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Sample records for adjusted models women

  1. The Effectiveness of the Strength-Centered Career Adjustment Model for Dual-Career Women in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Chen; Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the effectiveness of a Strength-Centered Career Adjustment Model for dual-career women (N = 28). Fourteen women in the experimental group received strength-centered career counseling for 6 to 8 sessions; the 14 women in the control group received test services in 1 to 2 sessions. All participants completed the Personal…

  2. Dimensions of Adjustment among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra

    1998-01-01

    Examines academic, social, and personal-emotional adjustment, as well as institutional attachment for women (N=198) attending a predominantly white coeducational research university. Significant main effects were found on academic achievement for year in college. Students differed on personal-emotional adjustment by race. Academic adjustment and…

  3. Structural adjustment, women, and agriculture in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fonchingong, C

    1999-11-01

    This article assesses the impact of economic structural programs on the agricultural activities of women's groups in Cameroon, and explores women's ways of coping with the reduction in individual and family income and the loss of public services. It examines the role of 25 women's groups in both rural and urban areas of Cameroon's northwest and southwest provinces in a study conducted from April to June 1999. Economic structural adjustment caused a tremendous increase in the workload of women that are farming usually in lots distant from their homes that yield poor returns. Land for food-crop cultivation has become increasingly scarce, and inputs have become substantially unaffordable. Income generated from the sale of crops is inadequate to supply the economic and social needs of the family. Moreover, the burden of their work has increased as they cope with housework, child-care, and food production, in addition to an expanded participation in paid employment. Moreover, women spend longer working hours than men, meeting both household responsibilities and their outside work. Women have devised strategies to cope with this economic crisis, but they need organizations that will support them with the important resources to be able to operate. Rural women seem to be coping better than urban women cope. In extreme cases, some women in urban areas resort to prostitution to cope with life in this crisis setting. PMID:12349481

  4. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  5. Can structural adjustment work for women farmers.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R

    1991-12-01

    This article discusses the impact of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) on women farmers in developing countries. SAPs aim to improve economic efficiency and promote more rapid economic growth. SAPs are introduced in two phases. The first phase involves short-term loans with the condition that the country adopt monetary restraints and currency devaluation measures. In the second phase, long-term loans are given with the provision that the country deregulate their economy and open up markets. The agricultural sector is affected by SAPs because of their importance in employment, income generation, and export earnings. SAPs result in lower farm commodity prices due to currency devaluations and in removal of subsidies, which results in market-sensitive pricing or higher food prices. The impact of SAPs on agriculture vary between countries. In Morocco and Algeria, agriculture expanded under SAPs. In Indonesia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, the agriculture stagnated or declined. Agricultural growth was slowest in Africa. SAPs were somewhat successful in increasing agricultural exports. Food production grew slowly in many adjusting countries. Blame for failures of SAPs has been placed on government failure to implement reforms properly and overly optimistic assumptions about the timing of productive gains. Little attention has focused on the constraints facing women farmers, who are a large proportion of farmers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This article focuses on the issues of limited access to resources, credit, agricultural extension and information, land ownership, education, and time as constraints to women farmers. Women also must ensure household food security. For SAPs to work effectively, complementary policies must be implemented that reallocate available productive resources and new technologies to women and that deal with women's constraints. PMID:12345425

  6. [Pensions and adjustment to retirement of employed women].

    PubMed

    Clemens, W

    1993-01-01

    The process of women's adjustment to retirement has been widely neglected by social scientists. Compared to men, women partly experience greater difficulty in adjusting to the retirement process, as the few studies on this subject have demonstrated. Results of a qualitative study are reported. The processes of early versus normal transition to retirement have been studied in former female employees of the German Federal Postal Administration. Despite similar life-styles and work biographies, different patterns of adjustment emerge due to health status and social experiences. These results stress the importance of a biographically based approach to the process of adjustment. PMID:8273413

  7. Women's Psychological Adjustment Following Emergency Cesarean versus Vaginal Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padawer, Jill A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated psychological adjustment and satisfaction in women who had given birth vaginally or by cesarean section. Cesarean mothers reported significantly less satisfaction with the delivery than did vaginal mothers; however no differences were found in postpartum psychological adjustment as measured by depression, anxiety, and confidence in…

  8. The experience of Korean immigrant women adjusting to Canadian society.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Kushner, Kaysi E; Mill, Judy; Lai, Daniel W L

    2014-09-01

    The acculturation process is an important factor in the experience of all immigrants. Although previous studies have indicated the challenges faced by Korean immigrants, little attention has been paid to Korean women's immigration experiences. A focused ethnography was used to examine midlife and older Korean immigrant women's experiences following their immigration to Canada. Fifteen women were interviewed in a city in Western Canada. The findings showed that in coming to Canada, women focused on caring for their children and often sacrificed their personal dreams. They had to be employed to support their families, and received support from family and government. Women participated regularly in a Korean Church and drew on their Christian faith to ease their adjustment. They retained hopes for the future including good health and a better life for their children. Most women indicated that it was difficult to integrate into Canadian society but they never gave up on their adjustment to a new culture. In this manuscript, the adjustment experience of the immigrant women is discussed in the context of an acculturation framework. The findings will enhance health professionals' awareness of adjustment patterns and associated challenges to Korean immigrant women's quality of life. PMID:25096026

  9. The Role of Work Identity in Women's Adjustment to Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisagni, Gina M.; Eckenrode, John

    This study explored the role of employment as a focus of identity in women's divorce adjustment. Based on data from 40 semi-structured interviews, four salient aspects of the worker's role were measured: (1) meaningfulness; (2) social interaction/support; (3) productivity; and (4) positive distraction. Work identity was associated with higher…

  10. Combining Marriage and Career: The Marital Adjustment of Professional Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseknecht, Sharon K.; Macke, Anne S.

    1981-01-01

    Studied highly educated women and found it is not employment status per se that is important in determining marital adjustment but rather the extent to which family experiences accommodate the wife's employment. Having a supportive husband seems to be a major factor. Freedom from childbearing responsibilities is also important. (Author)

  11. Executive functions, depressive symptoms, and college adjustment in women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Jana; Kalkut, Erica; Tuminello, Elizabeth; Asconape, Josefina; Han, S Duke

    2013-01-01

    Many students have difficulty adjusting to college, and the contribution of academic and relational factors have been considered in previous research. In particular, depression commonly emerges among college women at this time and could be related to poor adjustment to college. This study examined the relationship between executive functions, depressive symptoms, and college adjustment in college women. Seventy-seven female participants from a midsize urban university completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, College Adjustment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and four subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System: the Trail-Making Test, Design Fluency Test, Verbal Fluency Test, and Color-Word Interference Test. After controlling for IQ score, hierarchical regression analyses showed that subjective and objective measures of executive functioning and depressive symptoms were significantly related to college adjustment problems in academic, relational, and psychological areas. The current study provides evidence for a relationship between cognitive abilities, psychiatric symptoms, and college adjustment. PMID:23397999

  12. Do subfertile women adjust their habits when trying to conceive?

    PubMed Central

    Joelsson, Lana Salih; Berglund, Anna; Wånggren, Kjell; Lood, Mikael; Rosenblad, Andreas; Tydén, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate lifestyle habits and lifestyle adjustments among subfertile women trying to conceive. Materials and methods Women (n = 747) were recruited consecutively at their first visit to fertility clinics in mid-Sweden. Participants completed a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, t tests, and chi-square tests. Results The response rate was 62% (n = 466). Mean duration of infertility was 1.9 years. During this time 13.2% used tobacco daily, 13.6% drank more than three cups of coffee per day, and 11.6% consumed more than two glasses of alcohol weekly. In this sample, 23.9% of the women were overweight (body mass index, BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), and 12.5% were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Obese women exercised more and changed to healthy diets more frequently than normal-weight women (odds ratio 7.43; 95% confidence interval 3.7–14.9). Six out of ten women (n = 266) took folic acid when they started trying to conceive, but 11% stopped taking folic acid after some time. Taking folic acid was associated with a higher level of education (p < 0.001). Conclusions Among subfertile women, one-third were overweight or obese, and some had other lifestyle factors with known adverse effects on fertility such as use of tobacco. Overweight and obese women adjusted their habits but did not reduce their body mass index. Women of fertile age would benefit from preconception counseling, and the treatment of infertility should routinely offer interventions for lifestyle changes. PMID:27216564

  13. Incremental value of hormonal therapy for deep vein thrombosis prediction: an adjusted Wells score for women.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Márcio Vinícius Lins; Arancibia, Ana Elisa Loyola; Costa, Ana Paula; Bueno, Fernando Brito; Martins, Marcela Aparecida Corrêa; Magalhães, Maria Cláudia; Silva, José Luiz Padilha; de Bastos, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) management includes prediction rule evaluation to define standard pretest DVT probabilities in symptomatic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incremental usefulness of hormonal therapy to the Wells prediction rules for DVT in women. We studied women undertaking compressive ultrasound scanning for suspected DVT. We adjusted the Wells score for DVT, taking into account the β-coefficients of the logistic regression model. Data discrimination was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The adjusted score calibration was assessed graphically and by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Reclassification tables and the net reclassification index were used for the adjusted score comparison with the Wells score for DVT. We observed 461 women including 103 DVT events. The mean age was 56 years (±21 years). The adjusted logistic regression model included hormonal therapy and six Wells prediction rules for DVT. The adjusted score weights ranged from -4 to 4. Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed a nonsignificant P value (0.69) and the calibration graph showed no differences between the expected and the observed values. The area under the ROC curve was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-0.95] for the adjusted model and 0.87 (95% CI 0.84-0.91) for the Wells score for DVT (Delong test, P value < 0.01). Net reclassification index for the adjusted score was 0.22 (95% CI 0.11-0.33, P value < 0.01). Our results suggest an incremental usefulness of hormonal therapy as an independent DVT prediction rule in women compared with the Wells score for DVT. The adjusted score must be evaluated in different populations before clinical use. PMID:26757018

  14. Risk-Adjusted Models for Adverse Obstetric Outcomes and Variation in Risk Adjusted Outcomes Across Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Bailit, Jennifer L.; Grobman, William A.; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Spong, Catherine Y.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Thorp, John M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Caritis, Steve N.; Shubert, Phillip J.; Tita, Alan T. N.; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J.; Blackwell, Sean C.; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Van Dorsten, J. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulatory bodies and insurers evaluate hospital quality using obstetrical outcomes, however meaningful comparisons should take pre-existing patient characteristics into account. Furthermore, if risk-adjusted outcomes are consistent within a hospital, fewer measures and resources would be needed to assess obstetrical quality. Our objective was to establish risk-adjusted models for five obstetric outcomes and assess hospital performance across these outcomes. Study Design A cohort study of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals in the United States between March 2008 and February 2011. Hospitals were ranked according to their unadjusted and risk-adjusted frequency of venous thromboembolism, postpartum hemorrhage, peripartum infection, severe perineal laceration, and a composite neonatal adverse outcome. Correlations between hospital risk-adjusted outcome frequencies were assessed. Results Venous thromboembolism occurred too infrequently (0.03%, 95% CI 0.02% – 0.04%) for meaningful assessment. Other outcomes occurred frequently enough for assessment (postpartum hemorrhage 2.29% (95% CI 2.20–2.38), peripartum infection 5.06% (95% CI 4.93–5.19), severe perineal laceration at spontaneous vaginal delivery 2.16% (95% CI 2.06–2.27), neonatal composite 2.73% (95% CI 2.63–2.84)). Although there was high concordance between unadjusted and adjusted hospital rankings, several individual hospitals had an adjusted rank that was substantially different (as much as 12 rank tiers) than their unadjusted rank. None of the correlations between hospital adjusted outcome frequencies was significant. For example, the hospital with the lowest adjusted frequency of peripartum infection had the highest adjusted frequency of severe perineal laceration. Conclusions Evaluations based on a single risk-adjusted outcome cannot be generalized to overall hospital obstetric performance. PMID:23891630

  15. Social support, marital adjustment, and psychological distress among women with primary infertility in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience. PMID:25837531

  16. Adjustment Disorder in Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Correlates in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women is largely unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico. Methods Pregnant women (n = 300) attending in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico were studied. All enrolled pregnant women had a psychiatric interview to evaluate the presence of adjustment disorder using the DSM-IV criteria. A questionnaire was submitted to obtain general epidemiological data of the pregnant women studied. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of adjustment disorder with the epidemiological data of the women studied. Results Fifteen (5.0%) of the 300 women studied had adjustment disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria. Adjustment disorder was not associated with age, occupation, marital status, or education of pregnant women. In contrast, multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables showed that adjustment disorder was associated with the variables lack of support from her couple (odds ratio (OR) = 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 - 14.63; P = 0.04) and couple living abroad (OR = 10.12; 95% CI: 1.56 - 65.50; P = 0.01). Conclusions This is the first report about the epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results provide evidence of the presence of adjustment disorder and contributing psychosocial factors associated with this disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results point towards further clinical and research attention should be given to this neglected disorder in pregnant women. PMID:26346070

  17. Overpaying morbidity adjusters in risk equalization models.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, R C; van Vliet, R C J A; van de Ven, W P M M

    2016-09-01

    Most competitive social health insurance markets include risk equalization to compensate insurers for predictable variation in healthcare expenses. Empirical literature shows that even the most sophisticated risk equalization models-with advanced morbidity adjusters-substantially undercompensate insurers for selected groups of high-risk individuals. In the presence of premium regulation, these undercompensations confront consumers and insurers with incentives for risk selection. An important reason for the undercompensations is that not all information with predictive value regarding healthcare expenses is appropriate for use as a morbidity adjuster. To reduce incentives for selection regarding specific groups we propose overpaying morbidity adjusters that are already included in the risk equalization model. This paper illustrates the idea of overpaying by merging data on morbidity adjusters and healthcare expenses with health survey information, and derives three preconditions for meaningful application. Given these preconditions, we think overpaying may be particularly useful for pharmacy-based cost groups. PMID:26420555

  18. Comparison of dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile employed and unemployed women in Iran.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Azadeh S; Younesi, Seyed Jalal; Azkhosh, Manouchehr; Askari, Ali

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to compare dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment in infertile employed and unemployed females. Due to the stresses of infertility, infertile females are faced with a variety of sexual and psychological problems, as well as dysfunctional attitudes that can lead to depression. Moreover, infertility problems provoke women into maladjustment and inadvertent corruption of relationships. In this regard, our goal is to consider the effects of employment in conjunction with education on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile women in Iran. In this work, we employed the survey method. We recruited 240 infertile women, utilizing the cluster random sampling method. These women filled out the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and the social adjustment part of the California Test of Personality. Next, multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test the relationship of employment status and education with dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. Our results indicated that dysfunctional attitudes were far more prevalent in infertile unemployed women than in infertile employed women. Also, social adjustment was better in infertile employed women than in infertile unemployed women. It was shown that education level alone does not have significant effect on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. However, we demonstrated that the employment status of infertile women in conjunction with their education level significantly affects the two dimensions of dysfunctional attitudes (relationships, entitlements) and has insignificant effects on social adjustment. It was revealed that in employed infertile women in Iran, the higher education level, the less dysfunctional were attitudes in relationships and entitlements, whereas in unemployed infertile women, those with a college degree had the least and those with master's or higher degrees had the most dysfunctional attitudes in terms of relationships and entitlements. PMID

  19. Distressing Sexual Problems and Dyadic Adjustment in Heterosexuals, Gay Men, and Lesbian Women.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-05-18

    Empirical studies have focused on dyadic adjustment and sexual satisfaction in men and women. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the role of dyadic adjustment in sexual problems among individuals in same-sex and mixed-sex dyads. The aim of the current study was to analyze the differences in dyadic adjustment between gay and heterosexual men, and lesbian and heterosexual women, with and without distressing sexual problems. One hundred and sixty men (80 gay and 80 heterosexual) and 184 women (92 lesbian and 92 heterosexual) completed an online survey. Participants responded to the Dyadic Adjustment Scale-Short Version and to questions about self-perceived sexual problems and associated levels of distress. A 2 (gender) × 2 (sexual orientation) × 2 (group with or without sexual problems) univariate analysis of covariance was performed. The findings suggested that individuals with distressing sexual problems, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, scored significantly lower on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Additionally, lesbian women, regardless of having or not having a distressing sexual problem, scored significantly higher on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, compared to heterosexual women. No gender differences were found. Overall, our findings emphasize the negative association between dyadic adjustment and distressing sexual problems, regardless of gender and sexual orientation. PMID:26010170

  20. Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

  1. Adjustment process in Iranian women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Taleghani, Fariba; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Käppeli, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is a devastating event for a woman. Physical changes and psychological problems, treatment to improve the patient's condition, and increased survival rates compared with other cancers manifest the importance of quality of life in these patients. This quality of life is affected by how the patients adjust to their situation. Hence, to understand adjustment to breast cancer, this research aimed to investigate the experience from the patients' perspective and how they interact with others and interpret their experiences in adjusting to the disease. A qualitative research approach based on grounded theory was used. The data were the result of 45 interviews with patients in different phases of their illness trajectory during 1 year, 6 interviews with families, and 10 observation sessions. The main categories that emerged were perceived threat to live, religious aspects, supportive dimensions, will to recover, increase in endurance, barriers to efforts leading to health, living with the disease with tolerance, and inhibitors and facilitators of tolerance. These main categories were understood as passages to reach evolutionary peaceful coexistence. Adjustment to breast cancer has positive evolutional process, and its direction is toward better adjustment. By positive mental reconstruction, the patients feel that they can live with their disease. PMID:18453870

  2. Somali Women's Reflections on the Adjustment of Their Children in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Barazanji, Danah M.; Heintzelman, Ashley; Siddiqi, Mubeena; Shilla, Yasmine

    2012-01-01

    Somali women were interviewed regarding their children's adjustment. Qualitative analysis revealed 5 themes: cultural comparisons, concerns about children, parents' loss of disciplinary authority, available support, and the future. The women discussed changes in their children, such as loss of respect and threats to use law enforcement against…

  3. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  4. Coping resources, perceived stress and adjustment to divorce among Israeli women: assessing effects.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Liat; Heine-Cohen, Etti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how socioeconomic resources (level of education and evaluation of economic situation), cognitive resources (sense of coherence), emotional resources (the quality of relationship with the ex-spouse and the existence of a new romantic relationship), and perceived stress contribute to explaining the adjustment of Israeli women to divorce. Adjustment to divorce was examined along four dimensions: self-acceptance of divorce, disentanglement of the love relationship, symptoms of grief, and self-evaluation. The research sample consisted of 114 divorced Jewish women, all of whom had retained custody of their children. Among the resources examined, the contribution of sense of coherence to explaining adjustment to divorce was particularly significant, followed by the existence of a new romantic relationship. Furthermore, resources were found to interact with perceived stress in explaining women's adjustment to divorce. PMID:21375123

  5. Social Adjustment of Women With and Without a Substance Abusing Partner

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Clifton R.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Clements, Nicolle T.; Benishek, Lois A.; Nick, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Little normative information is available about the psychosocial functioning of women who have a substance abusing intimate partner. This study examined whether the social adjustment of women who indicate that they have a substance abusing partner (n=69) is compromised relative to that of women who indicate that their partner does not abuse substances (n=68). Women with a substance abusing partner reported compromised social adjustment relative to a comparison sample both overall and in five of six life domains (work, social/leisure, primary relationship, parental, family). Results suggest the potential benefit of expanding the focus of research and treatment to include effects and outcomes for these women and to influence treatment-related policy. PMID:25052786

  6. The Relation of Marital Adjustment and Family Functions With Quality of Life in Women

    PubMed Central

    Basharpoor, Sajjad; Sheykholeslami, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Given the immense importance of marital relationships in the quality of life, this research was conducted in order to investigate the relationships between marital adjustment and family functions with quality of life in women. The design of the current study was correlational. Seven hundred and thirty women were selected randomly among all women living in the province of Western Azerbaijan (Iran) and participated in this study. The sample responded to the Family Assessment Device, Dyadic Adjustment scale and Quality of Life questionnaire, individually in their homes. Collected data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression tests. The results showed that all dimensions of family functions and dyadic adjustment were positively correlated with quality of life in women. Results of multiple regression also revealed that 33 percent of total quality of life can be explained by family functions and 24 percent of this variable can be explained by dyadic adjustment. Our study demonstrated that women’s quality of life was affected by family functions and marital adjustment in family. PMID:27247668

  7. Quality of sexual life and its effect on marital adjustment of Turkish women in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kisa, Sezer; Zeyneloğlu, Simge; Yilmaz, Duygu; Güner, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is an important period of a woman's life that can affect marital relationships because of decrease in the sexual function. This study aimed to examine the effect of sexual life on the marital adjustment of 607 healthy, pregnant women using the self-administered Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female and the Marital Adjustment Scale. Results showed that 30% of the pregnant women experienced problems during sexual intercourse and 50% had painful intercourse. The median total score of the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female for pregnant women was 35.5, and the median total score of the Marital Adjustment Scale was 41.0. The authors found a positive moderate level correlation between the sexual quality of life for women and their marital adjustment for being pregnant (r = 0.468, p =.001). The results imply that the variance in the sexual activity during the childbearing period does occur and pregnant women need to be assessed regularly with regards to their sexuality by health care providers in a professional atmosphere. PMID:24102194

  8. Body image and its relationship with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Karamidehkordi, Akram; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body image is related to cognitive, emotional, and physical aspects of women's life. Therefore, it is expected to have an important role in women's sexual health and marital adjustment too. This issue seems to be salient in infertile women who suffer from psychological consequences of infertility. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of body image with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women in 2011 in Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: This correlational study was performed on 130 infertile women who referred to Montaserieh Infertility Research Centre in Mashhad, Iran. Subjects were selected using convenient sampling method. To collect data, valid and reliable questionnaires including demographic and infertility-related data tool, modified Younesi Body Image Questionnaire, Rosen Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) were used. Data analysis was performed by SPSS software using Student's t-test, correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey post-hoc test. Results: The mean scores of body image, sexual function, and marital adjustment in women were 308.1 ± 45.8, 27.23 ± 3.80, and 113.8 ± 19.73, respectively. There was a direct correlation between overall body image and subscales of sexual function including sexual arousal (P = 0.003), sexual desire (P = 0.024), vaginal moisture (P = 0.001), orgasm (P < 0.001), sexual satisfaction (P < 0.001), and dyspareunia (P = 0.007). A direct correlation was also observed between overall body image and subscales of marital adjustment including agreement and consent (P < 0.001), satisfaction with life (P < 0.001), continuity of life (P = 0.007), and expressing emotions within the family environment (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Improved sexual function and marital adjustment in cases with higher body image provides evidence that one of the solutions to reduce sexual dysfunction and marital dispute in infertile women could be

  9. A Threshold Model of Social Support, Adjustment, and Distress after Breast Cancer Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Armer, Jane M.; Heppner, P. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a threshold model that proposes that social support exhibits a curvilinear association with adjustment and distress, such that support in excess of a critical threshold level has decreasing incremental benefits. Women diagnosed with a first occurrence of breast cancer (N = 154) completed survey measures of perceived support…

  10. Long-Term Effects of Incestuous Child Abuse in College Women: Social Adjustment, Social Cognition, and Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephanie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated family and social cognitive characteristics as mediators of social adjustment among college women. Indicated decreased cohesion and adaptability in the family of origin, increased perception of social isolation, and poorer social adjustment among subjects abused as children. Family characteristics and especially increased perceptions…

  11. Children's Adjustment Problems in Families Characterized by Men's Severe Violence toward Women: Does Other Family Violence Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women's intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children's adjustment problems in families characterized by men's severe violence toward women. Methods: Participants were 258 children and their mothers…

  12. The impact of structural adjustment policies on women's and children's health in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lugalla, J L

    1995-03-01

    Since 1981, the government of Tanzania has adopted a variety of policy measures including the National Economic Survival Plan (NESP), Structural Adjustment Program (SAP), Economic Recovery Program (ERP) I, ERP II, Economic and Social Action Plan (ESAP), and Priority Social Action Plan (PSAP) to deal with the country's present social and economic crisis dating back to the late 1970s. The main objective of the these adjustment measures has been to attain macroeconomic balance by bringing national expenditure into line with national income to reduce inflation and to increase exports. Other objectives have been to maintain egalitarian income distribution and the provision of basic social services to the majority of the population. To realize these objectives, the government has been controlling credit and removed subsidies on certain food items and agricultural inputs, introduced a system of progressive devaluation, liberalized trade, and has been trying to reduce government expenditure by introducing cost sharing measures in the education and health sector. The author concludes that the erosion of real incomes and increased poverty have had a devastating effect upon women and children. Rural women have heavier workloads as males migrate to urban areas in search of work, there is increased maternal mortality, and chronic malnutrition and poverty make it difficult to implement HIV/AIDS intervention strategies. PMID:12290679

  13. Potential impact of adjustment policies on vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    De Vogli, Roberto; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2005-06-01

    This paper evaluates the potential impact of adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank on the vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. A conceptual framework, composed of five different pathways of causation, is used for the evaluation. These five pathways connect changes at the macro level (e.g. removal of food subsidies) with effects at the meso (e.g. higher food prices) and micro levels (e.g. exposure of women and children to commercial sex) that influence the vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS. Published literature on adjustment policies and socioeconomic determinants of HIV/AIDS among women and children in sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed to explore the cause-effect relationships included in the theoretical framework. Evidence suggests that adjustment policies may inadvertently produce conditions facilitating the exposure of women and children to HIV/AIDS. Complex research designs are needed to further investigate this relationship. A shift in emphasis from an individual approach to a socioeconomic approach in the study of HIV infection among women and children in the developing world is suggested. Given the potential for adjustment policies to exacerbate the AIDS pandemic among women and children, a careful examination of the effects of these policies on maternal and child welfare is urgently needed. PMID:16117362

  14. Calculating summary statistics for population chemical biomonitoring in women of childbearing age with adjustment for age-specific natality.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Cohen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chemical exposures during pregnancy on children's health have been an increasing focus of environmental health research in recent years, leading to greater interest in biomonitoring of chemicals in women of childbearing age in the general population. Measurements of mercury in blood from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are frequently reported for "women of childbearing age," defined to be of ages 16-49 years. The intent is to represent prenatal chemical exposure, but blood mercury levels increase with age. Furthermore, women of different ages have different probabilities of giving birth. We evaluated options to address potential bias in biomonitoring summary statistics for women of childbearing age by accounting for age-specific probabilities of giving birth. We calculated median and 95th percentile levels of mercury, PCBs, and cotinine using these approaches: option 1: women aged 16-49 years without natality adjustment; option 2: women aged 16-39 years without natality adjustment; option 3: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age; option 4: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age and race/ethnicity. Among the three chemicals examined, the choice of option has the greatest impact on estimated levels of serum PCBs, which are strongly associated with age. Serum cotinine levels among Black non-Hispanic women of childbearing age are understated when age-specific natality is not considered. For characterizing in utero exposures, adjustment using age-specific natality provides a substantial improvement in estimation of biomonitoring summary statistics. PMID:21035114

  15. Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s newest tool, the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) – Climate Adjustment Tool (CAT) is meant to help municipal stormwater utilities better address potential climate change impacts affecting their operations. SWMM, first released in 1971, models hydrology and hydrauli...

  16. Unified Model for Academic Competence, Social Adjustment, and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Earl S.; And Others

    A unified conceptual model is needed to integrate the extensive research on (1) social competence and adaptive behavior, (2) converging conceptualizations of social adjustment and psychopathology, and (3) emerging concepts and measures of academic competence. To develop such a model, a study was conducted in which teacher ratings were collected on…

  17. Promoting adjustment among women with breast cancer and their partners: a program of research.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, C N

    2001-01-01

    A three-phase program of research consisted of: (1) data collection at eight data points across one year on predictors and outcomes of adjustment among 128 women diagnosed with breast cancer and 121 partners; (2) development of phase-specific interventions: standardized education by videotape (SE), and telephone counseling (TC); and (3) a pilot study among 12 patient-partner pairs. Four phases were identified: diagnostic, post-surgical, adjuvant therapy, and ongoing recovery. Needs were categorized as those related to: (1) physical well-being, (2) emotional well-being; (3) support; and (4) the healthcare system. In the pilot study, each group consisted of 4 patient-partner pairs, randomly assigned to one of four groups. At each of the four phases, all groups received the currently accepted disease management (DM). Group 1: DM * Group 2: DM+SE * Group 3: DM+TC * Group 4: DM+SE+TC. Measures of outcomes validated in the longitudinal study were administered. The feasibility of a confirmatory randomized clinical trial was demonstrated. Preliminary evidence indicates the importance of research-based, phase-specific educational and counseling interventions that have a positive effect on adjustment among both patients and their families. PMID:16052904

  18. Free markets and the marriage market: structural adjustment, gender relations, and working conditions among Dominican women workers.

    PubMed

    Safa, H I

    1999-02-01

    The relationship between economic conditions and marriage patterns in the Dominican Republic is analyzed using data collected in 1994 on women working in a free-trade zone. The author concludes that changes associated with structural adjustment appear to have contributed to a deterioration of the job market and a greater prevalence of female-headed households. It is shown that "structural adjustment increases the need for women to work, because of cuts in government programs, declining real wages, growing inflation, and a deterioration in male employment, which weakens the man's role as principal breadwinner and increases the importance and visibility of women's contribution to the household economy. This change in the gender composition of the labor force has encouraged some women to resist marriage and/or remarriage because the ¿marriage market' of eligible men willing and able to support a family has been reduced, contributing to greater marital instability." PMID:12294805

  19. Using Bibliotherapy to Help Children Adjust to Changing Role Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardeck, John T.; Pardeck, Jean A.

    One technique for helping children adjust to changing role models is bibliotherapy--the use of children's books to facilitate identification with and exploration of sex role behavior. Confronted with change in various social systems, particularly the family, children are faced with conflicts concerning their sex role development. The process…

  20. Catastrophe, Chaos, and Complexity Models and Psychosocial Adjustment to Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Randall M.; Schaller, James; Hansmann, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Rehabilitation professionals may unknowingly rely on stereotypes and specious beliefs when dealing with people with disabilities, despite the formulation of theories that suggest new models of the adjustment process. Suggests that Catastrophe, Chaos, and Complexity Theories hold considerable promise in this regard. This article reviews these…

  1. Faculty Women as Models for Women Students: How Context Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Mens-Verhulst, Janneke; Woertman, Liesbeth; Radtke, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    We explored how frequently academic staff serve as role models for women undergraduate students, how this compares to the family context, and the qualities associated with potential role models in both contexts. Participants were 138 psychology students at a Dutch university. They completed a self-administered, online survey about inspirational…

  2. The Influence of Parental Attachment on the College Adjustment of White, Black, and Latina/Hispanic Women: A Cross-Cultural Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melendez, Mickey C.; Melendez, Nancy Blanco

    2010-01-01

    Although race and parental attachment are concepts that have been widely researched, few studies have explored how these variables manifest themselves among women or influence their adjustment to college. This study examined how parental attachment effected college adjustment among White, Black, and Latina/Hispanic women attending an urban…

  3. Adjustment in Mothers of Children with Asperger Syndrome: An Application of the Double ABCX Model of Family Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Samios, Christina; Sofronoff, Kate

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the applicability of the double ABCX model of family adjustment in explaining maternal adjustment to caring for a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-seven mothers completed questionnaires at a university clinic while their children were participating in an anxiety intervention. The children were aged between…

  4. Coercively Adjusted Auto Regression Model for Forecasting in Epilepsy EEG

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Faloutsos, Christos; Yang, Hyung-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, data with complex characteristics such as epilepsy electroencephalography (EEG) time series has emerged. Epilepsy EEG data has special characteristics including nonlinearity, nonnormality, and nonperiodicity. Therefore, it is important to find a suitable forecasting method that covers these special characteristics. In this paper, we propose a coercively adjusted autoregression (CA-AR) method that forecasts future values from a multivariable epilepsy EEG time series. We use the technique of random coefficients, which forcefully adjusts the coefficients with −1 and 1. The fractal dimension is used to determine the order of the CA-AR model. We applied the CA-AR method reflecting special characteristics of data to forecast the future value of epilepsy EEG data. Experimental results show that when compared to previous methods, the proposed method can forecast faster and accurately. PMID:23710252

  5. Population Approach To Analyze the Pharmacokinetics of Free and Total Lopinavir in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Consequences for Dose Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Illamola, Silvia M.; Pressiat, Claire; Lui, Gabrielle; Valade, Elodie; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Lechedanec, Jerome; Delmas, Sandrine; Blanche, Stéphane; Warszawski, Josiane; Urien, Saik; Tubiana, Roland; Hirt, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the unbound and total lopinavir (LPV) pharmacokinetics in pregnant women in order to evaluate if a dosing adjustment is necessary during pregnancy. Lopinavir placental transfer is described, and several genetic covariates were tested to explain its variability. A total of 400 maternal, 79 cord blood, and 48 amniotic fluid samples were collected from 208 women for LPV concentration determinations and pharmacokinetics analysis. Among the maternal LPV concentrations, 79 samples were also used to measure the unbound LPV concentrations. Population pharmacokinetics models were developed by using NONMEM software. Two models were developed to describe (i) unbound and total LPV pharmacokinetics and (ii) LPV placental transfer. The pharmacokinetics was best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. A pregnancy effect was found on maternal clearance (39% increase), whereas the treatment group (monotherapy versus triple therapy) or the genetic polymorphisms did not explain the pharmacokinetics or placental transfer of LPV. Efficient unbound LPV concentrations in nonpregnant women were similar to those measured during the third trimester of pregnancy. Our study showed a 39% increase of maternal total LPV clearance during pregnancy, whereas unbound LPV concentrations were similar to those simulated in nonpregnant women. The genetic polymorphisms selected did not influence the LPV pharmacokinetics or placental transfer. Thus, we suggest that the LPV dosage should not be increased during pregnancy. PMID:26149996

  6. Women's experiences of sex and intimacy after childbirth: making the adjustment to motherhood.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, Hannah; McDonald, Ellie; Brown, Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore women's experiences of changes to their sexual relationship, sexuality and intimacy, as a result of pregnancy, childbirth and parenting. A sub-sample of women was purposively selected from a larger prospective pregnancy cohort study of nulliparous women in Melbourne, Australia. Eighteen women (including a mixture of parity, birth methods and relationship status) were interviewed 2.5-3.5 years after a first birth. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Women identified numerous factors affecting sexual and intimate relationships including extreme tiredness, changing lifestyles and body image issues, leading to changes in libido and intimacy in relationships. Of particular note were feelings of guilt and failure women experienced as a result of a lowered libido. Finding ways to stay connected - whether through sex, quality time together or working as a team - helped women and their partners navigate the transition to parenthood. This study demonstrates that pregnancy, childbirth and parenting can bring about significant changes to women's experiences of sex and intimacy. Women who experience significant reductions in their libido may be vulnerable to feelings of guilt and failure, connected with high expectations that they should be able to "do it all". PMID:22973871

  7. Rural Elderly: Impact of Social, Psychological Health and Demographic Experiences on Adjustment in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, R.; And Others

    An amended form of the Older American's Status and Needs Assessment Questionnaire assessed the prevalence of adjustment, as measured by the Bradburn Affect Scale, in a random stratified sample of 301 female and 140 male elderly rural residents in Allegany County, New York. The relationship between adjustment and biosocial, demographic, social, and…

  8. An interface model for dosage adjustment connects hematotoxicity to pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Meille, C; Iliadis, A; Barbolosi, D; Frances, N; Freyer, G

    2008-12-01

    When modeling is required to describe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics simultaneously, it is difficult to link time-concentration profiles and drug effects. When patients are under chemotherapy, despite the huge amount of blood monitoring numerations, there is a lack of exposure variables to describe hematotoxicity linked with the circulating drug blood levels. We developed an interface model that transforms circulating pharmacokinetic concentrations to adequate exposures, destined to be inputs of the pharmacodynamic process. The model is materialized by a nonlinear differential equation involving three parameters. The relevance of the interface model for dosage adjustment is illustrated by numerous simulations. In particular, the interface model is incorporated into a complex system including pharmacokinetics and neutropenia induced by docetaxel and by cisplatin. Emphasis is placed on the sensitivity of neutropenia with respect to the variations of the drug amount. This complex system including pharmacokinetic, interface, and pharmacodynamic hematotoxicity models is an interesting tool for analysis of hematotoxicity induced by anticancer agents. The model could be a new basis for further improvements aimed at incorporating new experimental features. PMID:19107581

  9. 19 CFR 10.35 - Models of women's wearing apparel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Models of women's wearing apparel. 10.35 Section... Temporary Importations Under Bond § 10.35 Models of women's wearing apparel. (a) Models of women's wearing... the importer or his employees. (b) Invoices covering models of women's wearing apparel entered...

  10. 19 CFR 10.35 - Models of women's wearing apparel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Models of women's wearing apparel. 10.35 Section... Temporary Importations Under Bond § 10.35 Models of women's wearing apparel. (a) Models of women's wearing... the importer or his employees. (b) Invoices covering models of women's wearing apparel entered...

  11. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. PMID:26331727

  12. Disaster Hits Home: A Model of Displaced Family Adjustment after Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget; Marlatt, Holly

    2011-01-01

    The authors explored individual and family adjustment processes among parents (n = 30) and children (n = 55) who were displaced to Colorado after Hurricane Katrina. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 23 families, this article offers an inductive model of displaced family adjustment. Four stages of family adjustment are presented in the model: (a)…

  13. Adjusting the Adjusted X[superscript 2]/df Ratio Statistic for Dichotomous Item Response Theory Analyses: Does the Model Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Drasgow, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Two Monte Carlo simulation studies investigated the effectiveness of the mean adjusted X[superscript 2]/df statistic proposed by Drasgow and colleagues and, because of problems with the method, a new approach for assessing the goodness of fit of an item response theory model was developed. It has been previously recommended that mean adjusted…

  14. Battered Women: The Relationship of Stress, Support and Coping to Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Roger E.; Hodson, Christine A.

    Recent research on domestic violence has sought to provide insight into the psychological consequences of such violence. A conceptual framework, which suggests that both situational and person-centered factors contribute to adjustment to violence and affect a woman's personal and social resources, was formulated to examine the impact of stress,…

  15. Adjusting Bowel Regimens When Prescribing Opioids in Women Receiving Palliative Care in the Acute Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Lucia K; Delmastro, Margaret A; Boyd, Denise M; Sterling, Melvyn L; Aube, Patricia A; Le, Rosemary N; Traucht, Lisa; Quinal, Leonida R; Georges, Jane M; Glaser, Dale N

    2016-08-01

    In palliative medicine, constipation is the third most common symptom after pain and anorexia, causing some patients to discontinue opioid therapy. Women experience higher incidence of constipation than men. The prevalence of infrequent bowel movements (<3 times/wk) and adherence to an established bowel regimen among women receiving opioids were studied. Referral to the palliative care team decreased the prevalence of infrequent bowel movements from 72% to 45%, and algorithm adherence increased from 38% to 78%. Education of oncology nurses decreased the prevalence of infrequent bowel movements among patients with cancer from 71% to 60%, and algorithm adherence increased from 0% to 10%. Patients benefit from stool softeners and stimulants when receiving opioids. PMID:25964648

  16. Extending the Integrated Model of Retirement Adjustment: Incorporating Mastery and Retirement Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Tarryn; Earl, Joanne K.; Muratore, Alexa M.

    2010-01-01

    Extending earlier research, this study explores individual (e.g. demographic and health characteristics), psychosocial (e.g. mastery and planning) and organizational factors (e.g. conditions of workforce exit) influencing retirement adjustment. Survey data were collected from 570 semi-retired and retired men and women aged 45 years and older.…

  17. Is there a bi-directional relationship between depression and obesity among adult men and women? Systematic review and bias-adjusted meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Munim; Mamun, Abdullah; Doi, Suhail; Clavarino, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    The rapidly increasing prevalence of both obesity and depression represent two major public health concerns worldwide. But the evidence regarding the direction and strength of the association between these two disorders, for both adult men and women, are remain inconclusive. We systematically reviewed publications from five different databases: Pubmed, Embase, BIOSIS, CINAHL and PsychINFO. A total of 21 articles were included for the systematic review and 19 of them for the meta-analysis using a bias-adjusted (quality effect) model. This resulted in the inclusion of approximately 226,063 (33.7% men) participants. Those who were depressed had a 37% (RR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.48) increased risk of being obese, and who were obese had an 18% increased risk of being depressed (RR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.35). Those who were depressed had a 2% (RD: 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03) excess risk of obesity, however, the reciprocal associations were not significant. The association between overweight and depression was not found significant in either direction. Both men and women were at risk of obesity and depression bi-directionally. In sensitivity analyses bi-directional associations were more pronounced among young and middle aged adults and in studies with longer follow-up. The findings of this study suggest that the strength of the association is greater for the direction leading from depression to obesity and this link was more pronounced for young and middle aged women. PMID:27208458

  18. Nurturer or Queen Bee? Models of Women's Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    This document describes an informal chat of about 30 students, faculty, staff, and administrators, mostly African-American women, with a couple of White and Latina sisters thrown in. One woman asked why African-American women were so mean to each other. The author retreated into a conversation about two models of women's leadership--Queen Bee or…

  19. Covariate-Adjusted Linear Mixed Effects Model with an Application to Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Danh V.; Şentürk, Damla; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Linear mixed effects (LME) models are useful for longitudinal data/repeated measurements. We propose a new class of covariate-adjusted LME models for longitudinal data that nonparametrically adjusts for a normalizing covariate. The proposed approach involves fitting a parametric LME model to the data after adjusting for the nonparametric effects of a baseline confounding covariate. In particular, the effect of the observable covariate on the response and predictors of the LME model is modeled nonparametrically via smooth unknown functions. In addition to covariate-adjusted estimation of fixed/population parameters and random effects, an estimation procedure for the variance components is also developed. Numerical properties of the proposed estimators are investigated with simulation studies. The consistency and convergence rates of the proposed estimators are also established. An application to a longitudinal data set on calcium absorption, accounting for baseline distortion from body mass index, illustrates the proposed methodology. PMID:19266053

  20. Women's Endorsement of Models of Sexual Response: Correlates and Predictors.

    PubMed

    Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Wróbel, Beata; Kowalczyk, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have investigated endorsement of female sexual response models, and no single model has been accepted as a normative description of women's sexual response. The aim of the study was to establish how women from a population-based sample endorse current theoretical models of the female sexual response--the linear models and circular model (partial and composite Basson models)--as well as predictors of endorsement. Accordingly, 174 heterosexual women aged 18-55 years were included in a cross-sectional study: 74 women diagnosed with female sexual dysfunction (FSD) based on DSM-5 criteria and 100 non-dysfunctional women. The description of sexual response models was used to divide subjects into four subgroups: linear (Masters-Johnson and Kaplan models), circular (partial Basson model), mixed (linear and circular models in similar proportions, reflective of the composite Basson model), and a different model. Women were asked to choose which of the models best described their pattern of sexual response and how frequently they engaged in each model. Results showed that 28.7% of women endorsed the linear models, 19.5% the partial Basson model, 40.8% the composite Basson model, and 10.9% a different model. Women with FSD endorsed the partial Basson model and a different model more frequently than did non-dysfunctional controls. Individuals who were dissatisfied with a partner as a lover were more likely to endorse a different model. Based on the results, we concluded that the majority of women endorsed a mixed model combining the circular response with the possibility of an innate desire triggering a linear response. Further, relationship difficulties, not FSD, predicted model endorsement. PMID:26601676

  1. A New Climate Adjustment Tool: An update to EPA’s Storm Water Management Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s newest tool, the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) – Climate Adjustment Tool (CAT) is meant to help municipal stormwater utilities better address potential climate change impacts affecting their operations.

  2. Procedures for adjusting regional regression models of urban-runoff quality using local data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, Anne B.; Lizarraga, Joy S.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical operations termed model-adjustment procedures can be used to incorporate local data into existing regression modes to improve the predication of urban-runoff quality. Each procedure is a form of regression analysis in which the local data base is used as a calibration data set; the resulting adjusted regression models can then be used to predict storm-runoff quality at unmonitored sites. Statistical tests of the calibration data set guide selection among proposed procedures.

  3. Modeling of an Adjustable Beam Solid State Light Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni

    2015-01-01

    This proposal is for the development of a computational model of a prototype variable beam light source using optical modeling software, Zemax Optics Studio. The variable beam light source would be designed to generate flood, spot, and directional beam patterns, while maintaining the same average power usage. The optical model would demonstrate the possibility of such a light source and its ability to address several issues: commonality of design, human task variability, and light source design process improvements. An adaptive lighting solution that utilizes the same electronics footprint and power constraints while addressing variability of lighting needed for the range of exploration tasks can save costs and allow for the development of common avionics for lighting controls.

  4. Circumplex and Spherical Models for Child School Adjustment and Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Earl S.; Edgerton, Marianna

    The goal of this study is to broaden the scope of a conceptual model for child behavior by analyzing constructs relevant to cognition, conation, and affect. Two samples were drawn from school populations. For the first sample, 28 teachers from 8 rural, suburban, and urban schools rated 193 kindergarten children. Each teacher rated up to eight…

  5. A General Linear Model Approach to Adjusting the Cumulative GPA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John W.

    A general linear model (GLM), using least-squares techniques, was used to develop a criterion measure to replace freshman year grade point average (GPA) in college admission predictive validity studies. Problems with the use of GPA include those associated with the combination of grades from different courses and disciplines into a single measure,…

  6. Development of a charge adjustment model for cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Andrew; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Connor, Jean; O'Connell, Cheryl; David, Sthuthi; Almodovar, Melvin; DiNardo, James; Banka, Puja; Mayer, John E; Marshall, Audrey C; Bergersen, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    A methodology that would allow for comparison of charges across institutions has not been developed for catheterization in congenital heart disease. A single institution catheterization database with prospectively collected case characteristics was linked to hospital charges related and limited to an episode of care in the catheterization laboratory for fiscal years 2008-2010. Catheterization charge categories (CCC) were developed to group types of catheterization procedures using a combination of empiric data and expert consensus. A multivariable model with outcome charges was created using CCC and additional patient and procedural characteristics. In 3 fiscal years, 3,839 cases were available for analysis. Forty catheterization procedure types were categorized into 7 CCC yielding a grouper variable with an R (2) explanatory value of 72.6%. In the final CCC, the largest proportion of cases was in CCC 2 (34%), which included diagnostic cases without intervention. Biopsy cases were isolated in CCC 1 (12%), and percutaneous pulmonary valve placement alone made up CCC 7 (2%). The final model included CCC, number of interventions, and cardiac diagnosis (R (2) = 74.2%). Additionally, current financial metrics such as APR-DRG severity of illness and case mix index demonstrated a lack of correlation with CCC. We have developed a catheterization procedure type financial grouper that accounts for the diverse case population encountered in catheterization for congenital heart disease. CCC and our multivariable model could be used to understand financial characteristics of a population at a single point in time, longitudinally, and to compare populations. PMID:25113520

  7. Comparison of the Properties of Regression and Categorical Risk-Adjustment Models

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Richard F.; Muldoon, John H.; Hughes, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical risk-adjustment, the ability to standardize the comparison of individuals with different health needs, is based upon 2 main alternative approaches: regression models and clinical categorical models. In this article, we examine the impact of the differences in the way these models are constructed on end user applications. PMID:26945302

  8. Using Wherry's Adjusted R Squared and Mallow's C (p) for Model Selection from All Possible Regressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olejnik, Stephen; Mills, Jamie; Keselman, Harvey

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated the use of Mallow's C(p) and Wherry's adjusted R squared (R. Wherry, 1931) statistics to select a final model from a pool of model solutions using computer generated data. Neither statistic identified the underlying regression model any better than, and usually less well than, the stepwise selection method, which itself was poor for…

  9. Does being empathic pay off?-Associations between performance-based measures of empathy and social adjustment in younger and older women.

    PubMed

    Blanke, Elisabeth S; Rauers, Antje; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive empathy (the ability to infer another person's thoughts and feelings) and emotional empathy (the ability to emotionally resonate with another person's feelings) have been associated with social adjustment. Traditionally, these skills are assessed with self-report measures. However, these may not adequately reflect people's actual empathic abilities. There is only little and inconsistent empirical evidence on associations between performance-based empathy and positive social adjustment. In the study presented here, we gathered further evidence for such an association. Using a realistic interaction task in which unfamiliar women were paired into dyads and talked about positive and negative events in their lives, we assessed empathic accuracy (an indicator of cognitive empathy) and emotional congruence (an indicator of emotional empathy). Additionally, we obtained 2 indicators of social adjustment: participants' self-rated satisfaction regarding the communication with their partner in the interaction task, and their self-rated satisfaction with social relationships in general. We furthermore explored the role of potential moderators, which may help to explain discrepant past findings. To test for contextual and interindividual differences, we distinguished between positive and negative emotional valence in the empathy task and investigated 2 adult age groups (102 younger women: 20-31 years; 106 older: 69-80 years). For almost all analyses, only empathic skills for positive (not for negative) affect were predictive of social adjustment, and the associations were comparable for younger and older women. These results underline the role of valence in associations between empathic skills and social adjustment across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26914335

  10. On the hydrologic adjustment of climate-model projections: The potential pitfall of potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic models often are applied to adjust projections of hydroclimatic change that come from climate models. Such adjustment includes climate-bias correction, spatial refinement ("downscaling"), and consideration of the roles of hydrologic processes that were neglected in the climate model. Described herein is a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrologic adjustment on the projections of runoff change associated with projected twenty-first-century climate change. In a case study including three climate models and 10 river basins in the contiguous United States, the authors find that relative (i.e., fractional or percentage) runoff change computed with hydrologic adjustment more often than not was less positive (or, equivalently, more negative) than what was projected by the climate models. The dominant contributor to this decrease in runoff was a ubiquitous change in runoff (median 211%) caused by the hydrologic model's apparent amplification of the climate-model-implied growth in potential evapotranspiration. Analysis suggests that the hydrologic model, on the basis of the empirical, temperature-based modified Jensen-Haise formula, calculates a change in potential evapotranspiration that is typically 3 times the change implied by the climate models, which explicitly track surface energy budgets. In comparison with the amplification of potential evapotranspiration, central tendencies of other contributions from hydrologic adjustment (spatial refinement, climate-bias adjustment, and process refinement) were relatively small. The authors' findings highlight the need for caution when projecting changes in potential evapotranspiration for use in hydrologic models or drought indices to evaluate climatechange impacts on water. Copyright ?? 2011, Paper 15-001; 35,952 words, 3 Figures, 0 Animations, 1 Tables.

  11. On the Hydrologic Adjustment of Climate-Model Projections: The Potential Pitfall of Potential Evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, Paul C.; Dunne, Krista A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic models often are applied to adjust projections of hydroclimatic change that come from climate models. Such adjustment includes climate-bias correction, spatial refinement ("downscaling"), and consideration of the roles of hydrologic processes that were neglected in the climate model. Described herein is a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrologic adjustment on the projections of runoff change associated with projected twenty-first-century climate change. In a case study including three climate models and 10 river basins in the contiguous United States, the authors find that relative (i.e., fractional or percentage) runoff change computed with hydrologic adjustment more often than not was less positive (or, equivalently, more negative) than what was projected by the climate models. The dominant contributor to this decrease in runoff was a ubiquitous change in runoff (median -11%) caused by the hydrologic model’s apparent amplification of the climate-model-implied growth in potential evapotranspiration. Analysis suggests that the hydrologic model, on the basis of the empirical, temperature-based modified Jensen–Haise formula, calculates a change in potential evapotranspiration that is typically 3 times the change implied by the climate models, which explicitly track surface energy budgets. In comparison with the amplification of potential evapotranspiration, central tendencies of other contributions from hydrologic adjustment (spatial refinement, climate-bias adjustment, and process refinement) were relatively small. The authors’ findings highlight the need for caution when projecting changes in potential evapotranspiration for use in hydrologic models or drought indices to evaluate climate-change impacts on water.

