC) as well as the ionosphere map exchange (IONEX) files provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS-VTEC). The results show that the estimation of the 15-degree ASHM can be improved when both of IRI-VTEC and IGS-VTEC are weighted by the latitude-dependent factors before assimilating with the OBS-VTEC. However, the IRI-VTEC assimilation can improve the ASHM estimation more than the IGS-VTEC assimilation. Acknowledgment: This work is partially funded by the

  18. Observational Constraint of Aerosol Effects on the CMIP5 Inter-model Spread of Adjusted Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.; Bordoni, S.

    2013-12-01

    The simulated global-mean temperature (GMT) change over the past 150 years is quite consistent across CMIP5 climate models and also consistent with the observations. However, the predicted future GMT under the identical CO2 forcing is divergent. This paradox is partly due to the errors in the predicted GMT produced by historical greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing being compensated by the parameterization of aerosol cloud radiative forcing. Historical increases in anthropogenic aerosols exert an overall (but highly uncertain) cooling effect in the climate system, which partially offsets the warming due to well mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs). Because aerosol concentrations are predicted to eventually decrease in future scenarios, climate change becomes dominated by warming due to the WMGHG. This change in the relative importance of forcing by aerosol versus WMGHG makes apparent the substantial differences in prediction of climate by WMGHG forcing. Here we investigate the role of aerosols in the context of adjusted forcing changes in the historical runs and the effect of aerosols on the cloud feedback. Our preliminary results suggest that models which are more sensitive to the increase in concentration of CO2 have a larger aerosol radiative cooling effect. By comparing the historicalMisc runs and historicalGHG runs, we find that aerosols exert a potential impact on the cloud adjusted forcings, especially shortwave cloud adjusted forcings. We use the CLIPSO, MISR and CERES data as the benchmark to evaluate the present aerosol simulations. Using satellite observations to assess the relative reliability of the different model responses and to constrain the simulated aerosol radiative forcing will contribute significantly to reducing the across model spread in future climate simulations and identifying some missing physical processes.

  19. Glacial isostatic adjustment using GNSS permanent stations and GIA modelling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin; Spada, Giorgio; Vermeer, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) affects the Earth's mantle in areas which were once ice covered and the process is still ongoing. In this contribution we focus on GIA processes in Fennoscandian and North American uplift regions. In this contribution we use horizontal and vertical uplift rates from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) permanent stations. For Fennoscandia the BIFROST dataset (Lidberg, 2010) and North America the dataset from Sella, 2007 were used respectively. We perform GIA modelling with the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007) and we vary ice model parameters in space in order to find ice model which suits best with uplift values obtained from GNSS time series analysis. In the GIA modelling, the ice models ICE-5G (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model denoted as ANU05 ((Fleming and Lambeck, 2004) and references therein) were used. As reference, the velocity field from GNSS permanent station time series was used for both target areas. Firstly the sensitivity to the harmonic degree was tested in order to reduce the computation time. In the test, nominal viscosity values and pre-defined lithosphere thicknesses models were used, varying maximum harmonic degree values. Main criteria for choosing the suitable harmonic degree was chi-square fit - if the error measure does not differ more than 10%, then one might use as well lower harmonic degree value. From this test, maximum harmonic degree of 72 was chosen to perform calculations, as the larger value did not significantly modify the results obtained, as well the computational time for observations was kept reasonable. Secondly the GIA computations were performed to find the model, which could fit with highest probability to the GNSS-based velocity field in the target areas. In order to find best fitting Earth viscosity parameters, different viscosity profiles for the Earth models were tested and their impact on horizontal and vertical velocity rates from GIA modelling was studied. For every

  20. A model comparison approach shows stronger support for economic models of fertility decline

    PubMed Central

    Shenk, Mary K.; Towner, Mary C.; Kress, Howard C.; Alam, Nurul

    2013-01-01

    The demographic transition is an ongoing global phenomenon in which high fertility and mortality rates are replaced by low fertility and mortality. Despite intense interest in the causes of the transition, especially with respect to decreasing fertility rates, the underlying mechanisms motivating it are still subject to much debate. The literature is crowded with competing theories, including causal models that emphasize (i) mortality and extrinsic risk, (ii) the economic costs and benefits of investing in self and children, and (iii) the cultural transmission of low-fertility social norms. Distinguishing between models, however, requires more comprehensive, better-controlled studies than have been published to date. We use detailed demographic data from recent fieldwork to determine which models produce the most robust explanation of the rapid, recent demographic transition in rural Bangladesh. To rigorously compare models, we use an evidence-based statistical approach using model selection techniques derived from likelihood theory. This approach allows us to quantify the relative evidence the data give to alternative models, even when model predictions are not mutually exclusive. Results indicate that fertility, measured as either total fertility or surviving children, is best explained by models emphasizing economic factors and related motivations for parental investment. Our results also suggest important synergies between models, implicating multiple causal pathways in the rapidity and degree of recent demographic transitions. PMID:23630293

  1. A model comparison approach shows stronger support for economic models of fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Mary K; Towner, Mary C; Kress, Howard C; Alam, Nurul

    2013-05-14

    The demographic transition is an ongoing global phenomenon in which high fertility and mortality rates are replaced by low fertility and mortality. Despite intense interest in the causes of the transition, especially with respect to decreasing fertility rates, the underlying mechanisms motivating it are still subject to much debate. The literature is crowded with competing theories, including causal models that emphasize (i) mortality and extrinsic risk, (ii) the economic costs and benefits of investing in self and children, and (iii) the cultural transmission of low-fertility social norms. Distinguishing between models, however, requires more comprehensive, better-controlled studies than have been published to date. We use detailed demographic data from recent fieldwork to determine which models produce the most robust explanation of the rapid, recent demographic transition in rural Bangladesh. To rigorously compare models, we use an evidence-based statistical approach using model selection techniques derived from likelihood theory. This approach allows us to quantify the relative evidence the data give to alternative models, even when model predictions are not mutually exclusive. Results indicate that fertility, measured as either total fertility or surviving children, is best explained by models emphasizing economic factors and related motivations for parental investment. Our results also suggest important synergies between models, implicating multiple causal pathways in the rapidity and degree of recent demographic transitions. PMID:23630293

  2. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: a path model.

    PubMed

    Elizur, Y; Ziv, M

    2001-01-01

    While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men. PMID:11444052

  3. Models of Traumatic Experiences and Children's Psychological Adjustment: The Roles of Perceived Parenting and the Children's Own Resources and Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; El Sarraj, Eyad

    1997-01-01

    Used path analysis to examine relations between trauma, perceived parenting, resources, political activity, and adjustment in Palestinian 11- and 12-year olds. Found that the more trauma experienced, the more negative parenting the children experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more they suffered from adjustment problems.…

  4. Principal Component Analysis of breast DCE-MRI Adjusted with a Model Based Method

    PubMed Central

    Eyal, Erez.; Badikhi, Daria; Furman-Haran, Edna; Kelcz, Fredrick; Kirshenbaum, Kevin J.; Degani, Hadassa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate a fast, objective and standardized method for analyzing breast DCE-MRI applying principal component analysis (PCA) adjusted with a model based method. Materials and Methods 3D gradient-echo dynamic contrast-enhanced breast images of 31 malignant and 38 benign lesions, recorded on a 1.5 Tesla scanner were retrospectively analyzed by PCA and by the model based three-time-point (3TP) method. Results Intensity scaled (IS) and enhancement scaled (ES) datasets were reduced by PCA yielding a 1st IS-eigenvector that captured the signal variation between fat and fibroglandular tissue; two IS-eigenvectors and the two first ES-eigenvectors that captured contrast-enhanced changes, whereas the remaining eigenvectors captured predominantly noise changes. Rotation of the two contrast related eigenvectors led to a high congruence between the projection coefficients and the 3TP parameters. The ES-eigenvectors and the rotation angle were highly reproducible across malignant lesions enabling calculation of a general rotated eigenvector base. ROC curve analysis of the projection coefficients of the two eigenvectors indicated high sensitivity of the 1st rotated eigenvector to detect lesions (AUC>0.97) and of the 2nd rotated eigenvector to differentiate malignancy from benignancy (AUC=0.87). Conclusion PCA adjusted with a model-based method provided a fast and objective computer-aided diagnostic tool for breast DCE-MRI. PMID:19856419

  5. Multivariate Risk Adjustment of Primary Care Patient Panels in a Public Health Setting: A Comparison of Statistical Models.

    PubMed

    Hirozawa, Anne M; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Johnson, Elizabeth C; Solnit, Stephen A; Drennan, Michael J; Katz, Mitchell H; Marx, Rani

    2016-01-01

    We compared prospective risk adjustment models for adjusting patient panels at the San Francisco Department of Public Health. We used 4 statistical models (linear regression, two-part model, zero-inflated Poisson, and zero-inflated negative binomial) and 4 subsets of predictor variables (age/gender categories, chronic diagnoses, homelessness, and a loss to follow-up indicator) to predict primary care visit frequency. Predicted visit frequency was then used to calculate patient weights and adjusted panel sizes. The two-part model using all predictor variables performed best (R = 0.20). This model, designed specifically for safety net patients, may prove useful for panel adjustment in other public health settings. PMID:27576054

  6. Models Show Subsurface Cracking May Complicate Groundwater Cleanup at Hazardous Waste Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorinated solvents like trichloroethylene contaminate groundwater at numerous sites nationwide. This modeling study, conducted at the Air Force Institute of Technology, shows that subsurface cracks, either natural or due to the presence of the contaminant itself, may result in...

  7. Automatic parameter estimation of multicompartmental neuron models via minimization of trace error with control adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Goeritz, Marie L.; Marder, Eve

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new technique to fit conductance-based neuron models to intracellular voltage traces from isolated biological neurons. The biological neurons are recorded in current-clamp with pink (1/f) noise injected to perturb the activity of the neuron. The new algorithm finds a set of parameters that allows a multicompartmental model neuron to match the recorded voltage trace. Attempting to match a recorded voltage trace directly has a well-known problem: mismatch in the timing of action potentials between biological and model neuron is inevitable and results in poor phenomenological match between the model and data. Our approach avoids this by applying a weak control adjustment to the model to promote alignment during the fitting procedure. This approach is closely related to the control theoretic concept of a Luenberger observer. We tested this approach on synthetic data and on data recorded from an anterior gastric receptor neuron from the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab Cancer borealis. To test the flexibility of this approach, the synthetic data were constructed with conductance models that were different from the ones used in the fitting model. For both synthetic and biological data, the resultant models had good spike-timing accuracy. PMID:25008414

  8. A model of the western Laurentide Ice Sheet, using observations of glacial isostatic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowan, Evan J.; Tregoning, Paul; Purcell, Anthony; Montillet, Jean-Philippe; McClusky, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of a new numerical model of the late glacial western Laurentide Ice Sheet, constrained by observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), including relative sea level indicators, uplift rates from permanent GPS stations, contemporary differential lake level change, and postglacial tilt of glacial lake level indicators. The later two datasets have been underutilized in previous GIA based ice sheet reconstructions. The ice sheet model, called NAICE, is constructed using simple ice physics on the basis of changing margin location and basal shear stress conditions in order to produce ice volumes required to match GIA. The model matches the majority of the observations, while maintaining a relatively realistic ice sheet geometry. Our model has a peak volume at 18,000 yr BP, with a dome located just east of Great Slave Lake with peak thickness of 4000 m, and surface elevation of 3500 m. The modelled ice volume loss between 16,000 and 14,000 yr BP amounts to about 7.5 m of sea level equivalent, which is consistent with the hypothesis that a large portion of Meltwater Pulse 1A was sourced from this part of the ice sheet. The southern part of the ice sheet was thin and had a low elevation profile. This model provides an accurate representation of ice thickness and paleo-topography, and can be used to assess present day uplift and infer past climate.

  9. Procedures for adjusting regional regression models of urban-runoff quality using local data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, A.B.; Sisolak, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Statistical operations termed model-adjustment procedures (MAP?s) can be used to incorporate local data into existing regression models to improve the prediction of urban-runoff quality. Each MAP is a form of regression analysis in which the local data base is used as a calibration data set. Regression coefficients are determined from the local data base, and the resulting `adjusted? regression models can then be used to predict storm-runoff quality at unmonitored sites. The response variable in the regression analyses is the observed load or mean concentration of a constituent in storm runoff for a single storm. The set of explanatory variables used in the regression analyses is different for each MAP, but always includes the predicted value of load or mean concentration from a regional regression model. The four MAP?s examined in this study were: single-factor regression against the regional model prediction, P, (termed MAP-lF-P), regression against P,, (termed MAP-R-P), regression against P, and additional local variables (termed MAP-R-P+nV), and a weighted combination of P, and a local-regression prediction (termed MAP-W). The procedures were tested by means of split-sample analysis, using data from three cities included in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program: Denver, Colorado; Bellevue, Washington; and Knoxville, Tennessee. The MAP that provided the greatest predictive accuracy for the verification data set differed among the three test data bases and among model types (MAP-W for Denver and Knoxville, MAP-lF-P and MAP-R-P for Bellevue load models, and MAP-R-P+nV for Bellevue concentration models) and, in many cases, was not clearly indicated by the values of standard error of estimate for the calibration data set. A scheme to guide MAP selection, based on exploratory data analysis of the calibration data set, is presented and tested. The MAP?s were tested for sensitivity to the size of a calibration data set. As expected, predictive accuracy of all MAP?s for

  10. Patient No-Show Predictive Model Development using Multiple Data Sources for an Effective Overbooking Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Patient no-shows in outpatient delivery systems remain problematic. The negative impacts include underutilized medical resources, increased healthcare costs, decreased access to care, and reduced clinic efficiency and provider productivity. Objective To develop an evidence-based predictive model for patient no-shows, and thus improve overbooking approaches in outpatient settings to reduce the negative impact of no-shows. Methods Ten years of retrospective data were extracted from a scheduling system and an electronic health record system from a single general pediatrics clinic, consisting of 7,988 distinct patients and 104,799 visits along with variables regarding appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the impact of variables on show or no-show status. Logistic regression was used to develop a no-show predictive model, which was then used to construct an algorithm to determine the no-show threshold that calculates a predicted show/no-show status. This approach aims to overbook an appointment where a scheduled patient is predicted to be a no-show. The approach was compared with two commonly-used overbooking approaches to demonstrate the effectiveness in terms of patient wait time, physician idle time, overtime and total cost. Results From the training dataset, the optimal error rate is 10.6% with a no-show threshold being 0.74. This threshold successfully predicts the validation dataset with an error rate of 13.9%. The proposed overbooking approach demonstrated a significant reduction of at least 6% on patient waiting, 27% on overtime, and 3% on total costs compared to other common flat-overbooking methods. Conclusions This paper demonstrates an alternative way to accommodate overbooking, accounting for the prediction of an individual patient’s show/no-show status. The predictive no-show model leads to a dynamic overbooking policy that could improve patient

  11. An interactive, educational model for insulin dosage and dietary adjustment in type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, E. D.; Deutsch, T.

    1992-01-01

    Joe Daniels is a 41 year old, 76kg male, insulin-treated diabetic patient who was diagnosed as being diabetic in 1972, at the age of 22. Joe recently found that he was having hypoglycaemic symptoms. Using self-monitoring blood glucose equipment glycaemic levels below 3.0 mmol/l were recorded at least once a week while hyperglycaemic readings (> 16 mmol/l) were observed 2-3 times per week. Joe came into hospital to have his glycaemic control improved as doctors were concerned about the risks of him suffering a serious hypoglycaemic attack. Using some of the data collected by Joe while in hospital we will demonstrate how a computer model of glucose-insulin interaction in type I diabetes can be used interactively to teach diabetic patients about their diabetes and educate them to adjust their own insulin injections and diet. PMID:1482868

  12. UPDATING THE FREIGHT TRUCK STOCK ADJUSTMENT MODEL: 1997 VEHICLE INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-11-16

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Freight Truck Stock Adjustment Model (FTSAM) was created in 1995 relying heavily on input data from the 1992 Economic Census, Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS). The FTSAM is part of the NEMS Transportation Sector Model, which provides baseline energy projections and analyzes the impacts of various technology scenarios on consumption, efficiency, and carbon emissions. The base data for the FTSAM can be updated every five years as new Economic Census information is released. Because of expertise in using the TIUS database, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked to assist the EIA when the new Economic Census data were available. ORNL provided the necessary base data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) and other sources to update the FTSAM. The next Economic Census will be in the year 2002. When those data become available, the EIA will again want to update the FTSAM using the VIUS. This report, which details the methodology of estimating and extracting data from the 1997 VIUS Microdata File, should be used as a guide for generating the data from the next VIUS so that the new data will be as compatible as possible with the data in the model.

  13. Deterministic model of earthquake clustering shows reduced stress drops for nearby aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Bruce E.; Richards-Dinger, Keith; Dieterich, James H.

    2015-11-01

    While a number of viable physical mechanisms have been offered to explain the temporal clustering of aftershocks, the spatial clustering of aftershocks, in particular the concentrated productivity of aftershocks very near the mainshock rupture area, has been difficult to reproduce with physical models. Here we present a new deterministic physical model capable of reproducing both the spatial and temporal clustering. We apply this new model to a longstanding puzzling question raised by ground motion observations, which suggest that nearby aftershocks show reduced ground motions relative to similar magnitude mainshocks. In the model, the physical basis for these observations is reduced stress drops for nearby aftershocks compared to similar magnitude mainshocks. These reduced stress drops are due to nearby aftershocks rerupturing incompletely healed parts of the fault which ruptured in the mainshock.

  14. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment Model: A Structural Equation Model Examination of Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Susan E.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain…

  15. A new glacial isostatic adjustment model of the Innuitian Ice Sheet, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Dyke, A. S.

    2015-07-01

    A reconstruction of the Innuitian Ice Sheet (IIS) is developed that incorporates first-order constraints on its spatial extent and history as suggested by regional glacial geology studies. Glacial isostatic adjustment modelling of this ice sheet provides relative sea-level predictions that are in good agreement with measurements of post-glacial sea-level change at 18 locations. The results indicate peak thicknesses of the Innuitian Ice Sheet of approximately 1600 m, up to 400 m thicker than the minimum peak thicknesses estimated from glacial geology studies, but between approximately 1000 to 1500 m thinner than the peak thicknesses present in previous GIA models. The thickness history of the best-fit Innuitian Ice Sheet model developed here, termed SJD15, differs from the ICE-5G reconstruction and provides an improved fit to sea-level measurements from the lowland sector of the ice sheet. Both models provide a similar fit to relative sea-level measurements from the alpine sector. The vertical crustal motion predictions of the best-fit IIS model are in general agreement with limited GPS observations, after correction for a significant elastic crustal response to present-day ice mass change. The new model provides approximately 2.7 m equivalent contribution to global sea-level rise, an increase of +0.6 m compared to the Innuitian portion of ICE-5G. SJD15 is qualitatively more similar to the recent ICE-6G ice sheet reconstruction, which appears to also include more spatially extensive ice cover in the Innuitian region than ICE-5G.

  16. Optimal Strategy for the Integrated Vendor-buyer Inventory Model with Fuzzy Annual Demand and Fuzzy Adjustable Production Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M. F.

    In this research we present a stylized model to find the optimal strategy for integrated vendor-buyer inventory model with fuzzy annual demand and fuzzy adjustable production rate. This model with such consideration is based on the total cost optimization under a common stock strategy. However, the supposition of known annual demand and adjustable production rate in most related publications may not be realistic. This paper proposes the triangular fuzzy number of annual demand and adjustable production rate and then employs the signed distance, to find the estimation of the common total cost in the fuzzy sense and derives the corresponding optimal buyer`s quantity consequently and the integer number of lots in which the items are delivered from the vendor to the purchaser. A numerical example is provided and the results of fuzzy and crisp models are compared.

  17. Integration of Chang'E-2 imagery and LRO laser altimeter data with a combined block adjustment for precision lunar topographic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Hu, Han; Guo, Jian

    2014-04-01

    Lunar topographic information is essential for lunar scientific investigations and exploration missions. Lunar orbiter imagery and laser altimeter data are two major data sources for lunar topographic modeling. Most previous studies have processed the imagery and laser altimeter data separately for lunar topographic modeling, and there are usually inconsistencies between the derived lunar topographic models. This paper presents a novel combined block adjustment approach to integrate multiple strips of the Chinese Chang'E-2 imagery and NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data for precision lunar topographic modeling. The participants of the combined block adjustment include the orientation parameters of the Chang'E-2 images, the intra-strip tie points derived from the Chang'E-2 stereo images of the same orbit, the inter-strip tie points derived from the overlapping area of two neighbor Chang'E-2 image strips, and the LOLA points. Two constraints are incorporated into the combined block adjustment including a local surface constraint and an orbit height constraint, which are specifically designed to remedy the large inconsistencies between the Chang'E-2 and LOLA data sets. The output of the combined block adjustment is the improved orientation parameters of the Chang'E-2 images and ground coordinates of the LOLA points, from which precision lunar topographic models can be generated. The performance of the developed approach was evaluated using the Chang'E-2 imagery and LOLA data in the Sinus Iridum area and the Apollo 15 landing area. The experimental results revealed that the mean absolute image residuals between the Chang'E-2 image strips were drastically reduced from tens of pixels before the adjustment to sub-pixel level after adjustment. Digital elevation models (DEMs) with 20 m resolution were generated using the Chang'E-2 imagery after the combined block adjustment. Comparison of the Chang'E-2 DEM with the LOLA DEM showed a good

  18. ESTIMATION OF EMISSION ADJUSTMENTS FROM THE APPLICATION OF FOUR-DIMENSIONAL DATA ASSIMILATION TO PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR QUALITY MODELING. (R826372)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four-dimensional data assimilation applied to photochemical air quality modeling is used to suggest adjustments to the emissions inventory of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. In this approach, a three-dimensional air quality model, coupled with direct sensitivity analys...

  19. A Class of Elementary Particle Models Without Any Adjustable Real Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2011-12-01

    Conventional particle theories such as the Standard Model have a number of freely adjustable coupling constants and mass parameters, depending on the symmetry algebra of the local gauge group and the representations chosen for the spinor and scalar fields. There seems to be no physical principle to determine these parameters as long as they stay within certain domains dictated by the renormalization group. Here however, reasons are given to demand that, when gravity is coupled to the system, local conformal invariance should be a spontaneously broken exact symmetry. The argument has to do with the requirement that black holes obey a complementarity principle relating ingoing observers to outside observers, or equivalently, initial states to final states. This condition fixes all parameters, including masses and the cosmological constant. We suspect that only examples can be found where these are all of order one in Planck units, but the values depend on the algebra chosen. This paper combines findings reported in two previous preprints (G. 't Hooft in arXiv:1009.0669 [gr-qc], 2010; arXiv:1011.0061 [gr-qc], 2010) and puts these in a clearer perspective by shifting the emphasis towards the implications for particle models.

  20. Adjusting multistate capture-recapture models for misclassification bias: manatee breeding proportions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Matrix population models are important tools for research and management of populations. Estimating the parameters of these models is an important step in applying them to real populations. Multistate capture-recapture methods have provided a useful means for estimating survival and parameters of transition between locations or life history states but have mostly relied on the assumption that the state occupied by each detected animal is known with certainty. Nevertheless, in some cases animals can be misclassified. Using multiple capture sessions within each period of interest, we developed a method that adjusts estimates of transition probabilities for bias due to misclassification. We applied this method to 10 years of sighting data for a population of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in order to estimate the annual probability of transition from nonbreeding to breeding status. Some sighted females were unequivocally classified as breeders because they were clearly accompanied by a first-year calf. The remainder were classified, sometimes erroneously, as nonbreeders because an attendant first-year calf was not observed or was classified as more than one year old. We estimated a conditional breeding probability of 0.31 + 0.04 (estimate + 1 SE) when we ignored misclassification bias, and 0.61 + 0.09 when we accounted for misclassification.

  1. A Simple Experimentally Based Model Using Proprioceptive Regulation of Motor Primitives Captures Adjusted Trajectory Formation in Spinal Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Kargo, William J.; Ramakrishnan, Arun; Hart, Corey B.; Rome, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal circuits may organize trajectories using pattern generators and synergies. In frogs, prior work supports fixed-duration pulses of fixed composition synergies, forming primitives. In wiping behaviors, spinal frogs adjust their motor activity according to the starting limb position and generate fairly straight and accurate isochronous trajectories across the workspace. To test whether a compact description using primitives modulated by proprioceptive feedback could reproduce such trajectory formation, we built a biomechanical model based on physiological data. We recorded from hindlimb muscle spindles to evaluate possible proprioceptive input. As movement was initiated, early skeletofusimotor activity enhanced many muscle spindles firing rates. Before movement began, a rapid estimate of the limb position from simple combinations of spindle rates was possible. Three primitives were used in the model with muscle compositions based on those observed in frogs. Our simulations showed that simple gain and phase shifts of primitives based on published feedback mechanisms could generate accurate isochronous trajectories and motor patterns that matched those observed. Although on-line feedback effects were omitted from the model after movement onset, our primitive-based model reproduced the wiping behavior across a range of starting positions. Without modifications from proprioceptive feedback, the model behaviors missed the target in a manner similar to that in deafferented frogs. These data show how early proprioception might be used to make a simple estimate initial limb state and to implicitly plan a movement using observed spinal motor primitives. Simulations showed that choice of synergy composition played a role in this simplicity. To generate froglike trajectories, a hip flexor synergy without sartorius required motor patterns with more proprioceptive knee flexor control than did patterns built with a more natural synergy including sartorius. Such synergy

  2. Enhancing multiple-point geostatistical modeling: 1. Graph theory and pattern adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmasebi, Pejman; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, higher-order geostatistical methods have been used for modeling of a wide variety of large-scale porous media, such as groundwater aquifers and oil reservoirs. Their popularity stems from their ability to account for qualitative data and the great flexibility that they offer for conditioning the models to hard (quantitative) data, which endow them with the capability for generating realistic realizations of porous formations with very complex channels, as well as features that are mainly a barrier to fluid flow. One group of such models consists of pattern-based methods that use a set of data points for generating stochastic realizations by which the large-scale structure and highly-connected features are reproduced accurately. The cross correlation-based simulation (CCSIM) algorithm, proposed previously by the authors, is a member of this group that has been shown to be capable of simulating multimillion cell models in a matter of a few CPU seconds. The method is, however, sensitive to pattern's specifications, such as boundaries and the number of replicates. In this paper the original CCSIM algorithm is reconsidered and two significant improvements are proposed for accurately reproducing large-scale patterns of heterogeneities in porous media. First, an effective boundary-correction method based on the graph theory is presented by which one identifies the optimal cutting path/surface for removing the patchiness and discontinuities in the realization of a porous medium. Next, a new pattern adjustment method is proposed that automatically transfers the features in a pattern to one that seamlessly matches the surrounding patterns. The original CCSIM algorithm is then combined with the two methods and is tested using various complex two- and three-dimensional examples. It should, however, be emphasized that the methods that we propose in this paper are applicable to other pattern-based geostatistical simulation methods.

  3. Modeling of Turbulent Boundary Layer Surface Pressure Fluctuation Auto and Cross Spectra - Verification and Adjustments Based on TU-144LL Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackl, Robert; Weston, Adam

    2005-01-01

    The literature on turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations provides several empirical models which were compared to the measured TU-144 data. The Efimtsov model showed the best agreement. Adjustments were made to improve its agreement further, consisting of the addition of a broad band peak in the mid frequencies, and a minor modification to the high frequency rolloff. The adjusted Efimtsov predicted and measured results are compared for both subsonic and supersonic flight conditions. Measurements in the forward and middle portions of the fuselage have better agreement with the model than those from the aft portion. For High Speed Civil Transport supersonic cruise, interior levels predicted by use of this model are expected to increase by 1-3 dB due to the adjustments to the Efimtsov model. The space-time cross-correlations and cross-spectra of the fluctuating surface pressure were also investigated. This analysis is an important ingredient in structural acoustic models of aircraft interior noise. Once again the measured data were compared to the predicted levels from the Efimtsov model.

  4. Targeting FGFR2 with alofanib (RPT835) shows potent activity in tumour models.

    PubMed

    Tsimafeyeu, Ilya; Ludes-Meyers, John; Stepanova, Evgenia; Daeyaert, Frits; Kochenkov, Dmitry; Joose, Jean-Baptiste; Solomko, Eliso; Van Akene, Koen; Peretolchina, Nina; Yin, Wei; Ryabaya, Oxana; Byakhov, Mikhail; Tjulandin, Sergei

    2016-07-01

    Alofanib (RPT835) is a novel selective allosteric inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). We showed previously that alofanib could bind to the extracellular domain of FGFR2 and has an inhibitory effect on FGF2-induced phoshphorylation of FRS2α. In the present study, we further showed that alofanib inhibited phosphorylation of FRS2α with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 7 and 9 nmol/l in cancer cells expressing different FGFR2 isoforms. In a panel of four cell lines representing several tumour types (triple-negative breast cancer, melanoma, and ovarian cancer), alofanib inhibited FGF-mediated proliferation with 50% growth inhibition (GI50) values of 16-370 nmol/l. Alofanib dose dependently inhibited the proliferation and migration of human and mouse endothelial cells (GI50 11-58 nmol/l) compared with brivanib and bevacizumab. Treatment with alofanib ablated experimental FGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. In a FGFR-driven human tumour xenograft model, oral administration of alofanib was well tolerated and resulted in potent antitumour activity. Importantly, alofanib was effective in FGFR2-expressing models. These results show that alofanib is a potent FGFR2 inhibitor and provide strong rationale for its evaluation in patients with FGFR2-driven cancers. PMID:27136102

  5. Modelling Transmission of Vector-Borne Pathogens Shows Complex Dynamics When Vector Feeding Sites Are Limited

    PubMed Central

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Stone, Lewi; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Blaustein, Leon

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between species richness and the prevalence of vector-borne disease has been widely studied with a range of outcomes. Increasing the number of host species for a pathogen may decrease infection prevalence (dilution effect), increase it (amplification), or have no effect. We derive a general model, and a specific implementation, which show that when the number of vector feeding sites on each host is limiting, the effects on pathogen dynamics of host population size are more complex than previously thought. The model examines vector-borne disease in the presence of different host species that are either competent or incompetent (i.e. that cannot transmit the pathogen to vectors) as reservoirs for the pathogen. With a single host species present, the basic reproduction ratio R0 is a non-monotonic function of the population size of host individuals (H), i.e. a value exists that maximises R0. Surprisingly, if a reduction in host population size may actually increase R0. Extending this model to a two-host species system, incompetent individuals from the second host species can alter the value of which may reverse the effect on pathogen prevalence of host population reduction. We argue that when vector-feeding sites on hosts are limiting, the net effect of increasing host diversity might not be correctly predicted using simple frequency-dependent epidemiological models. PMID:22590597

  6. Joint Alignment of Underwater and Above-The Photogrammetric 3d Models by Independent Models Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, F.; Nocerino, E.; Troisi, S.; Remondino, F.

    2015-04-01

    The surveying and 3D modelling of objects that extend both below and above the water level, such as ships, harbour structures, offshore platforms, are still an open issue. Commonly, a combined and simultaneous survey is the adopted solution, with acoustic/optical sensors respectively in underwater and in air (most common) or optical/optical sensors both below and above the water level. In both cases, the system must be calibrated and a ship is to be used and properly equipped with also a navigation system for the alignment of sequential 3D point clouds. Such a system is usually highly expensive and has been proved to work with still structures. On the other hand for free floating objects it does not provide a very practical solution. In this contribution, a flexible, low-cost alternative for surveying floating objects is presented. The method is essentially based on photogrammetry, employed for surveying and modelling both the emerged and submerged parts of the object. Special targets, named Orientation Devices, are specifically designed and adopted for the successive alignment of the two photogrammetric models (underwater and in air). A typical scenario where the proposed procedure can be particularly suitable and effective is the case of a ship after an accident whose damaged part is underwater and necessitate to be measured (Figure 1). The details of the mathematical procedure are provided in the paper, together with a critical explanation of the results obtained from the adoption of the method for the survey of a small pleasure boat in floating condition.

  7. Glacial isostatic adjustment on 3-D Earth models: a finite-volume formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latychev, Konstantin; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Tromp, Jeroen; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Christara, Christina C.

    2005-05-01

    We describe and present results from a finite-volume (FV) parallel computer code for forward modelling the Maxwell viscoelastic response of a 3-D, self-gravitating, elastically compressible Earth to an arbitrary surface load. We implement a conservative, control volume discretization of the governing equations using a tetrahedral grid in Cartesian geometry and a low-order, linear interpolation. The basic starting grid honours all major radial discontinuities in the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM), and the models are permitted arbitrary spatial variations in viscosity and elastic parameters. These variations may be either continuous or discontinuous at a set of grid nodes forming a 3-D surface within the (regional or global) modelling domain. In the second part of the paper, we adopt the FV methodology and a spherically symmetric Earth model to generate a suite of predictions sampling a broad class of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) data types (3-D crustal motions, long-wavelength gravity anomalies). These calculations, based on either a simple disc load history or a global Late Pleistocene ice load reconstruction (ICE-3G), are benchmarked against predictions generated using the traditional normal-mode approach to GIA. The detailed comparison provides a guide for future analyses (e.g. what grid resolution is required to obtain a specific accuracy?) and it indicates that discrepancies in predictions of 3-D crustal velocities less than 0.1 mm yr-1 are generally obtainable for global grids with ~3 × 106 nodes; however, grids of higher resolution are required to predict large-amplitude (>1 cm yr-1) radial velocities in zones of peak post-glacial uplift (e.g. James bay) to the same level of absolute accuracy. We conclude the paper with a first application of the new formulation to a 3-D problem. Specifically, we consider the impact of mantle viscosity heterogeneity on predictions of present-day 3-D crustal motions in North America. In these tests, the

  8. Assessment of an adjustment factor to model radar range dependent error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastianelli, S.; Russo, F.; Napolitano, F.; Baldini, L.

    2012-09-01

    Quantitative radar precipitation estimates are affected by errors determined by many causes such as radar miscalibration, range degradation, attenuation, ground clutter, variability of Z-R relation, variability of drop size distribution, vertical air motion, anomalous propagation and beam-blocking. Range degradation (including beam broadening and sampling of precipitation at an increasing altitude)and signal attenuation, determine a range dependent behavior of error. The aim of this work is to model the range-dependent error through an adjustment factor derived from the G/R ratio trend against the range, where G and R are the corresponding rain gauge and radar rainfall amounts computed at each rain gauge location. Since range degradation and signal attenuation effects are negligible close to the radar, resultsshowthatwithin 40 km from radar the overall range error is independent of the distance from Polar 55C and no range-correction is needed. Nevertheless, up to this distance, the G/R ratiocan showa concave trend with the range, which is due to the melting layer interception by the radar beam during stratiform events.

  9. Comparison of Two Foreign Body Retrieval Devices with Adjustable Loops in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Konya, Andras

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to compare two similar foreign body retrieval devices, the Texan{sup TM} (TX) and the Texan LONGhorn{sup TM} (TX-LG), in a swine model. Both devices feature a {<=}30-mm adjustable loop. Capture times and total procedure times for retrieving foreign bodies from the infrarenal aorta, inferior vena cava, and stomach were compared. All attempts with both devices (TX, n = 15; TX-LG, n = 14) were successful. Foreign bodies in the vasculature were captured quickly using both devices (mean {+-} SD, 88 {+-} 106 sec for TX vs 67 {+-} 42 sec for TX-LG) with no significant difference between them. The TX-LG, however, allowed significantly better capture times than the TX in the stomach (p = 0.022), Overall, capture times for the TX-LG were significantly better than for the TX (p = 0.029). There was no significant difference between the total procedure times in any anatomic region. TX-LG performed significantly better than the TX in the stomach and therefore overall. The better torque control and maneuverability of TX-LG resulted in better performance in large anatomic spaces.

  10. An assessment of the ICE6G_C (VM5A) glacial isostatic adjustment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Anthony; Tregoning, Paul; Dehecq, Amaury

    2016-04-01

    The recent release of the next-generation global ice history model, ICE6G_C(VM5a) [Peltier et al., 2015, Argus et al. 2014] is likely to be of interest to a wide range of disciplines including oceanography (sea level studies), space gravity (mass balance studies), glaciology and, of course, geodynamics (Earth rheology studies). In this presentation I will assess some aspects of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model and the accompanying published data sets. I will demonstrate that the published present-day radial uplift rates are too high along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula (by ˜8.6 mm/yr) and beneath the Ross Ice Shelf (by ˜5 mm/yr). Further, the published spherical harmonic coefficients - which are meant to represent the dimensionless present-day changes due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) - will be shown to contain excessive power for degree ≥ 90, to be physically implausible and to not represent accurately the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model. The excessive power in the high degree terms produces erroneous uplift rates when the empirical relationship of Purcell et al. [2011] is applied but, when correct Stokes' coefficients are used, the empirical relationship will be shown to produce excellent agreement with the fully rigorous computation of the radial velocity field, subject to the caveats first noted by Purcell et al. [2011]. Finally, a global radial velocity field for the present-day GIA signal, and corresponding Stoke's coefficients will be presented for the ICE6GC ice model history using the VM5a rheology model. These results have been obtained using the ANU group's CALSEA software package and can be used to correct satellite altimetry observations for GIA over oceans and by the space gravity community to separate GIA and present-day mass balance change signals without any of the shortcomings of the previously published data-sets. We denote the new data sets ICE6G_ANU.

  11. An explanatory model of adjustment to type I diabetes based on attachment, coping, and self-regulation theories.

    PubMed

    Bazzazian, S; Besharat, M A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a model of adjustment to type I diabetes. Three hundred young adults (172 females and 128 males) with type I diabetes were asked to complete the Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ), Task-oriented subscale of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), D-39, and well-being subscale of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI). HbA1c was obtained from laboratory examination. Results from structural equation analysis partly supported the hypothesized model. Secure and avoidant attachment styles were found to have effects on illness perception, ambivalent attachment style did not have significant effect on illness perception. Three attachment styles had significant effect on task-oriented coping strategy. Avoidant attachment had negative direct effect on adjustment too. Regression effects of illness perception and task-oriented coping strategy on adjustment were positive. Therefore, positive illness perception and more usage of task-oriented coping strategy predict better adjustment to diabetes. So, the results confirmed the theoretical bases and empirical evidence of effectiveness of attachment styles in adjustment to chronic disease and can be helpful in devising preventive policies, determining high-risk maladjusted patients, and planning special psychological treatment. PMID:21678193

  12. The performance of automated case-mix adjustment regression model building methods in a health outcome prediction setting.

    PubMed

    Jen, Min-Hua; Bottle, Alex; Kirkwood, Graham; Johnston, Ron; Aylin, Paul

    2011-09-01

    We have previously described a system for monitoring a number of healthcare outcomes using case-mix adjustment models. It is desirable to automate the model fitting process in such a system if monitoring covers a large number of outcome measures or subgroup analyses. Our aim was to compare the performance of three different variable selection strategies: "manual", "automated" backward elimination and re-categorisation, and including all variables at once, irrespective of their apparent importance, with automated re-categorisation. Logistic regression models for predicting in-hospital mortality and emergency readmission within 28 days were fitted to an administrative database for 78 diagnosis groups and 126 procedures from 1996 to 2006 for National Health Services hospital trusts in England. The performance of models was assessed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) c statistics, (measuring discrimination) and Brier score (assessing the average of the predictive accuracy). Overall, discrimination was similar for diagnoses and procedures and consistently better for mortality than for emergency readmission. Brier scores were generally low overall (showing higher accuracy) and were lower for procedures than diagnoses, with a few exceptions for emergency readmission within 28 days. Among the three variable selection strategies, the automated procedure had similar performance to the manual method in almost all cases except low-risk groups with few outcome events. For the rapid generation of multiple case-mix models we suggest applying automated modelling to reduce the time required, in particular when examining different outcomes of large numbers of procedures and diseases in routinely collected administrative health data. PMID:21556848

  13. A Genetic Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease Shows Involuntary Movements and Increased Postsynaptic Sensitivity to Apomorphine.

    PubMed

    Brehm, N; Bez, F; Carlsson, T; Kern, B; Gispert, S; Auburger, G; Cenci, M A

    2015-12-01

    Alpha-synuclein (SNCA) protein aggregation plays a causal role in Parkinson's disease (PD). The SNCA protein modulates neurotransmission via the SNAP receptor (SNARE) complex assembly and presynaptic vesicle trafficking. The striatal presynaptic dopamine deficit is alleviated by treatment with levodopa (L-DOPA), but postsynaptic plastic changes induced by this treatment lead to a development of involuntary movements (dyskinesia). While this process is currently modeled in rodents harboring neurotoxin-induced lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway, we have here explored the postsynaptic supersensitivity of dopamine receptor-mediated signaling in a genetic mouse model of early PD. To this end, we used mice with prion promoter-driven overexpression of A53T-SNCA in the nigrostriatal and corticostriatal projections. At a symptomatic age (18 months), mice were challenged with apomorphine (5 mg/kg s.c.) and examined using both behavioral and molecular assays. After the administration of apomorphine, A53T-transgenic mice showed more severe stereotypic and dystonic movements in comparison with wild-type controls. Molecular markers of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, and Fos messenger RNA (mRNA), were examined in striatal tissue at 30 and 100 min after apomorphine injection. At 30 min, wild-type and transgenic mice showed a similar induction of phosphorylated ERK1/2, Dusp1, and Dusp6 mRNA (two MAPK phosphatases). At the same time point, Fos mRNA was induced more strongly in mutant mice than in wild-type controls. At 100 min after apomorphine treatment, the induction of both Fos, Dusp1, and Dusp6 mRNA was significantly larger in mutant mice than wild-type controls. At this time point, apomorphine caused a reduction in phospho-ERK1/2 levels specifically in the transgenic mice. Our results document for the first time a disturbance of ERK1/2 signaling regulation associated with apomorphine-induced involuntary movements

  14. DaMoScope and its internet graphics for the visual control of adjusting mathematical models describing experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, V. I.; Ezhela, V. V.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Tkachenko, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    The experience of using the dynamic atlas of the experimental data and mathematical models of their description in the problems of adjusting parametric models of observable values depending on kinematic variables is presented. The functional possibilities of an image of a large number of experimental data and the models describing them are shown by examples of data and models of observable values determined by the amplitudes of elastic scattering of hadrons. The Internet implementation of an interactive tool DaMoScope and its interface with the experimental data and codes of adjusted parametric models with the parameters of the best description of data are schematically shown. The DaMoScope codes are freely available.

  15. DaMoScope and its internet graphics for the visual control of adjusting mathematical models describing experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Belousov, V. I.; Ezhela, V. V.; Kuyanov, Yu. V. Tkachenko, N. P.

