Science.gov

Sample records for adjusted population attributable

  1. Population attribute compression

    DOEpatents

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1995-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  2. "Why Me?" An Attributional Theory of Adjustment to Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Leigh S.; And Others

    Studies on victimization suggest that victims, whether of crime, accident, disease, or natural disaster, ask "why me?" questions and that finding answers to these questions seems related to the victims' adjustment. An attributional theory of victims' search for meaning in their misfortune proposes that victims perceive their misfortunes as…

  3. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  4. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  5. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  6. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  7. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  8. Parents' and Children's Beliefs about Peer Victimization: Attributions, Coping Responses, and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Bridgette D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how parents' and children's beliefs about peer victimization are related to children's adjustment. A mediational model was proposed that addressed how adjustment is predicted by degree of victimization, as well as causal attributions of and coping responses to victimization. The participants were 100 fifth- or sixth-grade…

  9. Population Attributable Risk of Unintentional Childhood Poisoning in Karachi Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Bilal; Fatmi, Zafar; Siddiqui, Amna R.

    2011-01-01

    Background The percentage of unintentional childhood poisoning cases in a given population attributable to specific risk factors (i.e., the population attributable risk) which can be calculated; determination of such risk factors associated with potentially modifiable risk factors, are necessary to focus on the prevention strategies. Methods We calculated PARs, using 120 cases with unintentional poisoning and 360 controls in a hospital based matched case- control study. The risk factors were accessibility to hazardous chemicals and medicines due to unsafe storage, child behavior reported as hyperactive, storage of kerosene and petroleum in soft drink bottles, low socioeconomic class, less education of the mother and the history of previous poisoning. Results The following attributed risks were observed: 12% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8%–16%) for both chemicals and medicines stored unsafe, 19% (15%–23%) for child reported as hyperactive, 40% (38%–42%) for storage of kerosene and petroleum in soft drink bottles, 48% (42%–54%) for low socioeconomic status, 38% (32%–42%) for no formal mothers education and 5.8% (2%–10%) for history of previous poisoning. 48% of cases for overall study population which could be attributed to at least one of the six risk factors. Among girls, this proportion was 23% and 43% among boys. About half of the unintentional childhood poisoning cases in this Pakistani population could be avoided. Conclusion Exposure to potentially modifiable risk indicators explained about half of the cases of unintentional poisoning among children under five years of age in this Pakistani population, indicating the theoretical scope for prevention of the disease. PMID:22046391

  10. Population attributable fraction: planning of diseases prevention actions in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Leandro Fórnias Machado; Eluf, José

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiology is the study of occurrence, distribution and determinants of health-related events, including the application of that knowledge to the prevention and control of health problems. However, epidemiological studies, in most cases, have limited their research questions to determinants of health outcomes. Research related to the application of knowledge for prevention and control of diseases have been neglected. In this comment, we present a description of how population attributable fraction estimates can provide important elements for planning of prevention and control of diseases in Brazil. PMID:27305404

  11. Detection and Attribution of Extreme Temperature and Drought using an Analogue-Based Dynamical Adjustment Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, F.; Deser, C.; Terray, L.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies highlight the importance of internal variability in decadal trends and variability of regional-scale temperature and precipitation. We use constructed circulation analogues for dynamical adjustment and apply it to the CESM Large Ensemble and long preindustrial control simulation to dissect regional-scale variability and trends into dynamic and thermodynamic, as well as forced and internal components. This allows us to diagnose contributing factors to specific events and to the general statistics of extreme temperature and drought in presence of a climate change signal. Further, we will discuss impacts of heat and drought in the framework of human exposure based on projected population distributions.

  12. Healthcare Costs Attributable to Hypertension: Canadian Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Colin G; Clement, Fiona M; Campbell, Norm R C; James, Matthew T; Klarenbach, Scott W; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Tonelli, Marcello; McBrien, Kerry A

    2015-09-01

    Accurately documenting the current and future costs of hypertension is required to fully understand the potential economic impact of currently available and future interventions to prevent and treat hypertension. The objective of this work was to calculate the healthcare costs attributable to hypertension in Canada and to project these costs to 2020. Using population-based administrative data for the province of Alberta, Canada (>3 million residents) from 2002 to 2010, we identified individuals with and without diagnosed hypertension. We calculated their total healthcare costs and estimated costs attributable to hypertension using a regression model adjusting for comorbidities and sociodemographic factors. We then extrapolated hypertension-attributable costs to the rest of Canada and projected costs to the year 2020. Twenty-one percent of adults in Alberta had diagnosed hypertension in 2010, with a projected increase to 27% by 2020. The average individual with hypertension had annual healthcare costs of $5768, of which $2341 (41%) were attributed to hypertension. In Alberta, the healthcare costs attributable to hypertension were $1.4 billion in 2010. In Canada, the hypertension-attributable costs were estimated to be $13.9 billion in 2010, rising to $20.5 billion by 2020. The increase was ascribed to demographic changes (52%), increasing prevalence (16%), and increasing per-patient costs (32%). Hypertension accounts for a significant proportion of healthcare spending (10.2% of the Canadian healthcare budget) and is projected to rise even further. Interventions to prevent and treat hypertension may play a role in limiting this cost growth.

  13. 25 CFR 170.220 - What is the Population Adjustment Factor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the Population Adjustment Factor? 170.220 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Population Adjustment Factor § 170.220 What is the Population Adjustment Factor? The Population Adjustment Factor (PAF) is a special portion of...

  14. 25 CFR 170.220 - What is the Population Adjustment Factor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the Population Adjustment Factor? 170.220 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Population Adjustment Factor § 170.220 What is the Population Adjustment Factor? The Population Adjustment Factor (PAF) is a special portion of...

  15. 25 CFR 170.220 - What is the Population Adjustment Factor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the Population Adjustment Factor? 170.220 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Population Adjustment Factor § 170.220 What is the Population Adjustment Factor? The Population Adjustment Factor (PAF) is a special portion of...

  16. 25 CFR 170.220 - What is the Population Adjustment Factor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the Population Adjustment Factor? 170.220 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Population Adjustment Factor § 170.220 What is the Population Adjustment Factor? The Population Adjustment Factor (PAF) is a special portion of...

  17. 25 CFR 170.220 - What is the Population Adjustment Factor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is the Population Adjustment Factor? 170.220 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Population Adjustment Factor § 170.220 What is the Population Adjustment Factor? The Population Adjustment Factor (PAF) is a special portion of...

  18. High population attributable fractions of myocardial infarction associated with waist–hip ratio

    PubMed Central

    Igland, Jannicke; Vollset, Stein Emil; Sulo, Gerhard; Eide, Geir Egil; Tell, Grethe S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate population attributable fractions (PAF) of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) associated with anthropometric measures by sex and age. Methods The Cohort of Norway study identified 140,790 participants free of cardiovascular disease, 1994‐2003. Participants were followed for AMI through 2009 by record linkages through the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway Project. PAFs were adjusted for age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, and the ratio of total cholesterol to high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results The PAFs associated with a waist–hip ratio (WHR) in the top two quintiles were 26.1% (95% confidence interval, CI 14.6–36.1) for middle‐aged women (<60 years, mean of 41 years) and 9.3% (95% CI 3.0–15.1) for similarly aged men after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and conventional risk factors. However, PAFs associated with anthropometric measures in elderly participants (≥ 60 years, mean of 70 years) were non‐significant in multivariable analyses. Also, WHR was a significant predictor of AMI among men and women without an enlarged waist circumference (<102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women) in adjusted analyses. Conclusions WHR measurements could improve identification of at‐risk individuals above and beyond that of conventional risk factors, BMI, or an enlarged waist circumference. PMID:27030172

  19. Population regulation by habitat heterogeneity or individual adjustment?

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Chakarov, Nayden; Nielsen, Jan T; Looft, Volkher; Grünkorn, Thomas; Struwe-Juhl, Bernd; Møller, Anders P

    2012-03-01

    1. The habitat heterogeneity (HHH) and individual adjustment (IAH) hypotheses are commonly proposed to explain a decrease in reproduction rate with increasing population density. Higher numbers of low-quality territories with low reproductive success as density increases lead to a decrease in reproduction under the HHH, while more competition at high density decreases reproduction across all territories under the IAH. 2. We analyse the influence of density and habitat heterogeneity on reproductive success in eight populations of long-lived territorial birds of prey belonging to four species. Sufficient reliability in distinguishing between population-wide, site-specific and individual quality effects on reproduction was granted through the minimal duration of 20 years of all data sets and the ability to control for individual quality in five of them. 3. Density increased in five populations but reproduction did not decrease in these. Territory occupancy as a surrogate of territory quality correlated positively with reproductive success but only significantly so in large data sets with more than 100 territories. 4. Reproductive success was always best explained by measures of territory quality in multivariate models. Direct or delayed (t-1) population density entered very few of the best models. Mixed models controlling for individual quality showed an increasing reproductive performance in older individuals and in those laying earlier, but measures of territory quality were also always retained in the best models. 5. We find strong support for the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis but weak support for the individual adjustment hypothesis. Both individual and site characteristics are crucial for reproductive performance in long-lived birds. Proportional occupancy of territories enables recognition of high-quality territories as preferential conservation targets. PMID:21950339

  20. Raw cow milk bacterial population shifts attributable to refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Véronique; Ogier, Jean-Claude; Girard, Victoria; Maladen, Véronique; Leveau, Jean-Yves; Gruss, Alexandra; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès

    2004-09-01

    We monitored the dynamic changes in the bacterial population in milk associated with refrigeration. Direct analyses of DNA by using temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) allowed us to make accurate species assignments for bacteria with low-GC-content (low-GC%) (<55%) and medium- or high-GC% (>55%) genomes, respectively. We examined raw milk samples before and after 24-h conservation at 4 degrees C. Bacterial identification was facilitated by comparison with an extensive bacterial reference database ( approximately 150 species) that we established with DNA fragments of pure bacterial strains. Cloning and sequencing of fragments missing from the database were used to achieve complete species identification. Considerable evolution of bacterial populations occurred during conservation at 4 degrees C. TTGE and DGGE are shown to be a powerful tool for identifying the main bacterial species of the raw milk samples and for monitoring changes in bacterial populations during conservation at 4 degrees C. The emergence of psychrotrophic bacteria such as Listeria spp. or Aeromonas hydrophila is demonstrated.

  1. Breakdown of the Robustness Property of Lotka's Law: The Case of Adjusted Counts for Multiauthorship Attribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Examines the robustness property of Lotka's law for scholarly papers with more than one author. Adjusted counts for assigning credit to authors proportionally are explained, and two bibliographies are analyzed using frequency distributions that show where the robustness property breaks down. (nine references) (LRW)

  2. 26 CFR 1.1503(d)-5 - Attribution of items and basis adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... foreign branch separate unit shall be treated as a trade or business within the United States, and the... rules for determining the income or dual consolidated loss attributable to a separate unit, as well as... with respect to separate units and interests in transparent entities. These determinations are...

  3. Maternal and Child Attributions in ADHD versus Non-ADHD Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Brent R.; Gimpel, Gretchen A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study explores child and maternal attributions in ADHD and non-ADHD populations. Participants included children with ADHD (N = 26) and without ADHD (N = 24) and their mothers. Method: Children completed the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (CASQ-R; Kaslow & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) and mothers completed the Written…

  4. Bayesian methods of confidence interval construction for the population attributable risk from cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Pirikahu, Sarah; Jones, Geoffrey; Hazelton, Martin L; Heuer, Cord

    2016-08-15

    Population attributable risk measures the public health impact of the removal of a risk factor. To apply this concept to epidemiological data, the calculation of a confidence interval to quantify the uncertainty in the estimate is desirable. However, because perhaps of the confusion surrounding the attributable risk measures, there is no standard confidence interval or variance formula given in the literature. In this paper, we implement a fully Bayesian approach to confidence interval construction of the population attributable risk for cross-sectional studies. We show that, in comparison with a number of standard Frequentist methods for constructing confidence intervals (i.e. delta, jackknife and bootstrap methods), the Bayesian approach is superior in terms of percent coverage in all except a few cases. This paper also explores the effect of the chosen prior on the coverage and provides alternatives for particular situations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26799685

  5. Sightability adjustment methods for aerial surveys of wildlife populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinhorst, R.K.; Samuel, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Aerial surveys are routinely conducted to estimate the abundance of wildlife species and the rate of population change. However, sightability of animal groups is acknowledged as a significant source of bias in these estimates. Recent research has focused on the development of sightability models to predict the probability of sighting groups under various conditions. Given such models, we show how sightability can be incorporated into the estimator of population size as a probability of response using standard results from sample surveys. We develop formulas for the cases where the sighting probability must be estimated. An example, using data from a helicopter survey of moose in Alberta (Jacobson, Alberta Oil Sands Research Project Report, 1976), is given to illustrate the technique.

  6. A Review of the Development and Application of Generic Multi-Attribute Utility Instruments for Paediatric Populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-10-01

    Multi-attribute utility instruments (MAUIs) are increasingly being used as a means of quantifying utility for the calculation of quality-adjusted life-years within the context of cost utility analysis. Traditionally, MAUIs have been developed and applied in adult populations. However, increasingly, researchers in health economics and other disciplines are recognising the importance of the measurement and valuation of health in both children and adolescents. Presently, there are nine generic MAUIs available internationally that have been used in paediatric populations: the Quality of Well-Being Scale (QWB), the Health Utility Index Mark 2 (HUI2), the HUI3, the Sixteen-dimensional measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (16D), the Seventeen-dimensional measure of HRQoL (17D), the Assessment of Quality of Life 6-Dimension (AQoL-6D) Adolescent, the Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D), the EQ-5D Youth version (EQ-5D-Y) and the Adolescent Health Utility Measure (AHUM). This paper critically reviews the development and application of the above nine MAUIs and discusses the specific challenges of health utility measurement in children and adolescents. Areas for further research relating to the development and application of generic MAUIs in paediatric populations are highlighted.

  7. Adjustment for local ancestry in genetic association analysis of admixed populations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuexia; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Qin, Huaizhen; Cooper, Richard S.; Ewens, Warren J.; Li, Chun; Li, Mingyao

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Admixed populations offer a unique opportunity for mapping diseases that have large disease allele frequency differences between ancestral populations. However, association analysis in such populations is challenging because population stratification may lead to association with loci unlinked to the disease locus. Methods and results: We show that local ancestry at a test single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may confound with the association signal and ignoring it can lead to spurious association. We demonstrate theoretically that adjustment for local ancestry at the test SNP is sufficient to remove the spurious association regardless of the mechanism of population stratification, whether due to local or global ancestry differences among study subjects; however, global ancestry adjustment procedures may not be effective. We further develop two novel association tests that adjust for local ancestry. Our first test is based on a conditional likelihood framework which models the distribution of the test SNP given disease status and flanking marker genotypes. A key advantage of this test lies in its ability to incorporate different directions of association in the ancestral populations. Our second test, which is computationally simpler, is based on logistic regression, with adjustment for local ancestry proportion. We conducted extensive simulations and found that the Type I error rates of our tests are under control; however, the global adjustment procedures yielded inflated Type I error rates when stratification is due to local ancestry difference. Contact: mingyao@upenn.edu; chun.li@vanderbilt.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21169375

  8. Abuse and Parental Characteristics, Attributions of Blame, and Psychological Adjustment in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…

  9. Attributing mortality among drivers of population decline in Acropora palmata in the Florida Keys (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. E.; Miller, M. W.