  12. Block adjustment of Chang'E-1 images based on rational function model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Yiliang; Di, Kaichang; Sun, Xiliang

    2014-05-01

    Chang'E-1(CE-1) is the first lunar orbiter of China's lunar exploration program. The CCD camera carried by CE-1 has acquired stereo images covering the entire lunar surface. Block adjustment and 3D mapping using CE-1 images are of great importance for morphological and other scientific research of the Moon. Traditional block adjustment based on rigorous sensor model is complicated due to a large number of parameters and possible correlations among them. To tackle this problem, this paper presents a block adjustment method using Rational Function Model (RFM). The RFM parameters are generated based on rigorous sensor model using virtual grid of control points. Afterwards, the RFM based block adjustment solves the refinement parameters through a least squares solution. Experimental results using CE-1 images located in Sinus Irdium show that the RFM can fit the rigorous sensor model with a high precision of 1% pixel level. Through the RFM-based block adjustment, the back-projection residuals in image space can be reduced from around 1.5 pixels to sub-pixel., indicating that RFM can replace rigorous sensor model for geometric processing of lunar images.

  13. Assessment and Indirect Adjustment for Confounding by Smoking in Cohort Studies Using Relative Hazards Models

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, David B.; Laurier, Dominique; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Cole, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Workers' smoking histories are not measured in many occupational cohort studies. Here we discuss the use of negative control outcomes to detect and adjust for confounding in analyses that lack information on smoking. We clarify the assumptions necessary to detect confounding by smoking and the additional assumptions necessary to indirectly adjust for such bias. We illustrate these methods using data from 2 studies of radiation and lung cancer: the Colorado Plateau cohort study (1950–2005) of underground uranium miners (in which smoking was measured) and a French cohort study (1950–2004) of nuclear industry workers (in which smoking was unmeasured). A cause-specific relative hazards model is proposed for estimation of indirectly adjusted associations. Among the miners, the proposed method suggests no confounding by smoking of the association between radon and lung cancer—a conclusion supported by adjustment for measured smoking. Among the nuclear workers, the proposed method suggests substantial confounding by smoking of the association between radiation and lung cancer. Indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking resulted in an 18% decrease in the adjusted estimated hazard ratio, yet this cannot be verified because smoking was unmeasured. Assumptions underlying this method are described, and a cause-specific proportional hazards model that allows easy implementation using standard software is presented. PMID:25245043

  14. Emotional closeness to parents and grandparents: A moderated mediation model predicting adolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2015-09-01

    Warm and emotionally close relationships with parents and grandparents have been found in previous studies to be linked with better adolescent adjustment. The present study, informed by Family Systems Theory and Intergenerational Solidarity Theory, uses a moderated mediation model analyzing the contribution of the dynamics of these intergenerational relationships to adolescent adjustment. Specifically, it examines the mediating role of emotional closeness to the closest grandparent in the relationship between emotional closeness to a parent (the offspring of the closest grandparent) and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The model also examines the moderating role of emotional closeness to parents in the relationship between emotional closeness to grandparents and adjustment difficulties. The study was based on a sample of 1,405 Jewish Israeli secondary school students (ages 12-18) who completed a structured questionnaire. It was found that emotional closeness to the closest grandparent was more strongly associated with reduced adjustment difficulties among adolescents with higher levels of emotional closeness to their parents. In addition, adolescent adjustment and emotional closeness to parents was partially mediated by emotional closeness to grandparents. Examining the family conditions under which adolescents' relationships with grandparents is stronger and more beneficial for them can help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties and expand our understanding of the mechanisms that shape child outcomes. PMID:26237053

  15. Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…

  16. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  17. A Model of Divorce Adjustment for Use in Family Service Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Ruth Griffith

    1987-01-01

    Presents a combined educationally and therapeutically oriented model of treatment to (1) control and lessen disruptive experiences associated with divorce; (2) enable individuals to improve their skill in coping with adjustment reactions to divorce; and (3) modify the pressures and response of single parenthood. Describes the model's four-session…

  18. School Adjustment in the Early Grades: Toward an Integrated Model of Neighborhood, Parental, and Child Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Saundra Murray; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; O'Campo, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    Examining recent research on neighborhood influences on child development, this review focuses on social influences on school adjustment in the early elementary years. A model to guide community research and intervention is presented. The components of the model of integrated processes are neighborhoods and their effects on academic outcomes and…

  19. Risk adjustment of Medicare capitation payments using the CMS-HCC model.

    PubMed

    Pope, Gregory C; Kautter, John; Ellis, Randall P; Ash, Arlene S; Ayanian, John Z; Lezzoni, Lisa I; Ingber, Melvin J; Levy, Jesse M; Robst, John

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the CMS hierarchical condition categories (HCC) model implemented in 2004 to adjust Medicare capitation payments to private health care plans for the health expenditure risk of their enrollees. We explain the model's principles, elements, organization, calibration, and performance. Modifications to reduce plan data reporting burden and adaptations for disabled, institutionalized, newly enrolled, and secondary payer subpopulations are discussed. PMID:15493448

  20. Community Influences on Adjustment in First Grade: An Examination of an Integrated Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra M.; O'Campo, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of neighborhood characteristics both directly and indirectly as mediated by parent coaching and the parent/child affective relationship on behavioral and school adjustment in a sample of urban dwelling first graders. We used structural equations modeling to assess model fit and estimate direct, indirect, and total effects of…

  1. Female Leaders: Injurious or Inspiring Role Models for Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Crystal L.; Simon, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The impact of female role models on women's leadership aspirations and self-perceptions after a leadership task were assessed across two laboratory studies. These studies tested the prediction that upward social comparisons to high-level female leaders will have a relatively detrimental impact on women's self-perceptions and leadership aspirations…

  2. Contact angle adjustment in equation-of-state-based pseudopotential model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Anjie; Li, Longjian; Uddin, Rizwan; Liu, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The single component pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model has been widely applied in multiphase simulation due to its simplicity and stability. In many studies, it has been claimed that this model can be stable for density ratios larger than 1000. However, the application of the model is still limited to small density ratios when the contact angle is considered. The reason is that the original contact angle adjustment method influences the stability of the model. Moreover, simulation results in the present work show that, by applying the original contact angle adjustment method, the density distribution near the wall is artificially changed, and the contact angle is dependent on the surface tension. Hence, it is very inconvenient to apply this method with a fixed contact angle, and the accuracy of the model cannot be guaranteed. To solve these problems, a contact angle adjustment method based on the geometry analysis is proposed and numerically compared with the original method. Simulation results show that, with our contact angle adjustment method, the stability of the model is highly improved when the density ratio is relatively large, and it is independent of the surface tension.

  3. Analysis of Case-Parent Trios Using a Loglinear Model with Adjustment for Transmission Ratio Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lam O.; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Labbe, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of the two parental alleles to offspring deviating from the Mendelian ratio is termed Transmission Ratio Distortion (TRD), occurs throughout gametic and embryonic development. TRD has been well-studied in animals, but remains largely unknown in humans. The Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) was first proposed to test for association and linkage in case-trios (affected offspring and parents); adjusting for TRD using control-trios was recommended. However, the TDT does not provide risk parameter estimates for different genetic models. A loglinear model was later proposed to provide child and maternal relative risk (RR) estimates of disease, assuming Mendelian transmission. Results from our simulation study showed that case-trios RR estimates using this model are biased in the presence of TRD; power and Type 1 error are compromised. We propose an extended loglinear model adjusting for TRD. Under this extended model, RR estimates, power and Type 1 error are correctly restored. We applied this model to an intrauterine growth restriction dataset, and showed consistent results with a previous approach that adjusted for TRD using control-trios. Our findings suggested the need to adjust for TRD in avoiding spurious results. Documenting TRD in the population is therefore essential for the correct interpretation of genetic association studies.

  4. Testing a Social Ecological Model for Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of inter-relations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M= 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children’s regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members’ reports of current sectarian and non-sectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children’s emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children’s adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world. PMID:20423550

  5. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world. PMID:20423550

  6. Two Models of Caregiver Strain and Bereavement Adjustment: A Comparison of Husband and Daughter Caregivers of Breast Cancer Hospice Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Lori L.; Guarnaccia, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Caregiver bereavement adjustment literature suggests opposite models of impact of role strain on bereavement adjustment after care-recipient death--a Complicated Grief Model and a Relief Model. This study tests these competing models for husband and adult-daughter caregivers of breast cancer hospice patients. Design and Methods: This…

  7. Model Minority Stereotyping, Perceived Discrimination, and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Asian American Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Thompson, Taylor L

    2016-07-01

    The model minority image is a common and pervasive stereotype that Asian American adolescents must navigate. Using multiwave data from 159 adolescents from Asian American backgrounds (mean age at initial recruitment = 15.03, SD = .92; 60 % female; 74 % US-born), the current study targeted unexplored aspects of the model minority experience in conjunction with more traditionally measured experiences of negative discrimination. When examining normative changes, perceptions of model minority stereotyping increased over the high school years while perceptions of discrimination decreased. Both experiences were not associated with each other, suggesting independent forms of social interactions. Model minority stereotyping generally promoted academic and socioemotional adjustment, whereas discrimination hindered outcomes. Moreover, in terms of academic adjustment, the model minority stereotype appears to protect against the detrimental effect of discrimination. Implications of the complex duality of adolescents' social interactions are discussed. PMID:26251100

  8. A Four-Part Model of Autonomy during Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Susie D.; Groh, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    We found support for a four-part model of autonomy that links connectedness, separation, detachment, and agency to adjustment during emerging adulthood. Based on self-report surveys of 285 American college students, expected associations among the autonomy variables were found. In addition, agency, as measured by self-reliance, predicted lower…

  9. Improving the global applicability of the RUSLE model - adjustment of the topographical and rainfall erosivity factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipal, V.; Reick, C.; Pongratz, J.; Van Oost, K.

    2015-03-01

    Large uncertainties exist in estimated rates and the extent of soil erosion by surface runoff on a global scale, and this limits our understanding of the global impact that soil erosion might have on agriculture and climate. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model is due to its simple structure and empirical basis a frequently used tool in estimating average annual soil erosion rates at regional to global scales. However, large spatial scale applications often rely on coarse data input, which is not compatible with the local scale at which the model is parameterized. This study aimed at providing the first steps in improving the global applicability of the RUSLE model in order to derive more accurate global soil erosion rates. We adjusted the topographical and rainfall erosivity factors of the RUSLE model and compared the resulting soil erosion rates to extensive empirical databases on soil erosion from the USA and Europe. Adjusting the topographical factor required scaling of slope according to the fractal method, which resulted in improved topographical detail in a coarse resolution global digital elevation model. Applying the linear multiple regression method to adjust rainfall erosivity for various climate zones resulted in values that are in good comparison with high resolution erosivity data for different regions. However, this method needs to be extended to tropical climates, for which erosivity is biased due to the lack of high resolution erosivity data. After applying the adjusted and the unadjusted versions of the RUSLE model on a global scale we find that the adjusted RUSLE model not only shows a global higher mean soil erosion rate but also more variability in the soil erosion rates. Comparison to empirical datasets of the USA and Europe shows that the adjusted RUSLE model is able to decrease the very high erosion rates in hilly regions that are observed in the unadjusted RUSLE model results. Although there are still some regional

  10. An improved bundle adjustment model and algorithm with novel block matrix partition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zemin; Li, Zhongwei; Zhong, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Sparse bundle adjustment is widely applied in computer vision and photogrammetry. However, existing implementation is based on the model of n 3D points projecting onto m different camera imaging planes at m positions, which can't be applied to commonly monocular, binocular or trinocular imaging systems. A novel design and implementation of bundle adjustment algorithm is proposed in this paper, which is based on n 3D points projecting onto the same camera imaging plane at m positions .To improve the performance of the algorithm, a novel sparse block matrix partition method is proposed. Experiments show that the improved bundle adjustment is effective, robust and has a better tolerance to pixel coordinates error.

  11. Improving the global applicability of the RUSLE model - adjustment of the topographical and rainfall erosivity factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipal, V.; Reick, C.; Pongratz, J.; Van Oost, K.

    2015-09-01

    Large uncertainties exist in estimated rates and the extent of soil erosion by surface runoff on a global scale. This limits our understanding of the global impact that soil erosion might have on agriculture and climate. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model is, due to its simple structure and empirical basis, a frequently used tool in estimating average annual soil erosion rates at regional to global scales. However, large spatial-scale applications often rely on coarse data input, which is not compatible with the local scale on which the model is parameterized. Our study aims at providing the first steps in improving the global applicability of the RUSLE model in order to derive more accurate global soil erosion rates. We adjusted the topographical and rainfall erosivity factors of the RUSLE model and compared the resulting erosion rates to extensive empirical databases from the USA and Europe. By scaling the slope according to the fractal method to adjust the topographical factor, we managed to improve the topographical detail in a coarse resolution global digital elevation model. Applying the linear multiple regression method to adjust rainfall erosivity for various climate zones resulted in values that compared well to high resolution erosivity data for different regions. However, this method needs to be extended to tropical climates, for which erosivity is biased due to the lack of high resolution erosivity data. After applying the adjusted and the unadjusted versions of the RUSLE model on a global scale we find that the adjusted version shows a global higher mean erosion rate and more variability in the erosion rates. Comparison to empirical data sets of the USA and Europe shows that the adjusted RUSLE model is able to decrease the very high erosion rates in hilly regions that are observed in the unadjusted RUSLE model results. Although there are still some regional differences with the empirical databases, the results indicate that the

  12. A hypothesized model of Korean women's responses to abuse.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myunghan; Harwood, Jake

    2004-07-01

    Many abused married Korean women have a strong desire to leave their abusive husbands but remain in the abusive situations because of the strong influence of their sociocultural context. The article discusses Korean women's responses to spousal abuse in the context of patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theory. Age, education, and income as component elements share common effects on the emergent variable, sociostructural power. Gender role attitudes, traditional family ideology, individualism/collectivism, marital satisfaction, and marital conflict predict psychological-relational power as a latent variable. Sociostructural, patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theories are reconceptualized to generate the model of Korean women's responses to abuse. PMID:15189642

  13. Women's sexual working models: an evolutionary-attachment perspective.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Gurit E; Reis, Harry T

    2006-11-01

    In three studies, we developed and validated a self-report measure of women's sexual working models. In a pilot study we created an initial version of the Women's Sexual Working Models Scale (WSWMS), administered it to an exploratory sample of 470 women, and identified its 5-factor structure. Study 1 confirmed the 5-factor structure in a new sample: (1) Fostering commitment; (2) Evaluating a sexual partner's suitability; (3) Promoting frequent sexual activity through positive affect; (4) Restricting sexuality through shamefulness; and (5) Negative emotions that signal incompatibility with relationship goals. In Study 2, 444 Israeli women completed the WSWMS. Confirmatory factor analysis provided cross-national evidence for the generalizability of the underlying factor structure of the WSWMS. PMID:17599254

  14. Mood Adjustment to Social Situations through Mass Media Use: How Men Ruminate and Women Dissipate Angry Moods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Alter, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Mood adjustment goals served to explain gender differences regarding media preferences. Before reacting to antagonism, females are likely to prevent aggression by dissolving aversive states through media consumption, whereas males could preserve aggression by choosing negative content. In a computerized procedure, participants (N=86) were provoked…

  15. Adjusting lidar-derived digital terrain models in coastal marshes based on estimated aboveground biomass density

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, Stephen; Hagen, Scott; Weishampel, John; Angelo, James

    2015-03-25

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red), an interferometric SAR (IfSAR) digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three-class scheme (high, medium and low) and a two-class scheme (high and low). Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer to true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 ± 0.24 m and 0.32 ± 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.

  16. Adjusting lidar-derived digital terrain models in coastal marshes based on estimated aboveground biomass density

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Medeiros, Stephen; Hagen, Scott; Weishampel, John; Angelo, James

    2015-03-25

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red), an interferometric SAR (IfSAR) digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three-class scheme (high, medium and low) and a two-class scheme (high and low). Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer tomore » true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 ± 0.24 m and 0.32 ± 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.« less

  17. An appraisal-based coping model of attachment and adjustment to arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sirois, Fuschia M; Gick, Mary L

    2016-05-01

    Guided by pain-related attachment models and coping theory, we used structural equation modeling to test an appraisal-based coping model of how insecure attachment was linked to arthritis adjustment in a sample of 365 people with arthritis. The structural equation modeling analyses revealed indirect and direct associations of anxious and avoidant attachment with greater appraisals of disease-related threat, less perceived social support to deal with this threat, and less coping efficacy. There was evidence of reappraisal processes for avoidant but not anxious attachment. Findings highlight the importance of considering attachment style when assessing how people cope with the daily challenges of arthritis. PMID:24984717

  18. Executive function and psychosocial adjustment in healthy children and adolescents: A latent variable modelling investigation.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish latent executive function (EF) and psychosocial adjustment factor structure, to examine associations between EF and psychosocial adjustment, and to explore potential development differences in EF-psychosocial adjustment associations in healthy children and adolescents. Using data from the multisite National Institutes of Health (NIH) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development, the current investigation examined latent associations between theoretically and empirically derived EF factors and emotional and behavioral adjustment measures in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents (7-18 years old; N = 352). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was the primary method of data analysis. CFA results revealed that, in the whole sample, the proposed five-factor model (Working Memory, Shifting, Verbal Fluency, Externalizing, and Internalizing) provided a close fit to the data, χ(2)(66) = 114.48, p < .001; RMSEA = .046; NNFI = .973; CFI = .980. Significant negative associations were demonstrated between Externalizing and both Working Memory and Verbal Fluency (p < .01) factors. A series of increasingly restrictive tests led to the rejection of the hypothesis of invariance, thereby precluding formal statistical examination of age-related differences in latent EF-psychosocial adjustment associations. Findings indicate that childhood EF skills are best conceptualized as a constellation of interconnected yet distinguishable cognitive self-regulatory skills. Individual differences in certain domains of EF track meaningfully and in expected directions with emotional and behavioral adjustment indices. Externalizing behaviors, in particular, are associated with latent Working Memory and Verbal Fluency factors. PMID:25569593

  19. The HHS-HCC Risk Adjustment Model for Individual and Small Group Markets under the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C; Ingber, Melvin; Freeman, Sara; Patterson, Lindsey; Cohen, Michael; Keenan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 2014, individuals and small businesses are able to purchase private health insurance through competitive Marketplaces. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides for a program of risk adjustment in the individual and small group markets in 2014 as Marketplaces are implemented and new market reforms take effect. The purpose of risk adjustment is to lessen or eliminate the influence of risk selection on the premiums that plans charge. The risk adjustment methodology includes the risk adjustment model and the risk transfer formula. This article is the second of three in this issue of the Review that describe the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) risk adjustment methodology and focuses on the risk adjustment model. In our first companion article, we discuss the key issues and choices in developing the methodology. In this article, we present the risk adjustment model, which is named the HHS-Hierarchical Condition Categories (HHS-HCC) risk adjustment model. We first summarize the HHS-HCC diagnostic classification, which is the key element of the risk adjustment model. Then the data and methods, results, and evaluation of the risk adjustment model are presented. Fifteen separate models are developed. For each age group (adult, child, and infant), a model is developed for each cost sharing level (platinum, gold, silver, and bronze metal levels, as well as catastrophic plans). Evaluation of the risk adjustment models shows good predictive accuracy, both for individuals and for groups. Lastly, this article provides examples of how the model output is used to calculate risk scores, which are an input into the risk transfer formula. Our third companion paper describes the risk transfer formula. PMID:25360387

  20. The HHS-HCC risk adjustment model for individual and small group markets under the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C; Ingber, Melvin; Freeman, Sara; Patterson, Lindsey; Cohen, Michael; Keenan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 2014, individuals and small businesses are able to purchase private health insurance through competitive Marketplaces. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides for a program of risk adjustment in the individual and small group markets in 2014 as Marketplaces are implemented and new market reforms take effect. The purpose of risk adjustment is to lessen or eliminate the influence of risk selection on the premiums that plans charge. The risk adjustment methodology includes the risk adjustment model and the risk transfer formula. This article is the second of three in this issue of the Review that describe the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) risk adjustment methodology and focuses on the risk adjustment model. In our first companion article, we discuss the key issues and choices in developing the methodology. In this article, we present the risk adjustment model, which is named the HHS-Hierarchical Condition Categories (HHS-HCC) risk adjustment model. We first summarize the HHS-HCC diagnostic classification, which is the key element of the risk adjustment model. Then the data and methods, results, and evaluation of the risk adjustment model are presented. Fifteen separate models are developed. For each age group (adult, child, and infant), a model is developed for each cost sharing level (platinum, gold, silver, and bronze metal levels, as well as catastrophic plans). Evaluation of the risk adjustment models shows good predictive accuracy, both for individuals and for groups. Lastly, this article provides examples of how the model output is used to calculate risk scores, which are an input into the risk transfer formula. Our third companion paper describes the risk transfer formula. PMID:25360387

  1. Lithium-ion Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve modelling and its ageing adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, L.; Sabatier, J.; Francisco, J. Mbala; Guillemard, F.; Noury, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a contribution to lithium-ion batteries modelling taking into account aging effects. It first analyses the impact of aging on electrode stoichiometry and then on lithium-ion cell Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. Through some hypotheses and an appropriate definition of the cell state of charge, it shows that each electrode equilibrium potential, but also the whole cell equilibrium potential can be modelled by a polynomial that requires only one adjustment parameter during aging. An adjustment algorithm, based on the idea that for two fixed OCVs, the state of charge between these two equilibrium states is unique for a given aging level, is then proposed. Its efficiency is evaluated on a battery pack constituted of four cells.

  2. 19 CFR 10.35 - Models of women's wearing apparel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Models of women's wearing apparel. 10.35 Section 10.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Temporary Importations Under Bond § 10.35 Models...

  3. Modeling Treatment Motivation in Substance-Abusing Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Dina J.; Kamata, Akihito; Cash, Scottye J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Children are often considered a primary motivator for women seeking substance abuse treatment. This study tested a model predicting treatment motivation in substance-abusing mothers. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). It used structural equation modeling to describe factors…

  4. Stress and Personal Resource as Predictors of the Adjustment of Parents to Autistic Children: A Multivariate Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siman-Tov, Ayelet; Kaniel, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    The research validates a multivariate model that predicts parental adjustment to coping successfully with an autistic child. The model comprises four elements: parental stress, parental resources, parental adjustment and the child's autism symptoms. 176 parents of children aged between 6 to 16 diagnosed with PDD answered several questionnaires…

  5. Adjusting for unmeasured confounding due to either of two crossed factors with a logistic regression model.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Brumback, Babette A; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar

    2016-08-15

    Motivated by an investigation of the effect of surface water temperature on the presence of Vibrio cholerae in water samples collected from different fixed surface water monitoring sites in Haiti in different months, we investigated methods to adjust for unmeasured confounding due to either of the two crossed factors site and month. In the process, we extended previous methods that adjust for unmeasured confounding due to one nesting factor (such as site, which nests the water samples from different months) to the case of two crossed factors. First, we developed a conditional pseudolikelihood estimator that eliminates fixed effects for the levels of each of the crossed factors from the estimating equation. Using the theory of U-Statistics for independent but non-identically distributed vectors, we show that our estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal, but that its variance depends on the nuisance parameters and thus cannot be easily estimated. Consequently, we apply our estimator in conjunction with a permutation test, and we investigate use of the pigeonhole bootstrap and the jackknife for constructing confidence intervals. We also incorporate our estimator into a diagnostic test for a logistic mixed model with crossed random effects and no unmeasured confounding. For comparison, we investigate between-within models extended to two crossed factors. These generalized linear mixed models include covariate means for each level of each factor in order to adjust for the unmeasured confounding. We conduct simulation studies, and we apply the methods to the Haitian data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26892025

  6. Bias adjustment of satellite rainfall data through stochastic modeling: Methods development and application to Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Marc F.; Thompson, Sally E.

    2013-10-01

    Estimating precipitation over large spatial areas remains a challenging problem for hydrologists. Sparse ground-based gauge networks do not provide a robust basis for interpolation, and the reliability of remote sensing products, although improving, is still imperfect. Current techniques to estimate precipitation rely on combining these different kinds of measurements to correct the bias in the satellite observations. We propose a novel procedure that, unlike existing techniques, (i) allows correcting the possibly confounding effects of different sources of errors in satellite estimates, (ii) explicitly accounts for the spatial heterogeneity of the biases and (iii) allows the use of non overlapping historical observations. The proposed method spatially aggregates and interpolates gauge data at the satellite grid resolution by focusing on parameters that describe the frequency and intensity of the rainfall observed at the gauges. The resulting gridded parameters can then be used to adjust the probability density function of satellite rainfall observations at each grid cell, accounting for spatial heterogeneity. Unlike alternate methods, we explicitly adjust biases on rainfall frequency in addition to its intensity. Adjusted rainfall distributions can then readily be applied as input in stochastic rainfall generators or frequency domain hydrological models. Finally, we also provide a procedure to use them to correct remotely sensed rainfall time series. We apply the method to adjust the distributions of daily rainfall observed by the TRMM satellite in Nepal, which exemplifies the challenges associated with a sparse gauge network and large biases due to complex topography. In a cross-validation analysis on daily rainfall from TRMM 3B42 v6, we find that using a small subset of the available gauges, the proposed method outperforms local rainfall estimations using the complete network of available gauges to directly interpolate local rainfall or correct TRMM by adjusting

  7. Biologically Inspired Visual Model With Preliminary Cognition and Active Attention Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hong; Xi, Xuanyang; Li, Yinlin; Wu, Wei; Li, Fengfu

    2015-11-01

    Recently, many computational models have been proposed to simulate visual cognition process. For example, the hierarchical Max-Pooling (HMAX) model was proposed according to the hierarchical and bottom-up structure of V1 to V4 in the ventral pathway of primate visual cortex, which could achieve position- and scale-tolerant recognition. In our previous work, we have introduced memory and association into the HMAX model to simulate visual cognition process. In this paper, we improve our theoretical framework by mimicking a more elaborate structure and function of the primate visual cortex. We will mainly focus on the new formation of memory and association in visual processing under different circumstances as well as preliminary cognition and active adjustment in the inferior temporal cortex, which are absent in the HMAX model. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) in the memory and association part, we apply deep convolutional neural networks to extract various episodic features of the objects since people use different features for object recognition. Moreover, to achieve a fast and robust recognition in the retrieval and association process, different types of features are stored in separated clusters and the feature binding of the same object is stimulated in a loop discharge manner and 2) in the preliminary cognition and active adjustment part, we introduce preliminary cognition to classify different types of objects since distinct neural circuits in a human brain are used for identification of various types of objects. Furthermore, active cognition adjustment of occlusion and orientation is implemented to the model to mimic the top-down effect in human cognition process. Finally, our model is evaluated on two face databases CAS-PEAL-R1 and AR. The results demonstrate that our model exhibits its efficiency on visual recognition process with much lower memory storage requirement and a better performance compared with the traditional purely computational

  8. Using Green's Functions to initialize and adjust a global, eddying ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brix, H.; Menemenlis, D.; Hill, C.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Jahn, O.; Wang, D.; Bowman, K.; Zhang, H.

    2015-11-01

    The NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Flux Project aims to attribute changes in the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide to spatially resolved fluxes by utilizing the full suite of NASA data, models, and assimilation capabilities. For the oceanic part of this project, we introduce ECCO2-Darwin, a new ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model based on combining the following pre-existing components: (i) a full-depth, eddying, global-ocean configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), (ii) an adjoint-method-based estimate of ocean circulation from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II (ECCO2) project, (iii) the MIT ecosystem model "Darwin", and (iv) a marine carbon chemistry model. Air-sea gas exchange coefficients and initial conditions of dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and oxygen are adjusted using a Green's Functions approach in order to optimize modeled air-sea CO2 fluxes. Data constraints include observations of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) for 2009-2010, global air-sea CO2 flux estimates, and the seasonal cycle of the Takahashi et al. (2009) Atlas. The model sensitivity experiments (or Green's Functions) include simulations that start from different initial conditions as well as experiments that perturb air-sea gas exchange parameters and the ratio of particulate inorganic to organic carbon. The Green's Functions approach yields a linear combination of these sensitivity experiments that minimizes model-data differences. The resulting initial conditions and gas exchange coefficients are then used to integrate the ECCO2-Darwin model forward. Despite the small number (six) of control parameters, the adjusted simulation is significantly closer to the data constraints (37% cost function reduction, i.e., reduction in the model-data difference, relative to the baseline simulation) and to independent observations (e.g., alkalinity). The adjusted air-sea gas

  9. A finite element model updating technique for adjustment of parameters near boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwinn, Allen Fort, Jr.

    Even though there have been many advances in research related to methods of updating finite element models based on measured normal mode vibration characteristics, there is yet to be a widely accepted method that works reliably with a wide range of problems. This dissertation focuses on the specific class of problems having to do with changes in stiffness near the clamped boundary of plate structures. This class of problems is especially important as it relates to the performance of turbine engine blades, where a change in stiffness at the base of the blade can be indicative of structural damage. The method that is presented herein is a new technique for resolving the differences between the physical structure and the finite element model. It is a semi-iterative technique that incorporates a "physical expansion" of the measured eigenvectors along with appropriate scaling of these expanded eigenvectors into an iterative loop that uses the Engel's model modification method to then calculate adjusted stiffness parameters for the finite element model. Three example problems are presented that use eigenvalues and mass normalized eigenvectors that have been calculated from experimentally obtained accelerometer readings. The test articles that were used were all thin plates with one edge fully clamped. They each had a cantilevered length of 8.5 inches and a width of 4 inches. The three plates differed from one another in thickness from 0.100 inches to 0.188 inches. These dimensions were selected in order to approximate a gas turbine engine blade. The semi-iterative modification technique is shown to do an excellent job of calculating the necessary adjustments to the finite element model so that the analytically determined eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the adjusted model match the corresponding values from the experimental data with good agreement. Furthermore, the semi-iterative method is quite robust. For the examples presented here, the method consistently converged

  10. Applying Transtheoretical Model to Promote Physical Activities Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the most important indicators of health in communities but different studies conducted in the provinces of Iran showed that inactivity is prevalent, especially among women. Objectives: Inadequate regular physical activities among women, the importance of education in promoting the physical activities, and lack of studies on the women using transtheoretical model, persuaded us to conduct this study with the aim of determining the application of transtheoretical model in promoting the physical activities among women of Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This research was a quasi-experimental study which was conducted on 141 women residing in Isfahan, Iran. They were randomly divided into case and control groups. In addition to the demographic information, their physical activities and the constructs of the transtheoretical model (stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy) were measured at 3 time points; preintervention, 3 months, and 6 months after intervention. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed through t test and repeated measures ANOVA test using SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed that education based on the transtheoretical model significantly increased physical activities in 2 aspects of intensive physical activities and walking, in the case group over the time. Also, a high percentage of people have shown progress during the stages of change, the mean of the constructs of processes of change, as well as pros and cons. On the whole, a significant difference was observed over the time in the case group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study showed that interventions based on the transtheoretical model can promote the physical activity behavior among women. PMID:26834796

  11. Interfacial free energy adjustable phase field crystal model for homogeneous nucleation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Huang, Yunhao

    2016-05-18

    To describe the homogeneous nucleation process, an interfacial free energy adjustable phase-field crystal model (IPFC) was proposed by reconstructing the energy functional of the original phase field crystal (PFC) methodology. Compared with the original PFC model, the additional interface term in the IPFC model effectively can adjust the magnitude of the interfacial free energy, but does not affect the equilibrium phase diagram and the interfacial energy anisotropy. The IPFC model overcame the limitation that the interfacial free energy of the original PFC model is much less than the theoretical results. Using the IPFC model, we investigated some basic issues in homogeneous nucleation. From the viewpoint of simulation, we proceeded with an in situ observation of the process of cluster fluctuation and obtained quite similar snapshots to colloidal crystallization experiments. We also counted the size distribution of crystal-like clusters and the nucleation rate. Our simulations show that the size distribution is independent of the evolution time, and the nucleation rate remains constant after a period of relaxation, which are consistent with experimental observations. The linear relation between logarithmic nucleation rate and reciprocal driving force also conforms to the steady state nucleation theory. PMID:27117814

  12. Adjusting for Network Size and Composition Effects in Exponential-Family Random Graph Models.

    PubMed

    Krivitsky, Pavel N; Handcock, Mark S; Morris, Martina

    2011-07-01

    Exponential-family random graph models (ERGMs) provide a principled way to model and simulate features common in human social networks, such as propensities for homophily and friend-of-a-friend triad closure. We show that, without adjustment, ERGMs preserve density as network size increases. Density invariance is often not appropriate for social networks. We suggest a simple modification based on an offset which instead preserves the mean degree and accommodates changes in network composition asymptotically. We demonstrate that this approach allows ERGMs to be applied to the important situation of egocentrically sampled data. We analyze data from the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). PMID:21691424

  13. Remote Sensing-based Methodologies for Snow Model Adjustments in Operational Streamflow Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Miller, W. P.; Bernard, B.; Stokes, M.; Oaida, C. M.; Painter, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Water management agencies rely on hydrologic forecasts issued by operational agencies such as NOAA's Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). The CBRFC has partnered with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under funding from NASA to incorporate research-oriented, remotely-sensed snow data into CBRFC operations and to improve the accuracy of CBRFC forecasts. The partnership has yielded valuable analysis of snow surface albedo as represented in JPL's MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) data, across the CBRFC's area of responsibility. When dust layers within a snowpack emerge, reducing the snow surface albedo, the snowmelt rate may accelerate. The CBRFC operational snow model (SNOW17) is a temperature-index model that lacks explicit representation of snowpack surface albedo. CBRFC forecasters monitor MODDRFS data for emerging dust layers and may manually adjust SNOW17 melt rates. A technique was needed for efficient and objective incorporation of the MODDRFS data into SNOW17. Initial development focused in Colorado, where dust-on-snow events frequently occur. CBRFC forecasters used retrospective JPL-CBRFC analysis and developed a quantitative relationship between MODDRFS data and mean areal temperature (MAT) data. The relationship was used to generate adjusted, MODDRFS-informed input for SNOW17. Impacts of the MODDRFS-SNOW17 MAT adjustment method on snowmelt-driven streamflow prediction varied spatially and with characteristics of the dust deposition events. The largest improvements occurred in southwestern Colorado, in years with intense dust deposition events. Application of the method in other regions of Colorado and in "low dust" years resulted in minimal impact. The MODDRFS-SNOW17 MAT technique will be implemented in CBRFC operations in late 2015, prior to spring 2016 runoff. Collaborative investigation of remote sensing-based adjustment methods for the CBRFC operational hydrologic forecasting environment will continue over the next several years.

  14. “A model of mother-child Adjustment in Arab Muslim Immigrants to the US”

    PubMed Central

    Hough, Edythe s; Templin, Thomas N; Kulwicki, Anahid; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Katz, Anne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the mother-child adjustment and child behavior problems in Arab Muslim immigrant families residing in the U.S.A. The sample of 635 mother-child dyads was comprised of mothers who emigrated from 1989 or later and had at least one early adolescent child between the ages of 11 to 15 years old who was also willing to participate. Arabic speaking research assistants collected the data from the mothers and children using established measures of maternal and child stressors, coping, and social support; maternal distress; parent-child relationship; and child behavior problems. A structural equation model (SEM) was specified a priori with 17 predicted pathways. With a few exceptions, the final SEM model was highly consistent with the proposed model and had a good fit to the data. The model accounted for 67% of the variance in child behavior problems. Child stressors, mother-child relationship, and maternal stressors were the causal variables that contributed the most to child behavior problems. The model also accounted for 27% of the variance in mother-child relationship. Child active coping, child gender, mother’s education, and maternal distress were all predictive of the mother-child relationship. Mother-child relationship also mediated the effects of maternal distress and child active coping on child behavior problems. These findings indicate that immigrant mothers contribute greatly to adolescent adjustment, both as a source of risk and protection. These findings also suggest that intervening with immigrant mothers to reduce their stress and strengthening the parent-child relationship are two important areas for promoting adolescent adjustment. PMID:19758737

  15. A spatial model of bird abundance as adjusted for detection probability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P.M.; Mcmillan, G.P.; Camp, R.J.; Pratt, T.K.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling the spatial distribution of animals can be complicated by spatial and temporal effects (i.e. spatial autocorrelation and trends in abundance over time) and other factors such as imperfect detection probabilities and observation-related nuisance variables. Recent advances in modeling have demonstrated various approaches that handle most of these factors but which require a degree of sampling effort (e.g. replication) not available to many field studies. We present a two-step approach that addresses these challenges to spatially model species abundance. Habitat, spatial and temporal variables were handled with a Bayesian approach which facilitated modeling hierarchically structured data. Predicted abundance was subsequently adjusted to account for imperfect detection and the area effectively sampled for each species. We provide examples of our modeling approach for two endemic Hawaiian nectarivorous honeycreepers: 'i'iwi Vestiaria coccinea and 'apapane Himatione sanguinea. ?? 2009 Ecography.

  16. Routine Antenatal Anti-D Prophylaxis in Women Who Are Rh(D) Negative: Meta-Analyses Adjusted for Differences in Study Design and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Rebecca M.; Lloyd-Jones, Myfanwy; Anumba, Dilly O. C.; Smith, Gordon C. S.; Spiegelhalter, David J.; Squires, Hazel; Stevens, John W.; Sweeting, Michael J.; Urbaniak, Stanislaw J.; Webster, Robert; Thompson, Simon G.

    2012-01-01

    Background To estimate the effectiveness of routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis for preventing sensitisation in pregnant Rhesus negative women, and to explore whether this depends on the treatment regimen adopted. Methods Ten studies identified in a previous systematic literature search were included. Potential sources of bias were systematically identified using bias checklists, and their impact and uncertainty were quantified using expert opinion. Study results were adjusted for biases and combined, first in a random-effects meta-analysis and then in a random-effects meta-regression analysis. Results In a conventional meta-analysis, the pooled odds ratio for sensitisation was estimated as 0.25 (95% CI 0.18, 0.36), comparing routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis to control, with some heterogeneity (I2 = 19%). However, this naïve analysis ignores substantial differences in study quality and design. After adjusting for these, the pooled odds ratio for sensitisation was estimated as 0.31 (95% CI 0.17, 0.56), with no evidence of heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). A meta-regression analysis was performed, which used the data available from the ten anti-D prophylaxis studies to inform us about the relative effectiveness of three licensed treatments. This gave an 83% probability that a dose of 1250 IU at 28 and 34 weeks is most effective and a 76% probability that a single dose of 1500 IU at 28–30 weeks is least effective. Conclusion There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis for prevention of sensitisation, in support of the policy of offering routine prophylaxis to all non-sensitised pregnant Rhesus negative women. All three licensed dose regimens are expected to be effective. PMID:22319580

  17. Observational Constraint of Aerosol Effects on the CMIP5 Inter-model Spread of Adjusted Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.; Bordoni, S.

    2013-12-01

    The simulated global-mean temperature (GMT) change over the past 150 years is quite consistent across CMIP5 climate models and also consistent with the observations. However, the predicted future GMT under the identical CO2 forcing is divergent. This paradox is partly due to the errors in the predicted GMT produced by historical greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing being compensated by the parameterization of aerosol cloud radiative forcing. Historical increases in anthropogenic aerosols exert an overall (but highly uncertain) cooling effect in the climate system, which partially offsets the warming due to well mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs). Because aerosol concentrations are predicted to eventually decrease in future scenarios, climate change becomes dominated by warming due to the WMGHG. This change in the relative importance of forcing by aerosol versus WMGHG makes apparent the substantial differences in prediction of climate by WMGHG forcing. Here we investigate the role of aerosols in the context of adjusted forcing changes in the historical runs and the effect of aerosols on the cloud feedback. Our preliminary results suggest that models which are more sensitive to the increase in concentration of CO2 have a larger aerosol radiative cooling effect. By comparing the historicalMisc runs and historicalGHG runs, we find that aerosols exert a potential impact on the cloud adjusted forcings, especially shortwave cloud adjusted forcings. We use the CLIPSO, MISR and CERES data as the benchmark to evaluate the present aerosol simulations. Using satellite observations to assess the relative reliability of the different model responses and to constrain the simulated aerosol radiative forcing will contribute significantly to reducing the across model spread in future climate simulations and identifying some missing physical processes.

  18. Glacial isostatic adjustment using GNSS permanent stations and GIA modelling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin; Spada, Giorgio; Vermeer, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) affects the Earth's mantle in areas which were once ice covered and the process is still ongoing. In this contribution we focus on GIA processes in Fennoscandian and North American uplift regions. In this contribution we use horizontal and vertical uplift rates from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) permanent stations. For Fennoscandia the BIFROST dataset (Lidberg, 2010) and North America the dataset from Sella, 2007 were used respectively. We perform GIA modelling with the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007) and we vary ice model parameters in space in order to find ice model which suits best with uplift values obtained from GNSS time series analysis. In the GIA modelling, the ice models ICE-5G (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model denoted as ANU05 ((Fleming and Lambeck, 2004) and references therein) were used. As reference, the velocity field from GNSS permanent station time series was used for both target areas. Firstly the sensitivity to the harmonic degree was tested in order to reduce the computation time. In the test, nominal viscosity values and pre-defined lithosphere thicknesses models were used, varying maximum harmonic degree values. Main criteria for choosing the suitable harmonic degree was chi-square fit - if the error measure does not differ more than 10%, then one might use as well lower harmonic degree value. From this test, maximum harmonic degree of 72 was chosen to perform calculations, as the larger value did not significantly modify the results obtained, as well the computational time for observations was kept reasonable. Secondly the GIA computations were performed to find the model, which could fit with highest probability to the GNSS-based velocity field in the target areas. In order to find best fitting Earth viscosity parameters, different viscosity profiles for the Earth models were tested and their impact on horizontal and vertical velocity rates from GIA modelling was studied. For every

  19. Preparing Women Leaders: The Astin Social Change Model in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jennifer E.; Young, Madelyn V.

    1999-01-01

    The Converse College Institute for Leadership has used the Astin Social Change Model to create a holistic approach to women's leadership education. This article describes the program framework and content, which blends academics and out-of-classroom experiences in an interconnected approach to leadership training. (Author/DB)

  20. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: a path model.

    PubMed

    Elizur, Y; Ziv, M

    2001-01-01

    While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men. PMID:11444052

  1. The Women's Health Care Empowerment Model as a Catalyst for Change in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Mitroi, Lavinia R; Sahak, Medina; Sherzai, Ayesha Z; Sherzai, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Women's empowerment has been attempted through a number of different fields including the realms of politics, finance, and education, yet none of these domains are as promising as health care. Here we review preliminary work in this domain and introduce a model for women's empowerment through involvement in health care, titled the "women's health care empowerment model." Principles upon which our model is built include: acknowledging the appropriate definition of empowerment within the cultural context, creating a women's network for communication, integrating local culture and tradition into training women, and increasing the capability of women to care for their children and other women. PMID:24945243

  2. Principal Component Analysis of breast DCE-MRI Adjusted with a Model Based Method

    PubMed Central

    Eyal, Erez.; Badikhi, Daria; Furman-Haran, Edna; Kelcz, Fredrick; Kirshenbaum, Kevin J.; Degani, Hadassa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate a fast, objective and standardized method for analyzing breast DCE-MRI applying principal component analysis (PCA) adjusted with a model based method. Materials and Methods 3D gradient-echo dynamic contrast-enhanced breast images of 31 malignant and 38 benign lesions, recorded on a 1.5 Tesla scanner were retrospectively analyzed by PCA and by the model based three-time-point (3TP) method. Results Intensity scaled (IS) and enhancement scaled (ES) datasets were reduced by PCA yielding a 1st IS-eigenvector that captured the signal variation between fat and fibroglandular tissue; two IS-eigenvectors and the two first ES-eigenvectors that captured contrast-enhanced changes, whereas the remaining eigenvectors captured predominantly noise changes. Rotation of the two contrast related eigenvectors led to a high congruence between the projection coefficients and the 3TP parameters. The ES-eigenvectors and the rotation angle were highly reproducible across malignant lesions enabling calculation of a general rotated eigenvector base. ROC curve analysis of the projection coefficients of the two eigenvectors indicated high sensitivity of the 1st rotated eigenvector to detect lesions (AUC>0.97) and of the 2nd rotated eigenvector to differentiate malignancy from benignancy (AUC=0.87). Conclusion PCA adjusted with a model-based method provided a fast and objective computer-aided diagnostic tool for breast DCE-MRI. PMID:19856419

  3. Multivariate Risk Adjustment of Primary Care Patient Panels in a Public Health Setting: A Comparison of Statistical Models.

    PubMed

    Hirozawa, Anne M; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Johnson, Elizabeth C; Solnit, Stephen A; Drennan, Michael J; Katz, Mitchell H; Marx, Rani

    2016-01-01

    We compared prospective risk adjustment models for adjusting patient panels at the San Francisco Department of Public Health. We used 4 statistical models (linear regression, two-part model, zero-inflated Poisson, and zero-inflated negative binomial) and 4 subsets of predictor variables (age/gender categories, chronic diagnoses, homelessness, and a loss to follow-up indicator) to predict primary care visit frequency. Predicted visit frequency was then used to calculate patient weights and adjusted panel sizes. The two-part model using all predictor variables performed best (R = 0.20). This model, designed specifically for safety net patients, may prove useful for panel adjustment in other public health settings. PMID:27576054

  4. Modeling risk for severe adverse outcomes using angiogenic factor measurements in women with suspected preterm preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Palomaki, Glenn E; Haddow, James E; Haddow, Hamish R M; Salahuddin, Saira; Geahchan, Carl; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Verlohren, Stefan; Perschel, Frank H; Horowitz, Gary; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Rana, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Patient-specific risks based on angiogenic factors might better categorize those who might have a severe adverse outcome. Methods Women evaluated for suspected PE at a tertiary hospital (2009–2012) had pregnancy outcomes categorized as ‘referent’ or ‘severe’, based solely on maternal/fetal findings. Outcomes that may have been influenced by a PE diagnosis were considered ‘unclassified’. Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) were subjected to bivariate discriminant modeling, allowing patient-specific risks to be assigned for severe outcomes. Results Three hundred twenty-eight singleton pregnancies presented at ≤34.0 weeks' gestation. sFlt1 and PlGF levels were adjusted for gestational age. Risks above 5 : 1 (10-fold over background) occurred in 77% of severe (95% CI 66 to 87%) and 0.7% of referent (95% CI <0.1 to 3.8%) outcomes. Positive likelihood ratios for the modeling and validation datasets were 19 (95% CI 6.2–58) and 15 (95% CI 5.8–40) fold, respectively. Conclusions This validated model assigns patient-specific risks of any severe outcome among women attending PE triage. In practice, women with high risks would receive close surveillance with the added potential for reducing unnecessary preterm deliveries among remaining women. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25641027

  5. Automatic parameter estimation of multicompartmental neuron models via minimization of trace error with control adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Goeritz, Marie L.; Marder, Eve

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new technique to fit conductance-based neuron models to intracellular voltage traces from isolated biological neurons. The biological neurons are recorded in current-clamp with pink (1/f) noise injected to perturb the activity of the neuron. The new algorithm finds a set of parameters that allows a multicompartmental model neuron to match the recorded voltage trace. Attempting to match a recorded voltage trace directly has a well-known problem: mismatch in the timing of action potentials between biological and model neuron is inevitable and results in poor phenomenological match between the model and data. Our approach avoids this by applying a weak control adjustment to the model to promote alignment during the fitting procedure. This approach is closely related to the control theoretic concept of a Luenberger observer. We tested this approach on synthetic data and on data recorded from an anterior gastric receptor neuron from the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab Cancer borealis. To test the flexibility of this approach, the synthetic data were constructed with conductance models that were different from the ones used in the fitting model. For both synthetic and biological data, the resultant models had good spike-timing accuracy. PMID:25008414

  6. Obtaining diverse behaviors in a climate model without the use of flux adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Rowlands, D. J.; Williamson, D.; Allen, M.

    2011-12-01

    Efforts have been made in past research to attain a wide range of atmosphere and ocean model behaviors by perturbing the model physics of Global Climate Models. However, obtaining a large spread of behaviors of the ocean model has so far been unsuccessful. In an ongoing project within RAPID-WATCH, physical parameters of HadCM3 have been perturbed within plausible ranges across the Latin-hypercube to generate a 10,000 member ensemble, which have been running on the distributed computing platform of climateprediction.net. In this work we resample and run a second, 20,000 member ensemble of model variants that have been identified not to drift significantly away from a realistic initial base state, a key step since we are not using flux adjustment. To this end, they are conditioned on the diagnosed fluxes from the first ensemble by statistical methods to sample regions of parameter space that are predicted to exhibit low top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux imbalance. Specifically, we constrain the distribution of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and reflected shortwave radiation (RSR) by laying an uncertainty ellipse at the 99% significance level, using the error analysis from Tett et al. (2011), over the standard configuration. In addition, parameters are sampled to generate a wide spread in estimated climate sensitivities, informed by results from a separate, coupled atmosphere-thermodynamic ocean coupled model ensemble. The results from the conditioned ensemble show that its members have successfully attained the distribution of OLR and RSR very similar to those predicted, while exhibiting a wide range of behaviors in both the atmosphere and the ocean. The spread of estimated effective climate sensitivity with the balanced TOA fluxes shows that the range of sensitivities of the conditioned ensemble is substantially smaller than that obtained with flux adjustment, but still as large or larger than the range in an ensemble of opportunity. This confirms that flux adjustment

  7. Modeling fluvial incision and transient landscape evolution: Influence of dynamic channel adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attal, M.; Tucker, G. E.; Whittaker, A. C.; Cowie, P. A.; Roberts, G. P.

    2008-09-01

    Channel geometry exerts a fundamental control on fluvial processes. Recent work has shown that bedrock channel width depends on a number of parameters, including channel slope, and is not solely a function of drainage area as is commonly assumed. The present work represents the first attempt to investigate the consequences of dynamic, gradient-sensitive channel adjustment for drainage-basin evolution. We use the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model to analyze the response of a catchment to a given tectonic perturbation, using, as a template, the topography of a well-documented catchment in the footwall of an active normal fault in the Apennines (Italy) that is known to be undergoing a transient response to tectonic forcing. We show that the observed transient response can be reproduced to first order with a simple detachment-limited fluvial incision law. Transient landscape is characterized by gentler gradients and a shorter response time when dynamic channel adjustment is allowed. The differences in predicted channel geometry between the static case (width dependent solely on upstream area) and dynamic case (width dependent on both drainage area and channel slope) lead to contrasting landscape morphologies when integrated at the scale of a whole catchment, particularly in presence of strong tilting and/or pronounced slip-rate acceleration. Our results emphasize the importance of channel width in controlling fluvial processes and landscape evolution. They stress the need for using a dynamic hydraulic scaling law when modeling landscape evolution, particularly when the relative uplift field is nonuniform.