    2015-12-15

    The experience of using the dynamic atlas of the experimental data and mathematical models of their description in the problems of adjusting parametric models of observable values depending on kinematic variables is presented. The functional possibilities of an image of a large number of experimental data and the models describing them are shown by examples of data and models of observable values determined by the amplitudes of elastic scattering of hadrons. The Internet implementation of an interactive tool DaMoScope and its interface with the experimental data and codes of adjusted parametric models with the parameters of the best description of data are schematically shown. The DaMoScope codes are freely available.

  16. Rejection, Feeling Bad, and Being Hurt: Using Multilevel Modeling to Clarify the Link between Peer Group Aggression and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Gest, Scott D.; Loken, Eric; Welsh, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    The association between affiliating with aggressive peers and behavioral, social and psychological adjustment was examined. Students initially in 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade (N = 427) were followed biannually through 7th grade. Students' peer-nominated groups were identified. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the independent contributions of…

  17. The Effectiveness of the Strength-Centered Career Adjustment Model for Dual-Career Women in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Chen; Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the effectiveness of a Strength-Centered Career Adjustment Model for dual-career women (N = 28). Fourteen women in the experimental group received strength-centered career counseling for 6 to 8 sessions; the 14 women in the control group received test services in 1 to 2 sessions. All participants completed the Personal…

  18. Internal Working Models and Adjustment of Physically Abused Children: The Mediating Role of Self-Regulatory Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Amy L.; Haskett, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abused children's internal working models (IWM) of relationships are known to relate to their socioemotional adjustment, but mechanisms through which negative representations increase vulnerability to maladjustment have not been explored. We sought to expand the understanding of individual differences in IWM of abused children and…

  19. Etoposide incorporated into camel milk phospholipids liposomes shows increased activity against fibrosarcoma in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Aljarbou, Ahmad N; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Alsharidah, Mansour S; Khan, Masood A

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs. PMID:25821817

  20. Two Analogues of Fenarimol Show Curative Activity in an Experimental Model of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is an increasing threat to global health. Available medicines were introduced over 40 years ago, have undesirable side effects, and give equivocal results of cure in the chronic stage of the disease. We report the development of two compounds, 6 and (S)-7, with PCR-confirmed curative activity in a mouse model of established T. cruzi infection after once daily oral dosing for 20 days at 20 mg/kg 6 and 10 mg/kg (S)-7. Compounds 6 and (S)-7 have potent in vitro activity, are noncytotoxic, show no adverse effects in vivo following repeat dosing, are prepared by a short synthetic route, and have druglike properties suitable for preclinical development. PMID:24304150

  1. A nude mouse model of hypertrophic scar shows morphologic and histologic characteristics of human hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Momtazi, Moein; Kwan, Peter; Ding, Jie; Anderson, Colin C; Honardoust, Dariush; Goekjian, Serge; Tredget, Edward E

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HSc) is a fibroproliferative disorder that occurs following deep dermal injury. Lack of a relevant animal model is one barrier toward better understanding its pathophysiology. Our objective is to demonstrate that grafting split-thickness human skin onto nude mice results in survival of engrafted human skin and murine scars that are morphologically, histologically, and immunohistochemically consistent with human HSc. Twenty nude mice were xenografted with split-thickness human skin. Animals were euthanized at 30, 60, 120, and 180 days postoperatively. Eighteen controls were autografted with full-thickness nude mouse skin and euthanized at 30 and 60 days postoperatively. Scar biopsies were harvested at each time point. Blinded scar assessment was performed using a modified Manchester Scar Scale. Histologic analysis included hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, toluidine blue, and picrosirius red staining. Immunohistochemistry included anti-human human leukocyte antigen-ABC, α-smooth muscle actin, decorin, and biglycan staining. Xenografted mice developed red, shiny, elevated scars similar to human HSc and supported by blinded scar assessment. Autograft controls appeared morphologically and histologically similar to normal skin. Xenografts survived up to 180 days and showed increased thickness, loss of hair follicles, adnexal structures and rete pegs, hypercellularity, whorled collagen fibers parallel to the surface, myofibroblasts, decreased decorin and increased biglycan expression, and increased mast cell density. Grafting split-thickness human skin onto nude mice results in persistent scars that show morphologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical consistency with human HSc. Therefore, this model provides a promising technique to study HSc formation and to test novel treatment options. PMID:23126488

  2. A systematic approach to identify the sources of tropical SST errors in coupled models using the adjustment of initialised experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannière, Benoît; Guilyardi, Eric; Toniazzo, Thomas; Madec, Gurvan; Woolnough, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the sources of systematic errors in climate models is challenging because of coupled feedbacks and errors compensation. The developing seamless approach proposes that the identification and the correction of short term climate model errors have the potential to improve the modeled climate on longer time scales. In previous studies, initialised atmospheric simulations of a few days have been used to compare fast physics processes (convection, cloud processes) among models. The present study explores how initialised seasonal to decadal hindcasts (re-forecasts) relate transient week-to-month errors of the ocean and atmospheric components to the coupled model long-term pervasive SST errors. A protocol is designed to attribute the SST biases to the source processes. It includes five steps: (1) identify and describe biases in a coupled stabilized simulation, (2) determine the time scale of the advent of the bias and its propagation, (3) find the geographical origin of the bias, (4) evaluate the degree of coupling in the development of the bias, (5) find the field responsible for the bias. This strategy has been implemented with a set of experiments based on the initial adjustment of initialised simulations and exploring various degrees of coupling. In particular, hindcasts give the time scale of biases advent, regionally restored experiments show the geographical origin and ocean-only simulations isolate the field responsible for the bias and evaluate the degree of coupling in the bias development. This strategy is applied to four prominent SST biases of the IPSLCM5A-LR coupled model in the tropical Pacific, that are largely shared by other coupled models, including the Southeast Pacific warm bias and the equatorial cold tongue bias. Using the proposed protocol, we demonstrate that the East Pacific warm bias appears in a few months and is caused by a lack of upwelling due to too weak meridional coastal winds off Peru. The cold equatorial bias, which

  3. Antiparasitic mebendazole shows survival benefit in 2 preclinical models of glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ren-Yuan; Staedtke, Verena; Aprhys, Colette M.; Gallia, Gary L.; Riggins, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain cancer, and despite treatment advances, patient prognosis remains poor. During routine animal studies, we serendipitously observed that fenbendazole, a benzimidazole antihelminthic used to treat pinworm infection, inhibited brain tumor engraftment. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments with benzimidazoles identified mebendazole as the more promising drug for GBM therapy. In GBM cell lines, mebendazole displayed cytotoxicity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 µM. Mebendazole disrupted microtubule formation in GBM cells, and in vitro activity was correlated with reduced tubulin polymerization. Subsequently, we showed that mebendazole significantly extended mean survival up to 63% in syngeneic and xenograft orthotopic mouse glioma models. Mebendazole has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for parasitic infections, has a long track-record of safe human use, and was effective in our animal models with doses documented as safe in humans. Our findings indicate that mebendazole is a possible novel anti-brain tumor therapeutic that could be further tested in clinical trials. PMID:21764822

  4. Citizens' Perceptions of Flood Hazard Adjustments: An Application of the Protective Action Decision Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Although research indicates that adoption of flood preparations among Europeans is low, only a few studies have attempted to explain citizens' preparedness behavior. This article applies the Protective Action Decision Model (PADM) to explain flood preparedness intentions in the Netherlands. Survey data ("N" = 1,115) showed that…

  5. Development and Validation of a Brief Version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale With a Nonparametric Item Analysis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Stephane; Valois, Pierre; Lussier, Yvan

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the current research was to develop an abbreviated form of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) with nonparametric item response theory. The authors conducted 5 studies, with a total participation of 8,256 married or cohabiting individuals. Results showed that the item characteristic curves behaved in a monotonically increasing…

  6. A 3D Model of Double-Helical DNA Showing Variable Chemical Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan G.

    2005-01-01

    Since the first DNA model was created approximately 50 years ago using molecular models, students and teachers have been building simplified DNA models from various practical materials. A 3D double-helical DNA model, made by placing beads on a wire and stringing beads through holes in plastic canvas, is described. Suggestions are given to enhance…

  7. Progesterone Treatment Shows Benefit in Female Rats in a Pediatric Model of Controlled Cortical Impact Injury

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, Rastafa I.; Peterson, Bethany L.; Stein, Donald G.; Sayeed, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We recently showed that progesterone treatment can reduce lesion size and behavioral deficits after moderate-to-severe bilateral injury to the medial prefrontal cortex in immature male rats. Whether there are important sex differences in response to injury and progesterone treatment in very young subjects has not been given sufficient attention. Here we investigated progesterone’s effects in the same model of brain injury but with pre-pubescent females. Methods Twenty-eight-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats received sham (n = 14) or controlled cortical impact (CCI) (n = 21) injury, were given progesterone (8 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID) 1–7, and underwent behavioral testing from PID 9–27. Brains were evaluated for lesion size at PID 28. Results Lesion size in vehicle-treated female rats with CCI injury was smaller than that previously reported for similarly treated age-matched male rats. Treatment with progesterone reduced the effect of CCI on extent of damage and behavioral deficits. Conclusion Pre-pubescent female rats with midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex have reduced morphological and functional deficits following progesterone treatment. While gender differences in susceptibility to this injury were observed, progesterone treatment produced beneficial effects in young rats of both sexes following CCI. PMID:26799561

  8. Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control.

    PubMed

    Mountcastle, A M; Daniel, T L

    2010-12-01

    Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles. PMID:21098955

  9. Phenolic acids from wheat show different absorption profiles in plasma: a model experiment with catheterized pigs.

    PubMed

    Nørskov, Natalja P; Hedemann, Mette S; Theil, Peter K; Fomsgaard, Inge S; Laursen, Bente B; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2013-09-18

    The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study the absorption of phenolic acids. The difference between the artery and the vein for all phenolic acids was small, indicating that the release of phenolic acids in the large intestine was not sufficient to create a porto-arterial concentration difference. Although, the porto-arterial difference was small, their concentrations in the plasma and the absorption profiles differed between cinnamic and benzoic acid derivatives. Cinnamic acids derivatives such as ferulic acid and caffeic acid had maximum plasma concentration of 82 ± 20 and 200 ± 7 nM, respectively, and their absorption profiles differed depending on the diet consumed. Benzoic acid derivatives showed low concentration in the plasma (<30 nM) and in the diets. The exception was p-hydroxybenzoic acid, with a plasma concentration (4 ± 0.4 μM), much higher than the other plant phenolic acids, likely because it is an intermediate in the phenolic acid metabolism. It was concluded that plant phenolic acids undergo extensive interconversion in the colon and that their absorption profiles reflected their low bioavailability in the plant matrix. PMID:23971623

  10. Modeling and Interpretation of Laboratory and Field Data Showing CO2-induced Groundwater Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Tinnacher, R. M.; Varadharajan, C.; Spycher, N.; Bianchi, M.; Nico, P. S.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Trautz, R. C.; Pugh, J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the issues related to the risk assessment of CO2 sequestration is the potential impact of leaking CO2 on shallow groundwater quality. Numerous studies have been conducted using laboratory tests, natural analogues, and numerical models to evaluate the changes in groundwater chemistry induced by elevated CO2 concentrations. In this study, a controlled-release field experiment, integrated with laboratory tests and reactive transport modeling, has been conducted to simulate the release and impacts of CO2 at a geologic storage site. The field test involved a dipole system -- the groundwater was pumped from one well, saturated with CO2 at the pressure corresponding to the average hydraulic pressure of the test formation, and then re-injected into the same formation using a second well. Groundwater quality data were collected in four monitoring wells. At the same time, a series of lab-scale sequential leaching experiments were carried out with sediments from the field site to investigate the effects of the pH decrease and increased dissolved carbonate concentrations resulting from CO2 influx into groundwater. The lab tests showed similar metal release concentrations from sediments exposed to synthetic groundwater solutions saturated with CO2 at aquifer pressures and non-pressurized solutions at pH 5, indicating that the pH drop was the trigger for much of the initial metal release. Field concentration data revealed that a pH drop of ~ 3 units led to a rapid pulse-like release of dissolved cations during injection followed by slowly-rising cation concentrations almost immediately after the pumping and injection period. This phenomenon can be explained by a conceptual model that considers two metal source terms: (a) a fast-reacting but limited pool of reactive minerals that respond quickly to changes in pH, i.e. the dissolution of a limited amount of calcite and the subsequent Ca-driven cation exchange, which leads to the pulse-like initial response, and (b) a slow

  11. A Key Challenge in Global HRM: Adding New Insights to Existing Expatriate Spouse Adjustment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ritu; Banerjee, Pratyush; Gaur, Jighyasu

    2012-01-01

    This study is an attempt to strengthen the existing knowledge about factors affecting the adjustment process of the trailing expatriate spouse and the subsequent impact of any maladjustment or expatriate failure. We conducted a qualitative enquiry using grounded theory methodology with 26 Indian spouses who had to deal with their partner's…

  12. Extending the Integrated Model of Retirement Adjustment: Incorporating Mastery and Retirement Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Tarryn; Earl, Joanne K.; Muratore, Alexa M.

    2010-01-01

    Extending earlier research, this study explores individual (e.g. demographic and health characteristics), psychosocial (e.g. mastery and planning) and organizational factors (e.g. conditions of workforce exit) influencing retirement adjustment. Survey data were collected from 570 semi-retired and retired men and women aged 45 years and older.…

  13. Towards an Integrated Model of Individual, Psychosocial, and Organizational Predictors of Retirement Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jessica Y.; Earl, Joanne K.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines three predictors of retirement adjustment: individual (demographic and health), psychosocial (work centrality), and organizational (conditions of workforce exit). It also examines the effect of work centrality on post-retirement activity levels. Survey data was collected from 394 retirees (aged 45-93 years).…

  14. Social Adjustment and Academic Achievement: A Predictive Model for Students with Diverse Academic and Behavior Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Corey E.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesized relationship between social adjustment, as measured by perceived social support, self-concept, and social skills, and performance on academic achievement tests. Participants included 27 teachers and 77 fourth- and eighth-grade students with diverse academic and behavior competencies. Teachers were asked to…

  15. Divorce Stress and Adjustment Model: Locus of Control and Demographic Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnet, Helen Smith

    This study depicts the divorce process over three time periods: predivorce decision phase, divorce proper, and postdivorce. Research has suggested that persons with a more internal locus of control experience less intense and shorter intervals of stress during the divorce proper and better postdivorce adjustment than do persons with a more…

  16. Models of Cultural Adjustment for Child and Adolescent Migrants to Australia: Internal Process and Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonderegger, Robi; Barrett, Paula M.; Creed, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    Building on previous cultural adjustment profile work by Sonderegger and Barrett (2004), the aim of this study was to propose an organised structure for a number of single risk factors that have been linked to acculturative-stress in young migrants. In recognising that divergent situational characteristics (e.g., school level, gender, residential…

  17. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to the Study of Stress and Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Kia K.; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the…

  18. Modeling and simulation of M/M/c queuing pharmacy system with adjustable parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashida, A. R.; Fadzli, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Safwati; Goh, Siti Rohana

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies a discrete event simulation (DES) as a computer based modelling that imitates a real system of pharmacy unit. M/M/c queuing theo is used to model and analyse the characteristic of queuing system at the pharmacy unit of Hospital Tuanku Fauziah, Kangar in Perlis, Malaysia. The input of this model is based on statistical data collected for 20 working days in June 2014. Currently, patient waiting time of pharmacy unit is more than 15 minutes. The actual operation of the pharmacy unit is a mixed queuing server with M/M/2 queuing model where the pharmacist is referred as the server parameters. DES approach and ProModel simulation software is used to simulate the queuing model and to propose the improvement for queuing system at this pharmacy system. Waiting time for each server is analysed and found out that Counter 3 and 4 has the highest waiting time which is 16.98 and 16.73 minutes. Three scenarios; M/M/3, M/M/4 and M/M/5 are simulated and waiting time for actual queuing model and experimental queuing model are compared. The simulation results show that by adding the server (pharmacist), it will reduce patient waiting time to a reasonable improvement. Almost 50% average patient waiting time is reduced when one pharmacist is added to the counter. However, it is not necessary to fully utilize all counters because eventhough M/M/4 and M/M/5 produced more reduction in patient waiting time, but it is ineffective since Counter 5 is rarely used.

  19. What Can the Bohr-Sommerfeld Model Show Students of Chemistry in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Cardellini, Liberato

    2011-01-01

    Bohr's model of the atom is considered to be important by general chemistry textbooks. A shortcoming of this model was that it could not explain the spectra of atoms containing more than one electron. To increase the explanatory power of the model, Sommerfeld hypothesized the existence of elliptical orbits. This study aims to elaborate a framework…

  20. Family Communication Models on Television: "The Simpsons" and "The Cosby Show."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Mary S.

    A study examined the family communication of two television families: the Huxtables, on "The Cosby Show," and the Simpsons. Content analysis was used to analyze communication behaviors in 9 episodes of "The Cosby Show" and 12 episodes of "The Simpsons," and behaviors were coded as to type of communication. Results showed that: (1) both families…

  1. Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics: measurement of actuator influence functions and comparison with modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.

    2011-09-01

    The present generation of X-ray telescopes emphasizes either high image quality (e.g. Chandra with sub-arc second resolution) or large effective area (e.g. XMM-Newton), while future observatories under consideration (e.g. Athena, AXSIO) aim to greatly enhance the effective area, while maintaining moderate (~10 arc-seconds) image quality. To go beyond the limits of present and planned missions, the use of thin adjustable optics for the control of low-order figure error is needed to obtain the high image quality of precisely figured mirrors along with the large effective area of thin mirrors. The adjustable mirror prototypes under study at Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory are based on two different principles and designs: 1) thin film lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric actuators directly deposited on the mirror back surface, with the strain direction parallel to the glass surface (for sub-arc-second angular resolution and large effective area), and 2) conventional leadmagnesium- niobate (PMN) electrostrictive actuators with their strain direction perpendicular to the mirror surface (for 3-5 arc second resolution and moderate effective area). We have built and operated flat test mirrors of these adjustable optics. We present the comparison between theoretical influence functions as obtained by finite element analysis and the measured influence functions obtained from the two test configurations.

  2. Validation and adjustment of the mathematical prediction model for human sweat rate responses to outdoor environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Y; Moran, D; Epstein, Y; Stroschein, L; Pandolf, K B

    1995-05-01

    Under outdoor conditions this model was over estimating sweat loss response in shaded (low solar radiation) environments, and underestimating the response when solar radiation was high (open field areas). The present study was conducted in order to adjust the model to be applicable under outdoor environmental conditions. Four groups of fit acclimated subjects participated in the study. They were exposed to three climatic conditions (30 degrees, 65% rh; 31 degrees C, 40% rh; and 40 degrees C, 20% rh) and three levels of metabolic rate (100, 300 and 450 W) in shaded and sunny areas while wearing shorts, cotton fatigues (BDUs) or protective garments. The original predictive equation for sweat loss was adjusted for the outdoor conditions by evaluating separately the radiative heat exchange, short-wave absorption in the body and long-wave emission from the body to the atmosphere and integrating them in the required evaporation component (Ereq) of the model, as follows: Hr = 1.5SL0.6/I(T) (watt) H1 = 0.047Me.th/I(T) (watt), where SL is solar radiation (W.m-2), Me.th is the Stephan Boltzman constant, and I(T) is the effective clothing insulation coefficient. This adjustment revealed a high correlation between the measured and expected values of sweat loss (r = 0.99, p < 0.0001). PMID:7737107

  3. The first mecp2-null zebrafish model shows altered motor behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pietri, Thomas; Roman, Angel-Carlos; Guyon, Nicolas; Romano, Sebastián A.; Washbourne, Philip; Moens, Cecilia B.; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.; Sumbre, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder and one of the most common causes of mental retardation in affected girls. Other symptoms include a rapid regression of motor and cognitive skills after an apparently early normal development. Sporadic mutations in the transcription factor MECP2 has been shown to be present in more than 90% of the patients and several models of MeCP2-deficient mice have been created to understand the role of this gene. These models have pointed toward alterations in the maintenance of the central nervous system rather than its development, in line with the late onset of the disease in humans. However, the exact functions of MeCP2 remain difficult to delineate and the animal models have yielded contradictory results. Here, we present the first mecp2-null allele mutation zebrafish model. Surprisingly and in contrast to MeCP2-null mouse models, mecp2-null zebrafish are viable and fertile. They present nonetheless clear behavioral alterations during their early development, including spontaneous and sensory-evoked motor anomalies, as well as defective thigmotaxis. PMID:23874272

  4. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India

    SciTech Connect

    Auffhammer, M.; Ramanathan, V.; Vincent, J.R.

    2007-12-26

    Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate change due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades.

  5. Reexamination of the State of the Art Cloud Modeling Shows Real Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlbauer, Andreas D.; Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Malinowski, S. P.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Bryan, George; Lebo, Zachary; Milbrandt, Jason; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Tessendorf, Sarah; Theriault, Julie M.; Thompson, Gregory

    2013-05-25

    Following up on an almost thirty year long history of International Cloud Modeling Workshops, that started out with a meeting in Irsee, Germany in 1985, the 8th International Cloud Modeling Workshop was held in July 2012 in Warsaw, Poland. The workshop, hosted by the Institute of Geophysics at the University of Warsaw, was organized by Szymon Malinowski and his local team of students and co-chaired by Wojciech Grabowski (NCAR/MMM) and Andreas Muhlbauer (University of Washington). International Cloud Modeling Workshops have been held traditionally every four years typically during the week before the International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation (ICCP) . Rooted in the World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO) weather modification program, the core objectives of the Cloud Modeling Workshop have been centered at the numerical modeling of clouds, cloud microphysics, and the interactions between cloud microphysics and cloud dynamics. In particular, the goal of the workshop is to provide insight into the pertinent problems of today’s state-of-the-art of cloud modeling and to identify key deficiencies in the microphysical representation of clouds in numerical models and cloud parameterizations. In recent years, the workshop has increasingly shifted the focus toward modeling the interactions between aerosols and clouds and provided case studies to investigate both the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation as well as the impact of cloud and precipitation processes on aerosols. This time, about 60 (?) scientists from about 10 (?) different countries participated in the workshop and contributed with discussions, oral and poster presentations to the workshop’s plenary and breakout sessions. Several case leaders contributed to the workshop by setting up five observationally-based case studies covering a wide range of cloud types, namely, marine stratocumulus, mid-latitude squall lines, mid-latitude cirrus clouds, Arctic stratus and winter-time orographic

  6. NKG201xGIA - first results for a new model of glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Holger; Barletta, Valentina; Kollo, Karin; Milne, Glenn A.; Nordman, Maaria; Olsson, Per-Anders; Simpson, Matthew J. R.; Tarasov, Lev; Ågren, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is a dominant process in northern Europe, which is observed with several geodetic and geophysical methods. The observed land uplift due to this process amounts to about 1 cm/year in the northern Gulf of Bothnia. GIA affects the establishment and maintenance of reliable geodetic and gravimetric reference networks in the Nordic countries. To support a high level of accuracy in the determination of position, adequate corrections have to be applied with dedicated models. Currently, there are efforts within a Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG) activity towards a model of glacial isostatic adjustment for Fennoscandia. The new model, NKG201xGIA, to be developed in the near future will complement the forthcoming empirical NKG land uplift model, which will substitute the currently used empirical land uplift model NKG2005LU (Ågren & Svensson, 2007). Together, the models will be a reference for vertical and horizontal motion, gravity and geoid change and more. NKG201xGIA will also provide uncertainty estimates for each field. Following former investigations, the GIA model is based on a combination of an ice and an earth model. The selected reference ice model, GLAC, for Fennoscandia, the Barents/Kara seas and the British Isles is provided by Lev Tarasov and co-workers. Tests of different ice and earth models will be performed based on the expertise of each involved modeler. This includes studies on high resolution ice sheets, different rheologies, lateral variations in lithosphere and mantle viscosity and more. This will also be done in co-operation with scientists outside NKG who help in the development and testing of the model. References Ågren, J., Svensson, R. (2007): Postglacial Land Uplift Model and System Definition for the New Swedish Height System RH 2000. Reports in Geodesy and Geographical Information Systems Rapportserie, LMV-Rapport 4, Lantmäteriet, Gävle.

  7. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(104)] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950–2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones. PMID:23836646

  8. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Kerry A

    2013-07-23

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(10(4))] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950-2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones. PMID:23836646

  9. A Model Lesson: Finland Shows Us What Equal Opportunity Looks Like

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2012-01-01

    International indicators show that Finland has one of the most educated citizenries in the world, provides educational opportunities in an egalitarian manner, and makes efficient use of resources. But at the beginning of the 1990s, education in Finland was nothing special in international terms. The performance of Finnish students on international…

  10. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Evelyn E.; Peters, Brian M.; Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Noverr, Mairi C.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans). Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation. PMID:26807975

  11. Integrated catchment modeling for nutrient reduction: scenarios showing impacts, potential, and cost of measures.

    PubMed

    Arheimer, Berit; Löwgren, Marianne; Pers, Bodil Charlotta; Rosberg, Jörgen

    2005-11-01

    A hydrological-based model (HBV-NP) was applied to a catchment (1900 km2) in the southern part of Sweden. Careful characterization of the present load situation and the potential for improved treatment or reduced soil leaching were analyzed. Several scenarios were modeled to find strategies to reach the Swedish environmental goals of reducing anthropogenic nitrogen load by 30% and phosphorus load by 20%. It was stated that the goals could be reached by different approaches that would affect different polluters and social sectors. However, no single measure was enough by itself. Instead, a combination of measures was necessary to achieve the goals. The nitrogen goal was the most difficult to attain. In order to be cost-effective, these measures should be applied to areas contributing the most to the net loading of the sea. This strategy could reduce the costs by 70%-80% when compared with implementing the measures in the entire catchment. Integrated catchment models may thus be helpful tools for reducing costs in environmental control programs. PMID:16435740

  12. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response.

    PubMed

    Nash, Evelyn E; Peters, Brian M; Lilly, Elizabeth A; Noverr, Mairi C; Fidel, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans). Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation. PMID:26807975

  13. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  14. Holocene sea-level changes along the North Carolina Coastline and their implications for glacial isostatic adjustment models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, B.P.; Peltier, W.R.; Culver, S.J.; Drummond, R.; Engelhart, S.E.; Kemp, A.C.; Mallinson, D.; Thieler, E.R.; Riggs, S.R.; Ames, D.V.; Thomson, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    We have synthesized new and existing relative sea-level (RSL) data to produce a quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive database from the North Carolina coastline. The RSL database consists of 54 sea-level index points that are quantitatively related to an appropriate tide level and assigned an error estimate, and a further 33 limiting dates that confine the maximum and minimum elevations of RSL. The temporal distribution of the index points is very uneven with only five index points older than 4000 cal a BP, but the form of the Holocene sea-level trend is constrained by both terrestrial and marine limiting dates. The data illustrate RSL rapidly rising during the early and mid Holocene from an observed elevation of -35.7 ?? 1.1 m MSL at 11062-10576 cal a BP to -4.2 m ?? 0.4 m MSL at 4240-3592 cal a BP. We restricted comparisons between observations and predictions from the ICE-5G(VM2) with rotational feedback Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model to the Late Holocene RSL (last 4000 cal a BP) because of the wealth of sea-level data during this time interval. The ICE-5G(VM2) model predicts significant spatial variations in RSL across North Carolina, thus we subdivided the observations into two regions. The model forecasts an increase in the rate of sea-level rise in Region 1 (Albemarle, Currituck, Roanoke, Croatan, and northern Pamlico sounds) compared to Region 2 (southern Pamlico, Core and Bogue sounds, and farther south to Wilmington). The observations show Late Holocene sea-level rising at 1.14 ?? 0.03 mm year-1 and 0.82 ?? 0.02 mm year-1 in Regions 1 and 2, respectively. The ICE-5G(VM2) predictions capture the general temporal trend of the observations, although there is an apparent misfit for index points older than 2000 cal a BP. It is presently unknown whether these misfits are caused by possible tectonic uplift associated with the mid-Carolina Platform High or a flaw in the GIA model. A comparison of local tide gauge data with the Late Holocene RSL

  15. Map showing locations of geophysical survey and modeling lines in the vicinity of New Madrid, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, Susan; Wheeler, Russell L.

    1994-01-01

    This is one of a series of five seismotectonic maps of the seismically active New Madrid area in southeast Missouri and adjacent parts of Arkansas, Kentucky, and Tennessee (table 1). We cannot legibly show all the seismotectonic data on a single map, therefore each of the five maps in this series groups a different type of related information. Rhea and others (1994) summarized the background and purpose of the seismotectonic map folio.

  16. Velocity and displacement statistics in a stochastic model of nonlinear friction showing bounded particle speed.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Andreas M

    2015-11-01

    Diffusion of colloidal particles in a complex environment such as polymer networks or biological cells is a topic of high complexity with significant biological and medical relevance. In such situations, the interaction between the surroundings and the particle motion has to be taken into account. We analyze a simplified diffusion model that includes some aspects of a complex environment in the framework of a nonlinear friction process: at low particle speeds, friction grows linearly with the particle velocity as for regular viscous friction; it grows more than linearly at higher particle speeds; finally, at a maximum of the possible particle speed, the friction diverges. In addition to bare diffusion, we study the influence of a constant drift force acting on the diffusing particle. While the corresponding stationary velocity distributions can be derived analytically, the displacement statistics generally must be determined numerically. However, as a benefit of our model, analytical progress can be made in one case of a special maximum particle speed. The effect of a drift force in this case is analytically determined by perturbation theory. It will be interesting in the future to compare our results to real experimental systems. One realization could be magnetic colloidal particles diffusing through a shear-thickening environment such as starch suspensions, possibly exposed to an external magnetic field gradient. PMID:26651690

  17. Progesterone Treatment Shows Benefit in a Pediatric Model of Moderate to Severe Bilateral Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, Rastafa I.; Sribnick, Eric A.; Sayeed, Iqbal; Stein, Donald G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Controlled cortical impact (CCI) models in adult and aged Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats have been used extensively to study medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) injury and the effects of post-injury progesterone treatment, but the hormone's effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in juvenile animals have not been determined. In the present proof-of-concept study we investigated whether progesterone had neuroprotective effects in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury. Methods Twenty-eight-day old (PND 28) male Sprague Dawley rats received sham (n = 24) or CCI (n = 47) injury and were given progesterone (4, 8, or 16 mg/kg per 100 g body weight) or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID) 1–7, subjected to behavioral testing from PID 9–27, and analyzed for lesion size at PID 28. Results The 8 and 16 mg/kg doses of progesterone were observed to be most beneficial in reducing the effect of CCI on lesion size and behavior in PND 28 male SD rats. Conclusion Our findings suggest that a midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex will reliably produce a moderate TBI comparable to what is seen in the adult male rat and that progesterone can ameliorate the injury-induced deficits. PMID:24489882

  18. A new bovine conjunctiva model shows that Listeria monocytogenes invasion is associated with lysozyme resistance.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jessica; Owen, A Rhys; Glanvill, Amy; Francis, Asher; Maboni, Grazieli; Nova, Rodrigo J; Wapenaar, Wendela; Rees, Catherine; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2015-08-31

    Listerial keratoconjunctivitis ('silage eye') is a wide spread problem in ruminants causing economic losses to farmers and impacts negatively on animal welfare. It results from direct entry of Listeria monocytogenes into the eye, often following consumption of contaminated silage. An isolation protocol for bovine conjunctival swabbing was developed and used to sample both infected and healthy eyes bovine eyes (n=46). L. monocytogenes was only isolated from one healthy eye sample, and suggests that this organism can be present without causing disease. To initiate a study of this disease, an infection model was developed using isolated conjunctiva explants obtained from cattle eyes post slaughter. Conjunctiva were cultured and infected for 20 h with a range of L. monocytogenes isolates (n=11), including the healthy bovine eye isolate and also strains isolated from other bovine sources, such as milk or clinical infections. Two L. monocytogenes isolates (one from a healthy eye and one from a cattle abortion) were markedly less able to invade conjunctiva explants, but one of those was able to efficiently infect Caco2 cells indicating that it was fully virulent. These two isolates were also significantly more sensitive to lysozyme compared to most other isolates tested, suggesting that lysozyme resistance is an important factor when infecting bovine conjunctiva. In conclusion, we present the first bovine conjunctiva explant model for infection studies and demonstrate that clinical L. monocytogenes isolates from cases of bovine keratoconjunctivitis are able to infect these tissues. PMID:25778543

  19. Velocity and displacement statistics in a stochastic model of nonlinear friction showing bounded particle speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Andreas M.

    2015-11-01

    Diffusion of colloidal particles in a complex environment such as polymer networks or biological cells is a topic of high complexity with significant biological and medical relevance. In such situations, the interaction between the surroundings and the particle motion has to be taken into account. We analyze a simplified diffusion model that includes some aspects of a complex environment in the framework of a nonlinear friction process: at low particle speeds, friction grows linearly with the particle velocity as for regular viscous friction; it grows more than linearly at higher particle speeds; finally, at a maximum of the possible particle speed, the friction diverges. In addition to bare diffusion, we study the influence of a constant drift force acting on the diffusing particle. While the corresponding stationary velocity distributions can be derived analytically, the displacement statistics generally must be determined numerically. However, as a benefit of our model, analytical progress can be made in one case of a special maximum particle speed. The effect of a drift force in this case is analytically determined by perturbation theory. It will be interesting in the future to compare our results to real experimental systems. One realization could be magnetic colloidal particles diffusing through a shear-thickening environment such as starch suspensions, possibly exposed to an external magnetic field gradient.

  20. A four-culture study of self-enhancement and adjustment using the social relations model: do alternative conceptualizations and indices make a difference?

    PubMed

    Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Mazuera Arias, Rina; Rincon, Brigida Carolina; Vargas-Flores, José de Jesús; Ibáñez-Reyes, Joselina; Wang, Lei; Alvarez, Juan M; Wang, Congcong; Ortiz, Fernando A

    2014-06-01

    In the self-enhancement literature, 2 major controversies remain--whether self-enhancement is a cultural universal and whether it is healthy or maladaptive. Use of the social relations model (SRM; Kenny, 1994) might facilitate resolution of these controversies. We applied the SRM with a round-robin design in both friend and family contexts in 4 diverse cultures: the United States (n = 399), Mexico (n = 413), Venezuela (n = 290), and China (n = 222). Results obtained with social comparison, self-insight, and SRM conceptualizations and indices of self-enhancement were compared for both agentic traits (i.e., egoistic bias) and communal traits (i.e., moralistic bias). Conclusions regarding cultural differences in the prevalence of self-enhancement vs. self-effacement tendencies, and the relationship between self-enhancement and adjustment, varied depending on the index of self-enhancement used. For example, consistent with cultural psychology perspectives, Chinese showed a greater tendency to self-efface than self-enhance using social comparison and self-insight indices, particularly on communal traits in the friend context. However, no cultural differences were observed when perceiver and target effects were controlled using the SRM indices. In all cultures, self-enhancement indices were moderately consistent across friend and family contexts, suggesting traitlike tendencies. To a similar extent in all 4 cultures, self-enhancement tendencies, as measured by the SRM indices, were moderately related to self-rated adjustment, but unrelated, or less so, to observer-rated adjustment. PMID:24841101

  1. Probabilistic Movement Models Show that Postural Control Precedes and Predicts Volitional Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Rueckert, Elmar; Čamernik, Jernej; Peters, Jan; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Human motor skill learning is driven by the necessity to adapt to new situations. While supportive contacts are essential for many tasks, little is known about their impact on motor learning. To study the effect of contacts an innovative full-body experimental paradigm was established. The task of the subjects was to reach for a distant target while postural stability could only be maintained by establishing an additional supportive hand contact. To examine adaptation, non-trivial postural perturbations of the subjects' support base were systematically introduced. A novel probabilistic trajectory model approach was employed to analyze the correlation between the motions of both arms and the trunk. We found that subjects adapted to the perturbations by establishing target dependent hand contacts. Moreover, we found that the trunk motion adapted significantly faster than the motion of the arms. However, the most striking finding was that observations of the initial phase of the left arm or trunk motion (100-400 ms) were sufficient to faithfully predict the complete movement of the right arm. Overall, our results suggest that the goal-directed arm movements determine the supportive arm motions and that the motion of heavy body parts adapts faster than the light arms. PMID:27328750

  2. Probabilistic Movement Models Show that Postural Control Precedes and Predicts Volitional Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Rueckert, Elmar; Čamernik, Jernej; Peters, Jan; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Human motor skill learning is driven by the necessity to adapt to new situations. While supportive contacts are essential for many tasks, little is known about their impact on motor learning. To study the effect of contacts an innovative full-body experimental paradigm was established. The task of the subjects was to reach for a distant target while postural stability could only be maintained by establishing an additional supportive hand contact. To examine adaptation, non-trivial postural perturbations of the subjects’ support base were systematically introduced. A novel probabilistic trajectory model approach was employed to analyze the correlation between the motions of both arms and the trunk. We found that subjects adapted to the perturbations by establishing target dependent hand contacts. Moreover, we found that the trunk motion adapted significantly faster than the motion of the arms. However, the most striking finding was that observations of the initial phase of the left arm or trunk motion (100–400 ms) were sufficient to faithfully predict the complete movement of the right arm. Overall, our results suggest that the goal-directed arm movements determine the supportive arm motions and that the motion of heavy body parts adapts faster than the light arms. PMID:27328750

  3. Multivariate models of parent-late adolescent gender dyads: the importance of parenting processes in predicting adjustment.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-06-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample for this study consisted of 151 male and 324 female late adolescents, who reported on their mothers' and fathers' parenting style, their family environment, their mothers' and fathers' expectations for them, the conflict that they experience with their mothers and fathers, and their own adjustment. Overall, the variables had significant relationships with one another. Further, the male-father, male-mother, and female-father structural equation models that were examined suggested that parenting style has an indirect relationship with late adolescents' adjustment through characteristics of the family environment and the conflict that is experienced in families; such findings were not evident for the female-mother model. Thus, the examination of parent-late adolescent interactions should occur in the context of the gender of parents and their late adolescents. PMID:17710537

  4. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups

    PubMed Central

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause. PMID:24966311

  5. Modeling serotonin uptake in the lung shows endothelial transporters dominate over cleft permeation

    PubMed Central

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2013-01-01

    A four-region (capillary plasma, endothelium, interstitial fluid, cell) multipath model was configured to describe the kinetics of blood-tissue exchange for small solutes in the lung, accounting for regional flow heterogeneity, permeation of cell membranes and through interendothelial clefts, and intracellular reactions. Serotonin uptake data from the Multiple indicator dilution “bolus sweep” experiments of Rickaby and coworkers (Rickaby DA, Linehan JH, Bronikowski TA, Dawson CA. J Appl Physiol 51: 405–414, 1981; Rickaby DA, Dawson CA, and Linehan JH. J Appl Physiol 56: 1170–1177, 1984) and Malcorps et al. (Malcorps CM, Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Bronikowski TA, Rickaby DA, Herman AG, Will JA. J Appl Physiol 57: 720–730, 1984) were analyzed to distinguish facilitated transport into the endothelial cells (EC) and the inhibition of tracer transport by nontracer serotonin in the bolus of injectate from the free uninhibited permeation through the clefts into the interstitial fluid space. The permeability-surface area products (PS) for serotonin via the inter-EC clefts were ∼0.3 ml·g−1·min−1, low compared with the transporter-mediated maximum PS of 13 ml·g−1·min−1 (with Km = ∼0.3 μM and Vmax = ∼4 nmol·g−1·min−1). The estimates of serotonin PS values for EC transporters from their multiple data sets were similar and were influenced only modestly by accounting for the cleft permeability in parallel. The cleft PS estimates in these Ringer-perfused lungs are less than half of those for anesthetized dogs (Yipintsoi T. Circ Res 39: 523–531, 1976) with normal hematocrits, but are compatible with passive noncarrier-mediated transport observed later in the same laboratory (Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Rickaby DA, Bronikowski TA. Ann Biomed Eng 15: 217–227, 1987; Peeters FAM, Bronikowski TA, Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Bult H, Herman AG. J Appl Physiol 66: 2328–2337, 1989) The identification and quantitation of the cleft pathway conductance from these

  6. Slope adjustment of runoff curve number (CN) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) for Kuantan River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Abolghasem

    2015-10-01

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service Curve Number (NRCS-CN) method is widely used for predicting direct runoff from rainfall. It employs the hydrologic soil groups and landuse information along with period soil moisture conditions to derive NRCS-CN. This method has been well documented and available in popular rainfall-runoff models such as HEC-HMS, SWAT, SWMM and many more. The Sharply-Williams and Hank methods was used to adjust CN values provided in standard table of TR-55. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) is used to derive slope map with spatial resolution of 30 m for Kuantan River Basin (KRB). The two investigated method stretches the conventional CN domain to the lower values. The study shows a successful application of remote sensing data and GIS tools in hydrological studies. The result of this work can be used for rainfall-runoff simulation and flood modeling in KRB.

  7. Canine echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan: using prevalence data adjusted for measurement error to develop transmission dynamics models

    PubMed Central

    Ziadinov, I.; Mathis, A.; Trachsel, D.; Rysmukhambetova, A.; Abdyjaparov, T. A.; Kuttubaev, O. T.; Deplazes, P.; Torgerson, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A cross-sectional study of dogs in four villages in rural Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Echinococcus spp. A total of 466 dogs were examined by arecoline purgation for the presence of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. In addition, a faecal sample from each dog was examined for taeniid eggs. Any taeniid eggs found were investigated using PCR techniques (multiplex and single target PCR) to improve the diagnostic sensitivity by confirming the presence of Echinococcus spp. and to identify E. granulosus strains. A total of 83 (18%) dogs had either E. granulosus adults in purge material and/or E. granulosus eggs in their faeces as confirmed by PCR. Three genotypes of E. granulosus: G1, G4 and the G6/7 complex were shown to be present in these dogs through subsequent sequence analysis. Purge analysis combined with PCR identified 50 dogs that were infected with adult E. multilocularis and/or had E. multilocularis eggs in their faeces (11%). Bayesian techniques were employed to estimate the true prevalence, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the procedures used and the transmission parameters. The sensitivity of arecoline purgation for the detection of echinococcosis in dogs was rather low, with a value of 38% (Credible intervals (CIs) 27–50%) for E. granulosus and 21% (CIs 11–34%) for E. multilocularis. The specificity of arecoline purgation was assumed to be 100%. The sensitivity of coproscopy followed by PCR of the isolated eggs was calculated as 78% (CIs 57–87%) for E. granulosus and 50% (CIs 29–72%) for E. multilocularis with specificity of 93% (CIs 88–96%) and 100% (CIs 97–100), respectively. The 93% specificity of the coprological-PCR for E. granulosus could suggest coprophagia rather than true infections. After adjusting for the sensitivity of the diagnostic procedures, the estimated true prevalence of infection of

  8. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  9. Dynamic Modeling of Adjustable-Speed Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Havsapian, R.; Koritarov, V.