    2012-06-01

    Acropora palmata populations have experienced steep declines over the past 30 years. Although numerous culprits are recognized, their relative contributions to the decline are poorly quantified, making it difficult to prioritize effective conservation measures. In 2004, a demographic monitoring program was implemented in the Florida Keys (USA), aimed at determining the relative importance of various stressors affecting A. palmata. A subset of randomly selected A. palmata colonies within 15 fore-reef plots was tagged and surveyed three to four times per year over 7 years. Colony size, live tissue, prevalence of disease, snail ( Coralliophila abbreviata) predation, physical damage and other conditions were assessed at each survey. The estimated effect of each condition causing recent mortality was ranked, and together, these parameters were used to attribute the population-level tissue loss associated with each condition. In addition, all new colonies in the study plots were counted and assessed annually in order to track trends in total colony count and live tissue abundance. Between 2004 and 2010, the study population has shown more than 50% decline in live area from three main conditions: fragmentation, disease and snail predation. Approximately half of this decline occurred during the catastrophic 2005 hurricane season from which recovery has been minimal. Meanwhile, colony abundance has shown gradual decline throughout the study. Snail predation was the most prevalent condition. However, it ranked third in attributed tissue loss, behind breakage that occurred during the 2005 hurricane season, and disease. Thermal bleaching of A. palmata was not observed during this study. Because mortality continues to outpace recruitment and growth, intervention to ameliorate losses to the more manageable threats including predation and breakage could result in substantial conservation of live tissue, buying time for the abatement of less tractable threats to A. palmata

  10. Risk factors for chronic undernutrition among children in India: Estimating relative importance, population attributable risk and fractions.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India and the prevalence of undernutrition has been persistently high in recent decades. Given numerous available interventions for reducing undernutrition in children, it is not clear of the relative importance of each within a multifactorial framework. We assess the simultaneous contribution of 15 known risk factors for child chronic undernutrition in India. Data are from the 3rd Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2005-2006. The study population consisted of children aged 6-59 months [n = 26,842 (stunting/low height-for-age), n = 27,483 (underweight/low weight-for-age)]. Risk factors examined for their association with undernutrition were: vitamin A supplementation, vaccination, use of iodized salt, household air quality, improved sanitary facilities, safe disposal of stools, improved drinking water, prevalence of infectious disease, initiation of breastfeeding, dietary diversity, age at marriage, maternal BMI, height, education, and household wealth. Age/sex-adjusted and multivariable adjusted effect sizes (odds ratios) were calculated for risk factors along with Population Attributable Risks (PAR) and Fractions (PAF) using logistic regression. In the mutually adjusted models, the five most important predictors of childhood stunting/underweight were short maternal stature, mother having no education, households in lowest wealth quintile, poor dietary diversity, and maternal underweight. These five factors had a combined PAR of 67.2% (95% CI: 63.3-70.7) and 69.7% (95% CI: 66.3-72.8) for stunting and underweight, respectively. The remaining factors were associated with a combined PAR of 11.7% (95% CI: 6.0-17.4) and 15.1% (95% CI: 8.9-21.3) for stunting and underweight, respectively. Implementing strategies focused on broader progress on social circumstances and infrastructural domains as well as investments in nutrition specific

  11. Risk factors for chronic undernutrition among children in India: Estimating relative importance, population attributable risk and fractions.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India and the prevalence of undernutrition has been persistently high in recent decades. Given numerous available interventions for reducing undernutrition in children, it is not clear of the relative importance of each within a multifactorial framework. We assess the simultaneous contribution of 15 known risk factors for child chronic undernutrition in India. Data are from the 3rd Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2005-2006. The study population consisted of children aged 6-59 months [n = 26,842 (stunting/low height-for-age), n = 27,483 (underweight/low weight-for-age)]. Risk factors examined for their association with undernutrition were: vitamin A supplementation, vaccination, use of iodized salt, household air quality, improved sanitary facilities, safe disposal of stools, improved drinking water, prevalence of infectious disease, initiation of breastfeeding, dietary diversity, age at marriage, maternal BMI, height, education, and household wealth. Age/sex-adjusted and multivariable adjusted effect sizes (odds ratios) were calculated for risk factors along with Population Attributable Risks (PAR) and Fractions (PAF) using logistic regression. In the mutually adjusted models, the five most important predictors of childhood stunting/underweight were short maternal stature, mother having no education, households in lowest wealth quintile, poor dietary diversity, and maternal underweight. These five factors had a combined PAR of 67.2% (95% CI: 63.3-70.7) and 69.7% (95% CI: 66.3-72.8) for stunting and underweight, respectively. The remaining factors were associated with a combined PAR of 11.7% (95% CI: 6.0-17.4) and 15.1% (95% CI: 8.9-21.3) for stunting and underweight, respectively. Implementing strategies focused on broader progress on social circumstances and infrastructural domains as well as investments in nutrition specific

  12. The Role of Local Ancestry Adjustment in Association Studies Using Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqi; Stram, Daniel O.

    2016-01-01

    Association analysis using admixed populations imposes challenges and opportunities for disease mapping. By developing some explicit results for the variance of an allele of interest conditional on either local or global ancestry and by simulation of recently admixed genomes we evaluate power and false-positive rates under a variety of scenarios concerning linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the presence of unmeasured variants. Pairwise LD patterns were compared between admixed and nonadmixed populations using the HapMap phase 3 data. Based on the above, we showed that as follows: For causal variants with similar effect size in all populations, power is generally higher in a study using admixed population than using nonadmixed population, especially for highly differentiated SNPs. This gain of power is achieved with adjustment of global ancestry, which completely removes any cross-chromosome inflation of type I error rates, and addresses much of the intrachromosome inflation.If reliably estimated, adjusting for local ancestry precisely recovers the localization that could have been achieved in a stratified analysis of source populations. Improved localization is most evident for highly differentiated SNPs; however, the advantage of higher power is lost on exactly the same differentiated SNPs.In the real admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos, the expansion of LD is not as dramatic as in our simulation.While adjustment for global ancestry is required prior to announcing a novel association seen in an admixed population, local ancestry adjustment may best be regarded as a localization tool not strictly required for discovery purposes. PMID:25043967

  13. Population attributable fraction of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease: A systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, Narjes; Seddigh, Leila; Rampisheh, Zahra; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Demonstrating the modifiable risk factors of AD can help to plan for prevention of this disease. The aim of the current review was to characterize modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of AD using existing data and determine their contribution in AD development in Iran and the world. Methods: The systematic search was done in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2014 to find systematic reviews or meta-analyses about association between AD and cardiovascular modifiable risk factors included diabetes, hypertension (HTN), physical inactivity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight and obesity. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for these risk factors in Iran and the world. Results: Of 2651 articles, 11 were eligible for data extraction after assessing relevancy and quality. Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2, smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of AD. Physical inactivity with 22.0% and smoking with 15.7% had the highest PAF for AD in Iran and the world, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that modifiable cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of AD. Moreover, about one-third of AD cases were attributed to five modifiable risk factors. PMID:27648178

  14. Population attributable fraction of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease: A systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, Narjes; Seddigh, Leila; Rampisheh, Zahra; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Demonstrating the modifiable risk factors of AD can help to plan for prevention of this disease. The aim of the current review was to characterize modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of AD using existing data and determine their contribution in AD development in Iran and the world. Methods: The systematic search was done in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2014 to find systematic reviews or meta-analyses about association between AD and cardiovascular modifiable risk factors included diabetes, hypertension (HTN), physical inactivity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight and obesity. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for these risk factors in Iran and the world. Results: Of 2651 articles, 11 were eligible for data extraction after assessing relevancy and quality. Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2, smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of AD. Physical inactivity with 22.0% and smoking with 15.7% had the highest PAF for AD in Iran and the world, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that modifiable cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of AD. Moreover, about one-third of AD cases were attributed to five modifiable risk factors.

  15. Signal detection for Thai traditional medicine: examination of national pharmacovigilance data using reporting odds ratio and reported population attributable risk.

    PubMed

    Wechwithan, Sareeya; Suwankesawong, Wimon; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; McNeil, Edward B; Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2014-10-01

    Herbal containing medicine consumption has increased while the awareness of adverse drug reaction (ADR) was less than conventional medicine. Early detection of unexpected numbers of ADRs from herbal medicines' reports which are abnormal from the whole database needs quantification. Disproportionality analysis has been performed for signal detection by using reporting odds ratio (ROR) as measurement. The impact of having medicine as exposures in each ADR should be measured by using reported population attributable risks (RPAR). This study aimed to quantify the contribution of Thai traditional medicine (TTM) to ADR reports and to assess the association between TTMs and serious adverse drug reactions. Data were retrieved from the adverse drug reaction surveillance database, Thai-Food and Drug Administration from 2002 to 2013. Crude and adjusted RORs for each drug-ADR pair and RPARs were computed. TTM contributed only 0.001% of all serious ADRs reported. Out of 4208 TTM-ADR pairs were examined, three had the statistically significant RORs, namely Andrographis paniculata and anaphylactic shock (ROR 2.32, 95% CI 1.03, 5.21); green traditional medicine and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (ROR 13.04, 95% CI 5.4-31.51) and Derris scandens Benth and angioedema (ROR 2.71, 95% CI 1.05-6.95). Their RPARs ranged from 0.05% to 0.16%. We conclude that TTMs need more intensive surveillance. PMID:24945744

  16. Population attributable fractions of farm vector tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) presence on Theileria parva infection seroprevalence under endemic instability.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, J M; Kitala, P M; Ngumi, P N; Skilton, R A; Bett, B

    2013-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick presence (exposure variable) on Theileria parva infection seroprevalence (outcome variable) in a group of cattle belonging to a farm using population attributable fractions (PAF). The analyses were based on a representative sample of 80 traditional smallholder mixed farms. The farms were selected by first stratifying the population administratively and implementing a multistage random sampling in Mbeere district in Kenya. The PAFs were estimated using the stratified, Bruzzi, and sequential partitioned PAF approaches. A secondary objective was, thus, to evaluate the impact of the approaches on the PAF estimates. The stratified and Bruzzi approaches estimated proportion of T. parva infection cases directly attributable to the exposure after controlling for confounding by agro-ecological zone (AEZ). The sequential partitioned PAF approach estimated a PAF associated with exposure after adjusting for any effect that the AEZ may have had by influencing the prevalence of the exposure. All analyses were carried out at the farm level where a farm was classified as infested if the tick was found on cattle on a farm, and infected if at least one animal on a farm was positive for T. parva antibodies. Variance estimation for PAFs was implemented using 'delete-a-group' jackknife re-sampling method. The stratified PAF (26.7% [95% CI: 9.0%, 44.4%]) and Bruzzi PAF (26.4% [95% CI: 9.6%, 43.2%]) were consistent in estimating a relatively low impact of farm vector tick presence with a relatively high level of uncertainty. The partitioned PAF (15.5% [95% CI: 1.5%, 29.6%]) suggested that part of the impacts estimated using the stratified PAF and Bruzzi approaches was driven by AEZ effects. Overall, the results suggested that under endemic instability in Mbeere district, (1) presence of R. appendiculatus was not a good indicator of T. parva infection occurrence on a farm; (2) ecological

  17. IL23R Haplotypes Provide A Large Population Attributable Risk for Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kent D.; Targan, Stephan R.; Mei, Ling; Ippoliti, Andrew F.; McGovern, Dermot; Mengesha, Emebet; King, Lily; Rotter, Jerome I.

    2008-01-01

    The IL-23 pathway plays a pivotal role in the development of chronic mucosal inflammation seen in the inflammatory bowel diseases. Multiple studies have now established the contribution of the interleukin 23 receptor gene (IL23R) to Crohn’s Disease (CD) risk in general and of the IL23R R381Q variant in particular. The aim of this work was to estimate the total contribution of this gene to CD risk test using a haplotype approach. Methods 763 CD subjects and 254 controls were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL23R gene using Illumina and ABI methods. Haplotypes were assigned using PHASEv2 and tested for association with CD by chi-square and permutation. Results Haplotypes with both increased and decreased risk for CD were observed in 2 of the 4 observed blocks (Block 2 H1: 55.4% control, 64% CD, p=0.019; H2: 64.5% control, 54.4% CD, p=0.006; Block 3 H1: 55.8% control, 64.4% CD, p=0.013; H2: 47.0% control, 36.6% CD, p=0.001). The population attributable risk for these haplotypes was substantially larger than that estimated for the IL23R R381Q variant (Block 2 H1 and block 3 H1 ~20%, compared with ~4% for Block 3 H6, containing the variant). Discussion These observations suggest that IL23R makes a substantial contribution to Crohn’s disease susceptibility, larger than that estimated from the population frequency of the R381Q variant. These observations also support the expectation that finding “hits” from genome wide association studies will be but an important chapter in the story of unraveling the genetic contribution to Crohn’s disease, rather than the final chapter that brings clarity to all the plot twists of a complicated story. PMID:18470928

  18. Attributes of desert tortoise populations at the National Training Center, Central Mojave Desert, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, K.H.; Bailey, T.Y.; Anderson, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    We sampled 21 study plots for desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at the National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California. Each plot was sampled once between 1997 and 2003 to obtain a snapshot of population attributes, status, and relationships between tortoise densities and human activities. Densities ranged from <1 to 28 tortoises km-2; overall, tortoises were uncommon to rare at 16 of the 21 plots. Tortoise densities were negatively correlated with death rates, infectious disease (mycoplasmosis), surface disturbance and trash. Health status of tortoises was correlated with some anthropogenic uses. The presence of infectious disease in tortoises was negatively correlated with distances from offices, the Ft. Irwin cantonment, and paved roads. Also, significantly more tortoises with shell disease were found on plots with current and recent military use than on plots with no history of military use. Factors contributing to or causing deaths of tortoises included vehicles, vandalism, predation, mycoplasmosis and shell diseases. Annual death rates for subadult and adult tortoises ranged from 1.9% to 95.2% for the 4 years preceding surveys. Deaths from anthropogenic sources were significantly correlated with surface disturbances, trash, military ordnance, and proximity to offices and paved roads-typical characteristics of military training areas.

  19. Optimal management of a stochastically varying population when policy adjustment is costly.

    PubMed

    Boettiger, Carl; Bode, Michael; Sanchirico, James N; Lariviere, Jacob; Hastings, Alan; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    Ecological systems are dynamic and policies to manage them need to respond to that variation. However, policy adjustments will sometimes be costly, which means that fine-tuning a policy to track variability in the environment very tightly will only sometimes be worthwhile. We use a classic fisheries management problem, how to manage a stochastically varying population using annually varying quotas in order to maximize profit, to examine how costs of policy adjustment change optimal management recommendations. Costs of policy adjustment (changes in fishing quotas through time) could take different forms. For example, these costs may respond to the size of the change being implemented, or there could be a fixed cost any time a quota change is made. We show how different forms of policy costs have contrasting implications for optimal policies. Though it is frequently assumed that costs to adjusting policies will dampen variation in the policy, we show that certain cost structures can actually increase variation through time. We further show that failing to account for adjustment costs has a consistently worse economic impact than would assuming these costs are present when they are not. PMID:27411252

  20. Adjusting for population stratification in a fine scale with principal components and sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiwei; Shen, Xiaotong; Pan, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Population stratification is of primary interest in genetic studies to infer human evolution history and to avoid spurious findings in association testing. Although it is well studied with high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), next-generation sequencing brings both new opportunities and challenges to uncovering population structures in finer scales. Several recent studies have noticed different confounding effects from variants of different minor allele frequencies (MAFs). In this paper, using a low-coverage sequencing dataset from the 1000 Genomes Project, we compared a popular method, principal component analysis (PCA), with a recently proposed spectral clustering technique, called spectral dimensional reduction (SDR), in detecting and adjusting for population stratification at the level of ethnic subgroups. We investigated the varying performance of adjusting for population stratification with different types and sets of variants when testing on different types of variants. One main conclusion is that principal components based on all variants or common variants were generally most effective in controlling inflations caused by population stratification; in particular, contrary to many speculations on the effectiveness of rare variants, we did not find much added value with the use of only rare variants. In addition, SDR was confirmed to be more robust than PCA, especially when applied to rare variants. PMID:24123217

  1. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Fumiaki; O'Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009–10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008–12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million

  2. Attributes for NHDplus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Population Density, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMottem, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average population density, in number of people per square kilometer multiplied by 10 for the year 2000, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is the 2000 Population Density by Block Group for the Conterminous United States (Hitt, 2003). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5

  3. Shadow of diabetes over cardiovascular disease: comparative quantification of population-attributable all-cause and cardiovascular mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We contrasted impacts on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality of diabetes vs. CVD. Methods Among participants the Tehran lipid and glucose study aged ≥ 30 years (n = 9752), we selected those who participated in the follow-up study until 20 March 2009 (n = 8795). Complete data on covariate were available for 8, 469 participants, contributing to a 67935 person-year follow up. In the analysis of outcomes (all-cause and CVD mortality), diabetes and CVD were assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression model adjusting for established CVD risk factors. We used population attributable hazard fraction (PAHF) and rate advancement period (RAP) that expresses how much sooner a given mortality rate is reached among exposed than among unexposed individuals. Results Ten percent of the participants self-reported to have pervious CVD, and diabetes was ascertained in 17% of participants at baseline examination. During a median follow-up of 9 years 386 participants died of which 184 were due to CVD. All-cause and CVD mortality rate (95% CIs) were 5.5 (5.0-6.1) and 2.6 (2.3-3.0) per 1000 person-year, respectively. The PAHF of all-cause mortality for diabetes 9.2 (7.3-11.1) was greater than the one for CVD 3.5 (1.1-5.5). RAP estimates for all-cause mortality associated with diabetes ranged from 7.4 to 8.6 years whereas the RAP estimates for all-cause mortality associated with CVD ranged from 3.1 to 4.3 years. The PAHF of CVD mortality for diabetes 9.4 (6.8-12.0) was greater than the one for CVD 4.5 (1.8-7.0). RAP estimates for CVD mortality associated with diabetes ranged from 8.2 to 9.8 years whereas the RAP estimates for CVD mortality associated with CVD ranged from 4.7 to 6.7 years. Conclusions We demonstrated that diabetes, which was shown to be keeping pace with prevalent CVD in terms of conferring excess risk of incident CVD, is currently causing more deaths in the population than does CVD. PMID:22704235

  4. Construction of Synthetic Populations with Key Attributes: Simulation Set-up while Accommodating Multiple Approaches within a Flexible Simulation Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Steven J; Rose, Amy N; Bright, Eddie A; Beaver, Justin M; Symons, Christopher T; Omitaomu, Olufemi A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our concept for overcoming the data barriers of building credible synthetic populations to assist the transformation between social theories and mathematical models. We specifically developed a 31-million-agent model of Afghanistan s population to demonstrate the ability to computationally control and analytically manipulate a system with the large number of agents (i.e., 108) necessary to model regions at the individual level using the LandScan Global population database. Afghanistan was selected for this case study because gathering data for Afghanistan was thought to be especially challenging. The LandScan Global population database is used by a majority of key U.S. and foreign agencies as their database system for worldwide geospatial distribution of populations. Assigning attributes to disaggregated population was achieved by fusing appropriate indicator databases using two forms of aggregation techniques geographical and categorical. A new approach of matching attributes to theoretical constructs was illustrated. The other data sources used include data on military and peacekeeper forces loyalties, readiness, and deployment collected through a combination of UN and classified force projections; economic data collected at the national level and disaggregated using data fusion techniques; data on social attitudes, beliefs, and social cleavages through anthropological studies, worldwide polling, and classified sources; and data on infrastructure and information systems and networks.