  8. A model of the western Laurentide Ice Sheet, using observations of glacial isostatic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowan, Evan J.; Tregoning, Paul; Purcell, Anthony; Montillet, Jean-Philippe; McClusky, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of a new numerical model of the late glacial western Laurentide Ice Sheet, constrained by observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), including relative sea level indicators, uplift rates from permanent GPS stations, contemporary differential lake level change, and postglacial tilt of glacial lake level indicators. The later two datasets have been underutilized in previous GIA based ice sheet reconstructions. The ice sheet model, called NAICE, is constructed using simple ice physics on the basis of changing margin location and basal shear stress conditions in order to produce ice volumes required to match GIA. The model matches the majority of the observations, while maintaining a relatively realistic ice sheet geometry. Our model has a peak volume at 18,000 yr BP, with a dome located just east of Great Slave Lake with peak thickness of 4000 m, and surface elevation of 3500 m. The modelled ice volume loss between 16,000 and 14,000 yr BP amounts to about 7.5 m of sea level equivalent, which is consistent with the hypothesis that a large portion of Meltwater Pulse 1A was sourced from this part of the ice sheet. The southern part of the ice sheet was thin and had a low elevation profile. This model provides an accurate representation of ice thickness and paleo-topography, and can be used to assess present day uplift and infer past climate.

  9. Procedures for adjusting regional regression models of urban-runoff quality using local data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, A.B.; Sisolak, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Statistical operations termed model-adjustment procedures (MAP?s) can be used to incorporate local data into existing regression models to improve the prediction of urban-runoff quality. Each MAP is a form of regression analysis in which the local data base is used as a calibration data set. Regression coefficients are determined from the local data base, and the resulting `adjusted? regression models can then be used to predict storm-runoff quality at unmonitored sites. The response variable in the regression analyses is the observed load or mean concentration of a constituent in storm runoff for a single storm. The set of explanatory variables used in the regression analyses is different for each MAP, but always includes the predicted value of load or mean concentration from a regional regression model. The four MAP?s examined in this study were: single-factor regression against the regional model prediction, P, (termed MAP-lF-P), regression against P,, (termed MAP-R-P), regression against P, and additional local variables (termed MAP-R-P+nV), and a weighted combination of P, and a local-regression prediction (termed MAP-W). The procedures were tested by means of split-sample analysis, using data from three cities included in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program: Denver, Colorado; Bellevue, Washington; and Knoxville, Tennessee. The MAP that provided the greatest predictive accuracy for the verification data set differed among the three test data bases and among model types (MAP-W for Denver and Knoxville, MAP-lF-P and MAP-R-P for Bellevue load models, and MAP-R-P+nV for Bellevue concentration models) and, in many cases, was not clearly indicated by the values of standard error of estimate for the calibration data set. A scheme to guide MAP selection, based on exploratory data analysis of the calibration data set, is presented and tested. The MAP?s were tested for sensitivity to the size of a calibration data set. As expected, predictive accuracy of all MAP?s for

  10. Adjusting Satellite Rainfall Error in Mountainous Areas for Flood Modeling Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Astitha, M.; Vergara, H. J.; Gourley, J. J.; Hong, Y.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the use of high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) for evaluating biases of satellite rainfall estimates of flood-inducing storms in mountainous areas and associated improvements in flood modeling. Satellite-retrieved precipitation has been considered as a feasible data source for global-scale flood modeling, given that satellite has the spatial coverage advantage over in situ (rain gauges and radar) observations particularly over mountainous areas. However, orographically induced heavy precipitation events tend to be underestimated and spatially smoothed by satellite products, which error propagates non-linearly in flood simulations.We apply a recently developed retrieval error and resolution effect correction method (Zhang et al. 2013*) on the NOAA Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) product based on NWP analysis (or forecasting in the case of real-time satellite products). The NWP rainfall is derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) set up with high spatial resolution (1-2 km) and explicit treatment of precipitation microphysics.In this study we will show results on NWP-adjusted CMORPH rain rates based on tropical cyclones and a convective precipitation event measured during NASA's IPHEX experiment in the South Appalachian region. We will use hydrologic simulations over different basins in the region to evaluate propagation of bias correction in flood simulations. We show that the adjustment reduced the underestimation of high rain rates thus moderating the strong rainfall magnitude dependence of CMORPH rainfall bias, which results in significant improvement in flood peak simulations. Further study over Blue Nile Basin (western Ethiopia) will be investigated and included in the presentation. *Zhang, X. et al. 2013: Using NWP Simulations in Satellite Rainfall Estimation of Heavy Precipitation Events over Mountainous Areas. J. Hydrometeor, 14, 1844-1858.

  11. Latent Transition Models to Study Women's Changing of Dietary Patterns From Pregnancy to 1 Year Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Herring, Amy H.; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Latent class models are useful for classifying subjects by dietary patterns. Our goals were to use latent transition models to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy and postpartum, to estimate the prevalence of these dietary patterns, and to model transition probabilities between dietary patterns as a function of covariates. Women who were enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (University of North Carolina, 2000–2005) were followed for 1 year postpartum, and their diets were assessed in the second trimester and at 3 and 12 months postpartum (n = 519, 484, and 374, respectively) by using a food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for energy intake, parity, smoking status, race, and education, we identified 3 dietary patterns and named them “prudent,” “health conscious Western,” and “Western.” Nulliparas were 2.9 and 2.1 times more likely to be in the “prudent” class than the “health conscious Western” or the “Western” class, respectively. The 3 dietary patterns were very stable, with the “health conscious Western” class being the least stable; the probability for staying in the same class was 0.74 and 0.87 at 3 and 12 months postpartum, respectively. Breastfeeding mothers were more likely than nonbreastfeeding mothers to switch dietary pattern class (P = 0.0286). Except for breastfeeding mothers, most women did not switch dietary patterns from pregnancy to postpartum. PMID:23538942

  12. An interactive, educational model for insulin dosage and dietary adjustment in type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, E. D.; Deutsch, T.

    1992-01-01

    Joe Daniels is a 41 year old, 76kg male, insulin-treated diabetic patient who was diagnosed as being diabetic in 1972, at the age of 22. Joe recently found that he was having hypoglycaemic symptoms. Using self-monitoring blood glucose equipment glycaemic levels below 3.0 mmol/l were recorded at least once a week while hyperglycaemic readings (> 16 mmol/l) were observed 2-3 times per week. Joe came into hospital to have his glycaemic control improved as doctors were concerned about the risks of him suffering a serious hypoglycaemic attack. Using some of the data collected by Joe while in hospital we will demonstrate how a computer model of glucose-insulin interaction in type I diabetes can be used interactively to teach diabetic patients about their diabetes and educate them to adjust their own insulin injections and diet. PMID:1482868

  13. UPDATING THE FREIGHT TRUCK STOCK ADJUSTMENT MODEL: 1997 VEHICLE INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-11-16

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Freight Truck Stock Adjustment Model (FTSAM) was created in 1995 relying heavily on input data from the 1992 Economic Census, Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS). The FTSAM is part of the NEMS Transportation Sector Model, which provides baseline energy projections and analyzes the impacts of various technology scenarios on consumption, efficiency, and carbon emissions. The base data for the FTSAM can be updated every five years as new Economic Census information is released. Because of expertise in using the TIUS database, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked to assist the EIA when the new Economic Census data were available. ORNL provided the necessary base data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) and other sources to update the FTSAM. The next Economic Census will be in the year 2002. When those data become available, the EIA will again want to update the FTSAM using the VIUS. This report, which details the methodology of estimating and extracting data from the 1997 VIUS Microdata File, should be used as a guide for generating the data from the next VIUS so that the new data will be as compatible as possible with the data in the model.

  14. Models of traumatic experiences and children's psychological adjustment: the roles of perceived parenting and the children's own resources and activity.

    PubMed

    Punamäki, R L; Qouta, S; el Sarraj, E

    1997-08-01

    The relations between traumatic events, perceived parenting styles, children's resources, political activity, and psychological adjustment were examined among 108 Palestinian boys and girls of 11-12 years of age. The results showed that exposure to traumatic events increased psychological adjustment problems directly and via 2 mediating paths. First, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more negative parenting they experienced. And, the poorer they perceived parenting, the more they suffered from high neuroticism and low self-esteem. Second, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more active they were, the more they suffered from psychological adjustment problems. Good perceived parenting protected children's psychological adjustment by making them less vulnerable in two ways. First, traumatic events decreased their intellectual, creative, and cognitive resources, and a lack of resources predicted many psychological adjustment problems in a model excluding perceived parenting. Second, political activity increased psychological adjustment problems in the same model, but not in the model including good parenting. PMID:9306648

  15. Physical activity among employee women based on transtheoretical model

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Pirzadeh, Asiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Today, many jobs are associated with the inactivity or sedentary lifestyle. Employees’ health will be affected by their depriving of the benefits of physical activity (PA). Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the PA among employee women in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on the transtheoretical model. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study has been performed in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences employee women (2013). A convenience sample of 100 women was selected. Data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire in three parts (demographics information, PA scale, and TTM constructs). Data were analyzed by SPSS SPSS (version 16.0; SPSS, IBM, Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) and descriptive and analytical statistics such as ANOVA and independent t-test were used. A two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean of PA was 21.17 ± 27.30 min in a day. Weekly heavy, moderate, and light exercise mean was 0.72 ± 1.81, 0.89 ± 1.87 and 0.57 ± 1.57 days, respectively. In this study, 26% of women were in contemplation, 22% in contemplation, 20% in preparation, 13% in action, and 19% in the maintenance stage. Furthermore, there were significant differences between consciousness raising, dramatic relief, counter-conditioning, stimulus control, helping relationships, reinforcement management, and self-liberation with stages of change constructs. Conclusion: Because of a significant relationship between cognitive and behavioral processes and PA in this group, designing and implementing an educational program based on the transtheoretical model may be useful in promoting PA of a female employee. PMID:27462623

  16. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment Model: A Structural Equation Model Examination of Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Susan E.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain…

  17. A new glacial isostatic adjustment model of the Innuitian Ice Sheet, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Dyke, A. S.

    2015-07-01

    A reconstruction of the Innuitian Ice Sheet (IIS) is developed that incorporates first-order constraints on its spatial extent and history as suggested by regional glacial geology studies. Glacial isostatic adjustment modelling of this ice sheet provides relative sea-level predictions that are in good agreement with measurements of post-glacial sea-level change at 18 locations. The results indicate peak thicknesses of the Innuitian Ice Sheet of approximately 1600 m, up to 400 m thicker than the minimum peak thicknesses estimated from glacial geology studies, but between approximately 1000 to 1500 m thinner than the peak thicknesses present in previous GIA models. The thickness history of the best-fit Innuitian Ice Sheet model developed here, termed SJD15, differs from the ICE-5G reconstruction and provides an improved fit to sea-level measurements from the lowland sector of the ice sheet. Both models provide a similar fit to relative sea-level measurements from the alpine sector. The vertical crustal motion predictions of the best-fit IIS model are in general agreement with limited GPS observations, after correction for a significant elastic crustal response to present-day ice mass change. The new model provides approximately 2.7 m equivalent contribution to global sea-level rise, an increase of +0.6 m compared to the Innuitian portion of ICE-5G. SJD15 is qualitatively more similar to the recent ICE-6G ice sheet reconstruction, which appears to also include more spatially extensive ice cover in the Innuitian region than ICE-5G.

  18. Optimal Strategy for the Integrated Vendor-buyer Inventory Model with Fuzzy Annual Demand and Fuzzy Adjustable Production Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M. F.

    In this research we present a stylized model to find the optimal strategy for integrated vendor-buyer inventory model with fuzzy annual demand and fuzzy adjustable production rate. This model with such consideration is based on the total cost optimization under a common stock strategy. However, the supposition of known annual demand and adjustable production rate in most related publications may not be realistic. This paper proposes the triangular fuzzy number of annual demand and adjustable production rate and then employs the signed distance, to find the estimation of the common total cost in the fuzzy sense and derives the corresponding optimal buyer`s quantity consequently and the integer number of lots in which the items are delivered from the vendor to the purchaser. A numerical example is provided and the results of fuzzy and crisp models are compared.

  19. HIV Prevention and Rehabilitation Models for Women Who Inject Drugs in Russia and Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Skipalska, Halyna; Suvorova, Svetlana; Sukovatova, Olga; Zakharov, Konstantin; Hodgdon, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Women who inject drugs require gender-specific approaches to drug rehabilitation, modification of risk behaviors, and psychosocial adaptation. Improved outcomes have been demonstrated when the specific needs of women's subpopulations have been addressed. Special services for women include prenatal care, child care, women-only programs, supplemental workshops on women-focused topics, mental health services, and comprehensive programs that include several of the above components. To address the special needs of women injecting drug user (IDU) subpopulations, such as HIV-positive pregnant women and women with young children, recently released female prisoners, and street-involved girls and young women, HealthRight International and its local partners in Russia and Ukraine have developed innovative service models. This paper presents each of these models and discusses their effectiveness and implementation challenges specific to local contexts in Russia and Ukraine. PMID:23304535

  20. HIV Prevention and Rehabilitation Models for Women Who Inject Drugs in Russia and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Yorick, Roman; Skipalska, Halyna; Suvorova, Svetlana; Sukovatova, Olga; Zakharov, Konstantin; Hodgdon, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Women who inject drugs require gender-specific approaches to drug rehabilitation, modification of risk behaviors, and psychosocial adaptation. Improved outcomes have been demonstrated when the specific needs of women's subpopulations have been addressed. Special services for women include prenatal care, child care, women-only programs, supplemental workshops on women-focused topics, mental health services, and comprehensive programs that include several of the above components. To address the special needs of women injecting drug user (IDU) subpopulations, such as HIV-positive pregnant women and women with young children, recently released female prisoners, and street-involved girls and young women, HealthRight International and its local partners in Russia and Ukraine have developed innovative service models. This paper presents each of these models and discusses their effectiveness and implementation challenges specific to local contexts in Russia and Ukraine. PMID:23304535

  1. Ice loading model for Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in the Barents Sea constrained by GRACE gravity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Bart; Tarasov, Lev; van der Wal, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    The global ice budget is still under discussion because the observed 120-130 m eustatic sea level equivalent since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) can not be explained by the current knowledge of land-ice melt after the LGM. One possible location for the missing ice is the Barents Sea Region, which was completely covered with ice during the LGM. This is deduced from relative sea level observations on Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and the North coast of Scandinavia. However, there are no observations in the middle of the Barents Sea that capture the post-glacial uplift. With increased precision and longer time series of monthly gravity observations of the GRACE satellite mission it is possible to constrain Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in the center of the Barents Sea. This study investigates the extra constraint provided by GRACE data for modeling the past ice geometry in the Barents Sea. We use CSR release 5 data from February 2003 to July 2013. The GRACE data is corrected for the past 10 years of secular decline of glacier ice on Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and Frans Joseph Land. With numerical GIA models for a radially symmetric Earth, we model the expected gravity changes and compare these with the GRACE observations after smoothing with a 250 km Gaussian filter. The comparisons show that for the viscosity profile VM5a, ICE-5G has too strong a gravity signal compared to GRACE. The regional calibrated ice sheet model (GLAC) of Tarasov appears to fit the amplitude of the GRACE signal. However, the GRACE data are very sensitive to the ice-melt correction, especially for Novaya Zemlya. Furthermore, the ice mass should be more concentrated to the middle of the Barents Sea. Alternative viscosity models confirm these conclusions.

  2. Integrated Model for Denosumab and Ibandronate Pharmacodynamics in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, Dhananjay D.; Marathe, Anshu; Mager, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the pharmacodynamic properties of denosumab, a RANK ligand inhibitor, and ibandronate, a bisphosphonate, using an integrated bone homeostasis model in postmenopausal women. Mean temporal profiles of denosumab, serum and urine N-telopeptide (sNTX, uNTX), lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) following denosumab administration, and urine C-telopeptide (uCTX) and lumbar spine BMD upon ibandronate administration were extracted from the literature. A mechanistic model was developed that integrates denosumab pharmacokinetics with binding to RANK ligand and ibandronate inhibition of osteoclast precursor differentiation to active osteoclasts (AOC). Biomarker concentrations were linked to the AOC pool. BMD was characterized by a turnover model with stimulation of bone formation and degradation by AOB (active osteoblasts) and AOC pools. The estimated basal sNTX, uNTX and uCTX concentrations were 7.24 nM, 14.4 nmol/mmolCr, and 31 μg/mmolCr. The BMD degradation rate was 0.00161 day−1 with stimulation constants associated with AOB and AOC of 1214 and 790 pM−1. Plasma ibandronate concentration producing 50% of maximum inhibition of osteoclast differentiation was 522 ng/L. The integrated model, which incorporates multiple pathways of therapeutic intervention, quantitatively describes changes in clinical biomarkers of bone turnover and BMD after denosumab and ibandronate exposures in postmenopausal women. PMID:21953540

  3. ESTIMATION OF EMISSION ADJUSTMENTS FROM THE APPLICATION OF FOUR-DIMENSIONAL DATA ASSIMILATION TO PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR QUALITY MODELING. (R826372)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four-dimensional data assimilation applied to photochemical air quality modeling is used to suggest adjustments to the emissions inventory of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. In this approach, a three-dimensional air quality model, coupled with direct sensitivity analys...

  4. A Class of Elementary Particle Models Without Any Adjustable Real Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2011-12-01

    Conventional particle theories such as the Standard Model have a number of freely adjustable coupling constants and mass parameters, depending on the symmetry algebra of the local gauge group and the representations chosen for the spinor and scalar fields. There seems to be no physical principle to determine these parameters as long as they stay within certain domains dictated by the renormalization group. Here however, reasons are given to demand that, when gravity is coupled to the system, local conformal invariance should be a spontaneously broken exact symmetry. The argument has to do with the requirement that black holes obey a complementarity principle relating ingoing observers to outside observers, or equivalently, initial states to final states. This condition fixes all parameters, including masses and the cosmological constant. We suspect that only examples can be found where these are all of order one in Planck units, but the values depend on the algebra chosen. This paper combines findings reported in two previous preprints (G. 't Hooft in arXiv:1009.0669 [gr-qc], 2010; arXiv:1011.0061 [gr-qc], 2010) and puts these in a clearer perspective by shifting the emphasis towards the implications for particle models.

  5. Testing the compatibility of constraints for parameters of a geodetic adjustment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Rüdiger; Neitzel, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Geodetic adjustment models are often set up in a way that the model parameters need to fulfil certain constraints. The normalized Lagrange multipliers have been used as a measure of the strength of constraint in such a way that if one of them exceeds in magnitude a certain threshold then the corresponding constraint is likely to be incompatible with the observations and the rest of the constraints. We show that these and similar measures can be deduced as test statistics of a likelihood ratio test of the statistical hypothesis that some constraints are incompatible in the same sense. This has been done before only for special constraints (Teunissen in Optimization and Design of Geodetic Networks, pp. 526-547, 1985). We start from the simplest case, that the full set of constraints is to be tested, and arrive at the advanced case, that each constraint is to be tested individually. Every test is worked out both for a known as well as for an unknown prior variance factor. The corresponding distributions under null and alternative hypotheses are derived. The theory is illustrated by the example of a double levelled line.

  6. Adjusting multistate capture-recapture models for misclassification bias: manatee breeding proportions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Matrix population models are important tools for research and management of populations. Estimating the parameters of these models is an important step in applying them to real populations. Multistate capture-recapture methods have provided a useful means for estimating survival and parameters of transition between locations or life history states but have mostly relied on the assumption that the state occupied by each detected animal is known with certainty. Nevertheless, in some cases animals can be misclassified. Using multiple capture sessions within each period of interest, we developed a method that adjusts estimates of transition probabilities for bias due to misclassification. We applied this method to 10 years of sighting data for a population of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in order to estimate the annual probability of transition from nonbreeding to breeding status. Some sighted females were unequivocally classified as breeders because they were clearly accompanied by a first-year calf. The remainder were classified, sometimes erroneously, as nonbreeders because an attendant first-year calf was not observed or was classified as more than one year old. We estimated a conditional breeding probability of 0.31 + 0.04 (estimate + 1 SE) when we ignored misclassification bias, and 0.61 + 0.09 when we accounted for misclassification.

  7. [Construction and validation of a multidimensional model of students' adjustment to college context].

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula; Guisande, M Adelina; Diniz, António M; Almeida, Leandro S

    2006-05-01

    This article presents a model of interaction of personal and contextual variables in the prediction of academic performance and psychosocial development of Portuguese college students. The sample consists of 560 first-year college students of the University of Minho. The path analysis results suggest that initial expectations of the students' involvement in academic life constituted an effective predictor of their involvement during their first year; as well as the social climate of the classroom influenced their involvement, well-being and levels of satisfaction obtained. However, these relationships were not strong enough to influence the criterion variables integrated in the model (academic performance and psychosocial development). Academic performance was predicted by the high school grades and college entrance examination scores, and the level of psychosocial development was determined by the level of development showed at the time they entered college. Though more research is needed, these results point to the importance of students' pre-college characteristics when we are considering the quality of their college adjustment process. PMID:17296040

  8. Enhancing multiple-point geostatistical modeling: 1. Graph theory and pattern adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmasebi, Pejman; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, higher-order geostatistical methods have been used for modeling of a wide variety of large-scale porous media, such as groundwater aquifers and oil reservoirs. Their popularity stems from their ability to account for qualitative data and the great flexibility that they offer for conditioning the models to hard (quantitative) data, which endow them with the capability for generating realistic realizations of porous formations with very complex channels, as well as features that are mainly a barrier to fluid flow. One group of such models consists of pattern-based methods that use a set of data points for generating stochastic realizations by which the large-scale structure and highly-connected features are reproduced accurately. The cross correlation-based simulation (CCSIM) algorithm, proposed previously by the authors, is a member of this group that has been shown to be capable of simulating multimillion cell models in a matter of a few CPU seconds. The method is, however, sensitive to pattern's specifications, such as boundaries and the number of replicates. In this paper the original CCSIM algorithm is reconsidered and two significant improvements are proposed for accurately reproducing large-scale patterns of heterogeneities in porous media. First, an effective boundary-correction method based on the graph theory is presented by which one identifies the optimal cutting path/surface for removing the patchiness and discontinuities in the realization of a porous medium. Next, a new pattern adjustment method is proposed that automatically transfers the features in a pattern to one that seamlessly matches the surrounding patterns. The original CCSIM algorithm is then combined with the two methods and is tested using various complex two- and three-dimensional examples. It should, however, be emphasized that the methods that we propose in this paper are applicable to other pattern-based geostatistical simulation methods.

  9. Glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia from GRACE data and comparison with geodynamical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Holger; Denker, Heiner; Müller, Jürgen

    2008-10-01

    The Earth's gravity field observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission shows variations due to the integral effect of mass variations in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere. Several institutions, such as the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) Potsdam, the University of Texas at Austin, Center for Space Research (CSR) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, provide GRACE monthly solutions, which differ slightly due to the application of different reduction models and centre-specific processing schemes. The GRACE data are used to investigate the mass variations in Fennoscandia, an area which is strongly influenced by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Hence the focus is set on the computation of secular trends. Different filters (e.g. isotropic and non-isotropic filters) are discussed for the removal of high frequency noise to permit the extraction of the GIA signal. The resulting GRACE based mass variations are compared to global hydrology models (WGHM, LaDWorld) in order to (a) separate possible hydrological signals and (b) validate the hydrology models with regard to long period and secular components. In addition, a pattern matching algorithm is applied to localise the uplift centre, and finally the GRACE signal is compared with the results from a geodynamical modelling. The GRACE data clearly show temporal gravity variations in Fennoscandia. The secular variations are in good agreement with former studies and other independent data. The uplift centre is located over the Bothnian Bay, and the whole uplift area comprises the Scandinavian Peninsula and Finland. The secular variations derived from the GFZ, CSR and JPL monthly solutions differ up to 20%, which is not statistically significant, and the largest signal of about 1.2 μGal/year is obtained from the GFZ solution. Besides the GIA signal, two peaks with positive trend values of about 0.8 μGal/year exist in central eastern Europe, which are not GIA-induced, and

  10. Joint Alignment of Underwater and Above-The Photogrammetric 3d Models by Independent Models Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, F.; Nocerino, E.; Troisi, S.; Remondino, F.

    2015-04-01

    The surveying and 3D modelling of objects that extend both below and above the water level, such as ships, harbour structures, offshore platforms, are still an open issue. Commonly, a combined and simultaneous survey is the adopted solution, with acoustic/optical sensors respectively in underwater and in air (most common) or optical/optical sensors both below and above the water level. In both cases, the system must be calibrated and a ship is to be used and properly equipped with also a navigation system for the alignment of sequential 3D point clouds. Such a system is usually highly expensive and has been proved to work with still structures. On the other hand for free floating objects it does not provide a very practical solution. In this contribution, a flexible, low-cost alternative for surveying floating objects is presented. The method is essentially based on photogrammetry, employed for surveying and modelling both the emerged and submerged parts of the object. Special targets, named Orientation Devices, are specifically designed and adopted for the successive alignment of the two photogrammetric models (underwater and in air). A typical scenario where the proposed procedure can be particularly suitable and effective is the case of a ship after an accident whose damaged part is underwater and necessitate to be measured (Figure 1). The details of the mathematical procedure are provided in the paper, together with a critical explanation of the results obtained from the adoption of the method for the survey of a small pleasure boat in floating condition.

  11. An assessment of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) glacial isostatic adjustment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, A.; Tregoning, P.; Dehecq, A.

    2016-05-01

    The recent release of the next-generation global ice history model, ICE6G_C(VM5a), is likely to be of interest to a wide range of disciplines including oceanography (sea level studies), space gravity (mass balance studies), glaciology, and, of course, geodynamics (Earth rheology studies). In this paper we make an assessment of some aspects of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model and show that the published present-day radial uplift rates are too high along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula (by ˜8.6 mm/yr) and beneath the Ross Ice Shelf (by ˜5 mm/yr). Furthermore, the published spherical harmonic coefficients—which are meant to represent the dimensionless present-day changes due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)—contain excessive power for degree ≥90, do not agree with physical expectations and do not represent accurately the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model. We show that the excessive power in the high-degree terms produces erroneous uplift rates when the empirical relationship of Purcell et al. (2011) is applied, but when correct Stokes coefficients are used, the empirical relationship produces excellent agreement with the fully rigorous computation of the radial velocity field, subject to the caveats first noted by Purcell et al. (2011). Using the Australian National University (ANU) groups CALSEA software package, we recompute the present-day GIA signal for the ice thickness history and Earth rheology used by Peltier et al. (2015) and provide dimensionless Stokes coefficients that can be used to correct satellite altimetry observations for GIA over oceans and by the space gravity community to separate GIA and present-day mass balance change signals. We denote the new data sets as ICE6G_ANU.

  12. Modeling Fluvial Incision and Transient Landscape Evolution: Influence of Dynamic Channel Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attal, M.; Tucker, G. E.; Cowie, P. A.; Whittaker, A. C.; Roberts, G. P.

    2007-12-01

    Channel geometry exerts a fundamental control on fluvial processes. Recent work has shown that bedrock channel width (W) depends on a number of parameters, including channel slope, and is not only a function of drainage area (A) as is commonly assumed. The present work represents the first attempt to investigate the consequences, for landscape evolution, of using a static expression of channel width (W ~ A0.5) versus a relationship that allows channels to dynamically adjust to changes in slope. We consider different models for the evolution of the channel geometry, including constant width-to-depth ratio (after Finnegan et al., Geology, v. 33, no. 3, 2005), and width-to-depth ratio varying as a function of slope (after Whittaker et al., Geology, v. 35, no. 2, 2007). We use the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model to analyze the response of a catchment to a given tectonic disturbance. The topography of a catchment in the footwall of an active normal fault in the Apennines (Italy) is used as a template for the study. We show that, for this catchment, the transient response can be fairly well reproduced using a simple detachment-limited fluvial incision law. We also show that, depending on the relationship used to express channel width, initial steady-state topographies differ, as do transient channel width, slope, and the response time of the fluvial system. These differences lead to contrasting landscape morphologies when integrated at the scale of a whole catchment. Our results emphasize the importance of channel width in controlling fluvial processes and landscape evolution. They stress the need for using a dynamic hydraulic scaling law when modeling landscape evolution, particularly when the uplift field is non-uniform.

  13. Trajectories of adjustment to couple relationship separation.

    PubMed

    Halford, W Kim; Sweeper, Susie

    2013-06-01

    To test a stress-diathesis model of adjustment to separation, the current study describes the trajectories of different aspects of separation adjustment in people formerly married or cohabiting, and moderators of those trajectories. A convenience sample of 303 recently separated individuals (169 women; 134 men) completed assessments of their emotional attachment to the former partner, loneliness, psychological distress, and coparenting conflict at two time points 6 months apart. Multilevel modeling of the overlapping multicohort design was used to estimate the trajectories of these different aspects of adjustment as a function of time since separation, marital status, gender, presence of children from the relationship, who initiated separation, social support, and anxious attachment. Attachment to the former partner, loneliness, and psychological distress were initially high but improved markedly across the 2 years after separation, but coparenting conflict was high and stable. Adjustment problems were similar in men and women, and in those formerly married or cohabiting, except that reported coparenting conflict was higher in men than women. Low social support and high anxious attachment predicted persistent attachment to the former partner, loneliness, and psychological distress. Coparenting conflict is a common, chronic problem for many separated individuals, and individuals with certain psychological vulnerabilities also experience chronic personal distress. PMID:23763683

  14. Glacial isostatic adjustment on 3-D Earth models: a finite-volume formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latychev, Konstantin; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Tromp, Jeroen; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Christara, Christina C.

    2005-05-01

    We describe and present results from a finite-volume (FV) parallel computer code for forward modelling the Maxwell viscoelastic response of a 3-D, self-gravitating, elastically compressible Earth to an arbitrary surface load. We implement a conservative, control volume discretization of the governing equations using a tetrahedral grid in Cartesian geometry and a low-order, linear interpolation. The basic starting grid honours all major radial discontinuities in the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM), and the models are permitted arbitrary spatial variations in viscosity and elastic parameters. These variations may be either continuous or discontinuous at a set of grid nodes forming a 3-D surface within the (regional or global) modelling domain. In the second part of the paper, we adopt the FV methodology and a spherically symmetric Earth model to generate a suite of predictions sampling a broad class of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) data types (3-D crustal motions, long-wavelength gravity anomalies). These calculations, based on either a simple disc load history or a global Late Pleistocene ice load reconstruction (ICE-3G), are benchmarked against predictions generated using the traditional normal-mode approach to GIA. The detailed comparison provides a guide for future analyses (e.g. what grid resolution is required to obtain a specific accuracy?) and it indicates that discrepancies in predictions of 3-D crustal velocities less than 0.1 mm yr-1 are generally obtainable for global grids with ~3 × 106 nodes; however, grids of higher resolution are required to predict large-amplitude (>1 cm yr-1) radial velocities in zones of peak post-glacial uplift (e.g. James bay) to the same level of absolute accuracy. We conclude the paper with a first application of the new formulation to a 3-D problem. Specifically, we consider the impact of mantle viscosity heterogeneity on predictions of present-day 3-D crustal motions in North America. In these tests, the

  15. Assessment of an adjustment factor to model radar range dependent error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastianelli, S.; Russo, F.; Napolitano, F.; Baldini, L.

    2012-09-01

    Quantitative radar precipitation estimates are affected by errors determined by many causes such as radar miscalibration, range degradation, attenuation, ground clutter, variability of Z-R relation, variability of drop size distribution, vertical air motion, anomalous propagation and beam-blocking. Range degradation (including beam broadening and sampling of precipitation at an increasing altitude)and signal attenuation, determine a range dependent behavior of error. The aim of this work is to model the range-dependent error through an adjustment factor derived from the G/R ratio trend against the range, where G and R are the corresponding rain gauge and radar rainfall amounts computed at each rain gauge location. Since range degradation and signal attenuation effects are negligible close to the radar, resultsshowthatwithin 40 km from radar the overall range error is independent of the distance from Polar 55C and no range-correction is needed. Nevertheless, up to this distance, the G/R ratiocan showa concave trend with the range, which is due to the melting layer interception by the radar beam during stratiform events.

  16. Comparison of Two Foreign Body Retrieval Devices with Adjustable Loops in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Konya, Andras

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to compare two similar foreign body retrieval devices, the Texan{sup TM} (TX) and the Texan LONGhorn{sup TM} (TX-LG), in a swine model. Both devices feature a {<=}30-mm adjustable loop. Capture times and total procedure times for retrieving foreign bodies from the infrarenal aorta, inferior vena cava, and stomach were compared. All attempts with both devices (TX, n = 15; TX-LG, n = 14) were successful. Foreign bodies in the vasculature were captured quickly using both devices (mean {+-} SD, 88 {+-} 106 sec for TX vs 67 {+-} 42 sec for TX-LG) with no significant difference between them. The TX-LG, however, allowed significantly better capture times than the TX in the stomach (p = 0.022), Overall, capture times for the TX-LG were significantly better than for the TX (p = 0.029). There was no significant difference between the total procedure times in any anatomic region. TX-LG performed significantly better than the TX in the stomach and therefore overall. The better torque control and maneuverability of TX-LG resulted in better performance in large anatomic spaces.

  17. Predicting Stereotype Endorsement and Academic Motivation in Women in Science Programs: A Longitudinal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Marie-Noelle; Guay, Frederic; Senecal, Caroline; Larose, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This study proposed and tested a model based on stereotype threat theory. The hypothesis is that women who are exposed to a low percentage of women in a science program are more likely to endorse the gender stereotype that science is a male domain, which will in turn undermine their autonomous academic motivation. A total of 167 women university…

  18. Glacial isostatic adjustment model with composite 3-D Earth rheology for Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Barnhoorn, Auke; Stocchi, Paolo; Gradmann, Sofie; Wu, Patrick; Drury, Martyn; Vermeersen, Bert

    2013-07-01

    Models for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) can provide constraints on rheology of the mantle if past ice thickness variations are assumed to be known. The Pleistocene ice loading histories that are used to obtain such constraints are based on an a priori 1-D mantle viscosity profile that assumes a single deformation mechanism for mantle rocks. Such a simplified viscosity profile makes it hard to compare the inferred mantle rheology to inferences from seismology and laboratory experiments. It is unknown what constraints GIA observations can provide on more realistic mantle rheology with an ice history that is not based on an a priori mantle viscosity profile. This paper investigates a model for GIA with a new ice history for Fennoscandia that is constrained by palaeoclimate proxies and glacial sediments. Diffusion and dislocation creep flow law data are taken from a compilation of laboratory measurements on olivine. Upper-mantle temperature data sets down to 400 km depth are derived from surface heatflow measurements, a petrochemical model for Fennoscandia and seismic velocity anomalies. Creep parameters below 400 km are taken from an earlier study and are only varying with depth. The olivine grain size and water content (a wet state, or a dry state) are used as free parameters. The solid Earth response is computed with a global spherical 3-D finite-element model for an incompressible, self-gravitating Earth. We compare predictions to sea level data and GPS uplift rates in Fennoscandia. The objective is to see if the mantle rheology and the ice model is consistent with GIA observations. We also test if the inclusion of dislocation creep gives any improvements over predictions with diffusion creep only, and whether the laterally varying temperatures result in an improved fit compared to a widely used 1-D viscosity profile (VM2). We find that sea level data can be explained with our ice model and with information on mantle rheology from laboratory experiments

  19. Propagation of biases in climate models from the synoptic to the regional scale: Implications for bias adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addor, Nans; Rohrer, Marco; Furrer, Reinhard; Seibert, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Bias adjustment methods usually do not account for the origins of biases in climate models and instead perform empirical adjustments. Biases in the synoptic circulation are for instance often overlooked when postprocessing regional climate model (RCM) simulations driven by general circulation models (GCMs). Yet considering atmospheric circulation helps to establish links between the synoptic and the regional scale, and thereby provides insights into the physical processes leading to RCM biases. Here we investigate how synoptic circulation biases impact regional climate simulations and influence our ability to mitigate biases in precipitation and temperature using quantile mapping. We considered 20 GCM-RCM combinations from the ENSEMBLES project and characterized the dominant atmospheric flow over the Alpine domain using circulation types. We report in particular a systematic overestimation of the frequency of westerly flow in winter. We show that it contributes to the generalized overestimation of winter precipitation over Switzerland, and this wet regional bias can be reduced by improving the simulation of synoptic circulation. We also demonstrate that statistical bias adjustment relying on quantile mapping is sensitive to circulation biases, which leads to residual errors in the postprocessed time series. Overall, decomposing GCM-RCM time series using circulation types reveals connections missed by analyses relying on monthly or seasonal values. Our results underscore the necessity to better diagnose process misrepresentation in climate models to progress with bias adjustment and impact modeling.

  20. An assessment of the ICE6G_C (VM5A) glacial isostatic adjustment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Anthony; Tregoning, Paul; Dehecq, Amaury

    2016-04-01

    The recent release of the next-generation global ice history model, ICE6G_C(VM5a) [Peltier et al., 2015, Argus et al. 2014] is likely to be of interest to a wide range of disciplines including oceanography (sea level studies), space gravity (mass balance studies), glaciology and, of course, geodynamics (Earth rheology studies). In this presentation I will assess some aspects of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model and the accompanying published data sets. I will demonstrate that the published present-day radial uplift rates are too high along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula (by ˜8.6 mm/yr) and beneath the Ross Ice Shelf (by ˜5 mm/yr). Further, the published spherical harmonic coefficients - which are meant to represent the dimensionless present-day changes due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) - will be shown to contain excessive power for degree ≥ 90, to be physically implausible and to not represent accurately the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model. The excessive power in the high degree terms produces erroneous uplift rates when the empirical relationship of Purcell et al. [2011] is applied but, when correct Stokes' coefficients are used, the empirical relationship will be shown to produce excellent agreement with the fully rigorous computation of the radial velocity field, subject to the caveats first noted by Purcell et al. [2011]. Finally, a global radial velocity field for the present-day GIA signal, and corresponding Stoke's coefficients will be presented for the ICE6GC ice model history using the VM5a rheology model. These results have been obtained using the ANU group's CALSEA software package and can be used to correct satellite altimetry observations for GIA over oceans and by the space gravity community to separate GIA and present-day mass balance change signals without any of the shortcomings of the previously published data-sets. We denote the new data sets ICE6G_ANU.

  1. An explanatory model of adjustment to type I diabetes based on attachment, coping, and self-regulation theories.

    PubMed

    Bazzazian, S; Besharat, M A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a model of adjustment to type I diabetes. Three hundred young adults (172 females and 128 males) with type I diabetes were asked to complete the Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ), Task-oriented subscale of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), D-39, and well-being subscale of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI). HbA1c was obtained from laboratory examination. Results from structural equation analysis partly supported the hypothesized model. Secure and avoidant attachment styles were found to have effects on illness perception, ambivalent attachment style did not have significant effect on illness perception. Three attachment styles had significant effect on task-oriented coping strategy. Avoidant attachment had negative direct effect on adjustment too. Regression effects of illness perception and task-oriented coping strategy on adjustment were positive. Therefore, positive illness perception and more usage of task-oriented coping strategy predict better adjustment to diabetes. So, the results confirmed the theoretical bases and empirical evidence of effectiveness of attachment styles in adjustment to chronic disease and can be helpful in devising preventive policies, determining high-risk maladjusted patients, and planning special psychological treatment. PMID:21678193

  2. DaMoScope and its internet graphics for the visual control of adjusting mathematical models describing experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, V. I.; Ezhela, V. V.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Tkachenko, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    The experience of using the dynamic atlas of the experimental data and mathematical models of their description in the problems of adjusting parametric models of observable values depending on kinematic variables is presented. The functional possibilities of an image of a large number of experimental data and the models describing them are shown by examples of data and models of observable values determined by the amplitudes of elastic scattering of hadrons. The Internet implementation of an interactive tool DaMoScope and its interface with the experimental data and codes of adjusted parametric models with the parameters of the best description of data are schematically shown. The DaMoScope codes are freely available.

  3. DaMoScope and its internet graphics for the visual control of adjusting mathematical models describing experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Belousov, V. I.; Ezhela, V. V.; Kuyanov, Yu. V. Tkachenko, N. P.

    2015-12-15

    The experience of using the dynamic atlas of the experimental data and mathematical models of their description in the problems of adjusting parametric models of observable values depending on kinematic variables is presented. The functional possibilities of an image of a large number of experimental data and the models describing them are shown by examples of data and models of observable values determined by the amplitudes of elastic scattering of hadrons. The Internet implementation of an interactive tool DaMoScope and its interface with the experimental data and codes of adjusted parametric models with the parameters of the best description of data are schematically shown. The DaMoScope codes are freely available.

  4. Rejection, Feeling Bad, and Being Hurt: Using Multilevel Modeling to Clarify the Link between Peer Group Aggression and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Gest, Scott D.; Loken, Eric; Welsh, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    The association between affiliating with aggressive peers and behavioral, social and psychological adjustment was examined. Students initially in 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade (N = 427) were followed biannually through 7th grade. Students' peer-nominated groups were identified. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the independent contributions of…

  5. Internal Working Models and Adjustment of Physically Abused Children: The Mediating Role of Self-Regulatory Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Amy L.; Haskett, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abused children's internal working models (IWM) of relationships are known to relate to their socioemotional adjustment, but mechanisms through which negative representations increase vulnerability to maladjustment have not been explored. We sought to expand the understanding of individual differences in IWM of abused children and…

  6. Adjustment of regional regression models of urban-runoff quality using data for Chattanooga, Knoxville, and Nashville, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, Anne B.; Patel, Anant R.

    1996-01-01

    Model-adjustment procedures were applied to the combined data bases of storm-runoff quality for Chattanooga, Knoxville, and Nashville, Tennessee, to improve predictive accuracy for storm-runoff quality for urban watersheds in these three cities and throughout Middle and East Tennessee. Data for 45 storms at 15 different sites (five sites in each city) constitute the data base. Comparison of observed values of storm-runoff load and event-mean concentration to the predicted values from the regional regression models for 10 constituents shows prediction errors, as large as 806,000 percent. Model-adjustment procedures, which combine the regional model predictions with local data, are applied to improve predictive accuracy. Standard error of estimate after model adjustment ranges from 67 to 322 percent. Calibration results may be biased due to sampling error in the Tennessee data base. The relatively large values of standard error of estimate for some of the constituent models, although representing significant reduction (at least 50 percent) in prediction error compared to estimation with unadjusted regional models, may be unacceptable for some applications. The user may wish to collect additional local data for these constituents and repeat the analysis, or calibrate an independent local regression model.

  7. Access, Equity, and Opportunity. Women in Machining: A Model Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Heather

    The Women in Machining (WIM) program is a Machine Action Project (MAP) initiative that was developed in response to a local skilled metalworking labor shortage, despite a virtual absence of women and people of color from area shops. The project identified post-war stereotypes and other barriers that must be addressed if women are to have an equal…

  8. Toward a Theoretical Model of Women's Body Image Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses women's body image resilience. Body image dissatisfaction is prevalent among girls and women. Girls as young as 6 years old experience negative body image, and there is evidence that women struggle with body concerns throughout the life cycle (Lewis & Cachelin, 2001; Smolak, 2002; Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002). In fact,…

  9. The Body Micropolitic: Where Do Women Educational Leaders Fit in the Easton Model of Policy Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raveling, Joyce S.

    This paper asks where and how women and women's styles of leadership are situated in Easton's Model of Policy Process. The Easton Model provides a means of understanding policy development from a micropolitical perspective and offers analysis of environmental influences on policy decision making and implementation, allowing the model to…

  10. An Investment Model Analysis of Relationship Stability among Women Court-Mandated to Violence Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhatigan, Deborah L.; Moore, Todd M.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation examined relationship stability among 60 women court-mandated to violence interventions by applying a general model (i.e., Rusbult's 1980 Investment Model) to predict intentions to leave current relationships. As in past research, results showed that Investment Model predictions were supported such that court-mandated women who…

  11. Does employer-provided health insurance constrain labor supply adjustments to health shocks? New evidence on women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Cathy J; Neumark, David; Barkowski, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Employment-contingent health insurance may create incentives for ill workers to remain employed at a sufficient level (usually full-time) to maintain access to health insurance coverage. We study employed married women, comparing the labor supply responses to new breast cancer diagnoses of women dependent on their own employment for health insurance with the responses of women who are less dependent on their own employment for health insurance, because of actual or potential access to health insurance through their spouse's employer. We find evidence that women who depend on their own job for health insurance reduce their labor supply by less after a diagnosis of breast cancer. In the estimates that best control for unobservables associated with health insurance status, the hours reduction for women who continue to work is 8 to 11% smaller. Women's subjective responses to questions about working more to maintain health insurance are consistent with the conclusions from observed behavior. PMID:23891911

  12. Effect of finite element model loading condition on fracture risk assessment in men and women: The AGES-Reykjavik study

    PubMed Central

    Keyak, J.H.; Sigurdsson, S.; Karlsdottir, G. S.; Oskarsdottir, D.; Sigmarsdottir, A.; Kornak, J.; Harris, T. B.; Sigurdsson, G.; Jonsson, B. Y.; Siggeirsdottir, K.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Gudnason, V.; Lang, T.F.

    2013-01-01

    Proximal femoral (hip) strength computed by subject-specific CT scan-based finite element (FE) models has been explored as an improved measure for identifying subjects at risk of hip fracture. However, to our knowledge, no published study has reported the effect of loading condition on the association between incident hip fracture and hip strength. In the present study, we performed a nested age- and sex-matched case-control study in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES) Reykjavik cohort. Baseline (pre-fracture) quantitative CT (QCT) scans of 5500 older male and female subjects were obtained. During 4-7 years follow-up, 51 men and 77 women sustained hip fractures. Ninety-seven men and 152 women were randomly selected as controls from a pool of age- and sex-matched subjects. From the QCT data, FE models employing nonlinear material properties computed FE-strength of the left hip of each subject in loading from a fall onto the posterolateral (FPL), posterior (FP) and lateral (FL) aspects of the greater trochanter. For comparison, FE strength in stance loading (FStance) and total femur areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were also computed. For all loading conditions, the reductions in strength associated with fracture in men were more than twice those in women (p≤0.01). For fall loading specifically, posterolateral loading in men and posterior loading in women were most strongly associated with incident hip fracture. After adjusting for aBMD, the association between FP and fracture in women fell short of statistical significance (p=0.08), indicating that FE strength provides little advantage over aBMD for identifying female hip fracture subjects. However, in men, after controlling for aBMD, FPL was 424 N (11%) less in subjects with fractures than in controls (p=0.003). Thus, in men, FE models of posterolateral loading include information about incident hip fracture beyond that in aBMD. PMID:23907032

  13. Data Assimilation and Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Model of VTEC Map over Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinngam, Somjai; Maruyama, Takashi; Tsugawa, Takuya; Ishii, Mamoru; Supnithi, Pornchai; Chiablaem, Athiwat

    2016-07-01

    The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and high frequency (HF) communication are vulnerable to the ionospheric irregularities, especially when the signal travels through the low-latitude region and around the magnetic equator known as equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region. In order to study the ionospheric effects to the communications performance in this region, the regional map of the observed total electron content (TEC) can show the characteristic and irregularities of the ionosphere. In this work, we develop the two-dimensional (2D) map of vertical TEC (VTEC) over Thailand using the adjusted spherical harmonic model (ASHM) and the data assimilation technique. We calculate the VTEC from the receiver independent exchange (RINEX) files recorded by the dual-frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers on July 8th, 2012 (quiet day) at 12 stations around Thailand: 0° to 25°E and 95°N to 110°N. These stations are managed by Department of Public Works and Town & Country Planning (DPT), Thailand, and the South East Asia Low-latitude ionospheric Network (SEALION) project operated by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan, and King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL). We compute the median observed VTEC (OBS-VTEC) in the grids with the spatial resolution of 2.5°x5° in latitude and longitude and time resolution of 2 hours. We assimilate the OBS-VTEC with the estimated VTEC from the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-VTEC) as well as the ionosphere map exchange (IONEX) files provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS-VTEC). The results show that the estimation of the 15-degree ASHM can be improved when both of IRI-VTEC and IGS-VTEC are weighted by the latitude-dependent factors before assimilating with the OBS-VTEC. However, the IRI-VTEC assimilation can improve the ASHM estimation more than the IGS-VTEC assimilation. Acknowledgment: This work is partially funded by the

  14. A mediation model of individual differences in attitudes toward affirmative actions for women.

    PubMed

    Moscoso, Silvia; García-Izquierdo, Antonio L; Bastida, María

    2012-06-01

    A mediation model of the relation between gender and attitudes toward affirmative action in favor of working women was tested. Four mediation variables were considered: perceived unfairness in the situation of working women, perceived threat to the non-designated group (men), self-esteem, and gender self-concept (masculinity and femininity). 192 women and 128 men, with differing occupations, participated. Gender affects individuals' attitudes toward affirmative actions for women, mediated by perceived unfairness in the situation of working women, perceived threat to the non-designated group, and feminine self-concept. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:22897083

  15. It takes two to replicate: a mediational model for the impact of parents' stress on adolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Conger, R D; Patterson, G R; Ge, X

    1995-02-01

    In this study of parental stress and adolescent adjustment, experiences of negative life events during the recent past were used to generate a measure of acute stress. In addition, multiple indicators based on reports from various informants were used to estimate latent constructs for parental depression, discipline practices, and adolescent adjustment. Employing 2 independent samples of families from 2 different regions of the country (rural Iowa and a medium-sized city in Oregon), structural equation models were used to test the hypothesis that in intact families acute stress experienced by parents is linked to boys' adjustment (average age equaled 11.8 years in the Oregon sample, 12.7 years in the Iowa sample) through 2 different causal mechanisms. The findings showed that parental stress was related to adjustment through stress-related parental depression that is, in turn, correlated with disrupted discipline practices. Poor discipline appears to provide the direct link with developmental outcomes. The structural equation model (SEM) used to test the proposed mediational process was consistent with the data for mothers and boys from both the Oregon and the Iowa samples. The similarity in results was less clear for fathers and boys. Implications of these results for future replication studies are discussed. PMID:7497831

  16. Filling Gaps in the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: Heritage Cultural Maintenance and Adjustment in Mexican-American Families.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Yuen, Cynthia; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate faster than do their parents, resulting in an acculturation gap that leads to family and youth maladjustment. However, empirical support for the acculturation gap-distress model has been inconclusive. In the current study, 428 Mexican-American adolescents (50.2 % female) and their primary caregivers independently completed questionnaires assessing their levels of American and Mexican cultural orientation, family functioning, and youth adjustment. Contrary to the acculturation gap-distress model, acculturation gaps were not associated with poorer family or youth functioning. Rather, adolescents with higher levels of Mexican cultural orientations showed positive outcomes, regardless of their parents' orientations to either American or Mexican cultures. Findings suggest that youths' heritage cultural maintenance may be most important for their adjustment. PMID:26759225

  17. A Key Challenge in Global HRM: Adding New Insights to Existing Expatriate Spouse Adjustment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Ritu; Banerjee, Pratyush; Gaur, Jighyasu

    2012-01-01

    This study is an attempt to strengthen the existing knowledge about factors affecting the adjustment process of the trailing expatriate spouse and the subsequent impact of any maladjustment or expatriate failure. We conducted a qualitative enquiry using grounded theory methodology with 26 Indian spouses who had to deal with their partner's…

  18. Towards an Integrated Model of Individual, Psychosocial, and Organizational Predictors of Retirement Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jessica Y.; Earl, Joanne K.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines three predictors of retirement adjustment: individual (demographic and health), psychosocial (work centrality), and organizational (conditions of workforce exit). It also examines the effect of work centrality on post-retirement activity levels. Survey data was collected from 394 retirees (aged 45-93 years).…

  19. Social Adjustment and Academic Achievement: A Predictive Model for Students with Diverse Academic and Behavior Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Corey E.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesized relationship between social adjustment, as measured by perceived social support, self-concept, and social skills, and performance on academic achievement tests. Participants included 27 teachers and 77 fourth- and eighth-grade students with diverse academic and behavior competencies. Teachers were asked to…

  20. Divorce Stress and Adjustment Model: Locus of Control and Demographic Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnet, Helen Smith

    This study depicts the divorce process over three time periods: predivorce decision phase, divorce proper, and postdivorce. Research has suggested that persons with a more internal locus of control experience less intense and shorter intervals of stress during the divorce proper and better postdivorce adjustment than do persons with a more…

  1. Models of Cultural Adjustment for Child and Adolescent Migrants to Australia: Internal Process and Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonderegger, Robi; Barrett, Paula M.; Creed, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    Building on previous cultural adjustment profile work by Sonderegger and Barrett (2004), the aim of this study was to propose an organised structure for a number of single risk factors that have been linked to acculturative-stress in young migrants. In recognising that divergent situational characteristics (e.g., school level, gender, residential…

  2. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to the Study of Stress and Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Kia K.; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the…

  3. Verification and adjustment of regional regression models for urban storm-runoff quality using data collected in Little Rock, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barks, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Storm-runoff water-quality data were used to verify and, when appropriate, adjust regional regression models previously developed to estimate urban storm- runoff loads and mean concentrations in Little Rock, Arkansas. Data collected at 5 representative sites during 22 storms from June 1992 through January 1994 compose the Little Rock data base. Comparison of observed values (0) of storm-runoff loads and mean concentrations to the predicted values (Pu) from the regional regression models for nine constituents (chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, total nitrogen, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, and total recoverable zinc) shows large prediction errors ranging from 63 to several thousand percent. Prediction errors for six of the regional regression models are less than 100 percent, and can be considered reasonable for water-quality models. Differences between 0 and Pu are due to variability in the Little Rock data base and error in the regional models. Where applicable, a model adjustment procedure (termed MAP-R-P) based upon regression with 0 against Pu was applied to improve predictive accuracy. For 11 of the 18 regional water-quality models, 0 and Pu are significantly correlated, that is much of the variation in 0 is explained by the regional models. Five of these 11 regional models consistently overestimate O; therefore, MAP-R-P can be used to provide a better estimate. For the remaining seven regional models, 0 and Pu are not significanfly correlated, thus neither the unadjusted regional models nor the MAP-R-P is appropriate. A simple estimator, such as the mean of the observed values may be used if the regression models are not appropriate. Standard error of estimate of the adjusted models ranges from 48 to 130 percent. Calibration results may be biased due to the limited data set sizes in the Little Rock data base. The relatively large values of

  4. Does Employer-Provided Health Insurance Constrain Labor Supply Adjustments to Health Shocks? New Evidence on Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neumark, David; Barkowski, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Employment-contingent health insurance may create incentives for ill workers to remain employed at a sufficient level (usually full-time) to maintain access to health insurance coverage. We study employed married women, comparing the labor supply responses to new breast cancer diagnoses of women dependent on their own employment for health insurance with the responses of women who are less dependent on their own employment for health insurance, because of actual or potential access to health insurance through their spouse’s employer. We find evidence that women who depend on their own job for health insurance reduce their labor supply by less after a diagnosis of breast cancer. In the estimates that best control for unobservables associated with health insurance status, the hours reduction for women who continue to work is 8 to 11 percent smaller. Women’s subjective responses to questions about working more to maintain health insurance are consistent with the conclusions from observed behavior. PMID:23891911

  5. Enduring Influence of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models on Women's Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheryan, Sapna; Drury, Benjamin J.; Vichayapai, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    The current work examines whether a brief exposure to a computer science role model who fits stereotypes of computer scientists has a lasting influence on women's interest in the field. One-hundred undergraduate women who were not computer science majors met a female or male peer role model who embodied computer science stereotypes in appearance…

  6. Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics: measurement of actuator influence functions and comparison with modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.