    2015-04-06

    Hydropower is the largest producer of renewable energy in the U.S. More than 60% of the total renewable generation comes from hydropower. There is also approximately 22 GW of pumped storage hydropower (PSH). Conventional PSH uses a synchronous generator, and thus the rotational speed is constant at synchronous speed. This work details a hydrodynamic model and generator/power converter dynamic model. The optimization of the hydrodynamic model is executed by the hydro-turbine controller, and the electrical output real/reactive power is controlled by the power converter. All essential controllers to perform grid-interface functions and provide ancillary services are included in the model.

  10. Toward a Transactional Model of Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2008-01-01

    The present study includes externalizing problems, internalizing problems, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and father-adolescent relationship quality in the same structural equation model and tests the longitudinal reciprocal association among all four variables over a 1-year period. A transactional model in which adolescents'…

  11. Covariate Measurement Error Adjustment for Multilevel Models with Application to Educational Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero; Gori, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a multilevel model for the assessment of school effectiveness where the intake achievement is a predictor and the response variable is the achievement in the subsequent periods. The achievement is a latent variable that can be estimated on the basis of an item response theory model and hence subject to measurement error.…

  12. A self-adjusting flow dependent formulation for the classical Smagorinsky model coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbaniasl, G.; Agnihotri, V.; Lacor, C.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an efficient formula for estimating the model coefficient of a Smagorinsky model based subgrid scale eddy viscosity. The method allows vanishing eddy viscosity through a vanishing model coefficient in regions where the eddy viscosity should be zero. The advantage of this method is that the coefficient of the subgrid scale model is a function of the flow solution, including the translational and the rotational velocity field contributions. Furthermore, the value of model coefficient is optimized without using the dynamic procedure thereby saving significantly on computational cost. In addition, the method guarantees the model coefficient to be always positive with low fluctuation in space and time. For validation purposes, three test cases are chosen: (i) a fully developed channel flow at {mathopRenolimits} _tau = 180, 395, (ii) a fully developed flow through a rectangular duct of square cross section at {mathopRenolimits} _tau = 300, and (iii) a smooth subcritical flow past a stationary circular cylinder, at a Reynolds number of {mathopRenolimits} = 3900, where the wake is fully turbulent but the cylinder boundary layers remain laminar. A main outcome is the good behavior of the proposed model as compared to reference data. We have also applied the proposed method to a CT-based simplified human upper airway model, where the flow is transient.

  13. Geodetically-Constrained Glacial Isostatic Adjustment models of Antarctica: Implications for the Mass Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, M. J.; Wilson, T. J.; James, T. S.; Mazzotti, S.; Bevis, M. G.; Kendrick, E. C.; Brown, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    The IJ05 Antarctic ice sheet history is employed to drive a suite of approximately one thousand two-layered, laterally-homogeneous spherical Earth models and generate predictions of Antarctic crustal uplift due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GPS data collected between 1996 and 2010 on the flanks of the West Antarctic Rift System are used to produce bedrock uplift rates that are compared with the model predictions. The models that display the best fit to the data have softer, weaker upper-mantle viscosities than those published in many previous studies. A low viscosity upper-mantle is in agreement with seismic tomography that indicates that the upper mantle beneath much of West Antarctica has slower than average seismic shear-wave velocities. Best fit models further feature thin elastic lithospheres, a situation that is also corroborated by recent airborne gravity and seismic investigations. The best fit GIA models are used to generate crustal uplift rates and gravity changes that are larger than previously published models used to correct GRACE observations and infer Antarctic ice mass balance.The new models, which are the first GPS-constrained GIA corrections for GRACE in Antarctica, increases the ice-mass loss estimate for West Antarctica.

  14. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods. PMID:26328545

  15. Parental Depressive Symptoms and Adolescent Adjustment: A Prospective Test of an Explanatory Model for the Role of Marital Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Koss, Kalsea; Davies, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Despite calls for process-oriented models for child maladjustment due to heightened marital conflict in the context of parental depressive symptoms, few longitudinal tests of the mechanisms underlying these relations have been conducted. Addressing this gap, the present study examined multiple factors longitudinally that link parental depressive symptoms to adolescent adjustment problems, building on a conceptual model informed by emotional security theory (EST). Participants were 320 families (158 boys, 162 girls), including mothers and fathers, who took part when their children were in kindergarten (T1), second (T2), seventh (T3), eighth (T4) and ninth (T5) grades. Parental depressive symptoms (T1) were related to changes in adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms (T5), as mediated by parents’ negative emotional expressiveness (T2), marital conflict (T3), and emotional insecurity (T4). Evidence was thus advanced for emotional insecurity as an explanatory process in the context of parental depressive symptoms. PMID:24652484

  16. Generic Role of Polymer Supports in the Fine Adjustment of Interfacial Interactions between Solid Substrates and Model Cell Membranes.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Fernanda F; Schneck, Emanuel; Fragneto, Giovanna; Konovalov, Oleg V; Tanaka, Motomu

    2015-04-21

    To understand the generic role of soft, hydrated biopolymers in adjusting interfacial interactions at biological interfaces, we designed a defined model of the cell-extracellular matrix contacts based on planar lipid membranes deposited on polymer supports (polymer-supported membranes). Highly uniform polymer supports made out of regenerated cellulose allow for the control of film thickness without changing the surface roughness and without osmotic dehydration. The complementary combination of specular neutron reflectivity and high-energy specular X-ray reflectivity yields the equilibrium membrane-substrate distances, which can quantitatively be modeled by computing the interplay of van der Waals interaction, hydration repulsion, and repulsion caused by the thermal undulation of membranes. The obtained results help to understand the role of a biopolymer in the interfacial interactions of cell membranes from a physical point of view and also open a large potential to generally bridge soft, biological matter and hard inorganic materials. PMID:25794040

  17. How should risk adjustment data be collected?

    PubMed

    Kessler, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Risk adjustment has broad general application and is a key part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Yet, little has been written on how data required to support risk adjustment should be collected. This paper offers analytical support for a distributed approach, in which insurers retain possession of claims but pass on summary statistics to the risk adjustment authority as needed. It shows that distributed approaches function as well as or better than centralized ones-where insurers submit raw claims data to the risk adjustment authority-in terms of the goals of risk adjustment. In particular, it shows how distributed data analysis can be used to calibrate risk adjustment models and calculate payments, both in theory and in practice--drawing on the experience of distributed models in other contexts. In addition, it explains how distributed methods support other goals of the ACA, and can support projects requiring data aggregation more generally. It concludes that states should seriously consider distributed methods to implement their risk adjustment programs. PMID:22931020

  18. Adjusting particle-size distributions to account for aggregation in tephra-deposit model forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Durant, Adam J.

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are used to forecast tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. Model accuracy is limited by the fact that fine-ash aggregates (clumps into clusters), thus altering patterns of deposition. In most models this is accounted for by ad hoc changes to model input, representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg, and a log-normal size distribution with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Optimal values may vary between eruptions. To test the variance, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens; 16-17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr); 17 June 1996 Ruapehu; and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt. In 192 simulations, we systematically varied μagg and σagg, holding ρagg constant at 600 kg m-3. We evaluated the fit using three indices that compare modeled versus measured (1) mass load at sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, under these inputs, the best-fit value of μagg ranged narrowly between ˜ 2.3 and 2.7φ (0.20-0.15 mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25-50 Tg), plume height (8.5-25 km), mass fraction of fine ( < 0.063 mm) ash (3-59 %), atmospheric temperature, and water content between these eruptions. This close agreement suggests that aggregation may be treated as a discrete process that is insensitive to eruptive style or magnitude. This result offers the potential for a simple, computationally efficient parameterization scheme for use in operational model forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.

  19. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  20. A Gender-Moderated Model of Family Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizur, Yoel; Spivak, Amos; Ofran, Shlomit; Jacobs, Shira

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explain why adolescent girls with conduct problems (CP) are more at risk than boys to develop emotional distress (ED) in a sample composed of Israeli-born and immigrant youth from Ethiopia and the former Soviet Union (n = 305, ages 14-18). We tested a structural equation model and found a very good fit to the…

  1. A Unified Model Exploring Parenting Practices as Mediators of Marital Conflict and Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coln, Kristen L.; Jordan, Sara S.; Mercer, Sterett H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined positive and negative parenting practices and psychological control as mediators of the relations between constructive and destructive marital conflict and children's internalizing and externalizing problems in a unified model. Married mothers of 121 children between the ages of 6 and 12 completed questionnaires measuring marital…

  2. Preserving Heterogeneity and Consistency in Hydrological Model Inversions by Adjusting Pedotransfer Functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerical modeling is the dominant method for quantifying water flow and the transport of dissolved constituents in surface soils as well as the deeper vadose zone. While the fundamental laws that govern the mechanics of the flow processes in terms of Richards' and convection-dispersion equations a...

  3. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5-30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable, well defined, 64 ha urban catchment, for nine overflow generating rain events. The dynamically adjusted radar data perform best when the aggregation period is as small as 10-20 min, in which case it performs much better than static adjusted radar data and data from rain gauges situated 2-3 km away.

  4. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  5. An empirically adjusted approach to reproductive number estimation for stochastic compartmental models: A case study of two Ebola outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Brown, Grant D; Oleson, Jacob J; Porter, Aaron T

    2016-06-01

    The various thresholding quantities grouped under the "Basic Reproductive Number" umbrella are often confused, but represent distinct approaches to estimating epidemic spread potential, and address different modeling needs. Here, we contrast several common reproduction measures applied to stochastic compartmental models, and introduce a new quantity dubbed the "empirically adjusted reproductive number" with several advantages. These include: more complete use of the underlying compartmental dynamics than common alternatives, use as a potential diagnostic tool to detect the presence and causes of intensity process underfitting, and the ability to provide timely feedback on disease spread. Conceptual connections between traditional reproduction measures and our approach are explored, and the behavior of our method is examined under simulation. Two illustrative examples are developed: First, the single location applications of our method are established using data from the 1995 Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a traditional stochastic SEIR model. Second, a spatial formulation of this technique is explored in the context of the ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa with particular emphasis on potential use in model selection, diagnosis, and the resulting applications to estimation and prediction. Both analyses are placed in the context of a newly developed spatial analogue of the traditional SEIR modeling approach. PMID:26574727

  6. An adjustable aperiodic model class of genomic interactions using continuous time Boolean networks (Boolean delay equations)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öktem, Hakan; Pearson, Ronald; Egiazarian, Karen

    2003-12-01

    Following the complete sequencing of several genomes, interest has grown in the construction of genetic regulatory networks, which attempt to describe how different genes work together in both normal and abnormal cells. This interest has led to significant research in the behavior of abstract network models, with Boolean networks emerging as one particularly popular type. An important limitation of these networks is that their time evolution is necessarily periodic, motivating our interest in alternatives that are capable of a wider range of dynamic behavior. In this paper we examine one such class, that of continuous-time Boolean networks, a special case of the class of Boolean delay equations (BDEs) proposed for climatic and seismological modeling. In particular, we incorporate a biologically motivated refractory period into the dynamic behavior of these networks, which exhibit binary values like traditional Boolean networks, but which, unlike Boolean networks, evolve in continuous time. In this way, we are able to overcome both computational and theoretical limitations of the general class of BDEs while still achieving dynamics that are either aperiodic or effectively so, with periods many orders of magnitude longer than those of even large discrete time Boolean networks.

  7. SU-E-T-247: Multi-Leaf Collimator Model Adjustments Improve Small Field Dosimetry in VMAT Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L; Yang, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The Elekta beam modulator linac employs a 4-mm micro multileaf collimator (MLC) backed by a fixed jaw. Out-of-field dose discrepancies between treatment planning system (TPS) calculations and output water phantom measurements are caused by the 1-mm leaf gap required for all moving MLCs in a VMAT arc. In this study, MLC parameters are optimized to improve TPS out-of-field dose approximations. Methods: Static 2.4 cm square fields were created with a 1-mm leaf gap for MLCs that would normally park behind the jaw. Doses in the open field and leaf gap were measured with an A16 micro ion chamber and EDR2 film for comparison with corresponding point doses in the Pinnacle TPS. The MLC offset table and tip radius were adjusted until TPS point doses agreed with photon measurements. Improvements to the beam models were tested using static arcs consisting of square fields ranging from 1.6 to 14.0 cm, with 45° collimator rotation, and 1-mm leaf gap to replicate VMAT conditions. Gamma values for the 3-mm distance, 3% dose difference criteria were evaluated using standard QA procedures with a cylindrical detector array. Results: The best agreement in point doses within the leaf gap and open field was achieved by offsetting the default rounded leaf end table by 0.1 cm and adjusting the leaf tip radius to 13 cm. Improvements in TPS models for 6 and 10 MV photon beams were more significant for smaller field sizes 3.6 cm or less where the initial gamma factors progressively increased as field size decreased, i.e. for a 1.6cm field size, the Gamma increased from 56.1% to 98.8%. Conclusion: The MLC optimization techniques developed will achieve greater dosimetric accuracy in small field VMAT treatment plans for fixed jaw linear accelerators. Accurate predictions of dose to organs at risk may reduce adverse effects of radiotherapy.

  8. Model of the western Laurentide Ice Sheet from glacio-isostatic adjustment analysis and revised margin locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowan, E. J.; Tregoning, P.; Purcell, A.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainties in ice sheet extent and thickness during the retreat of the western Laurentide Ice Sheet from the last glacial maximum affect estimates of its contribution to global climate and sea level change during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. These difficulties arise due to a lack of chronological constraints on the timing of margin retreat in many areas and a lack of observations of the glacio-isostatic deformation due the ice sheet. We present a model of the western Laurentide ice sheet in North America based on new ice margin reconstructions and well dated glacial lake strandlines. The model of the Laurentide ice sheet is constructed based on the assumption of perfectly plastic, steady state conditions with temporally variable basal shear stress and margin location. Initial models of basal shear stress were based on modern surficial geology and geography, and adjusted in an iterative process to reflect the volume of ice needed to fit observations of earth deformation caused by the ice sheet. The ice margins were developed by determining the minimum timing of retreat and using that as a constraint on the absolute maximum possible ice margin location. By using the ice margin as the starting point of modelling, assumptions on the location of ice domes and saddles were avoided. Initial results of the modelling indicate that ice thickness remained below 1500 m throughout the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin region at the last glacial maximum as a result of low basal shear stress. Modelled flow direction matches geomorphic ice flow indicators lending confidence to the glaciological model. Ice sheet margin retreat was limited until after 15,000 cal yr BP. The most significant ice volume losses happened after retreat from southern Alberta and after retreat began on the Canadian Shield.

  9. Using Molecular Models To Show Steric Clash in Peptides: An Illustration of Two Disallowed Regions in the Ramachandran Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halkides, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    In this activity, students manipulate three-dimensional molecular models of the Ala-Ala-Ala tripeptide, where Ala is alanine. They rotate bonds to show that the pairs of dihedral angles phi = 0 degrees, psi = 180 degrees, and phi = 0 degrees, psi = 0 degrees lead to unfavorable interactions among the main chain atoms of the tripeptide. This…

  10. Modeling grain size adjustments in the downstream reach following run-of-river development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Theodore K.; Venditti, Jeremy G.; Nelson, Peter A.; Palen, Wendy J.

    2016-04-01

    Disruptions to sediment supply continuity caused by run-of-river (RoR) hydropower development have the potential to cause downstream changes in surface sediment grain size which can influence the productivity of salmon habitat. The most common approach to understanding the impacts of RoR hydropower is to study channel changes in the years following project development, but by then, any impacts are manifest and difficult to reverse. Here we use a more proactive approach, focused on predicting impacts in the project planning stage. We use a one-dimensional morphodynamic model to test the hypothesis that the greatest risk of geomorphic change and impact to salmon habitat from a temporary sediment supply disruption exists where predevelopment sediment supply is high and project design creates substantial sediment storage volume. We focus on the potential impacts in the reach downstream of a powerhouse for a range of development scenarios that are typical of projects developed in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia. Results indicate that increases in the median bed surface size (D50) are minor if development occurs on low sediment supply streams (<1 mm for supply rates 1 × 10-5 m2 s-1 or lower), and substantial for development on high sediment supply streams (8-30 mm for supply rates between 5.5 × 10-4 and 1 × 10-3 m2 s-1). However, high sediment supply streams recover rapidly to the predevelopment surface D50 (˜1 year) if sediment supply can be reestablished.

  11. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  12. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  13. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  14. Cultural Adjustment and the Puerto Rican.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    This review of the literature on cultural adjustment is divided into four sections: the nature of cultural adjustment; acculturation as a model of cultural adjustment; psychological responses to acculturation; and a model of cultural adjustment developed by the author as a result of his immigration from Puerto Rico to the United States mainland.…

  15. Coadministration of doxorubicin and etoposide loaded in camel milk phospholipids liposomes showed increased antitumor activity in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Aljarbou, Ahmed N; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Rahmani, Arshad H; Khan, Masood A

    2015-01-01

    Small unilamellar vesicles from camel milk phospholipids (CML) mixture or from 1,2 dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were prepared, and anticancer drugs doxorubicin (Dox) or etoposide (ETP) were loaded. Liposomal formulations were used against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Results showed a very high percentage of Dox encapsulation (~98%) in liposomes (Lip) prepared from CML-Lip or DPPC-Lip, whereas the percentage of encapsulations of ETP was on the lower side, 22% of CML-Lip and 18% for DPPC-Lip. Differential scanning calorimetry curves show that Dox enhances the lamellar formation in CML-Lip, whereas ETP enhances the nonlamellar formation. Differential scanning calorimetry curves also showed that the presence of Dox and ETP together into DPPC-Lip produced the interdigitation effect. The in vivo anticancer activity of liposomal formulations of Dox or ETP or a combination of both was assessed against benzopyrene (BAP)-induced fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of Dox and ETP loaded into CML-Lip showed increased survival and reduced tumor growth compared to other groups, including the combination of Dox and ETP in DPPC-Lip. Fibrosarcoma-bearing mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP) showed much higher tumor growth compared to those groups treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP) or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP). Immunohistochemical study was also performed to show the expression of tumor-suppressor PTEN, and it was found that the tumor tissues from the group of mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP) showed greater loss of cytoplasmic PTEN than tumor tissues obtained from the groups of mice treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP) or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP). PMID:25926730

  16. Risk-adjusted monitoring of survival times

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Reynolds, Marion R.; Woodall, William H.

    2009-02-26

    We consider the monitoring of clinical outcomes, where each patient has a di®erent risk of death prior to undergoing a health care procedure.We propose a risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM chart (RAST CUSUM) for monitoring clinical outcomes where the primary endpoint is a continuous, time-to-event variable that may be right censored. Risk adjustment is accomplished using accelerated failure time regression models. We compare the average run length performance of the RAST CUSUM chart to the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, using data from cardiac surgeries to motivate the details of the comparison. The comparisons show that the RAST CUSUM chart is more efficient at detecting a sudden decrease in the odds of death than the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, especially when the fraction of censored observations is not too high. We also discuss the implementation of a prospective monitoring scheme using the RAST CUSUM chart.

  17. Parental Expressivity, Child Physiological and Behavioral Regulation, and Child Adjustment: Testing a Three-Path Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Johnson, Audrea Y.; Smith, Tracy R.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Parental expressivity, child physiological regulation (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia suppression), child behavioral regulation, and child adjustment outcomes were examined in 45 children (M age = 4.32 years, SD = 1.30) and their parents. With the exception of child adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing…

  18. Map showing depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, R.J.; Ponce, D.A.

    2002-03-12

    This map shows the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area. It was prepared utilizing gravity (Ponce and others, 2001), geologic (Jennings and others, 1977; Stewart and Carlson, 1978), and drill-hole information. Geophysical investigations of the Death Valley ground-water model area are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwestern Nevada and parts of California. The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W.

  19. Effect of water availability on leaf water isotopic enrichment in beech seedlings shows limitations of current fractionation models.

    PubMed

    Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Cuntz, Matthias; Offermann, Christine; Siegwolf, Rolf; Saurer, Matthias; Gessler, Arthur

    2009-10-01

    Current models of leaf water enrichment predict that the differences between isotopic enrichment of water at the site of evaporation (Delta(e)) and mean lamina leaf water enrichment (Delta(L)) depend on transpiration rates (E), modulated by the scaled effective length (L) of water isotope movement in the leaf. However, variations in leaf parameters in response to changing environmental conditions might cause changes in the water path and thus L. We measured the diel course of Delta(L) for (18)O and (2)H in beech seedlings under well-watered and water-limited conditions. We applied evaporative enrichment models of increasing complexity to predict Delta(e) and Delta(L), and estimated L from model fits. Water-limited plants showed moderate drought stress, with lower stomatal conductance, E and stem water potential than the control. Despite having double E, the divergence between Delta(e) and Delta(L) was lower in well-watered than in water-limited plants, and thus, L should have changed to counteract differences in E. Indeed, L was about threefold higher in water-limited plants, regardless of the models used. We conclude that L changes with plant water status far beyond the variations explained by water content and other measured variables, thus limiting the use of current evaporative models under changing environmental conditions. PMID:19453484

  20. Respiratory pattern generator model using Ca++-induced Ca++ release in neurons shows both pacemaker and reciprocal network properties.

    PubMed

    Dunin-Barkowski, W L; Escobar, A L; Lovering, A T; Orem, J M

    2003-10-01

    There are two contradictory explanations for central respiratory rhythmogenesis. One suggests that respiratory rhythm emerges from interaction between inspiratory and expiratory neural semicenters that inhibit each other and thereby provide reciprocal rhythmic activity (Brown 1914). The other uses bursting pacemaker activity of individual neurons to produce the rhythm (Feldman and Cleland 1982). Hybrid models have been developed to reconcile these two seemingly conflicting mechanisms (Smith et al. 2000; Rybak et al. 2001). Here we report computer simulations that demonstrate a unified mechanism of the two types of oscillator. In the model, we use the interaction of Ca(++)-dependent K+ channels (Mifflin et al. 1985) with Ca(++)-induced Ca++ release from intracellular stores (McPherson and Campbell 1993), which was recently revealed in neurons (Hernandez-Cruz et al. 1997; Mitra and Slaughter 2002a,b; Scornik et al. 2001). Our computations demonstrate that uncoupled neurons with these intracellular mechanisms show conditional pacemaker properties (Butera et al. 1999) when exposed to steady excitatory inputs. Adding weak inhibitory synapses (based on increased K+ conductivity) between two model neural pools surprisingly synchronizes the activity of both neural pools. As inhibitory synaptic connections between the two pools increase from zero to higher values, the model produces first dissociated pacemaker activity of individual neurons, then periodic synchronous bursts of all neurons (inspiratory and expiratory), and finally reciprocal rhythmic activity of the neural pools. PMID:14605892

  1. Connecting with The Biggest Loser: an extended model of parasocial interaction and identification in health-related reality TV shows.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yan; Yoo, Jina H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates audience responses to health-related reality TV shows in the setting of The Biggest Loser. It conceptualizes a model for audience members' parasocial interaction and identification with cast members and explores antecedents and outcomes of parasocial interaction and identification. Data analysis suggests the following direct relationships: (1) audience members' exposure to the show is positively associated with parasocial interaction, which in turn is positively associated with identification, (2) parasocial interaction is positively associated with exercise self-efficacy, whereas identification is negatively associated with exercise self-efficacy, and (3) exercise self-efficacy is positively associated with exercise behavior. Indirect effects of parasocial interaction and identification on exercise self-efficacy and exercise behavior are also significant. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:24579692

  2. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research. PMID:21171548

  3. Transient response of the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere model to increasing carbon dioxide. Part I: Control climate and flux adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the initialization of an experiment to study the time-dependent response of a high-resolution global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model to a gradual increase in carbon dioxide. The stability of the control integration with respect to climate drift is assessed, and aspects of the model climatology relevant to the simulation of climate change are discussed. The observed variation of oceanic temperature with latitude and depth is basically well simulated, although, in common with other ocean models, the main thermocline is too diffuse. Nevertheless, it is found that large heat and water flux adjustments must be added to the surface layer of the ocean in order to prevent the occurrence of unacceptable climate drift. The ocean model appears to achieve insufficient meridional heat transport, and this is supported by the pattern of the heat flux adjustment term, although errors in the simulated atmosphere-ocean heat flux also contribute to the latter. The application of the flux adjustments restricts climate drift during the 75-year control experiment. However, a gradual warming still occurs in the surface layers of the Southern Ocean because the flux adjustments are inserted as additive terms in this integration and cannot therefore be guaranteed to prevent climate drift completely. 68 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  5. Setting health care capitations through diagnosis-based risk adjustment: a suitable model for the English NHS?

    PubMed

    Asthana, Sheena; Gibson, Alex

    2011-07-01

    The English system of health resource allocation has been described as the apotheosis of the area-level approach to setting health care capitations. However, recent policy developments have changed the scale at which commissioning decisions are made (and budgets allocated) with important implications for resource allocation. Doubts concerning the legitimacy of applying area-based formulae used to distribute resources between Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) to the much smaller scale required by Practice Based Commissioning (PBC) led the English Department of Health (DH) to introduce a new approach to setting health care budgets. To this end, practice-level allocations for acute services are now calculated using a diagnosis-based capitation model of the kind used in the United States and several other systems of competitive social health insurance. The new Coalition Government has proposed that these budgets are directly allocated to GP 'consortia', the new commissioning bodies in the NHS. This paper questions whether this is an appropriate development for a health system in which the major objective of resource allocation is to promote equal opportunity of access for equal needs. The chief reservation raised is that of circularity and the perpetuation of resource bias, the concern being that an existing social, demographic and geographical bias in the use of health care resources will be reinforced through the use of historic utilisation data. Demonstrating that there are legitimate reasons to suspect that this will be the case, the paper poses the question whether health systems internationally should more openly address the key limitations of empirical methods that select risk adjusters on the basis of existing patterns of health service utilisation. PMID:21093953

  6. Cystamine/cysteamine rescues the dopaminergic system and shows neurorestorative properties in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cisbani, G; Drouin-Ouellet, J; Gibrat, C; Saint-Pierre, M; Lagacé, M; Badrinarayanan, S; Lavallée-Bourget, M H; Charest, J; Chabrat, A; Boivin, L; Lebel, M; Bousquet, M; Lévesque, M; Cicchetti, F

    2015-10-01

    The neuroprotective properties of cystamine identified in pre-clinical studies have fast-tracked this compound to clinical trials in Huntington's disease, showing tolerability and benefits on motor symptoms. We tested whether cystamine could have such properties in a Parkinson's disease murine model and now provide evidence that it can not only prevent the neurodegenerative process but also can reverse motor impairments created by a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion 3 weeks post-surgery. Importantly, we report that cystamine has neurorestorative properties 5 weeks post-lesion as seen on the number of nigral dopaminergic neurons which is comparable with treatments of cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine used in the clinic, as well as rasagiline, increasingly prescribed in early parkinsonism. All three compounds induced neurite arborization of the remaining dopaminergic cells which was further confirmed in ex vivo dopaminergic explants derived from Pitx3-GFP mice. The disease-modifying effects displayed by cystamine/cysteamine would encourage clinical testing. PMID:26232588

  7. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  8. Pomalidomide Shows Significant Therapeutic Activity against CNS Lymphoma with a Major Impact on the Tumor Microenvironment in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhimin; Qiu, Yushi; Personett, David; Huang, Peng; Edenfield, Brandy; Katz, Jason; Babusis, Darius; Tang, Yang; Shirely, Michael A.; Moghaddam, Mehran F.; Copland, John A.; Tun, Han W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma carries a poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Pomalidomide (POM) is a novel immunomodulatory drug with anti-lymphoma activity. CNS pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in rats to assess the CNS penetration of POM. Preclinical evaluation of POM was performed in two murine models to assess its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. The impact of POM on the CNS lymphoma immune microenvironment was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. In vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to further investigate the impact of POM on the biology of macrophages. POM crosses the blood brain barrier with CNS penetration of ~ 39%. Preclinical evaluations showed that it had significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with significant reduction in tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival, that it had a major impact on the tumor microenvironment with an increase in macrophages and natural killer cells, and that it decreased M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages and increased M1-polarized macrophages when macrophages were evaluated based on polarization status. In vitro studies using various macrophage models showed that POM converted the polarization status of IL4-stimulated macrophages from M2 to M1, that M2 to M1 conversion by POM in the polarization status of lymphoma-associated macrophages is dependent on the presence of NK cells, that POM induced M2 to M1 conversion in the polarization of macrophages by inactivating STAT6 signaling and activating STAT1 signaling, and that POM functionally increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Based on our findings, POM is a promising therapeutic agent for CNS lymphoma with excellent CNS penetration, significant preclinical therapeutic activity, and a major impact on the tumor microenvironment. It can induce significant biological changes in tumor-associated macrophages, which likely play a major role in its therapeutic activity against CNS

  9. Novel AAV-Based Rat Model of Forebrain Synucleinopathy Shows Extensive Pathologies and Progressive Loss of Cholinergic Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Aldrin-Kirk, Patrick; Davidsson, Marcus; Holmqvist, Staffan; Li, Jia-Yi; Björklund, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Synucleinopathies, characterized by intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein protein, share a number of features in pathology and disease progression. However, the vulnerable cell population differs significantly between the disorders, despite being caused by the same protein. While the vulnerability of dopamine cells in the substantia nigra to α-synuclein over-expression, and its link to Parkinson's disease, is well studied, animal models recapitulating the cortical degeneration in dementia with Lewy-bodies (DLB) are much less mature. The aim of this study was to develop a first rat model of widespread progressive synucleinopathy throughout the forebrain using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector mediated gene delivery. Through bilateral injection of an AAV6 vector expressing human wild-type α-synuclein into the forebrain of neonatal rats, we were able to achieve widespread, robust α-synuclein expression with preferential expression in the frontal cortex. These animals displayed a progressive emergence of hyper-locomotion and dysregulated response to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine. The animals receiving the α-synuclein vector displayed significant α-synuclein pathology including intra-cellular inclusion bodies, axonal pathology and elevated levels of phosphorylated α-synuclein, accompanied by significant loss of cortical neurons and a progressive reduction in both cortical and striatal ChAT positive interneurons. Furthermore, we found evidence of α-synuclein sequestered by IBA-1 positive microglia, which was coupled with a distinct change in morphology. In areas of most prominent pathology, the total α-synuclein levels were increased to, on average, two-fold, which is similar to the levels observed in patients with SNCA gene triplication, associated with cortical Lewy body pathology. This study provides a novel rat model of progressive cortical synucleinopathy, showing for the first time that cholinergic interneurons are vulnerable to

  10. The HDACi Panobinostat Shows Growth Inhibition Both In Vitro and in a Bioluminescent Orthotopic Surgical Xenograft Model of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Helland, Øystein; Popa, Mihaela; Bischof, Katharina; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; McCormack, Emmet; Bjørge, Line

    2016-01-01

    Background In most epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC), epigenetic changes are evident, and overexpression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) represents an important manifestation. In this study, we wanted to evaluate the effects of the novel HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) panobinostat, both alone and in combination with carboplatin, on ovarian cancer cell lines and in a murine bioluminescent orthotopic surgical xenograft model for EOC. Methods The effects of panobinostat, both alone and in combination with carboplatin, on proliferation and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines, were evaluated using colony and WST-1 assays, Hoechst staining and flow cytometry analysis. In addition, mechanisms were characterised by western blotting and phosphoflow analysis. Immuno-deficient mice were engrafted orthotopically with SKOV-3luc+ cells and serial bioluminescence imaging monitored the effects of treatment with panobinostat and/or carboplatin and/or surgery. Survival parameters were also measured. Results Panobinostat treatment reduced cell growth and diminished cell viability, as shown by the induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro. We observed increased levels of cleaved PARP and caspase-3, downregulation of cdc2 protein kinase, acetylation of H2B and higher pH2AX expression. The combined administration of carboplatin and panobinostat synergistically increased the anti-tumour effects compared to panobinostat or carboplatin treatment alone. In our novel ovarian cancer model, the mice showed significantly higher rates of survival when treated with panobinostat, carboplatin or a combination of both, compared to the controls. Panobinostat was as efficient as carboplatin regarding prolongation of survival. No significant additional effect on survival was observed when surgery was combined with carboplatin/panobinostat treatment. Conclusions Panobinostat demonstrates effective in vitro growth inhibition in ovarian cancer cells. The efficacy of panobinostat and carboplatin was

  11. Antibodies targeting human IL1RAP (IL1R3) show therapeutic effects in xenograft models of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ågerstam, Helena; Karlsson, Christine; Hansen, Nils; Sandén, Carl; Askmyr, Maria; von Palffy, Sofia; Högberg, Carl; Rissler, Marianne; Wunderlich, Mark; Juliusson, Gunnar; Richter, Johan; Sjöström, Kjell; Bhatia, Ravi; Mulloy, James C.; Järås, Marcus; Fioretos, Thoas

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with a poor survival rate, and there is an urgent need for novel and more efficient therapies, ideally targeting AML stem cells that are essential for maintaining the disease. The interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP; IL1R3) is expressed on candidate leukemic stem cells in the majority of AML patients, but not on normal hematopoietic stem cells. We show here that monoclonal antibodies targeting IL1RAP have strong antileukemic effects in xenograft models of human AML. We demonstrate that effector-cell–mediated killing is essential for the observed therapeutic effects and that natural killer cells constitute a critical human effector cell type. Because IL-1 signaling is important for the growth of AML cells, we generated an IL1RAP-targeting antibody capable of blocking IL-1 signaling and show that this antibody suppresses the proliferation of primary human AML cells. Hence, IL1RAP can be efficiently targeted with an anti-IL1RAP antibody capable of both achieving antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and blocking of IL-1 signaling as modes of action. Collectively, these results provide important evidence in support of IL1RAP as a target for antibody-based treatment of AML. PMID:26261316

  12. Adjustment of Measurements with Multiplicative Errors: Error Analysis, Estimates of the Variance of Unit Weight, and Effect on Volume Estimation from LiDAR-Type Digital Elevation Models

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-01

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

  13. Adjustment of measurements with multiplicative errors: error analysis, estimates of the variance of unit weight, and effect on volume estimation from LiDAR-type digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2013-01-01

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

  14. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  15. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children’s Adjustment Among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents’ mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family Stress Model explained toddler-aged adjustment among Hurricane Katrina affected and nonaffected families. Two groups of very low-income mothers and their 2-year-old children participated (pre-Katrina, n = 55; post-Katrina, n = 47). Consistent with the Family Stress Model, financial strain and neighborhood violence were associated with higher levels of mothers’ depressed mood; depressed mood was linked to less parenting efficacy. Poor parenting efficacy was associated to more child internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:18645744

  16. Data for and adjusted regional regression models of volume and quality of urban storm-water runoff in Boise and Garden City, Idaho, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Previously developed U.S. Geological Survey regional regression models of runoff and 11 chemical constituents were evaluated to assess their suitability for use in urban areas in Boise and Garden City. Data collected in the study area were used to develop adjusted regional models of storm-runoff volumes and mean concentrations and loads of chemical oxygen demand, dissolved and suspended solids, total nitrogen and total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total and dissolved phosphorus, and total recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Explanatory variables used in these models were drainage area, impervious area, land-use information, and precipitation data. Mean annual runoff volume and loads at the five outfalls were estimated from 904 individual storms during 1976 through 1993. Two methods were used to compute individual storm loads. The first method used adjusted regional models of storm loads and the second used adjusted regional models for mean concentration and runoff volume. For large storms, the first method seemed to produce excessively high loads for some constituents and the second method provided more reliable results for all constituents except suspended solids. The first method provided more reliable results for large storms for suspended solids.

  17. Lithosphere and upper-mantle structure of the southern Baltic Sea estimated from modelling relative sea-level data with glacial isostatic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, H.; Kaufmann, G.; Lampe, R.

    2014-06-01

    During the last glacial maximum, a large ice sheet covered Scandinavia, which depressed the earth's surface by several 100 m. In northern central Europe, mass redistribution in the upper mantle led to the development of a peripheral bulge. It has been subsiding since the begin of deglaciation due to the viscoelastic behaviour of the mantle. We analyse relative sea-level (RSL) data of southern Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Poland and Lithuania to determine the lithospheric thickness and radial mantle viscosity structure for distinct regional RSL subsets. We load a 1-D Maxwell-viscoelastic earth model with a global ice-load history model of the last glaciation. We test two commonly used ice histories, RSES from the Australian National University and ICE-5G from the University of Toronto. Our results indicate that the lithospheric thickness varies, depending on the ice model used, between 60 and 160 km. The lowest values are found in the Oslo Graben area and the western German Baltic Sea coast. In between, thickness increases by at least 30 km tracing the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. In Poland and Lithuania, lithospheric thickness reaches up to 160 km. However, the latter values are not well constrained as the confidence regions are large. Upper-mantle viscosity is found to bracket [2-7] × 1020 Pa s when using ICE-5G. Employing RSES much higher values of 2 × 1021 Pa s are obtained for the southern Baltic Sea. Further investigations should evaluate whether this ice-model version and/or the RSL data need revision. We confirm that the lower-mantle viscosity in Fennoscandia can only be poorly resolved. The lithospheric structure inferred from RSES partly supports structural features of regional and global lithosphere models based on thermal or seismological data. While there is agreement in eastern Europe and southwest Sweden, the structure in an area from south of Norway to northern Germany shows large discrepancies for two of the tested lithosphere models. The lithospheric

  18. B-Cell-Deficient Mice Show an Exacerbated Inflammatory Response in a Model of Chlamydophila abortus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Buendía, Antonio J.; Del Río, Laura; Ortega, Nieves; Sánchez, Joaquín; Gallego, María C.; Caro, María R.; Navarro, Jose A.; Cuello, Francisco; Salinas, Jesús

    2002-01-01

    The resolution of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection is dependent on gamma interferon and CD8+ T cells, and classically, B cells have been considered to play a minimal role in host defense. The role of B cells in the immune response was studied by using a model of infection in mice with genetically modified immunoglobulin M transmembrane domains (μMT). In the absence of B cells, infection with C. abortus leads to an acute severe fatal disease that involves a disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome. μMT mice displayed an increased level of proinflammatory cytokines in serum, and an increased number of neutrophils was observed in the lesions. The possible deleterious role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of disease in μMT mice was determined by depletion of the neutrophils with the monoclonal antibody RB6-8C5. This led to an enhancement of the bacterial burden and early mortality in both μMT and wild-type mice, while necrotic lesions remained. Analysis of the presence of immunoregulatory cytokines showed significantly lower levels of transforming growth factor β in the sera of μMT mice. However, mice lacking mature B cells were able to establish a specific immune response that protected them from a secondary challenge. Taken together, these data suggest an immunomodulatory role for B cells in the early events of C. abortus primary infection that can protect mice against an exaggerated inflammatory response. PMID:12438369

  19. Improved BM212 MmpL3 Inhibitor Analogue Shows Efficacy in Acute Murine Model of Tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, Salvatore; Cocozza, Martina; Porretta, Giulio Cesare; Ballell, Lluís; Rullas, Joaquin; Ortega, Fátima; De Logu, Alessandro; Agus, Emanuela; La Rosa, Valentina; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; De Rossi, Edda; Wae, Baojie; Franzblau, Scott G.; Manetti, Fabrizio; Botta, Maurizio; Biava, Mariangela

    2013-01-01

    1,5-Diphenyl pyrroles were previously identified as a class of compounds endowed with high in vitro efficacy against M. tuberculosis. To improve the physical chemical properties and drug-like parameters of this class of compounds, a medicinal chemistry effort was undertaken. By selecting the optimal substitution patterns for the phenyl rings at N1 and C5 and by replacing the thiomorpholine moiety with a morpholine one, a new series of compounds was produced. The replacement of the sulfur with oxygen gave compounds with lower lipophilicity and improved in vitro microsomal stability. Moreover, since the parent compound of this family has been shown to target MmpL3, mycobacterial mutants resistant to two compounds have been isolated and characterized by sequencing the mmpL3 gene; all the mutants showed point mutations in this gene. The best compound identified to date was progressed to dose-response studies in an acute murine TB infection model. The resulting ED99 of 49 mg/Kg is within the range of commonly employed tuberculosis drugs, demonstrating the potential of this chemical series. The in vitro and in vivo target validation evidence presented here adds further weight to MmpL3 as a druggable target of interest for anti-tubercular drug discovery. PMID:23437287

  20. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Showing Reduced Unsaturated Lipid Content in the Hippocampus of a mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovjan, A.C.; Kretlow, A.; Miller, L.M.

    2010-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to visualize the unsaturated lipid content in specific regions of the hippocampus in the PSAPP mouse model of AD as a function of plaque formation. Specifically, the unsaturated lipid content was imaged using the olefinic {double_bond}CH stretching mode at 3012 cm{sup -1}. The axonal, dendritic, and somatic layers of the hippocampus were examined in the mice at 13, 24, 40, and 56 weeks old. Results showed that lipid unsaturation in the axonal layer was significantly increased with normal aging in control (CNT) mice (p < 0.01) but remained low and relatively constant in PSAPP mice. Thus, these findings indicate that unsaturated lipid content is reduced in hippocampal white matter during amyloid pathogenesis and that maintaining unsaturated lipid content early in the disease may be critical in avoiding progression of the disease.