  5. Using Temporal Sampling to Improve Attribution of Source Populations for Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Goldstien, Sharyn J.; Inglis, Graeme J.; Schiel, David R.; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have applied genetic tools to the identification of source populations and transport pathways for invasive species. However, there are many gaps in the knowledge obtained from such studies because comprehensive and meaningful spatial sampling to meet these goals is difficult to achieve. Sampling populations as they arrive at the border should fill the gaps in source population identification, but such an advance has not yet been achieved with genetic data. Here we use previously acquired genetic data to assign new incursions as they invade populations within New Zealand ports and marinas. We also investigated allelelic frequency change in these recently established populations over a two-year period, and assessed the effect of temporal genetic sampling on our ability to assign new incursions to their population of source. We observed shifts in the allele frequencies among populations, as well as the complete loss of some alleles and the addition of alleles novel to New Zealand, within these recently established populations. There was no significant level of genetic differentiation observed in our samples between years, and the use of these temporal data did alter the assignment probability of new incursions. Our study further suggests that new incursions can add genetic variation to the population in a single introduction event as the founders themselves are often more genetically diverse than theory initially predicted. PMID:23755264

  6. Landscape attributes and life history variability shape genetic structure of trout populations in a stream network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neville, H.M.; Dunham, J.B.; Peacock, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial and temporal landscape patterns have long been recognized to influence biological processes, but these processes often operate at scales that are difficult to study by conventional means. Inferences from genetic markers can overcome some of these limitations. We used a landscape genetics approach to test hypotheses concerning landscape processes influencing the demography of Lahontan cutthroat trout in a complex stream network in the Great Basin desert of the western US. Predictions were tested with population- and individual-based analyses of microsatellite DNA variation, reflecting patterns of dispersal, population stability, and local effective population sizes. Complementary genetic inferences suggested samples from migratory corridors housed a mixture of fish from tributaries, as predicted based on assumed migratory life histories in those habitats. Also as predicted, populations presumed to have greater proportions of migratory fish or from physically connected, large, or high quality habitats had higher genetic variability and reduced genetic differentiation from other populations. Populations thought to contain largely non-migratory individuals generally showed the opposite pattern, suggesting behavioral isolation. Estimated effective sizes were small, and we identified significant and severe genetic bottlenecks in several populations that were isolated, recently founded, or that inhabit streams that desiccate frequently. Overall, this work suggested that Lahontan cutthroat trout populations in stream networks are affected by a combination of landscape and metapopulation processes. Results also demonstrated that genetic patterns can reveal unexpected processes, even within a system that is well studied from a conventional ecological perspective. ?? Springer 2006.

  7. Effects of landscape and patch-level attributes on regional population persistence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat patch size and isolation are often described as the key habitat variables influencing population dynamics. Yet habitat quality may also play an important role in influencing the regional persistence of spatially structured populations as the value or density of resources ...

  8. [Adaptation of the Sydney Attribution Scale in a Spanish college population].

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; González-Pienda, Julio A

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Sydney Attribution Scale in a sample of 1,508 college students. Factor analysis identified six factors: Success/Ability, Success/Effort, Success/External Causes, Failure/Ability, Failure/Effort, and Failure/External Causes. Success and failure factors accounted for an adequate percentage of the variance. Internal consistency was acceptable, similar in the success scales and in the failure scales, and higher in the internal scales than in the external scales. The results also showed a clear predictable pattern of relationships between dimensions of self-attribution, and between these dimensions and several measures of general self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, satisfaction with the studies, satisfaction with performance, and satisfaction with knowledge, which supports the construct validity of the SAS.

  9. Severe stress and adjustment disorder diagnoses in the population of Denmark.

    PubMed

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Bozi, Imre; Antonsen, Sussie; Svensson, Elisabeth; Lash, Timothy L; Resick, Patricia A; Hansen, Jens Georg

    2014-06-01

    We created a registry of Danish-born citizens of Denmark with incident International Classification of Diseases (10th ed.; ICD-10) severe stress and adjustment disorder diagnoses between 1995 and 2011. A unique personal identifier was used to retrieve and merge data on demographic characteristics and diagnoses (ICD-10 codes F43.x). Here we report on the incidence of these disorders and the demographic characteristics of the subset of the Danish population who have received 1 of these diagnoses: 111,844 adults and children received a first diagnosis between 1995 and 2011. More women than men (60.1% vs. 39.9%) received a diagnosis. Diagnoses increased during the late teens through early 30s. Adjustment disorder was the most common diagnosis (65.7% of adults and 64% of children). Reaction to severe stress unspecified was the second most common (19.8% of adults and 23.8% of children), and there was a large increase in both, as well as acute stress reaction diagnoses, in 2007 (3,717-5,141, 1,248-2,520, and 348-1,024 in 2006 to 2007, respectively). Findings regarding gender and age of onset are similar to other westernized countries. This registry can be used for future research programs, contributing to the study of stress and trauma. PMID:24948539

  10. Population density and phenotypic attributes influence the level of nematode parasitism in roe deer.

    PubMed

    Body, Guillaume; Ferté, Hubert; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2011-11-01

    The impact of parasites on population dynamics is well documented, but less is known on how host population density affects parasite spread. This relationship is difficult to assess because of confounding effects of social structure, population density, and environmental conditions that lead to biased among-population comparisons. Here, we analyzed the infestation by two groups of nematodes (gastro-intestinal (GI) strongyles and Trichuris) in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population of Trois Fontaines (France) between 1997 and 2007. During this period, we experimentally manipulated population density through changes in removals. Using measures collected on 297 individuals, we quantified the impact of density on parasite spread after taking into account possible influences of date, age, sex, body mass, and weather conditions. The prevalence and abundance of eggs of both parasites in females were positively related to roe deer density, except Trichuris in adult females. We also found a negative relationship between parasitism and body mass, and strong age and sex-dependent patterns of parasitism. Prime-age adults were less often parasitized and had lower fecal egg counts than fawns or old individuals, and males were more heavily and more often infected than females. Trichuris parasites were not affected by weather, whereas GI strongyles were less present after dry and hot summers. In the range of observed densities, the observed effect of density likely involves a variation of the exposure rate, as opposed to variation in host susceptibility.

  11. Attributes of researchers and their strategies to recruit minority populations: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S; Garza, Mary A; Kim, Kevin H; Ryan, Christopher; Thomas, Stephen B

    2012-11-01

    Despite NIH mandates for inclusion, recruiting minorities is challenging for biomedical and public health researchers. Little is known about how attributes of researchers affect their choice of recruitment strategies. The purpose of this study was to address this gap by examining how use of recruitment strategies relates to other researcher characteristics. To do this, we conducted an online survey from May to August 2010 with researchers (principal investigators, research staff, and IRB members) in which we measured the number and types of recruitment strategies utilized, along with other characteristics of the researchers and their research. We identified two clusters of researchers: comprehensive researchers who utilized a greater number and more diverse and active recruitment strategies, and traditional researchers, who utilized fewer and more passive strategies. Additional characteristics that distinguished the two groups were that comprehensive researchers were more likely than traditional researchers to 1) report racial and ethnic differences as one of their specific aims or hypotheses, 2) receive federal (CDC and NIH) funding, 3) conduct behavioral or epidemiological research, and 4) have received training in conducting research with and recruiting minorities. Traditional researchers, on the other hand, were more likely to conduct clinical research and a greater (though non-significant) percentage received funding from pharmaceutical sources. This study provides a novel description of how researcher attributes are related to their recruitment strategies and raises a number of future research questions to further examine the implications of this relationship.

  12. Adjustment factors to per capita health-care indicators in countries with expatriate male-majority populations.

    PubMed

    Hussin, A H

    2014-12-17

    From 2000 to 2010, the population in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries underwent an increase of 53%, compared with an average global increase of 13%. The rates varied by country, ranging from 23% in Oman to 198% in Qatar. The main driving force for this sharp increase in population was the high demand for immigrant labour. The aim of this study was to adjust the population in the GCC countries in order to ensure that the comparisons of health-care key performance indicators with other countries account for the composition of the populations. The conclusion of the study was that adjusting the population in the GCC is instrumental for determining health spending and health outcomes, and that inaccurate forecasting would result in serious overestimation of the need for GCC countries to invest in the health-care sector. Policy-makers can utilize the population models in this study to accurately plan for health-care delivery.

  13. Genetic attributes of midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) populations do not correlate with degree of species decline

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, Ursina; Garner, Trenton W J; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity is crucial for long-term population persistence. Population loss and subsequent reduction in migration rate among the most important processes that are expected to lead to a reduction in genetic diversity and an increase in genetic differentiation. While the theory behind this is well-developed, empirical evidence from wild populations is inconsistent. Using microsatellite markers, we compared the genetic structure of populations of an amphibian species, the midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans), in four Swiss regions where the species has suffered variable levels of subpopulation extirpation. We also quantified the effects of several geographic factors on genetic structure and used a model selection approach to ascertain which of the variables were important for explaining genetic variation. Although subpopulation pairwise FST-values were highly significant even over small geographic scales, neither any of the geographic variables nor loss of subpopulations were important factors for predicting spatial genetic structure. The absence of a signature of subpopulation loss on genetic differentiation may suggest that midwife toad subpopulations function as relatively independent units. PMID:24101974

  14. The horizontal and vertical attributes of individualism and collectivism in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Valdiney V; Clemente, Miguel; Espinosa, Pablo

    2003-02-01

    The authors examined the dimensionality and factorial structure of individualism and collectivism in Spanish participants (N = 526). A series of confirmatory factor analyses were performed on responses to the 32-item individualism-collectivism measure reported by T. M. Singelis, H. C. Triandis, D. S. Bhawuk, and M. Gelfand (1995). Consistent with earlier data, the best fitting model was multidimensional: a vertical versus a horizontal attribute crossed with individualism and collectivism dimensions. Whereas the overall fit of the data to a LISREL model was moderate, additional self-report data on respondents' interpersonal experiences supported the construct validity of the 4 factors. The authors suggest that the additional complexity is useful in explaining Spanish social behavior.

  15. Adjusting for population heterogeneity: a framework for characterizing statistical information and developing efficient test statistics.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Daniel

    2003-05-01

    The focus of this work is the TDT-type and family-based test statistics used for adjusting for potential confounding due to population heterogeneity or misspecified allele frequencies. A variety of heuristics have been used to motivate and derive these statistics, and the statistics have been developed for a variety of analytic goals. There appears to be no general theoretical framework, however, that may be used to evaluate competing approaches. Furthermore, there is no framework to guide the development of efficient TDT-type and family-based methods for analytic goals for which methods have not yet been proposed. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical framework that serves both to identify the information which is available to methods that are immune to confounding due to population heterogeneity or misspecified allele frequencies, and to inform the construction of efficient unbiased tests in novel settings. The development relies on the existence of a characterization of the null hypothesis in terms of a completely specified conditional distribution of transmitted genotypes. An important observation is that, with such a characterization, when the conditioning event is unobserved or incomplete, there is statistical information that cannot be exploited by any exact conditional test. The main technical result of this work is an approach to computing test statistics for local alternatives that exploit all of the available statistical information.

  16. Population-Adjusted Street Connectivity, Urbanicity and Risk of Obesity in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fahui; Wen, Ming; Xu, Yanqing

    2013-01-01

    Street connectivity, defined as the number of (3-way or more) intersections per area unit, is an important index of built environments as a proxy for walkability in a neighborhood. This paper examines its geographic variations across the rural-urban continuum (urbanicity), major racial-ethnic groups and various poverty levels. The population-adjusted street connectivity index is proposed as a better measure than the regular index for a large area such as county due to likely concentration of population in limited space within the large area. Based on the data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), this paper uses multilevel modeling to analyze its association with physical activity and obesity while controlling for various individual and county-level variables. Analysis of data subsets indicates that the influences of individual and county-level variables on obesity risk vary across areas of different urbanization levels. The positive influence of street connectivity on obesity control is limited to the more but not the mostly urbanized areas. This demonstrates the value of obesogenic environment research in different geographic settings, helps us reconcile and synthesize some seemingly contradictory results reported in different studies, and also promotes that effective policies need to be highly sensitive to the diversity of demographic groups and geographically adaptable. PMID:23667278

  17. Population response to natural images in the primary visual cortex encodes local stimulus attributes and perceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Gilad, Ariel; Zurawel, Guy; Slovin, Hamutal

    2012-10-01

    The primary visual cortex (V1) is extensively studied with a large repertoire of stimuli, yet little is known about its encoding of natural images. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in behaving monkeys, we measured neural population response evoked in V1 by natural images presented during a face/scramble discrimination task. The population response showed two distinct phases of activity: an early phase that was spread over most of the imaged area, and a late phase that was spatially confined. To study the detailed relation between the stimulus and the population response, we used a simple encoding model to compute a continuous map of the expected neural response based on local attributes of the stimulus (luminance and contrast), followed by an analytical retinotopic transformation. Then, we computed the spatial correlation between the maps of the expected and observed response. We found that the early response was highly correlated with the local luminance of the stimulus and was sufficient to effectively discriminate between stimuli at the single trial level. The late response, on the other hand, showed a much lower correlation to the local luminance, was confined to central parts of the face images, and was highly correlated with the animal's perceptual report. Our study reveals a continuous spatial encoding of low- and high-level features of natural images in V1. The low level is directly linked to the stimulus basic local attributes and the high level is correlated with the perceptual outcome of the stimulus processing.

  18. Attribute Assignment to a Synthetic Population in Support of Agent-Based Disease Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Cajka, James C.; Cooley, Philip C.; Wheaton, William D.

    2010-01-01

    Communicable-disease transmission models are useful for the testing of prevention and intervention strategies. Agent-based models (ABMs) represent a new and important class of the many types of disease transmission models in use. Agent-based disease models benefit from their ability to assign disease transmission probabilities based on characteristics shared by individual agents. These shared characteristics allow ABMs to apply transmission probabilities when agents come together in geographic space. Modeling these types of social interactions requires data, and the results of the model largely depend on the quality of these input data. We initially generated a synthetic population for the United States, in support of the Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study. Subsequently, we created shared characteristics to use in ABMs. The specific goals for this task were to assign the appropriately aged populations to schools, workplaces, and public transit. Each goal presented its own challenges and problems; therefore, we used different techniques to create each type of shared characteristic. These shared characteristics have allowed disease models to more realistically predict the spread of disease, both spatially and temporally. PMID:22577617

  19. Geochemical Attributes and Gradients Within Geothermal Systems Define the Distribution of Specific Microbial Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inskeep, W. P.; Macur, R. E.; Korf, S.; Taylor, W. P.; Ackerman, G.; Kozubal, M.; Nagy, A.

    2006-12-01

    Microorganisms in natural habitats interact with mineral surfaces in many different respects. For example, microorganisms are known to enhance the dissolution rates of some minerals via the production of organic acids and other exudates, but at the same time, may mineralize solid phases as a direct or indirect result of metabolic processes. It is also well-established that many microorganisms form biofilms on mineral surfaces, and may preferentially attach to surfaces rich in necessary nutrients or in elements used for energy conservation. In part due to the complexity of natural soil, water and sediments systems, it is generally difficult to ascertain mechanisms controlling the distribution of organisms on mineral surfaces and their role in mineral precipitation-dissolution reactions. Geothermal microbial communities are often less diverse than surface soils and sediments and offer opportunities for understanding relationships among specific microbial populations and geochemical processes that define the biogeochemical cycles of individual elements. We have investigated numerous acidic and near-neutral geothermal sites in Yellowstone National Park, and have performed a number of complimentary chemical and microbiological analyses to ascertain the role of microorganisms in S, Fe, As and Sb cycling in geothermal systems. Our results demonstrate the importance of microbiota in the formation of various Fe(III) oxide phases with variable anion chemistry, and the importance of chemolithotrophic metabolisms in Fe, S and As cycling. Where possible, these metabolisms are linked to specific microbial populations identified via molecular methods, and in some cases confirmed using isolation and characterization of individual organisms.

  20. Quantifying morbidities by Adjusted Clinical Group system for a Taiwan population: A nationwide analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wui-Chiang

    2008-01-01

    Background The Adjusted Clinical Group (ACG) system has been used in measuring an individual's and a population's morbidities. Although all required inputs for running the ACG system are readily available, patients' morbidities and their associations to health care utilizations have been rarely studied in Taiwan. Therefore, the objective of this study was using the ACG system to quantify morbidities for Taiwanese population and to examine their relationship to ambulatory utilizations and costs. Methods This secondary analysis examined claims data for ambulatory services provided to 2.71 million representative Taiwanese in 2002 and 2003. People were grouped by the ACG system according to age, gender, and all ambulatory diagnosis codes in a given year. The software collapses the full set of ACGs into six morbidity categories (Non-users, Healthy, Low-morbidity, Moderate-, High- and Very-high) termed Resource Utilization Bands (RUBs). Each ACG was assigned a relative weight (RW), which was calculated as the ratio of mean ambulatory cost for each ACG to that for the overall. The distribution of morbidities was compared between years 2002 and 2003. The consistency of the distributions of visits, costs, and RWs of each ACG were examined for a two-year period. The relationship between people's morbidities and their ambulatory utilizations and costs was assessed. Results Ninety-eight percent of the subjects were correctly assigned to ACGs. Except for non-users (7.9 ~ 8.3%), most subjects were assigned to ACGs of acute and minor diseases and ACGs of moderate-to-high-morbid chronic diseases. The distributions of ACG-based morbidities were highly consistent (r = 0.949, p < 0.001) between 2002 and 2003. The ACG-specific visits (r = 0.955, p < 0.001), costs (r = 0.966, p < 0.001) and RWs (r = 0.991, p < 0.001) were correlated across two years. People grouped to the high-morbid ACGs had more visits and costs than those grouped to the low-morbid ACGs. Forty-six percent of the

  1. Trends in health care utilization and costs attributable to hepatocellular carcinoma, 2002–2009: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thein, H.H.; Qiao, Y.; Young, S.K.; Zarin, W.; Yoshida, E.M.; de Oliveira, C.; Earle, C.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) and the complexity of its diagnosis and treatment are increasing. We estimated trends in net health care utilization, costs of care attributable to hcc in Ontario, and rate ratios of resource use at various stages of care. Methods This population-based retrospective cohort study identified hcc patients and non-cancer control subjects, and health care resource utilization between 2002 and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were then used to estimate net health care utilization (hcc patients vs. the matched control subjects) and net costs of care attributable to hcc. Generalized linear models were used to analyze rate ratios of resource use. Results We identified 2832 hcc patients and 2808 matched control subjects. In comparison with the control subjects, hcc patients generally used a greater number of health care services. Overall, the mean net cost of care per 30 patient–days (2013 Canadian dollars) attributable to outpatient visits and hospitalizations was highest in the pre-diagnosis (1 year before diagnosis), initial (1st year after diagnosis), and end-of-life (last 6 months before death, short-term survivors) phases. Mean net homecare costs were highest in the end-of-life phase (long-term survivors). In the end-of-life phase (short-term survivors), mean net costs attributable to outpatient visits and total services significantly increased to $14,220 from $1,547 and to $33,121 from $14,450 (2008–2009 and 2002–2003 respectively). Conclusions In hcc, our study found increasing resource use and net costs of care, particularly in the end-of-life phase among short-term survivors. Our findings offer a basis for resource allocation decisions in the area of cancer prevention and control. PMID:27330357

  2. Simulations of Decadal-scale Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture: Attributing Trends in Regional Corn Yields to Physiological Effects Versus Adjusted Farm Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharik, C.