    2011-09-01

    The present generation of X-ray telescopes emphasizes either high image quality (e.g. Chandra with sub-arc second resolution) or large effective area (e.g. XMM-Newton), while future observatories under consideration (e.g. Athena, AXSIO) aim to greatly enhance the effective area, while maintaining moderate (~10 arc-seconds) image quality. To go beyond the limits of present and planned missions, the use of thin adjustable optics for the control of low-order figure error is needed to obtain the high image quality of precisely figured mirrors along with the large effective area of thin mirrors. The adjustable mirror prototypes under study at Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory are based on two different principles and designs: 1) thin film lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric actuators directly deposited on the mirror back surface, with the strain direction parallel to the glass surface (for sub-arc-second angular resolution and large effective area), and 2) conventional leadmagnesium- niobate (PMN) electrostrictive actuators with their strain direction perpendicular to the mirror surface (for 3-5 arc second resolution and moderate effective area). We have built and operated flat test mirrors of these adjustable optics. We present the comparison between theoretical influence functions as obtained by finite element analysis and the measured influence functions obtained from the two test configurations.

  7. Disruptions in Women's Self-Promotion: The Backlash Avoidance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss-Racusin, Corinne A.; Rudman, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    Women experience social and economic penalties (i.e., backlash) for self-promotion, a behavior that violates female gender stereotypes yet is necessary for professional success. However, it is unknown whether and how the threat of backlash interferes with women's ability to self-promote. The present research examined the effects of fear of…

  8. Validation and adjustment of the mathematical prediction model for human sweat rate responses to outdoor environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Y; Moran, D; Epstein, Y; Stroschein, L; Pandolf, K B

    1995-05-01

    Under outdoor conditions this model was over estimating sweat loss response in shaded (low solar radiation) environments, and underestimating the response when solar radiation was high (open field areas). The present study was conducted in order to adjust the model to be applicable under outdoor environmental conditions. Four groups of fit acclimated subjects participated in the study. They were exposed to three climatic conditions (30 degrees, 65% rh; 31 degrees C, 40% rh; and 40 degrees C, 20% rh) and three levels of metabolic rate (100, 300 and 450 W) in shaded and sunny areas while wearing shorts, cotton fatigues (BDUs) or protective garments. The original predictive equation for sweat loss was adjusted for the outdoor conditions by evaluating separately the radiative heat exchange, short-wave absorption in the body and long-wave emission from the body to the atmosphere and integrating them in the required evaporation component (Ereq) of the model, as follows: Hr = 1.5SL0.6/I(T) (watt) H1 = 0.047Me.th/I(T) (watt), where SL is solar radiation (W.m-2), Me.th is the Stephan Boltzman constant, and I(T) is the effective clothing insulation coefficient. This adjustment revealed a high correlation between the measured and expected values of sweat loss (r = 0.99, p < 0.0001). PMID:7737107

  9. Women's career choices in chemistry: Motivations, perceptions, and a conceptual model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunert, Megan L.

    Statistics showing the under-representation of women at all levels within the physical sciences abound, particularly at the graduate and faculty levels. Women chemists choosing an academic career tend to select teaching institutions over research institutions. This study examined women at the graduate and faculty levels through interviews and the construction of participant narratives to better understand why many women opt out of a career in academic research. Specific attention was paid to women's decision-making processes and what motivates women to choose careers, the rewards and challenges associated with different careers, and the perception of different careers contribute to their decisions. The participant narratives were analyzed on a cross-case basis and constructivist grounded theory was used to develop a model about women's decision-making regarding their careers. Additionally, preliminary work has suggested that graduate students have inaccurate perceptions of careers in academia. Interviews with faculty at teaching and research institutions provided a clearer picture of what each type of career entails. Career-choice motivators, rewards, and challenges were identified for each of the faculty groups. It was found that graduate student women have inaccurate perceptions of academic research careers, which affects how they make career decisions. A model of career choice shows interactions between motivation and perception that guide the career decision-making process. By better understanding these women and their motivations, changes can be made to foster inclusion and accommodation for women and other underrepresented groups in academic chemistry.

  10. NKG201xGIA - first results for a new model of glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Holger; Barletta, Valentina; Kollo, Karin; Milne, Glenn A.; Nordman, Maaria; Olsson, Per-Anders; Simpson, Matthew J. R.; Tarasov, Lev; Ågren, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is a dominant process in northern Europe, which is observed with several geodetic and geophysical methods. The observed land uplift due to this process amounts to about 1 cm/year in the northern Gulf of Bothnia. GIA affects the establishment and maintenance of reliable geodetic and gravimetric reference networks in the Nordic countries. To support a high level of accuracy in the determination of position, adequate corrections have to be applied with dedicated models. Currently, there are efforts within a Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG) activity towards a model of glacial isostatic adjustment for Fennoscandia. The new model, NKG201xGIA, to be developed in the near future will complement the forthcoming empirical NKG land uplift model, which will substitute the currently used empirical land uplift model NKG2005LU (Ågren & Svensson, 2007). Together, the models will be a reference for vertical and horizontal motion, gravity and geoid change and more. NKG201xGIA will also provide uncertainty estimates for each field. Following former investigations, the GIA model is based on a combination of an ice and an earth model. The selected reference ice model, GLAC, for Fennoscandia, the Barents/Kara seas and the British Isles is provided by Lev Tarasov and co-workers. Tests of different ice and earth models will be performed based on the expertise of each involved modeler. This includes studies on high resolution ice sheets, different rheologies, lateral variations in lithosphere and mantle viscosity and more. This will also be done in co-operation with scientists outside NKG who help in the development and testing of the model. References Ågren, J., Svensson, R. (2007): Postglacial Land Uplift Model and System Definition for the New Swedish Height System RH 2000. Reports in Geodesy and Geographical Information Systems Rapportserie, LMV-Rapport 4, Lantmäteriet, Gävle.

  11. What's the Risk? A Simple Approach for Estimating Adjusted Risk Measures from Nonlinear Models Including Logistic Regression

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Lawrence C; Norton, Edward C

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a general method (called regression risk analysis) to estimate adjusted risk measures from logistic and other nonlinear multiple regression models. We show how to estimate standard errors for these estimates. These measures could supplant various approximations (e.g., adjusted odds ratio [AOR]) that may diverge, especially when outcomes are common. Study Design Regression risk analysis estimates were compared with internal standards as well as with Mantel–Haenszel estimates, Poisson and log-binomial regressions, and a widely used (but flawed) equation to calculate adjusted risk ratios (ARR) from AOR. Data Collection Data sets produced using Monte Carlo simulations. Principal Findings Regression risk analysis accurately estimates ARR and differences directly from multiple regression models, even when confounders are continuous, distributions are skewed, outcomes are common, and effect size is large. It is statistically sound and intuitive, and has properties favoring it over other methods in many cases. Conclusions Regression risk analysis should be the new standard for presenting findings from multiple regression analysis of dichotomous outcomes for cross-sectional, cohort, and population-based case–control studies, particularly when outcomes are common or effect size is large. PMID:18793213

  12. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  13. Increasing Women's Aspirations and Achievement in Science: The Effect of Role Models on Implicit Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of implicit science beliefs in the gender gap in science aspirations and achievement, with the goal of testing identification with a female role model as a potential intervention strategy for increasing women's representation in science careers. At Time 1, women's implicit science stereotyping (i.e., associating…

  14. A Model of Liberation? The Reality of Clitoridectomy and Its Relevance to Afro-American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Margo V.

    1988-01-01

    Female circumcision dates back 2000 years. In the U.S. it was performed until 1904 on white women. In Africa it still serves economic and political interests of men. Blacks should not look to all African traditions as models of liberation. In this case, all women should work to eradicate this practice. (VM)

  15. Osteoporosis Prevention in College Women: Application of the Expanded Health Belief Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2002-01-01

    Examined personal characteristics and expanded health belief model (EHBM) constructs associated with osteoporosis- protective behaviors among college women. Survey results indicated that the EHBM was useful in evaluating osteoporosis- protective behavior. High numbers of women did not meet current exercise and calcium guidelines. Exercise…

  16. Women's Later Life Career Development: Looking through the Lens of the Kaleidoscope Career Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Rachel A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relevance of the Kaleidoscope Career Model (KCM) to women's later life career development. Qualitative interview data were gathered from 14 women in both the "truly" late career and bridge employment periods using a longitudinal design. The relevance of authenticity, balance, and challenge--central parameters in the KCM--is…

  17. A Mixed-Methodological Examination of Investment Model Variables among Abused and Nonabused College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardis, Christina M.; Kelley, Erika L.; Edwards, Katie M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed abused and nonabused women's perceptions of Investment Model (IM) variables (ie, relationship investment, satisfaction, commitment, quality of alternatives) utilizing a mixed-methods design. Participants: Participants included 102 college women, approximately half of whom were in abusive dating relationships.…

  18. Less-energy-dense diets of low-income women in California are associated with higher energy-adjusted diet costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-energy-density diets have been shown to be associated with higher diet quality and with better health outcomes. However, such diets have also been associated with higher diet costs. This study examined the impact of dietary energy density on energy-adjusted diet costs among a sample of low-incom...

  19. Multivariate models of parent-late adolescent gender dyads: the importance of parenting processes in predicting adjustment.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-06-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample for this study consisted of 151 male and 324 female late adolescents, who reported on their mothers' and fathers' parenting style, their family environment, their mothers' and fathers' expectations for them, the conflict that they experience with their mothers and fathers, and their own adjustment. Overall, the variables had significant relationships with one another. Further, the male-father, male-mother, and female-father structural equation models that were examined suggested that parenting style has an indirect relationship with late adolescents' adjustment through characteristics of the family environment and the conflict that is experienced in families; such findings were not evident for the female-mother model. Thus, the examination of parent-late adolescent interactions should occur in the context of the gender of parents and their late adolescents. PMID:17710537

  20. Ecological models of sexual satisfaction among lesbian/bisexual and heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Alison W; Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M

    2009-02-01

    Sexual satisfaction is an integral component of sexual health and well-being, yet we know little about which factors contribute to it among lesbian/bisexual women. To examine a proposed ecological model of sexual satisfaction, we conducted an internet survey of married heterosexual women and lesbian/bisexual women in committed same-sex relationships. Structural equation modeling included five final latent variables for heterosexual women and seven final latent variables for lesbian/bisexual women. Overall, results indicated that, for both groups of women, a similar constellation of factors (depressive symptoms, relationship satisfaction, sexual functioning, and social support) was related to sexual satisfaction. In lesbian/bisexual women, internalized homophobia was an additional factor. Contrary to expectations, the presence of children in the home and a history of childhood sexual abuse did not contribute significantly to the model for either group. Findings support the idea that gender socialization may influence sexual satisfaction more than socialization around sexual orientation. Additionally, given that for both groups of women relationship satisfaction explained a substantial amount of variance in sexual satisfaction, sexual concerns may be better addressed at the relationship than the individual level. PMID:18574685

  1. Methods to adjust for misclassification in the quantiles for the generalized linear model with measurement error in continuous exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Yun; Dieu Tapsoba, Jean De; Duggan, Catherine; Campbell, Kristin L; McTiernan, Anne

    2016-05-10

    In many biomedical studies, covariates of interest may be measured with errors. However, frequently in a regression analysis, the quantiles of the exposure variable are often used as the covariates in the regression analysis. Because of measurement errors in the continuous exposure variable, there could be misclassification in the quantiles for the exposure variable. Misclassification in the quantiles could lead to bias estimation in the association between the exposure variable and the outcome variable. Adjustment for misclassification will be challenging when the gold standard variables are not available. In this paper, we develop two regression calibration estimators to reduce bias in effect estimation. The first estimator is normal likelihood-based. The second estimator is linearization-based, and it provides a simple and practical correction. Finite sample performance is examined via a simulation study. We apply the methods to a four-arm randomized clinical trial that tested exercise and weight loss interventions in women aged 50-75years. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26593772

  2. Quality of midwifery led care: assessing the effects of different models of continuity for women's satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M.; Fenwick, N.; McKenzie, C.; Wolfe, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changing Childbirth (1993), a report on the future of maternity services in the United Kingdom, endorsed the development of a primarily community based midwifery led service for normal pregnancy, with priority given to the provision of "woman centred care". This has led to the development of local schemes emphasising continuity of midwifery care and increased choice and control for women. AIMS: To compare two models of midwifery group practices (shared caseload and personal caseload) in terms of: (a) the extent to which women see the same midwife antenatally and know the delivery midwife, and (b) women's preference for continuity and satisfaction with their care. METHODS: A review of maternity case notes and survey of a cohort of women at 36 weeks of gestation and 2 weeks postpartum who attended the two midwifery group practices. Questionnaires were completed by 247 women antenatally (72% response) and 222 (68%) postnatally. Outcome measures were the level of continuity experienced during antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal care, women's preferences for continuity of carer, and ratings of satisfaction with care. RESULTS: The higher level of antenatal continuity of carer with personal caseload midwifery was associated with a lower percentage having previously met their main delivery midwife (60% v 74%). Women's preferences for antenatal continuity were significantly associated with their experiences. Postnatal rating of knowing the delivery midwife as "very important indeed" was associated with both previous antenatal ratings of its importance, and women's actual experiences. Personal continuity of carer was not a clear predictor of women's satisfaction with care. Of greater importance were women's expectations, their relations with midwives, communication, and involvement in decision making. CONCLUSIONS: Midwifery led schemes based on both shared and personal caseloads are acceptable to women. More important determinants of quality and women

  3. Canine echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan: using prevalence data adjusted for measurement error to develop transmission dynamics models

    PubMed Central

    Ziadinov, I.; Mathis, A.; Trachsel, D.; Rysmukhambetova, A.; Abdyjaparov, T. A.; Kuttubaev, O. T.; Deplazes, P.; Torgerson, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A cross-sectional study of dogs in four villages in rural Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Echinococcus spp. A total of 466 dogs were examined by arecoline purgation for the presence of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. In addition, a faecal sample from each dog was examined for taeniid eggs. Any taeniid eggs found were investigated using PCR techniques (multiplex and single target PCR) to improve the diagnostic sensitivity by confirming the presence of Echinococcus spp. and to identify E. granulosus strains. A total of 83 (18%) dogs had either E. granulosus adults in purge material and/or E. granulosus eggs in their faeces as confirmed by PCR. Three genotypes of E. granulosus: G1, G4 and the G6/7 complex were shown to be present in these dogs through subsequent sequence analysis. Purge analysis combined with PCR identified 50 dogs that were infected with adult E. multilocularis and/or had E. multilocularis eggs in their faeces (11%). Bayesian techniques were employed to estimate the true prevalence, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the procedures used and the transmission parameters. The sensitivity of arecoline purgation for the detection of echinococcosis in dogs was rather low, with a value of 38% (Credible intervals (CIs) 27–50%) for E. granulosus and 21% (CIs 11–34%) for E. multilocularis. The specificity of arecoline purgation was assumed to be 100%. The sensitivity of coproscopy followed by PCR of the isolated eggs was calculated as 78% (CIs 57–87%) for E. granulosus and 50% (CIs 29–72%) for E. multilocularis with specificity of 93% (CIs 88–96%) and 100% (CIs 97–100), respectively. The 93% specificity of the coprological-PCR for E. granulosus could suggest coprophagia rather than true infections. After adjusting for the sensitivity of the diagnostic procedures, the estimated true prevalence of infection of

  4. Treatment response in couple therapy: Relationship adjustment and individual functioning change processes.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M; Pinsof, William M; Haase, Claudia M

    2015-10-01

    This study, a naturalistic investigation of the process of change in relationship adjustment and individual functioning during conjoint therapy, examined the first 8 sessions of a multisystemic model of couple therapy, integrative problem-centered metaframeworks (Breunlin, Pinsof, Russell, & Lebow, 2011; Pinsof, Breunlin, Russell, & Lebow, 2011). The sample consisted of 125 heterosexual couples who reported on their relationship adjustment and individual functioning before every session using the Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change (Pinsof et al., 2009; Pinsof, Zinbarg, et al., in press). Data were analyzed using dyadic latent growth curve and cross-lagged models. For both men and women, relationship adjustment and individual functioning showed nonlinear change, increasing during Sessions 1-4 and stabilizing during Sessions 5-8. At pretreatment, women reported lower levels of relationship adjustment than men; no gender differences existed in initial levels of individual functioning or in the change trajectories of relationship adjustment or individual functioning. Higher relationship adjustment predicted positive change in individual functioning for men (but not for women). In contrast, there were no cross-lagged effects of individual functioning on relationship adjustment for men or women. The results demonstrate the importance of examining the processes by which relational and individual pathology respond to couple-based interventions. PMID:26376428

  5. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  6. Dynamic Modeling of Adjustable-Speed Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Havsapian, R.; Koritarov, V.

    2015-04-06

    Hydropower is the largest producer of renewable energy in the U.S. More than 60% of the total renewable generation comes from hydropower. There is also approximately 22 GW of pumped storage hydropower (PSH). Conventional PSH uses a synchronous generator, and thus the rotational speed is constant at synchronous speed. This work details a hydrodynamic model and generator/power converter dynamic model. The optimization of the hydrodynamic model is executed by the hydro-turbine controller, and the electrical output real/reactive power is controlled by the power converter. All essential controllers to perform grid-interface functions and provide ancillary services are included in the model.

  7. Black Women as Role Models: Where Can We Find Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara L.

    1990-01-01

    Considers two books, Sara Lawrence Lightfoot's biography of her mother, "Balm in Gilead: Journey of a Healer" (1988), and Pauli Murray's autobiography, "Song in a Weary Throat: An American Pilgrimage" (1987), to illustrate that, by approaching such literature from perspective of social learning theory, one can learn more about how black women have…

  8. Toward a Transactional Model of Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2008-01-01

    The present study includes externalizing problems, internalizing problems, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and father-adolescent relationship quality in the same structural equation model and tests the longitudinal reciprocal association among all four variables over a 1-year period. A transactional model in which adolescents'…

  9. Covariate Measurement Error Adjustment for Multilevel Models with Application to Educational Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero; Gori, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a multilevel model for the assessment of school effectiveness where the intake achievement is a predictor and the response variable is the achievement in the subsequent periods. The achievement is a latent variable that can be estimated on the basis of an item response theory model and hence subject to measurement error.…

  10. A self-adjusting flow dependent formulation for the classical Smagorinsky model coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbaniasl, G.; Agnihotri, V.; Lacor, C.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an efficient formula for estimating the model coefficient of a Smagorinsky model based subgrid scale eddy viscosity. The method allows vanishing eddy viscosity through a vanishing model coefficient in regions where the eddy viscosity should be zero. The advantage of this method is that the coefficient of the subgrid scale model is a function of the flow solution, including the translational and the rotational velocity field contributions. Furthermore, the value of model coefficient is optimized without using the dynamic procedure thereby saving significantly on computational cost. In addition, the method guarantees the model coefficient to be always positive with low fluctuation in space and time. For validation purposes, three test cases are chosen: (i) a fully developed channel flow at {mathopRenolimits} _tau = 180, 395, (ii) a fully developed flow through a rectangular duct of square cross section at {mathopRenolimits} _tau = 300, and (iii) a smooth subcritical flow past a stationary circular cylinder, at a Reynolds number of {mathopRenolimits} = 3900, where the wake is fully turbulent but the cylinder boundary layers remain laminar. A main outcome is the good behavior of the proposed model as compared to reference data. We have also applied the proposed method to a CT-based simplified human upper airway model, where the flow is transient.

  11. Women and work in rural Taiwan: building a contextual model linking employment and health.

    PubMed

    Gallin, R S

    1989-12-01

    This paper is based on ethnographic research in a rural Taiwanese village in which married women with children are a major source of labor for local industry. Responsibility for job and home exposes these women to repeated stressors that can increase their susceptibility to illness. Existing explanatory models linking employment and women's health, however, do not explain adequately the women's response to their wage labor and the consequences of the social aspects of their work on their health. This paper describes women's work and its meaning, and discusses the way in which micro phenomena such as meanings and health states are linked to macro phenomena such as national political-economic processes and the world capitalist system. PMID:2689508

  12. Geodetically-Constrained Glacial Isostatic Adjustment models of Antarctica: Implications for the Mass Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, M. J.; Wilson, T. J.; James, T. S.; Mazzotti, S.; Bevis, M. G.; Kendrick, E. C.; Brown, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    The IJ05 Antarctic ice sheet history is employed to drive a suite of approximately one thousand two-layered, laterally-homogeneous spherical Earth models and generate predictions of Antarctic crustal uplift due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GPS data collected between 1996 and 2010 on the flanks of the West Antarctic Rift System are used to produce bedrock uplift rates that are compared with the model predictions. The models that display the best fit to the data have softer, weaker upper-mantle viscosities than those published in many previous studies. A low viscosity upper-mantle is in agreement with seismic tomography that indicates that the upper mantle beneath much of West Antarctica has slower than average seismic shear-wave velocities. Best fit models further feature thin elastic lithospheres, a situation that is also corroborated by recent airborne gravity and seismic investigations. The best fit GIA models are used to generate crustal uplift rates and gravity changes that are larger than previously published models used to correct GRACE observations and infer Antarctic ice mass balance.The new models, which are the first GPS-constrained GIA corrections for GRACE in Antarctica, increases the ice-mass loss estimate for West Antarctica.

  13. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods. PMID:26328545

  14. Modeling and simulation of M/M/c queuing pharmacy system with adjustable parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashida, A. R.; Fadzli, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Safwati; Goh, Siti Rohana

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies a discrete event simulation (DES) as a computer based modelling that imitates a real system of pharmacy unit. M/M/c queuing theo is used to model and analyse the characteristic of queuing system at the pharmacy unit of Hospital Tuanku Fauziah, Kangar in Perlis, Malaysia. The input of this model is based on statistical data collected for 20 working days in June 2014. Currently, patient waiting time of pharmacy unit is more than 15 minutes. The actual operation of the pharmacy unit is a mixed queuing server with M/M/2 queuing model where the pharmacist is referred as the server parameters. DES approach and ProModel simulation software is used to simulate the queuing model and to propose the improvement for queuing system at this pharmacy system. Waiting time for each server is analysed and found out that Counter 3 and 4 has the highest waiting time which is 16.98 and 16.73 minutes. Three scenarios; M/M/3, M/M/4 and M/M/5 are simulated and waiting time for actual queuing model and experimental queuing model are compared. The simulation results show that by adding the server (pharmacist), it will reduce patient waiting time to a reasonable improvement. Almost 50% average patient waiting time is reduced when one pharmacist is added to the counter. However, it is not necessary to fully utilize all counters because eventhough M/M/4 and M/M/5 produced more reduction in patient waiting time, but it is ineffective since Counter 5 is rarely used.

  15. Parental Depressive Symptoms and Adolescent Adjustment: A Prospective Test of an Explanatory Model for the Role of Marital Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Koss, Kalsea; Davies, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Despite calls for process-oriented models for child maladjustment due to heightened marital conflict in the context of parental depressive symptoms, few longitudinal tests of the mechanisms underlying these relations have been conducted. Addressing this gap, the present study examined multiple factors longitudinally that link parental depressive symptoms to adolescent adjustment problems, building on a conceptual model informed by emotional security theory (EST). Participants were 320 families (158 boys, 162 girls), including mothers and fathers, who took part when their children were in kindergarten (T1), second (T2), seventh (T3), eighth (T4) and ninth (T5) grades. Parental depressive symptoms (T1) were related to changes in adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms (T5), as mediated by parents’ negative emotional expressiveness (T2), marital conflict (T3), and emotional insecurity (T4). Evidence was thus advanced for emotional insecurity as an explanatory process in the context of parental depressive symptoms. PMID:24652484

  16. Generic Role of Polymer Supports in the Fine Adjustment of Interfacial Interactions between Solid Substrates and Model Cell Membranes.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Fernanda F; Schneck, Emanuel; Fragneto, Giovanna; Konovalov, Oleg V; Tanaka, Motomu

    2015-04-21

    To understand the generic role of soft, hydrated biopolymers in adjusting interfacial interactions at biological interfaces, we designed a defined model of the cell-extracellular matrix contacts based on planar lipid membranes deposited on polymer supports (polymer-supported membranes). Highly uniform polymer supports made out of regenerated cellulose allow for the control of film thickness without changing the surface roughness and without osmotic dehydration. The complementary combination of specular neutron reflectivity and high-energy specular X-ray reflectivity yields the equilibrium membrane-substrate distances, which can quantitatively be modeled by computing the interplay of van der Waals interaction, hydration repulsion, and repulsion caused by the thermal undulation of membranes. The obtained results help to understand the role of a biopolymer in the interfacial interactions of cell membranes from a physical point of view and also open a large potential to generally bridge soft, biological matter and hard inorganic materials. PMID:25794040

  17. Adjusting particle-size distributions to account for aggregation in tephra-deposit model forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Durant, Adam J.

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are used to forecast tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. Model accuracy is limited by the fact that fine-ash aggregates (clumps into clusters), thus altering patterns of deposition. In most models this is accounted for by ad hoc changes to model input, representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg, and a log-normal size distribution with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Optimal values may vary between eruptions. To test the variance, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens; 16-17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr); 17 June 1996 Ruapehu; and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt. In 192 simulations, we systematically varied μagg and σagg, holding ρagg constant at 600 kg m-3. We evaluated the fit using three indices that compare modeled versus measured (1) mass load at sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, under these inputs, the best-fit value of μagg ranged narrowly between ˜ 2.3 and 2.7φ (0.20-0.15 mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25-50 Tg), plume height (8.5-25 km), mass fraction of fine ( < 0.063 mm) ash (3-59 %), atmospheric temperature, and water content between these eruptions. This close agreement suggests that aggregation may be treated as a discrete process that is insensitive to eruptive style or magnitude. This result offers the potential for a simple, computationally efficient parameterization scheme for use in operational model forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.

  18. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  19. Career Planning: Towards a More Inclusive Model for Women and Diverse Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Claretha H.

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1953 introduction of Super's model of career development, many publications regarding career development and career planning have been developed. However, career planning models for women and diverse individuals are not prevalent. This paper contains a literature review of various well-known models that have few specific applications for…

  20. Structural equation modeling of disability in women with fibromyalgia or multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lorraine J; Stuifbergen, Alexa K

    2009-02-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM), a popular statistical technique for analysis of multivariate data in the social sciences, is increasingly being used in the behavioral and clinical sciences. SEM is appropriate for posing complex models that evaluate the direct and indirect influence of several variables on one or more outcome variables. A biosocial model of disability, the Disablement Process Model, lends itself to evaluation by SEM. Using SEM, this study examined predictors of disability (Age, Education, Duration of Illness, and Economic Adequacy Functional Limitations, Depressive Symptoms, and Social Support) separately in women with multiple sclerosis (MS) and women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and compared the respective models across groups. Data were analyzed with Analysis of Moment Structures (Amos) 7.0. Problems identified in initial confirmatory model testing included collateral correlated errors, a negative error variance, and poor performance of the disability indicators. After specifying well-fitting confirmatory models for each group, a structural model for the larger FMS group was estimated. Model refinement resulted in the reversal of the path between Depressive Symptoms and Social Support. Further model revisions were based on comparative fit statistics and theoretical logic. The structural model developed from the FMS sample required minimal changes to fit the MS sample. The multisample model explained greater variance in disability in women with FMS than in women with MS. Social support and depressive symptoms mediated the effect of functional limitations on disability. Interventions that target modifiable characteristics, such as depression and social support, may improve outcomes such as disability. PMID:19150972

  1. Modeling the Human Kinetic Adjustment Factor for Inhaled Volatile Organic Chemicals: Whole Population Approach versus Distinct Subpopulation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Valcke, M.; Nong, A.; Krishnan, K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of whole- and sub-population-related variabilities on the determination of the human kinetic adjustment factor (HKAF) used in risk assessment of inhaled volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Monte Carlo simulations were applied to a steady-state algorithm to generate population distributions for blood concentrations (CAss) and rates of metabolism (RAMs) for inhalation exposures to benzene (BZ) and 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D). The simulated population consisted of various proportions of adults, elderly, children, neonates and pregnant women as per the Canadian demography. Subgroup-specific input parameters were obtained from the literature and P3M software. Under the “whole population” approach, the HKAF was computed as the ratio of the entire population's upper percentile value (99th, 95th) of dose metrics to the median value in either the entire population or the adult population. Under the “distinct subpopulation” approach, the upper percentile values in each subpopulation were considered, and the greatest resulting HKAF was retained. CAss-based HKAFs that considered the Canadian demography varied between 1.2 (BZ) and 2.8 (1,4-D). The “distinct subpopulation” CAss-based HKAF varied between 1.6 (BZ) and 8.5 (1,4-D). RAM-based HKAFs always remained below 1.6. Overall, this study evaluated for the first time the impact of underlying assumptions with respect to the interindividual variability considered (whole population or each subpopulation taken separately) when determining the HKAF. PMID:22523487

  2. A Gender-Moderated Model of Family Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizur, Yoel; Spivak, Amos; Ofran, Shlomit; Jacobs, Shira

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explain why adolescent girls with conduct problems (CP) are more at risk than boys to develop emotional distress (ED) in a sample composed of Israeli-born and immigrant youth from Ethiopia and the former Soviet Union (n = 305, ages 14-18). We tested a structural equation model and found a very good fit to the…

  3. A Unified Model Exploring Parenting Practices as Mediators of Marital Conflict and Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coln, Kristen L.; Jordan, Sara S.; Mercer, Sterett H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined positive and negative parenting practices and psychological control as mediators of the relations between constructive and destructive marital conflict and children's internalizing and externalizing problems in a unified model. Married mothers of 121 children between the ages of 6 and 12 completed questionnaires measuring marital…

  4. Preserving Heterogeneity and Consistency in Hydrological Model Inversions by Adjusting Pedotransfer Functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerical modeling is the dominant method for quantifying water flow and the transport of dissolved constituents in surface soils as well as the deeper vadose zone. While the fundamental laws that govern the mechanics of the flow processes in terms of Richards' and convection-dispersion equations a...

  5. Citizens' Perceptions of Flood Hazard Adjustments: An Application of the Protective Action Decision Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Although research indicates that adoption of flood preparations among Europeans is low, only a few studies have attempted to explain citizens' preparedness behavior. This article applies the Protective Action Decision Model (PADM) to explain flood preparedness intentions in the Netherlands. Survey data ("N" = 1,115) showed that…

  6. Dynamic gauge adjustment of high-resolution X-band radar data for convective rain storms: Model-based evaluation against measured combined sewer overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Linde, Jens Jørgen; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that radar rainfall estimates need to be adjusted against rain gauge measurements in order to be useful for hydrological modelling. In the current study we investigate if adjustment can improve radar rainfall estimates to the point where they can be used for modelling overflows from urban drainage systems, and we furthermore investigate the importance of the aggregation period of the adjustment scheme. This is done by continuously adjusting X-band radar data based on the previous 5-30 min of rain data recorded by multiple rain gauges and propagating the rainfall estimates through a hydraulic urban drainage model. The model is built entirely from physical data, without any calibration, to avoid bias towards any specific type of rainfall estimate. The performance is assessed by comparing measured and modelled water levels at a weir downstream of a highly impermeable, well defined, 64 ha urban catchment, for nine overflow generating rain events. The dynamically adjusted radar data perform best when the aggregation period is as small as 10-20 min, in which case it performs much better than static adjusted radar data and data from rain gauges situated 2-3 km away.

  7. An empirically adjusted approach to reproductive number estimation for stochastic compartmental models: A case study of two Ebola outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Brown, Grant D; Oleson, Jacob J; Porter, Aaron T

    2016-06-01

    The various thresholding quantities grouped under the "Basic Reproductive Number" umbrella are often confused, but represent distinct approaches to estimating epidemic spread potential, and address different modeling needs. Here, we contrast several common reproduction measures applied to stochastic compartmental models, and introduce a new quantity dubbed the "empirically adjusted reproductive number" with several advantages. These include: more complete use of the underlying compartmental dynamics than common alternatives, use as a potential diagnostic tool to detect the presence and causes of intensity process underfitting, and the ability to provide timely feedback on disease spread. Conceptual connections between traditional reproduction measures and our approach are explored, and the behavior of our method is examined under simulation. Two illustrative examples are developed: First, the single location applications of our method are established using data from the 1995 Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a traditional stochastic SEIR model. Second, a spatial formulation of this technique is explored in the context of the ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa with particular emphasis on potential use in model selection, diagnosis, and the resulting applications to estimation and prediction. Both analyses are placed in the context of a newly developed spatial analogue of the traditional SEIR modeling approach. PMID:26574727

  8. Risk assessment model for invasive breast cancer in Hong Kong women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Dai, Juncheng; Li, Mengjie; Chan, Wing-cheong; Kwok, Carol Chi-hei; Leung, Siu-lan; Wu, Cherry; Li, Wentao; Yu, Wai-cho; Tsang, Koon-ho; Law, Sze-hong; Lee, Priscilla Ming-yi; Wong, Carmen Ka-man; Shen, Hongbing; Wong, Samuel Yeung-shan; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Tse, Lap Ah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract No risk assessment tool is available for identifying high risk population of breast cancer (BCa) in Hong Kong. A case–control study including 918 BCa cases and 923 controls was used to develop the risk assessment model among Hong Kong Chinese women. Each participant received an in-depth interview to obtain their lifestyle and environmental risk factors. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) selection model was used to select the optimal risk factors (LASSO-model). A risk score system was constructed to evaluate the cumulative effects of selected factors. Bootstrap simulation was used to test the internal validation of the model. Model performance was evaluated by receiver-operator characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). Age, number of parity, number of BCa cases in 1st-degree relatives, exposure to light at night, and sleep quality were the common risk factors for all women. Alcohol drinking was included for premenopausal women; body mass index, age at menarche, age at 1st give birth, breast feeding, using of oral contraceptive, hormone replacement treatment, and history of benign breast diseases were included for postmenopausal women. The AUCs were 0.640 (95% CI, 0.598–0.681) and 0.655 (95% CI, 0.621–0.653) for pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively. Further subgroup evaluation revealed that the model performance was better for women aged 50 to 70 years or ER-positive. This BCa risk assessment tool in Hong Kong Chinese women based on LASSO selection is promising, which shows a slightly higher discriminative accuracy than those developed in other populations. PMID:27512870

  9. Risk assessment model for invasive breast cancer in Hong Kong women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Dai, Juncheng; Li, Mengjie; Chan, Wing-Cheong; Kwok, Carol Chi-Hei; Leung, Siu-Lan; Wu, Cherry; Li, Wentao; Yu, Wai-Cho; Tsang, Koon-Ho; Law, Sze-Hong; Lee, Priscilla Ming-Yi; Wong, Carmen Ka-Man; Shen, Hongbing; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Yang, Xiaohong R; Tse, Lap Ah

    2016-08-01

    No risk assessment tool is available for identifying high risk population of breast cancer (BCa) in Hong Kong. A case-control study including 918 BCa cases and 923 controls was used to develop the risk assessment model among Hong Kong Chinese women.Each participant received an in-depth interview to obtain their lifestyle and environmental risk factors. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) selection model was used to select the optimal risk factors (LASSO-model). A risk score system was constructed to evaluate the cumulative effects of selected factors. Bootstrap simulation was used to test the internal validation of the model. Model performance was evaluated by receiver-operator characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC).Age, number of parity, number of BCa cases in 1st-degree relatives, exposure to light at night, and sleep quality were the common risk factors for all women. Alcohol drinking was included for premenopausal women; body mass index, age at menarche, age at 1st give birth, breast feeding, using of oral contraceptive, hormone replacement treatment, and history of benign breast diseases were included for postmenopausal women. The AUCs were 0.640 (95% CI, 0.598-0.681) and 0.655 (95% CI, 0.621-0.653) for pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively. Further subgroup evaluation revealed that the model performance was better for women aged 50 to 70 years or ER-positive.This BCa risk assessment tool in Hong Kong Chinese women based on LASSO selection is promising, which shows a slightly higher discriminative accuracy than those developed in other populations. PMID:27512870

  10. An adjustable aperiodic model class of genomic interactions using continuous time Boolean networks (Boolean delay equations)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öktem, Hakan; Pearson, Ronald; Egiazarian, Karen

    2003-12-01

    Following the complete sequencing of several genomes, interest has grown in the construction of genetic regulatory networks, which attempt to describe how different genes work together in both normal and abnormal cells. This interest has led to significant research in the behavior of abstract network models, with Boolean networks emerging as one particularly popular type. An important limitation of these networks is that their time evolution is necessarily periodic, motivating our interest in alternatives that are capable of a wider range of dynamic behavior. In this paper we examine one such class, that of continuous-time Boolean networks, a special case of the class of Boolean delay equations (BDEs) proposed for climatic and seismological modeling. In particular, we incorporate a biologically motivated refractory period into the dynamic behavior of these networks, which exhibit binary values like traditional Boolean networks, but which, unlike Boolean networks, evolve in continuous time. In this way, we are able to overcome both computational and theoretical limitations of the general class of BDEs while still achieving dynamics that are either aperiodic or effectively so, with periods many orders of magnitude longer than those of even large discrete time Boolean networks.

  11. SU-E-T-247: Multi-Leaf Collimator Model Adjustments Improve Small Field Dosimetry in VMAT Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L; Yang, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The Elekta beam modulator linac employs a 4-mm micro multileaf collimator (MLC) backed by a fixed jaw. Out-of-field dose discrepancies between treatment planning system (TPS) calculations and output water phantom measurements are caused by the 1-mm leaf gap required for all moving MLCs in a VMAT arc. In this study, MLC parameters are optimized to improve TPS out-of-field dose approximations. Methods: Static 2.4 cm square fields were created with a 1-mm leaf gap for MLCs that would normally park behind the jaw. Doses in the open field and leaf gap were measured with an A16 micro ion chamber and EDR2 film for comparison with corresponding point doses in the Pinnacle TPS. The MLC offset table and tip radius were adjusted until TPS point doses agreed with photon measurements. Improvements to the beam models were tested using static arcs consisting of square fields ranging from 1.6 to 14.0 cm, with 45° collimator rotation, and 1-mm leaf gap to replicate VMAT conditions. Gamma values for the 3-mm distance, 3% dose difference criteria were evaluated using standard QA procedures with a cylindrical detector array. Results: The best agreement in point doses within the leaf gap and open field was achieved by offsetting the default rounded leaf end table by 0.1 cm and adjusting the leaf tip radius to 13 cm. Improvements in TPS models for 6 and 10 MV photon beams were more significant for smaller field sizes 3.6 cm or less where the initial gamma factors progressively increased as field size decreased, i.e. for a 1.6cm field size, the Gamma increased from 56.1% to 98.8%. Conclusion: The MLC optimization techniques developed will achieve greater dosimetric accuracy in small field VMAT treatment plans for fixed jaw linear accelerators. Accurate predictions of dose to organs at risk may reduce adverse effects of radiotherapy.

  12. HIV Risk, Partner Violence, and Relationship Power Among Filipino Young Women: Testing a Structural Model

    PubMed Central

    LUCEA, MARGUERITE B.; HINDIN, MICHELLE J.; KUB, JOAN; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.

    2012-01-01

    A person’s ability to minimize HIV risk is embedded in a complex, multidimensional context. In this study, we tested a model of how relationship power impacts IPV victimization, which in turn impacts HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed data from 474 young adult women (aged 15–31) in Cebu Province, Philippines, using structural equation modeling, and demonstrated good fit for the models. High relationship power is directly associated with increased IPV victimization, and IPV victimization is positively associated with increased HIV risk. We highlight in this article the complex dynamics to consider in HIV risk prevention among these young women. PMID:22420674

  13. Model of the western Laurentide Ice Sheet from glacio-isostatic adjustment analysis and revised margin locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowan, E. J.; Tregoning, P.; Purcell, A.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainties in ice sheet extent and thickness during the retreat of the western Laurentide Ice Sheet from the last glacial maximum affect estimates of its contribution to global climate and sea level change during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. These difficulties arise due to a lack of chronological constraints on the timing of margin retreat in many areas and a lack of observations of the glacio-isostatic deformation due the ice sheet. We present a model of the western Laurentide ice sheet in North America based on new ice margin reconstructions and well dated glacial lake strandlines. The model of the Laurentide ice sheet is constructed based on the assumption of perfectly plastic, steady state conditions with temporally variable basal shear stress and margin location. Initial models of basal shear stress were based on modern surficial geology and geography, and adjusted in an iterative process to reflect the volume of ice needed to fit observations of earth deformation caused by the ice sheet. The ice margins were developed by determining the minimum timing of retreat and using that as a constraint on the absolute maximum possible ice margin location. By using the ice margin as the starting point of modelling, assumptions on the location of ice domes and saddles were avoided. Initial results of the modelling indicate that ice thickness remained below 1500 m throughout the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin region at the last glacial maximum as a result of low basal shear stress. Modelled flow direction matches geomorphic ice flow indicators lending confidence to the glaciological model. Ice sheet margin retreat was limited until after 15,000 cal yr BP. The most significant ice volume losses happened after retreat from southern Alberta and after retreat began on the Canadian Shield.

  14. Modeling grain size adjustments in the downstream reach following run-of-river development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Theodore K.; Venditti, Jeremy G.; Nelson, Peter A.; Palen, Wendy J.

    2016-04-01

    Disruptions to sediment supply continuity caused by run-of-river (RoR) hydropower development have the potential to cause downstream changes in surface sediment grain size which can influence the productivity of salmon habitat. The most common approach to understanding the impacts of RoR hydropower is to study channel changes in the years following project development, but by then, any impacts are manifest and difficult to reverse. Here we use a more proactive approach, focused on predicting impacts in the project planning stage. We use a one-dimensional morphodynamic model to test the hypothesis that the greatest risk of geomorphic change and impact to salmon habitat from a temporary sediment supply disruption exists where predevelopment sediment supply is high and project design creates substantial sediment storage volume. We focus on the potential impacts in the reach downstream of a powerhouse for a range of development scenarios that are typical of projects developed in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia. Results indicate that increases in the median bed surface size (D50) are minor if development occurs on low sediment supply streams (<1 mm for supply rates 1 × 10-5 m2 s-1 or lower), and substantial for development on high sediment supply streams (8-30 mm for supply rates between 5.5 × 10-4 and 1 × 10-3 m2 s-1). However, high sediment supply streams recover rapidly to the predevelopment surface D50 (˜1 year) if sediment supply can be reestablished.

  15. Behavioral health screening and intervention for women in Argentina: a preliminary model for the childbearing years.

    PubMed

    Suarez Ordoñez, Rocio M; Cesolari, Jorgelina; Ofelia, Casas; Villavicencio, Ivonne; Jones, Hendrée E

    2015-01-01

    Untreated behavioral disorders in pregnant women and in women of childbearing age pose physical and psychological safety concerns and are barriers to the well-being of both mother and neonate. The present paper underlines the importance of screening in Argentina for behavioral problems in women of childbearing age, particularly pregnant women and their newborns. Emphasized is the need to formalize this comprehensive screening in a protocol that includes domains of mental disorders, behavioral disorders, education, social environment, employment, desire for maternity, substance use including non-prescription use of prescription medications, eating disorders, suicide risk, interpersonal violence, stress, and trauma. Implementation of such a model would require agreement and cooperation between the public and private health sectors as well as in the development of research for validation of the various screening and interventions tools that would be adopted for general use. PMID:26203284

  16. Examining the Correlates of Women's Use of Sexual Coercion: Proposing an Explanatory Model.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Jeffrey A; Bouffard, Leana A; Miller, Holly A

    2016-08-01

    Research in the last few years has begun to examine the prevalence of female sexual offending as well as attempting to understand the predictors of sexually coercive behavior among women. Although women engage in sexual coercion significantly less often than men, more research on female sexual coercion is warranted. The current study provides an exploratory examination of the relationship between several attitudinal, experiential, and situational factors, and the use of various sexual coercion tactics among a sample of 582 sexually active, female undergraduate students, as well as proposing an explanatory model of female sexual coercion. Results indicate that several variables that are significant predictors of sexual aggression for men are also predictive for women. However, these variables seem to work differently in predicting sexually coercive behavior for women. Implications for theory and further study are discussed. PMID:25810091

  17. Behavioral health screening and intervention for women in Argentina: a preliminary model for the childbearing years

    PubMed Central

    Suarez Ordoñez, Rocio M; Cesolari, Jorgelina; Ofelia, Casas; Villavicencio, Ivonne; Jones, Hendrée E

    2015-01-01

    Untreated behavioral disorders in pregnant women and in women of childbearing age pose physical and psychological safety concerns and are barriers to the well-being of both mother and neonate. The present paper underlines the importance of screening in Argentina for behavioral problems in women of childbearing age, particularly pregnant women and their newborns. Emphasized is the need to formalize this comprehensive screening in a protocol that includes domains of mental disorders, behavioral disorders, education, social environment, employment, desire for maternity, substance use including non-prescription use of prescription medications, eating disorders, suicide risk, interpersonal violence, stress, and trauma. Implementation of such a model would require agreement and cooperation between the public and private health sectors as well as in the development of research for validation of the various screening and interventions tools that would be adopted for general use. PMID:26203284

  18. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening. PMID:24848345

  19. A Continuum of Male Controls and Violence against Women: A Teaching Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Karen D.

    1991-01-01

    A model for teaching social work students and professionals about widely existing severe, subtle, and overt forms of male controls and violence against women is described. Topics addressed during a three-hour workshop ranged from sexist language to harassment, battery, and femicide. Evaluation of workshops using the model suggest participants…

  20. Characteristics of Aggressors against Women: Testing a Model Using a National Sample of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamuth, Neil M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used structural equation modeling to study characteristics of college men (n=2,652) who aggressed against women either sexually, nonsexually, or both. Model saw hostile childhood experiences affecting involvement in delinquency and leading to aggression through two paths: hostile attitudes and personality resulting in coerciveness and sexual…

  1. Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Women's Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Barbara; Krause, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Our study explored the influence of thin- versus normal-size media models and of self-reported restrained eating behavior on women's observed snacking behavior. Fifty female undergraduates saw a set of advertisements for beauty products showing either thin or computer-altered normal-size female models, allegedly as part of a study on effective…

  2. Exploring a Model and Moderators of Disordered Eating with Asian American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Tatum; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the authors tested the cross-ethnic validity of several variables and paths from a model of disordered eating proposed by T. L. Tylka and L. M. Subich (2004) with 200 Asian American college women. Path analysis indicated that this model provided an excellent fit to the data after a path from internalization of the thin ideal…

  3. The performance of automated case-mix adjustment regression model building methods in a health outcome prediction setting.