  1. A longitudinal examination of the Adaptation to Poverty-Related Stress Model: predicting child and adolescent adjustment over time.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Rindlaub, Laura; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana; Rienks, Shauna; Bianco, Hannah; Markman, Howard J

    2013-01-01

    This study tests key tenets of the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model. This model (Wadsworth, Raviv, Santiago, & Etter, 2011 ) builds on Conger and Elder's family stress model by proposing that primary control coping and secondary control coping can help reduce the negative effects of economic strain on parental behaviors central to the family stress model, namely, parental depressive symptoms and parent-child interactions, which together can decrease child internalizing and externalizing problems. Two hundred seventy-five co-parenting couples with children between the ages of 1 and 18 participated in an evaluation of a brief family strengthening intervention, aimed at preventing economic strain's negative cascade of influence on parents, and ultimately their children. The longitudinal path model, analyzed at the couple dyad level with mothers and fathers nested within couple, showed very good fit, and was not moderated by child gender or ethnicity. Analyses revealed direct positive effects of primary control coping and secondary control coping on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms. Decreased economic strain predicted more positive father-child interactions, whereas increased secondary control coping predicted less negative mother-child interactions. Positive parent-child interactions, along with decreased parent depression and economic strain, predicted child internalizing and externalizing over the course of 18 months. Multiple-group models analyzed separately by parent gender revealed, however, that child age moderated father effects. Findings provide support for the adaptation to poverty-related stress model and suggest that prevention and clinical interventions for families affected by poverty-related stress may be strengthened by including modules that address economic strain and efficacious strategies for coping with strain. PMID:23323863

  2. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells From Diabetic Mice Show Impaired Vascular Stabilization in a Murine Model of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cronk, Stephen M.; Kelly-Goss, Molly R.; Ray, H. Clifton; Mendel, Thomas A.; Hoehn, Kyle L.; Bruce, Anthony C.; Dey, Bijan K.; Guendel, Alexander M.; Tavakol, Daniel N.; Herman, Ira M.; Yates, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by progressive vascular dropout with subsequent vision loss. We have recently shown that an intravitreal injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can stabilize the retinal microvasculature, enabling repair and regeneration of damaged capillary beds in vivo. Because an understanding of ASC status from healthy versus diseased donors will be important as autologous cellular therapies are developed for unmet clinical needs, we took advantage of the hyperglycemic Akimba mouse as a preclinical in vivo model of diabetic retinopathy in an effort aimed at evaluating therapeutic efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells (mASCs) derived either from healthy, nondiabetic or from diabetic mice. To these ends, Akimba mice received intravitreal injections of media conditioned by mASCs or mASCs themselves, subsequent to development of substantial retinal capillary dropout. mASCs from healthy mice were more effective than diabetic mASCs in protecting the diabetic retina from further vascular dropout. Engrafted ASCs were found to preferentially associate with the retinal vasculature. Conditioned medium was unable to recapitulate the vasoprotection seen with injected ASCs. In vitro diabetic ASCs showed decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis compared with healthy mASCs. Diabetic ASCs also secreted less vasoprotective factors than healthy mASCs, as determined by high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our findings suggest that diabetic ASCs are functionally impaired compared with healthy ASCs and support the utility of an allogeneic injection of ASCs versus autologous or conditioned media approaches in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25769654

  3. 14 Days of supplementation with blueberry extract shows anti-atherogenic properties and improves oxidative parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats model.

    PubMed

    Ströher, Deise Jaqueline; Escobar Piccoli, Jacqueline da Costa; Güllich, Angélica Aparecida da Costa; Pilar, Bruna Cocco; Coelho, Ritiéle Pinto; Bruno, Jamila Benvegnú; Faoro, Debora; Manfredini, Vanusa

    2015-01-01

    The effects of supplementation with blueberry (BE) extract (Vaccinium ashei Reade) for 14 consecutive days on biochemical, hematological, histopathological and oxidative parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats were investigated. After supplementation with lyophilized extract of BE, the levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased. Histopathological analysis showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) of aortic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rats. Oxidative parameters showed significant reductions (p < 0.05) in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and an increase in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The BE extract showed an important cardioprotective effect by the improvements in the serum lipid profile, antioxidant system, particularly in reducing oxidative stress associated with hypercholesterolemia and anti-atherogenic effect in rats. PMID:26171628

  4. Statistics of Dislocation Slip Avalanches in Nanosized Single Crystals Show Tuned Critical Behavior Predicted by a Simple Mean Field Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Nir; Jennings, Andrew T.; Tsekenis, Georgios; Kim, Ju-Young; Tao, Molei; Uhl, Jonathan T.; Greer, Julia R.; Dahmen, Karin A.

    2012-08-01

    We show that slowly sheared metallic nanocrystals deform via discrete strain bursts (slips), whose size distributions follow power laws with stress-dependent cutoffs. We show for the first time that plasticity reflects tuned criticality, by collapsing the stress-dependent slip-size distributions onto a predicted scaling function. Both power-law exponents and scaling function agree with mean-field theory predictions. Our study of 7 materials and 2 crystal structures, at various deformation rates, stresses, and crystal sizes down to 75 nm, attests to the universal characteristics of plasticity.

  5. T1 finite element model of Kümmell’s disease shows changes in the vertebral stress distribution

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yunshan; Ren, Dong; Jiang, Meng; Wang, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a finite element model of delayed post-traumatic vertebral osteonecrosis, analyze its effect on the vertebral stress distribution, and provide experimental evidence for osteonecrosis as a risk factor for loss of the vertebral corrective angle. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed on CT data of the lumbar vertebrae from a 29-year-old male without spinal lesions to develop a normal L1-L3 vertebral model and a model with post-traumatic vertebral osteonecrosis at level L2. Vertebral flexion, extension, and lateral bending were simulated using computer software to determine the stress distribution in the cortical and cancellous bone in the two models and the changes in the vertebral stress distribution with the size and location of the cavity. Simulation of a vertebral cavity tended to increase the Von Mises equivalent stress in the vertebral cancellous bone and reduce the equivalent stress in the cortical bone, while the vertebral equivalent stress displayed a reverse distribution. The equivalent stress was increased in both the cancellous and cortical bones with increasing cavity volume, and the equivalent stress in the cortical bone was always smaller than that in the normal vertebrae. Placing the cavity close to the endplate of the vertebrae tended to cause stress concentrations in the cancellous bone around the endplate. The cancellous bone with post-traumatic osteonecrosis tended to experience greater Von Mises equivalent stress than the normal vertebrae. Differences in the cavity volume and location may result in a more severe abnormal stress distribution. PMID:26884916

  6. Betting on change: Tenet deal with Vanguard shows it's primed to try ACO effort, new payment model.

    PubMed

    Kutscher, Beth

    2013-07-01

    Tenet Healthcare Corp.'s acquisition of Vanguard Health Systems is a sign the investor-owned chain is willing to take a chance on alternative payment models such as accountable care organizations. There's no certainty that ACOs will deliver the improvements on quality or cost savings, but Vanguard Vice Chairman Keith Pitts, left, says his system's Pioneer ACO in Detroit has already achieved some cost savings. PMID:23882720

  7. Functionally altered neurocircuits in a rat model of treatment-resistant depression show prominent role of the habenula.

    PubMed

    Gass, Natalia; Cleppien, Dirk; Zheng, Lei; Schwarz, Adam James; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Vollmayr, Barbara; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains a pressing clinical problem. Optimizing treatment requires better definition of the function and specificity of the brain circuits involved. To investigate disease-related alterations of brain function we used a genetic animal model of TRD, congenital learned helplessness (cLH), and functional magnetic resonance imaging as a translational tool. High-resolution regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and resting-state functional connectivity measurements were acquired at 9.4T to determine regional dysfunction and interactions that could serve as vulnerability markers for TRD. Effects of cLH on rCBV were determined by statistical parametric mapping using 35 atlas-based regions of interest. Effects of cLH on functional connectivity were assessed by seed region analyses. Significant bilateral rCBV reductions were observed in the lateral habenula, dentate gyrus and subiculum of cLH rats. In contrast, focal bilateral increase in rCBV was observed in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), a component of the habenular neurocircuitry. Functional connectivity was primarily enhanced in cLH rats, most notably with respect to serotonergic projections from the dorsal raphe nucleus to the forebrain, within the hippocampal-prefrontal network and between the BNST and lateral frontal regions. Dysregulation of neurocircuitry similar to that observed in depressed patients was detected in cLH rats, supporting the validity of the TRD model and suitability of high-field fMRI as a translational technology to detect and monitor vulnerability markers. Our findings also define neurocircuits that can be studied for TRD treatment in patients, and could be employed for translational research in rodent models. PMID:24370074

  8. A network model shows the importance of coupled processes in the microbial N cycle in the Cape Fear River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, David E.; Lisa, Jessica A.; Song, Bongkeun; Tobias, Craig R.; Borrett, Stuart R.

    2012-06-01

    Estuaries serve important ecological and economic functions including habitat provision and the removal of nutrients. Eutrophication can overwhelm the nutrient removal capacity of estuaries and poses a widely recognized threat to the health and function of these ecosystems. Denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) are microbial processes responsible for the removal of fixed nitrogen and diminish the effects of eutrophication. Both of these microbial removal processes can be influenced by direct inputs of dissolved inorganic nitrogen substrates or supported by microbial interactions with other nitrogen transforming pathways such as nitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). The coupling of nitrogen removal pathways to other transformation pathways facilitates the removal of some forms of inorganic nitrogen; however, differentiating between direct and coupled nitrogen removal is difficult. Network modeling provides a tool to examine interactions among microbial nitrogen cycling processes and to determine the within-system history of nitrogen involved in denitrification and anammox. To examine the coupling of nitrogen cycling processes, we built a nitrogen budget mass balance network model in two adjacent 1 cm3 sections of bottom water and sediment in the oligohaline portion of the Cape Fear River Estuary, NC, USA. Pathway, flow, and environ ecological network analyses were conducted to characterize the organization of nitrogen flow in the estuary and to estimate the coupling of nitrification to denitrification and of nitrification and DNRA to anammox. Centrality analysis indicated NH4+ is the most important form of nitrogen involved in removal processes. The model analysis further suggested that direct denitrification and coupled nitrification-denitrification had similar contributions to nitrogen removal while direct anammox was dominant to coupled forms of anammox. Finally, results also indicated that partial

  9. Gradual rebalancing of Medicaid long-term services and supports saves money and serves more people, statistical model shows.

    PubMed

    Kaye, H Stephen

    2012-06-01

    States are shifting Medicaid spending on long-term services and supports from institutional to home and community-based services, a process known as rebalancing. Using fifteen years of state expenditure data, a statistical model was developed to assess the effect of rebalancing on overall spending for long-term services and supports. The model indicates that spending is affected by the way rebalancing is implemented: Gradual rebalancing, by roughly two percentage points annually, can reduce spending by about 15 percent over ten years. More rapid rebalancing can save money, break even, or increase spending, depending on the pace and program specifics. Cuts to home and community-based services that hinder rebalancing are likely to increase, not decrease, overall spending on long-term services and supports as people who were receiving these services shift into nursing homes. Because many states continue to experience budget crises, policy makers must think carefully before altering spending patterns for long-term services and supports and adopt strategies that particular states have used to successfully reduce overall spending, such as gradually shifting expenditures toward home and community-based waiver programs. PMID:22665831

  10. A G-quadruplex-binding compound showing anti-tumour activity in an in vivo model for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ohnmacht, Stephan A; Marchetti, Chiara; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Besser, Rachael J; Haider, Shozeb M; Di Vita, Gloria; Lowe, Helen L; Mellinas-Gomez, Maria; Diocou, Seckou; Robson, Mathew; Šponer, Jiri; Islam, Barira; Barbara Pedley, R; Hartley, John A; Neidle, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We report here that a tetra-substituted naphthalene-diimide derivative (MM41) has significant in vivo anti-tumour activity against the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer xenograft model. IV administration with a twice-weekly 15 mg/kg dose produces ca 80% tumour growth decrease in a group of tumour-bearing animals. Two animals survived tumour-free after 279 days. High levels of MM41 are rapidly transported into cell nuclei and were found to accumulate in the tumour. MM41 is a quadruplex-interactive compound which binds strongly to the quadruplexes encoded in the promoter sequences of the BCL-2 and k-RAS genes, both of which are dis-regulated in many human pancreatic cancers. Levels of BCL-2 were reduced by ca 40% in tumours from MM41-treated animals relative to controls, consistent with BCL-2 being a target for MM41. Molecular modelling suggests that MM41 binds to a BCL-2 quadruplex in a manner resembling that previously observed in co-crystal structures with human telomeric quadruplexes. This supports the concept that MM41 (and by implication other quadruplex-targeting small molecules) can bind to quadruplex-forming promoter regions in a number of genes and down-regulate their transcription. We suggest that quadruplexes within those master genes that are up-regulated drivers for particular cancers, may be selective targets for compounds such as MM41. PMID:26077929

  11. A G-quadruplex-binding compound showing anti-tumour activity in an in vivo model for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohnmacht, Stephan A; Marchetti, Chiara; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Besser, Rachael J; Haider, Shozeb M; Di Vita, Gloria; Lowe, Helen L; Mellinas-Gomez, Maria; Diocou, Seckou; Robson, Mathew; Šponer, Jiri; Islam, Barira; Pedley, R Barbara; Hartley, John A; Neidle, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We report here that a tetra-substituted naphthalene-diimide derivative (MM41) has significant in vivo anti-tumour activity against the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer xenograft model. IV administration with a twice-weekly 15 mg/kg dose produces ca 80% tumour growth decrease in a group of tumour-bearing animals. Two animals survived tumour-free after 279 days. High levels of MM41 are rapidly transported into cell nuclei and were found to accumulate in the tumour. MM41 is a quadruplex-interactive compound which binds strongly to the quadruplexes encoded in the promoter sequences of the BCL-2 and k-RAS genes, both of which are dis-regulated in many human pancreatic cancers. Levels of BCL-2 were reduced by ca 40% in tumours from MM41-treated animals relative to controls, consistent with BCL-2 being a target for MM41. Molecular modelling suggests that MM41 binds to a BCL-2 quadruplex in a manner resembling that previously observed in co-crystal structures with human telomeric quadruplexes. This supports the concept that MM41 (and by implication other quadruplex-targeting small molecules) can bind to quadruplex-forming promoter regions in a number of genes and down-regulate their transcription. We suggest that quadruplexes within those master genes that are up-regulated drivers for particular cancers, may be selective targets for compounds such as MM41. PMID:26077929

  12. Relationship between efficiency and clinical effectiveness indicators in an adjusted model of resource consumption: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adjusted clinical groups (ACG®) have been widely used to adjust resource distribution; however, the relationship with effectiveness has been questioned. The purpose of the study was to measure the relationship between efficiency assessed by ACG® and a clinical effectiveness indicator in adults attended in Primary Health Care Centres (PHCs). Methods Research design: cross-sectional study. Subjects: 196, 593 patients aged >14 years in 13 PHCs in Catalonia (Spain). Measures: Age, sex, PHC, basic care team (BCT), visits, episodes (diagnoses), and total direct costs of PHC care and co-morbidity as measured by ACG® indicators: Efficiency indices for costs, visits, and episodes (costs EI, visits EI, episodes EI); a complexity or risk index (RI); and effectiveness measured by a general synthetic index (SI). The relationship between EI, RI, and SI in each PHC and BCT was measured by multiple correlation coefficients (r). Results In total, 56 of the 106 defined ACG® were present in the study population, with five corresponding to 44.5% of the patients, 11 to 68.0% of patients, and 30 present in less than 0.5% of the sample. The RI in each PHC ranged from 0.9 to 1.1. Costs, visits, and episodes had similar trends for efficiency in six PHCs. There was moderate correlation between costs EI and visits EI (r = 0.59). SI correlation with episodes EI and costs EI was moderate (r = 0.48 and r = −0.34, respectively) and was r = −0.14 for visits EI. Correlation between RI and SI was r = 0.29. Conclusions The Efficiency and Effectiveness ACG® indicators permit a comparison of primary care processes between PHCs. Acceptable correlation exists between effectiveness and indicators of efficiency in episodes and costs. PMID:24139144

  13. Actinobacteria from Termite Mounds Show Antiviral Activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model for Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Marina Aiello; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Martini, Matheus Cavalheiro; Barnabé, Ana Caroline de Souza; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Bomfim, Getúlio Freitas; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP) equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s) responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s) that had a peak retention time of 5 min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection. PMID:26579205

  14. Development of a computational framework to adjust the pre-impact spine posture of a whole-body model based on cadaver tests data.

    PubMed

    Poulard, David; Subit, Damien; Donlon, John-Paul; Kent, Richard W

    2015-02-26

    A method was developed to adjust the posture of a human numerical model to match the pre-impact posture of a human subject. The method involves pulling cables to prescribe the position and orientation of the head, spine and pelvis during a simulation. Six postured models matching the pre-impact posture measured on subjects tested in previous studies were created from a human numerical model. Posture scalars were measured on pre- and after applying the method to evaluate its efficiency. The lateral leaning angle θL defined between T1 and the pelvis in the coronal plane was found to be significantly improved after application with an average difference of 0.1±0.1° with the PMHS (4.6±2.7° before application). This method will be applied in further studies to analyze independently the contribution of pre-impact posture on impact response using human numerical models. PMID:25596635

  15. The FiR 1 photon beam model adjustment according to in-air spectrum measurements with the Mg(Ar) ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Koivunoro, H; Schmitz, T; Hippeläinen, E; Liu, Y-H; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Auterinen, I; Savolainen, S

    2014-06-01

    The mixed neutron-photon beam of FiR 1 reactor is used for boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in Finland. A beam model has been defined for patient treatment planning and dosimetric calculations. The neutron beam model has been validated with an activation foil measurements. The photon beam model has not been thoroughly validated against measurements, due to the fact that the beam photon dose rate is low, at most only 2% of the total weighted patient dose at FiR 1. However, improvement of the photon dose detection accuracy is worthwhile, since the beam photon dose is of concern in the beam dosimetry. In this study, we have performed ionization chamber measurements with multiple build-up caps of different thickness to adjust the calculated photon spectrum of a FiR 1 beam model. PMID:24588987

  16. Bonobos show limited social tolerance in a group setting: a comparison with chimpanzees and a test of the relational model.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Katherine A; De Groot, Evelien; Stevens, Jeroen M G

    2015-01-01

    Social tolerance is a core aspect of primate social relationships with implications for the evolution of cooperation, prosociality and social learning. We measured the social tolerance of bonobos in an experiment recently validated with chimpanzees to allow for a comparative assessment of group-level tolerance, and found that the bonobo group studied here exhibited lower social tolerance on average than chimpanzees in this paradigm. Furthermore, following the Relational Model of de Waal, we investigated whether bonobos responded to an increased potential for social conflict with tolerance, conflict avoidance or conflict escalation, and found that only behaviours indicative of conflict escalation differed across conditions. Taken together, these findings contribute to the current debate over the level of social tolerance of bonobos and lend support to the position that the social tolerance of bonobos may not be notably high compared with other primates. PMID:25926027

  17. Andhra Pradesh builds a model immunization system Indian state protects millions and shows what new vaccines and technologies can do.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Andhra Pradesh has built a model immunization program over the last few years. Main accomplishments include the state's adoption of hepatitis B for all its newborns and now, for the first time, the Indian government is offering universal coverage of all Indian infants with Hepatitis B vaccine. The AP government, working in partnership with PATH, an international, nonprofit organization based out of Seattle, Washington, USA, has made a series of improvements to the health system. The partnership fostered widespread adoption of safe injection practices and technologies, and improved immunization systems through responsive, supportive management. Japanese encephalitis (JE) control was greatly enhanced through the AP government partnership with PATH, resulting in a 90 percent reduction in cases of JE within the first year of joint efforts. PMID:15709588

  18. Pridopidine, a dopamine stabilizer, improves motor performance and shows neuroprotective effects in Huntington disease R6/2 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Squitieri, Ferdinando; Di Pardo, Alba; Favellato, Mariagrazia; Amico, Enrico; Maglione, Vittorio; Frati, Luigi

    2015-11-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which new treatments are urgently needed. Pridopidine is a new dopaminergic stabilizer, recently developed for the treatment of motor symptoms associated with HD. The therapeutic effect of pridopidine in patients with HD has been determined in two double-blind randomized clinical trials, however, whether pridopidine exerts neuroprotection remains to be addressed. The main goal of this study was to define the potential neuroprotective effect of pridopidine, in HD in vivo and in vitro models, thus providing evidence that might support a potential disease-modifying action of the drug and possibly clarifying other aspects of pridopidine mode-of-action. Our data corroborated the hypothesis of neuroprotective action of pridopidine in HD experimental models. Administration of pridopidine protected cells from apoptosis, and resulted in highly improved motor performance in R6/2 mice. The anti-apoptotic effect observed in the in vitro system highlighted neuroprotective properties of the drug, and advanced the idea of sigma-1-receptor as an additional molecular target implicated in the mechanism of action of pridopidine. Coherent with protective effects, pridopidine-mediated beneficial effects in R6/2 mice were associated with an increased expression of pro-survival and neurostimulatory molecules, such as brain derived neurotrophic factor and DARPP32, and with a reduction in the size of mHtt aggregates in striatal tissues. Taken together, these findings support the theory of pridopidine as molecule with disease-modifying properties in HD and advance the idea of a valuable therapeutic strategy for effectively treating the disease. PMID:26094900

  19. Bamboo Leaf Flavones and Tea Polyphenols Show a Lipid-lowering Effect in a Rat Model of Hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Yang, C; Yifan, L; Dan, L; Qian, Y; Ming-yan, J

    2015-12-01

    At present, most of the lipid-lowering drugs are western medicines, which have a lot of adverse reactions. Zhucha, an age-old Uyghur medicine, is made up of bamboo leaves and tea (green tea), which has good efficacy and lipid-lowering effect. The purpose of this study was to undertake a pharmacodynamic examination of the optimal proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols required to achieve lipid lowering in rats. A hyperlipidemia rat model was used to examine the lipid lowering effects of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols. Wistar rats were divided into 13 groups including one hyperlipidemia model group and 2 positive drug groups as well as experimental groups (9 groups dosed with different proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols, the 3 dosages of bamboo leaf flavones were 75 mg/kg/d, 50 mg/kg/d and 25 mg/kg/d respectively, the 3 dosages of tea polyphenol were 750 mg/kg/d, 500 mg/kg/d and 250 mg/kg/d). The weight, the levels of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were determined. A high dose of bamboo leaf flavones (75 mg/kg/d) combined with a medium dose of tea polyphenols (500 mg/kg/d) was deemed to be optimal for achieving a lipid-lowering effect, the weight had the smallest increase and the level of TG and HDL was similar to positive control. The bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols were mixed according to a certain proportion (1:6.7), and the mixture achieved a lipid-lowering effect and might prove to be useful as a natural lipid-lowering agent. PMID:25970469

  20. 42 CFR 422.310 - Risk adjustment data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Risk adjustment data. 422.310 Section 422.310... Organizations § 422.310 Risk adjustment data. (a) Definition of risk adjustment data. Risk adjustment data are all data that are used in the development and application of a risk adjustment payment model. (b)...

  1. 42 CFR 422.310 - Risk adjustment data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Risk adjustment data. 422.310 Section 422.310... Organizations § 422.310 Risk adjustment data. (a) Definition of risk adjustment data. Risk adjustment data are all data that are used in the development and application of a risk adjustment payment model. (b)...

  2. 42 CFR 422.310 - Risk adjustment data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Risk adjustment data. 422.310 Section 422.310....310 Risk adjustment data. (a) Definition of risk adjustment data. Risk adjustment data are all data that are used in the development and application of a risk adjustment payment model. (b)...

  3. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy

    2015-04-01

    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. PMID:25198414

  4. Proteasomes remain intact, but show early focal alteration in their composition in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kabashi, Edor; Agar, Jeffrey N; Hong, Yu; Taylor, David M; Minotti, Sandra; Figlewicz, Denise A; Durham, Heather D

    2008-06-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), altered solubility and aggregation of the mutant protein implicates failure of pathways for detecting and catabolizing misfolded proteins. Our previous studies demonstrated early reduction of proteasome-mediated proteolytic activity in lumbar spinal cord of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice, tissue particularly vulnerable to disease. The purpose of this study was to identify any underlying abnormalities in proteasomal structure. In lumbar spinal cord of pre-symptomatic mice [postnatal day 45 (P45) and P75], normal levels of structural 20S alpha subunits were incorporated into 20S/26S proteasomes; however, proteasomal complexes separated by native gel electrophoresis showed decreased immunoreactivity with antibodies to beta3, a structural subunit of the 20S proteasome core, and beta5, the subunit with chymotrypsin-like activity. This occurred prior to increase in beta5i immunoproteasomal subunit. mRNA levels were maintained and no association of mutant SOD1 with proteasomes was identified, implicating post-transcriptional mechanisms. mRNAs also were maintained in laser captured motor neurons at a later stage of disease (P100) in which multiple 20S proteins are reduced relative to the surrounding neuropil. Increase in detergent-insoluble, ubiquitinated proteins at P75 provided further evidence of stress on mechanisms of protein quality control in multiple cell types prior to significant motor neuron death. PMID:18315558

  5. Andrographis Paniculata shows anti-nociceptive effects in an animal model of sensory hypersensitivity associated with migraine

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Rosaria; Siani, Francesca; Demartini, Chiara; Zanaboni, Annamaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) to rats induces a hyperalgesic condition and neuronal activation of central structures involved in migraine pain. In order to identify therapeutic strategies for migraine pain, we evaluated the anti-nociceptive activity of Andrographis Paniculata (AP), a herbaceous plant, in the hyperalgesia induced by NTG administration in the formalin test. We also analyzed mRNA expression of cytokines in specific brain areas after AP treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with AP extract 30 minutes before NTG or vehicle injection. The data show that AP extract significantly reduced NTG-induced hyperalgesia in phase II of the test, 4 hours after NTG injection. In addition, AP extract reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in the medulla and mesencephalon and also mRNA levels of TNF-alpha in the mesencephalic region. These findings suggest that AP extract may be a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of general pain, and possibly of migraine. PMID:27027895

  6. Andrographis Paniculata shows anti-nociceptive effects in an animal model of sensory hypersensitivity associated with migraine.

    PubMed

    Greco, Rosaria; Siani, Francesca; Demartini, Chiara; Zanaboni, Annamaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) to rats induces a hyperalgesic condition and neuronal activation of central structures involved in migraine pain. In order to identify therapeutic strategies for migraine pain, we evaluated the anti-nociceptive activity of Andrographis Paniculata (AP), a herbaceous plant, in the hyperalgesia induced by NTG administration in the formalin test. We also analyzed mRNA expression of cytokines in specific brain areas after AP treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with AP extract 30 minutes before NTG or vehicle injection. The data show that AP extract significantly reduced NTG-induced hyperalgesia in phase II of the test, 4 hours after NTG injection. In addition, AP extract reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in the medulla and mesencephalon and also mRNA levels of TNFalpha in the mesencephalic region. These findings suggest that AP extract may be a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of general pain, and possibly of migraine. PMID:27027895

  7. Osmotic adjustment and requirement for sodium in marine protist thraustochytrid.

    PubMed

    Shabala, Lana; McMeekin, Tom; Shabala, Sergey

    2009-07-01

    A non-invasive ion-selective microelectrode technique was used to elucidate the ionic mechanisms of osmotic adjustment in a marine protist thraustochytrid. Hypoosmotic stress caused significant efflux of Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) from thraustochytrid cells. Model calculations showed that almost complete osmotic adjustment was achieved within the first 30 min after stress onset. Of these, sodium was the major contributor (more than half of the total osmotic adjustment), with chloride being the second major contributor. The role of K(+) in the process of osmotic adjustment was relatively small. Changes in Ca(2+) and H(+) flux were attributed to intracellular signalling. Ion flux data were confirmed by growth experiments. Thraustochytrium cells showed normal growth patterns even when grown in a sodium-free solution provided the medium osmolality was adjusted by mannitol to one of the seawater. That suggests that the requirement of sodium for thraustochytrid growth cycle is due to its role in cell osmotic adjustment rather than because of the direct Na(+) involvement in cell metabolism. Altogether, these data demonstrate the evidence for turgor regulation in thraustochytrids and suggest that these cells may be grown in the absence of sodium providing that cell turgor is adjusted by some other means. PMID:20849566

  8. Methods to adjust for misclassification in the quantiles for the generalized linear model with measurement error in continuous exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Yun; Dieu Tapsoba, Jean De; Duggan, Catherine; Campbell, Kristin L; McTiernan, Anne

    2016-05-10

    In many biomedical studies, covariates of interest may be measured with errors. However, frequently in a regression analysis, the quantiles of the exposure variable are often used as the covariates in the regression analysis. Because of measurement errors in the continuous exposure variable, there could be misclassification in the quantiles for the exposure variable. Misclassification in the quantiles could lead to bias estimation in the association between the exposure variable and the outcome variable. Adjustment for misclassification will be challenging when the gold standard variables are not available. In this paper, we develop two regression calibration estimators to reduce bias in effect estimation. The first estimator is normal likelihood-based. The second estimator is linearization-based, and it provides a simple and practical correction. Finite sample performance is examined via a simulation study. We apply the methods to a four-arm randomized clinical trial that tested exercise and weight loss interventions in women aged 50-75years. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26593772

  9. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  10. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  11. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  12. Model-Based Estimates of the Effects of Efavirenz on Bedaquiline Pharmacokinetics and Suggested Dose Adjustments for Patients Coinfected with HIV and Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Elin M.; Aweeka, Francesca; Park, Jeong-Gun; Marzan, Florence; Karlsson, Mats O.

    2013-01-01

    Safe, effective concomitant treatment regimens for tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infection are urgently needed. Bedaquiline (BDQ) is a promising new anti-TB drug, and efavirenz (EFV) is a commonly used antiretroviral. Due to EFV's induction of cytochrome P450 3A4, the metabolic enzyme responsible for BDQ biotransformation, the drugs are expected to interact. Based on data from a phase I, single-dose pharmacokinetic study, a nonlinear mixed-effects model characterizing BDQ pharmacokinetics and interaction with multiple-dose EFV was developed. BDQ pharmacokinetics were best described by a 3-compartment disposition model with absorption through a dynamic transit compartment model. Metabolites M2 and M3 were described by 2-compartment models with clearance of BDQ and M2, respectively, as input. Impact of induction was described as an instantaneous change in clearance 1 week after initialization of EFV treatment and estimated for all compounds. The model predicts average steady-state concentrations of BDQ and M2 to be reduced by 52% (relative standard error [RSE], 3.7%) with chronic coadministration. A range of models with alternative structural assumptions regarding onset of induction effect and fraction metabolized resulted in similar estimates of the typical reduction and did not offer a markedly better fit to data. Simulations to investigate alternative regimens mitigating the estimated interaction effect were performed. The results suggest that simple adjustments of the standard regimen during EFV coadministration can prevent reduced exposure to BDQ without increasing exposures to M2. However, exposure to M3 would increase. Evaluation in clinical trials of adjusted regimens is necessary to ensure appropriate dosing for HIV-infected TB patients on an EFV-based regimen. PMID:23571542

  13. Evaluation of a two-part regression calibration to adjust for dietary exposure measurement error in the Cox proportional hazards model: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Agogo, George O; van der Voet, Hilko; Van't Veer, Pieter; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Boshuizen, Hendriek C

    2016-07-01

    Dietary questionnaires are prone to measurement error, which bias the perceived association between dietary intake and risk of disease. Short-term measurements are required to adjust for the bias in the association. For foods that are not consumed daily, the short-term measurements are often characterized by excess zeroes. Via a simulation study, the performance of a two-part calibration model that was developed for a single-replicate study design was assessed by mimicking leafy vegetable intake reports from the multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. In part I of the fitted two-part calibration model, a logistic distribution was assumed; in part II, a gamma distribution was assumed. The model was assessed with respect to the magnitude of the correlation between the consumption probability and the consumed amount (hereafter, cross-part correlation), the number and form of covariates in the calibration model, the percentage of zero response values, and the magnitude of the measurement error in the dietary intake. From the simulation study results, transforming the dietary variable in the regression calibration to an appropriate scale was found to be the most important factor for the model performance. Reducing the number of covariates in the model could be beneficial, but was not critical in large-sample studies. The performance was remarkably robust when fitting a one-part rather than a two-part model. The model performance was minimally affected by the cross-part correlation. PMID:27003183

  14. Modeling the Human Kinetic Adjustment Factor for Inhaled Volatile Organic Chemicals: Whole Population Approach versus Distinct Subpopulation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Valcke, M.; Nong, A.; Krishnan, K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of whole- and sub-population-related variabilities on the determination of the human kinetic adjustment factor (HKAF) used in risk assessment of inhaled volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Monte Carlo simulations were applied to a steady-state algorithm to generate population distributions for blood concentrations (CAss) and rates of metabolism (RAMs) for inhalation exposures to benzene (BZ) and 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D). The simulated population consisted of various proportions of adults, elderly, children, neonates and pregnant women as per the Canadian demography. Subgroup-specific input parameters were obtained from the literature and P3M software. Under the “whole population” approach, the HKAF was computed as the ratio of the entire population's upper percentile value (99th, 95th) of dose metrics to the median value in either the entire population or the adult population. Under the “distinct subpopulation” approach, the upper percentile values in each subpopulation were considered, and the greatest resulting HKAF was retained. CAss-based HKAFs that considered the Canadian demography varied between 1.2 (BZ) and 2.8 (1,4-D). The “distinct subpopulation” CAss-based HKAF varied between 1.6 (BZ) and 8.5 (1,4-D). RAM-based HKAFs always remained below 1.6. Overall, this study evaluated for the first time the impact of underlying assumptions with respect to the interindividual variability considered (whole population or each subpopulation taken separately) when determining the HKAF. PMID:22523487

  15. Adjusting for Unequal Variances when Comparing Means in One-Way and Two-Way Fixed Effects ANOVA Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of handling unequal variances in the two-way fixed effects analysis of variance (ANOVA) model are described. One is based on an improved Wilcox (1988) method for the one-way model, and the other is an extension of G. S. James' (1951) second order method. (TJH)

  16. Multivariate Models of Parent-Late Adolescent Gender Dyads: The Importance of Parenting Processes in Predicting Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…

  17. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  18. From skin to bulk: An adjustment technique for assimilation of satellite-derived temperature observations in numerical models of small inland water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaheri, Amir; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Miller, Robert N.

    2016-06-01

    Data Assimilation (DA) has been proposed for multiple water resources studies that require rapid employment of incoming observations to update and improve accuracy of operational prediction models. The usefulness of DA approaches in assimilating water temperature observations from different types of monitoring technologies (e.g., remote sensing and in-situ sensors) into numerical models of in-land water bodies (e.g., lakes and reservoirs) has, however, received limited attention. In contrast to in-situ temperature sensors, remote sensing technologies (e.g., satellites) provide the benefit of collecting measurements with better X-Y spatial coverage. However, assimilating water temperature measurements from satellites can introduce biases in the updated numerical model of water bodies because the physical region represented by these measurements do not directly correspond with the numerical model's representation of the water column. This study proposes a novel approach to address this representation challenge by coupling a skin temperature adjustment technique based on available air and in-situ water temperature observations, with an ensemble Kalman filter based data assimilation technique. Additionally, the proposed approach used in this study for four-dimensional analysis of a reservoir provides reasonably accurate surface layer and water column temperature forecasts, in spite of the use of a fairly small ensemble. Application of the methodology on a test site - Eagle Creek Reservoir - in Central Indiana demonstrated that assimilation of remotely sensed skin temperature data using the proposed approach improved the overall root mean square difference between modeled surface layer temperatures and the adjusted remotely sensed skin temperature observations from 5.6°C to 0.51°C (i.e., 91% improvement). In addition, the overall error in the water column temperature predictions when compared with in-situ observations also decreased from 1.95°C (before assimilation

  19. Measuring demand for flat water recreation using a two-stage/disequilibrium travel cost model with adjustment for overdispersion and self-selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, John R.; Johnson, Donn; Taylor, R. Garth

    2003-04-01

    An alternate travel cost model is applied to an on-site sample to estimate the value of flat water recreation on the impounded lower Snake River. Four contiguous reservoirs would be eliminated if the dams are breached to protect endangered Pacific salmon and steelhead trout. The empirical method applies truncated negative binomial regression with adjustment for endogenous stratification. The two-stage decision model assumes that recreationists allocate their time among work and leisure prior to deciding among consumer goods. The allocation of time and money among goods in the second stage is conditional on the predetermined work time and income. The second stage is a disequilibrium labor market which also applies if employers set work hours or if recreationists are not in the labor force. When work time is either predetermined, fixed by contract, or nonexistent, recreationists must consider separate prices and budgets for time and money.

  20. Adjustment of Sonar and Laser Acquisition Data for Building the 3D Reference Model of a Canal Tunnel.

    PubMed

    Moisan, Emmanuel; Charbonnier, Pierre; Foucher, Philippe; Grussenmeyer, Pierre; Guillemin, Samuel; Koehl, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the construction of a full 3D model of a canal tunnel by combining terrestrial laser (for its above-water part) and sonar (for its underwater part) scans collected from static acquisitions. The modeling of such a structure is challenging because the sonar device is used in a narrow environment that induces many artifacts. Moreover, the location and the orientation of the sonar device are unknown. In our approach, sonar data are first simultaneously denoised and meshed. Then, above- and under-water point clouds are co-registered to generate directly the full 3D model of the canal tunnel. Faced with the lack of overlap between both models, we introduce a robust algorithm that relies on geometrical entities and partially-immersed targets, which are visible in both the laser and sonar point clouds. A full 3D model, visually promising, of the entrance of a canal tunnel is obtained. The analysis of the method raises several improvement directions that will help with obtaining more accurate models, in a more automated way, in the limits of the involved technology. PMID:26690444

  1. Adjustment of Sonar and Laser Acquisition Data for Building the 3D Reference Model of a Canal Tunnel †

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Emmanuel; Charbonnier, Pierre; Foucher, Philippe; Grussenmeyer, Pierre; Guillemin, Samuel; Koehl, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the construction of a full 3D model of a canal tunnel by combining terrestrial laser (for its above-water part) and sonar (for its underwater part) scans collected from static acquisitions. The modeling of such a structure is challenging because the sonar device is used in a narrow environment that induces many artifacts. Moreover, the location and the orientation of the sonar device are unknown. In our approach, sonar data are first simultaneously denoised and meshed. Then, above- and under-water point clouds are co-registered to generate directly the full 3D model of the canal tunnel. Faced with the lack of overlap between both models, we introduce a robust algorithm that relies on geometrical entities and partially-immersed targets, which are visible in both the laser and sonar point clouds. A full 3D model, visually promising, of the entrance of a canal tunnel is obtained. The analysis of the method raises several improvement directions that will help with obtaining more accurate models, in a more automated way, in the limits of the involved technology. PMID:26690444

  2. A Glacial Isostatic Adjustment Model for the Central and Northern Laurentide Ice Sheet based on Relative Sea-level and GPS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    The thickness and equivalent global sea-level contribution of an improved model of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet is constrained by 24 relative sea-level histories and 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates. The final model, termed Laur16, is derived from the ICE-5 G model by holding the timing history constant and iteratively adjusting the thickness history, in four regions of northern Canada. In the final model, the last glacial maximum (LGM) thickness of the Laurentide Ice Sheet west of Hudson Bay was ˜3.4-3.6 km. Conversely, east of Hudson Bay, peak ice thicknesses reached ˜4 km. The ice model thicknesses inferred for these two regions represent, respectively, a ˜30% decrease and an average ˜20-25% increase to the load thickness relative to the ICE-5 G reconstruction, which is generally consistent with other recent studies that have focussed on Laurentide Ice Sheet history. The final model also features peak ice thicknesses of 1.2-1.3 km in the Baffin Island region, a modest reduction relative to ICE-5 G, and unchanged thicknesses for a region in the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago west of Baffin Island. Vertical land motion predictions of the final model fit observed crustal uplift rates well, after an adjustment is made for the elastic crustal response to present-day ice mass changes of regional ice cover. The new Laur16 model provides more than a factor of two improvement of the fit to the RSL data (χ2 measure of misfit) and a factor of nine improvement to the fit of the GPS data (mean squared error measure of fit), compared to the ICE-5 G starting model. Laur16 also fits the regional RSL data better by a factor of two and gives a slightly better fit to GPS uplift rates than the recent ICE-6 G model. The volume history of the Laur16 reconstruction corresponds to an up to 8 m reduction in global sea-level equivalent compared to ICE-5 G at LGM.

  3. A glacial isostatic adjustment model for the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet based on relative sea level and GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    The thickness and equivalent global sea level contribution of an improved model of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet is constrained by 24 relative sea level histories and 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates. The final model, termed Laur16, is derived from the ICE-5G model by holding the timing history constant and iteratively adjusting the thickness history, in four regions of northern Canada. In the final model, the last glacial maximum (LGM) thickness of the Laurentide Ice Sheet west of Hudson Bay was ˜3.4-3.6 km. Conversely, east of Hudson Bay, peak ice thicknesses reached ˜4 km. The ice model thicknesses inferred for these two regions represent, respectively, a ˜30 per cent decrease and an average ˜20-25 per cent increase to the load thickness relative to the ICE-5G reconstruction, which is generally consistent with other recent studies that have focussed on Laurentide Ice Sheet history. The final model also features peak ice thicknesses of 1.2-1.3 km in the Baffin Island region, a modest reduction relative to ICE-5G and unchanged thicknesses for a region in the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago west of Baffin Island. Vertical land motion predictions of the final model fit observed crustal uplift rates well, after an adjustment is made for the elastic crustal response to present-day ice mass changes of regional ice cover. The new Laur16 model provides more than a factor of two improvement of the fit to the RSL data (χ2 measure of misfit) and a factor of nine improvement to the fit of the GPS data (mean squared error measure of fit), compared to the ICE-5G starting model. Laur16 also fits the regional RSL data better by a factor of two and gives a slightly better fit to GPS uplift rates than the recent ICE-6G model. The volume history of the Laur16 reconstruction corresponds to an up to 8 m reduction in global sea level equivalent compared to ICE-5G at LGM.

  4. Dynamic fe Model of Sitting Man Adjustable to Body Height, Body Mass and Posture Used for Calculating Internal Forces in the Lumbar Vertebral Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankoke, S.; Buck, B.; Woelfel, H. P.

    1998-08-01

    Long-term whole-body vibrations can cause degeneration of the lumbar spine. Therefore existing degeneration has to be assessed as well as industrial working places to prevent further damage. Hence, the mechanical stress in the lumbar spine—especially in the three lower vertebrae—has to be known. This stress can be expressed as internal forces. These internal forces cannot be evaluated experimentally, because force transducers cannot be implementated in the force lines because of ethical reasons. Thus it is necessary to calculate the internal forces with a dynamic mathematical model of sitting man.A two dimensional dynamic Finite Element model of sitting man is presented which allows calculation of these unknown internal forces. The model is based on an anatomic representation of the lower lumbar spine (L3-L5). This lumber spine model is incorporated into a dynamic model of the upper torso with neck, head and arms as well as a model of the body caudal to the lumbar spine with pelvis and legs. Additionally a simple dynamic representation of the viscera is used. All these parts are modelled as rigid bodies connected by linear stiffnesses. Energy dissipation is modelled by assigning modal damping ratio to the calculated undamped eigenvalues. Geometry and inertial properties of the model are determined according to human anatomy. Stiffnesses of the spine model are derived from static in-vitro experiments in references [1] and [2]. Remaining stiffness parameters and parameters for energy dissipation are determined by using parameter identification to fit measurements in reference [3]. The model, which is available in 3 different postures, allows one to adjust its parameters for body height and body mass to the values of the person for which internal forces have to be calculated.

  5. Factor demand in Swedish manufacturing industry with special reference to the demand for energy. Instantaneous adjustment models; some results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjoeholm, K. R.