    2003-12-01

    A recent study published in Science in early 2003 [by David Lobell and Gregory Asner, Dept. of Global Ecology, Carnegie Inst. of Washington] highlighted that little effort has been put forth to understand the impacts of previous decadal-scale climate changes on row-crop agriculture. The major obstacle to overcome in quantifying crop response to climate changes over large regions is deciphering between changes attributed to climate change versus technology, land-management and other factors. While the Lobell and Asner study concluded that regional temperature trends potentially contributed to corn and soybean yield trends from 1982-1998, a partitioning of the observed increases between direct physiological effects versus farmer management adjustment to climate was not a goal of their study. As part of this study, an agricultural version of the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (Agro-IBIS), was used to investigate how decadal-scale climate changes may have contributed to corn yield trends across the Mississippi Basin from 1948-2001. The primary objective was to investigate the relative contributions of physiological effects and farmer adjustments in planting date and hybrid choice to long-term corn yield trends. The impacts of advancing technology on agriculture were removed from model simulations so that the impact of weather and farm management decisions (e.g., planting date and hybrid choice) could be separated from observed long-term trends in the USDA crop yield record. Scenarios were used that accounted for smart-farmers, where management adjustments (planting date and/or hybrid) were made in response to climate changes, and for business-as-usual-farmers who continued to plant the same hybrids on the same date during the study period. When average, optimum corn planting dates from the 1950s were compared with the 1990s, significant springtime warming in regions of the northern fringes of the cornbelt (e.g., North Dakota, Minnesota) over the past 40 years have

  3. Lake sturgeon population attributes and reproductive structure in the Namakan Reservoir, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, S. L.; Chipps, Steven R.; Windels, S. K.; Webb, M.A.H.; McLeod, D. T.; Willis, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Quantified were the age, growth, mortality and reproductive structure of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) collected in the US and Canadian waters of the Namakan Reservoir. The hypotheses were tested that (i) age and growth of lake sturgeon in the Namakan Reservoir would differ by sex and reproductive stage of maturity, and (ii) that the relative strength of year-classes of lake sturgeon in the reservoir would be affected by environmental variables. To quantify age, growth and mortality of the population, existing data was used from a multi-agency database containing information on all lake sturgeon sampled in the reservoir from 2004 to 2009. Lake sturgeon were sampled in the Minnesota and Ontario waters of the Namakan Reservoir using multi-filament gillnets 1.8 m high and 30–100 m long and varying in mesh size from 178 to 356 mm stretch. Reproductive structure of the lake sturgeon was assessed only during spring 2008 and 2009 using plasma testosterone and estradiol-17β concentrations. Ages of lake sturgeon >75 cm ranged from 9 to 86 years (n = 533, mean = 36 years). A catch-curve analysis using the 1981–1953 year classes estimated total annual mortality of adults to be 4.8% and annual survival as 95.2%. Using logistic regression analysis, it was found that total annual precipitation was positively associated with lake sturgeon year-class strength in the Namakan Reservoir. A 10 cm increase in total annual precipitation was associated with at least a 39% increase in the odds of occurrence of a strong year class of lake sturgeon in the reservoir. Plasma steroid analysis revealed a sex ratio of 2.4 females: 1 male and, on average, 10% of female and 30% of male lake sturgeon were reproductively mature each year (i.e. potential spawners). Moreover, there was evidence based on re-captured male fish of both periodic and annual spawning, as well as the ability of males to rapidly undergo gonadal maturation prior to spawning. Knowledge of lake sturgeon

  4. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Eckmanns, Tim; Abu Sin, Muna; Ducomble, Tanja; Harder, Thomas; Sixtensson, Madlen; Velasco, Edward; Weiß, Bettina; Kramarz, Piotr; Monnet, Dominique L.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.; Suetens, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011–2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs. Methods and Findings The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP), healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI), healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI). The burden of these HAIs was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Evidence relating to the disease progression pathway of each type of HAI was collected through systematic literature reviews, in order to estimate the risks attributable to HAIs. For each of the six HAIs, gender and age group prevalence from the ECDC PPS was converted into incidence rates by applying the Rhame and Sudderth formula. We adjusted for reduced life expectancy within the hospital population using three severity groups based on McCabe score data from the ECDC PPS. We estimated that 2,609,911 new cases of HAI occur every year in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA). The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was estimated at 501 DALYs per 100,000 general population each year in EU/EEA. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden and represented more than 60% of the total burden, with 169 and 145 DALYs per 100,000 total population, respectively. HA UTI, SSI, HA CDI, and HA primary BSI ranked as the third to sixth syndromes in terms of burden of disease

  5. Population attributable risk estimates for factors associated with non-use of postnatal care services among women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Agho, K E; Ezeh, O K; Issaka, A I; Enoma, A I; Baines, S; Renzaho, A M N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine population attributable risks (PARs) estimates for factors associated with non-use of postnatal care (PNC) in Nigeria. Design, setting and participants The most recent Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2013) was examined. The study consisted of 20 467 mothers aged 15–49 years. Non-use of PNC services was examined against a set of demographic, health knowledge and social structure factors, using multilevel regression analysis. PARs estimates were obtained for each factor associated with non-use of PNC in the final multivariate logistic regression model. Main outcome PNC services. Results Non-use of PNC services was attributed to 68% (95% CI 56% to 76%) of mothers who delivered at home, 61% (95% CI 55% to 75%) of those who delivered with the help of non-health professionals and 37% (95% CI 31% to 45%) of those who lacked knowledge of delivery complications in the study population. Multiple variable analyses revealed that non-use of PNC services among mothers was significantly associated with rural residence, household poverty, no or low levels of mothers' formal education, small perceived size of neonate, poor knowledge of delivery-related complications, and limited or no access to the mass media. Conclusions PAR estimates for factors associated with non-use of PNC in Nigeria highlight the need for community-based interventions regarding maternal education and services that focus on mothers who delivered their babies at home. Our study also recommends financial support from the Nigerian government for mothers from low socioeconomic settings, so as to minimise the inequitable access to pregnancy and delivery healthcare services with trained healthcare personnel. PMID:27371552

  6. Determinants of Obesity and Associated Population Attributability, South Africa: Empirical Evidence from a National Panel Survey, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Sartorius, Benn; Veerman, Lennert J.; Manyema, Mercy; Chola, Lumbwe; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for emerging non-communicable diseases (NCDS) in middle income countries including South Africa (SA). Understanding the multiple and complex determinants of obesity and their true population attributable impact is critical for informing and developing effective prevention efforts using scientific based evidence. This study identified contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity in South Africa. Methods Analysis of three national cross sectional (repeated panel) surveys, using a multilevel logistic regression and population attributable fraction estimation allowed for identification of contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) among adults (15years+). Results Obesity prevalence increased significantly from 23.5% in 2008 to 27.2% in 2012, with a significantly (p-value<0.001) higher prevalence among females (37.9% in 2012) compared to males (13.3% in 2012). Living in formal urban areas, white ethnicity, being married, not exercising and/or in higher socio-economic category were significantly associated with male obesity. Females living in formal or informal urban areas, higher crime areas, African/White ethnicity, married, not exercising, in a higher socio-economic category and/or living in households with proportionate higher spending on food (and unhealthy food options) were significantly more likely to be obese. The identified determinants appeared to account for 75% and 43% of male and female obesity respectively. White males had the highest relative gain in obesity from 2008 to 2012. Conclusions The rising prevalence of obesity in South Africa is significant and over the past 5 years the rising prevalence of Type-2 diabetes has mirrored this pattern, especially among females. Targeting young adolescent girls should be a priority. Addressing determinants of obesity will involve a multifaceted strategy and requires at individual and population levels. With rising costs in the

  7. The Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease and the Population Attributable Fraction of Its Risk Factors in Tehran: A 10-Year Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Davood; Haj Sheikholeslami, Farhad; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Azizi, Fereidoun; Momenan, Amir Abbas; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) is scarce in the Middle East and little is known about the contribution of known risk factors in this area. Methods The incidence of CHD and the effect of modifiable risk factors were explored in 2889 men and 3803 women aged 30–74 years in the population based cohort of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, during 1999–2010. Average population attributable fraction (aPAF) was calculated for any risk factor using direct method based on regression model. Results The crude incidence rate in men was about twice that in women (11.9 vs. 6.5 per 1000 person-years). The aPAF of hypertension, diabetes, high total cholesterol and low-HDL cholesterol was 9.4%, 6.7%, 7.3% and 6.1% in men and 17%, 16.6%, 12% and 4.6% in women respectively. This index was 7.0% for smoking in men. High risk age contributed to 42% and 22% of risk in men and women respectively. Conclusions The incidence in this population of Iran was comparable to those in the US in the seventies. Well known modifiable risk factors explained about 40% and 50% of CHD burden in men and women respectively. Aging, as a reflection of unmeasured or unknown risk factors, bears the most burden of CHD, especially in men; indicating more age-related health care is required. PMID:25162590

  8. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  9. Risk adjusted and population based studies of the outcome for high risk infants in Scotland and Australia

    PubMed Central

    International, N; Consultants, S. N.; Group, N. C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To compare outcomes of care in selected neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) for very low birthweight (VLBW) or preterm infants in Scotland and Australia (study 1) and perinatal care for all VLBW infants in both countries (study 2).
DESIGN—Study 1: risk adjusted cohort study; study 2: population based cohort study.
SUBJECTS—Study 1: all 2621 infants of < 1500 g birth weight or < 31 weeks' gestation admitted to a volunteer sample of hospitals comprising eight of all 17 Scottish NICUs and six of all 12 tertiary NICUs in New South Wales and Queensland in 1993-1994; study 2: all 5986infants of 500-1499 g birth weight registered as live born in Scotland and Australia in 1993-1994.
MAIN OUTCOMES—Study 1: (a) hospital death; (b) death or cerebral damage, each adjusted for gestation and CRIB (clinical risk index for babies); study 2: neonatal (28 day) mortality.
RESULTS—Study 1. Data were obtained for 1628 admissions in six Australian NICUs, 775 in five Scottish tertiary NICUs, and 148 in three Scottish non-tertiary NICUs. Crude hospital death rates were 13%, 22%, and 22% respectively. Risk adjusted hospital mortality was about 50% higher in Scottish than in Australian NICUs (adjusted mortality ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29 to 1.63,p < 0.001). There was no difference in risk adjusted outcomes between Scottish tertiary and non-tertiary NICUs. After risk adjustment, death or cerebral damage was more common in Scottish than Australian NICUs (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.5). Both these risk adjusted adverse outcomes remained more common in Scottish than Australian NICUs after excluding all infants < 28 weeks' gestation from the comparison. Study 2. Population based neonatal mortality in infants of 500-1499 g was higher in Scotland (20.3%) than Australia (16.6%) (relative risk 1.22, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.39, p = 0.002). In a post hoc analysis, neonatal mortality was also higher in England and Wales than in Australia

  10. Calculating summary statistics for population chemical biomonitoring in women of childbearing age with adjustment for age-specific natality.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Cohen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chemical exposures during pregnancy on children's health have been an increasing focus of environmental health research in recent years, leading to greater interest in biomonitoring of chemicals in women of childbearing age in the general population. Measurements of mercury in blood from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are frequently reported for "women of childbearing age," defined to be of ages 16-49 years. The intent is to represent prenatal chemical exposure, but blood mercury levels increase with age. Furthermore, women of different ages have different probabilities of giving birth. We evaluated options to address potential bias in biomonitoring summary statistics for women of childbearing age by accounting for age-specific probabilities of giving birth. We calculated median and 95th percentile levels of mercury, PCBs, and cotinine using these approaches: option 1: women aged 16-49 years without natality adjustment; option 2: women aged 16-39 years without natality adjustment; option 3: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age; option 4: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age and race/ethnicity. Among the three chemicals examined, the choice of option has the greatest impact on estimated levels of serum PCBs, which are strongly associated with age. Serum cotinine levels among Black non-Hispanic women of childbearing age are understated when age-specific natality is not considered. For characterizing in utero exposures, adjustment using age-specific natality provides a substantial improvement in estimation of biomonitoring summary statistics. PMID:21035114

  11. Determining the best population-level alcohol consumption model and its impact on estimates of alcohol-attributable harms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of our study are to determine the most appropriate model for alcohol consumption as an exposure for burden of disease, to analyze the effect of the chosen alcohol consumption distribution on the estimation of the alcohol Population- Attributable Fractions (PAFs), and to characterize the chosen alcohol consumption distribution by exploring if there is a global relationship within the distribution. Methods To identify the best model, the Log-Normal, Gamma, and Weibull prevalence distributions were examined using data from 41 surveys from Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) and from the European Comparative Alcohol Study. To assess the effect of these distributions on the estimated alcohol PAFs, we calculated the alcohol PAF for diabetes, breast cancer, and pancreatitis using the three above-named distributions and using the more traditional approach based on categories. The relationship between the mean and the standard deviation from the Gamma distribution was estimated using data from 851 datasets for 66 countries from GENACIS and from the STEPwise approach to Surveillance from the World Health Organization. Results The Log-Normal distribution provided a poor fit for the survey data, with Gamma and Weibull distributions providing better fits. Additionally, our analyses showed that there were no marked differences for the alcohol PAF estimates based on the Gamma or Weibull distributions compared to PAFs based on categorical alcohol consumption estimates. The standard deviation of the alcohol distribution was highly dependent on the mean, with a unit increase in alcohol consumption associated with a unit increase in the mean of 1.258 (95% CI: 1.223 to 1.293) (R2 = 0.9207) for women and 1.171 (95% CI: 1.144 to 1.197) (R2 = 0. 9474) for men. Conclusions Although the Gamma distribution and the Weibull distribution provided similar results, the Gamma distribution is recommended to model alcohol consumption from population

  12. A comparison of pressure ulcer prevalence rates in nursing homes in the Netherlands and Germany, adjusted for population characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tannen, Antje; Bours, Gerrie; Halfens, Ruud; Dassen, Theo

    2006-12-01

    Annual pressure ulcer surveys in the Netherlands and Germany have shown remarkable differences in prevalence rates. We explored the differences between the two populations, and the degree to which these differences were associated with differences in prevalence. To this end, data from 48 Dutch and 45 German facilities (n = 9772) from 2003 were analyzed. The prevalence of pressure ulcers (excluding grade 1) was 12.5% in the Netherlands and 4.3% in Germany. After adjusting for age, sex, and other risk factors, the probability of developing a pressure ulcer of stage 2 or higher in Dutch nursing homes was three times greater than in German homes.

  13. Easterlin's fertility theory and population adjustment and regulation in rural China.

    PubMed

    Li, J

    1997-01-01

    The author considers some approaches which could be used to solve China's rural population problems through integrating Easterlin's fertility theory and certain characteristics of changes in China's rural population fertility. American demographer R.A. Easterlin conceptualized the meaning of fertility revolution with consideration of the overall modernization process. His theory is described. However, both effective family planning policies and attention to the impact of non-policy factors upon fertility changes are needed to resolve China's rural population problems. Community development and women's participation in Luo Chuan and Yong Shou, Shaanxi Province; the establishment of a social security support system for the elderly in Shandong Province; collective economy and rural urbanization in Southern Jiangsu Province; and improving the quality of family planning technical services are discussed.