    PubMed

    Jen, Min-Hua; Bottle, Alex; Kirkwood, Graham; Johnston, Ron; Aylin, Paul

    2011-09-01

    We have previously described a system for monitoring a number of healthcare outcomes using case-mix adjustment models. It is desirable to automate the model fitting process in such a system if monitoring covers a large number of outcome measures or subgroup analyses. Our aim was to compare the performance of three different variable selection strategies: "manual", "automated" backward elimination and re-categorisation, and including all variables at once, irrespective of their apparent importance, with automated re-categorisation. Logistic regression models for predicting in-hospital mortality and emergency readmission within 28 days were fitted to an administrative database for 78 diagnosis groups and 126 procedures from 1996 to 2006 for National Health Services hospital trusts in England. The performance of models was assessed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) c statistics, (measuring discrimination) and Brier score (assessing the average of the predictive accuracy). Overall, discrimination was similar for diagnoses and procedures and consistently better for mortality than for emergency readmission. Brier scores were generally low overall (showing higher accuracy) and were lower for procedures than diagnoses, with a few exceptions for emergency readmission within 28 days. Among the three variable selection strategies, the automated procedure had similar performance to the manual method in almost all cases except low-risk groups with few outcome events. For the rapid generation of multiple case-mix models we suggest applying automated modelling to reduce the time required, in particular when examining different outcomes of large numbers of procedures and diseases in routinely collected administrative health data. PMID:21556848

  4. Who sees the young women? A resource-sharing model for providing comprehensive adolescent women's health care.

    PubMed

    Adelman, William P

    2004-11-01

    Female adolescents are underserved in military medicine. This article describes an innovation in preventive care created to address the unmet health needs of female adolescents at a large military community hospital. A "Teen Women's Health Clinic" was created through shared resources between the Departments of Pediatrics and Gynecology. Female teenagers visited the clinic for routine gynecologic care, preventive health maintenance, acute care treatment for gynecologic and general complaints, and subspecialty referral consultation for adolescent medicine. The mean appointment fill rate from May 2001 through April 2002 was 93.8% (range, 63-127%). The mean no-show rate was 16% (range, 0-27%). There was minimal cost to the program. Comprehensive teen women's health with acute and preventive adolescent health care is achievable at the community hospital level at little expense through cooperation between departments. The clinic was well attended, on average working near full capacity, with a low no-show rate for teenagers. Reproduction of this model may be achieved throughout the Department of Defense at minimal cost. PMID:15605934

  5. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  6. A Simple Experimentally Based Model Using Proprioceptive Regulation of Motor Primitives Captures Adjusted Trajectory Formation in Spinal Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Kargo, William J.; Ramakrishnan, Arun; Hart, Corey B.; Rome, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal circuits may organize trajectories using pattern generators and synergies. In frogs, prior work supports fixed-duration pulses of fixed composition synergies, forming primitives. In wiping behaviors, spinal frogs adjust their motor activity according to the starting limb position and generate fairly straight and accurate isochronous trajectories across the workspace. To test whether a compact description using primitives modulated by proprioceptive feedback could reproduce such trajectory formation, we built a biomechanical model based on physiological data. We recorded from hindlimb muscle spindles to evaluate possible proprioceptive input. As movement was initiated, early skeletofusimotor activity enhanced many muscle spindles firing rates. Before movement began, a rapid estimate of the limb position from simple combinations of spindle rates was possible. Three primitives were used in the model with muscle compositions based on those observed in frogs. Our simulations showed that simple gain and phase shifts of primitives based on published feedback mechanisms could generate accurate isochronous trajectories and motor patterns that matched those observed. Although on-line feedback effects were omitted from the model after movement onset, our primitive-based model reproduced the wiping behavior across a range of starting positions. Without modifications from proprioceptive feedback, the model behaviors missed the target in a manner similar to that in deafferented frogs. These data show how early proprioception might be used to make a simple estimate initial limb state and to implicitly plan a movement using observed spinal motor primitives. Simulations showed that choice of synergy composition played a role in this simplicity. To generate froglike trajectories, a hip flexor synergy without sartorius required motor patterns with more proprioceptive knee flexor control than did patterns built with a more natural synergy including sartorius. Such synergy

  7. Risk of miscarriage among black women and white women in a U.S. Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudeshna; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Baird, Donna D; Savitz, David A; Hartmann, Katherine E

    2013-06-01

    Many adverse pregnancy outcomes differ by race. We examined the association between self-reported race and miscarriage (pregnancy loss at <20 weeks) in a community-based pregnancy cohort. Women from the southeastern United States (North Carolina, Texas, and Tennessee) were enrolled in "Right from the Start" from 2000 to 2009. They were recruited while trying to conceive or during early pregnancy. Participants completed study ultrasound examinations, interviews, and consent forms for review of medical records. We used proportional hazard models to examine miscarriage risk among black women compared with white women, adjusted for confounders. There were 537 observed miscarriages among 4,070 women, 23% of whom self-identified as black (n = 932). The life table-adjusted cumulative risk of loss after gestational week 5 was 21.3%. With adjustment for age and alcohol use, blacks had increased risk of miscarriage compared with whites (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 1.93). When risk of loss before gestational week 10 was dichotomized at the median gestational age, there was little difference, but black women had a greater risk thereafter compared with white women (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.48, 2.51). Early pregnancy ultrasound examinations did not differ by race. In summary, self-reported race is independently associated with risk of miscarriage, and the higher risk for black women is concentrated in gestational weeks 10-20. PMID:23558353

  8. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  9. A systematic approach to identify the sources of tropical SST errors in coupled models using the adjustment of initialised experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannière, Benoît; Guilyardi, Eric; Toniazzo, Thomas; Madec, Gurvan; Woolnough, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the sources of systematic errors in climate models is challenging because of coupled feedbacks and errors compensation. The developing seamless approach proposes that the identification and the correction of short term climate model errors have the potential to improve the modeled climate on longer time scales. In previous studies, initialised atmospheric simulations of a few days have been used to compare fast physics processes (convection, cloud processes) among models. The present study explores how initialised seasonal to decadal hindcasts (re-forecasts) relate transient week-to-month errors of the ocean and atmospheric components to the coupled model long-term pervasive SST errors. A protocol is designed to attribute the SST biases to the source processes. It includes five steps: (1) identify and describe biases in a coupled stabilized simulation, (2) determine the time scale of the advent of the bias and its propagation, (3) find the geographical origin of the bias, (4) evaluate the degree of coupling in the development of the bias, (5) find the field responsible for the bias. This strategy has been implemented with a set of experiments based on the initial adjustment of initialised simulations and exploring various degrees of coupling. In particular, hindcasts give the time scale of biases advent, regionally restored experiments show the geographical origin and ocean-only simulations isolate the field responsible for the bias and evaluate the degree of coupling in the bias development. This strategy is applied to four prominent SST biases of the IPSLCM5A-LR coupled model in the tropical Pacific, that are largely shared by other coupled models, including the Southeast Pacific warm bias and the equatorial cold tongue bias. Using the proposed protocol, we demonstrate that the East Pacific warm bias appears in a few months and is caused by a lack of upwelling due to too weak meridional coastal winds off Peru. The cold equatorial bias, which

  10. Cultural Adjustment and the Puerto Rican.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    This review of the literature on cultural adjustment is divided into four sections: the nature of cultural adjustment; acculturation as a model of cultural adjustment; psychological responses to acculturation; and a model of cultural adjustment developed by the author as a result of his immigration from Puerto Rico to the United States mainland.…

  11. Application of the Transtheoretical Model to Cervical Cancer Screening in Latina Women.

    PubMed

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Lu, Minggen; Warfield, Melanie

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between the intention to receive Pap tests for cervical cancer screening, as related to the transtheoretical model of behavior change, and self-efficacy, and perceived barriers and benefits among Latina women. A sample of 121 Latina women recruited from a University campus completed validated questionnaires. Over half the participants (62 %) reported engaging in regular cervical screening. The greatest self-efficacy scores were observed among women in the action/maintenance phase, and the least self-efficacy was observed among women in the no-intention phases of behavior change. There was also a gradient in perceived barriers and the stages of change, women in precontemplative/relapse perceived significantly higher barriers than those in contemplation/preparation and action/maintenance. This study identifies a high-risk group of Latina women and demonstrates a need for culturally targeted Pap screening interventions using validated and theoretically driven behavior change interventions focusing on perceived barriers and benefits, and self-efficacy. PMID:25808760

  12. Modeling effects of explicit and nonexplicit sexual stimuli on the sexual anxiety and behavior of women.

    PubMed

    Wishnoff, R

    1978-09-01

    This study focused on the specific effects of explicit and nonexplicit sexual stimuli on anxious, coitally inexperienced women. Using Bandura's social learning theory as the thoretical framework, the consequences of modeling behavior on an individual's response patterns were examined. Responses indicating sexual anxiety level, preferred sexual behavior, and manifest anxiety level were recorded. Forty-five women were selected based on their scores on the Short Manifest Anxiety Scale. The subjects were then randomly placed into three treatment groups: explicit, nonexplicit, and control. Analysis of the data revealed significant differences among the women in each of the three groups regarding sexual behavior. Sexual anxiety levels also differed between women in the explicit and control groups. Pre- and posttest manifest anxiety scores also showed a significant difference in the explicit-group women. It has been shown that anxious, coitally inexperienced women who are exposed to sexually explicit stimuli in a controlled situation will have lower sexual anxiety levels, have lowered manifest anxiety levels, and be more willing to participate in a greater variety of sexual behaviors under appropriate circumstances. The results of this study may aid those in the helping professions gain a better understanding of the effects sexual stimuli have on certain individuals. PMID:568923

  13. Models of Traumatic Experiences and Children's Psychological Adjustment: The Roles of Perceived Parenting and the Children's Own Resources and Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; El Sarraj, Eyad

    1997-01-01

    Used path analysis to examine relations between trauma, perceived parenting, resources, political activity, and adjustment in Palestinian 11- and 12-year olds. Found that the more trauma experienced, the more negative parenting the children experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more they suffered from adjustment problems.…

  14. Parental Expressivity, Child Physiological and Behavioral Regulation, and Child Adjustment: Testing a Three-Path Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Johnson, Audrea Y.; Smith, Tracy R.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Parental expressivity, child physiological regulation (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia suppression), child behavioral regulation, and child adjustment outcomes were examined in 45 children (M age = 4.32 years, SD = 1.30) and their parents. With the exception of child adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing…

  15. No doubt about it: when doubtful role models undermine men's and women's math performance under threat.

    PubMed

    Marx, David M; Monroe, Allyce H; Cole, Chris E; Gilbert, Patricia N

    2013-01-01

    Past work has shown that female role models are effective buffers against stereotype threat. The present research examines the boundary conditions of this role model effect. Specifically, we argue that female role models should avoid expressing doubt about their math abilities; otherwise they may cease to buffer women from stereotype threat. For men, a non-doubtful male role model should be seen as threatening, thus harming performance. A doubtful male role model, however, should be seen as non-threatening, thus allowing men to perform up to their ability in math. To test this reasoning, men and women were exposed to either an outgroup or ingroup role model who either expressed doubt or did not. Participants then took a math exam under stereotype threat conditions. As expected, doubtful ingroup role models hurt women, but helped men's performance. Outgroup role models' expressed doubt had no differential effect on performance. We also show that expressions of doubt take on a different meaning when expressed by a female rather than a male role model. PMID:24003582

  16. The Influence of Role Models on Women's Career Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Julie L.; DeSantis, Angela M.

    2006-01-01

    This study of 368 female undergraduates examined self-efficacy and role model influence as predictors of career choice across J. L. Holland's (1997) 6 RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) types. Findings showed that levels of self-efficacy and role model influence differed across Holland types. Multiple…

  17. Postshelter Adjustment of Children from Violent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Kelly L.; Novaco, Raymond W.

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have examined the adjustment of battered women and their children after exiting domestic violence shelters. Participants were 62 women who had endured severe partner abuse, completed a shelter program with their children, and resided in the community for at least 6 months. Field interviews concerned mothers' and children's abuse…

  18. Integrative health care model for climacteric stage women: design of the intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Climacteric stage women experience significant biological, psychological and social changes. With demographic changes being observed in the growing number of climacteric stage women in Mexico, it is important to improve their knowledge about the climacteric stage and its potential associated problems, encourage their participation in screening programs, and promote the acquisition of healthy lifestyles. At Mexican health care institutions the predominant health care model for climacteric stage women has a biomedical perspective. Medical doctors provide mostly curative services and have limited support from other health professionals. This study aims to design an integrative health care model (IHCM: bio-psycho-social, multidisciplinary and women-centered) applicable in primary care services aimed at climacteric stage women. Methods/Design We present the design, inclusion criteria and detailed description of an IHCM. The IHCM consists of collaborative and coordinated provision of services by a health team, which is involves a family doctor, nurse, psychologist, and the woman herself. The health team promotes the empowerment of women through individual and group counseling on the climacteric stage and health related self-care. The intervention lasts three months followed by a three-month follow-up period to evaluate the effectiveness of the model. The effectiveness of the model will be evaluated through the following aspects: health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), empowerment, self-efficacy and knowledge regarding the climacteric stage and health-related self-care activities, use of screening services, and improvement in lifestyles (regular leisure time physical activity and healthy diet). Discussion Participation in preventive activities should be encouraged among women in Mexico. Designing and evaluating the effectiveness of an integrative health care model for women at the climacteric stage, based on the empowerment approach and focus on health

  19. Vulnerability and Resilience in Women with Arthritis: Test of a Two-Factor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Zautra, Alex J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a 2-factor model of affective health in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 82) or osteoarthritis (OA; n = 88). Positive and negative social interactions and affect were assessed for 11 consecutive weeks. For each participant, Vulnerability and Resilience factors were created from factor analyses of…

  20. The Impact of Sexual Orientation on Women's Midlife Experience: A Transition Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Sexual orientation is an integral part of identity affecting every stage of an individual's development. This literature review examines women's cultural experiences based on sexual orientation and their effect on midlife experience. A developmental model is offered that incorporates sexual orientation as a contextual factor in this developmental…

  1. Modeling the Impact of Breast-Feeding by HIV-Infected Women on Child Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heymann, Sally Jody

    1990-01-01

    Models the survival outcomes of children in developing countries born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are breast-fed, bottle-fed, and wet-nursed. Uses decision analysis to assess the relative risk of child mortality from HIV transmission and non-HIV causes associated with different methods of feeding. (FMW)

  2. Effects of Successful Female Role Models on Young Women's Attitudes toward Traditionally Male Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    A study was conducted to examine the effects on young women of reading about nontraditional role models in the sciences and engineering, and discussing various aspects of participating in science and engineering careers with a trained instructor. Subjects for the study were 153 female students enrolled in advanced, elective science courses (10th…

  3. Sociocultural, Feminist, and Psychological Influences on Women's Body Satisfaction: A Structural Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Gleaves, David H.

    2004-01-01

    We explored sociocultural, feminist, and psychological influences on women's body dissatisfaction by examining the manner in which awareness and internalization of appearance standards, feminist ideology, and self-esteem affect body dissatisfaction. A main goal of the study was to test a model of potential protective mechanisms against…

  4. Dating Violence among College Men and Women: Evaluation of a Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthra, Rohini; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2006-01-01

    This study empirically evaluates the Riggs and O'Leary (1989) model of dating violence. A sample of 200 college students completes assessments concerning the occurrence of violence in their dating relationships. The incidence of self-reported partner violence is 25% for women and 10% for men. Multivariate logistic regression analyses are performed…

  5. The Provision of Children's Services Within Battered Women's Shelters: A Model Children's Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancato, Debra Michel

    A three-fold exploratory study was conducted to examine the current literature regarding the effects of spousal abuse on observing children, evaluate children's programs within battered women's shelters, and propose a model children's program designed to meet children's needs. Based on the literature and the children's programs currently existing,…

  6. A fast Monte Carlo EM algorithm for estimation in latent class model analysis with an application to assess diagnostic accuracy for cervical neoplasia in women with AGC

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Le; Carter, Randy; Darcy, Kathleen; Kauderer, James; Liao, Shu-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    In this article we use a latent class model (LCM) with prevalence modeled as a function of covariates to assess diagnostic test accuracy in situations where the true disease status is not observed, but observations on three or more conditionally independent diagnostic tests are available. A fast Monte Carlo EM (MCEM) algorithm with binary (disease) diagnostic data is implemented to estimate parameters of interest; namely, sensitivity, specificity, and prevalence of the disease as a function of covariates. To obtain standard errors for confidence interval construction of estimated parameters, the missing information principle is applied to adjust information matrix estimates. We compare the adjusted information matrix based standard error estimates with the bootstrap standard error estimates both obtained using the fast MCEM algorithm through an extensive Monte Carlo study. Simulation demonstrates that the adjusted information matrix approach estimates the standard error similarly with the bootstrap methods under certain scenarios. The bootstrap percentile intervals have satisfactory coverage probabilities. We then apply the LCM analysis to a real data set of 122 subjects from a Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) study of significant cervical lesion (S-CL) diagnosis in women with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGC) to compare the diagnostic accuracy of a histology-based evaluation, a CA-IX biomarker-based test and a human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test. PMID:24163493

  7. Integration of Chang'E-2 imagery and LRO laser altimeter data with a combined block adjustment for precision lunar topographic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Hu, Han; Guo, Jian

    2014-04-01

    Lunar topographic information is essential for lunar scientific investigations and exploration missions. Lunar orbiter imagery and laser altimeter data are two major data sources for lunar topographic modeling. Most previous studies have processed the imagery and laser altimeter data separately for lunar topographic modeling, and there are usually inconsistencies between the derived lunar topographic models. This paper presents a novel combined block adjustment approach to integrate multiple strips of the Chinese Chang'E-2 imagery and NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data for precision lunar topographic modeling. The participants of the combined block adjustment include the orientation parameters of the Chang'E-2 images, the intra-strip tie points derived from the Chang'E-2 stereo images of the same orbit, the inter-strip tie points derived from the overlapping area of two neighbor Chang'E-2 image strips, and the LOLA points. Two constraints are incorporated into the combined block adjustment including a local surface constraint and an orbit height constraint, which are specifically designed to remedy the large inconsistencies between the Chang'E-2 and LOLA data sets. The output of the combined block adjustment is the improved orientation parameters of the Chang'E-2 images and ground coordinates of the LOLA points, from which precision lunar topographic models can be generated. The performance of the developed approach was evaluated using the Chang'E-2 imagery and LOLA data in the Sinus Iridum area and the Apollo 15 landing area. The experimental results revealed that the mean absolute image residuals between the Chang'E-2 image strips were drastically reduced from tens of pixels before the adjustment to sub-pixel level after adjustment. Digital elevation models (DEMs) with 20 m resolution were generated using the Chang'E-2 imagery after the combined block adjustment. Comparison of the Chang'E-2 DEM with the LOLA DEM showed a good

  8. Alternate Collegial Model-Based Forms of Networking among Women or Networking in the Nineties for the Professional Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancrazio, Sally Bulkley

    The collegial networking model, advanced for women as an alternative to the traditional "old boy" male network in the late 1970s and early 1980s, is described in this paper. Based on affiliation rather than competitiveness, the collegial model is applicable to professional women in the 1990s, with the following added recommendations: (1)…

  9. Using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and Adjustment among Interethnic and Interracial Families in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Yoo, Joan P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes a model of using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and adjustment among foreign brides and their interethnic and interracial families in South Korea based on the narratives of 10 foreign brides married to Korean men and 11 service providers who directly interact with these women and their families. The results…

  10. Human insulin dynamics in women: a physiologically based model.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael; Tura, Andrea; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Pacini, Giovanni; D'Argenio, David Z

    2016-02-01

    Currently available models of insulin dynamics are mostly based on the classical compartmental structure and, thus, their physiological utility is limited. In this work, we describe the development of a physiologically based model and its application to data from 154 patients who underwent an insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test (IM-IVGTT). To determine the time profile of endogenous insulin delivery without using C-peptide data and to evaluate the transcapillary transport of insulin, the hepatosplanchnic, renal, and peripheral beds were incorporated into the circulatory model as separate subsystems. Physiologically reasonable population mean estimates were obtained for all estimated model parameters, including plasma volume, interstitial volume of the peripheral circulation (mainly skeletal muscle), uptake clearance into the interstitial space, hepatic and renal clearance, as well as total insulin delivery into plasma. The results indicate that, at a population level, the proposed physiologically based model provides a useful description of insulin disposition, which allows for the assessment of muscle insulin uptake. PMID:26608654

  11. A model of women's educational factors related to delaying girls' marriage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Cristine A.; Paulson Stone, Rebecca; Kahando, Sarah

    2012-08-01

    Delaying girls' early marriage is a critical public health and education goal in developing countries, in which their own or their mothers' education may play an important role. This paper reviews the existing evidence of any relationship between girls' schooling or women's literacy education and delayed marriage for themselves or their daughters. The majority of research reports focus on the correlation between girls' schooling and brides' age at first marriage. But it is conceivable that adult women's/mothers' literacy education also has considerable influence on the age at which their daughters are married. Since this aspect has hitherto not been explicitly investigated, the authors propose a model - based on relevant research about the outcomes of girls' schooling and women's literacy education - of the mechanisms that mediate between women's education and delayed marriage for their daughters. The authors argue for research that will inform policy makers interested in helping girls complete secondary schooling about the potential contributions of adult women's literacy education to this goal.

  12. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaymie; Leung, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Women’s preferences for penis size may affect men’s comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women’s penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women’s size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75) selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm) versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm) sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average. PMID:26332467

  13. Control and support models of help-seeking behavior in women experiencing domestic violence in India.

    PubMed

    Mahapatro, Meerambika; Gupta, R N; Gupta, Vinay K

    2014-01-01

    In India, there is limited prioritization of domestic violence, which is seen as a private and family matter, and handled as a social responsibility rather than a complaint or crime. Despite the Domestic Violence Act, implemented in 2006, the widespread phenomenon of domestic violence across Indian states goes unreported. Using control and support models, this article aims to examine women's behavior in seeking help while dealing with partner violence. It is a population-based analytical cross-sectional study covering 14,507 married women from 18 states of India, selected through a systematic multistage sampling strategy. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to generate data. It was observed that legal complexities combined with social realities make the life of an average Indian woman insecure and miserable. Most women surveyed preferred the social-support model and opined that if they face domestic violence, they would seek help from their parents as the first option in the order of preference. The responses of women while dealing with domestic violence are often spontaneous and determined by the pressing need to resolve matters within the home/community, rather than addressing them in the public domain of state institutions where procedures are cumbersome and lengthy. A new integrated development model proposed by several communities aims to prevent domestic violence through the intervention of health care systems. PMID:25069150

  14. Holocene sea-level changes along the North Carolina Coastline and their implications for glacial isostatic adjustment models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, B.P.; Peltier, W.R.; Culver, S.J.; Drummond, R.; Engelhart, S.E.; Kemp, A.C.; Mallinson, D.; Thieler, E.R.; Riggs, S.R.; Ames, D.V.; Thomson, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    We have synthesized new and existing relative sea-level (RSL) data to produce a quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive database from the North Carolina coastline. The RSL database consists of 54 sea-level index points that are quantitatively related to an appropriate tide level and assigned an error estimate, and a further 33 limiting dates that confine the maximum and minimum elevations of RSL. The temporal distribution of the index points is very uneven with only five index points older than 4000 cal a BP, but the form of the Holocene sea-level trend is constrained by both terrestrial and marine limiting dates. The data illustrate RSL rapidly rising during the early and mid Holocene from an observed elevation of -35.7 ?? 1.1 m MSL at 11062-10576 cal a BP to -4.2 m ?? 0.4 m MSL at 4240-3592 cal a BP. We restricted comparisons between observations and predictions from the ICE-5G(VM2) with rotational feedback Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model to the Late Holocene RSL (last 4000 cal a BP) because of the wealth of sea-level data during this time interval. The ICE-5G(VM2) model predicts significant spatial variations in RSL across North Carolina, thus we subdivided the observations into two regions. The model forecasts an increase in the rate of sea-level rise in Region 1 (Albemarle, Currituck, Roanoke, Croatan, and northern Pamlico sounds) compared to Region 2 (southern Pamlico, Core and Bogue sounds, and farther south to Wilmington). The observations show Late Holocene sea-level rising at 1.14 ?? 0.03 mm year-1 and 0.82 ?? 0.02 mm year-1 in Regions 1 and 2, respectively. The ICE-5G(VM2) predictions capture the general temporal trend of the observations, although there is an apparent misfit for index points older than 2000 cal a BP. It is presently unknown whether these misfits are caused by possible tectonic uplift associated with the mid-Carolina Platform High or a flaw in the GIA model. A comparison of local tide gauge data with the Late Holocene RSL

  15. American Association of University Women: Branch Operations Data Modeling Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ranida B.; Wedel, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    A nationally prominent woman's advocacy organization is featured in this case study. The scenario may be used as a teaching case, an assignment, or a project in systems analysis and design as well as database design classes. Students are required to document the system operations and requirements, apply logical data modeling concepts, and design…

  16. Transient response of the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere model to increasing carbon dioxide. Part I: Control climate and flux adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the initialization of an experiment to study the time-dependent response of a high-resolution global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model to a gradual increase in carbon dioxide. The stability of the control integration with respect to climate drift is assessed, and aspects of the model climatology relevant to the simulation of climate change are discussed. The observed variation of oceanic temperature with latitude and depth is basically well simulated, although, in common with other ocean models, the main thermocline is too diffuse. Nevertheless, it is found that large heat and water flux adjustments must be added to the surface layer of the ocean in order to prevent the occurrence of unacceptable climate drift. The ocean model appears to achieve insufficient meridional heat transport, and this is supported by the pattern of the heat flux adjustment term, although errors in the simulated atmosphere-ocean heat flux also contribute to the latter. The application of the flux adjustments restricts climate drift during the 75-year control experiment. However, a gradual warming still occurs in the surface layers of the Southern Ocean because the flux adjustments are inserted as additive terms in this integration and cannot therefore be guaranteed to prevent climate drift completely. 68 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  18. Setting health care capitations through diagnosis-based risk adjustment: a suitable model for the English NHS?

    PubMed

    Asthana, Sheena; Gibson, Alex

    2011-07-01

    The English system of health resource allocation has been described as the apotheosis of the area-level approach to setting health care capitations. However, recent policy developments have changed the scale at which commissioning decisions are made (and budgets allocated) with important implications for resource allocation. Doubts concerning the legitimacy of applying area-based formulae used to distribute resources between Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) to the much smaller scale required by Practice Based Commissioning (PBC) led the English Department of Health (DH) to introduce a new approach to setting health care budgets. To this end, practice-level allocations for acute services are now calculated using a diagnosis-based capitation model of the kind used in the United States and several other systems of competitive social health insurance. The new Coalition Government has proposed that these budgets are directly allocated to GP 'consortia', the new commissioning bodies in the NHS. This paper questions whether this is an appropriate development for a health system in which the major objective of resource allocation is to promote equal opportunity of access for equal needs. The chief reservation raised is that of circularity and the perpetuation of resource bias, the concern being that an existing social, demographic and geographical bias in the use of health care resources will be reinforced through the use of historic utilisation data. Demonstrating that there are legitimate reasons to suspect that this will be the case, the paper poses the question whether health systems internationally should more openly address the key limitations of empirical methods that select risk adjusters on the basis of existing patterns of health service utilisation. PMID:21093953

  19. Testing and Treating Women after Unsuccessful Conservative Treatments for Overactive Bladder or Mixed Urinary Incontinence: A Model-Based Economic Evaluation Based on the BUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Pelham; Middleton, Lee J.; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Daniels, Jane P.; Latthe, Pallavi; Coomarasamy, Arri; Rachaneni, Suneetha; McCooty, Shanteela; Verghese, Tina S.; Roberts, Tracy E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the cost-effectiveness of bladder ultrasonography, clinical history, and urodynamic testing in guiding treatment decisions in a secondary care setting for women failing first line conservative treatment for overactive bladder or urgency-predominant mixed urinary incontinence. Design Model-based economic evaluation from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective using data from the Bladder Ultrasound Study (BUS) and secondary sources. Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision tree and a 5-year time horizon based on the outcomes of cost per woman successfully treated and cost per Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and a value of information analysis are also undertaken. Results Bladder ultrasonography is more costly and less effective test-treat strategy than clinical history and urodynamics. Treatment on the basis of clinical history alone has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £491,100 per woman successfully treated and an ICER of £60,200 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women on the basis of urodynamics. Restricting the use of urodynamics to women with a clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only is the optimal test-treat strategy on cost-effectiveness grounds with ICERs of £19,500 per woman successfully treated and £12,700 per QALY compared with the treatment of all women based upon urodynamics. Conclusions remained robust to sensitivity analyses, but subject to large uncertainties. Conclusions Treatment based upon urodynamics can be seen as a cost-effective strategy, and particularly when targeted at women with clinical history of mixed urinary incontinence only. Further research is needed to resolve current decision uncertainty. PMID:27513926

  20. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  1. Risk Adjustment and Primary Health Care in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Veronica; Wasem, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    Aim To offer a capitation formula with greater capacity for guiding resource spending on population with poorer health and lower socioeconomic status in the context of financing and equity in primary health care. Methods We collected two years of data on a sample of 10 000 individuals from a region in Chile, Valdivia and Temuco and evaluated three models to estimate utilization and expenditures per capita. The first model included age and sex; the second one included age, sex, and the presence of two key diagnoses; and the third model included age, sex, and the presence of seven key diagnoses. Regression results were evaluated by R2 and predictive ratios to select the best specifications. Results Per-capita expenditures by age and sex confirmed international trends, where children under five, women, and the elderly were the main users of primary health care services. Women sought health advice twice as much as men. Clear differences by socioeconomic status were observed for the indigent population aged ≥65 years who under-utilized primary health care services. From the three models, major improvement in the predictive power occurred from the demographic (adjusted R2, 9%) to the demographic plus two diagnoses model (adjusted R2, 27%). Improvements were modest when five other diagnoses were added (adjusted R2, 28%). Conclusion The current formula that uses municipality’s financial power and geographic location of health centers to adjust capitation payments provides little incentive to appropriate care for the indigent and people with chronic conditions. A capitation payment that adjusts for age, sex, and the presence of diabetes and hypertension will better guide resource allocation to those with poorer health and lower socioeconomic status. PMID:16758525

  2. Modeling of Turbulent Boundary Layer Surface Pressure Fluctuation Auto and Cross Spectra - Verification and Adjustments Based on TU-144LL Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackl, Robert; Weston, Adam

    2005-01-01

    The literature on turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations provides several empirical models which were compared to the measured TU-144 data. The Efimtsov model showed the best agreement. Adjustments were made to improve its agreement further, consisting of the addition of a broad band peak in the mid frequencies, and a minor modification to the high frequency rolloff. The adjusted Efimtsov predicted and measured results are compared for both subsonic and supersonic flight conditions. Measurements in the forward and middle portions of the fuselage have better agreement with the model than those from the aft portion. For High Speed Civil Transport supersonic cruise, interior levels predicted by use of this model are expected to increase by 1-3 dB due to the adjustments to the Efimtsov model. The space-time cross-correlations and cross-spectra of the fluctuating surface pressure were also investigated. This analysis is an important ingredient in structural acoustic models of aircraft interior noise. Once again the measured data were compared to the predicted levels from the Efimtsov model.

  3. Conceptual Model of Military Women's Life Events and Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Segal, Mady W; Lane, Michelle D

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a life course conceptual model and applies it to the study of military women's experiences and the effect of those life events on their well-being. Of special concern are the effects on women serving in direct combat jobs, as well as in any specialties operating in a hostile environment. Drawing on previous research, the model considers and gives examples of how a woman's well-being is affected by events in her military career, her family life, and other areas of life. The article emphasizes the effects of intersections of multiple events, as well as how the effects on well-being are mediated or moderated by other factors, including individual characteristics, military contextual variables, and resources. The analysis also includes the impacts of preventative and treatment interventions, as well as of policies, programs, and practices. Based on the model and on previous research, questions for future research are posed. PMID:26741897

  4. Comparative study analysing women's childbirth satisfaction and obstetric outcomes across two different models of maternity care

    PubMed Central

    Conesa Ferrer, Ma Belén; Canteras Jordana, Manuel; Ballesteros Meseguer, Carmen; Carrillo García, César; Martínez Roche, M Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the differences in obstetrical results and women's childbirth satisfaction across 2 different models of maternity care (biomedical model and humanised birth). Setting 2 university hospitals in south-eastern Spain from April to October 2013. Design A correlational descriptive study. Participants A convenience sample of 406 women participated in the study, 204 of the biomedical model and 202 of the humanised model. Results The differences in obstetrical results were (biomedical model/humanised model): onset of labour (spontaneous 66/137, augmentation 70/1, p=0.0005), pain relief (epidural 172/132, no pain relief 9/40, p=0.0005), mode of delivery (normal vaginal 140/165, instrumental 48/23, p=0.004), length of labour (0–4 hours 69/93, >4 hours 133/108, p=0.011), condition of perineum (intact perineum or tear 94/178, episiotomy 100/24, p=0.0005). The total questionnaire score (100) gave a mean (M) of 78.33 and SD of 8.46 in the biomedical model of care and an M of 82.01 and SD of 7.97 in the humanised model of care (p=0.0005). In the analysis of the results per items, statistical differences were found in 8 of the 9 subscales. The highest scores were reached in the humanised model of maternity care. Conclusions The humanised model of maternity care offers better obstetrical outcomes and women's satisfaction scores during the labour, birth and immediate postnatal period than does the biomedical model. PMID:27566632

  5. The Impact of Educational Intervention Based on Empowerment Model in Preventing Violence Against Women

    PubMed Central

    Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Dastoorpour, Maryam; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Jamalzadeh, Fiesal; Latifi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the most obvious forms of violence in today's society is violence against women. In Iran, along with other countries, violence against women has become a problematic issue. Objectives: The present research aims to investigate the impact of educational intervention based on empowerment model in preventing violent behaviors against women. Patients and Methods: The present study is an intervention research done through the random selection of 91 women under the aegis of Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation in Gorgan. Tools for data gathering included demographics checklist, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, general self-efficacy, awareness and attitude questionnaires. Three ninety-minute educational sessions were held for each group to enhance their awareness, change their attitudes, and train them life skills to increase self-esteem so that they can express their vicarious experiences to increase their self-efficacy toward violent behavior. Following the post-test, data were analyzed with SPSS software (version 20). Tests for analyzing data included descriptive and analytical tests (chi-square, Pearson's correlation, independent samples t-test, One-way ANOVA and paired t test). Results: Results indicated that the frequency of domestic violence against participating women was significant after educational intervention, as compared to pre-intervention period. Paired t-test showed that average scores of awareness, attitude, self-esteem, and self-efficacy constructs, and total power were statistically higher after educational intervention as compared to the period prior to intervention. Conclusions: As one of the manifestations and the moving force of empowerment, education is the first major strategy in codifying, designing, and implementing empowerment programs. For women to be empowered, the active participation of all people in education is required. PMID:25237563

  6. Adjustment of Measurements with Multiplicative Errors: Error Analysis, Estimates of the Variance of Unit Weight, and Effect on Volume Estimation from LiDAR-Type Digital Elevation Models

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-01

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

  7. Adjustment of measurements with multiplicative errors: error analysis, estimates of the variance of unit weight, and effect on volume estimation from LiDAR-type digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2013-01-01

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

  8. Health Blief Model-based intervention to improve nutritional behavior among elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Hejar Abdul; Motalebi, Seyedeh Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Nutrition is a determinant factor of health in elderly people. Independent living in elderly people can be maintained or enhanced by improvement of nutritional behavior. Hence, the present study was conducted to determine the impact of Health Belief Model (HBM)-based intervention on the nutritional behavior of elderly women. SUBJECTS/METHODS Cluster-random sampling was used to assess the sample of this clinical trial study. The participants of this study attended a 12-week nutrition education program consisting of two (2) sessions per week. There was also a follow-up for another three (3) months. Smart PLS 3.5 and SPSS 19 were used for structural equation modeling, determination of model fitness, and hypotheses testing. RESULTS The findings indicate that intervention had a significant effect on knowledge improvement as well as the behavior of elderly women. The model explained 5 to 70% of the variance in nutritional behavior. In addition, nutritional behavior was positively affected by the HBM constructs comprised of perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and barriers after the intervention program. CONCLUSION The results of this study show that HBM-based educational intervention has a significant effect in improving nutritional knowledge and behavior among elderly women. PMID:27247733

  9. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children’s Adjustment Among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents’ mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family Stress Model explained toddler-aged adjustment among Hurricane Katrina affected and nonaffected families. Two groups of very low-income mothers and their 2-year-old children participated (pre-Katrina, n = 55; post-Katrina, n = 47). Consistent with the Family Stress Model, financial strain and neighborhood violence were associated with higher levels of mothers’ depressed mood; depressed mood was linked to less parenting efficacy. Poor parenting efficacy was associated to more child internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:18645744

  10. The developmental antecedents of sexual coercion against women: testing alternative hypotheses with structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Knight, Raymond A; Sims-Knight, Judith E

    2003-06-01

    A unified model of the origin of sexual aggression against women on both adult and juvenile sexual offender samples has been developed and successfully tested. This model proposed three major causal paths to sexual coercion against women. In the first path, physical and verbal abuse was hypothesized to produce callousness and lack of emotionality, which disinhibited sexual drive and sexual fantasies. These in turn disinhibited hostile sexual fantasies, and led to sexual coercion. In the second causal path, sexual abuse contributed directly to the disinhibition of sexual drive and sexual fantasies, which through hostile sexual fantasies led to sexual coercion. The third path operated through early antisocial behavior, including aggressive acts. It developed as a result of both physical/verbal abuse and callousness/lack of emotion. It in turn directly affected sexual coercion and worked indirectly through the hostile sexual fantasies path. In the present study, the anonymous responses of a group of 168 blue-collar, community males to an inventory (the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression) were used in a structural equation model to test the validity of this model. Moreover, this model was pitted against (Malamuth's (1998)) two-path model. Whereas the three-path model had an excellent fit with the data (CFI =.951, RMSEA =.047), the two-path model fit less well (CFI =.857, RMSEA =.079). These results indicate the superiority of the three-path model and suggest that it constitutes a solid, empirically disconfirmable heuristic for the etiology of sexual coercion against women. PMID:12839887

  11. Development and Validation of a Brief Version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale With a Nonparametric Item Analysis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Stephane; Valois, Pierre; Lussier, Yvan

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the current research was to develop an abbreviated form of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) with nonparametric item response theory. The authors conducted 5 studies, with a total participation of 8,256 married or cohabiting individuals. Results showed that the item characteristic curves behaved in a monotonically increasing…

  12. Data for and adjusted regional regression models of volume and quality of urban storm-water runoff in Boise and Garden City, Idaho, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Previously developed U.S. Geological Survey regional regression models of runoff and 11 chemical constituents were evaluated to assess their suitability for use in urban areas in Boise and Garden City. Data collected in the study area were used to develop adjusted regional models of storm-runoff volumes and mean concentrations and loads of chemical oxygen demand, dissolved and suspended solids, total nitrogen and total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total and dissolved phosphorus, and total recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Explanatory variables used in these models were drainage area, impervious area, land-use information, and precipitation data. Mean annual runoff volume and loads at the five outfalls were estimated from 904 individual storms during 1976 through 1993. Two methods were used to compute individual storm loads. The first method used adjusted regional models of storm loads and the second used adjusted regional models for mean concentration and runoff volume. For large storms, the first method seemed to produce excessively high loads for some constituents and the second method provided more reliable results for all constituents except suspended solids. The first method provided more reliable results for large storms for suspended solids.

  13. Family health advocacy: an empowerment model for pregnant and parenting African American women in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Baffour, Tiffany D; Jones, Maurine A; Contreras, Linda K

    2006-01-01

    The model of family health advocacy built firmly upon principles of empowerment theory seeks to help individuals, families, and communities to improve their circumstances by incorporating multiple levels of intervention. The goal of family health advocacy is to improve the well-being of pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 2 years by providing social support and health education about risk factors related to infant mortality and prematurity. This program primarily targets rural African American women, a group at high risk. Advocacy and referral for needed medical and social services are provided. This article presents a comprehensive model of health advocacy, including social marketing strategies, recruitment efforts, and curriculum development. PMID:16775472

  14. ESTIMATING THE INFLUENCE OF INDIVIDUAL POVERTY-ADJUSTED EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ON TERM BIRTH WEIGHT USING CONDITIONAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported maternal education is an important predictor of pregnancy outcomes. Like income, it is believed to allow women to locate in more favorable conditions than less educated or affluent peers. We examine the effect of reported educational attainment on term birth weight (birt...

  15. Joint Model of Iron and Hepcidin During the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Women.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Adeline; Lainé, Fabrice; Lavenu, Audrey; Ropert, Martine; Lacut, Karine; Gissot, Valérie; Sacher-Huvelin, Sylvie; Jezequel, Caroline; Moignet, Aline; Laviolle, Bruno; Comets, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    Hepcidin regulates serum iron levels, and its dosage is used in differential diagnostic of iron-related pathologies. We used the data collected in the HEPMEN (named after HEPcidin during MENses) study to investigate the joint dynamics of serum hepcidin and iron during the menstrual cycle in healthy women. Ninety menstruating women were recruited after a screening visit. Six fasting blood samples for determination of iron-status variables were taken in the morning throughout the cycle, starting on the second day of the period. Non-linear mixed effect models were used to describe the evolution of iron and hepcidin. Demographic and medical covariates were tested for their effect on model parameters. Parameter estimation was performed using the SAEM algorithm implemented in the Monolix software. A general pattern was observed for both hepcidin and iron, consisting of an initial decrease during menstruation, followed by a rebound and stabilising during the second half of the cycle. We developed a joint model including a menstruation-induced decrease of both molecules at the beginning of the menses and a rebound effect after menses. Iron stimulated the release of hepcidin. Several covariates, including contraception, amount of blood loss and ferritin, were found to influence the parameters. The joint model of iron and hepcidin was able to describe the fluctuations induced by blood loss from menstruation in healthy non-menopausal women and the subsequent regulation. The HEPMEN study showed fluctuations of iron-status variables during the menstrual cycle, which should be considered when using hepcidin measurements for diagnostic purposes in women of child-bearing potential. PMID:26842695

  16. Do STEM fields need a makeover?: The effect of role model femininity on men and women's interest in STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Carolynn

    Women continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This lack of women is problematic because it diminishes perspective, input, and expertise that women could provide. Consequently, this thesis examined the benefits of exposure to peer role models for increasing women's interest in STEM, which may ultimately lead more women to enter STEM fields. The role model research to date has amassed considerable evidence showing that role model exposure is beneficial; yet, questions still remain about what makes these role models effective. Accordingly, this thesis investigated whether feminine female role models increase women's interest in STEM and improve their perceptions of female STEM role models relative to "neutral" female role models. Across three experiments men and women were exposed to role models and their interest in STEM was measured. All experiments exposed participants to one of three articles about a peer role model (a female role model who embodies femininity (e.g. wears makeup), a female role model who has gender neutral qualities/behaviors [e.g., works hard], or a male role model who embodies neutral traits) and Experiments 2 and 3 had a fourth control condition in which participants read about the history of SDSU (a control condition). In the first two experiments interest in physics was measured using an adapted version of the STEM Career Interest Survey (CIS). Experiment 3 used an adapted version of the STEM CIS scale, but measured overall interest in STEM by including subscales for each of the four STEM areas with a composite score serving as the primary dependent variable. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that women's interest in physics was no different than men's after exposure to a feminine female role model compared to a neutral female and neutral male role model. Furthermore, women's interest in physics was greater in the feminine condition compared to all other conditions for the first two

  17. Semi-Parametric Spatial Joint Modeling of HIV and HSV-2 among Women in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Okango, Elphas; Mwambi, Henry; Ngesa, Oscar; Achia, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Several diseases have common risk factors. The joint modeling of disease outcomes within a spatial statistical context may provide more insight on the interaction of diseases both at individual and at regional level. Spatial joint modeling allows for studying of the relationship between diseases and also between regions under study. One major approach for joint spatial modeling is the multivariate conditional autoregressive approach. In this approach, it is assumed that all the covariates in the study have linear effects on the multiple response variables. In this study, we relax this linearity assumption and allow some covariates to have nonlinear effects using the penalized regression splines. This model was used to jointly model the spatial variation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus-type 2 (HSV-2) among women in Kenya. The model was applied to HIV and HSV-2 prevalence data among women aged 15–49 years in Kenya, derived from the 2007 Kenya AIDS indicator survey. A full Bayesian approach was used and the models were implemented in WinBUGS software. Both diseases showed significant spatial variation with highest disease burdens occurring around the Lake Victoria region. There was a nonlinear association between age of an individual and HIV and HSV-2 infection. The peak age for HIV was around 30 years while that of HSV-2 was about 40 years. A positive significant spatial correlation between HIV and HSV-2 was observed with a correlation of 0.6831(95% CI: 0.3859, 0.871). PMID:26258939

  18. Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

    2014-01-01

    This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed. PMID:24182770

  19. NEIGHBORHOOD CHARACTERISTICS AND SEXUAL INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AMONG LOW-INCOME, DRUG-INVOLVED NEW YORK CITY RESIDENTS: RESULTS FROM THE IMPACT STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magdalena; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Ompad, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed relations among neighborhood characteristics and sexual intimate partner violence against women (SIPVAW), among low-income, drug-involved, women (N=360) and men (N=670) in New York City between 2005 and 2009. Six percent of women (n=22) and 5% of men (n=33) reported experiencing and perpetrating SIPVAW in the past year with a main partner. In adjusted mixed models among women, neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity was significantly, negatively associated with SIPVAW victimization. In adjusted logistic models among men, neighborhood collective efficacy was significantly, positively associated with SIPVAW perpetration. Novel theoretical frameworks are needed to guide research on neighborhoods and partner violence. PMID:25062819

  20. Incorporating psychosocial health into biocultural models: preliminary findings from Turkana women of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Pike, Ivy L; Williams, Sharon R

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential benefits and limitations of including psychosocial stress data in a biocultural framework of human adaptability. Building on arguments within human biology on the importance of political economic perspectives for examining patterns of biological variation, this paper suggests that psychosocial perspectives may further refine our understanding of the mechanisms through which social distress yields differences in health and well-being. To assess a model that integrates psychosocial experiences, we conducted a preliminary study among nomadic pastoralist women from northern Kenya. We interviewed 45 women about current and past stressful experiences, and collected anthropometric data and salivary cortisol measures. Focus group and key informant interviews were conducted to refine our understanding of how the Turkana discuss and experience distress. The results suggest that the most sensitive indicators of Turkana women's psychosocial experiences were the culturally defined idioms of distress, which showed high concordance with measures of first-day salivary cortisol. Other differences in stress reactivity were associated with the frequent movement of encampments, major herd losses, and direct experiences of livestock raiding. Despite the preliminary nature of these data, we believe that the results offer important lessons and insights into the longer-term process of incorporating psychosocial models into human adaptability studies. PMID:17039478

  1. Women offenders and reentry issues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S D

    1996-01-01

    Women parallel men in their profile of physical disease, psychosocial configuration, addictive patterns, and criminal deviance. For women offenders in particular, the prison environment reinforces a victim role that originated in childhood and adolescence. In addition, such settings discourage both emotional expression (except for aggression) and responsibility, since basic needs such as food, lodging, and clothing are provided. Incarcerated women have significant treatment issues, including the lack of social and vocational role definition, psychological dependence and psychic craving, poorly developed social skills, and conflicts in social, family, and intimate relationships. This article describes the unique psychoeducational and skills-training needs of women offenders as they adjust to community living, and outlines specific treatment interventions that have proven to effect successful patient outcomes. Case studies are used to illustrate the reentry experiences of three women offenders with distinct backgrounds. One example illustrates how a woman who had been involved in the criminal justice system for 24 years overcame her addiction and self-confidence issues. A second case study profiles an offender with three children who had experienced sexual trauma during her childhood and adult years. A third case reports on an African-American woman whose crack-cocaine addiction resulted in the birth of a drug-exposed son. The treatment model tested in all three cases emphasized the practical and often overlooked treatment issues of incarcerated women. PMID:8714337

  2. Are all models created equal? A content analysis of women in advertisements of fitness versus fashion magazines.

    PubMed

    Wasylkiw, L; Emms, A A; Meuse, R; Poirier, K F

    2009-03-01

    The current study is a content analysis of women appearing in advertisements in two types of magazines: fitness/health versus fashion/beauty chosen because of their large and predominantly female readerships. Women appearing in advertisements of the June 2007 issue of five fitness/health magazines were compared to women appearing in advertisements of the June 2007 issue of five beauty/fashion magazines. Female models appearing in advertisements of both types of magazines were primarily young, thin Caucasians; however, images of models were more likely to emphasize appearance over performance when they appeared in fashion magazines. This difference in emphasis has implications for future research. PMID:19237328

  3. Women in Sport--The Beat Goes On. The Colorado Model: Addressing the Declining Number of Women Leaders in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Carolyn

    This paper describes the efforts of Educators for Athletic Equity (EAE) in Colorado to address the shortage and/or absence of women and minorities in athletic leadership positions. Goals of the EAE are discussed, including: (1) to promote competent coaches, officials, athletic directors, and governing board members; (2) to promote the benefits of…

  4. Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-01-01

    Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid-structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women. PMID:26592419

  5. Evaluating the stage of change model to a cervical cancer screening intervention among Ohio Appalachian women.

    PubMed

    Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; Oliveri, Jill M; Young, Gregory S; Katz, Mira L; Tatum, Cathy M; Paskett, Electra D

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are disproportionally high among women living in Appalachia Ohio. This study used the Transtheoretical Model to examine screening barriers before and after a lay health advisor (LHA) intervention (2005-2009) to increase cervical cancer screening rates. Ohio Appalachian women (n = 90) who were in need of a Pap test, based on risk-appropriate guidelines, were randomized to a 10-month LHA intervention and received two in-person visits, two phone calls, and four mailed postcards targeted to the participant's stage of change. Findings revealed that 63% had forward stage movement 10 months after the intervention. The most frequently reported screening barriers were time constraints, forgetting to make an appointment, and cost. Women who reported the following barriers-doctor not recommending the test; being unable to afford the test; and being embarrassed, nervous, or afraid of getting a Pap test-were less likely to be in the action stage. Understanding the stages of change related to Pap testing and reported barriers among this underserved population may help inform researchers and clinicians of this population's readiness for change and how to set realistic intervention goals. PMID:26479700

  6. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  7. The effects of TV commercials using less thin models on young women's mood, body image and actual food intake.

    PubMed

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Becker, Eni S; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2009-09-01

    This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to television commercials using less thin models on mood, body focused anxiety and food intake, as compared to the effects of commercials using thin models. In a naturalistic setting, 110 young women were exposed to a neutral movie, interrupted by two commercial breaks. The commercial breaks contained real commercials using either less thin (n=32) or thin models (n=39), or neutral commercials (n=39). During watching television, participants could freely eat snack food. Further, their mood and body focused anxiety was assessed. ANOVAs revealed no effects on body focused anxiety, but women reported a more negative mood and ate less after exposure to commercials using less thin models than after exposure to commercials using thin models. These results imply that using less thin models in commercials explicitly referring to the thin ideal does not make women feel better. PMID:19699160

  8. The link between women's body image disturbances and body-focused cancer screening behaviors: a critical review of the literature and a new integrated model for women.