    1981-02-01

    The dual approach to the theory of production is used to estimate factor demand functions of the Swedish manufacturing industry. Two approximations of the cost function, the translog and the generalized Leontief models, are used. The price elasticities of the factor demand do not seem to depend on the choice of model. This is at least true as to the sign pattern and as to the inputs capital, labor, total energy and other materials. Total energy is separated into solid fuels, gasoline, fuel oil, electricity and a residual. Fuel oil and electricity are found to be substitutes by both models. Capital and energy are shown to be substitutes. This implies that Swedish industry will save more energy if the capital cost can be reduced. Both models are, in the best versions, able to detect an inappropriate variable. The assumption of perfect competition on the product market, is shown to be inadequate by both models. When this assumption is relaxed, the normal substitution pattern among the inputs is resumed.

  6. Adult Attachment and Dyadic Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Shame.

    PubMed

    Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena

    2016-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that adult attachment is associated with romantic relationship quality, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of external and internal shame on the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. A battery of self-report measures was completed by 228 Portuguese participants and a serial multiple mediation model was tested. Data showed that, in the population under study, attachment dimensions were associated with worse dyadic adjustment through high external and internal shame. Internal shame alone also mediated the association between attachment avoidance and dyadic adjustment. This study identifies a new putative mechanism linking adult attachment and intimate relationship functioning that may be targeted in couples therapy to promote a better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning. PMID:26759960

  7. Parental bonding in males with adjustment disorder and hyperventilation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to identify the style of parental bonding and the personality characteristics that might increase the risk of hyperventilation and adjustment disorder. Methods A total of 917 males were recruited, 156 with adjustment disorder and hyperventilation syndrome (AD + HY), 273 with adjustment disorder without hyperventilation syndrome (AD–HY), and 488 healthy controls. All participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and Chinese Health Questionnaire. Results Analysis using structural equation models identified a pathway relationship in which parental bonding affected personality characteristics, personality characteristics affected mental health condition, and mental health condition affected the development of hyperventilation or adjustment disorder. Males with AD–HY perceived less paternal care, and those with AD + HY perceived more maternal protection than those with adjustment disorder and those in the control group. Participants with AD–HY were more neurotic and less extroverted than those with AD + HY. Both groups showed poorer mental health than the controls. Conclusions Although some patients with hyperventilation syndrome demonstrated symptoms of adjustment disorder, there were different predisposing factors between the two groups in terms of parental bonding and personality characteristics. This finding is important for the early intervention and prevention of hyperventilation and adjustment disorder. PMID:22672223

  8. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  9. Family, Neighborhood, and Peer Characteristics as Predictors of Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Analysis of Additive and Mediation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Moilanen, Kristin L.; Hitchings, Julia E.; Ingoldsby, Erin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test direct, additive, and mediation models involving family, neighborhood, and peer factors in relation to emerging antisocial behavior and social skills. Neighborhood danger, maternal depressive symptoms, and supportive parenting were assessed in early childhood. Peer group acceptance was measured in middle…

  10. Phototropic adjustment of the foliaceous coral Echinopora lamellosa in Palau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Akihiro; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Atsushi; van Woesik, Robert

    2008-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that foliose plates of Echinopora lamellosa (Esper, 1795) adjust their primary growth direction (or slope from the horizontal) when irradiance (light) is limiting. This hypothesis was tested at a coral-reef locality that is shaded daily by steep adjacent hills, restricting direct light to only a few hours each day (Iwayama Bay, Palau). The angle at which colonies received maximum light was measured using acetate film, and was compared with modeled estimates (using a simple global-light model). We show strong relationships between light and primary-colony gradients; with the foliose plates acting as parabolic antennae, predictably adjusting their primary gradients to optimize light capture.

  11. Adjusted Rasch person-fit statistics.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M; Smith, Richard M

    2006-01-01

    Two frequently used parametric statistics of person-fit with the dichotomous Rasch model (RM) are adjusted and compared to each other and to their original counterparts in terms of power to detect aberrant response patterns in short tests (10, 20, and 30 items). Specifically, the cube root transformation of the mean square for the unweighted person-fit statistic, t, and the standardized likelihood-based person-fit statistic Z3 were adjusted by estimating the probability for correct item response through the use of symmetric functions in the dichotomous Rasch model. The results for simulated unidimensional Rasch data indicate that t and Z3 are consistently, yet not greatly, outperformed by their adjusted counterparts, denoted t* and Z3*, respectively. The four parametric statistics, t, Z3, t*, and Z3*, were also compared to a non-parametric statistic, HT, identified in recent research as outperforming numerous parametric and non-parametric person-fit statistics. The results show that HT substantially outperforms t, Z3, t*, and Z3* in detecting aberrant response patterns for 20-item and 30-item tests, but not for very short tests of 10 items. The detection power of t, Z3, t*, and Z3*, and HT at two specific levels of Type I error, .10 and .05 (i.e., up to 10% and 5% false alarm rate, respectively), is also reported. PMID:16632900

  12. Effects of the Oregon Model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) on Marital Adjustment in New Stepfamilies: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Lisha; Wachlarowicz, Marissa; DeLeeuw, Jamie; Snyder, James; Low, Sabina; Forgatch, Marion; DeGarmo, David

    2010-01-01

    Effects of intervention with the Oregon model of Parent Management Training (PMTO™) on marital relationship processes and marital satisfaction in recently married biological mother and stepfather couples were examined. Sixty-seven of the 110 participating families were randomly assigned to PMTO, and 43 families to a non-intervention condition. Intervention had reliable positive indirect effects on marital relationship processes 24 months after baseline which in turn were associated with higher marital satisfaction. These indirect effects were mediated by the impact of PMTO on parenting practices 6 months after baseline. Enhanced parenting practices resulting from PMTO prevented escalation of subsequent child behavior problems at school. Consistent with a family systems perspective and research on challenges to marital quality in stepfamilies, improved co-parenting practices were associated with enhanced marital relationship skills and marital satisfaction as well as with prevention of child behavior problems. PMID:20731495

  13. Effects of the Oregon model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) on marital adjustment in new stepfamilies: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Lisha; Wachlarowicz, Marissa; DeLeeuw, Jamie; Snyder, James; Low, Sabina; Forgatch, Marion; DeGarmo, David

    2010-08-01

    Effects of intervention with the Oregon model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) on marital relationship processes and marital satisfaction in recently married biological mother and stepfather couples were examined. Sixty-seven of the 110 participating families were randomly assigned to PMTO, and 43 families to a non-intervention condition. Intervention had reliable positive indirect effects on marital relationship processes 24 months after baseline which in turn were associated with higher marital satisfaction. These indirect effects were mediated by the impact of PMTO on parenting practices 6 months after baseline. Enhanced parenting practices resulting from PMTO prevented escalation of subsequent child behavior problems at school. Consistent with a family systems perspective and research on challenges to marital quality in stepfamilies, improved co-parenting practices were associated with enhanced marital relationship skills and marital satisfaction as well as with prevention of child behavior problems. PMID:20731495

  14. Design of a cost-effective, hemodynamically adjustable model for resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) simulation.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin A; Salcedo, Edgardo S; Williams, Timothy K; Neff, Lucas P; Carden, Anthony J; Li, Yiran; Gotlib, Oren; Tran, Nam K; Galante, Joseph M

    2016-09-01

    Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an adjunct technique for salvaging patients with noncompressible torso hemorrhage. Current REBOA training paradigms require large animals, virtual reality simulators, or human cadavers for acquisition of skills. These training strategies are expensive and resource intensive, which may prevent widespread dissemination of REBOA. We have developed a low-cost, near-physiologic, pulsatile REBOA simulator by connecting an anatomic vascular circuit constructed out of latex and polyvinyl chloride tubing to a commercially available pump. This pulsatile simulator is capable of generating cardiac outputs ranging from 1.7 to 6.8 L/min with corresponding arterial blood pressures of 54 to 226/14 to 121 mmHg. The simulator accommodates a 12 French introducer sheath and a CODA balloon catheter. Upon balloon inflation, the arterial waveform distal to the occlusion flattens, distal pulsation within the simulator is lost, and systolic blood pressures proximal to the balloon catheter increase by up to 62 mmHg. Further development and validation of this simulator will allow for refinement, reduction, and replacement of large animal models, costly virtual reality simulators, and perfused cadavers for training purposes. This will ultimately facilitate the low-cost, high-fidelity REBOA simulation needed for the widespread dissemination of this life-saving technique. PMID:27270855

  15. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  16. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  17. Enhancing Global Land Surface Hydrology Estimates from the NASA MERRA Reanalysis Using Precipitation Observations and Model Parameter Adjustments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf; Koster, Randal; DeLannoy, Gabrielle; Forman, Barton; Liu, Qing; Mahanama, Sarith; Toure, Ally

    2011-01-01

    The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) is a state-of-the-art reanalysis that provides. in addition to atmospheric fields. global estimates of soil moisture, latent heat flux. snow. and runoff for J 979-present. This study introduces a supplemental and improved set of land surface hydrological fields ('MERRA-Land') generated by replaying a revised version of the land component of the MERRA system. Specifically. the MERRA-Land estimates benefit from corrections to the precipitation forcing with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project pentad product (version 2.1) and from revised parameters in the rainfall interception model, changes that effectively correct for known limitations in the MERRA land surface meteorological forcings. The skill (defined as the correlation coefficient of the anomaly time series) in land surface hydrological fields from MERRA and MERRA-Land is assessed here against observations and compared to the skill of the state-of-the-art ERA-Interim reanalysis. MERRA-Land and ERA-Interim root zone soil moisture skills (against in situ observations at 85 US stations) are comparable and significantly greater than that of MERRA. Throughout the northern hemisphere, MERRA and MERRA-Land agree reasonably well with in situ snow depth measurements (from 583 stations) and with snow water equivalent from an independent analysis. Runoff skill (against naturalized stream flow observations from 15 basins in the western US) of MERRA and MERRA-Land is typically higher than that of ERA-Interim. With a few exceptions. the MERRA-Land data appear more accurate than the original MERRA estimates and are thus recommended for those interested in using '\\-tERRA output for land surface hydrological studies.

  18. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  19. Glacial isostatic adjustment, relative sea level history and mantle viscosity: reconciling relative sea level model predictions for the U.S. East coast with geological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Keven; Peltier, W. R.

    2015-05-01

    Models of the glacial isostatic adjustment process, which is dominated by the influence of the Late Pleistocene cycle of glaciation and deglaciation, depend on two fundamental inputs: a history of ice-sheet loading and a model of the radial variation of mantle viscosity. These models may be tested and refined by comparing their local predictions of relative sea level history to geological inferences based upon appropriate sea level indicators. The U.S. Atlantic coast is a region of particular interest in this regard, due to the fact that data from the length of this coast provides a transect of the forebulge associated with the former Laurentide ice sheet. High-quality relative sea level histories from this region are employed herein to explore the ability of current models of mantle viscosity to explain the inferred evolution of relative sea level that have accompanied forebulge collapse following deglaciation. Existing misfits are characterized, and alternatives are explored for their reconciliation. It is demonstrated that a new model of mantle viscosity, referred to herein as VM6, when coupled with the latest model of deglaciation history ICE-6G_C, is able to eliminate the majority of these misfits, while continuing to reconcile a wide range of other important geophysical observables, as well as additional relative sea level data from the North American. West coast which also record the collapse of the forebulge but which have not been employed in tuning the viscosity profile to enable ICE-6G_C (VM6) to fit the East coast data set.

  20. The thickness history of the northern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: an assessment of glacial isostatic adjustment models, sea-level measurements, and vertical land motion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A.

    2014-12-01

    The fit of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model predictions to 24 relative sea-level histories and an additional 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates constrains the thickness and volume history of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet. The predictions of the best-fit GIA model indicate respective peak ice thicknesses west and east of Hudson Bay of 3.4-3.6 km and approximately 4 km. These values represent, respectively, a large decrease, and a moderate increase, to the load thickness compared to ICE-5G. This result is generally consistent with other GIA studies focussing on space-geodetic constraints. The large reduction to the ice load west of Hudson Bay also reduces the vertical mantle response along the margins of the load centre, which improves the fit to relative sea-level data from the southern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The fit of GIA model predictions to relative sea-level data from the Baffin Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet indicate peak ice thicknesses there of 1.2-1.3 km, a modest reduction compared to ICE-5G. On Baffin Island, the modelled elastic crustal response of the Earth to present-day ice mass changes is large. Accounting for this effect improves the agreement between GPS measurements of vertical crustal motion and the GIA model predictions. However, work is needed to incorporate more detailed observations and modelling of present-day changes to glaciers and ice caps. Overall, the fit to the data is most strongly improved in the region west of Hudson Bay (the χ2 RSL misfit is reduced by a factor of ~4) although the entire revised reconstruction for the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet provides an improved fit to both the regional RSL data (the cumulative χ2 misfit is reduced by a factor of >2) and the GPS data (the RMS misfit is reduced by a factor of 9).

  1. UGT1A1 genotype-dependent dose adjustment of belinostat in patients with advanced cancers using population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Peer, Cody J; Goey, Andrew K L; Sissung, Tristan M; Erlich, Sheryl; Lee, Min-Jung; Tomita, Yusuke; Trepel, Jane B; Piekarz, Richard; Balasubramaniam, Sanjeeve; Bates, Susan E; Figg, William D

    2016-04-01

    Belinostat is a second-generation zinc-binding histone deacetylase inhibitor that is approved for peripheral T-cell lymphoma and is currently being studied in small cell lung cancer and other advanced carcinomas as a 48-hour continuous intravenous infusion. Belinostat is predominantly metabolized by UGT1A1, which is polymorphic. Preliminary analyses revealed a difference in belinostat clearance based on UGT1A1 genotype. A 2-compartment population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed and validated that incorporated the UGT1A1 genotype, albumin, and creatinine clearance on the clearance parameter; body weight was a significant covariate on volume. Simulated doses of 600 and 400 mg/m(2) /24 h given to patients considered extensive or impaired metabolizers, respectively, provided equivalent AUCs. This model and subsequent simulations supported additional PK/toxicity and pharmacogenomics/toxicity analyses to suggest a UGT1A1 genotype-based dose adjustment to normalize belinostat exposure and allow for more tolerable therapy. In addition, global protein lysine acetylation was modeled with PK and demonstrated a reversible belinostat exposure/response relationship, consistent with previous reports. PMID:26637161

  2. Latest Adjustment of the Argentine Height System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñón, D. A.; Cimbaro, S. R.; Sanchez, R. E.

    2013-05-01

    For over 70 years the National Geographic Institute of Argentina (NGI) has conducted a systematic project to building benchmarks throughout the country, which have been measured with spirit leveling and gravimetry techniques. The measurements were undertaken on a total of approximately 18,000 benchmarks, which define the High Precision Leveling Network of Argentina. The first adjustment of this network took place in 1971. This assignment was given to the Defense Mapping Agency of the United States of America (DMA). Leveling lines that were built and measured after the year 1971 were adjusted to this original network. It was of great importance to perform a new adjustment calculation with modern techniques to update the entire network. Some modern tools worth mentioning are: gravity interpolation using prediction method and topographic correction calculation by the Hammer method using SRTM model. All historical field books were digitalized to retrieve the information corresponding to the spirit leveling, from which it was then possible to calculate geopotential difference between the nodes, using the gravity acceleration values over the benchmarks. Subsequently, by the method of least squares it was possible to calculate the geopotential numbers of the nodes, and then the orthometric height of all the benchmarks. The recommendations of the Working Group III of SIRGAS (Geodetic Reference System for the Americas) were taken into account in relation to this task. The development of this paper shows the results that have been obtained so far in the development of the New Height System for Argentina.

  3. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  4. An optimization model for regional air pollutants mitigation based on the economic structure adjustment and multiple measures: A case study in Urumqi city, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaowei; Li, Wei; Xie, Yulei; Huang, Guohe; Dong, Changjuan; Yin, Jianguang

    2016-11-01

    A model based on economic structure adjustment and pollutants mitigation was proposed and applied in Urumqi. Best-worst case analysis and scenarios analysis were performed in the model to guarantee the parameters accuracy, and to analyze the effect of changes of emission reduction styles. Results indicated that pollutant-mitigations of electric power industry, iron and steel industry, and traffic relied mainly on technological transformation measures, engineering transformation measures and structure emission reduction measures, respectively; Pollutant-mitigations of cement industry relied mainly on structure emission reduction measures and technological transformation measures; Pollutant-mitigations of thermal industry relied mainly on the four mitigation measures. They also indicated that structure emission reduction was a better measure for pollutants mitigation of Urumqi. Iron and steel industry contributed greatly in SO2, NOx and PM (particulate matters) emission reduction and should be given special attention in pollutants emission reduction. In addition, the scales of iron and steel industry should be reduced with the decrease of SO2 mitigation amounts. The scales of traffic and electric power industry should be reduced with the decrease of NOx mitigation amounts, and the scales of cement industry and iron and steel industry should be reduced with the decrease of PM mitigation amounts. The study can provide references of pollutants mitigation schemes to decision-makers for regional economic and environmental development in the 12th Five-Year Plan on National Economic and Social Development of Urumqi. PMID:27454097

  5. Assessing adult adjustment to relationship separation: the Psychological Adjustment to Separation Test (PAST).

    PubMed

    Sweeper, Susie; Halford, Kim

    2006-12-01

    Relationship separation is associated with substantial adult adjustment problems. The Psychological Adjustment to Separation Test (PAST) was developed as a self-report measure of 3 key dimensions of separation adjustment problems: lonely negativity, ex-partner attachment and coparenting conflict. Two independent samples (n = 219 and n = 169, respectively) of recently separated adults, 60% of whom had children, completed the PAST and other measures of general adjustment. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a replicable 3-factor structure, with each factor showing satisfactory test-retest and internal reliability and good convergent and discriminant validity. The PAST meets initial criteria for a potentially useful new measure of adult separation adjustment. PMID:17176198

  6. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  7. Affect and Status Dimensions of Marital Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Beth L.; Joseph Lowman

    1975-01-01

    The interactions of 10 maritally adjusted and 10 maladjusted couples were compared using a coding system based on the Leary circumplex. Major findings are (1) adjusted couples communicated more affection and submission than did maladjusted ones, (2) all couples were more likely to show complementary sequencing patterns with some interesting…

  8. 77 FR 21775 - Risk Adjustment Meeting-May 7, 2012 and May 8, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... following topics: The risk adjustment model, calculation of plan average actuarial risk, calculation of... risk adjustment model, calculation of plan average actuarial risk, calculation of payments and...

  9. Dual Fatty Acid Synthase and HER2 Signaling Blockade Shows Marked Antitumor Activity against Breast Cancer Models Resistant to Anti-HER2 Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Blancafort, Adriana; Giró-Perafita, Ariadna; Oliveras, Glòria; Palomeras, Sònia; Turrado, Carlos; Campuzano, Òscar; Carrión-Salip, Dolors; Massaguer, Anna; Brugada, Ramon; Palafox, Marta; Gómez-Miragaya, Jorge; González-Suárez, Eva; Puig, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Blocking the enzyme Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) leads to apoptosis of HER2-positive breast carcinoma cells. The hypothesis is that blocking FASN, in combination with anti-HER2 signaling agents, would be an effective antitumor strategy in preclinical HER2+ breast cancer models of trastuzumab and lapatinib resistance. We developed and molecularly characterized in vitro HER2+ models of resistance to trastuzumab (SKTR), lapatinib (SKLR) and both (SKLTR). The cellular interactions of combining anti-FASN polyphenolic compounds (EGCG and the synthetic G28UCM) with anti-HER2 signaling drugs (trastuzumab plus pertuzumab and temsirolimus) were analyzed. Tumor growth inhibition after treatment with EGCG, pertuzumab, temsirolimus or the combination was evaluated in two in vivo orthoxenopatients: one derived from a HER2+ patient and another from a patient who relapsed on trastuzumab and lapatinib-based therapy. SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR showed hyperactivation of EGFR and p-ERK1/2 and PI3KCA mutations. Dual-resistant cells (SKLTR) also showed hyperactivation of HER4 and recovered levels of p-AKT compared with mono-resistant cells. mTOR, p-mTOR and FASN expression remained stable in SKTR, SKLR and SKLTR. In vitro, anti-FASN compounds plus pertuzumab showed synergistic interactions in lapatinib- and dual- resistant cells and improved the results of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab co-treatment. FASN inhibitors combined with temsirolimus displayed the strongest synergistic interactions in resistant cells. In vivo, both orthoxenopatients showed strong response to the antitumor activity of the combination of EGCG with pertuzumab or temsirolimus, without signs of toxicity. We showed that the simultaneous blockade of FASN and HER2 pathways is effective in cells and in breast cancer models refractory to anti-HER2 therapies. PMID:26107737

  10. A validated age-related normative model for male total testosterone shows increasing variance but no decline after age 40 years.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Li, Lucy Q; Mitchell, Rod T; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2-31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6-25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

  11. Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, G H; Gelvin, B R; Hartman, S E

    1993-08-01

    Simple ratios in which a measurement variable is divided by a size variable are commonly used but known to be inadequate for eliminating size correlations from morphometric data. Deficiencies in the simple ratio can be alleviated by incorporating regression coefficients describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables. Recommendations have included: 1) subtracting the regression intercept to force the bivariate relationship through the origin (intercept-adjusted ratios); 2) exponentiating either the measurement or the size variable using an allometry coefficient to achieve linearity (allometrically adjusted ratios); or 3) both subtracting the intercept and exponentiating (fully adjusted ratios). These three strategies for deriving size-adjusted ratios imply different data models for describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables (i.e., the linear, simple allometric, and full allometric models, respectively). Algebraic rearrangement of the equation associated with each data model leads to a correctly formulated adjusted ratio whose expected value is constant (i.e., size correlation is eliminated). Alternatively, simple algebra can be used to derive an expected value function for assessing whether any proposed ratio formula is effective in eliminating size correlations. Some published ratio adjustments were incorrectly formulated as indicated by expected values that remain a function of size after ratio transformation. Regression coefficients incorporated into adjusted ratios must be estimated using least-squares regression of the measurement variable on the size variable. Use of parameters estimated by any other regression technique (e.g., major axis or reduced major axis) results in residual correlations between size and the adjusted measurement variable. Correctly formulated adjusted ratios, whose parameters are estimated by least-squares methods, do control for size correlations. The size-adjusted

  12. Multiscale Mechanical Model of the Pacinian Corpuscle Shows Depth and Anisotropy Contribute to the Receptor’s Characteristic Response to Indentation

    PubMed Central

    Quindlen, Julia C.; Lai, Victor K.; Barocas, Victor H.

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous mechanoreceptors transduce different tactile stimuli into neural signals that produce distinct sensations of touch. The Pacinian corpuscle (PC), a cutaneous mechanoreceptor located deep within the dermis of the skin, detects high frequency vibrations that occur within its large receptive field. The PC is comprised of lamellae that surround the nerve fiber at its core. We hypothesized that a layered, anisotropic structure, embedded deep within the skin, would produce the nonlinear strain transmission and low spatial sensitivity characteristic of the PC. A multiscale finite-element model was used to model the equilibrium response of the PC to indentation. The first simulation considered an isolated PC with fiber networks aligned with the PC’s surface. The PC was subjected to a 10 μm indentation by a 250 μm diameter indenter. The multiscale model captured the nonlinear strain transmission through the PC, predicting decreased compressive strain with proximity to the receptor’s core, as seen experimentally by others. The second set of simulations considered a single PC embedded epidermally (shallow) or dermally (deep) to model the PC’s location within the skin. The embedded models were subjected to 10 μm indentations at a series of locations on the surface of the skin. Strain along the long axis of the PC was calculated after indentation to simulate stretch along the nerve fiber at the center of the PC. Receptive fields for the epidermis and dermis models were constructed by mapping the long-axis strain after indentation at each point on the surface of the skin mesh. The dermis model resulted in a larger receptive field, as the calculated strain showed less indenter location dependence than in the epidermis model. PMID:26390130

  13. Finite element fatigue analysis of rectangular clutch spring of automatic slack adjuster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chen-jie; Luo, Zai; Hu, Xiao-feng; Jiang, Wen-song

    2015-02-01

    The failure of rectangular clutch spring of automatic slack adjuster directly affects the work of automatic slack adjuster. We establish the structural mechanics model of automatic slack adjuster rectangular clutch spring based on its working principle and mechanical structure. In addition, we upload such structural mechanics model to ANSYS Workbench FEA system to predict the fatigue life of rectangular clutch spring. FEA results show that the fatigue life of rectangular clutch spring is 2.0403×105 cycle under the effect of braking loads. In the meantime, fatigue tests of 20 automatic slack adjusters are carried out on the fatigue test bench to verify the conclusion of the structural mechanics model. The experimental results show that the mean fatigue life of rectangular clutch spring is 1.9101×105, which meets the results based on the finite element analysis using ANSYS Workbench FEA system.

  14. A novel neuroferritinopathy mouse model (FTL 498InsTC) shows progressive brain iron dysregulation, morphological signs of early neurodegeneration and motor coordination deficits

    PubMed Central

    Maccarinelli, Federica; Pagani, Antonella; Cozzi, Anna; Codazzi, Franca; Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Capoccia, Sara; Rapino, Stefania; Finazzi, Dario; Politi, Letterio Salvatore; Cirulli, Francesca; Giorgio, Marco; Cremona, Ottavio; Grohovaz, Fabio; Levi, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Neuroferritinopathy is a rare genetic disease with a dominant autosomal transmission caused by mutations of the ferritin light chain gene (FTL). It belongs to Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, a group of disorders where iron dysregulation is tightly associated with neurodegeneration. We studied the 498–499InsTC mutation which causes the substitution of the last 9 amino acids and an elongation of extra 16 amino acids at the C-terminus of L-ferritin peptide. An analysis with cyclic voltammetry on the purified protein showed that this structural modification severely reduces the ability of the protein to store iron. In order to analyze the impact of the mutation in vivo, we generated mouse models for the some pathogenic human FTL gene in FVB and C57BL/6J strains. Transgenic mice in the FVB background showed high accumulation of the mutated ferritin in brain where it correlated with increased iron deposition with age, as scored by magnetic resonance imaging. Notably, the accumulation of iron–ferritin bodies was accompanied by signs of oxidative damage. In the C57BL/6 background, both the expression of the mutant ferritin and the iron levels were lower than in the FVB strain. Nevertheless, also these mice showed oxidative alterations in the brain. Furthermore, post-natal hippocampal neurons obtained from these mice experienced a marked increased cell death in response to chronic iron overload and/or acute oxidative stress, in comparison to wild-type neurons. Ultrastructural analyses revealed an accumulation of lipofuscin granules associated with iron deposits, particularly enriched in the cerebellum and striatum of our transgenic mice. Finally, experimental subjects were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for behavioral phenotype. Rotarod test revealed a progressive impaired motor coordination building up with age, FTL mutant old mice showing a shorter latency to fall from the apparatus, according to higher accumulation of

  15. Melatonin adjusts the expression pattern of clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and induces antidepressant-like effect in a mouse model of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Andras David; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Kawai, Misato; Goda, Ryosei; Matsuo, Haruka; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we have shown that C57BL/6J mice exhibit depression-like behavior under short photoperiod and suggested them as an animal model for investigating seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In this study, we tested if manipulations of the circadian clock with melatonin treatment could effectively modify depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors and brain serotonergic system in C57BL/6J mice. Under short photoperiods (8-h light/16-h dark), daily melatonin treatments 2 h before light offset have significantly altered the 24-h patterns of mRNA expression of circadian clock genes (per1, per2, bmal1 and clock) within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) mostly by increasing amplitude in their expressional rhythms without inducing robust phase shifts in them. Melatonin treatments altered the expression of genes of serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal raphe (tph2, sert, vmat2 and 5ht1a) and serotonin contents in the amygdala. Importantly, melatonin treatment reduced the immobility in forced swim test, a depression-like behavior. As a key mechanism of melatonin-induced antidepressant-like effect, the previously proposed phase-advance hypothesis of the circadian clock could not be confirmed under conditions of our experiment. However, our findings of modest adjustments in both the amplitude and phase of the transcriptional oscillators in the SCN as a result of melatonin treatments may be sufficient to associate with the effects seen in the brain serotonergic system and with the improvement in depression-like behavior. Our study confirmed a predictive validity of C57BL/6J mice as a useful model for the molecular analysis of links between the clock and brain serotonergic system, which could greatly accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of SAD, as well as the search for new treatments. PMID:25515595

  16. How inputs of an hydrologic model have to be adjusted to its underlying physical hypothesis? Case study on the Lez hydrodynamic modeling (Southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siou, L. Kong A.; Fleury, P.; Johannet, A.; Borrell Estupina, V.; Dörfliger, N.; Pistre, S.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers are famous for their high heterogeneity and non-linearity and are currently badly understood whereas they are a major issue on both flood forecasting and water resources. Conceptual models, for example based on reservoir concept, are often used in order to simulate their behavior (1). Nevertheless reservoir models are sensitive to their initial conditions, which are often difficult to measure because of the heterogeneity. Consequently a lot of research is devoted to black-box modeling, particularly neural networks, which can be viewed as an interesting method to deal with non-linearity without other measurement acquisition than system input and output (2). In Mediterranean regions, due to the variability of rainfalls during the hydrologic cycle, the availability of water during summer poses a difficulty to stakeholder. Consequently, the conurbation of Montpellier (400 000 inhabitants), Southeast France, investigates pumping through boreholes in the drain of the Lez spring (3), the major outlet of Lez karstic aquifer, studied from most than 40 years and emblematic of the complexity of karst aquifers. Indeed, the heterogeneity of both the karst system due to geologic complexity, and of rainfalls, joint with the emptying of the spring by pumping contribute to modeling difficulties. Thereby it seems relevant to use neural networks, as non-linear machine learning models, in order to manage the lack of knowledge about the Lez system. The aim of the modeling approach was to simulate the level of water in the drain of the Lez spring in order to better appreciate the level of emptying during summer just before refilling by the autumn rainfalls. To this end the multilayer perceptron was used thanks to its two main properties: universal approximation and parsimony regarding to other non linear statistical model. Particularly, the role of evapotranspiration is not well defined or estimated for karst aquifers (4,5) whereas it is of major importance for water

  17. A Multiple siRNA-Based Anti-HIV/SHIV Microbicide Shows Protection in Both In Vitro and In Vivo Models

    PubMed Central

    Raulji, Payal; Mohapatra, Subhra; Mohapatra, Shyam S

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) are the etiologic agents of AIDS. Most HIV-1 infected individuals worldwide are women, who acquire HIV infections during sexual contact. Blocking HIV mucosal transmission and local spread in the female lower genital tract is important in preventing infection and ultimately eliminating the pandemic. Microbicides work by destroying the microbes or preventing them from establishing an infection. Thus, a number of different types of microbicides are under investigation, however, the lack of their solubility and bioavailability, and toxicity has been major hurdles. Herein, we report the development of multifunctional chitosan-lipid nanocomplexes that can effectively deliver plasmids encoding siRNA(s) as microbicides without adverse effects and provide significant protection against HIV in both in vitro and in vivo models. Chitosan or chitosan-lipid (chlipid) was complexed with a cocktail of plasmids encoding HIV-1-specific siRNAs (psiRNAs) and evaluated for their efficacy in HEK-293 cells, PBMCs derived from nonhuman primates, 3-dimensional human vaginal ectocervical tissue (3D-VEC) model and also in non-human primate model. Moreover, prophylactic administration of the chlipid to deliver a psiRNA cocktail intravaginally with a cream formulation in a non-human primate model showed substantial reduction of SHIV (simian/human immunodeficiency virus SF162) viral titers. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the potential of chlipid-siRNA nanocomplexes as a potential genetic microbicide against HIV infections. PMID:26407080

  18. A Multiple siRNA-Based Anti-HIV/SHIV Microbicide Shows Protection in Both In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

    PubMed

    Boyapalle, Sandhya; Xu, Weidong; Raulji, Payal; Mohapatra, Subhra; Mohapatra, Shyam S

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) are the etiologic agents of AIDS. Most HIV-1 infected individuals worldwide are women, who acquire HIV infections during sexual contact. Blocking HIV mucosal transmission and local spread in the female lower genital tract is important in preventing infection and ultimately eliminating the pandemic. Microbicides work by destroying the microbes or preventing them from establishing an infection. Thus, a number of different types of microbicides are under investigation, however, the lack of their solubility and bioavailability, and toxicity has been major hurdles. Herein, we report the development of multifunctional chitosan-lipid nanocomplexes that can effectively deliver plasmids encoding siRNA(s) as microbicides without adverse effects and provide significant protection against HIV in both in vitro and in vivo models. Chitosan or chitosan-lipid (chlipid) was complexed with a cocktail of plasmids encoding HIV-1-specific siRNAs (psiRNAs) and evaluated for their efficacy in HEK-293 cells, PBMCs derived from nonhuman primates, 3-dimensional human vaginal ectocervical tissue (3D-VEC) model and also in non-human primate model. Moreover, prophylactic administration of the chlipid to deliver a psiRNA cocktail intravaginally with a cream formulation in a non-human primate model showed substantial reduction of SHIV (simian/human immunodeficiency virus SF162) viral titers. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the potential of chlipid-siRNA nanocomplexes as a potential genetic microbicide against HIV infections. PMID:26407080

  19. AC-186, a Selective Nonsteroidal Estrogen Receptor β Agonist, Shows Gender Specific Neuroprotection in a Parkinson’s Disease Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Drugs that selectively activate estrogen receptor β (ERβ) are potentially safer than the nonselective estrogens currently used in hormonal replacement treatments that activate both ERβ and ERα. The selective ERβ agonist AC-186 was evaluated in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease induced through bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra. In this model, AC-186 prevented motor, cognitive, and sensorimotor gating deficits and mitigated the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, in males, but not in females. Furthermore, in male rats, 17β-estradiol, which activates ERβ and ERα with equal potency, did not show the same neuroprotective benefits as AC-186. Hence, in addition to a beneficial safety profile for use in both males and females, a selective ERβ agonist has a differentiated pharmacological profile compared to 17β-estradiol in males. PMID:23898966

  20. Design of motion adjusting system for space camera based on ultrasonic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Jin, Guang; Gu, Song; Yan, Yong; Sun, Zhiyuan

    2011-08-01

    Drift angle is a transverse intersection angle of vector of image motion of the space camera. Adjusting the angle could reduce the influence on image quality. Ultrasonic motor (USM) is a new type of actuator using ultrasonic wave stimulated by piezoelectric ceramics. They have many advantages in comparison with conventional electromagnetic motors. In this paper, some improvement was designed for control system of drift adjusting mechanism. Based on ultrasonic motor T-60 was designed the drift adjusting system, which is composed of the drift adjusting mechanical frame, the ultrasonic motor, the driver of Ultrasonic Motor, the photoelectric encoder and the drift adjusting controller. The TMS320F28335 DSP was adopted as the calculation and control processor, photoelectric encoder was used as sensor of position closed loop system and the voltage driving circuit designed as generator of ultrasonic wave. It was built the mathematic model of drive circuit of the ultrasonic motor T-60 using matlab modules. In order to verify the validity of the drift adjusting system, was introduced the source of the disturbance, and made simulation analysis. It designed the control systems of motor drive for drift adjusting system with the improved PID control. The drift angle adjusting system has such advantages as the small space, simple configuration, high position control precision, fine repeatability, self locking property and low powers. It showed that the system could accomplish the mission of drift angle adjusting excellent.

  1. The murine model for Hantaan virus-induced lethal disease shows two distinct paths in viral evolutionary trajectory with and without ribavirin treatment.

    PubMed

    Chung, Dong-Hoon; Västermark, Åke; Camp, Jeremy V; McAllister, Ryan; Remold, Susanna K; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Bruder, Carl; Jonsson, Colleen B

    2013-10-01

    In vitro, ribavirin acts as a lethal mutagen in Hantaan virus (HTNV)-infected Vero E6 cells, resulting in an increased mutation load and viral population extinction. In this study, we asked whether ribavirin treatment in the lethal, suckling mouse model of HTNV infection would act similarly. The HTNV genomic RNA (vRNA) copy number and infectious virus were measured in lungs of untreated and ribavirin-treated mice. In untreated, HTNV-infected mice, the vRNA copy number increased for 10 days postinfection (dpi) and thereafter remained constant through 26 dpi. Surprisingly, in ribavirin-treated, HTNV-infected mice, vRNA levels were similar to those in untreated mice between 10 and 26 dpi. Infectious virus levels, however, were different: in ribavirin-treated mice, the amount of infectious HTNV was significantly decreased relative to that in untreated mice, suggesting that ribavirin reduced the specific infectivity of the virus (amount of infectious virus produced per vRNA copy). Mutational analysis revealed a ribavirin-associated elevation in mutation frequency in HTNV vRNA similar to that previously reported in vitro. Codon-based analyses of rates of nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) substitutions in the S segment revealed a positive selection for codons within the HTNV N protein gene in the ribavirin-treated vRNA population. In contrast, the vRNA population in untreated, HTNV-infected mice showed a lower level of diversity, reflecting purifying selection for the wild-type genome. In summary, these experiments show two different evolutionary paths that Hantavirus may take during infection in a lethal murine model of disease, as well as the importance of the in vivo host environment in the evolution of the virus, which was not apparent in our prior in vitro model system. PMID:23903835

  2. A novel rat model of heart failure induced by high methionine diet showing evidence of association between hyperhomocysteinemia and activation of NF-kappaB

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Ma, Shengting; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Chengjun; Li, Yi; Yin, Jie; Liu, Cuixia; Gao, Chengzhi; Sun, Ling; Yue, Wenwei; Yu, Huapeng; Jia, Ruyi

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the most serious diseases worldwide, and can be caused by many factors, among them hyperhomocysteinemia can increase the risk for development of heart failure. In this study, we treated rats with high methionine diet (HMD), which can be conversed to homocysteine in human body, to induce a novel model of heart failure. We proved the successful establishment of this model by echocardiography and pathological evaluation at the termination of treatment. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening were significantly deceased after HMD treatment, while left ventricular volume in systole was increased. HMD treatment caused hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes, disarrangement of myofibers, and infiltration of inflammatory cells, as well as abundant apoptotic cells appeared after HMD treatment. Plasmatic homocysteine level was elevated after HMD treatment. Furthermore, through electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation, the activity of NF-κB in nuclear extract was also significantly elevated, showing evidence of positive relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and activation of NF-κB in HMD-induced heart failure. The successful development and validation of this model have made it a new tool for translational medical research of metabolic disorders-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:27069545

  3. Climate envelope modeling and dispersal simulations show little risk of range extension of the Shipworm, Teredo navalis (L.), in the Baltic sea.

    PubMed

    Appelqvist, Christin; Al-Hamdani, Zyad K; Jonsson, Per R; Havenhand, Jon N

    2015-01-01

    The shipworm, Teredo navalis, is absent from most of the Baltic Sea. In the last 20 years, increased frequency of T. navalis has been reported along the southern Baltic Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany, and Sweden, indicating possible range-extensions into previously unoccupied areas. We evaluated the effects of historical and projected near-future changes in salinity, temperature, and oxygen on the risk of spread of T. navalis in the Baltic. Specifically, we developed a simple, GIS-based, mechanistic climate envelope model to predict the spatial distribution of favourable conditions for adult reproduction and larval metamorphosis of T. navalis, based on published environmental tolerances to these factors. In addition, we used a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrographic model to simulate the probability of spread of T. navalis larvae within the study area. Climate envelope modeling showed that projected near-future climate change is not likely to change the overall distribution of T. navalis in the region, but will prolong the breeding season and increase the risk of shipworm establishment at the margins of the current range. Dispersal simulations indicated that the majority of larvae were philopatric, but those that spread over a wider area typically spread to areas unfavourable for their survival. Overall, therefore, we found no substantive evidence for climate-change related shifts in the distribution of T. navalis in the Baltic Sea, and no evidence for increased risk of spread in the near-future. PMID:25768305

  4. Climate Envelope Modeling and Dispersal Simulations Show Little Risk of Range Extension of the Shipworm, Teredo navalis (L.), in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Appelqvist, Christin; Al-Hamdani, Zyad K.; Jonsson, Per R.; Havenhand, Jon N.

    2015-01-01

    The shipworm, Teredo navalis, is absent from most of the Baltic Sea. In the last 20 years, increased frequency of T. navalis has been reported along the southern Baltic Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany, and Sweden, indicating possible range-extensions into previously unoccupied areas. We evaluated the effects of historical and projected near-future changes in salinity, temperature, and oxygen on the risk of spread of T. navalis in the Baltic. Specifically, we developed a simple, GIS-based, mechanistic climate envelope model to predict the spatial distribution of favourable conditions for adult reproduction and larval metamorphosis of T. navalis, based on published environmental tolerances to these factors. In addition, we used a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrographic model to simulate the probability of spread of T. navalis larvae within the study area. Climate envelope modeling showed that projected near-future climate change is not likely to change the overall distribution of T. navalis in the region, but will prolong the breeding season and increase the risk of shipworm establishment at the margins of the current range. Dispersal simulations indicated that the majority of larvae were philopatric, but those that spread over a wider area typically spread to areas unfavourable for their survival. Overall, therefore, we found no substantive evidence for climate-change related shifts in the distribution of T. navalis in the Baltic Sea, and no evidence for increased risk of spread in the near-future. PMID:25768305

  5. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  6. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  7. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  8. Indole-2-carboxamide-based MmpL3 Inhibitors Show Exceptional Antitubercular Activity in an Animal Model of Tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Stec, Jozef; Onajole, Oluseye K; Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Merenbloom, Benjamin; Vistoli, Giulio; Bishai, William R; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2016-07-14

    Our team had previously identified certain indolecarboxamides that represented a new chemical scaffold that showed promising anti-TB activity at both an in vitro and in vivo level. Based on mutational analysis using bacteria found resistant to one of these indolecarboxamides, we identified the trehalose monomycolate transporter MmpL3 as the likely target of these compounds. In the present work, we now further elaborate on the SAR of these compounds, which has led in turn to the identification of a new analog, 4,6-difluoro-N-((1R,2R,3R,5S)-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl)-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (26), that shows excellent activity against drug-sensitive (MIC = 0.012 μM; SI ≥ 16000), multidrug-resistant (MDR), and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, has superior ADMET properties, and shows excellent activity in the TB aerosol lung infection model. Compound 26 is also shown to work in synergy with rifampin. Because of these properties, we believe that indolecarboxamide 26 is a possible candidate for advancement to human clinical trials. PMID:27275668

  9. The effect of adjusting model inputs to achieve mass balance on time-dynamic simulations in a food-web model of Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langseth, Brian J.; Jones, Michael L.; Riley, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) is a widely used modeling tool in fishery research and management. Ecopath requires a mass-balanced snapshot of a food web at a particular point in time, which Ecosim then uses to simulate changes in biomass over time. Initial inputs to Ecopath, including estimates for biomasses, production to biomass ratios, consumption to biomass ratios, and diets, rarely produce mass balance, and thus ad hoc changes to inputs are required to balance the model. There has been little previous research of whether ad hoc changes to achieve mass balance affect Ecosim simulations. We constructed an EwE model for the offshore community of Lake Huron, and balanced the model using four contrasting but realistic methods. The four balancing methods were based on two contrasting approaches; in the first approach, production of unbalanced groups was increased by increasing either biomass or the production to biomass ratio, while in the second approach, consumption of predators on unbalanced groups was decreased by decreasing either biomass or the consumption to biomass ratio. We compared six simulation scenarios based on three alternative assumptions about the extent to which mortality rates of prey can change in response to changes in predator biomass (i.e., vulnerabilities) under perturbations to either fishing mortality or environmental production. Changes in simulated biomass values over time were used in a principal components analysis to assess the comparative effect of balancing method, vulnerabilities, and perturbation types. Vulnerabilities explained the most variation in biomass, followed by the type of perturbation. Choice of balancing method explained little of the overall variation in biomass. Under scenarios where changes in predator biomass caused large changes in mortality rates of prey (i.e., high vulnerabilities), variation in biomass was greater than when changes in predator biomass caused only small changes in mortality rates of prey (i.e., low

  10. [Weight-for-height in adults: comparison of classifications adjusted and non adjusted by frame size].