  14. Modeling the Human Kinetic Adjustment Factor for Inhaled Volatile Organic Chemicals: Whole Population Approach versus Distinct Subpopulation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Valcke, M.; Nong, A.; Krishnan, K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of whole- and sub-population-related variabilities on the determination of the human kinetic adjustment factor (HKAF) used in risk assessment of inhaled volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Monte Carlo simulations were applied to a steady-state algorithm to generate population distributions for blood concentrations (CAss) and rates of metabolism (RAMs) for inhalation exposures to benzene (BZ) and 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D). The simulated population consisted of various proportions of adults, elderly, children, neonates and pregnant women as per the Canadian demography. Subgroup-specific input parameters were obtained from the literature and P3M software. Under the “whole population” approach, the HKAF was computed as the ratio of the entire population's upper percentile value (99th, 95th) of dose metrics to the median value in either the entire population or the adult population. Under the “distinct subpopulation” approach, the upper percentile values in each subpopulation were considered, and the greatest resulting HKAF was retained. CAss-based HKAFs that considered the Canadian demography varied between 1.2 (BZ) and 2.8 (1,4-D). The “distinct subpopulation” CAss-based HKAF varied between 1.6 (BZ) and 8.5 (1,4-D). RAM-based HKAFs always remained below 1.6. Overall, this study evaluated for the first time the impact of underlying assumptions with respect to the interindividual variability considered (whole population or each subpopulation taken separately) when determining the HKAF. PMID:22523487

  15. Demographic variables, clinical aspects, and medicolegal implications in a population of patients with adjustment disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anastasia, Annalisa; Colletti, Chiara; Cuoco, Valentina; Quartini, Adele; Urso, Stefania; Rinaldi, Raffaella; Bersani, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although adjustment disorder (AD) is considered as residual diagnosis and receives little attention in research, it plays an important role in clinical practice and also assumes an increasingly important role in the field of legal medicine, where the majority of diagnostic frameworks (eg, mobbing) often refer to AD. Our study aimed to look for specific stressor differences among demographic and clinical variables in a naturalistic setting of patients with AD. Methods A restrospective statistical analysis of the data of patients diagnosed with AD from November 2009 to September 2012, identified via manual search from the archive of the outpatient setting at the University Unit of Psychiatry “A. Fiorini” Hospital, Terracina (Latina, Italy), was performed. Results The sample consisted of 93 patients (46 males and 47 females), aged between 26 and 85, with medium–high educational level who were mainly employed. In most cases (54.80%), a diagnosis of AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood was made. In all, 72% of the sample reported a negative family history for psychiatric disorders. In 22.60%, a previous history of psychopathology, especially mood disorders (76.19%), was reported. The main stressors linked to the development of AD were represented by working problems (32.30%), family problems (23.70%), and/or somatic disease (22.60%) with significant differences with respect to age and sex. Half of the patients were subjected to a single first examination; 24.47% requested a copy of medical records. Conclusion Confirming previous data from previous reports, our results suggest that AD may have a distinct profile in demographic and clinical terms. Increased scientific attention is hoped, particularly focused on addressing a better definition of diagnostic criteria, whose correctness and accuracy are critical, especially in situations with medicolegal implications. PMID:27099504

  16. Adjusting for population shifts and covariates in space-time interaction tests.

    PubMed

    Schmertmann, Carl P

    2015-09-01

    Statistical tests for epidemic patterns use measures of space-time event clustering, and look for high levels of clustering that are unlikely to appear randomly if events are independent. Standard approaches, such as Knox's (1964, Applied Statistics 13, 25-29) test, are biased when the spatial distribution of population changes over time, or when there is space-time interaction in important background variables. In particular, the Knox test is too sensitive to coincidental event clusters in such circumstances, and too likely to raise false alarms. Kulldorff and Hjalmars (1999, Biometrics 55, 544-552) proposed a variant of Knox's test to control for bias caused by population shifts. In this article, I demonstrate that their test is also generally biased, in an unknown direction. I suggest an alternative approach that accounts for exposure shifts while also conditioning on the observed spatial and temporal margins of event counts, as in the original Knox test. The new approach uses Metropolis sampling of permutations, and is unbiased under more general conditions. I demonstrate how the new method can also include controls for the clustering effects of covariates.

  17. The Cost-Effectiveness of Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding in the Morbidly Obese Adult Population of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Yi; Veerman, J. Lennert; Barendregt, Jan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine the cost-effectiveness of providing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) surgery to all morbidly obese adults in the 2003 Australian population. Methods and Findings Analyzed costs and benefits associated with two intervention scenarios, one providing LAGB surgery to individuals with BMI >40 and another to individuals with BMI >35, with each compared relative to a ‘do nothing’ scenario. A multi-state, multiple cohort Markov model was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of LAGB surgery over the lifetime of each cohort. All costs and health outcomes were assessed from an Australian health sector perspective and were discounted using a 3% annual rate. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyzes were conducted to test the robustness of model outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were measured in 2003 Australian dollars per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. The ICER for the scenario providing LAGB surgery to all individuals with a BMI >40 was dominant [95% CI: dominant - $588] meaning that the intervention led to both improved health and cost savings. The ICER when providing surgery to those with a BMI >35 was $2 154/DALY averted [95% CI: dominant - $6 033]. Results were highly sensitive to changes in the likelihood of long-term complications. Conclusion LAGB surgery is highly cost-effective when compared to the $50 000/DALY threshold for cost-effectiveness used in Australia. LAGB surgery also ranks highly in terms of cost-effectiveness when compared to other population-level interventions for weight loss in Australia. The results of this study are in line with other economic evaluations on LAGB surgery. This study recommends that the Australian federal government provide a full subsidy for LAGB surgery to morbidly obese Australians with a BMI >40. PMID:23717680

  18. IgE antibodies and urinary trimethylarsine oxide accounted for 1-7% population attributable risks for eczema in adults: USA NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-12-01

    Population attributable risks from serum IgE and dust miteallergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema are unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine serum IgE and allergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema in adults and to calculate population attributable risks in a national and population-based setting. Data retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006, was analyzed. Information on demographics and self-reported ever eczema was obtained by household interview. Bloods and urines (sub-sample) were also collected during the interview. Adults aged 20-85 were included. Statistical analyses were using chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of all the included American adults (n = 4979), 310 (6.2%) reported ever eczema. Moreover, more eczema cases were observed in female adults but fewer cases in people born in Mexico. There were no significant associations observed between commonly known biomarkers (including vitamin D) and eczema or between dust mite allergens and eczema. Serum D. Farinae (PAR 1.0%), D. Pteronyssinus (PAR 1.1%), cat (PAR 1.8%), dog (PAR 1.6%), and muse (PAR 3.2%) IgE antibodies were associated with eczema. Adults with ever eczema were found to have higher levels of urinary trimethylarsine oxide concentrations (PAR 7.0%) but not other speciated arsenic concentrations. There were no clear associations between other environmental chemicals including heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, parabens, pesticides, nitrate, perchlorate, polycyclic hydrocarbons and eczema as well. Elimination of environmental risks might help delay or stop eczema up to 7% in the adult population.

  19. IgE antibodies and urinary trimethylarsine oxide accounted for 1-7% population attributable risks for eczema in adults: USA NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-12-01

    Population attributable risks from serum IgE and dust miteallergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema are unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine serum IgE and allergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema in adults and to calculate population attributable risks in a national and population-based setting. Data retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006, was analyzed. Information on demographics and self-reported ever eczema was obtained by household interview. Bloods and urines (sub-sample) were also collected during the interview. Adults aged 20-85 were included. Statistical analyses were using chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of all the included American adults (n = 4979), 310 (6.2%) reported ever eczema. Moreover, more eczema cases were observed in female adults but fewer cases in people born in Mexico. There were no significant associations observed between commonly known biomarkers (including vitamin D) and eczema or between dust mite allergens and eczema. Serum D. Farinae (PAR 1.0%), D. Pteronyssinus (PAR 1.1%), cat (PAR 1.8%), dog (PAR 1.6%), and muse (PAR 3.2%) IgE antibodies were associated with eczema. Adults with ever eczema were found to have higher levels of urinary trimethylarsine oxide concentrations (PAR 7.0%) but not other speciated arsenic concentrations. There were no clear associations between other environmental chemicals including heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, parabens, pesticides, nitrate, perchlorate, polycyclic hydrocarbons and eczema as well. Elimination of environmental risks might help delay or stop eczema up to 7% in the adult population. PMID:26233738

  20. A New Phylogeographic Pattern of Endemic Bufo bankorensis in Taiwan Island Is Attributed to the Genetic Variation of Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Teng-Lang; Lin, Hung-Du; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aim To comprehend the phylogeographic patterns of genetic variation in anurans at Taiwan Island, this study attempted to examine (1) the existence of various geological barriers (Central Mountain Ranges, CMRs); and (2) the genetic variation of Bufo bankorensis using mtDNA sequences among populations located in different regions of Taiwan, characterized by different climates and existing under extreme conditions when compared available sequences of related species B. gargarizans of mainland China. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses of the dataset with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop gene (348 bp) recovered a close relationship between B. bankorensis and B. gargarizans, identified three distinct lineages. Furthermore, the network of mtDNA D-loop gene (564 bp) amplified (279 individuals, 27 localities) from Taiwan Island indicated three divergent clades within B. bankorensis (Clade W, E and S), corresponding to the geography, thereby verifying the importance of the CMRs and Kaoping River drainage as major biogeographic barriers. Mismatch distribution analysis, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots revealed that a significant population expansion occurred for the total population and Clade W, with horizons dated to approximately 0.08 and 0.07 Mya, respectively. These results suggest that the population expansion of Taiwan Island species B. bankorensis might have resulted from the release of available habitat in post-glacial periods, the genetic variation on mtDNA showing habitat selection, subsequent population dispersal, and co-distribution among clades. Conclusions The multiple origins (different clades) of B. bankorensis mtDNA sequences were first evident in this study. The divergent genetic clades found within B. bankorensis could be independent colonization by previously diverged lineages; inferring B. bankorensis originated from B. gargarizans of mainland China, then dispersal followed by isolation within Taiwan Island. Highly divergent

  1. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments in Selected Major River Basins: Population Density, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average population density, in number of people per square kilometer multiplied by 10 for the year 2000, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is the 2000 Population Density by Block Group for the Conterminous United States (Hitt, 2003). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) RF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Arthritis-Attributable Work Limitation in the US Population Among Persons Ages 18–64: 2002 National Health Interview Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    THEIS, KRISTINA A.; MURPHY, LOUISE; HOOTMAN, JENNIFER M.; HELMICK, CHARLES G.; YELIN, EDWARD

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the national prevalence of arthritis-attributable work limitation (AAWL) among persons ages 18–64 with doctor-diagnosed arthritis and examine correlates of AAWL. Methods Using the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, we estimated the prevalence of AAWL (limited in whether individuals work, the type of work they do, or the amount of work they do) and correlates of AAWL in univariable and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses. Survey data were analyzed in SAS and SUDAAN to account for the complex sample design. Results A total of 5.3% of all US adults ages 18–64 reported AAWL; in this age group, AAWL is reported by ~30% of those who report arthritis. The prevalence of AAWL was highest among people ages 45–64 years (10.2%), women (6.3%), non-Hispanic blacks (7.7%), people with less than a high school education (8.6%), and those with an annual household income <$20,000 (12.6%). AAWL was substantially increased among people with arthritis-attributable activity limitations (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR] 9.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 7.1–11.6). The multivariable-adjusted likelihood of AAWL was moderately higher among non-Hispanic blacks (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.3), Hispanics (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.6), and people with high levels of functional/social/leisure limitations (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4–2.3) and was decreased among those with a college education (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4–0.8). Conclusion AAWL is highly prevalent, affecting millions of Americans and one-third of adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis. Findings suggest the need for more targeted research to better understand the natural history, success of interventions, and effects of policy on AAWL. Public health interventions, including self-management education programs, may be effective in countering AAWL. PMID:17394215

  3. Use of random forest to estimate population attributable fractions from a case-control study of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections.

    PubMed

    Gu, W; Vieira, A R; Hoekstra, R M; Griffin, P M; Cole, D

    2015-10-01

    To design effective food safety programmes we need to estimate how many sporadic foodborne illnesses are caused by specific food sources based on case-control studies. Logistic regression has substantive limitations for analysing structured questionnaire data with numerous exposures and missing values. We adapted random forest to analyse data of a case-control study of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis illness for source attribution. For estimation of summary population attributable fractions (PAFs) of exposures grouped into transmission routes, we devised a counterfactual estimator to predict reductions in illness associated with removing grouped exposures. For the purpose of comparison, we fitted the data using logistic regression models with stepwise forward and backward variable selection. Our results show that the forward and backward variable selection of logistic regression models were not consistent for parameter estimation, with different significant exposures identified. By contrast, the random forest model produced estimated PAFs of grouped exposures consistent in rank order with results obtained from outbreak data, with egg-related exposures having the highest estimated PAF (22·1%, 95% confidence interval 8·5-31·8). Random forest might be structurally more coherent and efficient than logistic regression models for attributing Salmonella illnesses to sources involving many causal pathways.

  4. Dynamic logistic regression model and population attributable fraction to investigate the association between adherence, missed visits and mortality: a study of HIV-infected adults surviving the first year of ART

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence is one of the most important determinants of viral suppression and drug resistance in HIV-infected people receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods We examined the association between long-term mortality and poor adherence to ART in DART trial participants in Uganda and Zimbabwe randomly assigned to receive laboratory and clinical monitoring (LCM), or clinically driven monitoring (CDM). Since over 50% of all deaths in the DART trial occurred during the first year on ART, we focussed on participants continuing ART for 12 months to investigate the implications of longer-term adherence to treatment on mortality. Participants’ ART adherence was assessed by pill counts and structured questionnaires at 4-weekly clinic visits. We studied the effect of recent adherence history on the risk of death at the individual level (odds ratios from dynamic logistic regression model), and on mortality at the population level (population attributable fraction based on this model). Analyses were conducted separately for both randomization groups, adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Adherence behaviour was also confounded by a partial factorial randomization comparing structured treatment interruptions (STI) with continuous ART (CT). Results In the CDM arm a significant association was found between poor adherence to ART in the previous 3-9 months with increased mortality risk. In the LCM arm the association was not significant. The odds ratios for mortality in participants with poor adherence against those with optimal adherence was 1.30 (95% CI 0.78,2.10) in the LCM arm and 2.18 (1.47,3.22) in the CDM arm. The estimated proportions of deaths that could have been avoided with optimal adherence (population attributable fraction) in the LCM and CDM groups during the 5 years follow-up period were 16.0% (95% CI 0.7%,31.6%) and 33.1% (20.5%,44.8%), correspondingly. Conclusions Recurrent poor adherence determined even through simple measures is associated

  5. Licit prescription drug use in a Swedish population according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjusting for level of multi-morbidity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a great variability in licit prescription drug use in the population and among patients. Factors other than purely medical ones have proven to be of importance for the prescribing of licit drugs. For example, individuals with a high age, female gender and low socioeconomic status are more likely to use licit prescription drugs. However, these results have not been adjusted for multi-morbidity level. In this study we investigate the odds of using licit prescription drugs among individuals in the population and the rate of licit prescription drug use among patients depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multi-morbidity level. Methods The study was carried out on the total population aged 20 years or older in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The Johns Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for the individual level of multi-morbidity in the population to which we have related the odds ratio for individuals and incidence rate ratio (IRR) for patients of using licit prescription drugs, defined daily doses (DDDs) and total costs of licit prescription drugs after adjusting for age, gender and socioeconomic factors (educational and income level). Results After adjustment for multi-morbidity level male individuals had less than half the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.40-0.42)) compared to female individuals. Among the patients, males had higher total costs (IRR 1.14 (95% CI 1.13-1.15)). Individuals above 80 years had nine times the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 9.09 (95% CI 8.33-10.00)) despite adjustment for multi-morbidity. Patients in the highest education and income level had the lowest DDDs (IRR 0.78 (95% CI 0.76-0.80), IRR 0.73 (95% CI 0.71-0.74)) after adjustment for multi-morbidity level. Conclusions This paper shows that there is a great variability in licit prescription drug use associated with gender, age and socioeconomic status

  6. Rheumatic Heart Disease-Attributable Mortality at Ages 5–69 Years in Fiji: A Five-Year, National, Population-Based Record-Linkage Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Tom; Kado, Joseph; Miller, Anne E.; Ward, Brenton; Heenan, Rachel; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Bärnighausen, Till W.; Mirabel, Mariana; Bloom, David E.; Bailey, Robin L.; Tukana, Isimeli N.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008–2012 in people aged 5–69 years. Methods and Findings Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8–10.0) and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4–331.5) due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0–69 years. Valuing life using Fiji’s per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011–2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses. Conclusions Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases. PMID:26371755

  7. Chronic diseases and life events accounted for 2-18 % population attributable risks for adult hearing loss: UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Links between chronic diseases and hearing loss in adults have emerged. However, previous investigations were not complete, and the role of life events was unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationships of common chronic diseases and life events and adult hearing loss in a country-wide and population-based study. Data were retrieved from UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007, being cross-sectional, including demographics, self-reported prior health conditions and hearing loss (ever and in the last 12 months), and several major life events. Analyses included Chi square test, t test, logistic regression model, and population attributable risk estimation. People who had prior health conditions including cancer, migraine, dementia, depression, cataracts, chronic bronchitis, allergy, bowel problem, bladder problem, arthritis, muscle problem or skin problem tended to report hearing loss than their counterparts. People who have experienced major life events including post-traumatic stress disorder, serious illness of close relatives, death of family, serious problems with friends, major financial crisis, valuables stolen, being bullied, violence at home, sexual abuse or running away from home were also more likely to experience ever hearing loss problem or that in the last 12 months. 2.0-13.1 % adult hearing loss could be delayed or prevented by managing chronic diseases while 4.1-18.1 % might be delayed or prevented by minimizing the negative effects of life events. Chronic diseases and life events were associated with hearing loss in adults. Better managing lifestyle to minimize detrimental impacts in future health and nursing programs would be suggested. PMID:25575844

  8. Chronic diseases and life events accounted for 2-18 % population attributable risks for adult hearing loss: UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Links between chronic diseases and hearing loss in adults have emerged. However, previous investigations were not complete, and the role of life events was unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationships of common chronic diseases and life events and adult hearing loss in a country-wide and population-based study. Data were retrieved from UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007, being cross-sectional, including demographics, self-reported prior health conditions and hearing loss (ever and in the last 12 months), and several major life events. Analyses included Chi square test, t test, logistic regression model, and population attributable risk estimation. People who had prior health conditions including cancer, migraine, dementia, depression, cataracts, chronic bronchitis, allergy, bowel problem, bladder problem, arthritis, muscle problem or skin problem tended to report hearing loss than their counterparts. People who have experienced major life events including post-traumatic stress disorder, serious illness of close relatives, death of family, serious problems with friends, major financial crisis, valuables stolen, being bullied, violence at home, sexual abuse or running away from home were also more likely to experience ever hearing loss problem or that in the last 12 months. 2.0-13.1 % adult hearing loss could be delayed or prevented by managing chronic diseases while 4.1-18.1 % might be delayed or prevented by minimizing the negative effects of life events. Chronic diseases and life events were associated with hearing loss in adults. Better managing lifestyle to minimize detrimental impacts in future health and nursing programs would be suggested.