    PubMed

    Ridolfi, Danielle R; Crowther, Janis H

    2013-03-01

    A large body of literature demonstrates the association between body image disturbances and health compromising behaviors among women (e.g., pathological eating, substance use, inappropriate exercise). However, given that disturbed body image is a pervasive problem, it is likely inversely related to health maintenance behaviors. Cancer screenings for breast, skin, and cervical cancer represent an important type of health maintenance behavior, yet adherence rates are low. Given the body-focused nature of these screenings, body image may be a salient predictor. This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between body image disturbances and cancer screening behaviors among women culminating in the proposal of a theoretical model. This model posits that body shame and body avoidance predict performance of cancer screenings and that variables drawn from the cancer literature, including risk perception, health anxiety, subjective norms, and self-efficacy, may moderate this relationship. Clinical implications and suggestions for research are discussed. PMID:23265838

  9. Attachment, Sexual Assertiveness, and Sexual Outcomes in Women with Provoked Vestibulodynia and Their Partners: A Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Bianca; Bergeron, Sophie; Brassard, Audrey; Bélanger, Claude; Steben, Marc; Lambert, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent women's sexual pain disorder, which is associated with sexual function difficulties. Attachment theory has been used to understand adult sexual outcomes, providing a useful framework for examining sexual adaptation in couples confronted with PVD. Research to date indicates that anxious and avoidant attachment dimensions correlate with worse sexual outcomes in community and clinical samples. The present study examined the association between attachment, pain, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction in a sample of 101 couples in which the women presented with PVD. The actor-partner interdependence model was used in order to investigate both actor and partner effects. This study also examined the role of sexual assertiveness as a mediator of these associations via structural equation modeling. Women completed measures of pain intensity and both members of the couple completed measures of romantic attachment, sexual assertiveness, sexual function, and satisfaction. Results indicated that attachment dimensions did not predict pain intensity. Both anxious and avoidant attachment were associated with lower sexual satisfaction. Only attachment avoidance predicted lower sexual function in women. Partner effects indicated that higher sexual assertiveness in women predicted higher sexual satisfaction in men. Finally, women's sexual assertiveness was found to be a significant mediator of the relationship between their attachment dimensions, sexual function, and satisfaction. Findings highlight the importance of examining how anxious and avoidant attachment may lead to difficulties in sexual assertiveness and to less satisfying sexual interactions in couples where women suffer from PVD. PMID:24777439

  10. Considering a Relational Model for Depression in Women with Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Reg A.; Seng, Julia S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To extend testing of a relational theory that a low sense of belonging, delayed or impaired bonding, and loneliness are salient risk factors for postpartum depression (PPD) in women. Methods Data for this theory-testing analysis came from a larger prospective longitudinal cohort study and included women who were retained to the end of the study at the 6 week postpartum interview (n=564). Structural equation modeling was used to test the “fit” of the model and determine significance of direct and indirect paths. Results The model explained 35% of the variance in postpartum depression with impaired bonding and loneliness as the strongest indicators. Lower sense of belonging, less perceived social support from a healthcare practitioner and a partner, and lower parenting sense of competence were additional predictors. Conclusion Study findings challenge current thinking about the relationship between impaired bonding and PPD as this study raises the possibility that impaired bonding is a risk for PPD as opposed to the reverse relationship. The study provided evidence of the importance of healthcare practitioners’ alliance with patients. This paper contributes to advancing the science of women’s mental health in relation to depression by considering additional predictors which might be amenable to intervention. PMID:25705566

  11. Evaluation of a Structural Model of Objectification Theory and Eating Disorder Symptomatology among European American and African American Undergraduate Women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated a structural equation model of objectification theory among European American (n = 408) and African American women (n = 233). Modeling results indicated a particularly strong association between thin-ideal internalization/body monitoring and eating disorder symptoms, with weaker relationships among body dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms. The measurement model was not equivalent for European Americans and African Americans; however, the structural model was invariant, suggesting that the relationships among these variables may be similar for both groups. Thus, objectification theory does appear to be applicable to African American women, although specification of relevant constructs and refinement of assessment instruments are warranted. PMID:20221314

  12. Women Living with HIV in Rural Areas. Implementing a Response using the HIV and AIDS Risk Assessment and Reduction Model

    PubMed Central

    Bandali, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The global fight against HIV is progressing; however, women living in rural areas particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to face the devastating consequences of HIV and AIDS. Lack of knowledge and geographical barriers to HIV services are compounded by gender norms often limiting the negotiation of safe sexual practices among women living in rural areas. This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in rural areas of Mozambique examining factors that influenced women to engage in HIV risk-reduction practices. The findings from this study led to the emergence of an HIV and AIDS risk assessment and reduction (HARAR) model, which is described in detail. The model helps in understanding gender-related factors influencing men and women to engage in risk-reduction practices, which can be used as a framework in other settings to design more nuanced and contextual policies and programs. PMID:25089093

  13. A four-culture study of self-enhancement and adjustment using the social relations model: do alternative conceptualizations and indices make a difference?

    PubMed

    Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Mazuera Arias, Rina; Rincon, Brigida Carolina; Vargas-Flores, José de Jesús; Ibáñez-Reyes, Joselina; Wang, Lei; Alvarez, Juan M; Wang, Congcong; Ortiz, Fernando A

    2014-06-01

    In the self-enhancement literature, 2 major controversies remain--whether self-enhancement is a cultural universal and whether it is healthy or maladaptive. Use of the social relations model (SRM; Kenny, 1994) might facilitate resolution of these controversies. We applied the SRM with a round-robin design in both friend and family contexts in 4 diverse cultures: the United States (n = 399), Mexico (n = 413), Venezuela (n = 290), and China (n = 222). Results obtained with social comparison, self-insight, and SRM conceptualizations and indices of self-enhancement were compared for both agentic traits (i.e., egoistic bias) and communal traits (i.e., moralistic bias). Conclusions regarding cultural differences in the prevalence of self-enhancement vs. self-effacement tendencies, and the relationship between self-enhancement and adjustment, varied depending on the index of self-enhancement used. For example, consistent with cultural psychology perspectives, Chinese showed a greater tendency to self-efface than self-enhance using social comparison and self-insight indices, particularly on communal traits in the friend context. However, no cultural differences were observed when perceiver and target effects were controlled using the SRM indices. In all cultures, self-enhancement indices were moderately consistent across friend and family contexts, suggesting traitlike tendencies. To a similar extent in all 4 cultures, self-enhancement tendencies, as measured by the SRM indices, were moderately related to self-rated adjustment, but unrelated, or less so, to observer-rated adjustment. PMID:24841101

  14. Relationship between efficiency and clinical effectiveness indicators in an adjusted model of resource consumption: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adjusted clinical groups (ACG®) have been widely used to adjust resource distribution; however, the relationship with effectiveness has been questioned. The purpose of the study was to measure the relationship between efficiency assessed by ACG® and a clinical effectiveness indicator in adults attended in Primary Health Care Centres (PHCs). Methods Research design: cross-sectional study. Subjects: 196, 593 patients aged >14 years in 13 PHCs in Catalonia (Spain). Measures: Age, sex, PHC, basic care team (BCT), visits, episodes (diagnoses), and total direct costs of PHC care and co-morbidity as measured by ACG® indicators: Efficiency indices for costs, visits, and episodes (costs EI, visits EI, episodes EI); a complexity or risk index (RI); and effectiveness measured by a general synthetic index (SI). The relationship between EI, RI, and SI in each PHC and BCT was measured by multiple correlation coefficients (r). Results In total, 56 of the 106 defined ACG® were present in the study population, with five corresponding to 44.5% of the patients, 11 to 68.0% of patients, and 30 present in less than 0.5% of the sample. The RI in each PHC ranged from 0.9 to 1.1. Costs, visits, and episodes had similar trends for efficiency in six PHCs. There was moderate correlation between costs EI and visits EI (r = 0.59). SI correlation with episodes EI and costs EI was moderate (r = 0.48 and r = −0.34, respectively) and was r = −0.14 for visits EI. Correlation between RI and SI was r = 0.29. Conclusions The Efficiency and Effectiveness ACG® indicators permit a comparison of primary care processes between PHCs. Acceptable correlation exists between effectiveness and indicators of efficiency in episodes and costs. PMID:24139144

  15. Development of a computational framework to adjust the pre-impact spine posture of a whole-body model based on cadaver tests data.

    PubMed

    Poulard, David; Subit, Damien; Donlon, John-Paul; Kent, Richard W

    2015-02-26

    A method was developed to adjust the posture of a human numerical model to match the pre-impact posture of a human subject. The method involves pulling cables to prescribe the position and orientation of the head, spine and pelvis during a simulation. Six postured models matching the pre-impact posture measured on subjects tested in previous studies were created from a human numerical model. Posture scalars were measured on pre- and after applying the method to evaluate its efficiency. The lateral leaning angle θL defined between T1 and the pelvis in the coronal plane was found to be significantly improved after application with an average difference of 0.1±0.1° with the PMHS (4.6±2.7° before application). This method will be applied in further studies to analyze independently the contribution of pre-impact posture on impact response using human numerical models. PMID:25596635

  16. The FiR 1 photon beam model adjustment according to in-air spectrum measurements with the Mg(Ar) ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Koivunoro, H; Schmitz, T; Hippeläinen, E; Liu, Y-H; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Auterinen, I; Savolainen, S

    2014-06-01

    The mixed neutron-photon beam of FiR 1 reactor is used for boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in Finland. A beam model has been defined for patient treatment planning and dosimetric calculations. The neutron beam model has been validated with an activation foil measurements. The photon beam model has not been thoroughly validated against measurements, due to the fact that the beam photon dose rate is low, at most only 2% of the total weighted patient dose at FiR 1. However, improvement of the photon dose detection accuracy is worthwhile, since the beam photon dose is of concern in the beam dosimetry. In this study, we have performed ionization chamber measurements with multiple build-up caps of different thickness to adjust the calculated photon spectrum of a FiR 1 beam model. PMID:24588987

  17. Menstrual and reproductive characteristics and breast density in young women

    PubMed Central

    Klifa, Catherine; Deshmukh, Snehal; Egleston, Brian L.; Shepherd, John A.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Van Horn, Linda; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Stevens, Victor J.; Robson, Alan M.; Lasser, Norman L.; Hylton, Nola M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Breast density is strongly related to breast cancer risk, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown. Methods Associations of reproductive and menstrual characteristics with breast density measured by magnetic resonance imaging were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 176 healthy women, 25–29 years old, using linear mixed effects models. Results Parity was significantly inversely associated with breast density. In multivariable adjusted models that included non-reproductive variables, mean percent dense breast volume (%DBV) decreased from 20.5 % in nulliparous women to 16.0 % in parous women, while mean absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) decreased from 85.3 to 62.5 cm3. Breast density also was significantly inversely associated with the age women started using hormonal contraceptives, whereas it was significantly positively associated with duration of hormonal contraceptive use. In adjusted models, mean %DBV decreased from 21.7 % in women who started using hormones at 12–17 years of age to 14.7 % in those who started using hormones at 22–28 years of age, while mean ADBV decreased from 86.2 to 53.7 cm3. The age at which women started using hormonal contraceptives and duration of hormone use were inversely correlated, and mean %DBV increased from 15.8 % in women who used hormones for not more than 2.0 years to 22.0 % in women who used hormones for more than 8 years, while mean ADBV increased from 61.9 to 90.4 cm3 over this interval. Conclusions Breast density in young women is inversely associated with parity and the age women started using hormonal contraceptives but positively associated with duration of hormone use. PMID:23933948

  18. Improving Physical Activity and Metabolic Syndrome Indicators in Women: A Transtheoretical Model-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat; Pirzadeh, Asiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at investigating the impact of an educational intervention based on transtheoretical model to increase physical activity and improve metabolic syndrome indicators in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 142 women with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to the case and control group (each group 71 participants). SECQ (Marcus), processes of change (Marcus), decisional balance (Bandura) and self-efficacy (Nigg) questionnaires and International Physical Activities Standard Questionnaire in preintervention, 3 and 6 months after intervention were completed. Furthermore, abdominal obesity, triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were measured. Physical activity intervention based on transtheoretical model (TTM) was performed in the case group. Finally, data were analyzed by SPSS (16) (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and repeated measure ANOVA, independent t-test and Freidman was used. A two-tailed P value, lower than 0.05, was considered to be statistically significant. Results: After the intervention, physical activity level increased in the intervention group, and they also progressed in stages of change, but the people in the control group had regressed. All changes in TTM constructs were significant in the intervention group during the time and differences in pros and cons were not significant in the control group. Abdominal obesity and TG has significantly reduced, and HDL has increased in the intervention group. In the control group, there was a significant increase in TGs and a decrease in HDL. Conclusions: Physical activity training based on TTM can improve physical activity and metabolic syndrome indicators in women. PMID:25949778

  19. 42 CFR 422.310 - Risk adjustment data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Risk adjustment data. 422.310 Section 422.310... Organizations § 422.310 Risk adjustment data. (a) Definition of risk adjustment data. Risk adjustment data are all data that are used in the development and application of a risk adjustment payment model. (b)...

  20. 42 CFR 422.310 - Risk adjustment data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Risk adjustment data. 422.310 Section 422.310... Organizations § 422.310 Risk adjustment data. (a) Definition of risk adjustment data. Risk adjustment data are all data that are used in the development and application of a risk adjustment payment model. (b)...

  1. 42 CFR 422.310 - Risk adjustment data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Risk adjustment data. 422.310 Section 422.310....310 Risk adjustment data. (a) Definition of risk adjustment data. Risk adjustment data are all data that are used in the development and application of a risk adjustment payment model. (b)...

  2. The Association of Investment Model Variables and Dyadic Patterns of Physical Partner Violence: A Study of College Women.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Kristiana J; Edwards, Katie M; Gidycz, Christine A

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has examined the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization experiences and investment model variables, particularly with relation to leaving intentions. However, research only has begun to explore the impact that various dyadic patterns of IPV (i.e., unidirectional victimization, unidirectional perpetration, bidirectional violence, and non-violence) have on investment model variables. Grounded in behavioral principles, the current study used a sample of college women to assess the impact that perpetration and victimization have on investment model variables. Results indicated that 69.2% of the sample was in a relationship with no IPV. Among those who reported IPV in their relationships, 11.9% reported unidirectional perpetration, 10.6% bidirectional violence, and 7.4% unidirectional victimization. Overall, the findings suggest that women's victimization (i.e., victim only and bidirectional IPV) is associated with lower levels of satisfaction and commitment, and that women's perpetration (i.e., perpetration only and bidirectional IPV) is associated with higher levels of investment. Women in bidirectionally violent relationships reported higher quality alternatives than women in non-violent relationships. The current study emphasizes the importance of considering both IPV perpetration and IPV victimization experiences when exploring women's decisions to remain in relationships. PMID:25869304

  3. Judging the difference between attractiveness and health: does exposure to model images influence the judgments made by men and women?

    PubMed

    Stephen, Ian D; Perera, A Treshi-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown facial adiposity (apparent weight in the face) to be a significant predictor of both attractiveness and health, thus making it an important determinant of mate selection. Studies looking at the relationship between attractiveness and health have shown that individuals differentiate between the two by preferring a lower weight for attractiveness than for health in female faces. However, these studies have either been correlational studies, or have investigated weight perceived from only the face. These differences have been discussed with regard to sociocultural factors such as pressure from parents, peers and also media, which has been seen to have the highest influence. While exposure to media images has been shown to influence women's own-body image, no study has yet directly tested the influence of these factors on people's preferred weight in other women's bodies. Here we examine how a short exposure to images of models influences men's and women's judgments of the most healthy looking and attractive BMI in Malaysian Chinese women's bodies by comparing differences in preferences (for attractiveness and health) between groups exposed to images of models of varying attractiveness and body weight. Results indicated that participants preferred a lower weight for attractiveness than for health. Further, women's but not men's preferred BMI for attractiveness, but not health, was influenced by the type of media images to which they were exposed, suggesting that short term exposure to model images affect women's perceptions of attractiveness but not health. PMID:24466014

  4. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy

    2015-04-01

    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. PMID:25198414

  5. Competitive exclusion: an ecological model demonstrates how research metrics can drive women out of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, K.; Hapgood, K.

    2012-12-01

    While universities are often perceived within the wider population as a flexible family-friendly work environment, continuous full-time employment remains the norm in tenure track roles. This traditional career path is strongly re-inforced by research metrics, which typically measure accumulated historical performance. There is a strong feedback between historical and future research output, and there is a minimum threshold of research output below which it becomes very difficult to attract funding, high quality students and collaborators. The competing timescales of female fertility and establishment of a research career mean that many women do not exceed this threshold before having children. Using a mathematical model taken from an ecological analogy, we demonstrate how these mechanisms create substantial barriers to pursuing a research career while working part-time or returning from extended parental leave. The model highlights a conundrum for research managers: metrics can promote research productivity and excellence within an organisation, but can classify highly capable scientists as poor performers simply because they have not followed the traditional career path of continuous full-time employment. Based on this analysis, we make concrete recommendations for researchers and managers seeking to retain the skills and training invested in female scientists. We also provide survival tactics for women and men who wish to pursue a career in science while also spending substantial time and energy raising their family.

  6. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets. PMID:27240100

  7. Women and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Thara, R.; Kamath, Shantha

    2015-01-01

    Women's mental health is closely linked to their status in society. This paper outlines the clinical features of women with schizophrenia and highlights the interpersonal and social ramifications on their lives. There is no significant gender difference in the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia. There is no clear trend in mortality, although suicides seem to be more in women with schizophrenia. In India, women face a lot of problems, especially in relation to marriage, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause. Most studies have shown better premorbid functioning, and social adjustment for women compared with men. There is a great need to plan for gender-sensitive mental health services targeting the special needs of these women. Women caregivers also deserve due attention. PMID:26330642

  8. Effects of Maternal Depression on Youth Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer

    Depressive disorders are chronic illnesses affecting women and their families for extended periods of time. This paper summarizes research related to the effects of maternal depression on children's short and long term adjustment. Children of depressed mothers are at risk for internalizing and externalizing disorders. Genetics account for a small…

  9. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  10. Slope adjustment of runoff curve number (CN) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) for Kuantan River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Abolghasem

    2015-10-01

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service Curve Number (NRCS-CN) method is widely used for predicting direct runoff from rainfall. It employs the hydrologic soil groups and landuse information along with period soil moisture conditions to derive NRCS-CN. This method has been well documented and available in popular rainfall-runoff models such as HEC-HMS, SWAT, SWMM and many more. The Sharply-Williams and Hank methods was used to adjust CN values provided in standard table of TR-55. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) is used to derive slope map with spatial resolution of 30 m for Kuantan River Basin (KRB). The two investigated method stretches the conventional CN domain to the lower values. The study shows a successful application of remote sensing data and GIS tools in hydrological studies. The result of this work can be used for rainfall-runoff simulation and flood modeling in KRB.

  11. Men's and women's responses to two-sided health news coverage: a moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chingching

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how audiences respond to news coverage of food and nutrition topics when that coverage provides either 2-sided (positive and negative) information or 1-sided, unanimously positive information. A moderated mediation model helps clarify the different impacts of 2- and 1-sided news coverage and the psychological processes they elicit. Specifically, gender moderates the relative effects of 1- and 2-sided news stories; ambivalent feelings play a mediating role in the process. The findings confirm the model predictions: When reading 2-sided as opposed to 1-sided news, men experience more ambivalent feelings, less favorable attitudes toward the health issues, and lower intentions to adopt the advocated behaviors, whereas women do not exhibit such differences. Moreover, the ambivalent feelings mediate the interaction between gender and news presentation (i.e., 1- or 2-sided) on attitudes toward health issues and behavioral intentions to adopt advocated health behaviors. PMID:23886062

  12. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  13. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  14. Large animal models for the study of ovarian follicular dynamics in women.

    PubMed

    Adams, G P; Singh, J; Baerwald, A R

    2012-11-01

    Initial studies of the ovaries were based on postmortem anatomic descriptions, followed by histologic and endocrine approaches. The introduction of high-resolution ultrasonography provided a long-awaited tool to image the reproductive tissues in situ in both animals and humans. Critical studies of the characteristics and control of ovarian follicular and luteal dynamics in nonhuman primates, rodents, and domestic farm animals have involved frequent (i.e., daily or multiple times a day) blood sampling and ultrasonography. Studies of this nature in women are difficult, and often unethical to conduct. Differences in antral folliculogenesis between humans and animals appear to be more in detail rather than in essence, and may reflect differences in intrinsic physiology or merely differences in our ability to detect changes in a given species. In women, the presence of endometrial shedding and symmetric luteal and follicular phases are different from that observed during the estrous cycles of domestic farm animals but despite these differences, general similarities in antral follicular dynamics exist. A continuous pattern of antral follicle development was originally proposed in domestic livestock species; however, the use of frequent serial ultrasonography and simultaneous endocrine profiling in these animal species has resulted in a broad understanding of follicular wave dynamics. Follicular waves have now been described in every species in which this approach has been used, including humans. The relatively large diameters of antral follicles in cows and mares, compared with monkeys, sheep, and rodents provide greater feasibility for characterizing antral follicular dynamics ultrasonographically. While the use of large animal models has increased our understanding of ovarian function and provides the hypothetical basis for studies in women, differences in vocabulary, culture, and research methodologies has hampered knowledge translation. These differences represent a

  15. Model-Based Estimates of the Effects of Efavirenz on Bedaquiline Pharmacokinetics and Suggested Dose Adjustments for Patients Coinfected with HIV and Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Elin M.; Aweeka, Francesca; Park, Jeong-Gun; Marzan, Florence; Karlsson, Mats O.

    2013-01-01

    Safe, effective concomitant treatment regimens for tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infection are urgently needed. Bedaquiline (BDQ) is a promising new anti-TB drug, and efavirenz (EFV) is a commonly used antiretroviral. Due to EFV's induction of cytochrome P450 3A4, the metabolic enzyme responsible for BDQ biotransformation, the drugs are expected to interact. Based on data from a phase I, single-dose pharmacokinetic study, a nonlinear mixed-effects model characterizing BDQ pharmacokinetics and interaction with multiple-dose EFV was developed. BDQ pharmacokinetics were best described by a 3-compartment disposition model with absorption through a dynamic transit compartment model. Metabolites M2 and M3 were described by 2-compartment models with clearance of BDQ and M2, respectively, as input. Impact of induction was described as an instantaneous change in clearance 1 week after initialization of EFV treatment and estimated for all compounds. The model predicts average steady-state concentrations of BDQ and M2 to be reduced by 52% (relative standard error [RSE], 3.7%) with chronic coadministration. A range of models with alternative structural assumptions regarding onset of induction effect and fraction metabolized resulted in similar estimates of the typical reduction and did not offer a markedly better fit to data. Simulations to investigate alternative regimens mitigating the estimated interaction effect were performed. The results suggest that simple adjustments of the standard regimen during EFV coadministration can prevent reduced exposure to BDQ without increasing exposures to M2. However, exposure to M3 would increase. Evaluation in clinical trials of adjusted regimens is necessary to ensure appropriate dosing for HIV-infected TB patients on an EFV-based regimen. PMID:23571542

  16. The North Carolina Breast Cancer Screening Program: foundations and design of a model for reaching older, minority, rural women.

    PubMed

    Earp, J A; Altpeter, M; Mayne, L; Viadro, C I; O'Malley, M S

    1995-07-01

    Breast cancer screening programs do not reach all women at the same rate. Screening mammography use varies according to sociodemographic characteristics; mammography utilization is highest among women in their fifties but then decreases with age. In North Carolina, breast cancer is a particular burden for Black and lower-income women. Black women are more likely to be diagnosed with late stage disease, and their rate of breast cancer mortality is higher than it is for White women even though the incidence in White women is greater. Older, Black, and low-income women are less likely to obtain screening by mammography and clinical breast examination. The Black-White gap is even more pronounced among rural women, in part because they are more likely to be poor. The North Carolina Breast Cancer Screening Program (NC-BCSP) was established to increase the rate of regular mammography screening by an absolute 20% in 3 years among older Black women ages 50 and older in five rural counties in the eastern part of the state. In this paper, we describe the genesis of this comprehensive community intervention model, highlighting the behavioral science constructs, health education principles, and theories of behavioral and organizational change that form its conceptual foundation. NC-BCSP's theoretical foundations include the social ecological perspective, the PRECEDE model of health promotion, the Health Belief Model of individual change, and the "stages of change" transtheoretical model. We also review the experiences and lessons learned from two previous outreach initiatives in North Carolina that provided valuable "lessons" in the development of the NC-BCSP intervention model. In the second half of the paper, we describe the actual NC-BCSP interventions, activities, and evaluation tools, citing specific examples of how the underlying theories are implemented. NC-BCSP's goal goes beyond individual behavior change to raise low mammography screening rates among Black women in

  17. Examining the Cognitive Processes Used by Adolescent Girls and Women Scientists in Identifying Science Role Models: A Feminist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Gayle A.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra; Lu, Yun; Cerda-Lizarraga, Particia

    2008-01-01

    Women remain underrepresented in science professions. Studies have shown that students are more likely to select careers when they can identify a role model in that career path. Further research has shown that the success of this strategy is enhanced by the use of gender-matched role models. While prior work provides insights into the value of…

  18. College Women's Stay/Leave Decisions in Abusive Dating Relationships: A Prospective Analysis of an Expanded Investment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Katie M.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Murphy, Megan J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore college women's stay/ leave decisions in abusive relationships using a prospective methodology. Participants (N = 323) completed surveys at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter for course credit. A path analysis suggested that the model--which included investment model variables (i.e.,…

  19. The Acceptance Model of Intuitive Eating: A Comparison of Women in Emerging Adulthood, Early Adulthood, and Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating (Avalos & Tylka, 2006) posits that body acceptance by others helps women appreciate their body and resist adopting an observer's perspective of their body, which contribute to their eating intuitively/adaptively. We extended this model by integrating body mass index (BMI) into its structure and…

  20. Evaluation of a Structural Model of Objectification Theory and Eating Disorder Symptomatology among European American and African American Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated a structural equation model of objectification theory among European American (EA; n = 408) and African American women (AA; n = 233). Modeling results indicated a particularly strong association between thin-ideal internalization/body monitoring and eating disorder symptoms, with weaker relationships among body…

  1. Evaluation of a two-part regression calibration to adjust for dietary exposure measurement error in the Cox proportional hazards model: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Agogo, George O; van der Voet, Hilko; Van't Veer, Pieter; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Boshuizen, Hendriek C

    2016-07-01

    Dietary questionnaires are prone to measurement error, which bias the perceived association between dietary intake and risk of disease. Short-term measurements are required to adjust for the bias in the association. For foods that are not consumed daily, the short-term measurements are often characterized by excess zeroes. Via a simulation study, the performance of a two-part calibration model that was developed for a single-replicate study design was assessed by mimicking leafy vegetable intake reports from the multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. In part I of the fitted two-part calibration model, a logistic distribution was assumed; in part II, a gamma distribution was assumed. The model was assessed with respect to the magnitude of the correlation between the consumption probability and the consumed amount (hereafter, cross-part correlation), the number and form of covariates in the calibration model, the percentage of zero response values, and the magnitude of the measurement error in the dietary intake. From the simulation study results, transforming the dietary variable in the regression calibration to an appropriate scale was found to be the most important factor for the model performance. Reducing the number of covariates in the model could be beneficial, but was not critical in large-sample studies. The performance was remarkably robust when fitting a one-part rather than a two-part model. The model performance was minimally affected by the cross-part correlation. PMID:27003183

  2. Adjusting for Unequal Variances when Comparing Means in One-Way and Two-Way Fixed Effects ANOVA Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of handling unequal variances in the two-way fixed effects analysis of variance (ANOVA) model are described. One is based on an improved Wilcox (1988) method for the one-way model, and the other is an extension of G. S. James' (1951) second order method. (TJH)

  3. Multivariate Models of Parent-Late Adolescent Gender Dyads: The Importance of Parenting Processes in Predicting Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…

  4. Breast Cancer Risk and Provider Recommendation for Mammography Among Recently Unscreened Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sabatino, Susan A; Burns, Risa B; Davis, Roger B; Phillips, Russell S; McCarthy, Ellen P

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Many women with increased breast cancer risk have not been screened recently. Provider recommendation for mammography is an important reason many women undergo screening. We examined the association between breast cancer risk and reported provider recommendation for mammography in recently unscreened women. DESIGN Cross-sectional study using 2000 National Health Interview Survey. PARTICIPANTS In all, 1673 women ages 40 to 75 years without cancer who saw a health care provider in the prior year and had no mammogram within 2 years. MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS We assessed breast cancer risk by Gail score and risk factors. We used multivariable logistic regression models in SUDAAN adjusted for age, race and illness burden, to examine the association between risk and reported recommendation for mammography within 1 year for all women and women ages 50 to 75 years. RESULTS Of 1673 recently unscreened women, 29% reported a recommendation. Twelve percent of women had increased Gail risk and of these recently unscreened, high-risk women, 25% reported a recommendation. After adjustment, high-risk women were not more likely to report a recommendation than average-risk women. Results were similar for women 50 to 75 years old. No individual breast cancer factors other than age were associated with reporting a recommendation. CONCLUSIONS Approximately 70% of recently unscreened women seen by a health care provider in the prior year reported no recommendation for mammography, regardless of breast cancer risk. This did not include women who received a recommendation and were screened. Increasing reported recommendation rates may represent an opportunity to increase screening participation among recently unscreened women, particularly for women with increased breast cancer risk. PMID:16686802

  5. Breaking the Stained Glass Ceiling: Women's Collaborative Leadership Style as a Model for Theological Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions. The reality, however, is that while women are slightly more than 50% of the population, they are underrepresented in leadership. Fewer than 10% of chief executive officers in theological education are women. Traditional roles in…

  6. Longitudinal examination of the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2010-12-01

    This 2-year prospective study examined the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women (N = 143) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled exercise trial. Across the 2-year period, increases in physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy and reductions in body mass index (BMI) were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition, and reductions in BMI were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The effects of PA, self-efficacy, and BMI on changes in physical self-worth and global self-esteem were mediated by changes in self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The results of this longitudinal analysis support the hierarchical and multidimensional structure of self-esteem and indicate that middle-aged women can enhance how they perceive their condition and body attractiveness by continued participation in physical activity, increasing their self-efficacy, and maintaining healthy BMI levels. PMID:21282842

  7. Resilience in Community: A Social Ecological Development Model for Young Adult Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18–25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18–41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  8. From skin to bulk: An adjustment technique for assimilation of satellite-derived temperature observations in numerical models of small inland water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaheri, Amir; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Miller, Robert N.

    2016-06-01

    Data Assimilation (DA) has been proposed for multiple water resources studies that require rapid employment of incoming observations to update and improve accuracy of operational prediction models. The usefulness of DA approaches in assimilating water temperature observations from different types of monitoring technologies (e.g., remote sensing and in-situ sensors) into numerical models of in-land water bodies (e.g., lakes and reservoirs) has, however, received limited attention. In contrast to in-situ temperature sensors, remote sensing technologies (e.g., satellites) provide the benefit of collecting measurements with better X-Y spatial coverage. However, assimilating water temperature measurements from satellites can introduce biases in the updated numerical model of water bodies because the physical region represented by these measurements do not directly correspond with the numerical model's representation of the water column. This study proposes a novel approach to address this representation challenge by coupling a skin temperature adjustment technique based on available air and in-situ water temperature observations, with an ensemble Kalman filter based data assimilation technique. Additionally, the proposed approach used in this study for four-dimensional analysis of a reservoir provides reasonably accurate surface layer and water column temperature forecasts, in spite of the use of a fairly small ensemble. Application of the methodology on a test site - Eagle Creek Reservoir - in Central Indiana demonstrated that assimilation of remotely sensed skin temperature data using the proposed approach improved the overall root mean square difference between modeled surface layer temperatures and the adjusted remotely sensed skin temperature observations from 5.6°C to 0.51°C (i.e., 91% improvement). In addition, the overall error in the water column temperature predictions when compared with in-situ observations also decreased from 1.95°C (before assimilation

  9. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Among Women: Comparative Effectiveness of 5 Prevention and Management Strategies Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo Model

    PubMed Central

    Eells, Samantha J.; Bharadwa, Kiran; McKinnell, James A.; Miller, Loren G.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem among women. However, comparative effectiveness strategies for managing recurrent UTIs are lacking. Methods. We performed a systematic literature review of management of women experiencing ≥3 UTIs per year. We then developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo model of recurrent UTI for each management strategy with ≥2 adequate trials published. We simulated a cohort that experienced 3 UTIs/year and a secondary cohort that experienced 8 UTIs/year. Model outcomes were treatment efficacy, patient and payer cost, and health-related quality of life. Results. Five strategies had ≥2 clinical trials published: (1) daily antibiotic (nitrofurantoin) prophylaxis; (2) daily estrogen prophylaxis; (3) daily cranberry prophylaxis; (4) acupuncture prophylaxis; and (5) symptomatic self-treatment. In the 3 UTIs/year model, nitrofurantoin prophylaxis was most effective, reducing the UTI rate to 0.4 UTIs/year, and the most expensive to the payer ($821/year). All other strategies resulted in payer cost savings but were less efficacious. Symptomatic self-treatment was the only strategy that resulted in patient cost savings, and was the most favorable strategy in term of cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Conclusions. Daily antibiotic use is the most effective strategy for recurrent UTI prevention compared to daily cranberry pills, daily estrogen therapy, and acupuncture. Cost savings to payers and patients were seen for most regimens, and improvement in QALYs were seen with all. Our findings provide clinically meaningful data to guide the physician–patient partnership in determining a preferred method of prevention for this common clinical problem. PMID:24065333

  10. Measuring demand for flat water recreation using a two-stage/disequilibrium travel cost model with adjustment for overdispersion and self-selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, John R.; Johnson, Donn; Taylor, R. Garth

    2003-04-01

    An alternate travel cost model is applied to an on-site sample to estimate the value of flat water recreation on the impounded lower Snake River. Four contiguous reservoirs would be eliminated if the dams are breached to protect endangered Pacific salmon and steelhead trout. The empirical method applies truncated negative binomial regression with adjustment for endogenous stratification. The two-stage decision model assumes that recreationists allocate their time among work and leisure prior to deciding among consumer goods. The allocation of time and money among goods in the second stage is conditional on the predetermined work time and income. The second stage is a disequilibrium labor market which also applies if employers set work hours or if recreationists are not in the labor force. When work time is either predetermined, fixed by contract, or nonexistent, recreationists must consider separate prices and budgets for time and money.

  11. Adjustment of Sonar and Laser Acquisition Data for Building the 3D Reference Model of a Canal Tunnel.

    PubMed

    Moisan, Emmanuel; Charbonnier, Pierre; Foucher, Philippe; Grussenmeyer, Pierre; Guillemin, Samuel; Koehl, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the construction of a full 3D model of a canal tunnel by combining terrestrial laser (for its above-water part) and sonar (for its underwater part) scans collected from static acquisitions. The modeling of such a structure is challenging because the sonar device is used in a narrow environment that induces many artifacts. Moreover, the location and the orientation of the sonar device are unknown. In our approach, sonar data are first simultaneously denoised and meshed. Then, above- and under-water point clouds are co-registered to generate directly the full 3D model of the canal tunnel. Faced with the lack of overlap between both models, we introduce a robust algorithm that relies on geometrical entities and partially-immersed targets, which are visible in both the laser and sonar point clouds. A full 3D model, visually promising, of the entrance of a canal tunnel is obtained. The analysis of the method raises several improvement directions that will help with obtaining more accurate models, in a more automated way, in the limits of the involved technology. PMID:26690444

  12. Adjustment of Sonar and Laser Acquisition Data for Building the 3D Reference Model of a Canal Tunnel †

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Emmanuel; Charbonnier, Pierre; Foucher, Philippe; Grussenmeyer, Pierre; Guillemin, Samuel; Koehl, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the construction of a full 3D model of a canal tunnel by combining terrestrial laser (for its above-water part) and sonar (for its underwater part) scans collected from static acquisitions. The modeling of such a structure is challenging because the sonar device is used in a narrow environment that induces many artifacts. Moreover, the location and the orientation of the sonar device are unknown. In our approach, sonar data are first simultaneously denoised and meshed. Then, above- and under-water point clouds are co-registered to generate directly the full 3D model of the canal tunnel. Faced with the lack of overlap between both models, we introduce a robust algorithm that relies on geometrical entities and partially-immersed targets, which are visible in both the laser and sonar point clouds. A full 3D model, visually promising, of the entrance of a canal tunnel is obtained. The analysis of the method raises several improvement directions that will help with obtaining more accurate models, in a more automated way, in the limits of the involved technology. PMID:26690444

  13. A Glacial Isostatic Adjustment Model for the Central and Northern Laurentide Ice Sheet based on Relative Sea-level and GPS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    The thickness and equivalent global sea-level contribution of an improved model of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet is constrained by 24 relative sea-level histories and 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates. The final model, termed Laur16, is derived from the ICE-5 G model by holding the timing history constant and iteratively adjusting the thickness history, in four regions of northern Canada. In the final model, the last glacial maximum (LGM) thickness of the Laurentide Ice Sheet west of Hudson Bay was ˜3.4-3.6 km. Conversely, east of Hudson Bay, peak ice thicknesses reached ˜4 km. The ice model thicknesses inferred for these two regions represent, respectively, a ˜30% decrease and an average ˜20-25% increase to the load thickness relative to the ICE-5 G reconstruction, which is generally consistent with other recent studies that have focussed on Laurentide Ice Sheet history. The final model also features peak ice thicknesses of 1.2-1.3 km in the Baffin Island region, a modest reduction relative to ICE-5 G, and unchanged thicknesses for a region in the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago west of Baffin Island. Vertical land motion predictions of the final model fit observed crustal uplift rates well, after an adjustment is made for the elastic crustal response to present-day ice mass changes of regional ice cover. The new Laur16 model provides more than a factor of two improvement of the fit to the RSL data (χ2 measure of misfit) and a factor of nine improvement to the fit of the GPS data (mean squared error measure of fit), compared to the ICE-5 G starting model. Laur16 also fits the regional RSL data better by a factor of two and gives a slightly better fit to GPS uplift rates than the recent ICE-6 G model. The volume history of the Laur16 reconstruction corresponds to an up to 8 m reduction in global sea-level equivalent compared to ICE-5 G at LGM.

  14. A glacial isostatic adjustment model for the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet based on relative sea level and GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    The thickness and equivalent global sea level contribution of an improved model of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet is constrained by 24 relative sea level histories and 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates. The final model, termed Laur16, is derived from the ICE-5G model by holding the timing history constant and iteratively adjusting the thickness history, in four regions of northern Canada. In the final model, the last glacial maximum (LGM) thickness of the Laurentide Ice Sheet west of Hudson Bay was ˜3.4-3.6 km. Conversely, east of Hudson Bay, peak ice thicknesses reached ˜4 km. The ice model thicknesses inferred for these two regions represent, respectively, a ˜30 per cent decrease and an average ˜20-25 per cent increase to the load thickness relative to the ICE-5G reconstruction, which is generally consistent with other recent studies that have focussed on Laurentide Ice Sheet history. The final model also features peak ice thicknesses of 1.2-1.3 km in the Baffin Island region, a modest reduction relative to ICE-5G and unchanged thicknesses for a region in the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago west of Baffin Island. Vertical land motion predictions of the final model fit observed crustal uplift rates well, after an adjustment is made for the elastic crustal response to present-day ice mass changes of regional ice cover. The new Laur16 model provides more than a factor of two improvement of the fit to the RSL data (χ2 measure of misfit) and a factor of nine improvement to the fit of the GPS data (mean squared error measure of fit), compared to the ICE-5G starting model. Laur16 also fits the regional RSL data better by a factor of two and gives a slightly better fit to GPS uplift rates than the recent ICE-6G model. The volume history of the Laur16 reconstruction corresponds to an up to 8 m reduction in global sea level equivalent compared to ICE-5G at LGM.

  15. Women in mathematics, science, and engineering college majors: A model predicting career aspirations based on ability, self-efficacy, role model influence, and role conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauta, Margaret Mary

    1997-09-01

    This study investigated a model of predictors of career aspirations among two groups of women: students in mathematics, physical science, and engineering majors and students in biological science majors. Based on theories of women's career development and social-cognitive theories, it was hypothesized that ability, self-efficacy, positivity of role model influence, and role conflict would influence the career aspirations of these women. It was further hypothesized that the students' year in school would contribute to this model as a predictor variable. Five hundred forty-six students (representing a 71% response rate) from Iowa State University were surveyed by mail to evaluate the fit of this model. The structural equation modeling procedure revealed that the career aspirations of the two groups of women were directly predicted by self-efficacy and role conflict and indirectly predicted by year in school, academic ability, and positivity of role model influence. The model for this combined group of students represented a good overall fit, explaining 94% of the covariation among the measured variables. When the two groups of students were compared, identical models for women in the two groups revealed different relationships among the variables. In contrast to the women in math, physical science, and engineering majors, the relationships between ability and self-efficacy and between positivity of role model influence and self-efficacy were significantly lower in magnitude for women in the biological sciences group. In addition to providing a parsimonious model for conceptualizing the experiences of women in traditionally male fields, this study's findings have implications for increasing the number of women who aspire to advanced careers in these occupations. Primarily, this study suggests that interventions designed to increase the degree to which students are influenced positively by role models may increase their self-efficacy expectations and may decrease the

  16. A longitudinal examination of the Adaptation to Poverty-Related Stress Model: predicting child and adolescent adjustment over time.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Rindlaub, Laura; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana; Rienks, Shauna; Bianco, Hannah; Markman, Howard J

    2013-01-01

    This study tests key tenets of the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model. This model (Wadsworth, Raviv, Santiago, & Etter, 2011 ) builds on Conger and Elder's family stress model by proposing that primary control coping and secondary control coping can help reduce the negative effects of economic strain on parental behaviors central to the family stress model, namely, parental depressive symptoms and parent-child interactions, which together can decrease child internalizing and externalizing problems. Two hundred seventy-five co-parenting couples with children between the ages of 1 and 18 participated in an evaluation of a brief family strengthening intervention, aimed at preventing economic strain's negative cascade of influence on parents, and ultimately their children. The longitudinal path model, analyzed at the couple dyad level with mothers and fathers nested within couple, showed very good fit, and was not moderated by child gender or ethnicity. Analyses revealed direct positive effects of primary control coping and secondary control coping on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms. Decreased economic strain predicted more positive father-child interactions, whereas increased secondary control coping predicted less negative mother-child interactions. Positive parent-child interactions, along with decreased parent depression and economic strain, predicted child internalizing and externalizing over the course of 18 months. Multiple-group models analyzed separately by parent gender revealed, however, that child age moderated father effects. Findings provide support for the adaptation to poverty-related stress model and suggest that prevention and clinical interventions for families affected by poverty-related stress may be strengthened by including modules that address economic strain and efficacious strategies for coping with strain. PMID:23323863

  17. Dynamic fe Model of Sitting Man Adjustable to Body Height, Body Mass and Posture Used for Calculating Internal Forces in the Lumbar Vertebral Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankoke, S.; Buck, B.; Woelfel, H. P.

    1998-08-01

    Long-term whole-body vibrations can cause degeneration of the lumbar spine. Therefore existing degeneration has to be assessed as well as industrial working places to prevent further damage. Hence, the mechanical stress in the lumbar spine—especially in the three lower vertebrae—has to be known. This stress can be expressed as internal forces. These internal forces cannot be evaluated experimentally, because force transducers cannot be implementated in the force lines because of ethical reasons. Thus it is necessary to calculate the internal forces with a dynamic mathematical model of sitting man.A two dimensional dynamic Finite Element model of sitting man is presented which allows calculation of these unknown internal forces. The model is based on an anatomic representation of the lower lumbar spine (L3-L5). This lumber spine model is incorporated into a dynamic model of the upper torso with neck, head and arms as well as a model of the body caudal to the lumbar spine with pelvis and legs. Additionally a simple dynamic representation of the viscera is used. All these parts are modelled as rigid bodies connected by linear stiffnesses. Energy dissipation is modelled by assigning modal damping ratio to the calculated undamped eigenvalues. Geometry and inertial properties of the model are determined according to human anatomy. Stiffnesses of the spine model are derived from static in-vitro experiments in references [1] and [2]. Remaining stiffness parameters and parameters for energy dissipation are determined by using parameter identification to fit measurements in reference [3]. The model, which is available in 3 different postures, allows one to adjust its parameters for body height and body mass to the values of the person for which internal forces have to be calculated.

  18. Factor demand in Swedish manufacturing industry with special reference to the demand for energy. Instantaneous adjustment models; some results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjoeholm, K. R.

    1981-02-01

    The dual approach to the theory of production is used to estimate factor demand functions of the Swedish manufacturing industry. Two approximations of the cost function, the translog and the generalized Leontief models, are used. The price elasticities of the factor demand do not seem to depend on the choice of model. This is at least true as to the sign pattern and as to the inputs capital, labor, total energy and other materials. Total energy is separated into solid fuels, gasoline, fuel oil, electricity and a residual. Fuel oil and electricity are found to be substitutes by both models. Capital and energy are shown to be substitutes. This implies that Swedish industry will save more energy if the capital cost can be reduced. Both models are, in the best versions, able to detect an inappropriate variable. The assumption of perfect competition on the product market, is shown to be inadequate by both models. When this assumption is relaxed, the normal substitution pattern among the inputs is resumed.

  19. A Conceptual Model to Promote the Retention of Women With Physical Disabilities in Research

    PubMed Central

    Mood, Laura; Hassouneh, Dena; McNeff, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate participant recruitment and retention practices can affect sample representativeness and thus the generalizability of research findings. Retention of research participants has been examined within the literature to some extent; however, there is no consensus on best practice in achieving acceptable results. Furthermore, there is a gap in understanding how to engage and retain women with physical disabilities (WPDs) in research. To address these oversights, we review (1) the significance of retention as a methodologic concern, (2) factors that influence the involvement and retention of participants in research, including individual, population, and health-illness considerations, and (3) particular circumstances impacting the inclusion and retention of WPDs in research. Based on a review of the literature and our experience with the Healing Pathways randomized-controlled trial (RCT), we present a conceptual model to guide culturally-sensitive health research implementation with WPDs, and promote the engagement and retention of this group in RCTs and other forms of interventional health research. PMID:25801324

  20. Psychobiobehavioral Model for Preterm Birth in Pregnant Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Premji, Shahirose S; Yim, Ilona S; Dosani Mawji, Aliyah; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Sulaiman, Salima; Musana, Joseph W; Samia, Pauline; Shaikh, Kiran; Letourneau, Nicole; MiGHT Group

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a final common outcome resulting from many interrelated etiological pathways; of particular interest is antenatal psychosocial distress (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). In LMI countries, both exposure to severe life stressors and rate of PTB are on average greater when compared with high-income countries. In LMI countries women are exposed to some of the most extreme psychosocial stress worldwide (e.g., absolute poverty, limited social resources). High prevalence of antenatal stress and depression have been observed in some studies from LMI countries. We propose a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral model for investigating the complex multisystem interactions in stress responses leading to PTB and explain the basis of this approach. We discuss ethical considerations for a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral screening tool to predict PTB from a LMI country perspective. PMID:26413524

  1. Psychobiobehavioral Model for Preterm Birth in Pregnant Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Shahirose S.; Yim, Ilona S.; Dosani (Mawji), Aliyah; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Sulaiman, Salima; Musana, Joseph W.; Samia, Pauline; Shaikh, Kiran; Letourneau, Nicole; MiGHT Group

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a final common outcome resulting from many interrelated etiological pathways; of particular interest is antenatal psychosocial distress (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). In LMI countries, both exposure to severe life stressors and rate of PTB are on average greater when compared with high-income countries. In LMI countries women are exposed to some of the most extreme psychosocial stress worldwide (e.g., absolute poverty, limited social resources). High prevalence of antenatal stress and depression have been observed in some studies from LMI countries. We propose a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral model for investigating the complex multisystem interactions in stress responses leading to PTB and explain the basis of this approach. We discuss ethical considerations for a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral screening tool to predict PTB from a LMI country perspective. PMID:26413524

  2. Vasomotor symptoms and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin-resistance in Korean postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dae Hui; Lee, Ju Hak; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Park, Hyun-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and insulin resistance, which can be postulated by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index. This study involved 1,547 Korean postmenopausal women (age, 45 to 65 years) attending a routine health check-up at a single institution in Korea from January 2010 to December 2012. A menopause rating scale questionnaire was used to assess the severity of VMS. The mean age of participants was 55.22±4.8 years and 885 (57.2%) reported VMS in some degree. The mean HOMA index was 1.79±0.96, and the HOMA index increased with an increase in severity of VMS (none, mild, moderate and severe) in logistic regression analysis (β=0.068, t=2.665, P =0.008). Insulin resistance needs to be considered to understand the linkage between VMS and cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:26866035

  3. The Effect of an Educational Program Based on Health Belief Model on Preventing Osteoporosis in Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Askari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The study's objective is to investigate the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM) on preventing osteoporosis in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients (60 experimental and 60 control) who were registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran, were selected in 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, HBM constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for the prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after intervention, and 6 months later. Bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and 6 months after intervention. Results: The mean age of women participated in the study was 41.75 ± 5.4 years for the experimental group, and 41.77 ± 5.43 years for the control group. The mean body mass index was 22.44 ± 3.30 for the experimental group and 22.27 ± 3.05 for the control group. The average number of women deliveries for the experimental group was 2.57 ± 1.47 and 2.50 ± 1.19 for the control group. There is no significant difference between the two groups in education level (P = 0.771), marital status (P = 0.880), occupation (P = 0.673), breastfeeding (P = 0.769), smoking (P = 0.315), history of osteoporosis in the family (P = 0.378), history of special diseases (P = 0.769), and records of bone densitometry (P = 0.543). Immediately and 6 months after intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, internal cues to action, nutrition, and walking performance compared to the control group. Six months after intervention, the value of lumbar spine BMD T-score in the experimental group increased to 0.127, while in the control group it reduced to −0.043. The value of the hip BMD T-score in the intervention group increased

  4. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  5. Family, Neighborhood, and Peer Characteristics as Predictors of Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Analysis of Additive and Mediation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Moilanen, Kristin L.; Hitchings, Julia E.; Ingoldsby, Erin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test direct, additive, and mediation models involving family, neighborhood, and peer factors in relation to emerging antisocial behavior and social skills. Neighborhood danger, maternal depressive symptoms, and supportive parenting were assessed in early childhood. Peer group acceptance was measured in middle…

  6. Exposure to family violence and attachment styles as predictors of dating violence perpetration among men and women: a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mary; Reese-Weber, Marla; Kahn, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a multiple mediator model explaining how sibling perpetration and one's attachment style mediate the relation between parent-to-child victimization and dating violence perpetration. A sample of undergraduate students (n = 392 women, n = 89 men) completed measures of the aforementioned variables on an Internet survey. For men, path analyses found no mediation; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, no association was found between sibling perpetration and dating violence perpetration, and attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, was positively associated with dating violence perpetration for men. For women, the hypothesized mediation model was supported; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, and sibling perpetration and attachment anxiety served as mediating variables. Attachment avoidance was not associated with dating violence perpetration for women. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:24097907

  7. Effects of Education Based on Health Belief Model on Dietary Behaviors of Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Khoramabadi, M.; Dolatian, M.; Hajian, S.; Zamanian, M.; Taheripanah, R.; Sheikhan, Z.; Mahmoodi, Z.; Seyedi-Moghadam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mothers and children are the most vulnerable members of every society. As a result many deaths occur in these two groups, so caring for these two groups is very important. Today, it is believed that the health of an infant is related to the health of their mother. Maintaining a healthy weight before pregnancy, and optimal weight gain during pregnancy by appropriate and sufficient nutrition, are two effective measures for the prevention of low birth weight.To provide successful health interventions, it is essential to design and implement effective health education programs. Successful education also depends on the proper use of theories and models in health education. The Health Belief Model is a model that illustrates the relationship between beliefs and health, and it is based on the hypothesis that preventive health behavior consists of personal beliefs. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of training on the Health Belief Model on dietary behaviors of a sample of pregnant Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial, involving 130 pregnant women who attended two health care centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Data was collected by a structured questionnaire in three parts and seven sub-scales (including demographic characteristics, knowledge and dietary behaviors) based on the Health Belief Model. Principles of education were based on the Health Belief Model and performed twice during two-hour sessions in the intervention group. Women in the control group received routine care and did not receive training on the above model. In order to evaluate the intervention, the previously mentioned questionnaire was administered one month after completion of the intervention, and filled by participants in both groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and reported with diagrams and tables. Results: The mean score for each variable before the intervention, except for the

  8. Systems of Career Influences: A Conceptual Model for Evaluating the Professional Development of Women in Academic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Helitzer, Deborah; Morahan, Page; Chang, Shine; Gleason, Katharine; Cardinali, Gina; Wu, Chih-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Surprisingly little research is available to explain the well-documented organizational and societal influences on persistent inequities in advancement of women faculty. Methods The Systems of Career Influences Model is a framework for exploring factors influencing women's progression to advanced academic rank, executive positions, and informal leadership roles in academic medicine. The model situates faculty as agents within a complex adaptive system consisting of a trajectory of career advancement with opportunities for formal professional development programming; a dynamic system of influences of organizational policies, practices, and culture; and a dynamic system of individual choices and decisions. These systems of influence may promote or inhibit career advancement. Within this system, women weigh competing influences to make career advancement decisions, and leaders of academic health centers prioritize limited resources to support the school's mission. Results and Conclusions The Systems of Career Influences Model proved useful to identify key research questions. We used the model to probe how research in academic career development might be applied to content and methods of formal professional development programs. We generated a series of questions and hypotheses about how professional development programs might influence professional development of health science faculty members. Using the model as a guide, we developed a study using a quantitative and qualitative design. These analyses should provide insight into what works in recruiting and supporting productive men and women faculty in academic medical centers. PMID:23101486

  9. Parental Postdivorce Adjustment in Joint and Sole Physical Custody Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coysh, William S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined postdivorce adjustment of 149 men and 149 women with joint or sole physical custody of their children. Shared custody arrangements and access of parents to their children had no significant relationship to parents' postdivorce adjustment or relationships with their ex-spouses. Prior levels of individual functioning were indicators of…

  10. Model versus Military Pilot: A Mixed-Methods Study of Adolescents' Attitudes toward Women in Varied Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.; Sherman, Aurora M.