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, R A; Hernández de Valera, Y

    1998-03-01

    The present study is to analyze the concordance, agreements and divergence of anthropometry nutritional classification of weight-height (WH) in adults, using criteria that include frame size adjustments and no adjustment at all. 224 adults were studied (127 female and 117 males) from the "Simón Bolívar" University Administrative Employees Health Project, 1993. Using as basis, the variables weight, height, wrist circumference and elbow breadth, we determined: a) frame size by wrist circumference methods (WC) (Grant, 1980) and elbow breadth (EB) (Frame index 2 by Frisancho, 1989); b) classification by weight-height (WH) according to table by frame size (Frisancho, 1984). 57%, 38% and 6% corresponded to small, medium and large frame sizes, by WC. 16%, 60% and 25% by EB. When classifying by WH those results showed differences between 16-25% in female and 15-21% in males. When contrasting the three criteria, it was observed a bigger coincidence between WH without frame size adjustment and WH adjustment by EB. The smallest coincidence between WH adjusted by WC method and weight height without frame size adjustment in the whole group, while male and female got the biggest coincidence in WH adjustment by WC and HW without frame size adjustment. The smallest concordance (k = 0.37) was obtained when contrasting WH frame size adjustment by EB vs weight-height without adjustment in female, and biggest concordance (k = 0.60) when contrasting WH by WC and without adjustment in males. This results show that, there are significative differences in nutritional classification of weight-height in adults adjusted and non adjusted by frame size within the same group of persons. PMID:9754399

  11. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  12. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modelling studies show the role of Asp82 and cysteines in rat acylase 1, a member of the M20 family

    SciTech Connect

    Herga, Sameh; Brutus, Alexandre; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Miche, Helene; Perrier, Josette; Puigserver, Antoine; Scaloni, Andrea; Giardina, Thierry . E-mail: thierry.giardina@univ.u-3mrs.fr

    2005-05-06

    Acylase 1 from rat kidney catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-amino acids. Sequence alignment has shown that this enzyme belongs to the metalloprotein family M20. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments led to the identification of one functionally important amino acid residue located near one of the zinc coordinating residues, which play a critical role in the enzymatic activity. The D82N- and D82E-substituted forms showed no significant activity and very low activity, respectively, along with a loss of zinc coordination. Molecular modelling investigations indicated a putative role of D82 in ensuring a proper protonation of catalytic histidine. In addition, none of the five cysteine residues present in the rat kidney acylase 1 sequence seemed involved in the catalytic process: the loss of activity induced by the C294A substitution was probably due to a conformational change in the 3D structure.

  13. Combined MRI and 31P-MRS Investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y) Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy Show Impaired Muscle Function and Altered Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gineste, Charlotte; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Le Troter, Arnaud; Pecchi, Emilie; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Hardeman, Edna C.; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y). Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes) and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and 31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1–150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz). H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (−40%) and specific (−25%) maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40%) and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level. PMID:23613869

  14. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  15. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite. PMID:17567838

  16. A Novel Eg5 Inhibitor (LY2523355) Causes Mitotic Arrest and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and Shows Potent Antitumor Activity in Xenograft Tumor Models.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiang S; Fan, Li; Van Horn, Robert D; Nakai, Ryuichiro; Ohta, Yoshihisa; Akinaga, Shiro; Murakata, Chikara; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Yin, Tinggui; Credille, Kelly M; Donoho, Gregory P; Merzoug, Farhana F; Li, Heng; Aggarwal, Amit; Blanchard, Kerry; Westin, Eric H

    2015-11-01

    Intervention of cancer cell mitosis by antitubulin drugs is among the most effective cancer chemotherapies. However, antitubulin drugs have dose-limiting side effects due to important functions of microtubules in resting normal cells and are often rendered ineffective by rapid emergence of resistance. Antimitotic agents with different mechanisms of action and improved safety profiles are needed as new treatment options. Mitosis-specific kinesin Eg5 represents an attractive anticancer target for discovering such new antimitotic agents, because Eg5 is essential only in mitotic progression and has no roles in resting, nondividing cells. Here, we show that a novel selective Eg5 inhibitor, LY2523355, has broad target-mediated anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. LY2523355 arrests cancer cells at mitosis and causes rapid cell death that requires sustained spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation with a required threshold concentration. In vivo efficacy of LY2523355 is highly dose/schedule-dependent, achieving complete remission in a number of xenograft tumor models, including patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models. We further establish that histone-H3 phosphorylation of tumor and proliferating skin cells is a promising pharmacodynamic biomarker for in vivo anticancer activity of LY2523355. PMID:26304237

  17. Significant blockade of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases by MGCD516 (Sitravatinib), a novel small molecule inhibitor, shows potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Parag P; Ivy, Kathryn S; Musi, Elgilda; de Stanchina, Elisa; Schwartz, Gary K

    2016-01-26

    Sarcomas are rare but highly aggressive mesenchymal tumors with a median survival of 10-18 months for metastatic disease. Mutation and/or overexpression of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including c-Met, PDGFR, c-Kit and IGF1-R drive defective signaling pathways in sarcomas. MGCD516 (Sitravatinib) is a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting multiple RTKs involved in driving sarcoma cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of MGCD516 both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models in vivo. MGCD516 treatment resulted in significant blockade of phosphorylation of potential driver RTKs and induced potent anti-proliferative effects in vitro. Furthermore, MGCD516 treatment of tumor xenografts in vivo resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. Efficacy of MGCD516 was superior to imatinib and crizotinib, two other well-studied multi-kinase inhibitors with overlapping target specificities, both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report describing MGCD516 as a potent multi-kinase inhibitor in different models of sarcoma, superior to imatinib and crizotinib. Results from this study showing blockade of multiple driver signaling pathways provides a rationale for further clinical development of MGCD516 for the treatment of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. PMID:26675259

  18. Xyloketal-derived small molecules show protective effect by decreasing mutant Huntingtin protein aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yixuan; Guo, Wenyuan; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Qinmei; Feng, Luyang; Long, Simei; Liang, Fengyin; Huang, Yi; Lu, Xilin; Li, Shichang; Zhou, Jiebin; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Pang, Jiyan; Pei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, with chorea as the most prominent manifestation. The disease is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG codon repeats in the IT15 gene, which leads to the expression of a glutamine-rich protein named mutant Huntingtin (Htt). Because of its devastating disease burden and lack of valid treatment, development of more effective therapeutics for Huntington's disease is urgently required. Xyloketal B, a natural product from mangrove fungus, has shown protective effects against toxicity in other neurodegenerative disease models such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. To identify potential neuroprotective molecules for Huntington's disease, six derivatives of xyloketal B were screened in a Caenorhabditis elegans Huntington's disease model; all six compounds showed a protective effect. Molecular docking studies indicated that compound 1 could bind to residues GLN369 and GLN393 of the mutant Htt protein, forming a stable trimeric complex that can prevent the formation of mutant Htt aggregates. Taken together, we conclude that xyloketal derivatives could be novel drug candidates for treating Huntington's disease. Molecular target analysis is a good method to simulate the interaction between proteins and drug compounds. Further, protective candidate drugs could be designed in future using the guidance of molecular docking results. PMID:27110099

  19. Significant blockade of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases by MGCD516 (Sitravatinib), a novel small molecule inhibitor, shows potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Musi, Elgilda; de Stanchina, Elisa; Schwartz, Gary K.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcomas are rare but highly aggressive mesenchymal tumors with a median survival of 10–18 months for metastatic disease. Mutation and/or overexpression of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including c-Met, PDGFR, c-Kit and IGF1-R drive defective signaling pathways in sarcomas. MGCD516 (Sitravatinib) is a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting multiple RTKs involved in driving sarcoma cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of MGCD516 both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models in vivo. MGCD516 treatment resulted in significant blockade of phosphorylation of potential driver RTKs and induced potent anti-proliferative effects in vitro. Furthermore, MGCD516 treatment of tumor xenografts in vivo resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. Efficacy of MGCD516 was superior to imatinib and crizotinib, two other well-studied multi-kinase inhibitors with overlapping target specificities, both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report describing MGCD516 as a potent multi-kinase inhibitor in different models of sarcoma, superior to imatinib and crizotinib. Results from this study showing blockade of multiple driver signaling pathways provides a rationale for further clinical development of MGCD516 for the treatment of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. PMID:26675259

  20. Xyloketal-derived small molecules show protective effect by decreasing mutant Huntingtin protein aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yixuan; Guo, Wenyuan; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Qinmei; Feng, Luyang; Long, Simei; Liang, Fengyin; Huang, Yi; Lu, Xilin; Li, Shichang; Zhou, Jiebin; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Pang, Jiyan; Pei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, with chorea as the most prominent manifestation. The disease is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG codon repeats in the IT15 gene, which leads to the expression of a glutamine-rich protein named mutant Huntingtin (Htt). Because of its devastating disease burden and lack of valid treatment, development of more effective therapeutics for Huntington’s disease is urgently required. Xyloketal B, a natural product from mangrove fungus, has shown protective effects against toxicity in other neurodegenerative disease models such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. To identify potential neuroprotective molecules for Huntington’s disease, six derivatives of xyloketal B were screened in a Caenorhabditis elegans Huntington’s disease model; all six compounds showed a protective effect. Molecular docking studies indicated that compound 1 could bind to residues GLN369 and GLN393 of the mutant Htt protein, forming a stable trimeric complex that can prevent the formation of mutant Htt aggregates. Taken together, we conclude that xyloketal derivatives could be novel drug candidates for treating Huntington’s disease. Molecular target analysis is a good method to simulate the interaction between proteins and drug compounds. Further, protective candidate drugs could be designed in future using the guidance of molecular docking results. PMID:27110099

  1. Show them the money? The role of pay, managerial need support, and justice in a self-determination theory model of intrinsic work motivation.

    PubMed

    Olafsen, Anja H; Halvari, Hallgeir; Forest, Jacques; Deci, Edward L

    2015-08-01

    The link between money and motivation has been a debated topic for decades, especially in work organizations. However, field studies investigating the amount of pay in relation to employee motivation is lacking and there have been calls for empirical studies addressing compensation systems and motivation in the work domain. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes associated with the amount of pay, and perceived distributive and procedural justice regarding pay in relation to those for perceived managerial need support. Participants were 166 bank employees who also reported on their basic psychological need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation. SEM-analyses tested a self-determination theory (SDT) model, with satisfaction of the competence and autonomy needs as an intervening variable. The primary findings were that amount of pay and employees' perceived distributive justice regarding their pay were unrelated to employees' need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation, but procedural justice regarding pay did affect these variables. However, managerial need support was the most important factor for promoting need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation both directly, indirectly, and as a moderator in the model. Hence, the results of the present organizational field study support earlier laboratory experiments within the SDT framework showing that monetary rewards did not enhance intrinsic motivation. This seems to have profound implications for organizations concerned about motivating their employees. PMID:25810152

  2. A simple alfalfa seedling infection model for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains associated with cystic fibrosis shows AlgT (sigma-22) and RhlR contribute to pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Silo-Suh, Laura; Suh, Sang-Jin; Sokol, Pamela A.; Ohman, Dennis E.

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive plant infection model was developed to identify virulence factors in nontypeable, alginate overproducing (mucoid) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Nontypeable strains with defects in lipopolysaccharide O-side chains are common to CF and often exhibit low virulence in animal models of infection. However, 1,000 such bacteria were enough to show disease symptoms in the alfalfa infection. A typical mucoid CF isolate, FRD1, and its isogenic mutants were tested for alfalfa seedling infection. Although defects in the global regulators Vfr, RpoS, PvdS, or LasR had no discernable effect on virulence, a defect in RhlR reduced the infection frequency by >50%. A defect in alginate biosynthesis resulted in plant disease with >3-fold more bacteria per plant, suggesting that alginate overproduction attenuated bacterial growth in planta. FRD1 derivatives lacking AlgT, a sigma factor required for alginate production, were reduced >50% in the frequency of infection. Thus, AlgT apparently regulates factors in FRD1, besides alginate, important for pathogenesis. In contrast, in a non-CF strain, PAO1, an algT mutation did not affect its virulence on alfalfa. Conversely, PAO1 virulence was reduced in a mucA mutant that overproduced alginate. These observations suggested that mucoid conversion in CF may be driven by a selection for organisms with attenuated virulence or growth in the lung, which promotes a chronic infection. These studies also demonstrated that the wounded alfalfa seedling infection model is a useful tool to identify factors contributing to the persistence of P. aeruginosa in CF. PMID:12426404

  3. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  4. The Wordpath Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Alice

    The Intertribal Wordpath Society is a nonprofit educational corporation formed to promote the teaching, status, awareness, and use of Oklahoma Indian languages. The Society produces "Wordpath," a weekly 30-minute public access television show about Oklahoma Indian languages and the people who are teaching and preserving them. The show aims to…

  5. Class Climate Moderates Peer Relations and Emotional Adjustment in Children with an Early History of Anxious Solitude: A Child x Environment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Classroom emotional climate was hypothesized to moderate psychosocial adjustment in 1st grade for children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude. Participants were 1,364 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and their mothers, child-care providers, and teachers.…

  6. Modeling upward brine migration through faults as a result of CO2 storage in the Northeast German Basin shows negligible salinization in shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, M.; Tillner, E.; Kempka, T.; Nakaten, B.

    2012-12-01

    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations may cause salinization of shallower freshwater resources by upward flow of displaced brine from the storage formation into potable groundwater. In this regard, permeable faults or fractures can serve as potential leakage pathways for upward brine migration. The present study uses a regional-scale 3D model based on real structural data of a prospective CO2 storage site in Northeastern Germany to determine the impact of compartmentalization and fault permeability on upward brine migration as a result of pressure elevation by CO2 injection. To evaluate the degree of salinization in the shallower aquifers, different fault leakage scenarios were carried out using a newly developed workflow in which the model grid from the software package Petrel applied for pre-processing is transferred to the reservoir simulator TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N. A discrete fault description is achieved by using virtual elements. A static 3D geological model of the CO2 storage site with an a real size of 40 km x 40 km and a thickness of 766 m was implemented. Subsequently, large-scale numerical multi-phase multi-component (CO2, NaCl, H2O) flow simulations were carried out on a high performance computing system. The prospective storage site, located in the Northeast German Basin is part of an anticline structure characterized by a saline multi-layer aquifer system. The NE and SW boundaries of the study area are confined by the Fuerstenwalde Gubener and the Lausitzer Abbruch fault zones represented by four discrete faults in the model. Two formations of the Middle Bunter were chosen to assess brine migration through faults triggered by an annual injection rate of 1.7 Mt CO2 into the lowermost formation over a time span of 20 years. In addition to varying fault permeabilities, different boundary conditions were applied to evaluate the effects of reservoir compartmentalization. Simulation results show that the highest pressurization within the storage

  7. Scale-adjusted volatility and the Dow Jones index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Craig; Hudson, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    This paper extends research by Batten and Ellis [Econ. Lett. 72 (2001) 291] to propose a simple model of scale-adjusted volatility which measures the extent to which the Gaussian scaling law mis-estimates long-horizon volatility. Applied to the Dow Jones industrial average, the results of our model show a dramatic improvement over the Gaussian scaling law in predicting long-horizon volatility. Our model provides a general framework for estimating scaled volatility that may be also applied to other fields of study where the Hurst exponent is commonly used.

  8. Long-Term Field Data and Climate-Habitat Models Show That Orangutan Persistence Depends on Effective Forest Management and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Stephen D.; Brook, Barry W.; Goossens, Benoît; Ancrenaz, Marc; Alfred, Raymond; Ambu, Laurentius N.; Fordham, Damien A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Southeast Asian deforestation rates are among the world’s highest and threaten to drive many forest-dependent species to extinction. Climate change is expected to interact with deforestation to amplify this risk. Here we examine whether regional incentives for sustainable forest management will be effective in improving threatened mammal conservation, in isolation and when combined with global climate change mitigation. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a long time-series of orangutan nest counts for Sabah (2000–10), Malaysian Borneo, we evaluated the effect of sustainable forest management and climate change scenarios, and their interaction, on orangutan spatial abundance patterns. By linking dynamic land-cover and downscaled global climate model projections, we determine the relative influence of these factors on orangutan spatial abundance and use the resulting statistical models to identify habitat crucial for their long-term conservation. We show that land-cover change the degradation of primary forest had the greatest influence on orangutan population size. Anticipated climate change was predicted to cause reductions in abundance in currently occupied populations due to decreased habitat suitability, but also to promote population growth in western Sabah by increasing the suitability of presently unoccupied regions. Conclusions/Significance We find strong quantitative support for the Sabah government’s proposal to implement sustainable forest management in all its forest reserves during the current decade; failure to do so could result in a 40 to 80 per cent regional decline in orangutan abundance by 2100. The Sabah orangutan is just one (albeit iconic) example of a forest-dependent species that stands to benefit from sustainable forest management, which promotes conservation of existing forests. PMID:22970145

  9. Development of a novel pink-eyed dilution mouse model showing progressive darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Akira; Sugiyama, Makoto; Hondo, Eiichi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Yamagishi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Oca2(p-cas) (oculocutaneous albinism II; pink-eyed dilution castaneus) is a coat color mutant gene on mouse chromosome 7 that arose spontaneously in wild Mus musculus castaneus mice. Mice homozygous for Oca2(p-cas) usually exhibit pink eyes and gray coat hair on the non-agouti genetic background, and this ordinary phenotype remains unchanged throughout life. During breeding of a mixed strain carrying this gene on the C57BL/6J background, we discovered a novel spontaneous mutation that causes darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging. In this study, we developed a novel mouse model showing this unique phenotype. Gross observations revealed that the pink eyes and gray coat hair of the novel mutant young mice became progressively darker in color by approximately 3 months after birth. Light and transmission-electron microscopic observations revealed a marked increase in melanin pigmentation of coat hair shafts and choroid of the eye in the novel mice compared to that in the ordinary mice. Sequence analysis of Oca2(p-cas) revealed a 4.1-kb deletion involving exons 15 and 16 of its wild-type gene. However, there was no sequence difference between the two types of mutant mice. Mating experiments suggested that the novel mutant phenotype was not inherited in a simple fashion, due to incomplete penetrance. The novel spontaneous mutant mouse is the first example of progressive hair darkening animals and is an essential animal model for understanding of the regulation mechanisms of melanin biosynthesis with aging. PMID:25739360

  10. Development of a novel pink-eyed dilution mouse model showing progressive darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging

    PubMed Central

    ISHIKAWA, Akira; SUGIYAMA, Makoto; HONDO, Eiichi; KINOSHITA, Keiji; YAMAGISHI, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Oca2p-cas (oculocutaneous albinism II; pink-eyed dilution castaneus) is a coat color mutant gene on mouse chromosome 7 that arose spontaneously in wild Mus musculus castaneus mice. Mice homozygous for Oca2p-cas usually exhibit pink eyes and gray coat hair on the non-agouti genetic background, and this ordinary phenotype remains unchanged throughout life. During breeding of a mixed strain carrying this gene on the C57BL/6J background, we discovered a novel spontaneous mutation that causes darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging. In this study, we developed a novel mouse model showing this unique phenotype. Gross observations revealed that the pink eyes and gray coat hair of the novel mutant young mice became progressively darker in color by approximately 3 months after birth. Light and transmission-electron microscopic observations revealed a marked increase in melanin pigmentation of coat hair shafts and choroid of the eye in the novel mice compared to that in the ordinary mice. Sequence analysis of Oca2p-cas revealed a 4.1-kb deletion involving exons 15 and 16 of its wild-type gene. However, there was no sequence difference between the two types of mutant mice. Mating experiments suggested that the novel mutant phenotype was not inherited in a simple fashion, due to incomplete penetrance. The novel spontaneous mutant mouse is the first example of progressive hair darkening animals and is an essential animal model for understanding of the regulation mechanisms of melanin biosynthesis with aging. PMID:25739360

  11. Location Memory in the Real World: Category Adjustment Effects in 3-Dimensional Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Mark P.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remember spatial locations is critical to human functioning, both in an evolutionary and in an everyday sense. Yet spatial memories and judgments often show systematic errors and biases. Bias has been explained by models such as the Category Adjustment model (CAM), in which fine-grained and categorical information about locations…

  12. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  13. A longitudinal examination of career preparation and adjustment during the transition from high school.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Kate; Kerpelman, Jennifer; Skorikov, Vladimir

    2012-09-01

    Preparing for an adult career and incorporating a career into one's identity is a key task during the transition to adulthood (Erikson, 1968), and completing developmental tasks is considered a major factor in adjustment (Havinghurst, 1972). Previous research has established associations between overall career preparation in high school and adjustment soon after high school graduation. Differences in the developmental patterns of career preparation dimensions (indecision, planning, and confidence) following high school graduation also have been found. The current study builds on that prior work by examining associations between changes in the dimensions of career preparation and changes in 3 aspects of adjustment (emotional stability, social adaptation, and self-actualization) from 12th grade in high school to 4.5 years after high school graduation in a sample of 454 youths, using latent growth curve analysis. Results showed that career preparation both predicts and is predicted by adjustment. Career confidence was a particularly important predictor of adjustment. Both 12th grade career confidence and changes in confidence over time predicted changes in adjustment and adjustment 4.5 years post-high school. In an alternative model, an increase in emotional stability was predictive of higher career confidence and lower indecision. Results are discussed in the context of developmental theories and the notion that adjustment and career are interrelated processes. PMID:22329383

  14. Experiment on performance of adjustable jet pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. M.; Long, X. P.; Zhang, S. B.; Lu, X.

    2012-11-01

    When the water level of upper or lower reaches of hydraulic power station changes, the adjustable jet pump which is different from traditional fixed jet pump can maintain stable pressure and flow rate for the system of technical water supply of hydraulic power plant. The model test indicates that the efficiency of the adjustable jet pump is slightly lower than fixed jet pump near rating operation point. With the decrease of opening degree, both efficiencies are more and more close to each other. The fundamental performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is better than II-type and the cavitation performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is worse than II-type. Test data also indicate that the performance of adjustable jet pump is very different from fixed jet pump, so the theory of fixed jet pump is not able to be copied to adjustable jet pump. It is necessary to farther study on the performance of the adjustable jet pump. This paper has reference value for analogous design of system of circulation water supply to turbine units in hydraulic power station.

  15. A new co-micronized composite containing palmitoylethanolamide and polydatin shows superior oral efficacy compared to their association in a rat paw model of carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Esposito, E; D, Impellizzeri; G, Bruschetta; M, Cordaro; R, Siracusa; E, Gugliandolo; R, Crupi; S, Cuzzocrea

    2016-07-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a special food for medical purposes, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Nevertheless, PEA lacks direct ability to prevent free radical formation. Polydatin (PLD), a natural precursor of resveratrol, has antioxidant activity. The combination of PEA and PLD could have beneficial effects on oxidative stress induced by inflammatory processes. In the present study, we compared the effects of micronized PEA (PEA-m) and PLD association (PEA-m+PLD) with a new co-micronized composite containing PEA and PLD (m(PEA/PLD)) in the rat paw model of carrageenan (CAR)-induced acute inflammation. Intraplantar injection of CAR led to a time-dependent development of peripheral inflammation, in terms of paw edema, cytokine release in paw exudates, nitrotyrosine formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. m(PEA/PLD) reduced all measured parameters. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were also markedly reduced. At the spinal cord level, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was found to be nitrated and subsequently deactivated. Further, m(PEA/PLD) treatment increased spinal MnSOD expression, prevented IkB-α degradation and nuclear factor-κB translocation, suggesting a possible role on central sensitization. m(PEA/PLD) showed more robust anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects compared to the simple association of PEA-m and PLD. This composite formulation approach opens a new therapeutic strategy for the development of novel non-narcotic anti-hyperalgesic agents. PMID:27095683

  16. Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Fang; Rongsheng, Wu

    2002-09-01

    Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow is examined in detail with a linear shallow water model. The initial unbalanced flow considered first falls tinder two classes. The first is similar to that adopted by Gill and is here referred to as a mass imbalance model, for the flow is initially motionless but with a sea surface displacement. The other is the same as that considered by Rossby and is referred to as a momentum imbalance model since there is only a velocity perturbation in the initial field. The significant feature of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment for the above two extreme models is that although the energy conversion ratio has a large case-to-case variability for different initial conditions, its value is bounded below by 0 and above by 1 / 2. Based on the discussion of the above extreme models, the energetics of adjustment for an arbitrary initial condition is investigated. It is found that the characteristics of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment mentioned above are also applicable to adjustment of the general unbalanced flow under the condition that the energy conversion ratio is redefined as the conversion ratio between the change of kinetic energy and potential energy of the deviational fields.

  17. Modelling of glacial isostatic adjustment in the Barents Sea region: Earth rheology inferred from various ice load scenarios for the last glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auriac, Amandine; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Bentley, Michael J.; Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Lloyd, Jerry M.

    2015-04-01

    The Barents Sea, bordered by Norway to the south, Svalbard to the north and Novaya Zemlya to the east, was covered by ice during the last glacial cycle. The extent and thickness of the marine-based ice sheet as well as timing of glaciation / deglaciation are, however, difficult to constrain, partly due to the few terrestrial areas available. There are various models for the ice load history in this region, but large discrepancies remain between them depending on the dataset used as constraint (e.g. sea-level data, temperature record or geomorphology data). Our aim here is to compare and find the best ice load scenario for this region over the last glacial cycle and solve for the Earth structure in the area. To achieve this, we model the present-day crustal deformation and sea-level variations during the last deglaciation by solving the sea-level equation. We use a wide range of Earth models, where we vary the lithosphere thickness and the upper and lower mantle viscosities, as well as four ice load scenarios. The first three ice load scenarios come from published studies, and include the ICE-5G model as well as models from M. Siegert and J.-O. Näslund, while the last one is currently being developed at the University of Tromsø, Norway. We compare the modelled sea-level predictions to relative sea-level curves at key locations around the Barents Sea using chi square, which enables us to infer the best Earth structure and ice history. We also compare the predicted surface deformation from our best model with GPS observations from stations located around the Barents Sea. The GPS provides a constraint on the present-day evolution of deformation in the area and is complementary to the relative sea-level data, which constrain the long-term deformation. First results show that the published ice load scenarios are not accurate enough to reproduce the sea level curves around the Barents Sea, regardless of the Earth model tried. However, the last model, currently being

  18. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  19. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  20. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  1. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  2. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  3. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  4. Adolescents' ADHD symptoms and adjustment: The role of attachment and rejection sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Miri; Oshri, Assaf; Eshkol, Varda; Pilowsky, Tammy

    2014-03-01

    The associations between attachment style, ADHD symptoms, and social adjustments were examined in a community sample of adolescents. Five hundred and eight junior high school students completed questionnaires pertaining to attachment style, ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity), and rejection sensitivity, and were rated by homeroom teachers on social adjustment. Analyses supported a 3-profile pattern of attachment styles: secure, dismissing, and preoccupied. The 3 attachment profiles showed differential risk on adolescents' social adjustment, as well as on ADHD symptoms. The secure profile showed the most adaptive outcomes on all of the examined adjustment outcomes, compared with the other 2 profiles. In contrast, the preoccupied attachment profile showed the highest levels of ADHD problems, angry and anxious expectations, while displaying a similar level of maladjustment to the dismissing profile. In addition, structural equation modeling was used and supported a model that tested an indirect link between attachment security and adolescent adjustment via an ADHD latent factor. Findings suggest that clinicians and educators should pay attention to relational patterns (attachment styles) in adolescence, as these may serve as a developmental precursor for ADHD and a range of adjustment problems in school. PMID:24826937

  5. Treatment response in couple therapy: Relationship adjustment and individual functioning change processes.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M; Pinsof, William M; Haase, Claudia M

    2015-10-01

    This study, a naturalistic investigation of the process of change in relationship adjustment and individual functioning during conjoint therapy, examined the first 8 sessions of a multisystemic model of couple therapy, integrative problem-centered metaframeworks (Breunlin, Pinsof, Russell, & Lebow, 2011; Pinsof, Breunlin, Russell, & Lebow, 2011). The sample consisted of 125 heterosexual couples who reported on their relationship adjustment and individual functioning before every session using the Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change (Pinsof et al., 2009; Pinsof, Zinbarg, et al., in press). Data were analyzed using dyadic latent growth curve and cross-lagged models. For both men and women, relationship adjustment and individual functioning showed nonlinear change, increasing during Sessions 1-4 and stabilizing during Sessions 5-8. At pretreatment, women reported lower levels of relationship adjustment than men; no gender differences existed in initial levels of individual functioning or in the change trajectories of relationship adjustment or individual functioning. Higher relationship adjustment predicted positive change in individual functioning for men (but not for women). In contrast, there were no cross-lagged effects of individual functioning on relationship adjustment for men or women. The results demonstrate the importance of examining the processes by which relational and individual pathology respond to couple-based interventions. PMID:26376428

  6. A dual acting compound releasing nitric oxide (NO) and ibuprofen, NCX 320, shows significant therapeutic effects in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sciorati, Clara; Miglietta, Daniela; Buono, Roberta; Pisa, Viviana; Cattaneo, Dario; Azzoni, Emanuele; Brunelli, Silvia; Clementi, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    A resolutive therapy for muscular dystrophies, a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases leading to muscular degeneration and in the severe forms to death, is still lacking. Since inflammation and defects in nitric oxide generation are recognized key pathogenic events in muscular dystrophy, we have analysed the effects of a derivative of ibuprofen, NCX 320, belonging to the class of cyclooxygenase inhibiting nitric oxide donator (CINOD), in the α-sarcoglycan null mice, a severe mouse model of dystrophy. NCX 320 was administered daily in the diet for 8 months starting 1 month from weaning. Muscle functional recovery was evaluated by free wheel and treadmill tests at 8 months. Serum creatine kinase activity, as well as the number of diaphragm inflammatory infiltrates and necrotic fibres, was measured as indexes of skeletal muscle damage. Muscle regeneration was evaluated in diaphragm and tibialis anterior muscles, measuring the numbers of centronucleated fibres and of myogenic precursor cells. NCX 320 mitigated muscle damage, reducing significantly serum creatine kinase activity, the number of necrotic fibres and inflammatory infiltrates. Moreover, NCX 320 stimulated muscle regeneration increasing significantly the number of myogenic precursor cells and regenerating fibres. All these effects concurred in inducing a significant improvement of muscle function, as assessed by both free wheel and treadmill tests. These results describe the properties of a new compound incorporating nitric oxide donation together with anti-inflammatory properties, showing that it is effective in slowing muscle dystrophy progression long term. Of importance, this new compound deserves specific attention for its potential in the therapy of muscular dystrophy given that ibuprofen is well tolerated in paediatric patients and with a profile of safety that makes it suitable for chronic treatment such as the one required in muscular dystrophies. PMID:21609764

  7. Identification of rhesus macaque genital microbiota by 16S pyrosequencing shows similarities to human bacterial vaginosis: implications for use as an animal model for HIV vaginal infection.

    PubMed

    Spear, Gregory T; Gilbert, Douglas; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Doyle, Lara; Green, Linda; Gillevet, Patrick M; Landay, Alan L; Veazey, Ronald S

    2010-02-01

    The composition of the lower genital tract microbiota in women is believed to affect the risk of sexually acquiring HIV. Since macaque genital microbiota could similarly impact vaginal infection with SIV we identified microbiota in 11 rhesus macaques using multitag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiota was polymicrobial with a median of nine distinct bacterial taxa per macaque (range 3-16 taxa, each constituting 1% or more of the sequences). Taxa frequently found included Peptoniphilus, Sneathia, Porphyromonas, Mobiluncus, Atopobacter, Dialister, Thioreductor, Prevotella, and Streptococcus, many of which are also frequently found in women with bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus sequences (mostly L. johnsonii) were found in only four macaques but were not predominant in any (median of 0% of sequences, range 0-39%). All macaques were resampled 6 months after the first time point to determine the stability of the microbiota. The microbiota remained polymicrobial with a median of 10 taxa (range 6-18). Microbial patterns remained similar for six of the macaques, changed substantially in two, and had a mixed pattern in three. Significant sialidase enzyme activity, a marker of bacteria vaginosis in women, was detected in genital fluid from 9/11 and 8/11 macaques from the first and second time points, respectively. These results show that the macaque lower genital microbiota resembled a bacteria vaginosis-type microbiota in women and suggest that the microbiota of macaques in captivity promote rather than protect against vaginal infection with SIV. These results also suggest macaques could be used as an animal model to study some aspects of bacterial vaginosis. PMID:20156101

  8. Identification of Rhesus Macaque Genital Microbiota by 16S Pyrosequencing Shows Similarities to Human Bacterial Vaginosis: Implications for Use as an Animal Model for HIV Vaginal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Douglas; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Doyle, Lara; Green, Linda; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Landay, Alan L.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The composition of the lower genital tract microbiota in women is believed to affect the risk of sexually acquiring HIV. Since macaque genital microbiota could similarly impact vaginal infection with SIV we identified microbiota in 11 rhesus macaques using multitag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiota was polymicrobial with a median of nine distinct bacterial taxa per macaque (range 3–16 taxa, each constituting 1% or more of the sequences). Taxa frequently found included Peptoniphilus, Sneathia, Porphyromonas, Mobiluncus, Atopobacter, Dialister, Thioreductor, Prevotella, and Streptococcus, many of which are also frequently found in women with bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus sequences (mostly L. johnsonii) were found in only four macaques but were not predominant in any (median of 0% of sequences, range 0–39%). All macaques were resampled 6 months after the first time point to determine the stability of the microbiota. The microbiota remained polymicrobial with a median of 10 taxa (range 6–18). Microbial patterns remained similar for six of the macaques, changed substantially in two, and had a mixed pattern in three. Significant sialidase enzyme activity, a marker of bacteria vaginosis in women, was detected in genital fluid from 9/11 and 8/11 macaques from the first and second time points, respectively. These results show that the macaque lower genital microbiota resembled a bacteria vaginosis-type microbiota in women and suggest that the microbiota of macaques in captivity promote rather than protect against vaginal infection with SIV. These results also suggest macaques could be used as an animal model to study some aspects of bacterial vaginosis. PMID:20156101

  9. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  10. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  11. Health and health expenditures in adjusting and non-adjusting countries.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, J; Barham, T

    1998-04-01

    The focus of this study is on the impact of World Bank structural adjustment operations on health expenditures and outcomes. We compare trends and levels of real per capita public spending on health, private consumption (which is the resource base for private health expenditures), and groupings child mortality indicators in four groups of countries. These are: (i) countries that started to borrow for the adjustment process early--Early Adjustment Lending (EAL) countries, (ii) Other Adjustment Lending (OAL) countries, (iii) Non-Adjustment Lending countries whose economies grew during the period 1985-1990 (NAL+), and (iv) Non-Adjustment Lending countries whose economies did not grow (NAL-). The NAL- group provides a 'counterfactual' for comparison with the two groups of adjusting countries. The results show that the fear about possible declines in health care spending in adjusting countries is unwarranted for EAL countries, that is those countries that started the adjustment process early and took it seriously. Government spending on health care increased on average for this group of countries, as did private consumption levels. Government health care expenditures also continued to increase in OAL countries, but mixed GDP growth performance has left little room for increased private spending. However, those countries that showed negative growth in the late eighties and did not start an adjustment process, fared worse throughout: real per capita public health care spending declined during the late eighties and increased less than in the other countries during 1989-1993, while private consumption has declined steadily. The trends in child mortality indicators show tremendous and continuing progress during the past two or three decades with few discernible differences among the four country groupings. PMID:9579751

  12. 77 FR 40387 - Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to adjust prices for several market dominant products... announcing its intent to adjust prices for several market dominant products within First-Class Mail...

  13. On the adjustment of inconsistent data using the Birge ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, Olha; Elster, Clemens

    2014-10-01

    The Birge ratio is applied in metrology to enlarge quoted uncertainties when combining inconsistent measurement results on the same measurand. We discuss the statistical model underlying such a procedure and argue that the resulting uncertainty associated with the adjusted value is underrated. We provide a simple modification of this uncertainty on the basis of an objective Bayesian inference. While the proposed uncertainty approaches that obtained by the conventional procedure for a large number n of combined measurement results, differences are significant for small n. For example, for n = 4 we get an increase of 73% in the standard uncertainty associated with the adjusted value, and for n = 10 the increase is still 13%. We derive the posterior distribution for the adjusted value in closed form, including a 95% credible interval. In addition, we show that our results do not only hold when the distribution of the measurement results is assumed to be Gaussian, but for a whole family of (elliptically contoured) location-scale distributions. We illustrate the modified Birge method by its application to data from the 2002 adjustment of the Newtonian constant of gravitation.

  14. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  15. Incremental value of hormonal therapy for deep vein thrombosis prediction: an adjusted Wells score for women.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Márcio Vinícius Lins; Arancibia, Ana Elisa Loyola; Costa, Ana Paula; Bueno, Fernando Brito; Martins, Marcela Aparecida Corrêa; Magalhães, Maria Cláudia; Silva, José Luiz Padilha; de Bastos, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) management includes prediction rule evaluation to define standard pretest DVT probabilities in symptomatic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incremental usefulness of hormonal therapy to the Wells prediction rules for DVT in women. We studied women undertaking compressive ultrasound scanning for suspected DVT. We adjusted the Wells score for DVT, taking into account the β-coefficients of the logistic regression model. Data discrimination was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The adjusted score calibration was assessed graphically and by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Reclassification tables and the net reclassification index were used for the adjusted score comparison with the Wells score for DVT. We observed 461 women including 103 DVT events. The mean age was 56 years (±21 years). The adjusted logistic regression model included hormonal therapy and six Wells prediction rules for DVT. The adjusted score weights ranged from -4 to 4. Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed a nonsignificant P value (0.69) and the calibration graph showed no differences between the expected and the observed values. The area under the ROC curve was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-0.95] for the adjusted model and 0.87 (95% CI 0.84-0.91) for the Wells score for DVT (Delong test, P value < 0.01). Net reclassification index for the adjusted score was 0.22 (95% CI 0.11-0.33, P value < 0.01). Our results suggest an incremental usefulness of hormonal therapy as an independent DVT prediction rule in women compared with the Wells score for DVT. The adjusted score must be evaluated in different populations before clinical use. PMID:26757018

  16. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  17. A model-based approach to adjust microwave observations for operational applications: results of a campaign at Munich Airport in winter 2011/2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güldner, J.

    2013-10-01

    -based regression operators in order to provide unbiased vertical profiles during the campaign at Munich Airport. The results of this algorithm and the retrievals of a neural network, specially developed for the site, are compared with radiosondes from Oberschleißheim located about 10 km apart from the MWRP site. Outstanding deviations for the lowest levels between 50 and 100 m are discussed. Analogously to the airport experiment, a model-based regression operator was calculated for Lindenberg and compared with both radiosondes and operational results of observation-based methods. The bias of the retrievals could be considerably reduced and the accuracy, which has been assessed for the airport site, is quite similar to those of the operational radiometer site at Lindenberg above 1 km height. Additional investigations are made to determine the length of the training period necessary for generating best estimates. Thereby three months have proven to be adequate. The results of the study show that on the basis of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model data, available everywhere at any time, the model-based regression method is capable of providing comparable results at a multitude of sites. Furthermore, the approach offers auspicious conditions for automation and continuous updating.