  9. The relationship between effectiveness and costs measured by a risk-adjusted case-mix system: multicentre study of Catalonian population data bases

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Blanca-Tamayo, Milagrosa; Velasco-Velasco, Soledad; Escribano-Herranz, Esperanza; Llopart-López, Josep Ramon; Violan-Fors, Concepción; Vilaseca-Llobet, Josep Maria; Sánchez-Fontcuberta, Encarna; Benavent-Areu, Jaume; Flor-Serra, Ferran; Aguado-Jodar, Alba; Rodríguez-López, Daniel; Prados-Torres, Alejandra; Estelrich-Bennasar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study is to measure the relationship between morbidity, direct health care costs and the degree of clinical effectiveness (resolution) of health centres and health professionals by the retrospective application of Adjusted Clinical Groups in a Spanish population setting. The secondary objectives are to determine the factors determining inadequate correlations and the opinion of health professionals on these instruments. Methods/Design We will carry out a multi-centre, retrospective study using patient records from 15 primary health care centres and population data bases. The main measurements will be: general variables (age and sex, centre, service [family medicine, paediatrics], and medical unit), dependent variables (mean number of visits, episodes and direct costs), co-morbidity (Johns Hopkins University Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System) and effectiveness. The totality of centres/patients will be considered as the standard for comparison. The efficiency index for visits, tests (laboratory, radiology, others), referrals, pharmaceutical prescriptions and total will be calculated as the ratio: observed variables/variables expected by indirect standardization. The model of cost/patient/year will differentiate fixed/semi-fixed (visits) costs of the variables for each patient attended/year (N = 350,000 inhabitants). The mean relative weights of the cost of care will be obtained. The effectiveness will be measured using a set of 50 indicators of process, efficiency and/or health results, and an adjusted synthetic index will be constructed (method: percentile 50). The correlation between the efficiency (relative-weights) and synthetic (by centre and physician) indices will be established using the coefficient of determination. The opinion/degree of acceptance of physicians (N = 1,000) will be measured using a structured questionnaire including various dimensions. Statistical analysis: multiple regression analysis (procedure

  10. BMI, Overweight Status and Obesity Adjusted by Various Factors in All Age Groups in the Population of a City in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ataíde Lima, Raquel Patrícia; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; Cristhine Pordeus Luna, Rafaella; Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição; Teixeira de Lima, Roberto; Batista Filho, Malaquias; Gouveia Filizola, Rosália; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Rios Asciutti, Luiza Sonia; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Brazil, demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological changes over time have led to a transition in nutritional standards, resulting in a gradual reduction of malnutrition and an increased prevalence of overweight and obese individuals, similar to the situation in developed countries in previous decades. This study assessed the body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of an overweight status and obesity, adjusted for various factors, in a population in northeastern Brazil including all age groups. Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study using single sampling procedure composed of levels. Given the heterogeneity of the variable “income” and the relationship between income, prevalence of diseases and nutrition, a stratified sampling on blocks in the first level was used. In this, city districts were classified by income into 10 strata, according to information obtained from IBGE. A systematic sampling was applied on randomly selected blocks in order to choose the residences that would be part of the sample (second level), including 1165 participants from all age groups. Results and Discussion: The prevalence of an overweight status or obesity was adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle variables. When the Chi-square test was applied, a relationship was observed between the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity and the age group, gender, educational level and income of the participants. Regarding lifestyle parameters, only smoking was associated with the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity, in both adults and in the total sample. The results for the following groups were significant (p < 0.05): the age group from 20 to 59 years, when the individual presented an educational level greater than or equal to high school; and the age group ≥ 60 years, when the individual was female. It is noteworthy that educational level and being female were significant in adjusting for the total

  11. A multi-population consensus genetic map reveals inconsistent marker order among maps likely attributed to structural variations in the apple genome.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Awais; Han, Yuepeng; Zhao, Youfu Frank; Troggio, Michela; Korban, Schuyler S

    2012-01-01

    Genetic maps serve as frameworks for determining the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, assessing structure of a genome, as well as aid in pursuing association mapping and comparative genetic studies. In this study, a dense genetic map was constructed using a high-throughput 1,536 EST-derived SNP GoldenGate genotyping platform and a global consensus map established by combining the new genetic map with four existing reliable genetic maps of apple. The consensus map identified markers with both major and minor conflicts in positioning across all five maps. These major inconsistencies among marker positions were attributed either to structural variations within the apple genome, or among mapping populations, or genotyping technical errors. These also highlighted problems in assembly and anchorage of the reference draft apple genome sequence in regions with known segmental duplications. Markers common across all five apple genetic maps resulted in successful positioning of 2875 markers, consisting of 2033 SNPs and 843 SSRs as well as other specific markers, on the global consensus map. These markers were distributed across all 17 linkage groups, with an average of 169±33 marker per linkage group and with an average distance of 0.70±0.14 cM between markers. The total length of the consensus map was 1991.38 cM with an average length of 117.14±24.43 cM per linkage group. A total of 569 SNPs were mapped onto the genetic map, consisting of 140 recombinant individuals, from our recently developed apple Oligonucleotide pool assays (OPA). The new functional SNPs, along with the dense consensus genetic map, will be useful for high resolution QTL mapping of important traits in apple and for pursuing comparative genetic studies in Rosaceae.

  12. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, E. Keith; Thompson, Charles F.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard Model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age-differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability over-produced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also over-produced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that

  13. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Bowers, E Keith; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed, and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability overproduced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also overproduced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that parents are

  14. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    PubMed

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  15. Temporal Trends of the Clinical, Resource Use and Outcome Attributes of ICU-Managed Candidemia Hospitalizations: A Population-Level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oud, Lavi

    2016-01-01

    Background There are mixed findings on the longitudinal patterns of the incidence of intensive care unit (ICU)-managed candidemia, with scarcity of reports on the corresponding evolving patterns of patients’ clinical characteristics and outcomes. No population-level data were reported on the temporal trends of the attributes, care and outcomes of ICU-managed adults with candidemia. Methods The Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File was used to identify hospitalizations aged 18 years or older with a diagnosis of candidemia and ICU admission (C-ICU hospitalizations) between 2001 and 2010. Temporal trends of the demographics, clinical features, use of healthcare resources, and short-term outcomes were examined. Average annual percent changes (AAPCs) were derived. Results C-ICU hospitalizations (n = 7,552) became (AAPC) increasingly younger (age ≥ 65 years: -1.0%/year). The Charslon comorbidity index rose 4.2%/year, while the mean number of organ failures (OFs) increased by 8.2%/year, with a fast rise in the rate of those developing ≥ 3 OFs (+15.5%/year). Between 2001 and 2010, there was no significant change in utilization of mechanical ventilation and new hemodialysis among C-ICU hospitalizations with reported respiratory and renal failures (68.9% vs. 73.3%, P = 0.3653 and 15.5% vs. 21.8%, P = 0.8589, respectively). Hospital length of stay or total hospital charges remained unchanged during study period. Hospital mortality decreased between 2001 and 2010 from 39.3% to 23.8% (-5.2%/year). The majority of hospital survivors (61.6%) were discharged to another facility, and increasingly to long-term acute care hospitals, with routine home discharge decreasing to 11% by 2010. Conclusions C-ICU hospitalizations demonstrated increasing comorbidity burden and rising development of OF, and matching rise in use of selected life-support interventions, though with unchanged in-hospital fiscal impact. There has been marked decrease in hospital mortality, but survivors had

  16. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.

  17. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings. PMID:26588427

  18. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations on actual weight, adjusted weight, hip height, and condition score of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1992-06-01

    Heterosis effects were evaluated in three composite populations in F1, F2, and F3 generations separately and combined in 1-yr-old and from 2- through greater than or equal to 7-yr-old beef cows. Traits included actual weight, weight adjusted to a common condition score, hip height, and condition score. Breed effects were evaluated in the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed group (parental breed and composite) effects were significant for all traits analyzed. The effects of heterosis were generally important (P less than .05) for all traits in F1, F2, and F3 generations separately and combined in the three composite populations. Generally, the magnitude of heterosis observed at 1 yr of age did not differ from that observed in cows from 2 through greater than or equal to 7 yr old. Adjusting weight to a common condition score resulted in an average reduction of heterosis effects on actual weight by approximately one-fourth. Thus, approximately one-fourth of the effects of heterosis on weight result from heterosis effects on condition score. Generally, retained heterosis in the F3 generation of either 1-yr-old or from 2-through greater than or equal to 7-yr-old cows of the three composite populations did not differ (P greater than .05) from expectation based on retained heterozygosity for the traits analyzed. These results support the hypothesis that heterosis for weight, hip height, and condition score of cows of these age classes is the result of dominance effects of genes.

  19. Comparative effectiveness and safety of gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and adjustable gastric banding in a population-based bariatric program: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richdeep S.; Majumdar, Sumit R.; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F.; Apte, Sameer; Birch, Daniel W.; Karmali, Shahzeer; Sharma, Arya M.; Klarenbach, Scott; Padwal, Raj S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery in Canada is primarily delivered within publicly funded specialty clinics. Previous studies have demonstrated that bariatric surgery is superior to intensive medical management for reduction of weight and obesity-related comorbidities. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) in a publicly funded, population-based bariatric treatment program. Methods We followed consecutive bariatric surgery patients for 2 years. The primary outcome was weight change (in kilograms). Between-group changes were analyzed using multivariable regression. Last-observation-carried-forward imputation was used for missing data. Results We included 150 consecutive patients (51 RYGB; 51 LSG; 48 LAGB) in our study. At baseline, mean age was 43.5 ± 9.5 years, 87.3% of patients were women, and preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 46.2 ± 7.4. Absolute and relative (% of baseline) weight loss at 2 years were 36.6 ± 19.5 kg (26.1 ± 12.2%) for RYGB, 21.4 ± 16.0 kg (16.4 ± 11.6%) for LSG and 7.0 ± 9.7 kg (5.8 ± 7.9%) for LAGB (p < 0.001). Change in BMI was greater for the RYGB (−13.0 ± 6.6) than both the LSG (−7.6 ± 5.7) and the LAGB (−2.6 ± 3.5) groups (p < 0.001). The reduction in diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia was greater after RYGB than after LAGB (all p < 0.05). There were no deaths. The anastomotic and staple leakage rate was 1.3%. Conclusion In a publicly funded, population-based bariatric surgery program, RYGB and LSG demonstrated greater weight loss than the LAGB procedure. Bypass resulted in the greatest reduction in obesity-related comorbidities. All procedures were safe. PMID:27240132

  20. Invasion of Wolbachia at the residential block level is associated with local abundance of Stegomyia aegypti, yellow fever mosquito, populations and property attributes.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, A A; Goundar, A A; Long, S A; Johnson, P H; Ritchie, S A

    2014-08-01

    Wolbachia can suppress dengue and control mosquito populations and this depends on the successful invasion of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes into local populations. Ovitrap data collected during the recent invasion of wMel-infected Stegomyia aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) (Linnaeus) into Gordonvale near Cairns, Australia, were used to identify variables that help predict the success of localized invasion. Based on the variance in Wolbachia frequencies across Gordonvale as well as at another release site at Yorkeys Knob in comparison to simulations, it was estimated that on average 2-4 females contributed eggs to an ovitrap. By collating ovitrap data from two collection periods at the start of the release from residential blocks, it was found that uninfected mosquitoes had a patchy distribution across the release site. Residential blocks with relatively high uninfected mosquito numbers were less easily invaded by Wolbachia than blocks with low numbers. The numbers of uninfected mosquitoes in ovitraps were negatively correlated with the proportion of brick houses in a residential block, whereas local Wolbachia frequencies were correlated positively with this variable as well as negatively with the amount of shading in a yard and availability of breeding sites. These findings point to proxy measures for predicting the ease of localized invasion of Wolbachia. PMID:25171611

  1. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  2. Descriptive attributes used in the characterization of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in rural populations of the Atlantic forest (Misiones-Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Human beings employ a combination of morphological, sensorial, utilitarian, cultural and ecological characters when they identify and classify organisms. Ethnotaxonomy has provided a store of information about the characters cultures employ when they identify and classify a vast diversity of taxonomic groups. Nevertheless, some more research is needed to provide a comparison of the characters employed in the description of taxons, and an analysis of the extent to which those descriptors are represented. Stingless bees constitute a diverse group of social insects that have been widely studied from an ethnobiological perspective due to their utilitarian and cultural importance. The objective of this study is to identify the elements local people consider when characterizing stingless bees, and how important these elements are in the study of local classifications. Methods The methodology used involves semi-structured interviews and trips with the informants to rural areas. Locally known ethnospecies are characterized, descriptive traits and salient criteria used in those characterizations are identified, and the frequency of reference of descriptive traits and salient criteria are estimated. Besides, the descriptive traits used for each ethnospecies are compared, and the contribution of the characterizations as a heuristic strategy in the study of folk classification systems is analyzed. Results The use of 19 biological descriptors (grouped according to 4 salient criteria) and of comparisons among ethnospecies was found. Results suggest the existence of group and specific descriptors. Researchers identified which ethnospecies are considered similar, how less important traits contribute to descriptions, the relation between specific descriptors and ethnospecies, the presence of cognitive prototypes, and the most relevant salient properties from the emic perspective. Conclusions The estimated importance of attributes descriptors allowed us to

  3. Attributions about Cause of Illness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hoth, Karin F.; Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Bowler, Russell; Make, Barry; Holm, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Objective Patients’ beliefs about the causes of their illness have been associated with emotional adjustment and behavioral outcomes in several medical conditions; however, few studies have examined illness attributions among patients with COPD. In the current study, patterns of patients’ causal attributions for COPD were identified and examined in relation to health behaviors and symptoms. Method Three-hundred and ninety-four patients with COPD and ≥10 pack year history of smoking completed a self-report questionnaire that included the Illness Perception Questionnaire- Revised (IPQ-R). Results A factor analysis of the IPQ-R cause items using principal axis factoring yielded four individual items (i.e., smoking, heredity, pollution, and personal behavior) and one large factor that was primarily driven by psychological attributions. Ninety-three percent of patients agreed or strongly agreed that smoking was a cause of their COPD. Higher scores on the large IPQ-R factor were associated with reduced quality of life (r=.25, p<.001) and symptoms of anxiety (r=.33, p<.001) and depression (r=.31, p<.001), indicating that patients who attributed their COPD to psychological factors were more likely to have poorer emotional adjustment and quality of life. Conclusions Our finding of one large factor with several stand-alone items is in contrast with previous research that has derived a multi-factor structure for the cause items of the IPQ-R in other chronic illness populations. This difference may be due to the importance of smoking, environmental exposures, and heredity in the development of COPD. Future research should expand upon these specific attributions in COPD‥ PMID:21511077

  4. Descriptive attributes used in the characterization of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in rural populations of the Atlantic forest (Misiones-Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Human beings employ a combination of morphological, sensorial, utilitarian, cultural and ecological characters when they identify and classify organisms. Ethnotaxonomy has provided a store of information about the characters cultures employ when they identify and classify a vast diversity of taxonomic groups. Nevertheless, some more research is needed to provide a comparison of the characters employed in the description of taxons, and an analysis of the extent to which those descriptors are represented. Stingless bees constitute a diverse group of social insects that have been widely studied from an ethnobiological perspective due to their utilitarian and cultural importance. The objective of this study is to identify the elements local people consider when characterizing stingless bees, and how important these elements are in the study of local classifications. Methods The methodology used involves semi-structured interviews and trips with the informants to rural areas. Locally known ethnospecies are characterized, descriptive traits and salient criteria used in those characterizations are identified, and the frequency of reference of descriptive traits and salient criteria are estimated. Besides, the descriptive traits used for each ethnospecies are compared, and the contribution of the characterizations as a heuristic strategy in the study of folk classification systems is analyzed. Results The use of 19 biological descriptors (grouped according to 4 salient criteria) and of comparisons among ethnospecies was found. Results suggest the existence of group and specific descriptors. Researchers identified which ethnospecies are considered similar, how less important traits contribute to descriptions, the relation between specific descriptors and ethnospecies, the presence of cognitive prototypes, and the most relevant salient properties from the emic perspective. Conclusions The estimated importance of attributes descriptors allowed us to

  5. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  6. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  7. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  8. Reciprocal influences between maternal parenting and child adjustment in a high-risk population: a 5-year cross-lagged analysis of bidirectional effects.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-09-01

    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress, and their child's adjustment, in a 2-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive 4 broad parenting constructs (involvement, control, rejection, and stress) and 3 child adjustment constructs (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influences were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, and child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bidirectional influences and their potential for practical applications.