    2016-01-01

    Using an experimental methodology, the present study investigated adolescents' attitudes toward media images of women in non-appearance-focused (CEO and military pilot) and appearance-focused occupations (model and actor). One hundred adolescent girls and 76 adolescent boys provided ratings of likability, competence, and similarity to self after…

  11. "Sphere" as a Gendered Space: Cognitive Linguistic Models of Conceptual Metaphor and Embodiment in Nineteenth-Century Women's Rights Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carol Lynn Kay

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes an approach to understanding the cognitive models underlying rhetorical arguments about the "first wave" of women's rights discourse in the United States, which began to emerge more publically with the Seneca Falls convention in 1848 and started to gain momentum in 1851 and beyond. The usage of the lexical item "sphere" (in…

  12. The Male Role, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol Problems: A Structural Modeling Examination in Adult Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreary, Donald R.; Newcomb, Michael D.; Sadava, Stanley W.

    1999-01-01

    Utilizes structural model to examine relationships between three male-role variables, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related problems in sample of men and women. For men, traditional attitudes led to more alcohol consumption, whereas agentic traits protected them from experiencing alcohol-related problems and from experiencing masculine…

  13. Asian and Pacific Islander Women Scientists and Engineers: A Narrative Exploration of Model Minority, Gender, and Racial Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-01-01

    Uses narrative methodology in a qualitative study to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. (Author/MM)

  14. Social Constraints are Associated with Negative Psychological and Physical Adjustment in Bereavement.

    PubMed

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P; Lepore, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Losing a loved one is a normative life event, yet there is great variability in subsequent interpersonal experiences and adjustment. The Social-Cognitive Processing (SCP) model suggests that social constraints (i.e. limited opportunities to disclose thoughts and feelings in a supportive context) impede emotional and cognitive processing of stressful life events, which may lead to maladjustment. This study investigates personal and loss-related correlates of social constraints during bereavement, the links between social constraints and post-loss adjustment, and whether social constraints moderate the relations between loss-related intrusive thoughts and adjustment. A community sample of bereaved individuals (n = 238) provided demographic and loss-related information and reported on their social constraints, loss-related intrusions, and psychological and physical adjustment. Women, younger people, and those with greater financial concerns reported more social constraints. Social constraints were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms, perceived stress, somatic symptoms, and worse global health. Individuals with high social constraints and high loss-related intrusions had the highest depressive symptoms and perceived life stress. Consistent with the SCP model, loss-related social constraints are associated with poorer adjustment, especially psychological adjustment. In particular, experiencing social constraints in conjunction with loss-related intrusions may heighten the risk for poor psychological health. PMID:25708231

  15. Effects of the Oregon Model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) on Marital Adjustment in New Stepfamilies: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Lisha; Wachlarowicz, Marissa; DeLeeuw, Jamie; Snyder, James; Low, Sabina; Forgatch, Marion; DeGarmo, David

    2010-01-01

    Effects of intervention with the Oregon model of Parent Management Training (PMTO™) on marital relationship processes and marital satisfaction in recently married biological mother and stepfather couples were examined. Sixty-seven of the 110 participating families were randomly assigned to PMTO, and 43 families to a non-intervention condition. Intervention had reliable positive indirect effects on marital relationship processes 24 months after baseline which in turn were associated with higher marital satisfaction. These indirect effects were mediated by the impact of PMTO on parenting practices 6 months after baseline. Enhanced parenting practices resulting from PMTO prevented escalation of subsequent child behavior problems at school. Consistent with a family systems perspective and research on challenges to marital quality in stepfamilies, improved co-parenting practices were associated with enhanced marital relationship skills and marital satisfaction as well as with prevention of child behavior problems. PMID:20731495

  16. Effects of the Oregon model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) on marital adjustment in new stepfamilies: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Lisha; Wachlarowicz, Marissa; DeLeeuw, Jamie; Snyder, James; Low, Sabina; Forgatch, Marion; DeGarmo, David

    2010-08-01

    Effects of intervention with the Oregon model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) on marital relationship processes and marital satisfaction in recently married biological mother and stepfather couples were examined. Sixty-seven of the 110 participating families were randomly assigned to PMTO, and 43 families to a non-intervention condition. Intervention had reliable positive indirect effects on marital relationship processes 24 months after baseline which in turn were associated with higher marital satisfaction. These indirect effects were mediated by the impact of PMTO on parenting practices 6 months after baseline. Enhanced parenting practices resulting from PMTO prevented escalation of subsequent child behavior problems at school. Consistent with a family systems perspective and research on challenges to marital quality in stepfamilies, improved co-parenting practices were associated with enhanced marital relationship skills and marital satisfaction as well as with prevention of child behavior problems. PMID:20731495

  17. Incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women in France, 1980-2020: model-based estimation.

    PubMed

    Nogareda, F; Le Strat, Y; Villena, I; De Valk, H; Goulet, V

    2014-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis due to Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous protozoan parasite of warm-blooded animals including humans. In pregnant women, primary infection can cause congenital toxoplasmosis resulting in severe malformations in the newborn. Since 1978, public health authorities in France have implemented a congenital toxoplasmosis prevention programme, including monthly serological screening of all seronegative pregnant women, and treatment in case of seroconversion. However, this programme does not produce systematic surveillance data on incidence and prevalence. Our objective was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of T. gondii infection, and the incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy in women in France. We used a catalytic model to estimate incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma infection between 1980 and 2020 in women of childbearing age. We used age- and time-specific seroprevalence data obtained from the National Perinatal Surveys (NPS) conducted in 1995, 2003 and 2010. We assumed that incidence depends both on age and calendar time, and can be expressed as the product of two unknown functions. We also estimated incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy in 2010 from the NPS and the National Surveillance of Congenital Toxoplasmosis (ToxoSurv). We combined data of 42208 women aged 15-45 years with serology available from the three NPS. For women aged 30 years the modelled incidence decreased from 7·5/1000 susceptible women in 1980 to 3·5/1000 in 2000. In 2010 the incidence was 2·4/1000. The predicted incidence and prevalence for 2020 was 1·6/1000 and 27%, respectively. The incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy in 2010 was estimated at 2·1/1000 susceptible pregnant women (95% CI 1·3-3·1) from the NPS and 1·9 (95% CI 1·8-2·1) from ToxoSurv. Incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma infection has decreased markedly during the last 30 years. This decrease may be explained by a lower exposure to the parasite by changes

  18. Design of a cost-effective, hemodynamically adjustable model for resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) simulation.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin A; Salcedo, Edgardo S; Williams, Timothy K; Neff, Lucas P; Carden, Anthony J; Li, Yiran; Gotlib, Oren; Tran, Nam K; Galante, Joseph M

    2016-09-01

    Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an adjunct technique for salvaging patients with noncompressible torso hemorrhage. Current REBOA training paradigms require large animals, virtual reality simulators, or human cadavers for acquisition of skills. These training strategies are expensive and resource intensive, which may prevent widespread dissemination of REBOA. We have developed a low-cost, near-physiologic, pulsatile REBOA simulator by connecting an anatomic vascular circuit constructed out of latex and polyvinyl chloride tubing to a commercially available pump. This pulsatile simulator is capable of generating cardiac outputs ranging from 1.7 to 6.8 L/min with corresponding arterial blood pressures of 54 to 226/14 to 121 mmHg. The simulator accommodates a 12 French introducer sheath and a CODA balloon catheter. Upon balloon inflation, the arterial waveform distal to the occlusion flattens, distal pulsation within the simulator is lost, and systolic blood pressures proximal to the balloon catheter increase by up to 62 mmHg. Further development and validation of this simulator will allow for refinement, reduction, and replacement of large animal models, costly virtual reality simulators, and perfused cadavers for training purposes. This will ultimately facilitate the low-cost, high-fidelity REBOA simulation needed for the widespread dissemination of this life-saving technique. PMID:27270855

  19. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  20. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  1. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  2. An integrative affect regulation process model of internalized weight bias and intuitive eating in college women.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Hardin, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    The present study extended the weight stigma and well-being process model (Tylka et al., 2014) by examining three affect regulation pathways that may help simultaneously explain the predicted inverse association between internalized weight bias and intuitive eating. A weight-diverse sample of 333 college women completed an online survey assessing internalized weight stigma, intuitive eating, body shame, body image flexibility, and self-compassion. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures were computed to ascertain the presence of the indirect effects of internalized weight bias on intuitive eating via the three hypothesized mediators controlling for BMI in a combined model. Results demonstrated that body image flexibility significantly and self-compassion marginally contributed unique variance in accounting for this relationship. Our preliminary cross-sectional findings contribute to a nascent body of scholarship seeking to provide a theoretically-driven understanding of how negative and positive forms of experiencing and relating to the body may co-occur within individuals. Results also point to potential target variables to consider incorporating in later-stage efforts to promote more adaptive ways of eating amidst internalized weight stigma. PMID:26893074

  3. Testing two global models to prevent violence against women and children: methods and baseline data analysis of a seven-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Paulson, Rene; Maddoux, John

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, two models of care are offered most often to abused women-safe shelter and justice services. No evidence exists on the differential effectiveness of the models. To provide evidence for best practice and policy, 300 abused women, 150 first-time users of a shelter and 150 first time-applicants for a protection order, participated in a seven-year study. Safety, abuse, and the emotional and physical functioning of the women and their children were measured. The procedural logistics, sampling process, metrics, and baseline descriptors for these 300 women and 300 children is presented along with implications for practice and policy. PMID:23215989

  4. Examining the Traits-Desires-Intentions-Behavior (TDIB) Model for Fertility Planning in Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Elena L.; Hart, Trevor A.; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of fertility behavior (i.e., trying to become pregnant) in a large representative sample of women living with HIV of reproductive age in Ontario, Canada. The Traits-Desires-Intentions-Behavior model was used to examine the key predictors of reproductive decision making and behavior. A total of 320 women living with HIV were included in the current analysis. The women living with HIV were between the ages of 18 and 52 (mean=37.23, SD=7.53), 56.4% had at least one child living in the home, over 40% identified as being of African ethnicity, and the average time since HIV diagnosis was 10.49 years (SD=5.71). In hierarchical multilevel analysis, perceived family support for trying to become pregnant, living in a large metropolitan city (i.e., Toronto), women's fertility desires, and fertility intentions were associated with fertility behavior (χ29=59.97, p<0.001). As only 10.6% of participants reported engaging in fertility-related behavior, while 57.5% intended a pregnancy in the future, identifying barriers to fertility and discrepancies between intentions and behaviors can support policy programs and assist health care providers to better facilitate the fertility goals of women living with HIV. PMID:25291213

  5. Enhancing Global Land Surface Hydrology Estimates from the NASA MERRA Reanalysis Using Precipitation Observations and Model Parameter Adjustments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf; Koster, Randal; DeLannoy, Gabrielle; Forman, Barton; Liu, Qing; Mahanama, Sarith; Toure, Ally

    2011-01-01

    The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) is a state-of-the-art reanalysis that provides. in addition to atmospheric fields. global estimates of soil moisture, latent heat flux. snow. and runoff for J 979-present. This study introduces a supplemental and improved set of land surface hydrological fields ('MERRA-Land') generated by replaying a revised version of the land component of the MERRA system. Specifically. the MERRA-Land estimates benefit from corrections to the precipitation forcing with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project pentad product (version 2.1) and from revised parameters in the rainfall interception model, changes that effectively correct for known limitations in the MERRA land surface meteorological forcings. The skill (defined as the correlation coefficient of the anomaly time series) in land surface hydrological fields from MERRA and MERRA-Land is assessed here against observations and compared to the skill of the state-of-the-art ERA-Interim reanalysis. MERRA-Land and ERA-Interim root zone soil moisture skills (against in situ observations at 85 US stations) are comparable and significantly greater than that of MERRA. Throughout the northern hemisphere, MERRA and MERRA-Land agree reasonably well with in situ snow depth measurements (from 583 stations) and with snow water equivalent from an independent analysis. Runoff skill (against naturalized stream flow observations from 15 basins in the western US) of MERRA and MERRA-Land is typically higher than that of ERA-Interim. With a few exceptions. the MERRA-Land data appear more accurate than the original MERRA estimates and are thus recommended for those interested in using '\\-tERRA output for land surface hydrological studies.

  6. Alcohol and risk of breast cancer in Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Jeannette M.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Livaudais, Jennifer; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Romieu, Isabelle; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the relationship between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk among Mexican women. This association may be modified by folate and Vitamin B12. METHODS A population-based case control study conducted in Mexico recruited 1000 incident breast cancer cases aged 35–69 and 1074 controls matched on age, region, and health care system. In-person interviews were conducted to assess breast cancer risk factors and recent diet using a food frequency questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Over one-half (57%) of cases and less than one-half of controls (45%) reported any lifetime alcohol consumption. Compared with never drinkers, women reporting ever drinking (Adjusted OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.99–1.58) had a greater odds of breast cancer. There was evidence for interaction in the association between ever consuming any alcohol and breast cancer by folate (p for interaction=0.04) suggesting women with lower folate intake had a higher odds of breast cancer (Adjusted OR=1.99, 95% CI= 1.26–3.16) compared to women with higher folate intake (OR=1.12, 95% CI = 0.69–1.83). CONCLUSIONS Our findings support emerging evidence that any alcohol intake increases risk of breast cancer. Insufficient intake of folate may further elevate risk for developing breast cancer among women who consume alcohol. PMID:20155314

  7. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  8. Glacial isostatic adjustment, relative sea level history and mantle viscosity: reconciling relative sea level model predictions for the U.S. East coast with geological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Keven; Peltier, W. R.

    2015-05-01

    Models of the glacial isostatic adjustment process, which is dominated by the influence of the Late Pleistocene cycle of glaciation and deglaciation, depend on two fundamental inputs: a history of ice-sheet loading and a model of the radial variation of mantle viscosity. These models may be tested and refined by comparing their local predictions of relative sea level history to geological inferences based upon appropriate sea level indicators. The U.S. Atlantic coast is a region of particular interest in this regard, due to the fact that data from the length of this coast provides a transect of the forebulge associated with the former Laurentide ice sheet. High-quality relative sea level histories from this region are employed herein to explore the ability of current models of mantle viscosity to explain the inferred evolution of relative sea level that have accompanied forebulge collapse following deglaciation. Existing misfits are characterized, and alternatives are explored for their reconciliation. It is demonstrated that a new model of mantle viscosity, referred to herein as VM6, when coupled with the latest model of deglaciation history ICE-6G_C, is able to eliminate the majority of these misfits, while continuing to reconcile a wide range of other important geophysical observables, as well as additional relative sea level data from the North American. West coast which also record the collapse of the forebulge but which have not been employed in tuning the viscosity profile to enable ICE-6G_C (VM6) to fit the East coast data set.

  9. The thickness history of the northern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: an assessment of glacial isostatic adjustment models, sea-level measurements, and vertical land motion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A.

    2014-12-01

    The fit of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model predictions to 24 relative sea-level histories and an additional 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates constrains the thickness and volume history of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet. The predictions of the best-fit GIA model indicate respective peak ice thicknesses west and east of Hudson Bay of 3.4-3.6 km and approximately 4 km. These values represent, respectively, a large decrease, and a moderate increase, to the load thickness compared to ICE-5G. This result is generally consistent with other GIA studies focussing on space-geodetic constraints. The large reduction to the ice load west of Hudson Bay also reduces the vertical mantle response along the margins of the load centre, which improves the fit to relative sea-level data from the southern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The fit of GIA model predictions to relative sea-level data from the Baffin Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet indicate peak ice thicknesses there of 1.2-1.3 km, a modest reduction compared to ICE-5G. On Baffin Island, the modelled elastic crustal response of the Earth to present-day ice mass changes is large. Accounting for this effect improves the agreement between GPS measurements of vertical crustal motion and the GIA model predictions. However, work is needed to incorporate more detailed observations and modelling of present-day changes to glaciers and ice caps. Overall, the fit to the data is most strongly improved in the region west of Hudson Bay (the χ2 RSL misfit is reduced by a factor of ~4) although the entire revised reconstruction for the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet provides an improved fit to both the regional RSL data (the cumulative χ2 misfit is reduced by a factor of >2) and the GPS data (the RMS misfit is reduced by a factor of 9).

  10. UGT1A1 genotype-dependent dose adjustment of belinostat in patients with advanced cancers using population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Peer, Cody J; Goey, Andrew K L; Sissung, Tristan M; Erlich, Sheryl; Lee, Min-Jung; Tomita, Yusuke; Trepel, Jane B; Piekarz, Richard; Balasubramaniam, Sanjeeve; Bates, Susan E; Figg, William D

    2016-04-01

    Belinostat is a second-generation zinc-binding histone deacetylase inhibitor that is approved for peripheral T-cell lymphoma and is currently being studied in small cell lung cancer and other advanced carcinomas as a 48-hour continuous intravenous infusion. Belinostat is predominantly metabolized by UGT1A1, which is polymorphic. Preliminary analyses revealed a difference in belinostat clearance based on UGT1A1 genotype. A 2-compartment population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed and validated that incorporated the UGT1A1 genotype, albumin, and creatinine clearance on the clearance parameter; body weight was a significant covariate on volume. Simulated doses of 600 and 400 mg/m(2) /24 h given to patients considered extensive or impaired metabolizers, respectively, provided equivalent AUCs. This model and subsequent simulations supported additional PK/toxicity and pharmacogenomics/toxicity analyses to suggest a UGT1A1 genotype-based dose adjustment to normalize belinostat exposure and allow for more tolerable therapy. In addition, global protein lysine acetylation was modeled with PK and demonstrated a reversible belinostat exposure/response relationship, consistent with previous reports. PMID:26637161

  11. Modeling College Women's Perceptions of Elite Leadership Positions with Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Emily E.; Subich, Linda M.; Tokar, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) for predicting college women's interests and goals for positions of elite leadership was examined with 156 undergraduate women at a public university. They completed measures of elite leadership self-efficacy expectations, outcome expectations, interests, and goals.…

  12. How Robotics Programs Influence Young Women's Career Choices: A Grounded Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm

    2014-01-01

    The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced…

  13. Application of a Relational Model to Understanding Body Image in College Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Ryan, William J.; Pierce, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Relational cultural theory was examined in relation to body image in two samples of college women (n = 102) and men (n = 78) from a Midwestern university. Participants completed measures of mutuality and body image satisfaction. Results revealed that low mutuality with mothers and fathers predicted body dissatisfaction in both men and women, and…

  14. Evaluation of Three Osteoporosis Prevention Programs for Young Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…

  15. A Match-and-Motivation Model of How Women Label Their Nonconsensual Sexual Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Zoe D.; Muehlenhard, Charlene L.

    2011-01-01

    Many rape victims are unacknowledged rape victims--they report an experience meeting researchers' operational definitions of rape but do not label their experience as rape. The purpose of this study was to investigate women's decisions about whether to label their experiences as rape. Participants were 77 college women (predominantly White; mean…

  16. Building an Effective Model for Institutional Change: Women's Committees as Catalyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSole, Gloria; Butler, Meredith

    1990-01-01

    Reviews status of and climate for women in higher education today and presents case for creating strong, carefully constructed and integrated institutional network of women's committees as one way to foster institutional change and create more diverse and responsive educational and work environments which actively support, nurture, and empower…

  17. Resilience among older women.

    PubMed

    Wagnild, G; Young, H M

    1990-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to identify and describe characteristics of successfully adjusted older women. The participants reported a recent major loss and were considered successfully adjusted as evidenced by social involvement in a senior center, a mid level to high level of morale and self-report. Using a grounded theory approach, five underlying themes were identified: equanimity, self-reliance, existential aloneness, perseverance and meaningfulness. These themes are thought to constitute resilience. Lateral grounding of the concept resilience is accomplished by comparison with philosophical writings of Frankl, Bettelheim, Frank, May and von Witzleben. Resilience is important in late life as a component of successful psychosocial adjustment. PMID:2292448

  18. Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qing; Cui, Yong-Yi; Lu, Jine; Zhang, Guo-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and adverse birth outcomes. Methods. In this retrospective cohort study including 2389 pregnant women, the medical records of 352 women diagnosed with PCOS were evaluated. Outcomes included GDM, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, and being small and large for gestational age. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association of the risk for GDM and adverse birth outcomes with PCOS after adjusting for confounders. Results. Women previously diagnosed with PCOS had a higher risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–2.09). A strong association was seen between PCOS and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.08–2.67). On stratified analysis, the adjusted OR for GDM among women with PCOS undergoing assisted reproductive technology was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.03–1.92) and among women with PCOS who conceived spontaneously was 1.60 (1.18–2.15). No increased risk for other adverse birth outcomes was observed. Conclusions. Women with PCOS were more likely to experience GDM and preterm birth. PMID:27066074

  19. Understanding and meeting the needs of women in the postpartum period: the Perinatal Maternal Health Promotion Model.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jenifer O; Shenassa, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    A new model for the care of women in the postpartum focuses on the development of life skills that promote complete well-being. The year following childbirth is a time of significant transition for women. In addition to the physiologic changes associated with the postpartum period, a woman undergoes marked psychosocial changes as she transitions into a motherhood role, reestablishes relationships, and works to meet the physical and emotional needs of her infant and other family members. It is a time when women are vulnerable to health problems directly related to childbirth and to compromised self-care, which can manifest in the development or reestablishment of unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and a sedentary lifestyle. In addition to long-term implications for women, compromised maternal health in the postpartum period is associated with suboptimal health and developmental outcomes for infants. Maternal health experts have called for a change in how care is provided for women in the postpartum period. This article presents the rationale for a health promotion approach to meeting the needs of women in the postpartum period and introduces the Perinatal Maternal Health Promotion Model. This conceptual framework is built around a definition of maternal well-being that asserts that health goes beyond merely the absence of medical complications. In the model, the core elements of a healthy postpartum are identified and include not only physical recovery but also the ability to meet individual needs and successfully transition into motherhood. These goals can best be achieved by helping women develop or strengthen 4 key individual health-promoting skills: the ability to mobilize social support, self-efficacy, positive coping strategies, and realistic expectations. While the model focuses on the woman, the health promotion approach takes into account that maternal health in this critical period affects and is affected by her family, social network, and community

  20. The Effect of Education Based on Health Belief Model on Health Beliefs of Women with Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Javaheri Tehrani, Fereshteh; Nikpour, Soqra; Haji Kazemi, Eftekhar Alsadat; Sanaie, Neda; Shariat Panahi, Shabnam Alsadat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Urinary Tract Infection is one of the commonest infections which affect humans. Half of all women have a UTI in their lifetime and one fourth have recurrent infections. Health behaviours can help patients to prevent Urinary Tract Infection recurrence and changing beliefs is necessary for health behaviour change. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of education based on Health Belief Model on health beliefs of women with Urinary Tract Infection. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test design, conducted on 170 married women with Urinary Tract Infection, referred to selected hospital laboratories in Tehran. The laboratories were divided to experience and control groups. The data collection tool was a “self-administrated” questionnaire which was answered by samples of both groups, prior to the intervention and 12 weeks thereafter. The intervention (education based on Health Belief Model) was performed on the experiment group. Results: Based on the study results, after the intervention the average score of the perceived susceptibility (P<0.001), perceived severity (P<0.001), perceived benefits (P<0.001), cues to action (P<0.001) and health behaviours (P<0.001) of the experiment group showed a significant increase, compared to the control group, however, the average score of the perceived barriers (P=0.235) of the experiment group was not significantly different compared to the control group. Conclusion: The findings showed that education based on Health Belief Model was effective in promoting the health beliefs (except perceived barriers) and health behaviours of women with Urinary Tract Infection. Therefore, it can be suggested that the mentioned model can be used as one of the strategies for prevention of Urinary Tract Infection in women. PMID:25349840

  1. Implementation and evaluation of a harm-reduction model for clinical care of substance using pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use during pregnancy is associated with many pregnancy complications, including preterm birth, small for gestational age, preeclampsia, and abruption. Hawaii has lead the nation in MA use for many years, yet prior to 2007, did not have a comprehensive plan to care for pregnant substance-using women. In 2006, the Hawaii State Legislature funded a pilot perinatal addiction clinic. The Perinatal Addiction Treatment Clinic of Hawaii was built on a harm-reduction model, encompassing perinatal care, transportation, child-care, social services, family planning, motivational incentives, and addiction medicine. We present the implementation model and results from our first one hundred three infants (103) seen over 3 years of operation of the program. Methods Referrals came from community health centers, hospitals, addiction treatment facilities, private physician offices, homeless outreach services and self-referral through word-of-mouth and bus ads. Data to describe sample characteristics and outcome was obtained prospectively and retrospectively from chart abstraction and delivery data. Drug use data was obtained from the women's self-report and random urine toxicology during the pregnancy, as well as urine toxicology at the time of birth on mothers, and urine and meconium toxicology on the infants. Post-partum depression was measured in mothers with the Edinburgh Post-Partum depression scale. Data from Path clinic patients were compared with a representative cohort of women delivering at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children during the same time frame, who were enrolled in another study of pregnancy outcomes. Ethical approval for this study was obtained through the University of Hawaii Committee for Human Studies. Results Between April 2007 and August 2010, 213 women with a past or present history of addiction were seen, 132 were pregnant and 97 delivered during that time. 103 live-born infants were delivered. There were 3 first

  2. A Multidimensional Model of Sexual Health and Sexual and Prevention Behavior Among Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (β: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention. PMID:23332488

  3. Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age: United States, 2011-2013

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Community Preventive Services Task Force. TABLE 1. Estimated percentages* and adjusted prevalence ratios of nonpregnant women ... years) was selected as the referent. TABLE 2. Estimated percentages* and adjusted prevalence ratios of pregnant women ...

  4. Women's Autonomy and Its Correlates in Western Nepal: A Demographic Study.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Tulsi Ram; Kutty, V Raman; Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2016-01-01

    Despite various efforts for enhancing women's autonomy in developing countries, many women are deprived of their capacity in decision-making on their household affairs as well as social issues. This paper aimed to examine women's autonomy and its associated factors in the Kapilvastu district of Nepal. We measured women's autonomy using a recently developed women's autonomy measurement scale from June to October 2014. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic multivariate modeling technique were applied for assessing the association of demographic and socio-economic characteristics of women and their autonomy. Mean score for women's autonomy was 23.34 ± 8.06 out of the possible maximum 48. It was found to be positively associated with higher age difference at marriage, advantaged caste/ethnicity, better employment for the husband, couple's education more than 10 years schooling, and higher economic status of the household. We found strong direct effect of women's education (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77-17.57), husband's education (OR = 2.63, CI = 1.69-4.10) and economic status of household (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.01-2.03) on women's autonomy. When we adjusted women's education for husband's education, the odds ratio decreased by around 22% {from (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77-17.57) to (OR = 6.32, CI = 2.77-14.46)} and was a mediator effect. The economic status of household also had mediator effect on women's autonomy through their education. Education status of women is a key predictor of women's autonomy in Kapilvastu district. Husband's education and economic status of the household are other important predictors of women's autonomy which have a mediator effect on women's autonomy. Improving educational status and economic conditions of both women and their husbands may be the best solution to promote women's autonomy. PMID:26799217

  5. Clinical and community risk models of incident tooth loss in postmenopausal women from the Buffalo Osteo Perio Study

    PubMed Central

    Bole, Christopher; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen; Genco, Robert J.; Hausmann, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Objectives While risk factors for tooth loss in adults have been identified, limited studies describing factors associated with incident tooth loss in postmenopausal women exist. This study assessed both clinical and non-clinical risk factors for incident tooth loss. Methods Postmenopausal women (N= 1,341) were recruited between 1997–2000 from 1847 eligible Observational Study participants of the Buffalo, NY center of the Women’s Health Initiative who had complete dental examinations to assess alveolar bone height, soft tissue attachment and general oral health, and completed questionnaires concerning demographics, general health, lifestyle and oral health (72.6% participation rate). Five years later (2002–2005), 1021 women (76.1%) repeated these examinations and questionnaires. Incident tooth loss was determined by oral examination Results After an average 5.1 years of follow-up (SD, 0.38), a total of 323 teeth were lost in 293 women, resulting in 28.7% of women with incident loss of at least one tooth. In multivariable models, diabetes history, gum disease history, smoking, previous tooth loss, BMI and plaque index, baseline clinical measures including alveolar crestal height (ACH) (OR=1.22 per mm loss, 95% CI 1.11, 1.35), clinical attachment loss (CAL) (OR=1.13 per mm loss, 95% CI 1.05, 1.23) and pocket depth (PD) (OR=1.26 per mm loss, 95% CI 1.13, 1.41) were significant risk factors of incident tooth loss. In a community model that included no clinical measures, diabetes history (OR=2.45, 95% CI 1.26, 4.77), prior gum disease (OR=1.97, 95% CI 1.43, 2.70), ever smoking (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1,06, 1.89), number of teeth lost at baseline (OR=1.05 per tooth, 95% CI 1.02, 1.08) and BMI (OR=1.15 per 5 km/m2 increase, 95% CI 1.01, 1.33) were associated with an increased risk of incident tooth loss. Conclusions Clinical and questionnaire based models were found to provide similar risk estimates for incident tooth loss in postmenopausal women. These models identified

  6. Using the health belief model to develop culturally appropriate weight-management materials for African-American women.

    PubMed

    James, Delores C S; Pobee, Joseph W; Oxidine, D'lauren; Brown, Latonya; Joshi, Gungeet

    2012-05-01

    African-American women have the highest prevalence of adult obesity in the United States. They are less likely to participate in weight-loss programs and tend to have a low success rate when they do so. The goal of this project was to explore the use of the Health Belief Model in developing culturally appropriate weight-management programs for African-American women. Seven focus groups were conducted with 50 African-American women. The Health Belief Model was used as the study's theoretical framework. Participants made a clear delineation between the terms healthy weight, overweight, and obese. Sexy, flirtatious words, such as thick, stacked, and curvy were often used to describe their extra weight. Participants accurately described the health risks of obesity. Most believed that culture and genetics made them more susceptible to obesity. The perceived benefits of losing weight included reduced risk for health problems, improved physical appearance, and living life to the fullest. Perceived barriers included a lack of motivation, reliable dieting information, and social support. Motivators to lose weight included being diagnosed with a health problem, physical appearance, and saving money on clothes. Self-efficacy was primarily affected by a frustrated history of dieting. The data themes suggest areas that should be addressed when developing culturally appropriate weight-loss messages, programs, and materials for African-American women. PMID:22709771

  7. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  8. Women at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiant, Sharon

    This resource booklet about working women presents role models of interesting women, past and present, many of whom have been successful in non-traditional work roles. Included are brief biographical sketches of working women in early America, during the industrial revolution, the early twentieth century, the Depression, World War II, and modern…

  9. Women in the Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale

    1990-01-01

    Women engaging in outdoor activities tend to be more supportive of each other and more willing to express their feelings and apprehensions about adventurous settings than are men. It is important for women to have strong female leaders as role models. Instructors should be aware that women's learning styles and learning curves differ from men's.…

  10. Women and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turock, Betty J.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of women and leadership focuses on women in librarianship. Highlights include the evolution of thought about women and leadership; feminist research and theory; Margaret McIntosh's model for leadership, including womanless leadership, problems in leadership, and leadership redefined; equity in leadership; and implications for…

  11. Women, Work, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2001-01-01

    Outlines causes of women's disadvantage in the workplace and the inadequacies of career development models for women. Addresses themes related to women's learning at work: hidden curriculum in the work context, identity development, relationships and connection, and mentoring. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

  12. Innovation-diffusion or adjustment: the case of Taiwanese fertility transition.

    PubMed

    Sun, T H; Ting, T Y

    1989-06-01

    This study uses KAP data sets to analyze the determinants of Taiwan's fertility decline between 1964 and 1980 and to evaluate whether innovation-diffusion or adjustment or both can be applied to explain the transition. Furthermore, this study examines the roles of innovation-diffusion and adjustment in the stages of the transition of Taiwan's fertility from high to low levels. The 5 cross-sectional KAP surveys, collected by the Taiwan Provincial Institute of Family Planning and used in this study, focus on the fertility behavior of married women living in Taiwan in 1965, 1969, 1970, 1973, and 1980. Analyses of both cross-sectional and pooled-time series data sets provide evidence to support the theory that demand-side diffusion of birth control behavior from urban centers to more rural areas plays an important role in Taiwan's fertility transition. Contradictory findings on the supply-side of diffusion suggest that family planning programs have no consistently direct effects on fertility behavior. The adjustment variables of wife's education, husband's occupation, and the index of consumer goods generally have important influences on changes in family size, suggesting that the adjustment model has significant impact on fertility transition in Taiwan. Duration of marriage, not surprisingly, is the most powerful explanatory variable. Overall, the innovation-diffusion model is more useful in explaining Taiwanese fertility transition in the 1960s, and the adjustment model plays a more important role throughout the late years. PMID:12159726

  13. An optimization model for regional air pollutants mitigation based on the economic structure adjustment and multiple measures: A case study in Urumqi city, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaowei; Li, Wei; Xie, Yulei; Huang, Guohe; Dong, Changjuan; Yin, Jianguang

    2016-11-01

    A model based on economic structure adjustment and pollutants mitigation was proposed and applied in Urumqi. Best-worst case analysis and scenarios analysis were performed in the model to guarantee the parameters accuracy, and to analyze the effect of changes of emission reduction styles. Results indicated that pollutant-mitigations of electric power industry, iron and steel industry, and traffic relied mainly on technological transformation measures, engineering transformation measures and structure emission reduction measures, respectively; Pollutant-mitigations of cement industry relied mainly on structure emission reduction measures and technological transformation measures; Pollutant-mitigations of thermal industry relied mainly on the four mitigation measures. They also indicated that structure emission reduction was a better measure for pollutants mitigation of Urumqi. Iron and steel industry contributed greatly in SO2, NOx and PM (particulate matters) emission reduction and should be given special attention in pollutants emission reduction. In addition, the scales of iron and steel industry should be reduced with the decrease of SO2 mitigation amounts. The scales of traffic and electric power industry should be reduced with the decrease of NOx mitigation amounts, and the scales of cement industry and iron and steel industry should be reduced with the decrease of PM mitigation amounts. The study can provide references of pollutants mitigation schemes to decision-makers for regional economic and environmental development in the 12th Five-Year Plan on National Economic and Social Development of Urumqi. PMID:27454097

  14. Diabetes, Metformin Use, and Colorectal Cancer Survival in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cossor, Furha Iram; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Gunter, Marc J; Johnson, Karen; Martell, Robert E.; McTiernan, Anne; Simon, Michael S.; Rohan, Thomas; Wallace, Robert B.; Paulus, Jessica K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Observational studies have associated metformin use with lower colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence but few studies have examined metformin’s influence on CRC survival. We examined the relationships among metformin use, diabetes, and survival in postmenopausal women with CRC in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Clinical Trials and Observational Study. Methods 2,066 postmenopausal women with CRC were followed for a median of 4.1 years, with 589 deaths after CRC diagnosis from all causes and 414 deaths directly attributed to CRC. CRC-specific survival was compared among women with diabetes with metformin use (n=84); women with diabetes with no metformin use (n=128); and women without diabetes (n=1854). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate associations among metformin use, diabetes and survival after CRC. Strategies to adjust for potential confounders included: multivariate adjustment with known predictors of colorectal cancer survival and construction of a propensity score for the likelihood of receiving metformin, with model stratification by propensity score quintile. Results After adjusting for age and stage, CRC specific survival in women with diabetes with metformin use was not significantly different compared to that in women with diabetes with no metformin use (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.40 –1.38, p=0.67) and to women without diabetes (HR 1.00; 95% CI 0.61 – 1.66, p=0.99). Following propensity score adjustment, the HR for CRC-specific survival in women with diabetes with metformin use compared to non-users was 0.78 (95% CI 0.38 – 1.55, p=0.47) and for overall survival was 0.86 (95% CI 0.49 – 1.52; p=0.60). Conclusions In postmenopausal women with CRC and DM, no statistically significant difference was seen in CRC specific survival in those who used metformin compared to non-users. Analyses in larger populations of colorectal cancer patients are warranted. PMID:23773299

  15. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Stress on Children's Adjustment in Woman-Abusing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levendosky, Alytia A.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes sheltered battered women (n=60) and their 7- to 12-year-old children and nonsheltered women (n=61) and their children, to examine the potential moderating effects of maternal parenting stress on children's adjustment in homes with varying levels of domestic violence. Results indicate that children's adjustment was predicted by parenting…

  16. Lithosphere and upper-mantle structure of the southern Baltic Sea estimated from modelling relative sea-level data with glacial isostatic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, H.; Kaufmann, G.; Lampe, R.

    2014-06-01

    thickness as determined with ICE-5G does not agree with the lithosphere models. Hence, more investigations have to be undertaken to sufficiently determine structures such as the Ringkøbing-Fyn High as seen with seismics with the help of glacial isostatic adjustment modelling.

  17. Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  18. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  19. Urinary Tract Stones and Osteoporosis: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Laura D; Hovey, Kathleen M; Andrews, Christopher A; Thomas, Fridtjof; Sorensen, Mathew D; Crandall, Carolyn J; Watts, Nelson B; Bethel, Monique; Johnson, Karen C

    2015-11-01

    Kidney and bladder stones (urinary tract stones) and osteoporosis are prevalent, serious conditions for postmenopausal women. Men with kidney stones are at increased risk of osteoporosis; however, the relationship of urinary tract stones to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine whether urinary tract stones are an independent risk factor for changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and incident fractures in women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Data were obtained from 150,689 women in the Observational Study and Clinical Trials of the WHI with information on urinary tract stones status: 9856 of these women reported urinary tract stones at baseline and/or incident urinary tract stones during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to determine the association of urinary tract stones with incident fractures and linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship of urinary tract stones with changes in BMD that occurred during WHI. Follow-up was over an average of 8 years. Models were adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, medication use, and dietary histories. In unadjusted models there was a significant association of urinary tract stones with incident total fractures (HR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.17). However, in covariate adjusted analyses, urinary tract stones were not significantly related to changes in BMD at any skeletal site or to incident fractures. In conclusion, urinary tract stones in postmenopausal women are not an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. PMID:25990099

  20. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  1. Vitamin D receptor gene BsmI-polymorphism in Finnish premenopausal and postmenopausal women: its association with bone mineral density, markers of bone turnover, and intestinal calcium absorption, with adjustment for lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Marika; Kärkkäinen, Merja; Outila, Terhi; Vanninen, Tarja; Ray, Carola; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2002-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Sixty percent to 80% of bone mass is suggested to be under polygenetic control, but the role of individual genes seems to be modest. Several studies have indicated that the vitamin D receptor ( VDR) gene has a role in the regulation of BMD and bone metabolism, but the results are very controversial. We studied the associations between BsmI-polymorphism of the VDR gene and BMD and bone metabolism in 24 premenopausal (aged 22-45 years) and 69 postmenopausal (aged 48-65 years) Finnish women. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck and bone turnover markers were measured, and the intestinal calcium absorption was investigated, using a method based on the absorption of non-radioactive strontium. The genotype distribution was 16%, BB; 34.5%, Bb; and 49.5%, bb, which differs from the genotype distribution found in other Caucasian populations, but is similar to earlier Finnish reports. The winter value of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25-OH-D) was highest for the BB genotype in both age groups (analysis of covariance [ANCOVA]; premenopausal women P = 0.5, postmenopausal women P = 0.03, and for the groups combined P = 0.02). Lumbar spine BMD and intestinal strontium absorption were highest for the BB genotype in both age groups, but these results were nonsignificant. The markers of bone metabolism did not differ significantly between the VDR genotypes. The BB genotype had the best vitamin D status, which could explain the differences in calcium absorption between the genotypes. However, the conclusions of our study are limited because of the small number of subjects. PMID:12434167

  2. 77 FR 21775 - Risk Adjustment Meeting-May 7, 2012 and May 8, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... following topics: The risk adjustment model, calculation of plan average actuarial risk, calculation of... risk adjustment model, calculation of plan average actuarial risk, calculation of payments and...

  3. A Social Ecological Model of Syndemic Risk affecting Women with and At-Risk for HIV in Impoverished Urban Communities.

    PubMed

    Batchelder, A W; Gonzalez, J S; Palma, A; Schoenbaum, E; Lounsbury, D W

    2015-12-01

    Syndemic risk is an ecological construct, defined by co-occurring interdependent socio-environmental, interpersonal and intrapersonal determinants. We posited syndemic risk to be a function of violence, substance use, perceived financial hardship, emotional distress and self-worth among women with and at-risk for HIV in an impoverished urban community. In order to better understand these interrelationships, we developed and validated a system dynamics (SD) model based upon peer-reviewed literature; secondary data analyses of a cohort dataset including women living with and at-risk of HIV in Bronx, NY (N = 620); and input from a Bronx-based community advisory board. Simulated model output revealed divergent levels and patterns of syndemic risk over time across different sample profiles. Outputs generated new insights about how to effectively explore multicomponent multi-level programs in order to strategically develop more effective services for this population. Specifically, the model indicated that effective multi-level interventions might bolster women's resilience by increasing self-worth, which may result in decreased perceived financial hardship and risk of violence. Overall, our stakeholder-informed model depicts how self-worth may be a major driver of vulnerability and a meaningful addition to syndemic theory affecting this population. PMID:26370203

  4. Professional advancement of women in health care management: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Madsen, M K; Blide, L A

    1992-11-01

    Ragins and Sundstrom suggest three major conclusions based on power and gender differences within organizations. The first is that power develops or detracts as individuals progress along their career track. HIM professionals who accept the challenges that changing roles bring can also develop a new sensitivity to the value of power as a tool. They can use their negotiating skills to avoid being placed in work roles that result in a decrease in power. The second difference between men and women within organizations is that obstacles often impede women's career paths more than men's. Perceptions by women and men of a woman as homemaker and mother create serious conflicts when jobs are demanding and time intensive. Lastly, Ragins and Sundstrom suggest that career progression is influenced by both intrinsic factors (personal and professional) and extrinsic factors (organizational and interpersonal). The interaction between these factors is often driven by gender differences allowing men to progress and succeed, whereas women remain beneath the glass ceiling. HIM professionals, like other women health professionals, are graduating from advanced programs in health care and business administration at a greater rate than ever before in the history of this country. Not all these graduates will be able to acquire top-level administrative positions in the traditional health care institutions (e.g., hospitals). Therefore, if they wish to advance, they may have to move to nontraditional work settings. This is especially true for HIM professionals. The expanding computerized environment in traditional and nontraditional health care settings presents great potential for the development of new roles and responsibilities that have not been identified as male roles. HIM professionals and women in other health care professions who aspire to advance to upper administrative positions in traditional and nontraditional settings must be willing to take the risks inherent in assuming

  5. Developing weight loss interventions for African-American women: elements of successful models.

    PubMed Central

    Bronner, Yvonne; Boyington, Josephine E. A.

    2002-01-01

    This review examines published reports of weight-loss interventions targeted to overweight African-American women and identifies specific factors that may account for the variability in observed outcomes. The review will identify program elements that have been associated with weight loss in obese African-American women, describe behavior modification elements of weight loss programs, and provide a list of "lessons learned" that may be useful in planning future weight-loss intervention programs for this target population. PMID:11991335

  6. Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, G H; Gelvin, B R; Hartman, S E

    1993-08-01

    Simple ratios in which a measurement variable is divided by a size variable are commonly used but known to be inadequate for eliminating size correlations from morphometric data. Deficiencies in the simple ratio can be alleviated by incorporating regression coefficients describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables. Recommendations have included: 1) subtracting the regression intercept to force the bivariate relationship through the origin (intercept-adjusted ratios); 2) exponentiating either the measurement or the size variable using an allometry coefficient to achieve linearity (allometrically adjusted ratios); or 3) both subtracting the intercept and exponentiating (fully adjusted ratios). These three strategies for deriving size-adjusted ratios imply different data models for describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables (i.e., the linear, simple allometric, and full allometric models, respectively). Algebraic rearrangement of the equation associated with each data model leads to a correctly formulated adjusted ratio whose expected value is constant (i.e., size correlation is eliminated). Alternatively, simple algebra can be used to derive an expected value function for assessing whether any proposed ratio formula is effective in eliminating size correlations. Some published ratio adjustments were incorrectly formulated as indicated by expected values that remain a function of size after ratio transformation. Regression coefficients incorporated into adjusted ratios must be estimated using least-squares regression of the measurement variable on the size variable. Use of parameters estimated by any other regression technique (e.g., major axis or reduced major axis) results in residual correlations between size and the adjusted measurement variable. Correctly formulated adjusted ratios, whose parameters are estimated by least-squares methods, do control for size correlations. The size-adjusted

  7. A Case Analysis of a Model Program for the Leadership Development of Women Faculty and Staff Seeking to Advance Their Careers in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calizo, Lee Scherer Hawthorne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore a model of leadership development for women faculty and staff in higher education. This study is significant because it explored the only identified campus-based program open to both faculty and staff. The campus-based Women's Institute for Leadership Development (WILD) program at the University of…

  8. Women and affliction in Maharashtra: a hydraulic model of health and illness.

    PubMed

    Skultans, V

    1991-09-01

    The anthropological literature on spirit possession cults offers a distinction between voluntary possession or mediumship and involuntary possession or illness. Fieldwork was carried out in a Mahanubhav healing temple. Contradictory interpretations of trance and affliction were found to be held by the different temple inhabitants. Beliefs about the nature of spiritual affliction, its epidemiology and aetiology vary according to gender, family structure and position within the family. One manifestation of affliction is thought to be madness. However, the experience of mental affliction is very varied, for example, the number of family members accompanying an afflicted person, the amount of money made available for treatment, the length of treatment, as well as the less tangible but equally important aspects of treatment such as the degree of empathy and concern felt, all vary according to the afflicted person's gender and status within the family. The inferiority of women's position in society and their precarious belonging in their husband's family comes to the fore in cases of mental illness. The greater shame attaching to women's mental illness means that more women seek temple treatment alone and that the level of family support and involvement is less for women. Recently married women and older childless women fare particularly badly in the division of concern and responsibility for the afflicted. In Maharashtra the recognition and experience of mental affliction varies according to the stage of family development and, most importantly, according to the gender of the patient. PMID:1935182

  9. Becoming a role model: the breastfeeding trajectory of Hong Kong women breastfeeding longer than 6 months.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Marie; Dodgson, Joan E; Choi, Vinkline Wing Kay

    2004-07-01

    While a substantial proportion of breastfeeding women stop early in the postpartum period, some women are able to breastfeed for longer periods. The aim of this research was to explore the experience of breastfeeding with a subsample of Hong Kong women who have breastfed for longer than 6 months. Participants (n=17) were recruited from a larger infant-feeding study (n=360) conducted in tertiary-care hospitals in Hong Kong. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted and content analysis was used to analyse the data. Data analysis revealed four themes that encompassed the women's experiences: (1) making the decision, (2) maintaining family harmony, (3) overcoming barriers, and (4) sustaining lactation. Antenatally, participants anticipated that breastfeeding would be very 'difficult' and described how the practice did not fit with the image of a professional woman in Hong Kong. Despite family opposition, frequently from their mother-in-law, and lack of societal acceptance, difficulties were overcome by what the Chinese people call hung-sum or determination. This study highlights unique cultural and social findings affecting breastfeeding women in Hong Kong which may be useful to health-care providers working with Chinese women locally and internationally. PMID:15120982

  10. Multiple Mediational Model of Outness, Social Support, Mental Health, and Wellness Behavior in Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Bisexual, and Queer Women

    PubMed Central

    Tabaac, Ariella R.; Trujillo, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: A growing body of research has begun to examine wellness behaviors in sexual minority women. While a number of constructs have been associated with wellness behaviors in this population, including outness, social support, and mental health, no research has attempted to forge the specific and unique connections among them. The aim of the current study was to construct a theoretical chain among these variables leading to wellness behaviors among an ethnically diverse sample of sexual minority women. Methods: A sample of 150 ethnically diverse, cisgender women identifying as lesbian, bisexual, queer, or an “other” non-heterosexual sexual orientation completed a web-administered national survey. Scales assessed participants' outness, social support, mental health, and wellness behaviors. Results: In a series of simultaneous, multiple regressions, outness to one's family was positively associated with wellness behavior and social support; social support from one's family and friends was positively associated with mental health; and depression was negatively associated with wellness behaviors. Two multiple mediational models generally suggested a cascading influence of outness to one's family on wellness behaviors through social support from one's family and depression. Conclusion: The study is one of the first to find potentially cascading links among personal, social, and mental health variables with health behaviors in a sample of diverse lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women. It thereby illuminates a number of potential targets for health promotion interventions in this population. PMID:26788673

  11. Why Is Cancer More Depressing for Men than Women among Older White Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    Using data from two waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 8,054), I examine gender differences in psychological adjustment to cancer among older white adults. Results from different types of longitudinal models reveal that cancer has more adverse psychological implications for men than women. Men's higher levels of depression are reduced…

  12. Women Empowering Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyikwa, Victoria A.; Chiarelli-Helminiak, Christina M.; Hodge, Diane M.; Wells-Wilbon, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    As women in this female-centered profession of social work, we have not effectively advocated for ourselves in terms of leadership in our educational systems. We reexamine the 2008 special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education" on women in the academy and build on information that suggests social work has lost its momentum to…

  13. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  14. Predicting contraceptive use from an egalitarian model of women's overall household power vis-à-vis conventional power models and third variables.