  18. Comprehensive Behavioral Testing in the R6/2 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease Shows No Benefit from CoQ10 or Minocycline

    PubMed Central

    Menalled, Liliana B.; Patry, Monica; Ragland, Natalie; Lowden, Phillip A. S.; Goodman, Jennifer; Minnich, Jennie; Zahasky, Benjamin; Park, Larry; Leeds, Janet; Howland, David; Signer, Ethan; Tobin, Allan J.; Brunner, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of coenzyme Q10 and minocycline on mouse models of Huntington's disease have produced conflicting results regarding their efficacy in behavioral tests. Using our recently published best practices for husbandry and testing for mouse models of Huntington's disease, we report that neither coenzyme Q10 nor minocycline had significant beneficial effects on measures of motor function, general health (open field, rotarod, grip strength, rearing-climbing, body weight and survival) in the R6/2 mouse model. The higher doses of minocycline, on the contrary, reduced survival. We were thus unable to confirm the previously reported benefits for these two drugs, and we discuss potential reasons for these discrepancies, such as the effects of husbandry and nutrition. PMID:20339553

  19. Sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain: a replication and path analytic extension.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of 249 sojourning Malaysian undergraduates in Britain. One-hundred and ten Malay and 139 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment and socio-demographics. Overall, Malay students reported significantly poorer sociocultural adjustment than Chinese students, as well as more negative outcomes on a range of predictors. Path analysis for the total sample showed that higher family income led to greater sociocultural adjustment, but partially because it led to more contact with host and conationals, better language proficiency, lower perceived cultural differences and less perceived discrimination. Moreover, participants with higher English proficiency were better adapted, but partially because they perceived less cultural differences as well as having more contact with host nationals. Additionally, individuals reporting better sociocultural adjustment also reported better health statuses. The same model was equally useful at predicting sociocultural adjustment for both Malay and Chinese participants. These results are discussed in terms of the role played by income in buffering against the negative aspects of sociocultural adjustment. PMID:19337675

  20. Incorporating the sampling design in weighting adjustments for panel attrition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qixuan; Gelman, Andrew; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2015-12-10

    We review weighting adjustment methods for panel attrition and suggest approaches for incorporating design variables, such as strata, clusters, and baseline sample weights. Design information can typically be included in attrition analysis using multilevel models or decision tree methods such as the chi-square automatic interaction detection algorithm. We use simulation to show that these weighting approaches can effectively reduce bias in the survey estimates that would occur from omitting the effect of design factors on attrition while keeping the resulted weights stable. We provide a step-by-step illustration on creating weighting adjustments for panel attrition in the Galveston Bay Recovery Study, a survey of residents in a community following a disaster, and provide suggestions to analysts in decision-making about weighting approaches. PMID:26239405

  1. Effect of Risk Adjustment Method on Comparisons of Health Care Utilization Between Complementary and Alternative Medicine Users and Nonusers

    PubMed Central

    Gerkovich, Mary M.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Deyo, Richard A.; Sherman, Karen J.; Lafferty, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers are becoming more integrated into the United States health care system. Because patients self-select CAM use, risk adjustment is needed to make the groups more comparable when analyzing utilization. This study examined how the choice of risk adjustment method affects assessment of CAM use on overall health care utilization. Design and subjects Insurance claims data for 2000–2003 from Washington State, which mandates coverage of CAM providers, were analyzed. Three (3) risk adjustment methods were compared in patients with musculoskeletal conditions: Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG), Diagnostic Cost Groups (DCG), and the Charlson Index. Relative Value Units (RVUs) were used as a proxy for expenditures. Two (2) sets of median regression models were created: prospective, which used risk adjustments from the previous year to predict RVU in the subsequent year, and concurrent, which used risk adjustment measures to predict RVU in the same year. Results The sample included 92,474 claimants. Prospective models showed little difference in the effect of CAM use on RVU among the three risk adjustment methods, and all models had low predictive power (R2 ≤0.05). In the concurrent models, coefficients were similar in direction and magnitude for all risk adjustment methods, but in some models the predicted effect of CAM use on RVU differed by as much as double between methods. Results of DCG and ACG models were similar and were stronger than Charlson models. Conclusions Choice of risk adjustment method may have a modest effect on the outcome of interest. PMID:23036140

  2. A Composite Theoretical Model Showing Potential Hidden Costs of Online Distance Education at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: With Implications for Building Cost-Resistant Courses and Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Growing numbers of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are entering the arena of online distance education. Some are seeking to grow large-scale programs that can compete for market share with historically White institutions and for-profit schools. This theoretical essay develops a composite model to assist HBCU administrators in…

  3. Does Child Temperament Moderate the Influence of Parenting on Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that parental socialization and child temperament are modestly associated with child adjustment outcomes. Suggests a conditional model of influence, in which parenting effects on child adjustment are moderated by child temperament characteristics. Outlines theoretical support, reviews empirical work compatible with the moderated model, and…

  4. Conversations with God: Prayer and Bargaining in Adjustment to Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Valerie J.; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Blanco, E. Lisette

    2013-01-01

    The role of religiosity and spirituality in the process of adjustment to disability is of increasing interest to rehabilitation professionals. Beginning with the Kubler-Ross models of grief and adjustment to disability and terminal illness, a number of stage models have included spiritual and religious interactions as a part of the adjustment…

  5. Medical Adjustment Services for the Severely Handicapped

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, R. Edward

    1978-01-01

    Management of a spinal cord injury is used as a model to discuss the medical adjustment problems occurring with severe physical handicaps. Topics include the stages of preadmission/admission rehabilitation evaluation, comprehensive rehabilitation treatment, patient communication, patient and family conference, and discharge and follow-up. This…

  6. Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows adjustable bars at top of structure; diagonal and vertical members on truss are not adjustable. Looking north from civilian land. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  7. Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of tension bars at end posts western truss. Shows adjustable bars at top of structure; diagonal and vertical members on truss are not adjustable. Looking north from civilian land. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Daggett Road Bridge, Daggett Road traversing Burns Cut Off, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  8. Show Me the Mush! - Constraints From Voluminous Rhyolitic Ignimbrites of Bimodal and Calc-alkaline Settings on the Applicability of a Mush Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Mush models have been popular in explaining crystal-poor rhyolites of a variety of settings. The classical mush model requires an abundance of very crystal-rich (>50%), intermediate (dacitic) magmas that upon compaction expel their interstitial liquids that erupt to give rise to rhyolitic lava flows and ignimbrites. In volcanic systems, a critical part in evaluating a mush model rests on providing evidence for the existence of suitable crystal-rich intermediate magmas that are consistent with the petrology of the erupted rhyolites. In my evaluation, I focus on providing constraints of whether or not suitable crystal mushes are likely to have existed and were instrumental in the production of a select series of voluminous (>100 km3) rhyolitic ignimbrites. Furthermore, the volcanic framework of each selected ignimbrite is used for assessing questions of "eruptibility" of magma types. The three main evaluated units representing 'hot-dry-reduced' rhyolites of bimodal settings are the 16-15.4 Ma Dinner Creek Tuff, the 9.7 Ma Devine Canyon Tuff, and 7.1 Ma Rattlesnake Tuff. All three tuffs erupted in eastern Oregon within a basalt-rhyolite suite. The key feature that makes them particularly valuable for this discussion is that each of the tuffs erupted a co-magmatic component that tracks the intermediate to mafic underpinnings to the rhyolitic magma. This allows a direct assessment of what intermediate magmas residing in close spatial proximity to the rhyolites looked like. On the other hand, other characteristics such as degree of chemical zoning, element trends, single or multiple cooling units, etc., vary considerably among the three tuffs thus covering a wide spectrum of rhyolites from bimodal settings. As representative of 'cool-wet-oxidized' rhyolites, I test applicability of the mush model on the tuffs and associated lavas of the Oligocene San Luis caldera system. This system represents strongly confocal and voluminous eruptions that are closely spaced in time at

  9. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory tripeptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro show increasing permeabilities with increasing physiological relevance of absorption models.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Martin; Cerstiaens, Anja; van Meensel, Ans; Mols, Raf; van der Pijl, Pieter C; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Augustijns, Patrick

    2008-08-01

    Transepithelial transport of the ACE inhibitory peptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro was studied in different models of absorption. Apparent permeability (P(app)) values for absorptive transport across Caco-2 monolayers were 1.0+/-0.9 x 10(-8) (Ile-Pro-Pro) and 0.5+/-0.1 x 10(-8)cms(-1) (Val-Pro-Pro). Ex vivo transport across jejunal segments in the Ussing chamber was 5-times (Ile-Pro-Pro) to 10-times (Val-Pro-Pro) higher with no significant differences (p>0.05) observed between both peptides. The peptidase inhibitor bestatin increased permeability for the absorptive direction for Ile-Pro-Pro by twofold. Neither a transepithelial pH gradient nor increased apical tripeptide concentration nor longitudinal localization of the intestinal segment influenced P(app) in the ex vivo experiments. Val-Pro-Pro transport across Peyer's patches, however, was 4-times higher (P(app)=21.0+/-9.3 x10(-8)cms(-1)) as compared to duodenum (P(app)=4.8+/-1.4 x 10(-8)cms(-1)). In the in situ perfusion experiments P(app) values varied greatly among different animals ranging from 0.5 to 24.0 x10(-8)cms(-1) (Ile-Pro-Pro) and from 1.0 to 15.6 x 10(-8)cms(-1) (Val-Pro-Pro). In summary, Caco-2 and ex vivo absorption models differ considerably regarding their peptide permeability. The in situ model seems to be less appropriate because of the observed large variability in peptide permeability. The results of this study demonstrate that the ACE inhibitory peptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro are absorbed partially undegraded. PMID:18490081

  10. A Model for Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Activated Gene Expression Shows Potency and Efficacy Changes and Predicts Squelching Due to Competition for Transcription Co-Activators

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ted W.; Budinsky, Robert A.; Rowlands, J. Craig

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription was developed based on activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) and subsequent binding the activated AHR to xenobiotic response elements (XREs) on DNA. The model was based on effects observed in cells lines commonly used as in vitro experimental systems. Following ligand binding, the AHR moves into the cell nucleus and forms a heterodimer with the aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT). In the model, a requirement for binding to DNA is that a generic coregulatory protein is subsequently bound to the AHR-ARNT dimer. Varying the amount of coregulator available within the nucleus altered both the potency and efficacy of TCDD for inducing for transcription of CYP1A1 mRNA, a commonly used marker for activation of the AHR. Lowering the amount of available cofactor slightly increased the EC50 for the transcriptional response without changing the efficacy or maximal response. Further reduction in the amount of cofactor reduced the efficacy and produced non-monotonic dose-response curves (NMDRCs) at higher ligand concentrations. The shapes of these NMDRCs were reminiscent of the phenomenon of squelching. Resource limitations for transcriptional machinery are becoming apparent in eukaryotic cells. Within single cells, nuclear receptor-mediated gene expression appears to be a stochastic process; however, intercellular communication and other aspects of tissue coordination may represent a compensatory process to maintain an organism’s ability to respond on a phenotypic level to various stimuli within an inconstant environment. PMID:26039703

  11. Response monitoring and adjustment: differential relations with psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Bresin, Konrad; Finy, M Sima; Sprague, Jenessa; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the relation between psychopathy and cognitive functioning often show mixed results, partially because different factors of psychopathy have not been considered fully. Based on previous research, we predicted divergent results based on a 2-factor model of psychopathy (interpersonal-affective traits and impulsive-antisocial traits). Specifically, we predicted that the unique variance of interpersonal-affective traits would be related to increased monitoring (i.e., error-related negativity) and adjusting to errors (i.e., posterror slowing), whereas impulsive-antisocial traits would be related to reductions in these processes. Three studies using a diverse selection of assessment tools, samples, and methods are presented to identify response monitoring correlates of the 2 main factors of psychopathy. In Studies 1 (undergraduates), 2 (adolescents), and 3 (offenders), interpersonal-affective traits were related to increased adjustment following errors and, in Study 3, to enhanced monitoring of errors. Impulsive-antisocial traits were not consistently related to error adjustment across the studies, although these traits were related to a deficient monitoring of errors in Study 3. The results may help explain previous mixed findings and advance implications for etiological models of psychopathy. PMID:24933282

  12. The static contribution of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment on the Geoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metivier, L.; Greff-Lefftz, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is due to the unloading of ice on the Earth surface following the last deglaciation period a few thousand years ago. The ice mass redistributions induce an adjustment of the planet. Following this adjustment, there are viscoelastic deformations of the solid Earth, sea level rise, gravity variations, geocenter motions, and also disruption of the Earth's rotation. We investigate here the present-day impact of GIA on the "static" component of the geoid. It is well known that GIA processes induce slow time variations of the gravity and the geoid shape. The total accumulation of the geoid changes since the beginning of the last deglaciation induces a total geoid perturbation that seems today constant in time at the human time scale. We want here to infer precisely the magnitude of this constant component in order to construct a GIA free-geoid. We tested different GIA models and tested different Earth viscosity profiles. We show that the GIA induces a constant perturbation of the geoid that can be quite important over North America and Scandinavia regions, depending on Earth models.

  13. Response Monitoring and Adjustment: Differential Relations with Psychopathic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Bresin, Konrad; Finy, M. Sima; Sprague, Jenessa; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the relation between psychopathy and cognitive functioning often show mixed results, partially because different factors of psychopathy have not been considered fully. Based on previous research, we predicted divergent results based on a two-factor model of psychopathy (interpersonal-affective traits and impulsive-antisocial traits). Specifically, we predicted that the unique variance of interpersonal-affective traits would be related to increased monitoring (i.e., error-related negativity) and adjusting to errors (i.e., post-error slowing), whereas impulsive-antisocial traits would be related to reductions in these processes. Three studies using a diverse selection of assessment tools, samples, and methods are presented to identify response monitoring correlates of the two main factors of psychopathy. In Studies 1 (undergraduates), 2 (adolescents), and 3 (offenders), interpersonal-affective traits were related to increased adjustment following errors and, in Study 3, to enhanced monitoring of errors. Impulsive-antisocial traits were not consistently related to error adjustment across the studies, although these traits were related to a deficient monitoring of errors in Study 3. The results may help explain previous mixed findings and advance implications for etiological models of psychopathy. PMID:24933282

  14. A Potent Inhibitor of Protein Sequestration by Expanded Triplet (CUG) Repeats that Shows Phenotypic Improvements in a Drosophila Model of Myotonic Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Luu, Long M; Nguyen, Lien; Peng, Shaohong; Lee, JuYeon; Lee, Hyang Yeon; Wong, Chun-Ho; Hergenrother, Paul J; Chan, H Y Edwin; Zimmerman, Steven C

    2016-07-01

    Myotonic dystrophy is the most common form of adult-onset muscular dystrophy, originating in a CTG repeat expansion in the DMPK gene. The expanded CUG transcript sequesters MBNL1, a key regulator of alternative splicing, leading to the misregulation of numerous pre-mRNAs. We report an RNA-targeted agent as a possible lead compound for the treatment of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) that reveals both the promise and challenges for this type of small-molecule approach. The agent is a potent inhibitor of the MBNL1-rCUG complex with an inhibition constant (Ki ) of 25±8 nm, and is also relatively nontoxic to HeLa cells, able to dissolve nuclear foci, and correct the insulin receptor splicing defect in DM1 model cells. Moreover, treatment with this compound improves two separate disease phenotypes in a Drosophila model of DM1: adult external eye degeneration and larval crawling defect. However, the compound has a relatively low maximum tolerated dose in mice, and its cell uptake may be limited, providing insight into directions for future development. PMID:27245480

  15. Analysis of congenital disorder of glycosylation-Id in a yeast model system shows diverse site-specific under-glycosylation of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ulla-Maja; Jamaluddin, Muhammad Fairuz; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2012-11-01

    Asparagine-linked glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins in eukaryotes. Mutations in the human ALG3 gene cause changed levels and altered glycan structures on mature glycoproteins and are the cause of a severe congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG-Id). Diverse glycoproteins are also under-glycosylated in Saccharomyces cerevisae alg3 mutants. Here we analyzed site-specific glycosylation occupancy in this yeast model system using peptide-N-glycosidase F to label glycosylation sites with an asparagine-aspartate conversion that creates a new endoproteinase AspN cleavage site, followed by proteolytic digestion, and detection of peptides and glycopeptides by LC-ESI-MS/MS. We used this analytical method to identify and measure site-specific glycosylation occupancy in alg3 mutant and wild type yeast strains. We found decreased site-specific N-glycosylation occupancy in the alg3 knockout strain preferentially at Asn-Xaa-Ser sequences located in secondary structural elements, features previously associated with poor glycosylation efficiency. Furthermore, we identified 26 previously experimentally unverified glycosylation sites. Our results provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of disease in CDG-Id, and our methodology will be useful in site-specific glycosylation analysis in many model systems and clinical applications. PMID:23038983

  16. Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents with Myelodysplasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Mary M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The psychosocial development of 20 adolescents with congenital paralysis due to myelodysplasia is compared to 20 age-and gender-matched subjects with no physical handicaps. On many of the measures, the myelodysplasia group showed poorer social and emotional adjustment and lower self esteem than the controls. (Author/GDC)

  17. Factors Mediating the Adjustment to Involuntary Childlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatelli, Ronald M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored stressors that accompany experience of involuntary childlessness and examined mediators of adjustment to infertility in married individuals. Data showed deleterious effect that coping with infertility can have on couple's sexual relationship. Findings suggest important relationship between self-esteem, marital commitment, and positive…

  18. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  19. Does exposure prediction bias health effect estimation? The relationship between confounding adjustment and exposure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Dominici, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology, we are often faced with two challenges. First, an exposure prediction model is needed to estimate the exposure to an agent of interest, ideally at the individual level. Second, when estimating the health-effect associated with the exposure, confounding adjustment is needed in the health-effects regression model. The current literature addresses these two challenges separately. That is, methods that account for measurement error in the predicted exposure often fail to acknowledge the possibility of confounding, while methods designed to control confounding often fail to acknowledge that the exposure has been predicted. In this paper, we consider exposure prediction and confounding adjustment in a health-effects regression model simultaneously. By using theoretical arguments and simulation studies, we show that the bias of a health-effect estimate is influenced by the exposure prediction model, the type of confounding adjustment used in the health-effects regression model, and the relationship between these two. Moreover, we argue that even with a health-effects regression model that properly adjusts for confounding, the use of a predicted exposure can bias the health-effect estimate unless all confounders included in the health-effects regression model are also included in the exposure prediction model. While these results of this paper were motivated by studies of environmental contaminants, they apply more broadly to any context where an exposure needs to be predicted. PMID:24815302

  20. An Orally Bioavailable, Indole-3-glyoxylamide Based Series of Tubulin Polymerization Inhibitors Showing Tumor Growth Inhibition in a Mouse Xenograft Model of Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Colley, Helen E; Muthana, Munitta; Danson, Sarah J; Jackson, Lucinda V; Brett, Matthew L; Harrison, Joanne; Coole, Sean F; Mason, Daniel P; Jennings, Luke R; Wong, Melanie; Tulasi, Vamshi; Norman, Dennis; Lockey, Peter M; Williams, Lynne; Dossetter, Alexander G; Griffen, Edward J; Thompson, Mark J

    2015-12-10

    A number of indole-3-glyoxylamides have previously been reported as tubulin polymerization inhibitors, although none has yet been successfully developed clinically. We report here a new series of related compounds, modified according to a strategy of reducing aromatic ring count and introducing a greater degree of saturation, which retain potent tubulin polymerization activity but with a distinct SAR from previously documented libraries. A subset of active compounds from the reported series is shown to interact with tubulin at the colchicine binding site, disrupt the cellular microtubule network, and exert a cytotoxic effect against multiple cancer cell lines. Two compounds demonstrated significant tumor growth inhibition in a mouse xenograft model of head and neck cancer, a type of the disease which often proves resistant to chemotherapy, supporting further development of the current series as potential new therapeutics. PMID:26580420

  1. Emotional and cognitive adjustment in abused children.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, M A; Frias, D

    1994-11-01

    Research on the impact of maltreatment on children has increased in the last years, as there is a need to design appropriate treatment strategies. Social, cognitive, and emotional areas may be affected in these children. This research is aimed to study the psychological functioning of child victims, particularly in their emotional and cognitive adjustment. Nineteen children (10.3 years old) with case histories of at least 2 years of physical and emotional parental abuse and a group of 26 nonmaltreated children (9.4 years old) matched in socio-economic characteristics and coming from the same community area were compared in depressive symptomatology and attributional style by using the standardized measures from Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and Kaslow's Children Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ). General and detailed statistical analyses on the emotional and cognitive areas assessed showed significant differences between groups. Child victims showed greater feelings of sadness, lower self-esteem and self-worth, and they perceived the aversive events in their lives as unpredictable which generated helplessness. This is a result of their lack of control of those aversive events. Results are contrasted with those obtained by other researchers who used similar methodology and are discussed in terms of the learned helplessness' model proposed and developed by Seligman, Kaslow, Alloy, Peterson, Tanenbaum, and Abramson (1984). Implications for the child abuse victims' emotional and cognitive rehabilitation are also analyzed and discussed. PMID:7850601

  2. Adjusting learning motivation to promote cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Small, Michael; Yang, Hanxin; Wang, Binghong

    2010-11-01

    An evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma game with players adjusting their learning motivation is studied. At each time step, each player can adjust his/her learning motivation according to the difference between the current payoff and payoff aspiration. Greater payoff aspiration means stronger learning motivation, and vice versa. We find that the density of cooperation in a spatial prisoner’s dilemma game is enhanced when the learning motivation mechanism is considered. Meanwhile, we show that proper noise can not only induce the highest cooperation level but also can maintain the cooperation phenomenon even though there is more temptation to defect.

  3. Regional benthic δ18O stacks with radiocarbon age models show Termination I onset differences of up to 4,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, J.; Lisiecki, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    The assumption of globally synchronous benthic foraminiferal δ18O changes is central to the development of global stacks (averages) and many other types of paleoclimate studies. However, a few well-dated individual benthic δ18O records have suggested the possibility of regional differences in the timing of Termination I (e.g., Skinner and Shackleton, 2005; Waelbroeck et al., 2011). These previous studies often used single core locations to describe vast areas of the ocean, so it has remained unclear whether the observed diachroneities are truly regional in scale or merely local. Here, we bridge the gap between global benthic δ18O stacks and individual records by presenting eight regional benthic δ18O stacks from 252 cores with age models based on a total of 776 planktonic foraminiferal radiocarbon dates from 61 of those cores. The earliest termination onset (beginning of deglacial benthic δ18O decrease) occurs in the intermediate South Atlantic stack at 18.5 kyr BP, shortly after the initial deglacial melting of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. The latest termination onset occurs in the deep Indian stack at 14.5 kyr BP, coeval with the Bølling-Allerød warming. We find synchronous termination onsets at 17.5 kyr BP in the intermediate North Atlantic, deep North Atlantic, and deep South Atlantic, contrary to Waelbroeck et al. (2011). The deglacial benthic δ18O decrease in the deep Pacific lagged that of the deep Atlantic by an average of 1000 yr, with a maximum lag of ~1700 yr during the middle of the termination. The intermediate Pacific termination onset at 16.5 kyr BP happens 1000 yr after the deep Pacific termination onset at 17.5 kyr BP. The stacks extend beyond Termination I to ~40 kyr BP, allowing us to clarify and update certain aspects of millennial-scale benthic δ18O chronostratigraphy surrounding Heinrich events 2-3 and the transition into the Last Glacial Maximum. Our radiocarbon-dated regional benthic δ18O stacks demonstrate some of the

  4. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  5. Optical phantoms with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters.

    PubMed

    Krauter, Philipp; Nothelfer, Steffen; Bodenschatz, Nico; Simon, Emanuel; Stocker, Sabrina; Foschum, Florian; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-10-01

    A new epoxy-resin-based optical phantom system with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters is presented along with measurements of the intrinsic absorption, scattering, fluorescence, and refractive index of the matrix material. Both an aluminium oxide powder and a titanium dioxide dispersion were used as scattering agents and we present measurements of their scattering and reduced scattering coefficients. A method is theoretically described for a mixture of both scattering agents to obtain continuously adjustable anisotropy values g between 0.65 and 0.9 and values of the phase function parameter γ in the range of 1.4 to 2.2. Furthermore, we show absorption spectra for a set of pigments that can be added to achieve particular absorption characteristics. By additional analysis of the aging, a fully characterized phantom system is obtained with the novelty of g and γ parameter adjustment. PMID:26473589

  6. Optical phantoms with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauter, Philipp; Nothelfer, Steffen; Bodenschatz, Nico; Simon, Emanuel; Stocker, Sabrina; Foschum, Florian; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-10-01

    A new epoxy-resin-based optical phantom system with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters is presented along with measurements of the intrinsic absorption, scattering, fluorescence, and refractive index of the matrix material. Both an aluminium oxide powder and a titanium dioxide dispersion were used as scattering agents and we present measurements of their scattering and reduced scattering coefficients. A method is theoretically described for a mixture of both scattering agents to obtain continuously adjustable anisotropy values g between 0.65 and 0.9 and values of the phase function parameter γ in the range of 1.4 to 2.2. Furthermore, we show absorption spectra for a set of pigments that can be added to achieve particular absorption characteristics. By additional analysis of the aging, a fully characterized phantom system is obtained with the novelty of g and γ parameter adjustment.

  7. Isogenic Human iPSC Parkinson’s Model Shows Nitrosative Stress-Induced Dysfunction in MEF2-PGC1α Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Scott D.; Dolatabadi, Nima; Chan, Shing Fai; Zhang, Xiaofei; Akhtar, Mohd Waseem; Parker, James; Soldner, Frank; Sunico, Carmen R.; Nagar, Saumya; Talantova, Maria; Lee, Brian; Lopez, Kevin; Nutter, Anthony; Shan, Bing; Molokanova, Elena; Zhang, Yaoyang; Han, Xuemei; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Masliah, Eliezer; Yates, John R.; Nakanishi, Nobuki; Andreyev, Aleksander Y.; Okamoto, Shu-ichi; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of A9 dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). An association has been reported between PD and exposure to mitochondrial toxins, including environmental pesticides paraquat, maneb, and rotenone. Here, using a robust, patient-derived stem cell model of PD allowing comparison of A53T α-synuclein (α-syn) mutant cells and isogenic mutation-corrected controls, we identify mitochondrial toxin-induced perturbations in A53T α-syn A9 DA neurons (hNs). We report a pathway whereby basal and toxin-induced nitrosative/oxidative stress results in S-nitrosylation of transcription factor MEF2C in A53T hNs compared to corrected controls. This redox reaction inhibits the MEF2C-PGC1α transcriptional network, contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death. Our data provide mechanistic insight into gene-environmental interaction (GxE) in the pathogenesis of PD. Furthermore, using small-molecule high-throughput screening, we identify the MEF2C-PGC1α pathway as a therapeutic target to combat PD. PMID:24290359

  8. A deimmunized bispecific ligand directed toxin that shows an impressive anti-pancreatic cancer effect in a systemic nude mouse orthotopic model

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seunguk; Todhunter, Deborah A.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Toma, Shoko; Vallera, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective was to test a bispecific ligand directed toxin (BLT), with reduced immunogenicity for enhanced efficacy in targeting orthotopic pancreatic cancer in vivo. Method A new BLT was created in which both human EGF and IL-4 cytokines were cloned onto the same single chain molecule with deimmunized pseudomonas exotoxin (dEGF4KDEL). Key amino acids dictating B cell generation of neutralizing anti-toxin antibodies were mutated. Bioassays were used to determine whether mutation reduced potency, and ELISA studies were performed to determine whether anti-toxin antibodies were reduced. A genetically altered luciferase MIA PaCa-2 xenograft model was used to image in real time and determine affects on systemic malignant human cancer. BLTs targeting B cells were used as specificity controls. Results dEGF4KDEL was significantly effective following systemic injection against established orthotopic MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer and selectively prevented metastasis. Mutagenesis significantly reduced anti-toxin levels in vivo with no apparent activity loss in vitro. The drug was effective against three human pancreatic cancer lines in vitro, MIA PaCa-2, SW1990, and S2VP10. Conclusions Despite the metastatic nature of the MIA PaCa-2 orthotopic tumor xenografted in nude mice, high percentages of tumors responded to extended dEGFKDEL treatment resulting in significant anti-cancer effects and disease-free survivors. PMID:22258068

  9. New TiAg composite coating for bone prosthesis engineering shows promising microvascular compatibility in the murine dorsal skinfold chamber model.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Ann-Kathrin; Beythien, Maximilian; Huber, Jakob; Zufraß, Thorsten; Butschkau, Antje; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of antimicrobial substances like silver into implant surface coatings is one promising concept against primary infections of endoprosthesis, especially for immunocompromised patients as well as against reinfection after revision operations. However, besides good antimicrobial and mechanical properties it is equally important that the implant material does not disturb the local microvascular perfusion of muscle tissue to enable microbial host defense and tissue repair processes. In this study the biocompatibility of a newly developed TiAg-composite coating applied on conventional titanium via physical vapor deposition was analysed. To evaluate the local microvascular and inflammatory response of striated muscle tissue upon implantation of TiAg-coated plates the murine dorsal skinfold chamber model was used. We repetitively examined local capillary and venular perfusion, endothelial integrity as well as leucocyte activation by intravital fluorescence microscopy at 1 h, 24 h as well as 3 and 7 days after implantation. TiAg-implants were well tolerated by the vascular system as indicated by intact functional capillary density and endothelial integrity compared to pure titanium plates and controls without a metal implant. Furthermore, quantification of rolling and adherent leucocytes did not reveal signs of inflammation upon TiAg-implantation. PMID:25589204

  10. LRRTM1-deficient mice show a rare phenotype of avoiding small enclosures—A tentative mouse model for claustrophobia-like behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Laakso, T.; Lauren, J.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Airaksinen, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The LRRTM family proteins have been shown to act as synaptogenic cell adhesion molecules via interaction with presynaptic neurexins and are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. LRRTM1-knockout mice have subtle morphological deficits in excitatory hippocampal synapses and were suggested to have impaired cognitive function. Here we report that LRRTM1-knockout mice exhibit an extraordinary phenotype of avoiding small enclosures. In the light–dark box, the knockout mice escape to dark through a standard opening as quickly as wild-type littermates but avoid escaping through a small doorway. While all wild-type mice spontaneously enter a small tube, most knockout mice do not. This apparent aversion to enter narrow space may explain other abnormalities such as increased time in open arms in the elevated plus maze and less visits through a tunnel in the IntelliCage. Moreover, LRRTM1-knockout mice show increased social interaction, reduced nest building and MK801-induced locomotion, and slower swim speed but normal water maze learning. Since LRRTM1 is predominantly expressed in thalamus, hippocampus and limbic cortex, specific synaptic defects in those areas presumably cause these behavioural abnormalities. PMID:23089646

  11. Next-generation sequencing shows West Nile virus quasispecies diversification after a single passage in a carrion crow (Corvus corone) in vivo infection model.

    PubMed

    Dridi, M; Rosseel, T; Orton, R; Johnson, P; Lecollinet, S; Muylkens, B; Lambrecht, B; Van Borm, S

    2015-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) occurs as a population of genetic variants (quasispecies) infecting a single animal. Previous low-resolution viral genetic diversity estimates in sampled wild birds and mosquitoes, and in multiple-passage adaptation studies in vivo or in cell culture, suggest that WNV genetic diversification is mostly limited to the mosquito vector. This study investigated genetic diversification of WNV in avian hosts during a single passage using next-generation sequencing. Wild-captured carrion crows were subcutaneously infected using a clonal Middle-East WNV. Blood samples were collected 2 and 4 days post-infection. A reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR approach was used to amplify the WNV genome directly from serum samples prior to next-generation sequencing resulting in an average depth of at least 700 ×  in each sample. Appropriate controls were sequenced to discriminate biologically relevant low-frequency variants from experimentally introduced errors. The WNV populations in the wild crows showed significant diversification away from the inoculum virus quasispecies structure. By contrast, WNV populations in intracerebrally infected day-old chickens did not diversify from that of the inoculum. Where previous studies concluded that WNV genetic diversification is only experimentally demonstrated in its permissive insect vector species, we have experimentally shown significant diversification of WNV populations in a wild bird reservoir species. PMID:26297666

  12. A bovine whey protein extract can induce the generation of regulatory T cells and shows potential to alleviate asthma symptoms in a murine asthma model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Huang, Po-Han; Lee, Chen-Chen; Chen, Pin-Yu; Chen, Hui-Chen

    2013-05-28

    The number of people with asthma has dramatically increased over the past few decades and the cost of care is more than $11·3 billion per year. The use of steroids is the major treatment to control asthma symptoms, but the side effects are often devastating. Seeking new drugs or new strategies to reduce the dose of steroid taken has always been an important task. A bovine whey protein extract (WPE), which is enriched in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), has been demonstrated to have the potential for reducing symptoms associated with mild-to-moderate T-helper cell type 1-mediated psoriasis in human subjects. However, whether WPE also has potential for inhibiting T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)-mediated disease remains unclear. In the present study, using a murine asthma model, we found that sensitised mice fed WPE daily, before they were challenged, resulted in reducing airway inflammation, serum ovalbumin-specific IgE, Th2-related cytokine production and airway hyperresponsiveness. Increase in the regulatory T cell (Treg) population in vitro and in vivo was observed when treated with WPE. According to the results from the TGF-β-blocking antibody study, we suggest that TGF-β is the main component that endows WPE with the potential to reduce the generation of Treg. Thus, the present data suggest that WPE has the potential to alleviate the symptoms of asthma by inducing the generation of Treg. Therefore, regular administration of WPE might be potentially beneficial for patients with asthma. PMID:23068908

  13. ADX71441, a novel, potent and selective positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, shows efficacy in rodent models of overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kalinichev, M; Palea, S; Haddouk, H; Royer-Urios, I; Guilloteau, V; Lluel, P; Schneider, M; Saporito, M; Poli, S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen reduces urethral resistance and detrusor overactivity in patients with spasticity. However, baclofen's side effects limit its use for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). Here, we tested a novel GABAB positive allosteric modulator (PAM) ADX71441 in models of OAB in mice and guinea pigs. Experimental Approach Mice were left untreated or given (p.o.) vehicle (1= CMC), ADX71441 (1, 3, 10 mg kg−1) or oxybutynin (100 mg kg−1; Experiment 1) or vehicle (1= CMC), baclofen (1, 3, 6 mg kg−1) or oxybutynin (Experiment 2). Treated mice were then overhydrated with water, challenged with furosemide, before being placed into micturition chambers and monitored for urinary parameters. In anaesthetized guinea pigs, intravesical infusion of acetic acid was used to induce OAB and the effects of ADX71441 (1, 3 mg kg−1) or baclofen (1 mg kg−1), administered i.v., on cystometric parameters were monitored. Key Results In mice, 10 mg kg−1 ADX71441 increased urinary latencies, reduced the number of urinary events and the total and average urinary volumes. In guinea pigs, ADX71441 (1 and 3 mg kg−1) increased the intercontraction interval (ICI) and bladder capacity (BC), and reduced micturition frequency (MF) compared to vehicle. At 3 mg kg−1 ADX71441 completely inhibited the micturition reflex and induced overflow incontinence in five out of 10 animals. Baclofen slightly increased ICI and BC and reduced MF. Conclusion and Implications Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that a GABAB PAM has potential as a novel approach for the treatment of OAB. PMID:24224799

  14. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Rate Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances... On September 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed an exigent rate request with the Commission...

  15. Adjustable holder for transducer mounting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deotsch, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Positioning of acoustic sensor, strain gage, or similar transducer is facilitated by adjustable holder. Developed for installation on Space Shuttle, it includes springs for maintaining uniform load on transducer with adjustable threaded cap for precisely controlling position of sensor with respect to surrounding structure.

  16. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  17. ILDR1 null mice, a model of human deafness DFNB42, show structural aberrations of tricellular tight junctions and degeneration of auditory hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Morozko, Eva L.; Nishio, Ayako; Ingham, Neil J.; Chandra, Rashmi; Fitzgerald, Tracy; Martelletti, Elisa; Borck, Guntram; Wilson, Elizabeth; Riordan, Gavin P.; Wangemann, Philine; Forge, Andrew; Steel, Karen P.; Liddle, Rodger A.; Friedman, Thomas B.; Belyantseva, Inna A.

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian inner ear, bicellular and tricellular tight junctions (tTJs) seal the paracellular space between epithelial cells. Tricellulin and immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1, also referred to as angulin-2) localize to tTJs of the sensory and non-sensory epithelia in the organ of Corti and vestibular end organs. Recessive mutations of TRIC (DFNB49) encoding tricellulin and ILDR1 (DFNB42) cause human nonsyndromic deafness. However, the pathophysiology of DFNB42 deafness remains unknown. ILDR1 was recently reported to be a lipoprotein receptor mediating the secretion of the fat-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone in the small intestine, while ILDR1 in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro was shown to recruit tricellulin to tTJs. Here we show that two different mouse Ildr1 mutant alleles have early-onset severe deafness associated with a rapid degeneration of cochlear hair cells (HCs) but have a normal endocochlear potential. ILDR1 is not required for recruitment of tricellulin to tTJs in the cochlea in vivo; however, tricellulin becomes mislocalized in the inner ear sensory epithelia of ILDR1 null mice after the first postnatal week. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, ILDR1 contributes to the ultrastructure of inner ear tTJs. Taken together, our data provide insight into the pathophysiology of human DFNB42 deafness and demonstrate that ILDR1 is crucial for normal hearing by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of tTJs, which are critical for the survival of auditory neurosensory HCs. PMID:25217574

  18. ILDR1 null mice, a model of human deafness DFNB42, show structural aberrations of tricellular tight junctions and degeneration of auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Morozko, Eva L; Nishio, Ayako; Ingham, Neil J; Chandra, Rashmi; Fitzgerald, Tracy; Martelletti, Elisa; Borck, Guntram; Wilson, Elizabeth; Riordan, Gavin P; Wangemann, Philine; Forge, Andrew; Steel, Karen P; Liddle, Rodger A; Friedman, Thomas B; Belyantseva, Inna A

    2015-02-01

    In the mammalian inner ear, bicellular and tricellular tight junctions (tTJs) seal the paracellular space between epithelial cells. Tricellulin and immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1, also referred to as angulin-2) localize to tTJs of the sensory and non-sensory epithelia in the organ of Corti and vestibular end organs. Recessive mutations of TRIC (DFNB49) encoding tricellulin and ILDR1 (DFNB42) cause human nonsyndromic deafness. However, the pathophysiology of DFNB42 deafness remains unknown. ILDR1 was recently reported to be a lipoprotein receptor mediating the secretion of the fat-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone in the small intestine, while ILDR1 in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro was shown to recruit tricellulin to tTJs. Here we show that two different mouse Ildr1 mutant alleles have early-onset severe deafness associated with a rapid degeneration of cochlear hair cells (HCs) but have a normal endocochlear potential. ILDR1 is not required for recruitment of tricellulin to tTJs in the cochlea in vivo; however, tricellulin becomes mislocalized in the inner ear sensory epithelia of ILDR1 null mice after the first postnatal week. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, ILDR1 contributes to the ultrastructure of inner ear tTJs. Taken together, our data provide insight into the pathophysiology of human DFNB42 deafness and demonstrate that ILDR1 is crucial for normal hearing by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of tTJs, which are critical for the survival of auditory neurosensory HCs. PMID:25217574

  19. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  20. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Doran, Carolina; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  1. Adjusting Your Gaze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber-Thrush, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Peter Wylie is a man of many contradictions: a statistician and a storyteller, an introvert who loves an audience, and a self-described data geek with a passion for his work and the people it helps. Wylie is one of the pioneers of predictive modeling, the statistical analysis that uses data to drive educational institutions and nonprofits toward…

  2. Comparison of Rx-defined morbidity groups and diagnosis- based risk adjusters for predicting healthcare costs in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Medication claims are commonly used to calculate the risk adjustment for measuring healthcare cost. The Rx-defined Morbidity Groups (Rx-MG) which combine the use of medication to indicate morbidity have been incorporated into the Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) Case Mix System, developed by the Johns Hopkins University. This study aims to verify that the Rx-MG can be used for adjusting risk and for explaining the variations in the healthcare cost in Taiwan. Methods The Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005) was used in this study. The year 2006 was chosen as the baseline to predict healthcare cost (medication and total cost) in 2007. The final sample size amounted to 793 239 (81%) enrolees, and excluded any cases with discontinued enrolment. Two different kinds of models were built to predict cost: the concurrent model and the prospective model. The predictors used in the predictive models included age, gender, Aggregated Diagnosis Groups (ADG, diagnosis- defined morbidity groups), and Rx-defined Morbidity Groups. Multivariate OLS regression was used in the cost prediction modelling. Results The concurrent model adjusted for Rx-defined Morbidity Groups for total cost, and controlled for age and gender had a better predictive R-square = 0.618, compared to the model adjusted for ADGs (R2 = 0.411). The model combined with Rx-MGs and ADGs performed the best for concurrently predicting total cost (R2 = 0.650). For prospectively predicting total cost, the model combined Rx-MGs and ADGs (R2 = 0.382) performed better than the models adjusted by Rx-MGs (R2 = 0.360) or ADGs (R2 = 0.252) only. Similarly, the concurrent model adjusted for Rx-MGs predicting pharmacy cost had a better performance (R-square = 0.615), than the model adjusted for ADGs (R2 = 0.431). The model combined with Rx-MGs and ADGs performed the best in concurrently as well as prospectively predicting pharmacy cost (R2 = 0.638 and 0.505, respectively). The prospective models showed a

  3. Effect of Adding McKenzie Syndrome, Centralization, Directional Preference, and Psychosocial Classification Variables to a Risk-Adjusted Model Predicting Functional Status Outcomes for Patients With Lumbar Impairments.

    PubMed

    Werneke, Mark W; Edmond, Susan; Deutscher, Daniel; Ward, Jason; Grigsby, David; Young, Michelle; McGill, Troy; McClenahan, Brian; Weinberg, Jon; Davidow, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Patient-classification subgroupings may be important prognostic factors explaining outcomes. Objectives To determine effects of adding classification variables (McKenzie syndrome and pain patterns, including centralization and directional preference; Symptom Checklist Back Pain Prediction Model [SCL BPPM]; and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire subscales of work and physical activity) to a baseline risk-adjusted model predicting functional status (FS) outcomes. Methods Consecutive patients completed a battery of questionnaires that gathered information on 11 risk-adjustment variables. Physical therapists trained in Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy methods classified each patient by McKenzie syndromes and pain pattern. Functional status was assessed at discharge by patient-reported outcomes. Only patients with complete data were included. Risk of selection bias was assessed. Prediction of discharge FS was assessed using linear stepwise regression models, allowing 13 variables to enter the model. Significant variables were retained in subsequent models. Model power (R(2)) and beta coefficients for model variables were estimated. Results Two thousand sixty-six patients with lumbar impairments were evaluated. Of those, 994 (48%), 10 (<1%), and 601 (29%) were excluded due to incomplete psychosocial data, McKenzie classification data, and missing FS at discharge, respectively. The final sample for analyses was 723 (35%). Overall R(2) for the baseline prediction FS model was 0.40. Adding classification variables to the baseline model did not result in significant increases in R(2). McKenzie syndrome or pain pattern explained 2.8% and 3.0% of the variance, respectively. When pain pattern and SCL BPPM were added simultaneously, overall model R(2) increased to 0.44. Although none of these increases in R(2) were significant, some classification variables were stronger predictors compared with some other variables included in

  4. Trajectories of adjustment to couple relationship separation.

    PubMed

    Halford, W Kim; Sweeper, Susie

    2013-06-01

    To test a stress-diathesis model of adjustment to separation, the current study describes the trajectories of different aspects of separation adjustment in people formerly married or cohabiting, and moderators of those trajectories. A convenience sample of 303 recently separated individuals (169 women; 134 men) completed assessments of their emotional attachment to the former partner, loneliness, psychological distress, and coparenting conflict at two time points 6 months apart. Multilevel modeling of the overlapping multicohort design was used to estimate the trajectories of these different aspects of adjustment as a function of time since separation, marital status, gender, presence of children from the relationship, who initiated separation, social support, and anxious attachment. Attachment to the former partner, loneliness, and psychological distress were initially high but improved markedly across the 2 years after separation, but coparenting conflict was high and stable. Adjustment problems were similar in men and women, and in those formerly married or cohabiting, except that reported coparenting conflict was higher in men than women. Low social support and high anxious attachment predicted persistent attachment to the former partner, loneliness, and psychological distress. Coparenting conflict is a common, chronic problem for many separated individuals, and individuals with certain psychological vulnerabilities also experience chronic personal distress. PMID:23763683

  5. Adjusting Population Risk for Functional Health Status.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard L; Hughes, John S; Goldfield, Norbert I

    2016-04-01

    Risk adjustment accounts for differences in population mix by reducing the likelihood of enrollee selection by managed care plans and providing a correction to otherwise biased reporting of provider or plan performance. Functional health status is not routinely included within risk-adjustment methods, but is believed by many to be a significant enhancement to risk adjustment for complex enrollees and patients. In this analysis a standardized measure of functional health was created using 3 different source functional assessment instruments submitted to the Medicare program on condition of payment. The authors use a 5% development sample of Medicare claims from 2006 and 2007, including functional health assessments, and develop a model of functional health classification comprising 9 groups defined by the interaction of self-care, mobility, incontinence, and cognitive impairment. The 9 functional groups were used to augment Clinical Risk Groups, a diagnosis-based patient classification system, and when using a validation set of 100% of Medicare data for 2010 and 2011, this study found the use of the functional health module to improve the fit of observed enrollee cost, measured by the R(2) statistic, by 5% across all Medicare enrollees. The authors observed complex nonlinear interactions across functional health domains when constructing the model and caution that functional health status needs careful handling when used for risk adjustment. The addition of functional health status within existing risk-adjustment models has the potential to improve equitable resource allocation in the financing of care costs for more complex enrollees if handled appropriately. (Population Health Management 2016;19:136-144). PMID:26348621

  6. Detail of west end of movable span. Shows lattice beams. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of west end of movable span. Shows lattice beams. Latticed portal. Adjustable tension members connecting top chords, and metal floor beams looking south from navy land. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  7. Europium Luminescence: Electronic Densities and Superdelocalizabilities for a Unique Adjustment of Theoretical Intensity Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, José Diogo L.; Lima, Nathalia B. D.; Freire, Ricardo O.; Simas, Alfredo M.