  9. Reciprocal Influences Between Maternal Parenting and Child Adjustment in a High-risk Population: A Five-Year Cross-Lagged Analysis of Bidirectional Effects

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress and their child's adjustment, in a two-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive four broad parenting constructs (Involvement, Control, Rejection, and Stress) and three child adjustment constructs (Internalizing problems, Externalizing problems, and Social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influence were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, while child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bi-directional influences, and their potential for practical applications. PMID:25089759

  10. Assessing psychopathic attributes in a noninstitutionalized population.

    PubMed

    Levenson, M R; Kiehl, K A; Fitzpatrick, C M

    1995-01-01

    The present study examined antisocial dispositions in 487 university students. Primary and secondary psychopathy scales were developed to assess a protopsychopathic interpersonal philosophy. An antisocial action scale also was developed for purposes of validation. The primary, secondary, and antisocial action scales were correlated with each other and with boredom susceptibility and disinhibition but not with experience seeking and thrill and adventure seeking. Secondary psychopathy was associated with trait anxiety. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictors of antisocial action were disinhibition, primary psychopathy, secondary psychopathy, and sex, whereas thrill and adventure seeking was a negative predictor. This argues against a singular behavioral inhibition system mediating both antisocial and risk-taking behavior. These findings are also consistent with the view that psychopathy is a continuous dimension. PMID:7861311

  11. Genetic Parameters of Pre-adjusted Body Weight Growth and Ultrasound Measures of Body Tissue Development in Three Seedstock Pig Breed Populations in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Yun Ho; Mahboob, Alam; Cho, Chung Il; Choi, Jae Gwan; Choi, Im Soo; Choi, Tae Jeong; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Byoung Ho

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of body weight growth adjustment methods on genetic parameters of body growth and tissue among three pig breeds. Data collected on 101,820 Landrace, 281,411 Yorkshire, and 78,068 Duroc pigs, born in Korean swine breeder farms since 2000, were analyzed. Records included body weights on test day and amplitude (A)-mode ultrasound carcass measures of backfat thickness (BF), eye muscle area (EMA), and retail cut percentage (RCP). Days to 90 kg body weight (DAYS90), through an adjustment of the age based on the body weight at the test day, were obtained. Ultrasound measures were also pre-adjusted (ABF, EMA, AEMA, ARCP) based on their test day measures. The (co)variance components were obtained with 3 multi-trait animal models using the REMLF90 software package. Model I included DAYS90 and ultrasound traits, whereas model II and III accounted DAYS90 and pre-adjusted ultrasound traits. Fixed factors were sex (sex) and contemporary groups (herd-year-month of birth) for all traits among the models. Additionally, model I and II considered a linear covariate of final weight on the ultrasound measure traits. Heritability (h2) estimates for DAYS90, BF, EMA, and RCP ranged from 0.36 to 0.42, 0.34 to 0.43, 0.20 to 0.22, and 0.39 to 0.45, respectively, among the models. The h2 estimates of DAYS90 from model II and III were also somewhat similar. The h2 for ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were 0.35 to 0.44, 0.20 to 0.25, and 0.41 to 0.46, respectively. Our heritability estimates varied mostly among the breeds. The genetic correlations (rG) were moderately negative between DAYS90 and BF (−0.29 to −0.38), and between DAYS90 and EMA (−0.16 to −0.26). BF had strong rG with RCP (−0.87 to −0.93). Moderately positive rG existed between DAYS90 and RCP (0.20 to 0.28) and between EMA and RCP (0.35 to 0.44) among the breeds. For DAYS90, model II and III, its correlations with ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were mostly low or negligible except the r

  12. Valuation, Categories and Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic” label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it. PMID:25111831

  13. How We Attribute (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerling, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Challenges in attribution science are discussed. At its simplest, attribution is about saying that one thing results from something else. Compelled by innate desire for clarity and urgency to know what to expect in the future, it is common to draw prompt conclusions about causes for climate events. Such immediacy sometimes leads to simplistic attribution statements, for instance claiming that one thing would not have happened were it not for another thing. Invariably true for any chaotic system, it begs the critical attribution question of how much of the magnitude can be ascribed to a particular factor, and how its likelihood of occurrence was affected. How these and related questions are addressed is what can distinguish scientific methods of attribution from mere testimonials. The essence of attribution science is positing cause-effect relationships, deriving predictions as logical consequences, and performing experiments based on those predictions to determine whether the original conjecture was correct. One particular experimental method used for event attribution, focused on the role of human-induced climate change, is discussed. This involves conducting model experiments to derive climate statistics for a counterfactual Earth system devoid of the cumulative influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols, and comparing those to statistics in model experiments subjected to actual climate forcings. The challenge raised hereby concerns understanding the character of overall change in boundary forcings, especially sea surface temperatures over the world oceans, as a consequence of external radiative forcing. The implications that existing gaps in understanding ocean changes pose for event attribution are addressed. A second topic to be discussed is the relationship between how we attribute and how we define climate events. The current challenge addressed hereby is how society is to be best informed by the results of attribution science.

  14. The attribute measurement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  15. School Achievements, Behavioural Adjustments and Health at Nine Years of Age in a Population of Infants Who Were Born Preterm or Required Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohay, Heather; And Others

    The prevalence of subtle handicapping conditions, such as learning disabilities, behavior problems, and recurrent illness, in a population of 88 high-risk infants was investigated when the children reached 9 years of age. Infants had had birthweights of less than 1500 grams or had required prolonged mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period.…

  16. Does Climate Attribution Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyt, K.; Wall, T.

    2011-12-01

    Evaluating the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions on observed climatic phenomena (attribution) has been a publicly contested and controversial topic as it relates to the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, as well as other international and national climate assessments. Scientists engage in substantial efforts to evaluate and determine the human influence on changes in observed climate patterns, including frequency and intensity of extreme events such as floods, droughts, and storms. As demonstrated by the amount of content dedicated to attribution in these assessments, the scientific community may be inherently assuming that attribution of climatic change to anthropogenic activities is valuable and usable information for decision making. Here, we present an initial evaluation from interviews of the relative importance of attribution to decision making around climate adaptation and mitigation efforts at multiple scales (local, state, regional, national, international).

  17. Visualising detection and attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, A.; Aina, T.; Ingram, W.; Allen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in detection and attribution is communicating results -- specifically, allowing non-specialists to visualise the strength of the evidence for external influences on climate, rather than simply presenting the outcomes of opaque statistical tests. At the heart of the problem is the fact that climate is subject to multiple competing influences, with responses that are often mutually correlated. Attribution is therefore an intrinsically multi-dimensional problem. We demonstrate how the attribution problem can be visualised as an animated, interactive, 3D graphic. Here, we present the attribution of global mean temperature change over the past century to anthropogenic and natural factors (as simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble) as an example. We show how this simple example can be used to address a number of key challenges in the communication of attribution results, including that: 1) Models appear, on average, to over-respond to volcanic forcing while still being consistent with observed anthropogenic change 2) The combination of anthropogenic and natural changes simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble provides an account of changes in global mean temperature over the past 150 years consistent with observations; 3) The much-discussed discrepancy between the CMIP5 ensemble and observed changes over the past decade can be attributed to the models' over-response to volcanoes and that once this is corrected, observed temperatures are consistent with the multi-model mean and expected internal variability over this period 4) There is no evidence for missing multi-decadal variability in global mean temperatures once the responses to external forcing have been accounted for. A key novel element in this presentation of attribution results is a smart-phone application to allow members of the public to download, visualise and interact with attribution results: we will demonstrate this concept and invite feedback from the audience.

  18. Deficits in Social Attribution Ability in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; Klin, Ami; Schultz, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a genetic form of mental retardation, involves a myriad of physical and behavioral problems. Poor social adjustment has been reported, but the origin of this difficulty is unknown. The Social Attribution Task, a measure of one's ability to make appropriate social attributions from an ambiguous visual display [Klin…

  19. MountPointAttributes

    2001-06-16

    MountPointAttributes is a software component that provides client code with a technique to raise the local namespace of a file to a global namespace. Its abstractions and mechanisms allow the client code to gather global properties of a file and to use them in devising an effective storage access strategy on this file.

  20. Primacy Effects in Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Francis T.

    Previous research has suggested the existence of a primacy effect in the attribution of ability. To test if the primacy effect occurs in situations where specific cues about the person and nature of the test materials are lacking or greatly reduced, college students corrected a multiple-choice test in which a phantom stimulus person correctly…

  1. Attribution of Library Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1977-01-01

    Universities conduct a variety of cost-allocation studies that require the collection and analysis of the library cost-data. Cost accounting methods are used in most studies; however, costs are attributed to library user groups in a variety of ways. Cost accounting studies are reviewed and allocation methods are discussed. (Author)

  2. A Different Attribute Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Thomas L.

    1981-01-01

    The Concept Game, which focuses on the attributes of parity, balance, majority, closure, and skip of seven-digit binary numbers, is described. Originally written as a computer program, the game is modified so that pupils can play with construction paper chips of just paper and pencil. (MP)

  3. [Hallucinations attributed to djinns].

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Eker, Hafize; Basalan, Hillal; Aouaj, Youssef; Hoek, Hans Wijbrand

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with an Islamic background who suffer from hallucinations often attribute these to djinns, invisible beings. The treatment of these hallucinations is complicated by the patients' reluctance to discuss them, and by their doubts concerning the usefulness of a biomedical treatment for a problem which they experience as metaphysical in nature. In this clinical lesson, we present case studies of three Moroccan patients who attributed their hallucinations to djinns. The first was a 30-year-old factory worker whose compulsive complaints had started when he saw a white figure in the basement who asked him 'What are you doing here?' The psychiatric diagnosis was obsessive-compulsive disorder. The patient was prescribed cognitive behavioural therapy, an SSRI and a consultation by the imam, but he refused. The second patient was a 25-year-old unemployed man, who had auditory hallucinations, delusions, behavioural problems, and alcohol and cannabis abuse. He heard voices which he attributed to maleficent djinns. He was diagnosed with schizophrenia, but his compliance with antipsychotics was insufficient. The imam who was consulted reassured him that his complaints were not caused by djinns. After prolonged treatment with clozapine and cutting down on cannabis use the patient recovered sufficiently to be discharged. The third patient was a 26-year-old unemployed woman who was hearing voices that her imam thought were caused by a djinn. She was examined because of serious self-mutilation and was diagnosed with a schizoaffective disorder. Treatment with an antipsychotic, lithium and valproic acid and a consultation by a second imam, who found no signs of evidence of djinns, was successful. We recommend to ask individuals with an Islamic background specifically whether djinns might be involved, especially in cases of mental problems and unexplained symptoms, and to seek the cooperation of a qualified imam or traditional healer for treatment purposes.

  4. Multi-Attribute Sequential Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…

  5. Attributional Effects in Interpersonal Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.

    Research has shown that attributing failure to lack of ability leads to lower motivation than does attributing the failure to lack of effort. An attributional model of motivation and performance following failure was tested with college students (N=63), who were preselected on the basis of their attributional styles for interpersonal failures, as…

  6. Districts Adjust to Growth in Older Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The 1,000-student Allegheny Valley district in Pennsylvania boasts generations of alumni and a community so involved with the schools that high school graduation becomes an open celebration in downtown Springdale Borough. Yet the district hasn't asked for a tax increase in three years, and it is pushing out a message to older residents about…

  7. Quality Attribute Techniques Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiam, Yin Kia; Zhu, Liming; Staples, Mark

    The quality of software is achieved during its development. Development teams use various techniques to investigate, evaluate and control potential quality problems in their systems. These “Quality Attribute Techniques” target specific product qualities such as safety or security. This paper proposes a framework to capture important characteristics of these techniques. The framework is intended to support process tailoring, by facilitating the selection of techniques for inclusion into process models that target specific product qualities. We use risk management as a theory to accommodate techniques for many product qualities and lifecycle phases. Safety techniques have motivated the framework, and safety and performance techniques have been used to evaluate the framework. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of quality risk management to cover the development lifecycle and to accommodate two different product qualities. We identify advantages and limitations of the framework, and discuss future research on the framework.

  8. Positive attributes in children and reduced risk of future psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Ribas, Pablo; Goodman, Robert; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Background There is little research on children’s positive attributes and their association with psychiatric outcomes. Aims To examine the hypothesis that children’s positive attributes are associated with a reduced risk of developing psychopathology in future. Method Positive attributes, measured with the Youth Strengths Inventory (YSI) and psychiatric outcomes were assessed on two occasions over 3 years in a large epidemiological sample of British children and adolescents (n = 5325). Results The YSI showed high to moderate cross-informant correlations and longitudinal stability. Children scoring high on positive attributes at baseline had fewer psychiatric symptoms and disorders at follow-up, adjusting for symptoms at baseline, disorder at baseline and child and family factors. Analyses with propensity score matching also suggested that positive attributes decrease the likelihood of psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions Children’s positive attributes are associated with significantly less psychopathology across time and may be a target for intervention. PMID:25359925

  9. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  10. Mortality of American alligators attributed to cannibalism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delany, Michael F.; Woodward, Allan R.; Kiltie, Richard A.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality of juvenile (Alligator mississippiensis) attributed to cannibalism on Orange Lake, Florida was examined. Alligator web tags used in mark–recapture studies were found in 12% of 267 stomachs sampled from alligators ≥168 cm TL. Captive alligators retained 76% of force-fed tags during a 588-d tag-retention trial. Models relating the probability of tag recovery to the annual probabilities of juvenile survival, cannibalism, tag retention, adult survival, and adult harvest suggested that cannibalism may on average remove 6–7% of the juvenile alligator population annually. Vulnerability continued to 140 cm TL (age 6–8 yr). Cannibalism of juveniles may serve to regulate the alligator population on Orange Lake. Alligator cannibalism may vary widely among populations, depending on demography and environmental conditions. The role and importance of cannibalism in alligator population dynamics should be more fully assessed and environmental and population factors that influence cannibalism identified to better evaluate management programs.

  11. Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping: does including data on food consumption matter?

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-11-17

    Source attribution based on microbial subtyping is being performed in many countries to ascertain the main reservoirs of human salmonellosis and to assess the impact of food safety interventions. To account for differences in exposure, the amount of food available for consumption within a country is often included in Salmonella source attribution models along with the level of contamination. However, not all foods have an equal probability of serving as vehicles for salmonellas, as some foods are more likely to be consumed raw/undercooked than others, posing a relatively higher risk. Using Salmonella data from the Netherlands in 2001-2004, this study aims at elucidating whether and how the incorporation of food consumption data in two source attribution models - the (modified) Dutch and Hald models - affects their attributions. We also propose the incorporation of an additional parameter to weight the amount of food consumed by its likelihood to be consumed raw/undercooked by the population. Incorporating the amount of food consumed caused a drastic change in the ranking of the top reservoirs in the Dutch model, but not in the Hald model, which proved to be insensitive to additional weightings given that its source-dependent factor can account for both food consumption and the ability for foods to serve as vehicles for salmonellas. Compared to attributions without food consumption, the Dutch model including the amount of food consumed showed an increase in the percentage of cases attributable to pigs and a decrease in that of layers/eggs, which became the second reservoir, after pigs. This was not consistent with established knowledge indicating that layers/eggs, rather than pigs, were the main reservoir of human salmonellosis in that period. By incorporating the additional weight reflecting the likelihood for different foods to be consumed raw/undercooked, the attributions of the Dutch model were effectively adjusted, both in terms of ranking and percent

  12. Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Ben Horin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The instantaneous seismic data attribute provides a different means of seismic interpretation, for all types of seismic data. It first came to the fore in exploration seismology in the classic paper of Taner et al (1979), entitled " Complex seismic trace analysis". Subsequently a vast literature has been accumulated on the subject, which has been given an excellent review by Barnes (1992). In this research we will compare two different methods of computation of the instantaneous frequency. The first method is based on the original idea of Taner et al (1979) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method is based on the computation of the power centroid of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor Transform as computed by Margrave et al (2011) or the Stockwell Transform as described by Stockwell et al (1996). We will apply both methods to exploration seismic data and the DPRK events recorded in 2006 and 2013. In applying the classical analytic signal technique, which is known to be unstable, due to the division of the square of the envelope, we will incorporate the stabilization and smoothing method proposed in the two paper of Fomel (2007). This method employs linear inverse theory regularization coupled with the application of an appropriate data smoother. The centroid method application is straightforward and is based on the very complete theoretical analysis provided in elegant fashion by Cohen (1995). While the results of the two methods are very similar, noticeable differences are seen at the data edges. This is most likely due to the edge effects of the smoothing operator in the Fomel method, which is more computationally intensive, when an optimal search of the regularization parameter is done. An advantage of the centroid method is the intrinsic smoothing of the data, which is inherent in the sliding window application used in all Short-Time Fourier Transform methods. The Fomel technique

  13. Attributes of God: Conceptual Foundations of a Foundational Belief.

    PubMed

    Shtulman, Andrew; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2016-04-01

    Anthropomorphism, or the attribution of human properties to nonhuman entities, is often posited as an explanation for the origin and nature of God concepts, but it remains unclear which human properties we tend to attribute to God and under what conditions. In three studies, participants decided whether two types of human properties-psychological (mind-dependent) properties and physiological (body-dependent) properties-could or could not be attributed to God. In Study 1 (n = 1,525), participants made significantly more psychological attributions than physiological attributions, and the frequency of those attributions was correlated both with participants' religiosity and with their attribution of abstract, theological properties. In Study 2 (n = 99) and Study 3 (n = 138), participants not only showed the same preference for psychological properties but were also significantly faster, more consistent, and more confident when attributing psychological properties to God than when attributing physiological properties. And when denying properties to God, they showed the reverse pattern-that is, they were slower, less consistent, and less confident when denying psychological properties than when denying physiological properties. These patterns were observed both in a predominantly Christian population (Study 2) and a predominantly Hindu population (Study 3). Overall, we argue that God is conceptualized not as a person in general but as an agent in particular, attributed a mind by default but attributed a body only upon further consideration.