    PubMed

    León, Federico R

    2013-07-01

    Research on gender power in contraceptive use has focused on whether women have an active role in household decision-making (the participation model) or on the extent of their control of domestic decisions (the control model); it has also addressed the joint effects of power, age, education and work. Findings published in this journal (Woldemicael, 2009) suggest a third power model according to which wives make joint decisions with their husbands on important domestic areas and autonomous decisions on secondary matters (the egalitarian model). In analyses of Demographic and Health Survey data sets from 46 countries, the egalitarian model explained contraceptive use better than the control and participation models in 19 out of 20 countries outside sub-Saharan Africa; its superiority was less overwhelming in this sub-continent. Power effects on contraceptive use that depend on women's education, age and work for cash are larger in sub-Saharan Africa than in other world regions, whereas independent power effects differ little regionally, suggesting the action of a personality factor. Situational specification of decision importance and direct measurement of women's assertiveness are needed to improve the explanation of contraceptive behaviour. PMID:23137710

  15. Melatonin adjusts the expression pattern of clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and induces antidepressant-like effect in a mouse model of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Andras David; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Kawai, Misato; Goda, Ryosei; Matsuo, Haruka; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we have shown that C57BL/6J mice exhibit depression-like behavior under short photoperiod and suggested them as an animal model for investigating seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In this study, we tested if manipulations of the circadian clock with melatonin treatment could effectively modify depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors and brain serotonergic system in C57BL/6J mice. Under short photoperiods (8-h light/16-h dark), daily melatonin treatments 2 h before light offset have significantly altered the 24-h patterns of mRNA expression of circadian clock genes (per1, per2, bmal1 and clock) within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) mostly by increasing amplitude in their expressional rhythms without inducing robust phase shifts in them. Melatonin treatments altered the expression of genes of serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal raphe (tph2, sert, vmat2 and 5ht1a) and serotonin contents in the amygdala. Importantly, melatonin treatment reduced the immobility in forced swim test, a depression-like behavior. As a key mechanism of melatonin-induced antidepressant-like effect, the previously proposed phase-advance hypothesis of the circadian clock could not be confirmed under conditions of our experiment. However, our findings of modest adjustments in both the amplitude and phase of the transcriptional oscillators in the SCN as a result of melatonin treatments may be sufficient to associate with the effects seen in the brain serotonergic system and with the improvement in depression-like behavior. Our study confirmed a predictive validity of C57BL/6J mice as a useful model for the molecular analysis of links between the clock and brain serotonergic system, which could greatly accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of SAD, as well as the search for new treatments. PMID:25515595

  16. How inputs of an hydrologic model have to be adjusted to its underlying physical hypothesis? Case study on the Lez hydrodynamic modeling (Southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siou, L. Kong A.; Fleury, P.; Johannet, A.; Borrell Estupina, V.; Dörfliger, N.; Pistre, S.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers are famous for their high heterogeneity and non-linearity and are currently badly understood whereas they are a major issue on both flood forecasting and water resources. Conceptual models, for example based on reservoir concept, are often used in order to simulate their behavior (1). Nevertheless reservoir models are sensitive to their initial conditions, which are often difficult to measure because of the heterogeneity. Consequently a lot of research is devoted to black-box modeling, particularly neural networks, which can be viewed as an interesting method to deal with non-linearity without other measurement acquisition than system input and output (2). In Mediterranean regions, due to the variability of rainfalls during the hydrologic cycle, the availability of water during summer poses a difficulty to stakeholder. Consequently, the conurbation of Montpellier (400 000 inhabitants), Southeast France, investigates pumping through boreholes in the drain of the Lez spring (3), the major outlet of Lez karstic aquifer, studied from most than 40 years and emblematic of the complexity of karst aquifers. Indeed, the heterogeneity of both the karst system due to geologic complexity, and of rainfalls, joint with the emptying of the spring by pumping contribute to modeling difficulties. Thereby it seems relevant to use neural networks, as non-linear machine learning models, in order to manage the lack of knowledge about the Lez system. The aim of the modeling approach was to simulate the level of water in the drain of the Lez spring in order to better appreciate the level of emptying during summer just before refilling by the autumn rainfalls. To this end the multilayer perceptron was used thanks to its two main properties: universal approximation and parsimony regarding to other non linear statistical model. Particularly, the role of evapotranspiration is not well defined or estimated for karst aquifers (4,5) whereas it is of major importance for water

  17. Drug use and suicidality among Asian American women who are children of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Jang, Jisun; Vu, Cecilia; Alexander, L Melissa; Driscoll, Kelsie E; Lundgren, Lena

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the association between drug use and lifetime suicidal behaviors among Asian American women (n = 720) residing throughout Massachusetts, using data collected from 2010 to 2011. Logistic regression models identified that a history of hard drug use alone or in combination with soft drug use has a significant association with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Asian American women, adjusting for demographic covariates, history of psychiatric diagnosis, and family communication. These findings highlight the importance of addressing hard drug use when designing suicide prevention programs for Asian American women. PMID:23848381

  18. Drug use and suicidality among Asian American women who are children of immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Jang, Jisun; Vu, Cecilia; Alexander, L. Melissa; Driscoll, Kelsie E; Lundgren, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the association between drug use and lifetime suicidal behaviors among Asian American women (n = 720) residing throughout Massachusetts, using data collected from 2010 to 2011. Logistic regression models identified that a history of hard drug use alone or in combination with soft drug use has a significant association with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Asian American women, adjusting for demographic covariates, history of psychiatric diagnosis, and family communication. These findings highlight the importance of addressing hard drug use when designing suicide prevention programs for Asian American women. PMID:23848381

  19. Association between domestic violence and HIV serostatus among married and formerly married women in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Onsomu, Elijah O; Abuya, Benta A; Okech, Irene N; Rosen, David L; Duren-Winfield, Vanessa; Simmons, Amber C

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of both domestic violence (DV) and HIV among Kenyan women is known to be high, but the relationship between them is unknown. Nationally representative cross-sectional data from married and formerly married (MFM) women responding to the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008/2009 were analyzed adjusting for complex survey design. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess the covariate-adjusted associations between HIV serostatus and any reported DV as well as four constituent DV measures: physical, emotional, sexual, and aggravated bodily harm, adjusting for covariates entered into each model using a forward stepwise selection process. Covariates of a priori interest included those representing marriage history, risky sexual behavior, substance use, perceived HIV risk, and sociodemographic characteristics. The prevalence of HIV among MFM women was 10.7% (any DV: 13.1%, no DV: 8.6%); overall prevalence of DV was 43.4%. Among all DV measures, only physical DV was associated with HIV (11.9%; adjusted odds ratio: 2.01, p <.05). Efforts by the government and women's groups to monitor and improve policies to reduce DV, such as the Sexual Offences Act of 2006, are urgently needed to curb HIV, as are policies that seek to provide DV counseling and treatment to MFM women. PMID:25127397

  20. Association between domestic violence and HIV serostatus among married and formerly married women in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Abuya, Benta A; Okech, Irene N; Rosen, David L; Duren-Winfield, Vanessa; Simmons, Amber C

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of both domestic violence (DV) and HIV among Kenyan women is known to be high, but the relationship between them is unknown. Nationally representative cross-sectional data from married and formerly married (MFM) women responding to the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008/2009 were analyzed adjusting for complex survey design. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess the covariate-adjusted associations between HIV serostatus and any reported DV as well as four constituent DV measures: physical, emotional, sexual, and aggravated bodily harm, adjusting for co-variates entered into each model using a forward stepwise selection process. Co-variates of a priori interest included those representing marriage history, risky sexual behavior, substance use, perceived HIV risk, and socio-demographic characteristics. The prevalence of HIV among MFM women was 10.7% (any DV: 13.1%, no DV: 8.6%); overall prevalence of DV was 43.4%. Among all DV measures, only physical DV was associated with HIV (11.9%; adjusted odds ratio: 2.01, p < 0.05). Efforts by the government and women's groups to monitor and improve policies to reduce DV, such as the Sexual Offences Act of 2006, are urgently needed to curb HIV, as are policies that seek to provide DV counseling and treatment to MFM women. PMID:25127397

  1. Modeling of Women's 100-m Dash World Record: Wind-Aided or Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelrigg, Conner; Waibel, Bryson; Baker, Blane

    2015-11-01

    On July 16, 1988, Florence Griffith Joyner (FGJ) shattered the women's 100-m dash world record (WR) with a time of 10.49 s, breaking the previous mark by an astonishing 0.27 s. By all accounts FGJ dominated the race that day, securing her place as the premiere female sprinter of that era, and possibly all time. In the aftermath of such an extraordinary performance, track officials immediately assumed that her posted time was wind aided—that is, attained under tailwind conditions beyond the legal limit of 2.0 m/s for world records. However, wind-measuring devices at the track site showed zero wind conditions during her WR performance. Before and during FGJ's race, other wind-measuring devices indicated speeds exceeding 4.0 m/s at the site of the triple jump runway, located on the same field as the running track. Video clips of flags placed near the starting line of FGJ's race also revealed tailwind conditions. Using available data from that era, the study here incorporates modeling techniques to compute velocity and position as functions of time for no wind and tailwind conditions. Modeling under no wind conditions produces a 100-m time of 10.70 s, a performance clearly attainable by FGJ during this stage of her sprinting career. Incorporating tailwinds of 4.0 m/s into the computations reduces this time by approximately 0.20 s, in close agreement with FGJ's record-breaking performance. These results strongly suggest that tailwinds of order 4 m/s were present during FGJ's world record race even though wind-measuring devices at the track site did not register these speeds. In spite of such strong evidence to support a wind-aided race on July 16, 1988, FGJ remains one of the top female sprinters in history and would likely hold the WR even today, given that she attained a non-wind-aided 100-m time of 10.61 s on the day following her WR performance.

  2. Evaluation of an AIDS education model for women drug users in jail.

    PubMed

    Magura, S; Kang, S Y; Shapiro, J L; O'Day, J

    1995-02-01

    This paper reports outcome evaluation results of an AIDS education program for drug-using women in jail, of whom the majority were current drug injectors, had high-risk sexual partners, and never used condoms for insertive sex. The women participated in four small-group health/HIV education sessions. Education participants and controls were followed-up 7 months after their release from jail; the two groups did not differ significantly on drug- or sex-related HIV risk behaviors at follow-up. However, being in drug dependency treatment (primarily methadone maintenance) at follow-up was associated with reduced heroin use, crack use, drug dealing, and criminal activity. Although improved HIV education in jail is important, better networks of community resources, including more accessible community drug dependency treatment, also must be developed to support drug-dependent women after their release from jail. PMID:7790127

  3. The postpartum management of women with gestational diabetes using a continuum model for health care.

    PubMed

    Castorino, Kristin; Jovanovič, Lois

    2013-12-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus require a continuum of care before, during, and after pregnancy for optimal management of hyperglycemia. Postpartum education and lifestyle modification should begin during pregnancy, and should continue during the postpartum period. Women should receive education on the long-term risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and should be encouraged to breastfeed, engage in regular physical activity, and select a highly effective contraceptive method in preparation for subsequent pregnancy. Postpartum women with gestational diabetes mellitus should be empowered to take ownership of their own health, including knowledge of health indicators such as weight, waist circumference hemoglobin A1C levels, and fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels. PMID:24036480

  4. Women's employment and the gain to marriage: the specialization and trading model.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, V K

    1997-01-01

    "This chapter critically examines the hypothesis that women's rising employment levels have increased their economic independence and hence have greatly reduced the desirability of marriage. Little firm empirical support for this hypothesis is found. The apparent congruence in time-series data of women's rising employment with declining marriage rates and increasing marital instability is partly a result of using the historically atypical early postwar behavior of the baby boom era as the benchmark for comparisons and partly due to confounding trends in delayed marriage with those of nonmarriage." PMID:12348280

  5. Sexual activity, endogenous reproductive hormones and ovulation in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ankita; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Ahrens, Katherine A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Schliep, Karen C; Perkins, Neil J; Kissell, Kerri A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether sexual activity was associated with reproductive function in the BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort study that followed 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18 to 44years for one (n=9) or two (n=250) menstrual cycles in 2005-2007. Women were not attempting pregnancy nor using hormonal contraceptives. History of ever having been sexually active was assessed at baseline and frequency of sexual activity, defined as vaginal-penile intercourse, was self-reported daily throughout the study. Serum concentrations of estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone, and testosterone were measured up to 8times/cycle. Sporadic anovulation was identified using peak progesterone concentration. Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations between sexual activity and reproductive hormone concentrations and generalized linear models were used to estimate associations with sporadic anovulation. Models were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, perceived stress, and alcohol consumption and accounted for repeated measures within women. Elevated concentrations of estrogen (+14.6%, P<.01), luteal progesterone (+41.0%, P<.01) and mid-cycle LH (+23.4%, P<.01), but not FSH (P=.33) or testosterone (P=.37), were observed in sexually active women compared with sexually inactive women (no prior and no study-period sexual activity); sexually active women had lower odds of sporadic anovulation (adjusted odds ratio=0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.73). Among sexually active women, frequency of sexual activity was not associated with hormones or sporadic anovulation (all P>.23). Findings from our study suggest that ever having been sexually active is associated with improved reproductive function, even after controlling for factors such as age. PMID:24954690

  6. The Effects of Perceived Barriers, Role Models, and Acculturation on the Career Self-Efficacy and Career Consideration of Hispanic Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Lourdes M.; Blumberg, Fran; Chen, Eric C.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study used path analysis to examine the relationship between perceived barriers, acculturation, and role model influence on the career self-efficacy and career considerations of a sample of Hispanic women. Two path models were examined. The male-dominated model accounted for 15% of the variance, and the female-dominated model accounted for…

  7. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and mammographic density in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ahn, Jiin; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Chan-Won; Yun, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Min-Jung; Suh, Byung-Seong; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance (IR) with mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to evaluate these associations in pre- and postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was performed in 73,974 adult women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination that included a mammogram between 2011 and 2013 (mean age 42.6 years). MetS was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. IR was assessed with the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dense breast were estimated using logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounders. In premenopausal women, MetS and all its components except waist circumference were associated with dense breast. After adjustment for potential confounders, the OR (95% CI) for dense breast in women with MetS compared with those without MetS was 1.22 (1.06-1.39). In postmenopausal women, however, there was positive but non-significant association between MetS and dense breast. In both pre- and postmenopausal women, high blood glucose and IR were positively associated with dense breast. The OR (95% CI) for dense breast between the highest and lowest quartiles of HOMA-IR was 1.29 (1.20-1.39) for premenopausal women and 1.44 (1.05-1.97) for postmenopausal women. In a large sample of Korean women, MetS and IR were associated with mammographic dense breast, demonstrating that IR, a potentially modifiable risk factor, may increase breast cancer risk, possibly through high mammographic density. PMID:26277917

  8. Protective Effects of White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) against Hepatic Steatosis in Ovariectomized Mice as a Model of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Noriko; Kubo, Makoto; Liu, Zheng; Chu, Peiguo; Wang, Charles; Chen, Yate-Ching Yuan, Shiuan

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis). Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM), Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX) mice (a model of postmenopausal women). OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas) and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6), were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women. PMID:22046322

  9. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  10. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  11. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  12. The effect of adjusting model inputs to achieve mass balance on time-dynamic simulations in a food-web model of Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langseth, Brian J.; Jones, Michael L.; Riley, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) is a widely used modeling tool in fishery research and management. Ecopath requires a mass-balanced snapshot of a food web at a particular point in time, which Ecosim then uses to simulate changes in biomass over time. Initial inputs to Ecopath, including estimates for biomasses, production to biomass ratios, consumption to biomass ratios, and diets, rarely produce mass balance, and thus ad hoc changes to inputs are required to balance the model. There has been little previous research of whether ad hoc changes to achieve mass balance affect Ecosim simulations. We constructed an EwE model for the offshore community of Lake Huron, and balanced the model using four contrasting but realistic methods. The four balancing methods were based on two contrasting approaches; in the first approach, production of unbalanced groups was increased by increasing either biomass or the production to biomass ratio, while in the second approach, consumption of predators on unbalanced groups was decreased by decreasing either biomass or the consumption to biomass ratio. We compared six simulation scenarios based on three alternative assumptions about the extent to which mortality rates of prey can change in response to changes in predator biomass (i.e., vulnerabilities) under perturbations to either fishing mortality or environmental production. Changes in simulated biomass values over time were used in a principal components analysis to assess the comparative effect of balancing method, vulnerabilities, and perturbation types. Vulnerabilities explained the most variation in biomass, followed by the type of perturbation. Choice of balancing method explained little of the overall variation in biomass. Under scenarios where changes in predator biomass caused large changes in mortality rates of prey (i.e., high vulnerabilities), variation in biomass was greater than when changes in predator biomass caused only small changes in mortality rates of prey (i.e., low

  13. GI Joe or Average Joe? The impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and advertisement effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2010-06-01

    Increasing body size and shape diversity in media imagery may promote positive body image. While research has largely focused on female models and women's body image, men may also be affected by unrealistic images. We examined the impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and perceived advertisement effectiveness. A sample of 330 men and 289 women viewed one of four advertisement conditions: no models, muscular, average-slim or average-large models. Men and women rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as muscular models. For men, exposure to average-size models was associated with more positive body image in comparison to viewing no models, but no difference was found in comparison to muscular models. Similar results were found for women. Internalisation of beauty ideals did not moderate these effects. These findings suggest that average-size male models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers. PMID:20488770

  14. Relationships among Abuse Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Abused Women's Psychological Health: A Path Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Glennys; Lee, Christina

    2007-01-01

    We examined relationships between abuse, coping, and psychological health among 143 women who had experienced abuse in adult relationships. Measures included characteristics of the abuse, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, Sense of Coherence, and four measures of psychological wellbeing--the SF-36 Mental Component Scale, the General…

  15. A Model Project To Improve the Climate for Women in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Jeannie; Bland, Mary Margaret

    This report describes activities and accomplishments of a 3-year pilot project conducted by the Center for Women in Engineering (California) to improve the classroom climate for girls at the K-12 level. Project programs included workshops for K-12 teachers, three educational outreach programs for teachers and students, and laboratory…

  16. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  17. Interdependence in Women with Breast Cancer and Their Partners: An Interindividual Model of Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorros, Sam M.; Card, Noel A.; Segrin, Chris; Badger, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this investigation was to test whether interdependence in dyads living with breast cancer could account for person-partner crossover effects in distress outcomes. Method: The sample consisted of 95 dyads with early-stage breast cancer. By using reciprocal dyadic data from women with breast cancer and their partners, we fit a…

  18. Recruitment Strategies for Women in Nontraditional Careers. Adapted from Fair Recruitment Model and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Beverly; Stitt, Tom

    This guide presents 21 one- or two-page recruitment strategies for women in nontraditional careers. Each entry includes sections on what, when, where, who, and how. Strategies included are: (1) attention-getter giveaways; (2) bias-fee brochure; (3) bias-free slide-tape; (4) "bring a friend" day; (5) brochures with utility bills; (6) craftperson…

  19. A Model of Women's Educational Factors Related to Delaying Girls' Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cristine A.; Stone, Rebecca Paulson; Kahando, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Delaying girls' early marriage is a critical public health and education goal in developing countries, in which their own or their mothers' education may play an important role. This paper reviews the existing evidence of any relationship between girls' schooling or women's literacy education and delayed marriage for themselves or their daughters.…

  20. Counseling College Women Experiencing Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: A Cognitive Behavior Therapy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…

  1. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  2. Modeling Social Activism and Teaching about Violence against Women through Theatre Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pataki, Sherri P.; Mackenzie, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    To inform students about global violence against women and to empower them to take action, the authors developed an interdisciplinary course focused on experiential learning and theatre education. Their article discusses the development of the course; the implementation of active learning strategies to develop critical thinking, empathy, and…

  3. Strategies for Incorporating Women-Specific Sexuality Education into Addiction Treatment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Raven

    2007-01-01

    This paper advocates for the incorporation of a women-specific sexuality curriculum in the addiction treatment process to aid in sexual healing and provide for aftercare issues. Sexuality in addiction treatment modalities is often approached from a sex-negative stance, or that of sexual victimization. Sexual issues are viewed as addictive in and…

  4. Surveying the Field: The Research Model of Women in Librarianship, 1882-1898

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Women who promoted library services to children in the United States in the late nineteenth century introduced the systematic use of survey research on library practice to the field of professional librarianship. They created a series of qualitative survey-based reports, the "Reading of the Young" reports, which were presented at ALA conferences…

  5. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research. PMID:21171548

  6. How should risk adjustment data be collected?

    PubMed

    Kessler, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Risk adjustment has broad general application and is a key part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Yet, little has been written on how data required to support risk adjustment should be collected. This paper offers analytical support for a distributed approach, in which insurers retain possession of claims but pass on summary statistics to the risk adjustment authority as needed. It shows that distributed approaches function as well as or better than centralized ones-where insurers submit raw claims data to the risk adjustment authority-in terms of the goals of risk adjustment. In particular, it shows how distributed data analysis can be used to calibrate risk adjustment models and calculate payments, both in theory and in practice--drawing on the experience of distributed models in other contexts. In addition, it explains how distributed methods support other goals of the ACA, and can support projects requiring data aggregation more generally. It concludes that states should seriously consider distributed methods to implement their risk adjustment programs. PMID:22931020

  7. Women who sexually offend display three main offense styles: a reexamination of the descriptive model of female sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Theresa A; Waugh, Greg; Taylor, Kelly; Blanchette, Kelly; O'Connor, Alisha; Blake, Emily; Ciardha, Caoilte Ó

    2014-06-01

    This study examined a theory constructed to describe the offense process of women who sexually offend-the Descriptive Model of Female Sexual Offending (DMFSO). In particular, this report sets out to establish whether the original three pathways (or offending styles) identified within United Kingdom convicted female sexual offenders and described within the DMFSO (i.e., Explicit-Approach, Directed-Avoidant, Implicit-Disorganized) were applicable to a small sample (N = 36) of North American women convicted of sexual offending. Two independent raters examined the offense narratives of the sample and-using the DMFSO-coded each script according to whether it fitted one of the three original pathways. Results suggested that the three existing pathways of the DMFSO represented a reasonable description of offense pathways for a sample of North American women convicted of sexual offending. No new pathways were identified. A new "Offense Pathway Checklist" devised to aid raters' decision making is described and future research and treatment implications explored. PMID:23676187

  8. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    PubMed

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development. PMID:10533172

  9. Recent abuse from in-laws and associations with adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women: extended families as part of the ecological model.

    PubMed

    Falb, Kathryn L; Annan, Jeannie; Hossain, Mazeda; Topolska, Monika; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women in the aftermath of conflict represents a growing area of concern. However, little is known about violence perpetrated by a woman's in-laws and how these experiences may be related to adverse experiences during a crisis. Therefore, guided by the ecological model, the objectives of the following analysis were to (1) document adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women and (2) investigate the association between such experiences and abuse perpetrated by partners' extended families, among a sample of women residing in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Utilising data from a baseline survey conducted in 2010, we generated descriptive statistics and used generalised estimating equations to assess the relationships of interest. Women whose family was victimised during the crisis had 1.7 times the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to those women whose families did not experience such adversity (95% CI: 1.1-2.4), and women who experienced a personal form of adversity had twice the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to women who did not report victimisation (95% CI: 1.2-3.2). Being forced to flee was not statistically associated with in-law abuse. Findings underscore the importance of addressing in-law abuse in order to promote women's health in post-conflict settings. PMID:23826969

  10. Psychological Factors in Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women: Relevance and Application of the Fear-Avoidance Model of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain in women is a debilitating, costly condition often treated by physical therapists. The etiology of this condition is multifactorial and poorly understood, given the complex interplay of muscles, bones, and soft tissue that comprise the pelvis. There are few guidelines directing treatment interventions for this condition. In the last decade, several investigators have highlighted the role of psychological variables in conditions such as vulvodynia and painful bladder syndrome. Pain-related fear is the focus of the fear-avoidance model (FAM) of pain, which theorizes that some people are more likely to develop and maintain pain after an injury because of their emotional and behavioral responses to pain. The FAM groups people into 2 classes on the basis of how they respond to pain: people who have low fear, confront pain, and recover from injury and people who catastrophize pain—a response that leads to avoidance/escape behaviors, disuse, and disability. Given the presence of pain-related cognitions in women with chronic pelvic pain, including hypervigilance, catastrophizing, and anxiety, research directed toward the application of the FAM to guide therapeutic interventions is warranted. Isolated segments of the FAM have been studied to theorize why traditional approaches (ie, medications and surgery) may not lead to successful outcomes. However, the explicit application of the FAM to guide physical therapy interventions for women with chronic pelvic pain is not routine. Integrating the FAM might direct physical therapists' clinical decision making on the basis of the pain-related cognitions and behaviors of patients. The aims of this article are to provide information about the FAM of musculoskeletal pain and to provide evidence for the relevance of the FAM to chronic pelvic pain in women. PMID:21835893

  11. Are international differences in breast cancer survival between Australia and the UK present amongst both screen-detected women and non-screen-detected women? survival estimates for women diagnosed in West Midlands and New South Wales 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Woods, Laura M; Rachet, Bernard; O'Connell, Dianne L; Lawrence, Gill; Coleman, Michel P

    2016-05-15

    We examined survival in screened-detected and non-screen-detected women diagnosed in the West Midlands (UK) and New South Wales (Australia) in order to evaluate whether international differences in survival are related to early diagnosis, or to other factors relating to the healthcare women receive. Data for women aged 50 - 65 years who had been eligible for screening from 50 years were examined. Data for 5,628 women in West Midlands and 6,396 women in New South Wales were linked to screening service records (mean age at diagnosis 53.7 years). We estimated net survival and modelled the excess hazard ratio of breast cancer death by screening status. Survival was lower for women in the West Midlands than in New South Wales (5-year net survival 90.9% [95% CI 89.9%-91.7%] compared with 93.4% [95% CI 92.6%-94.1%], respectively). The difference was greater between the two populations of non-screen-detected women (4.9%) compared to between screen-detected women, (1.8% after adjustment for lead-time and over-diagnosis). The adjusted excess hazard ratio of breast cancer death for West Midlands compared with New South Wales was greater in the non-screen-detected group (EHR 2.00, 95% CI 1.70 - 2.31) but not significantly different to that for women whose cancer had been screen-detected (EHR 1.72, 95% CI 0.87 - 2.56). In this study more than one in three breast cancer deaths in the West Midlands would have been avoided if survival had been the same as in New South Wales. The possibility that women in the UK receive poorer treatment is an important potential explanation which should be examined with care. PMID:26756306

  12. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  13. Using a community of practice model to create change for Northern homeless women

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Nancy; Bopp, Judie

    2016-01-01

    This is a story about three virtual and face-to-face communities which met in the capitals of Canada’s three Northern territorial cities over a two-year period to discuss and act on culturally safe and gender-specific services for Northern women (and their children) experiencing homelessness, mental health and substance use concerns. It is a story of how researchers and community-based advocates can work across distance and culture, using co-learning in virtual communities as a core strategy to create relational system change. The three communities of practice were linked through a pan-territorial action research project entitled Repairing the Holes in the Net, in which all participants: learned together, mapped available services, discussed the findings from interviews with northern women about their trajectories of homelessness, analyzed relevant policy, planned local service enhancements, and generally took inspiration from each other.

  14. Gender equality and women's absolute status: a test of the feminist models of rape.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account. PMID:16567334

  15. The impact of an educational program based on BASNEF model on the selection of a contraceptive method in women

    PubMed Central

    Sarayloo, Khadijeh; Moghadam, Zahra Behboodi; Mansoure, Jamshidi Manesh; Mostafa, Hosseini; Mohsen, Saffari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of services, making communications with target groups, and educating them are among the most important success factors in implementation of family planning programs. Provision of public access to contraception and related methods, counseling services, and paying attention to social specification and cultures are important in promotion of service quality. With regard to applicability of health education theories and models, the present study aimed to find the impact of an educational program based on BASNEF model to choose contraceptive methods in women referring to health care centers in Minoodasht in 2012. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study. Data were collected using BASNEF questionnaire by the researcher from women referring to health care centers in two groups of study and control (n = 100 in each group). Educational intervention (in the form of four educational 1-h sessions once a week during 1 month and two additional review sessions) was conducted in the form of group and face-to-face discussions and educational booklets were distributed. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), paired t-test, and t-test through SPSS version 14. Results: After intervention, mean score of knowledge was significantly higher in the study group compared to control (P < 0.003). Intervention led to a better attitude in the study group (P < 0.0001). Mean score of subjective norms and enabling factors after intervention was significantly higher in the study group compared to control (P < 0.0001). The change in practice had a significant increase in the study group (54%) compared to control (9%). Conclusions: BASNEF-based educational intervention was effective in increasing women's knowledge, attitude, and practice. As family and educational facilities are among the influencing factors on contraceptive method selection, interventional planning is hoped to be based on educational model. PMID:25878691

  16. Modeling of Women's 100-M Dash World Record: Wind-Aided or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelrigg, Conner; Waibel, Bryson; Baker, Blane

    2015-01-01

    On July 16, 1988, Florence Griffith Joyner (FGJ) shattered the women's 100-m dash world record (WR) with a time of 10.49 s, breaking the previous mark by an astonishing 0.27 s. By all accounts FGJ dominated the race that day, securing her place as the premiere female sprinter of that era, and possibly all time. In the aftermath of such an…

  17. Class Climate Moderates Peer Relations and Emotional Adjustment in Children with an Early History of Anxious Solitude: A Child x Environment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Classroom emotional climate was hypothesized to moderate psychosocial adjustment in 1st grade for children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude. Participants were 1,364 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and their mothers, child-care providers, and teachers.…

  18. Body size throughout the life course and mammographic density in Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Megan S.; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Lajous, Martin; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Biessy, Carine; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Mammographic density (MD) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but the biological mechanism underlying this association is not clear. Current adult body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with percent MD; however, few studies have included Hispanic women or evaluated associations with measures of body fatness earlier in life. ESMaestras was established in 2006, when 28,345 women ages ≥35 responded to a detailed questionnaire that assessed possible disease risk factors, including body fatness in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. In 2007, 2,084 ESMaestras participants underwent a clinical examination, which included measurements of weight, height, and sitting height and a mammogram. We measured percent MD using a computer-assisted method. The current analysis includes 972 premenopausal and 559 postmenopausal women. We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate associations between measures of body size and MD, independent of current BMI. Among pre- and postmenopausal women, we observed no significant associations between body fatness during childhood, adolescence or young adulthood and percent MD. Among postmenopausal women, we observed a modest positive association between body fatness immediately before first pregnancy and between ages 25–35 after adjustment for current BMI, with differences of 4.9 and 3.6 percentage points, respectively, in percent MD between the heaviest and leanest women (p-trend = 0.02). There were no significant associations between height, sitting height, and percent MD among pre- or postmenopausal women in multivariable models adjusting for BMI. In general, we found no clear associations between measures of body size in early life, current sitting height, or current height, and percent MD, after adjusting for current BMI, in this population of Mexican women. Our observation of a positive association between early adult body fatness (i.e., before first pregnancy and ages 25–35) and percent MD among

  19. Working models of attachment and representations of the object in a clinical sample of sexually abused women.

    PubMed

    Stalker, C A; Davies, F

    1998-01-01

    This study examined internal working models of attachment as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1984) and self-other differentiation as assessed by the Description of Significant Other (Marziali & Oleniuk, 1990) in a clinical sample of 40 women reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse. Although there was some relationship between the two measures, the association was not strong. The Cannot Classify category of the AAI, which is increasingly being assigned in clinical samples, needs refinement to increase the usefulness of the AAI for clinical purposes. Integration of concepts from objects relations theory may also enhance the value of the AAI in studies of clinical samples. PMID:9703711

  20. Characteristics of women who have had cosmetic breast implants that could be associated with increased suicide risk: a systematic review, proposing a suicide prevention model.

    PubMed

    Manoloudakis, Nikolaos; Labiris, Georgios; Karakitsou, Nefeli; Kim, Jong B; Sheena, Yezen; Niakas, Dimitrios

    2015-03-01

    Literature indicates an increased risk of suicide among women who have had cosmetic breast implants. An explanatory model for this association has not been established. Some studies conclude that women with cosmetic breast implants demonstrate some characteristics that are associated with increased suicide risk while others support that the breast augmentation protects from suicide. A systematic review including data collection from January 1961 up to February 2014 was conducted. The results were incorporated to pre-existing suicide risk models of the general population. A modified suicide risk model was created for the female cosmetic augmentation mammaplasty candidate. A 2-3 times increased suicide risk among women that undergo cosmetic breast augmentation has been identified. Breast augmentation patients show some characteristics that are associated with increased suicide risk. The majority of women reported high postoperative satisfaction. Recent research indicates that the Autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants and fibromyalgia syndrome are associated with silicone implantation. A thorough surgical, medical and psycho-social (psychiatric, family, reproductive, and occupational) history should be included in the preoperative assessment of women seeking to undergo cosmetic breast augmentation. Breast augmentation surgery can stimulate a systematic stress response and increase the risk of suicide. Each risk factor of suicide has poor predictive value when considered independently and can result in prediction errors. A clinical management model has been proposed considering the overlapping risk factors of women that undergo cosmetic breast augmentation with suicide. PMID:25798383

  1. Characteristics of Women Who Have Had Cosmetic Breast Implants That Could Be Associated with Increased Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review, Proposing a Suicide Prevention Model

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, Georgios; Karakitsou, Nefeli; Kim, Jong B; Sheena, Yezen; Niakas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Literature indicates an increased risk of suicide among women who have had cosmetic breast implants. An explanatory model for this association has not been established. Some studies conclude that women with cosmetic breast implants demonstrate some characteristics that are associated with increased suicide risk while others support that the breast augmentation protects from suicide. A systematic review including data collection from January 1961 up to February 2014 was conducted. The results were incorporated to pre-existing suicide risk models of the general population. A modified suicide risk model was created for the female cosmetic augmentation mammaplasty candidate. A 2-3 times increased suicide risk among women that undergo cosmetic breast augmentation has been identified. Breast augmentation patients show some characteristics that are associated with increased suicide risk. The majority of women reported high postoperative satisfaction. Recent research indicates that the Autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants and fibromyalgia syndrome are associated with silicone implantation. A thorough surgical, medical and psycho-social (psychiatric, family, reproductive, and occupational) history should be included in the preoperative assessment of women seeking to undergo cosmetic breast augmentation. Breast augmentation surgery can stimulate a systematic stress response and increase the risk of suicide. Each risk factor of suicide has poor predictive value when considered independently and can result in prediction errors. A clinical management model has been proposed considering the overlapping risk factors of women that undergo cosmetic breast augmentation with suicide. PMID:25798383

  2. Intimate Partner Violence and Condom Use Among Women: Does the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model Explain Sexual Risk Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Mona; Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) undermines women's ability to enact safer sex and increases their vulnerability to HIV and other STDs. To better understand the relationship between IPV and sexual risk behavior, we investigated whether the Information – Motivation –Behavioral Skills (IMB) model differentially predicted risk behavior among women who had and had not recently experienced IPV. Data from 717 women who were recruited from a public health clinic showed that 18% reported IPV by a sexual partner in the past 3 months, 28% in the past year, and 57% lifetime. Women who experienced IPV in the last 3 months reported more episodes of unprotected sex and more episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner in the past 3 months. Multi-group path analyses provided mixed evidence regarding the associations hypothesized by the IMB model; the strength of these associations varied as a function of IPV history. Thus, although information did not predict risk behavior for either group, motivation was associated with condom use only for women with no history of IPV. Behavioral skills were associated with more condom use for both groups. Overall, the IMB model is useful for predicting sexual risk behavior; however, for women with partner violence histories a broader model that includes other contextual factors may be needed. These findings can help to inform the development of more effective sexual risk reduction interventions. PMID:21484278

  3. The Augmented Cognitive Mediation Model: Examining Antecedents of Factual and Structural Breast Cancer Knowledge Among Singaporean Women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edmund W J; Shin, Mincheol; Kawaja, Ariffin; Ho, Shirley S

    2016-05-01

    As knowledge acquisition is an important component of health communication research, this study examines factors associated with Singaporean women's breast cancer knowledge using an augmented cognitive mediation model. We conducted a nationally representative study that surveyed 802 women between the ages of 30 and 70 using random-digit dialing. The results supported the augmented cognitive mediation model, which proposes the inclusion of risk perception as a motivator of health information seeking and structural knowledge as an additional knowledge dimension. There was adequate support for the hypothesized paths in the model. Risk perception was positively associated with attention to newspaper, television, Internet, and interpersonal communication. Attention to the three media channels was associated with interpersonal communication, but only newspaper and television attention were associated with elaboration. Interpersonal communication was positively associated with structural knowledge, whereas elaboration was associated with both factual and structural knowledge. Differential indirect effects between media attention and knowledge dimensions via interpersonal communication and elaboration were found. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27128006

  4. Toward a gender-sensitive model of science teacher education for women primary and early childhood teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearlin, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Female teachers predominate in primary schools, and tend both to have more negative perceptions of their teaching skills in the physical sciences than males, and to expect girls to perform less well in these areas than boys, with likely serious consequences for girls. In this context the WASTE (Women and Science Teacher Education) Project sought to identify characteristics for teacher education programs which, in the opinion of their conveners, were productive in changing the attitude toward the teaching of science, or in changing the actual mode of teaching science, of women preservice and practising teachers. This paper reports the findings of the WASTE Project which surveyed the conveners of pre- and inservice programs and outlined the three models of exemplary practice used to classify responses: subject-centred, learner-centred and knowledge and person-centred. These models were based largely on differing explanations given for attitude change and on implicit concepts of knowledge, persons, and teaching and learning, and on the importance attributed to gender as a variable. Secondly, it shows how the Primary and Early Childhood Science and Technology Education Project, a gender-sensitive action-research project, was built on these findings. Finally, using these models, it offers a critique of the gender perspective of the Discipline Review of Teacher Education (DEET, 1989).

  5. Risk of breast cancer following fertility treatment – A registry based cohort study of parous women in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Reigstad, Marte Myhre; Larsen, Inger Kristin; Myklebust, Tor Åge; Robsahm, Trude Eid; Oldereid, Nan Birgitte; Omland, Anne Katerine; Vangen, Siri; Brinton, Louise Annette; Storeng, Ritsa

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing numbers of women availing themselves of assisted reproductive technology (ART), effects on cancer risk remain unresolved. Given hormonal exposures, breast cancer risk is of particular concern. The aim of this study is to investigate breast cancer risk amongst women giving birth following ART as compared to that amongst women who gave birth without ART. Data on all women who gave birth in Norway with or without ART, between 1984 and 2010 was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). 808 834 women eligible for study were linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway. Cox proportional hazards model computed relative risk of breast cancer between the two groups, adjusting for age, parity, age at first birth, calendar period and region of residence. A total of 8037 women were diagnosed with breast cancer during the study period, 138 ART women and 7899 unexposed. Total follow-up time was 12 401 121 person-years (median 16.0), median age at entry was 32.5 years (range18.6-49.9) for ART women and 26.3 (range 10.5-54.6) for women without ART. Women exposed to ART had an elevated risk of breast cancer (adjusted HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.42). Subgroup analyses resulted in an HR of 1.30 (95% CI 1.07-1.57) for women treated with IVF and 1.35 (95 % CI 1.07-1.71) for women with follow-up >10 years, compared with controls. Our findings of increased risk in the study population, warrant continued monitoring of women treated with ART as this population advances into more typical cancer age ranges. PMID:25042052

  6. Dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Takachi, Ribeka; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, an environmental pollutant, may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer. We examined the hypothesis that higher dietary cadmium intake is associated with risk of overall and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in Japanese women, a population with a relatively high cadmium intake. The study was conducted under a case-control design in 405 eligible matched pairs from May 2001 to September 2005 at four hospitals in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Dietary cadmium intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer and its hormone-receptor-defined subtypes were calculated by tertile of dietary cadmium intake. We found no significant association between dietary cadmium and risk of total breast cancer in either crude or multivariable-adjusted analysis. Adjusted ORs for tertiles of cadmium intake were 1.00, 1.19, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.76-2.00; P for trend=0.39) for whole breast cancer. Further, no significant associations were seen across strata of menopausal status, smoking, and diabetes in multivariable-adjusted models except for adjusted OR for continuous cadmium intake in postmenopausal women. A statistically significant association was found for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors among postmenopausal women (adjusted OR=1.00, 1.16, and 1.94 [95% CI, 1.04-3.63; P for trend=0.032]). Although the present study found no overall association between dietary cadmium intake and breast cancer risk, higher cadmium intake was associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer in postmenopausal women, at least at regular intake levels in Japanese women in the general population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:23608001

  7. Comparison between the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory: predicting incontinence prevention behaviour in post-partum women.

    PubMed

    Dolman, M; Chase, J

    1996-08-01

    A small-scale study was undertaken to test the relative predictive power of the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory for the uptake of a behaviour (pelvic floor exercises) to reduce post-partum urinary incontinence in primigravida females. A structured questionnaire was used to gather data relevant to both models from a sample antenatal and postnatal primigravida women. Questions examined the perceived probability of becoming incontinent, the perceived (dis)utility of incontinence, the perceived probability of pelvic floor exercises preventing future urinary incontinence, the costs and benefits of performing pelvic floor exercises and sources of information and knowledge about incontinence. Multiple regression analysis focused on whether or not respondents intended to perform pelvic floor exercises and the factors influencing their decisions. Aggregated data were analysed to compare the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory directly. PMID:9238593

  8. Experiment on performance of adjustable jet pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. M.; Long, X. P.; Zhang, S. B.; Lu, X.

    2012-11-01

    When the water level of upper or lower reaches of hydraulic power station changes, the adjustable jet pump which is different from traditional fixed jet pump can maintain stable pressure and flow rate for the system of technical water supply of hydraulic power plant. The model test indicates that the efficiency of the adjustable jet pump is slightly lower than fixed jet pump near rating operation point. With the decrease of opening degree, both efficiencies are more and more close to each other. The fundamental performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is better than II-type and the cavitation performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is worse than II-type. Test data also indicate that the performance of adjustable jet pump is very different from fixed jet pump, so the theory of fixed jet pump is not able to be copied to adjustable jet pump. It is necessary to farther study on the performance of the adjustable jet pump. This paper has reference value for analogous design of system of circulation water supply to turbine units in hydraulic power station.

  9. Visceral Adipocyte Hypertrophy is Associated With Dyslipidemia Independent of Body Composition and Fat Distribution in Women

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, Alain; Caron-Jobin, Maude; Noël, Suzanne; Laberge, Philippe Y.; Tchernof, André

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We assessed whether subcutaneous and omental adipocyte hypertrophy are related to metabolic alterations independent of body composition and fat distribution in women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mean adipocyte diameter of paired subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue samples was obtained in lean to obese women. Linear regression models predicting adipocyte size in both adipose tissue depots were computed using body composition and fat distribution measures (n = 150). In a given depot, women with larger adipocytes than predicted by the regression were considered as having adipocyte hypertrophy, whereas women with smaller adipocytes than predicted were considered as having adipocyte hyperplasia. RESULTS Women characterized by omental adipocyte hypertrophy had higher plasma and VLDL triglyceride levels as well as a higher total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio compared with women characterized by omental adipocyte hyperplasia (P < 0.05). Conversely, women characterized by subcutaneous adipocyte hypertrophy or hyperplasia showed a similar lipid profile. In logistic regression analyses, a 10% enlargement of omental adipocytes increased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.06, P < 0.001) independent of body composition and fat distribution measures. A 10% increase in visceral adipocyte number also raised the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted OR 1.55, P < 0.02). Associations between adipocyte size and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were not significant once adjusted for adiposity and body fat distribution. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that omental, but not subcutaneous, adipocyte hypertrophy is associated with an altered lipid profile independent of body composition and fat distribution in women. PMID:21421806

  10. Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Fang; Rongsheng, Wu

    2002-09-01

    Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow is examined in detail with a linear shallow water model. The initial unbalanced flow considered first falls tinder two classes. The first is similar to that adopted by Gill and is here referred to as a mass imbalance model, for the flow is initially motionless but with a sea surface displacement. The other is the same as that considered by Rossby and is referred to as a momentum imbalance model since there is only a velocity perturbation in the initial field. The significant feature of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment for the above two extreme models is that although the energy conversion ratio has a large case-to-case variability for different initial conditions, its value is bounded below by 0 and above by 1 / 2. Based on the discussion of the above extreme models, the energetics of adjustment for an arbitrary initial condition is investigated. It is found that the characteristics of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment mentioned above are also applicable to adjustment of the general unbalanced flow under the condition that the energy conversion ratio is redefined as the conversion ratio between the change of kinetic energy and potential energy of the deviational fields.

  11. Feeling bad posing as a model: an objective manner of study upward own-body comparisons in body-dissatisfied women.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Díaz-Ferrer, Sandra; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Vila, Jaime

    2014-11-01

    Emotional effects of upward body comparisons are suggested to occur automatically. A startle reflex paradigm was used to objectively examine the emotions elicited by viewing a picture of one's own body adopting a model pose or a neutral pose, in 30 women with high body dissatisfaction (HBD) and 33 women with low body dissatisfaction (LBD). In-task emotional responses in perceived valence, arousal and control were assessed. Additionally, post-task positive/negative and body-related beauty feelings were recorded. The results revealed that HBD women, compared with LBD women, showed (i) less pleasure, higher activation and less control whilst viewing their own bodies and (ii) less pleasure, more negative/ugliness feelings and an increased startle response when viewing themselves posing as models. The data showed that their own bodies provoked an immediate negative emotional state in HBD women. However, greater aversive psychophysiological mechanisms were automatically activated only when these women posed as models, suggesting that they made upward own-body comparisons. PMID:25257215

  12. Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

  13. Lightening the load for women.

    PubMed

    Buvinic, M

    1995-01-01

    Research is confirming the fact that women suffer more from poverty than men and that the consequences of poverty in women are felt for succeeding generations. Female poverty is linked to the rise of female-headed households with children to support. Also, between 1965 and 1988, the number of rural women living in poverty rose 51% versus 41% for men. As women have sought low-income employment or spent more of their time in unpaid community work to compensate for government cutbacks associated with structural adjustment programs, a vicious cycle of poverty has developed. Overburdened women workers hand over child care responsibilities to their oldest daughters who must then leave school, thus ensuring a continuation of the cycle of poverty. On the other hand, women's employment has a more positive effect on their children's health and nutrition than does a father's earnings. Women prefer to invest their earnings to insure the well-being of their children; therefore, the earnings of women have greater benefit to society at large than the earnings of men. It is likely that women must earn a certain level of income to avoid perpetuating poverty. Policies should be implemented that enforce the virtuous cycle of investment in children instead of the vicious cycle of deprivation. Agricultural policies should target poor farmers and give women farmers access to land, credit, and technical assistance; financial policies should promote the growth of small enterprises and foster entrepreneurship among women; and labor-intensive economic growth policies should be "pro-poor." Policy-oriented research will be necessary in such areas as the dynamics of families headed by women, the transmission of disadvantage between mothers and children, changes in women's work which occur with changes in economic conditions, and analyses of the consequences of targeting interventions to women who are heads of households and poor women. PMID:12319335

  14. Model-based projections of Zika virus infections in childbearing women in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Alex Perkins, T; Siraj, Amir S; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen that is rapidly spreading across the Americas. Due to associations between Zika virus infection and a range of fetal maladies(1,2), the epidemic trajectory of this viral infection poses a significant concern for the nearly 15 million children born in the Americas each year. Ascertaining the portion of this population that is truly at risk is an important priority. One recent estimate(3) suggested that 5.42 million childbearing women live in areas of the Americas that are suitable for Zika occurrence. To improve on that estimate, which did not take into account the protective effects of herd immunity, we developed a new approach that combines classic results from epidemiological theory with seroprevalence data and highly spatially resolved data about drivers of transmission to make location-specific projections of epidemic attack rates. Our results suggest that 1.65 (1.45-2.06) million childbearing women and 93.4 (81.6-117.1) million people in total could become infected before the first wave of the epidemic concludes. Based on current estimates of rates of adverse fetal outcomes among infected women(2,4,5), these results suggest that tens of thousands of pregnancies could be negatively impacted by the first wave of the epidemic. These projections constitute a revised upper limit of populations at risk in the current Zika epidemic, and our approach offers a new way to make rapid assessments of the threat posed by emerging infectious diseases more generally. PMID:27562260

  15. Determinants of breast self-examination performance among Iranian women: an application of the health belief model.

    PubMed

    Noroozi, Azita; Jomand, Tayyebh; Tahmasebi, Rahim

    2011-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women. Screening behavior rates are low in the world. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate breast self-examination (BSE) rate and the relationships of Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs for predicting BSE. Path analysis was used to examine both one-way direct and indirect effects of HBM factors on BSE in this population (N = 382). Data were collected by a part of Champion's HBM Scale (CHBMS) and a self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that 7.6% of the participants reported performing BSE regularly. The final model provided a good fit to the data, with 13 variables explaining 62% of the variance in BSE. Perceived self-efficacy was intermediate construct between modifying factors and HBM constructs. Also, perceived self-efficacy and perceived benefits were the most highly related to BSE. The results suggest that HBM is a useful framework for identifying factors influencing the use of BSE in Iranian women. PMID:20859775

  16. Risk-adjusted monitoring of survival times

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Reynolds, Marion R.; Woodall, William H.

    2009-02-26

    We consider the monitoring of clinical outcomes, where each patient has a di®erent risk of death prior to undergoing a health care procedure.We propose a risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM chart (RAST CUSUM) for monitoring clinical outcomes where the primary endpoint is a continuous, time-to-event variable that may be right censored. Risk adjustment is accomplished using accelerated failure time regression models. We compare the average run length performance of the RAST CUSUM chart to the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, using data from cardiac surgeries to motivate the details of the comparison. The comparisons show that the RAST CUSUM chart is more efficient at detecting a sudden decrease in the odds of death than the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, especially when the fraction of censored observations is not too high. We also discuss the implementation of a prospective monitoring scheme using the RAST CUSUM chart.

  17. Recent abuse from in-laws and associations with adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women: Extended families as part of the ecological model

    PubMed Central

    Falb, Kathryn L.; Annan, Jeannie; Hossain, Mazeda; Topolska, Monika; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women in the aftermath of conflict represents a growing area of concern. However, little is known about violence perpetrated by a woman’s in-laws and how these experiences may be related to adverse experiences during a crisis. Therefore, guided by the ecological model, the objectives of the following analysis were to (1) document adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women and (2) investigate the association between such experiences and abuse perpetrated by partners’ extended families, among a sample of women residing in rural Côte d’Ivoire. Utilising data from a baseline survey conducted in 2010, we generated descriptive statistics and used generalised estimating equations to assess the relationships of interest. Women whose family was victimised during the crisis had 1.7 times the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to those women whose families did not experience such adversity (95% CI: 1.1–2.4), and women who experienced a personal form of adversity had twice the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to women who did not report victimisation (95% CI: 1.2–3.2). Being forced to flee was not statistically associated with in-law abuse. Findings underscore the importance of addressing in-law abuse in order to promote women’s health in post-conflict settings. PMID:23826969

  18. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  19. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  20. Factorial Invariance of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Susan C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; G. B. Spanier, 1976) is the most widely used inventory of relationship satisfaction in the social sciences, yet the question of whether it is measuring the same concept in men and women has never been addressed. In the current study, the authors examined the factor structure of the DAS in a sample of 900 currently…