    2015-01-01

    We advance the concept that the charge factors of the simple overlap model and the polarizabilities of Judd-Ofelt theory for the luminescence of europium complexes can be effectively and uniquely modeled by perturbation theory on the semiempirical electronic wave function of the complex. With only three adjustable constants, we introduce expressions that relate: (i) the charge factors to electronic densities, and (ii) the polarizabilities to superdelocalizabilities that we derived specifically for this purpose. The three constants are then adjusted iteratively until the calculated intensity parameters, corresponding to the 5D0→7F2 and 5D0→7F4 transitions, converge to the experimentally determined ones. This adjustment yields a single unique set of only three constants per complex and semiempirical model used. From these constants, we then define a binary outcome acceptance attribute for the adjustment, and show that when the adjustment is acceptable, the predicted geometry is, in average, closer to the experimental one. An important consequence is that the terms of the intensity parameters related to dynamic coupling and electric dipole mechanisms will be unique. Hence, the important energy transfer rates will also be unique, leading to a single predicted intensity parameter for the 5D0→7F6 transition. PMID:26329420

  8. Dynamic adjustment in agricultural practices to economic incentives aiming to decrease fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shanxia; Delgado, Michael S; Sesmero, Juan P

    2016-07-15

    Input- and output-based economic policies designed to reduce water pollution from fertilizer runoff by adjusting management practices are theoretically justified and well-understood. Yet, in practice, adjustment in fertilizer application or land allocation may be sluggish. We provide practical guidance for policymakers regarding the relative magnitude and speed of adjustment of input- and output-based policies. Through a dynamic dual model of corn production that takes fertilizer as one of several production inputs, we measure the short- and long-term effects of policies that affect the relative prices of inputs and outputs through the short- and long-term price elasticities of fertilizer application, and also the total time required for different policies to affect fertilizer application through the adjustment rates of capital and land. These estimates allow us to compare input- and output-based policies based on their relative cost-effectiveness. Using data from Indiana and Illinois, we find that input-based policies are more cost-effective than their output-based counterparts in achieving a target reduction in fertilizer application. We show that input- and output-based policies yield adjustment in fertilizer application at the same speed, and that most of the adjustment takes place in the short-term. PMID:27100331

  9. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-09-30

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  10. Transition and protective agency of early childhood learning behaviors as portents of later school attendance and adjustment.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Paul A; Rikoon, Samuel H; Fantuzzo, John W

    2016-02-01

    This article reports on the study of differential change trajectories for early childhood learning behaviors as they relate to future classroom adjustment and school attendance. A large sample (N=2152) of Head Start children was followed through prekindergarten, kindergarten, and 1st grade. Classroom learning behaviors were assessed twice each year by teachers who observed gradual declines in Competence Motivation and Attentional Persistence as children transitioned through schooling. Cross-classified multilevel growth models revealed distinct transitional pathways for future adjustment versus maladjustment and sporadic versus chronic absenteeism. Generalized multilevel logistic modeling and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that teachers' earliest assessments were substantially predictive of eventual good classroom adjustment and school attendance, with increasing accuracy for prediction of future sociobehavioral adjustment as time progressed. PMID:26790703

  11. Density-dependent adjustment of inducible defenses

    PubMed Central

    Tollrian, Ralph; Duggen, Sonja; Weiss, Linda C.; Laforsch, Christian; Kopp, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Predation is a major factor driving evolution, and organisms have evolved adaptations increasing their survival chances. However, most defenses incur trade-offs between benefits and costs. Many organisms save costs by employing inducible defenses as responses to fluctuating predation risk. The level of defense often increases with predator densities. However, individual predation risk should not only depend on predator density but also on the density of conspecifics. If the predator has a saturating functional response one would predict a negative correlation between prey density and individual predation risk and hence defense expression. Here, we tested this hypothesis using six model systems, covering a taxonomic range from protozoa to rotifers and crustaceans. In all six systems, we found that the level of defense expression increased with predator density but decreased with prey density. In one of our systems, i.e. in Daphnia, we further show that the response to prey density is triggered by a chemical cue released by conspecifics and congeners. Our results indicate that organisms adjust the degree of defense to the acute predation risk, rather than merely to predators’ densities. Our study suggests that density-dependent defense expression reflects accurate predation-risk assessment and is a general principle in many inducible-defense systems. PMID:26235428

  12. Parental Perceptions of Family Adjustment in Childhood Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandra; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Trute, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Based on the adjustment phase of the double ABC-X model of family stress (McCubbin and Patterson, 1983) this study examined the impact of parenting stress, positive appraisal of the impact of child disability on the family, and parental self-esteem on parental perceptions of family adjustment in families of children with disabilities. For mothers,…

  13. The Effect of Articulatory Adjustment on Reducing Hypernasality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Panying; Kuehn, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the goal of using articulatory adjustments to reduce hypernasality, this study utilized an articulatory synthesis model (Childers, 2000) to simulate the adjustment of articulatory configurations with an open velopharynx to achieve the same acoustic goal as normal speech simulated with a closed velopharynx. Method: To examine the…

  14. Parenting Styles and Adjustment Outcomes among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Keisha M.; Thomas, Deneia M.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parenting styles partially explain college students' academic adjustment. However, to account for academic adjustment more fully, additional contributors should be identified and tested. We examined the fit of a hypothesized model consisting of parenting styles, indicators of well-being, and academic adjustment…

  15. Gender Identity and Adjustment in Black, Hispanic, and White Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Brooke C.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Perry, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years).…

  16. Social Cognition and Adjustment in Children at Risk for Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Geraldine; Walker, Elaine

    1989-01-01

    Tested 2 models of the effect of social cognition on the link between child adjustment and the 2 family risk factors of maltreatment and parental psychopathology. In 83 subjects of 7-14 years, maltreatment predicted aggression and peer rejection, but parental psychopathology did not. Adjustment of subjects with a disturbed parent depended on…

  17. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  18. ADJUSTMENT FOR HETEROGENEOUS GENETIC AND NON-GENETIC (CO)VARIANCE STRUCTURES ON TEST-DAY MODELS USING A TRANSFORMATION ON RANDOM REGRESSION EFFECT REGRESSORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method of accounting for differences in variation in components of test-day milk production records was developed. This method could improve the accuracy of genetic evaluations. A random regression model is used to analyze the data, then a transformation is applied to the random regression coeffic...

  19. Effects of Divorce Counseling Groups on Adjustment and Self Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salts, Connie J.; Zongker, Calvin E.

    1983-01-01

    Tested whether self-concept and adjustment of separated or divorced individuals (N=64) could be enhanced by group counseling. Data showed individuals in either a structured or unstructured group had greater improvement in adjustment than individuals who dropped out. No significant differences in improvement in self-concept were noted. (JAC)

  20. Employment after Spinal Cord Injury: Transition and Life Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, J. Stuart

    1996-01-01

    Tested two competing hypotheses regarding employment, adjustment, and spinal cord injury (SCI). Longitudinal data collected on 142 participants with SCI on two occasions separated by an 11-year interval showed a correlation between enhanced adjustment and a positive transition from unemployment to employment. Results support hypothesis that…

  1. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  2. Development of the Optimum Operation Scheduling Model of Domestic Electric Appliances for the Supply-Demand Adjustment in a Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    The high penetration of variable renewable generation such as Photovoltaic (PV) systems will cause the issue of supply-demand imbalance in a whole power system. The activation of the residential power usage, storage and generation by sophisticated scheduling and control using the Home Energy Management System (HEMS) will be needed to balance power supply and demand in the near future. In order to evaluate the applicability of the HEMS as a distributed controller for local and system-wide supply-demand balances, we developed an optimum operation scheduling model of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming. Applying this model to several houses with dynamic electricity prices reflecting the power balance of the total power system, it was found that the adequate changes in electricity prices bring about the shift of residential power usages to control the amount of the reverse power flow due to excess PV generation.

  3. Adjustment disorder as proposed for ICD-11: Dimensionality and symptom differentiation.

    PubMed

    Glaesmer, Heide; Romppel, Matthias; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-10-30

    Although Adjustment Disorder as a diagnostic category is widely used in clinical practice it is critically discussed that it has not been conceptualized as a category with unique symptoms. Hence, the conceptualization of Adjustment Disorder is subject to substantive change in ICD-11 including core symptoms and additional features in a uni-faceted concept. Adjustment Disorder was assessed with a self-rating instrument in a representative sample of the German general population (N=2512). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were applied to test the dimensionality of symptoms according to the new diagnostic concept. Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to test whether there are distinguishable subgroups with respect to symptomatology. 2.0% of the sample were diagnosed with Adjustment Disorder according to the new diagnostic algorithm. The proposed six factor model shows best fit with good reliability of the factors in the CFA compared to competing models. However the factors are highly correlated and not distinguishable. The LCA identified three latent classes, reflecting low, mild and moderate to severe symptoms. The findings support the uni-faceted concept of Adjustment Disorder as it is conceptualized in the new diagnostic concept in ICD-11 in a general population sample. This clearer diagnostic concept will inform research as well as clinical practice. PMID:26272020

  4. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  5. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  6. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  7. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  8. Adjusting for time-dependent sensitivity in an illness-death model, with application to mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Teeple, Elizabeth A; Brown, Elizabeth R

    2015-04-15

    In mother-to-child transmission of HIV, identifying infected infants relies on a diagnostic test with imperfect sensitivity that is administered at scheduled visits. Under this scenario, a participant's true state may be unknown at the start and end times of the study, and the detection of transitions into illness may be delayed or missed altogether. This could lead to biased estimates of the risk of transmission and covariate associations. When a test has imperfect sensitivity, but perfect specificity, the additional uncertainty can be captured as a random variable measuring delay in detection. The cumulative distribution then defines a time-dependent sensitivity function that increases over time. We present a maximum likelihood based illness-death model that accounts for imperfect sensitivity by including the delay as an exponential distribution. We specify transition rates as penalized B-splines to allow for nonhomogeneity of risk and discuss the model under Markov and semi-Markov assumptions. We apply this method to our motivating data set, a study of 1499 mother and infant pairs at three sites in Africa. PMID:25546029

  9. Teacher characteristics, social classroom relationships, and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment in special education.

    PubMed

    Breeman, L D; Wubbels, T; van Lier, P A C; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Maras, A; Hopman, J A B; Tick, N T

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher-child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both the individual and classroom levels among 414 children with emotional and behavioral disorders placed in special education. Two models were specified. In the first model, children's classroom adjustment was regressed on social relationships and teacher characteristics. In the second model, reversed links were examined by regressing teacher characteristics on social relationships and children's adjustment. Results of model 1 showed that, at the individual level, better social and emotional adjustment of children was predicted by higher levels of teacher-child closeness and better behavioral adjustment was predicted by both positive teacher-child and peer interactions. At the classroom level, positive social relationships were predicted by higher levels of teacher competence, which in turn were associated with lower classroom levels of social problems. Higher levels of teacher wellbeing were directly associated with classroom adaptive and maladaptive child outcomes. Results of model 2 showed that, at the individual and classroom levels, only the emotional and behavioral problems of children predicted social classroom relationships. At the classroom level, teacher competence was best predicted by positive teacher-child relationships and teacher wellbeing was best predicted by classroom levels of prosocial behavior. We discuss the importance of positive teacher-child and peer interactions for children placed in special education and suggest ways of improving classroom processes by targeting teacher competence. PMID:25636262

  10. 42 CFR 422.310 - Risk adjustment data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... all data that are used in the development and application of a risk adjustment payment model. (b) Data... quality review and improvement activities, and for Medicare coverage purposes. (g) Deadlines...

  11. An ensemble adjustment Kalman filter study for Argo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xunqiang; Qiao, Fangli; Yang, Yongzeng; Xia, Changshui

    2010-05-01

    An ensemble adjustment Kalman filter system is developed to assimilate Argo profiles into the Northwest Pacific MASNUM wave-circulation coupled model, which is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). This model was recoded in FORTRAN-90 style, and some new data types were defined to improve the efficiency of system design and execution. This system is arranged for parallel computing by using UNIX shell scripts: it is easier with single models running separately with the required information exchanged through input/output files. Tests are carried out to check the performance of the system: one for checking the ensemble spread and another for the performance of assimilation of the Argo data in 2005. The first experiment shows that the assimilation system performs well. The comparison with the Satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST) shows that modeled SST errors are reduced after assimilation; at the same time, the spatial correlation between the simulated SST anomalies and the satellite data is improved because of Argo assimilation. Furthermore, the temporal evolution/trend of SST becomes much better than those results without data assimilation. The comparison against GTSPP profiles shows that the improvement is not only in the upper layers of ocean, but also in the deeper layers. All these results suggest that this system is potentially capable of reconstructing oceanic data sets that are of high quality and are temporally and spatially continuous.

  12. Assessing the utility of statistical adjustments for imperfect detection in tropical conservation science

    PubMed Central

    Banks-Leite, Cristina; Pardini, Renata; Boscolo, Danilo; Cassano, Camila Righetto; Püttker, Thomas; Barros, Camila Santos; Barlow, Jos

    2014-01-01

    1. In recent years, there has been a fast development of models that adjust for imperfect detection. These models have revolutionized the analysis of field data, and their use has repeatedly demonstrated the importance of sampling design and data quality. There are, however, several practical limitations associated with the use of detectability models which restrict their relevance to tropical conservation science. 2. We outline the main advantages of detectability models, before examining their limitations associated with their applicability to the analysis of tropical communities, rare species and large-scale data sets. Finally, we discuss whether detection probability needs to be controlled before and/or after data collection. 3. Models that adjust for imperfect detection allow ecologists to assess data quality by estimating uncertainty and to obtain adjusted ecological estimates of populations and communities. Importantly, these models have allowed informed decisions to be made about the conservation and management of target species. 4. Data requirements for obtaining unadjusted estimates are substantially lower than for detectability-adjusted estimates, which require relatively high detection/recapture probabilities and a number of repeated surveys at each location. These requirements can be difficult to meet in large-scale environmental studies where high levels of spatial replication are needed, or in the tropics where communities are composed of many naturally rare species. However, while imperfect detection can only be adjusted statistically, covariates of detection probability can also be controlled through study design. Using three study cases where we controlled for covariates of detection probability through sampling design, we show that the variation in unadjusted ecological estimates from nearly 100 species was qualitatively the same as that obtained from adjusted estimates. Finally, we discuss that the decision as to whether one should control for

  13. Final RQ adjustments rule issued

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    On June 12, 1995, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its long awaited final rule adjusting certain reportable quantities (RQs) for hazardous substances under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The rule: revises the table of hazardous substances to add 47 individual Clean Air Act (CAA) hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); adjustments their statutory one-pound RQs; adds five other CAA HAPs that are categories of substances and assigns no RQ to the categories; and adjusts RQs for 11 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed hazardous wastes. EPA made conforming changes to the Clean Water Act table of hazardous substances and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) table of extremely hazardous substances. The rule became effective July 12, 1995.

  14. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  15. Electrostatic Embedding To Model the Impact of Environment on Photophysical Properties of Molecular Crystals: A Self-Consistent Charge Adjustment Procedure.

    PubMed

    Wilbraham, Liam; Adamo, Carlo; Labat, Frédéric; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2016-07-12

    A case study of 1,8-dihydroxy-2-napthaldehyde (DHNA)-exhibiting an excited-state intramolecular double proton transfer resulting in photophysical properties sensitive to the surrounding environment-has been used to assess the performance of electrostatic embedding approaches designed to accurately recover the effects of a bulk crystalline environment on calculated photophysical properties. The first approach, based on time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) applied in a QM/QM' scheme, makes use of a background point charge distribution which can accurately reproduce the exact ground-state Ewald potential of the bulk crystal. The second approach seeks to "optimize" these charges in a self-consistent manner in order to reproduce the electrostatic field produced by the environment at the excited state. Using these two approaches, both absorption and emission properties of molecular crystals, such as the position and the relative shift in the emission bands in the solid state with respect to solution, can be accurately reproduced. More generally, the results obtained show how these computationally affordable approaches can be used to predict the excited-state behavior of molecules in condensed phases, thus allowing their employment to predict or design new molecular materials with enhanced photophysical properties. PMID:27231786

  16. Association Between Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Birth Weight: An Appropriately Adjusted Model From the Japan Environment and Children’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kohta; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sato, Miri; Otawa, Sanae; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been no large nationwide population-based study to examine the effects of maternal smoking status during pregnancy on birth weight that simultaneously controlled for clinical information, socioeconomic status, and maternal weight. Thus, this study aimed to determine the association between maternal smoking status during pregnancy and birth weight, while taking these confounding factors into consideration. Methods This study examined the first-year fixed dataset from a large nationwide birth cohort study that commenced in 2011. The dataset consisted of information on 9369 singleton infants born before December 31, 2011. Children were divided into 4 groups for statistical analysis: those born to mothers who did not smoke (NS), who quit smoking before pregnancy, who quit smoking during early pregnancy, and who smoked (SM). Multiple linear regression models were conducted for each sex to examine the association between maternal smoking status during early pregnancy and fetal growth. Birth weight was estimated using the least-squares method after controlling for covariates. Results After controlling for potential confounding factors, maternal smoking status during pregnancy was significantly associated with birth weight. There was a significant difference in birth weight between NS and SM for both male and female infants (male infants, 3096.2 g [NS] vs 2959.8 g [SM], P < 0.001; female infants, 3018.2 g [NS] vs 2893.7 g [SM], P < 0.001). Conclusions Using data from a large nationwide birth cohort study in Japan, we have shown that maternal smoking during pregnancy may reduce birth weight by 125–136 g. PMID:26902166

  17. Fast stratocumulus adjustment timescale due to entrainment-liquid flux feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Blossey, P. N.

    2013-12-01

    We use a mixed-layer model (MLM) and large eddy simulation (LES) to analyze the response timescales of a stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. From the MLM, we find three separate time scales: a slow adjustment timescale associated with boundary layer deepening (on the order of several days); an intermediate timescale associated with thermodynamic adjustment of the boundary layer (approximately one day); and a fast timescale (6-12 hours) associated with entrainment rate feedbacks. We show that the fast scale is due to entrainment-liquid flux (ELF) adjustment, an internal cloud-regulating feedback between entrainment rate and the cloud liquid water path (LWP). A thicker cloud generates more turbulent kinetic energy and an increased entrainment rate which tends to warm and dry the boundary layer, thereby decreasing the cloud thickness (a negative feedback). Through this mechanism, the cloud base quickly adjusts until the entrainment rate and LWP stabilize as entrainment warming balances boundary-layer radiative cooling. We use two cases based on past model intercomparison studies to investigate the fast time scale. The first (DYCOMS RF01) involves a nocturnal stratocumulus-capped mixed layer with idealized radiative forcing. A perturbation to the free tropospheric relative humidity is shown to induce fast adjustment of cloud thickness in the MLM and also in an LES. A second case with realistic radiation used in past for cloud feedback studies (CGILS S12) is used to show that an instantaneous CO2 increase does not elicit a fast response in cloud thickness. However, an instantaneous temperature increase to the whole atmosphere-ocean column induces a cloud thinning with a few hours in both MLM and LES that largely explains the equilibrium response of the cloud layer to this forcing. This fast ELF adjustment suggests that stratocumulus cloud changes likely have a positive feedback on greenhouse warming.

  18. Adjustable spacer with rotational lock

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, M.L.

    1984-02-28

    A spacing apparatus for tubing conduit in a subterranean well, normally for use with an electric component with a longitudinally extending external electrical cable, permits irrotational adjustment of the length of the tubing conduit. The spacing apparatus comprises telescoping members which are keyed to prevent rotation therebetween. A threaded member, longitudinally fixed relative to one longitudinal member, normally engages threads extending substantially along the entire length of the other telescoping member. Movement of a retaining sleeve permits disengagement of the threaded segments which ratchet along the threads during telescoping movement. The length of the conduit can thus be irrotationally adjusted to remove slack from the electrical cable.

  19. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  20. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  1. Training affects the development of postural adjustments in sitting infants.

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, M; Brogren, E; Forssberg, H

    1996-01-01

    1. The present study addressed the question of whether daily balance training can affect the development of postural adjustments in sitting infants. 2. Postural responses during sitting on a moveable platform were assessed in twenty healthy infants at 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10 months of age. Multiple surface EMGs and kinematics were recorded while the infants were exposed to slow and fast horizontal forward (Fw) and backward (Bw) displacements of the platform. After the first session the parents of nine infants trained their child's sitting balance daily. 3. At the youngest age, when none of the infants could sit independently, the muscle activation patterns were direction specific and showed a large variation. This variation decreased with increasing age, resulting in selection of the most complete responses. Training facilitated response selection both during Fw and Bw translations. This suggests a training effect on the first level of the central pattern generator (CPG) model of postural control. 4. Training also affected the development of response modulation during Fw translations. It accelerated the development of: (1) the ability to modulate EMG amplitude with respect to platform velocity and initial sitting position, (2) antagonist activity and (3) a distal onset of the response. These findings point to a training effect on the second level of the CPG model of postural adjustments. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8735713

  2. The Application of the Ten Group Classification System (TGCS) in Caesarean Delivery Case Mix Adjustment. A Multicenter Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Maso, Gianpaolo; Alberico, Salvatore; Monasta, Lorenzo; Ronfani, Luca; Montico, Marcella; Businelli, Caterina; Soini, Valentina; Piccoli, Monica; Gigli, Carmine; Domini, Daniele; Fiscella, Claudio; Casarsa, Sara; Zompicchiatti, Carlo; De Agostinis, Michela; D'Atri, Attilio; Mugittu, Raffaela; La Valle, Santo; Di Leonardo, Cristina; Adamo, Valter; Smiroldo, Silvia; Frate, Giovanni Del; Olivuzzi, Monica; Giove, Silvio; Parente, Maria; Bassini, Daniele; Melazzini, Simona; Guaschino, Secondo; De Seta, Francesco; Demarini, Sergio; Travan, Laura; Marchesoni, Diego; Rossi, Alberto; Simon, Giorgio; Zicari, Sandro; Tamburlini, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Background Caesarean delivery (CD) rates are commonly used as an indicator of quality in obstetric care and risk adjustment evaluation is recommended to assess inter-institutional variations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the Ten Group classification system (TGCS) can be used in case-mix adjustment. Methods Standardized data on 15,255 deliveries from 11 different regional centers were prospectively collected. Crude Risk Ratios of CDs were calculated for each center. Two multiple logistic regression models were herein considered by using: Model 1- maternal (age, Body Mass Index), obstetric variables (gestational age, fetal presentation, single or multiple, previous scar, parity, neonatal birth weight) and presence of risk factors; Model 2- TGCS either with or without maternal characteristics and presence of risk factors. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of each model. The null hypothesis that Areas under ROC Curve (AUC) were not different from each other was verified with a Chi Square test and post hoc pairwise comparisons by using a Bonferroni correction. Results Crude evaluation of CD rates showed all centers had significantly higher Risk Ratios than the referent. Both multiple logistic regression models reduced these variations. However the two methods ranked institutions differently: model 1 and model 2 (adjusted for TGCS) identified respectively nine and eight centers with significantly higher CD rates than the referent with slightly different AUCs (0.8758 and 0.8929 respectively). In the adjusted model for TGCS and maternal characteristics/presence of risk factors, three centers had CD rates similar to the referent with the best AUC (0.9024). Conclusions The TGCS might be considered as a reliable variable to adjust CD rates. The addition of maternal characteristics and risk factors to TGCS substantially increase the predictive

  3. Visual adjustments to temporal blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilson, Aaron C.; Mizokami, Yoko; Webster, Michael A.

    2005-10-01

    After observers have adapted to an edge that is spatially blurred or sharpened, a focused edge appears too sharp or blurred, respectively. These adjustments to blur may play an important role in calibrating spatial sensitivity. We examined whether similar adjustments influence the perception of temporal edges, by measuring the appearance of a step change in the luminance of a uniform field after adapting to blurred or sharpened transitions. Stimuli were square-wave alternations (at 1 to 8 Hz) filtered by changing the slope of the amplitude spectrum. A two-alternative-forced-choice task was used to adjust the slope until it appeared as a step change, or until it matched the perceived transitions in a reference stimulus. Observers could accurately set the waveform to a square wave, but only at the slower alternation rates. However, these settings were strongly biased by prior adaptation to filtered stimuli, or when the stimuli were viewed within temporally filtered surrounds. Control experiments suggest that the latter induction effects result directly from the temporal blur and are not simply a consequence of brightness induction in the fields. These results suggest that adaptation and induction adjust visual coding so that images are focused not only in space but also in time.

  4. Self-Adjusting Fluency Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Presents a rationale and methodology for a self-adjusting "fluency sensitive" approach to working with children who exhibit overt speech-fluency interruptions and a minimal amount of avoidance behavior. The approach emphasizes repeated experiences of volitional increases and decreases in loudness and pauses. Case examples demonstrate how several…

  5. Adjustable Walker for the Handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Front legs adjust at touch of lever for use on stairs or ramps. Spring loaded legs extend when lever is depressed by user. Legs lock in position when lever is released. Lever mounted on either side of walker or on both sides, so legs operated independently.

  6. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  7. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  8. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  9. 26 CFR 1.481-4 - Adjustments taken into account with consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Adjustments § 1.481-4 Adjustments taken into account with consent. (a... on the parties except upon a showing of fraud, malfeasance, or misrepresentation of material fact....

  10. 26 CFR 1.481-4 - Adjustments taken into account with consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Adjustments § 1.481-4 Adjustments taken into account with.... The agreement shall be binding on the parties except upon a showing of fraud, malfeasance,...

  11. 26 CFR 1.481-4 - Adjustments taken into account with consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Adjustments § 1.481-4 Adjustments taken into account with.... The agreement shall be binding on the parties except upon a showing of fraud, malfeasance,...

  12. 26 CFR 1.481-4 - Adjustments taken into account with consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Adjustments § 1.481-4 Adjustments taken into account with.... The agreement shall be binding on the parties except upon a showing of fraud, malfeasance,...

  13. Coordinate measuring method with two operation modes based on the adjustable articulated arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Li, Weixian; Pan, Zhikang; Guo, Yangkuan; Chen, Qingshan

    2014-12-01

    A coordinate measuring method with two operation modes, based on the adjustable articulated arms, is proposed to keep measurement capability in global space and improve the measurement precision in local space. The adjustable articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) with an electromagnetic locking device can automatically switch between the all-free articulated arms operation mode and the partially bound articulated arms operation mode. In the former mode, three arms and six articulations can freely move and measure the coordinates of any point in global space. In the latter mode, the front two articulations are locked to improve the measurement precision by decreasing the importation of angle errors in the local space. A prototype of the adjustable AACMM has also been designed and developed. A mathematical model for the adjustable AACMM has been built. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the partially bound AACMM performed much better than the all-free AACMM in single point repeatability and length measurement precision in the local space. Therefore, the proposed coordinate measuring method based on the adjustable articulated arms is verified as being effective.

  14. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS 499-501, MUNOZ HOUSE (AZ-73-37) ON FAR RIGHT - Antonio Bustamente House, 485-489 South Meyer Avenue & 186 West Kennedy Street, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  15. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  16. Patients with Parkinson's Disease Show Impaired Use of Priors in Conditions of Sensory Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Alessandra; Ditterich, Jochen; Basso, Michele A

    2016-07-25

    Perceptual decisions arise after considering the available sensory evidence [1]. When sensory information is unreliable, a good strategy is to rely on previous experience in similar situations to guide decisions [2-6]. It is well known that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired at value-based decision-making [7-11]. How patients combine past experience and sensory information to make perceptual decisions is unknown. We developed a novel, perceptual decision-making task and manipulated the statistics of the sensory stimuli presented to patients with PD and healthy participants to determine the influence of past experience on decision-making. We show that patients with PD are impaired at combining previously learned information with current sensory information to guide decisions. We modeled the results using the drift-diffusion model (DDM) and found that the impairment corresponds to a failure in adjusting the amount of sensory evidence needed to make a decision. Our modeling results also show that two complementary mechanisms operate to implement a bias when two sets of priors are learned concurrently. Asymmetric decision threshold adjustments, as reflected by changes in the starting point of evidence accumulation, are responsible for a general choice bias, whereas the adjustment of a dynamic bias that develops over the course of a trial, as reflected by a drift-rate offset, provides the stimulus-specific component of the prior. A proper interplay between these two processes is required to implement a bias based on concurrent, stimulus-specific priors in decision-making. We show here that patients with PD are impaired in these across-trial decision threshold adjustments. PMID:27322000

  17. Systematic Bundle Adjustment of HRSC Image Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostelmann, J.; Schmidt, R.; Heipke, C.

    2012-07-01

    The European Mars Express mission was launched in June 2003 and sent into orbit around Mars. On board the orbiter is the German High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). This multi-line sensor images the Martian surface with a resolution of up to 12m per pixel in three dimensions and provides RGB and infra-red color information. The usage of the stereoscopic image information for the improvement of the observed position and attitude information via bundle adjustment is important to derive high quality 3D surface models, color orthoimages and other data products. In many cases overlapping image strips of different orbits can be used to form photogrammetric blocks, thus allowing the simultaneous adjustment of the exterior orientation data. This reduces not only local, but also regional inconsistencies in the data. With the growing number of HRSC image strips in this ongoing mission, the size and complexity of potential blocks is increasing. Therefore, a workflow has been built up for the systematic improvement of the exterior orientation using single orbit strips and regional blocks. For a successful bundle adjustment of blocks using multiple image strips a sufficient number of tie points in the overlapping area is needed. The number of tie points depends mainly on the geometric and radiometric quality of the images. This is considered by detailed analysis of the tie point accuracy and distribution. The combination of methods for image pre-processing, tie point matching, bundle adjustment and evaluation of the results in an automated workflow allows for all HRSC images a global assessment of the quality and a systematic selection of data for larger blocks.

  18. MODELING STREAM CHANNEL ADJUSTMENT TO WOODY VEGETATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    River restoration and bank stabilization programs often use vegetation for improving stream corridor habitat, aesthetic, and function. Yet no study has examined the use of managed vegetation plantings to transform a straight, degraded stream corridor into a more functional, aesthetically-pleasing m...

  19. Conduct problems, depressive symptomatology and their co-occurring presentation in childhood as predictors of adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ingoldsby, Erin M; Kohl, Gwynne O; McMahon, Robert J; Lengua, Liliana

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated patterns in the development of conduct problems (CP), depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence, and relations to adjustment problems, over the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Rates of depressive symptoms and CP during this developmental period vary by gender; yet, few studies involving non-clinical samples have examined co-occurring problems and adjustment outcomes across boys and girls. This study investigates the manifestation and change in CP and depressive symptom patterns in a large, multisite, gender-and ethnically-diverse sample of 431 youth from 5th to 7th grade. Indicators of CP, depressive symptoms, their co-occurrence, and adjustment outcomes were created from multiple reporters and measures. Hypotheses regarding gender differences were tested utilizing both categorical (i.e., elevated symptom groups) and continuous analyses (i.e., regressions predicting symptomatology and adjustment outcomes). Results were partially supportive of the dual failure model (Capaldi, 1991, 1992), with youth with co-occurring problems in 5th grade demonstrating significantly lower academic adjustment and social competence two years later. Both depressive symptoms and CP were risk factors for multiple negative adjustment outcomes. Co-occurring symptomatology and CP demonstrated more stability and was associated with more severe adjustment problems than depressive symptoms over time. Categorical analyses suggested that, in terms of adjustment problems, youth with co-occurring symptomatology were generally no worse off than those with CP-alone, and those with depressive symptoms-alone were similar over time to those showing no symptomatology at all. Few gender differences were noted in the relations among CP, depressive symptoms, and adjustment over time. PMID:16967336

  20. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  1. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  2. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  3. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  4. Capitation pricing: adjusting for prior utilization and physician discretion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G F; Cantor, J C; Steinberg, E P; Holloway, J

    1986-01-01

    As the number of Medicare beneficiaries receiving care under at-risk capitation arrangements increases, the method for setting payment rates will come under increasing scrutiny. A number of modifications to the current adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC) methodology have been proposed, including an adjustment for prior utilization. In this article, we propose use of a utilization adjustment that includes only hospitalizations involving low or moderate physician discretion in the decision to hospitalize. This modification avoids discrimination against capitated systems that prevent certain discretionary admissions. The model also explains more of the variance in per capita expenditures than does the current AAPCC. PMID:10312010

  5. Social-psychological adjustment to multiple sclerosis. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brooks, N A; Matson, R R

    1982-01-01

    This study employs a longitudinal design to analyze the adjustment process of 103 people diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and in the middle and later stages of their illness careers. The mean age of the sample at Time 2 is 52 years, and mean duration since diagnosis is 17 years. A highly reliable self concept measure is the indicator of adjustment and changes in adjustment from T1 (1974) to T2 (1981). Four sets of variables are analyzed in their relationship to adjustment: (1) socio-demographic; (2) disease-related; (3) medical; and (4) social-psychological. Females are more likely than males to show positive adjustment (improving self concepts). Hours of employment and living arrangement are also related to the adjustment process. The vast majority of respondents show only slight decline in mobility, but among the disease related variables, number of episodes (exacerbations) in past seven years is the strongest predictor of changes in adjustment. Nearly half the respondents seek medical attention for their M.S. once a year or less, and the choice of health care professional is related to changes in the course of the disease. Subjects with an internal locus of control have more positive adjustment scores. Those who say they cope through acceptance of the disease show improvements in self concept while those reporting religion or family as major coping strategies have decreasing self concepts. Results indicate that the majority make satisfactory adjustment as indicated by maintenance of positive self concepts over the 7 year period, although the disease is chronic and progressive. For patients in the middle and later stages of illness careers, the data suggest comprehensive rehabilitation efforts that enhance autonomy and develop the social-psychological resources of the lifestyle. PMID:7157043

  6. Mining machine with adjustable jib

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.

    1987-05-26

    A mining machine is described having a pair of crawler tracks, a means for individually driving each of the crawler tracks, a frame mounted on the crawler tracks, an elongated jib carrying a sprocket at each end, an endless cutting chain supported on the sprockets, cutters and loading flights mounted on the endless cutting chain, and means on the frame supporting the elongated jib. The means support the elongated jib consisting of a bridge on the frame, at least one scissors linkage pivotally mounted on the bridge, and arm having a first end attached to the scissors linkage, a front plate mounted on the second end of the arm and means adjustably mounting the elongated jib on the front plate. The means adjustably mount the elongated jib on the front plate including a first means for rotating the elongated jib between a vertical position and a horizontal position.

  7. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  9. Gender identity and adjustment in black, Hispanic, and white preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Corby, Brooke C; Hodges, Ernest V E; Perry, David G

    2007-01-01

    The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years). Relations between gender identity and adjustment varied across ethnic/racial groups, indicating that S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's model requires amendment. It is suggested that the implications of gender identity for adjustment depend on the particular meanings that a child attaches to gender (e.g., the specific attributes the child regards as desirable for each sex); these meanings may vary across and within ethnic/racial groups. Cross-ethnic/racial investigation can aid theory building by pointing to constructs that are neglected in research with a single ethnic/racial group but that are crucial components of basic developmental processes. PMID:17201524

  10. Adjustable fluidic lenses for ophthalmic corrections

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Randall; Mathine, David L.; Peyman, Gholam; Schwiegerling, Jim; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2010-01-01

    We report on two fluidic lenses that have been developed for ophthalmic applications. The lenses use a circular aperture to demonstrate optical powers between −20 and +20 D and a rectangular aperture to demonstrate astigmatism with values ranging from 0 to 8 D. Measurements of image quality were made with the fluidic lens using a model eye. Both lenses were variable and controllable by adjusting the fluid volume of the lens. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a continuously variable lens for control of astigmatism. PMID:19373359

  11. Lasso adjustments of treatment effect estimates in randomized experiments

    PubMed Central

    Bloniarz, Adam; Liu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Cun-Hui; Sekhon, Jasjeet S.; Yu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We provide a principled way for investigators to analyze randomized experiments when the number of covariates is large. Investigators often use linear multivariate regression to analyze randomized experiments instead of simply reporting the difference of means between treatment and control groups. Their aim is to reduce the variance of the estimated treatment effect by adjusting for covariates. If there are a large number of covariates relative to the number of observations, regression may perform poorly because of overfitting. In such cases, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) may be helpful. We study the resulting Lasso-based treatment effect estimator under the Neyman–Rubin model of randomized experiments. We present theoretical conditions that guarantee that the estimator is more efficient than the simple difference-of-means estimator, and we provide a conservative estimator of the asymptotic variance, which can yield tighter confidence intervals than the difference-of-means estimator. Simulation and data examples show that Lasso-based adjustment can be advantageous even when the number of covariates is less than the number of observations. Specifically, a variant using Lasso for selection and ordinary least squares (OLS) for estimation performs particularly well, and it chooses a smoothing parameter based on combined performance of Lasso and OLS. PMID:27382153

  12. Lasso adjustments of treatment effect estimates in randomized experiments.

    PubMed

    Bloniarz, Adam; Liu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Cun-Hui; Sekhon, Jasjeet S; Yu, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We provide a principled way for investigators to analyze randomized experiments when the number of covariates is large. Investigators often use linear multivariate regression to analyze randomized experiments instead of simply reporting the difference of means between treatment and control groups. Their aim is to reduce the variance of the estimated treatment effect by adjusting for covariates. If there are a large number of covariates relative to the number of observations, regression may perform poorly because of overfitting. In such cases, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) may be helpful. We study the resulting Lasso-based treatment effect estimator under the Neyman-Rubin model of randomized experiments. We present theoretical conditions that guarantee that the estimator is more efficient than the simple difference-of-means estimator, and we provide a conservative estimator of the asymptotic variance, which can yield tighter confidence intervals than the difference-of-means estimator. Simulation and data examples show that Lasso-based adjustment can be advantageous even when the number of covariates is less than the number of observations. Specifically, a variant using Lasso for selection and ordinary least squares (OLS) for estimation performs particularly well, and it chooses a smoothing parameter based on combined performance of Lasso and OLS. PMID:27382153

  13. Non-quantitative adjustment of offspring sex ratios in pollinating fig wasps

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Sun, Bao-Fa; He, Jun-Zhou; Dunn, Derek W.

    2015-01-01

    Fig wasp is one of the most well known model systems in examining whether or not the parents could adjust their offspring sex ratio to maximize their gene frequency transmission in next generations. Our manipulative experiments showed that, in all of the five pollinator wasps of figs (Agaonidae) that have different averages of foundress numbers per syconium, almost the same proportions of male offspring are produced in the experiment that foundresses deposit one hour then are killed with ether (66.1%–70.1%) and over the lifespan of each foundress (14.0%–21.0%). The foundresses tend to deposit their male eggs prior to female eggs. The observed increase in the proportion of male offspring as a function of foundress number results from density-dependent interference competition among the foundresses. These results showed that the selection of gene frequency transmission through the behavioral adjustment in the evolution of sex ratio does not exist in these five fig wasps. The results here implied that genetic adjustment mechanisms of the sex ratio of fig wasps can only be triggered to be on or off and that the foundresses can not quantitatively adjust their sex ratio according to increased environmental selection pressure. PMID:26293349

  14. Flood detection/monitoring using adjustable histogram equalization technique.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Fakhera; Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin; Ghafoor, Abdul; Arif, Fahim

    2014-01-01

    Flood monitoring technique using adjustable histogram equalization is proposed. The technique overcomes the limitations (overenhancement, artifacts, and unnatural look) of existing technique by adjusting the contrast of images. The proposed technique takes pre- and postimages and applies different processing steps for generating flood map without user interaction. The resultant flood maps can be used for flood monitoring and detection. Simulation results show that the proposed technique provides better output quality compared to the state of the art existing technique. PMID:24558332

  15. Flood Detection/Monitoring Using Adjustable Histogram Equalization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin; Ghafoor, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Flood monitoring technique using adjustable histogram equalization is proposed. The technique overcomes the limitations (overenhancement, artifacts, and unnatural look) of existing technique by adjusting the contrast of images. The proposed technique takes pre- and postimages and applies different processing steps for generating flood map without user interaction. The resultant flood maps can be used for flood monitoring and detection. Simulation results show that the proposed technique provides better output quality compared to the state of the art existing technique. PMID:24558332

  16. Who benefits from chatting, and why? The roles of extraversion and supportiveness in online chatting and emotional adjustment.

    PubMed

    Van Zalk, Maarten H W; Branje, Susan J T; Denissen, Jaap; Van Aken, Marcel A G; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-09-01

    The current study aimed to provide more insight into the role of online chatting in young adults' emotional adjustment. A model was tested that takes into account (a) extraversion of individuals who communicate online, (b) the kind of peers these individuals communicate with online (i.e., online-exclusive peers vs. friends), and (c) the extent to which effects of online chatting on emotional adjustment are mediated by individuals' ability to provide support to others. Young adults (age M = 18.9) filled out questionnaires about themselves and their fellow students at three measurements with a 4-month interval. Results showed that only for less extraverted individuals, chatting with peers found exclusively online directly predicted higher self-esteem and indirectly predicted less depressive symptoms through increases in supportiveness. Thus, results supported a model of social compensation where effects of online chatting with online-exclusive peers improved young adults' emotional adjustment. PMID:21673194

  17. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  18. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  19. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  20. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.