  14. Attributes of God: Conceptual Foundations of a Foundational Belief.

    PubMed

    Shtulman, Andrew; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2016-04-01

    Anthropomorphism, or the attribution of human properties to nonhuman entities, is often posited as an explanation for the origin and nature of God concepts, but it remains unclear which human properties we tend to attribute to God and under what conditions. In three studies, participants decided whether two types of human properties-psychological (mind-dependent) properties and physiological (body-dependent) properties-could or could not be attributed to God. In Study 1 (n = 1,525), participants made significantly more psychological attributions than physiological attributions, and the frequency of those attributions was correlated both with participants' religiosity and with their attribution of abstract, theological properties. In Study 2 (n = 99) and Study 3 (n = 138), participants not only showed the same preference for psychological properties but were also significantly faster, more consistent, and more confident when attributing psychological properties to God than when attributing physiological properties. And when denying properties to God, they showed the reverse pattern-that is, they were slower, less consistent, and less confident when denying psychological properties than when denying physiological properties. These patterns were observed both in a predominantly Christian population (Study 2) and a predominantly Hindu population (Study 3). Overall, we argue that God is conceptualized not as a person in general but as an agent in particular, attributed a mind by default but attributed a body only upon further consideration. PMID:26041124

  15. Anger toward God: social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer.

    PubMed

    Exline, Julie J; Park, Crystal L; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Many people see themselves as being in a relationship with God and see this bond as comforting. Yet, perceived relationships with God also carry the potential for experiencing anger toward God, as shown here in studies with the U.S. population (Study 1), undergraduates (Studies 2 and 3), bereaved individuals (Study 4), and cancer survivors (Study 5). These studies addressed 3 fundamental issues regarding anger toward God: perceptions and attributions that predict anger toward God, its prevalence, and its associations with adjustment. Social-cognitive predictors of anger toward God paralleled predictors of interpersonal anger and included holding God responsible for severe harm, attributions of cruelty, difficulty finding meaning, and seeing oneself as a victim. Anger toward God was frequently reported in response to negative events, although positive feelings predominated. Anger and positive feelings toward God showed moderate negative associations. Religiosity and age correlated negatively with anger toward God. Reports of anger toward God were slightly lower among Protestants and African Americans in comparison with other groups (Study 1). Some atheists and agnostics reported anger involving God, particularly on measures emphasizing past experiences (Study 2) and images of a hypothetical God (Study 3). Anger toward God was associated with poorer adjustment to bereavement (Study 4) and cancer (Study 5), particularly when anger remained unresolved over a 1-year period (Study 5). Taken together, these studies suggest that anger toward God is an important dimension of religious and spiritual experience, one that is measurable, widespread, and related to adjustment across various contexts and populations.

  16. [Mother's attributions regarding children's behavior and maltreatment].

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Namiko

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare maltreating mothers and non-maltreating mothers on attributions and affects related to child behaviors. It also assessed how attributions predict affective and behavioral reactions to child behaviors. The study population comprised of a community-based sample of mothers with children aged 2 to 4 years (n = 238). Mothers' attributions and affect were assessed using vignettes of child behavior. They also answered questions about their maltreating parenting behaviors and demographic factors such as childcare environments. Results highlighted that, as compared with non-maltreating mothers, maltreating mothers made more intentional and stable attributions to negative child behavior, and to report more anger and aversion. They also had a tendency to report less happiness toward positive child behavior. Additionally, path analyses documented a pattern of thinking-feeling-action linkages. It was revealed that attributions regarding children's behavior influenced negative affect and that negative affect in turn predicted maltreatment. Finally, the usefulness of a cognitive approach to maltreating mothers, and the implications of the findings as a model for intervention are discussed. PMID:27180512

  17. College-Student Personal-Growth and Attributions of Cause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, W. P., Jr.; Lopez-Baez, Sandra I.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about levels of personal growth attributed by students to typical college life experiences. This paper documents two studies of student self-reported and posttraumatic growth and compares growth levels across populations. Both studies measure student attributions of cause to academic and non-academic experiences, respectively. It…

  18. Comparative performance analysis of two picture adjustment methods: HSV vs. YCbCr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaee-Rad, Reza; Aleksic, Milivoje

    2012-01-01

    Picture adjustment is referred to those adjustments that affect the four main subjective perceptual image attributes: Hue, Saturation, Brightness (sometimes called Intensity) and Contrast--HSIC adjustments. The common method used for this type of adjustments in a display processing pipe is based on YCbCr color space and a 3x4 color adjustment matrix. Picture adjustments based on this method, however, leads to multiple problems such as adjusting one attribute leads to degradation of other attributes. As an alternative, other color spaces such as HSV can be used to generate more consistent and effective picture adjustments. In this paper, the results of a comparative performance analysis between the two methods based on YCbCr and HSV color spaces (for HSIC adjustments) are presented.

  19. Attributable risk of exposures associated with sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Vittinghoff, E; Padian, N S

    1996-10-01

    Attributable risk combines information on the prevalence of an exposure with a measure of the associated increment in risk, providing an estimate of the proportion of incident or prevalent disease that might be avoided by eliminating the exposure. Thus, attributable risk identifies exposures most productively targeted by public health interventions. Attributable risk can be defined as the ratio of average excess risk to average risk. As with other measures of association between exposure and disease computed from observational data, adjustment must be made for confounding factors. Estimates of attributable risk are highly variable. Nonetheless, attributable risk retains its usefulness as an approximate measure of the public health significance of exposures associated with acquisition of sexually transmitted disease, provided it is estimated and interpreted cautiously. PMID:8843248

  20. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies. PMID:26056058

  1. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  2. 15 CFR 90.16 - Notification of adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.16 Notification of adjustment. In the event that the Director finds that the population or per capita...

  3. 15 CFR 90.16 - Notification of adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.16 Notification of adjustment. In the event that the Director finds that the population or per capita...

  4. 15 CFR 90.16 - Notification of adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.16 Notification of adjustment. In the event that the Director finds that the population or per capita...

  5. 15 CFR 90.16 - Notification of adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.16 Notification of adjustment. In the event that the Director finds that the population or per capita...

  6. Diseases Burden of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Attributable to Ground-Level Ozone in Thailand: Estimates Based on Surface Monitoring Measurements Data

    PubMed Central

    Pinichka, Chayut; Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ambient ozone (O3) pollution has increased globally since preindustrial times. At present, O3 is one of the major air pollution concerns in Thailand, and is associated with health impacts such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of our study is to estimate the burden of disease attributed to O3 in 2009 in Thailand based on empirical evidence. Methods: We estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to O3 using the comparative risk assessment framework in the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) study. We quantified the population attributable fraction (PAF), integrated from Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based spatial interpolation, the population distribution of exposure, and the exposure-response coefficient to spatially characterize exposure to ambient O3 pollution on a national scale. Exposure distribution was derived from GIS-based spatial interpolation O3 exposure model using Pollution Control Department Thailand (PCD) surface air pollution monitor network sources. Relative risk (RR) and population attributable fraction (PAF) were determined using health impact function estimates for O3. Result: PAF (%) of COPD attributable to O3 were determined by region: at approximately, Northern = 2.1, Northeastern = 7.1, Central = 9.6, Eastern = 1.75, Western = 1.47 and Southern = 1.74. The total COPD burden attributable to O3 for Thailand in 2009 was 61,577 DALYs. Approximately 0.6% of the total DALYs in Thailand is male: 48,480 DALYs; and female: 13,097 DALYs. Conclusion: This study provides the first empirical evidence on the health burden (DALYs) attributable to O3 pollution in Thailand. Varying across regions, the disease burden attributable to O3 was 0.6% of the total national burden in 2009. Better empirical data on local specific sites, e.g. urban and rural areas, alternative exposure assessment, e.g. land use regression (LUR), and a local concentration-response coefficient are required for future studies

  7. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  8. Smoking-attributable mortality in cuba.

    PubMed

    Varona, Patricia; Herrera, Delia; García, René Guillermo; Bonet, Mariano; Romero, Teresa; Venero, Silvia Josefina

    2009-07-01

    Introduction Smoking is the main preventable cause of death worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that smoking causes 5 million deaths annually, a figure that could double shortly if the present trend in tobacco product consumption continues. Objectives Estimate smoking-attributable mortality in the Cuban population and provide information needed to carry out effective public health actions. Methods This is a descriptive study using smoking prevalence and mortality data in Cuba for 1995 and 2007. Causes of death were grouped in three categories: malignant tumors, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases. Etiological fractions and attributable mortality were calculated by cause and sex. Results Of deaths recorded in 1995 and 2007, 15% and 18% of preventable deaths were attributed to smoking, respectively. In Cuba in 2007, smoking caused 86% of deaths from lung cancer, 78% of deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 28% of deaths from ischemic heart disease, and 26% of deaths from cerebrovascular disease. Conclusions Smoking is responsible for high rates of preventable mortality in Cuba. There is willingness on the part of administrative and political authorities to discourage smoking, and more than half of smokers in Cuba wish to quit smoking. Given awareness that reducing smoking is the most effective means of decreasing preventable morbidity and mortality, the country is moving steadily toward concrete, sustainable steps leading to increased life expectancy and quality of life for the Cuban population. PMID:21483306

  9. Incidence, prevalence, and hybrid approaches to calculating disability-adjusted life years

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    When disability-adjusted life years are used to measure the burden of disease on a population in a time interval, they can be calculated in several different ways: from an incidence, pure prevalence, or hybrid perspective. I show that these calculation methods are not equivalent and discuss some of the formal difficulties each method faces. I show that if we don’t discount the value of future health, there is a sense in which the choice of calculation method is a mere question of accounting. Such questions can be important, but they don’t raise deep theoretical concerns. If we do discount, however, choice of calculation method can change the relative burden attributed to different conditions over time. I conclude by recommending that studies involving disability-adjusted life years be explicit in noting what calculation method is being employed and in explaining why that calculation method has been chosen. PMID:22967055

  10. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  11. Income inequality and alcohol attributable harm in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dietze, Paul M; Jolley, Damien J; Chikritzhs, Tanya N; Clemens, Susan; Catalano, Paul; Stockwell, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Background There is little research on the relationship between key socioeconomic variables and alcohol related harms in Australia. The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between income inequality and the rates of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death at a local-area level in Australia. Method We conducted a cross sectional ecological analysis at a Local Government Area (LGA) level of associations between data on alcohol caused harms and income inequality data after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. The main outcome measures used were matched rate ratios for four measures of alcohol caused harm; acute (primarily related to the short term consequences of drinking) and chronic (primarily related to the long term consequences of drinking) alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and acute and chronic alcohol-attributable death. Matching was undertaken using control conditions (non-alcohol-attributable) at an LGA level. Results A total of 885 alcohol-attributable deaths and 19467 alcohol-attributable hospitalisations across all LGAs were available for analysis. After weighting by the total number of cases in each LGA, the matched rate ratios of acute and chronic alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and chronic alcohol-attributable death were associated with the squared centred Gini coefficients of LGAs. This relationship was evident after adjusting for socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of LGAs. For both measures of hospitalisation the relationship was curvilinear; increases in income inequality were initially associated with declining rates of hospitalisation followed by large increases as the Gini coefficient increased beyond 0.15. The pattern for chronic alcohol-attributable death was similar, but without the initial decrease. There was no association between income inequality and acute alcohol-attributable death, probably due to the relatively small number of these types of death. Conclusion We found a

  12. Global mortality attributable to aircraft cruise emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Steven R H; Britter, Rex E; Waitz, Ian A

    2010-10-01

    Aircraft emissions impact human health though degradation of air quality. The majority of previous analyses of air quality impacts from aviation have considered only landing and takeoff emissions. We show that aircraft cruise emissions impact human health over a hemispheric scale and provide the first estimate of premature mortalities attributable to aircraft emissions globally. We estimate ∼8000 premature mortalities per year are attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. This represents ∼80% of the total impact of aviation (where the total includes the effects of landing and takeoff emissions), and ∼1% of air quality-related premature mortalities from all sources. However, we note that the impact of landing and takeoff emissions is likely to be under-resolved. Secondary H(2)SO(4)-HNO(3)-NH(3) aerosols are found to dominate mortality impacts. Due to the altitude and region of the atmosphere at which aircraft emissions are deposited, the extent of transboundary air pollution is particularly strong. For example, we describe how strong zonal westerly winds aloft, the mean meridional circulation around 30-60°N, interaction of aircraft-attributable aerosol precursors with background ammonia, and high population densities in combination give rise to an estimated ∼3500 premature mortalities per year in China and India combined, despite their relatively small current share of aircraft emissions. Subsidence of aviation-attributable aerosol and aerosol precursors occurs predominantly around the dry subtropical ridge, which results in reduced wet removal of aviation-attributable aerosol. It is also found that aircraft NO(x) emissions serve to increase oxidation of nonaviation SO(2), thereby further increasing the air quality impacts of aviation. We recommend that cruise emissions be explicitly considered in the development of policies, technologies and operational procedures designed to mitigate the air quality impacts of air transportation.

  13. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  14. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  15. 44 CFR 206.47 - Cost-share adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... effective for disasters declared on or after May 21, 1999, $75 per capita of State population; (2) Effective... population; (3) Effective for disasters declared after January 1, 2001, $100 per capita of State population... of State population, adjusted annually for inflation using the Consumer Price Index for All...

  16. 44 CFR 206.47 - Cost-share adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... effective for disasters declared on or after May 21, 1999, $75 per capita of State population; (2) Effective... population; (3) Effective for disasters declared after January 1, 2001, $100 per capita of State population... of State population, adjusted annually for inflation using the Consumer Price Index for All...

  17. Reconceptualizing balance: attributes associated with balance performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Julia C; Odonkor, Charles; Griffith, Laura; Holt, Nicole; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Leveille, Suzanne; Ni, Pensheng; Latham, Nancy K; Jette, Alan M; Bean, Jonathan F

    2014-09-01

    Balance tests are commonly used to screen for impairments that put older adults at risk for falls. The purpose of this study was to determine the attributes that were associated with balance performance as measured by the Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study, the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE). Boston RISE was performed in an outpatient rehabilitation research center and evaluated Boston area primary care patients aged 65 to 96 (N=364) with self-reported difficulty or task-modification climbing a flight of stairs or walking 1/2 of a mile. The outcome measure was standing balance as measured by the FICSIT-4 balance assessment. Other measures included: self-efficacy, pain, depression, executive function, vision, sensory loss, reaction time, kyphosis, leg range of motion, trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength and leg velocity at peak power. Participants were 67% female, had an average age of 76.5 (±7.0) years, an average of 4.1 (±2.0) chronic conditions, and an average FICSIT-4 score of 6.7 (±2.2) out of 9. After adjusting for age and gender, attributes significantly associated with balance performance were falls self-efficacy, trunk extensor muscle endurance, sensory loss, and leg velocity at peak power. FICSIT-4 balance performance is associated with a number of behavioral and physiologic attributes, many of which are amenable to rehabilitative treatment. Our findings support a consideration of balance as multidimensional activity as proposed by the current International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model. PMID:24952097

  18. Reliability Models and Attributable Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvinen, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    The intention of this report is to bring a developing and extremely useful statistical methodology to greater attention within the Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance Office of the NASA Johnson Space Center. The statistical methods in this exposition are found under the heading of attributable risk. Recently the Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance Office at the Johnson Space Center has supported efforts to introduce methods of medical research statistics dealing with the survivability of people to bear on the problems of aerospace that deal with the reliability of component hardware used in the NASA space program. This report, which describes several study designs for which attributable risk is used, is in concert with the latter goals. The report identifies areas of active research in attributable risk while briefly describing much of what has been developed in the theory of attributable risk. The report, which largely is a report on a report, attempts to recast the medical setting and language commonly found in descriptions of attributable risk into the setting and language of the space program and its component hardware.

  19. Attribution of blame in incest.

    PubMed

    Jackson, T L; Ferguson, W P

    1983-06-01

    This study was designed to identify the empirical structure of attitudes relating to attribution of blame in incest. A second purpose was to determine how variables such as gender, physically abused status, and sexually abused status influence the attribution of blame in incest. A sample of 201 male and 211 female college students was administered the Jackson Incest Blame Scale. Four factors emerged from the factor analysis of the total sample supporting the hypothesis that attribution of blame in incest is a multidimensional construct including victim, offender, situational, and societal factors. A difference in the level of victim blame was found between male and female samples. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for further research and training. Other potential uses of the Jackson Incest Blame Scale are suggested.

  20. Cigarette use and the estimation of lung cancer attributable to radon in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, J.H.; Steindorf, K. |

    1995-01-01

    Residential exposure to radioactive radon and its decay products has been estimated to account for 10-12% of all lung cancer deaths in the US. It has been difficult to evaluate fully the impact of cigarette smoking, the most important cause of lung cancer, on this estimate, because factors for patterns of tobacco use have not been included in the risk models, since risk models are derived from studies of underground miners exposed to radon and detailed data on smoking are limited. Lung cancer risk estimates for exposure to radon progeny in smoker and non-smoker populations are obtained by applying the same risk model to each population group, thereby assuming the joint effects of smoking and exposure to radon progeny are multiplicative. However, in miners, joint relative risks (RR) for the two exposures are most consistent with an intermediate relationship between multiplicative and additive, so that the present approach likely results in an overestimate of risk in smokers and an underestimate of risk in nonsmokers. One approach for adjusting risk models to incorporate smoking status is based on the relative magnitude of the effects of radon progeny in smokers and nonsmokers and therefore may not be applicable to non-miner populations if the proportion of smokers and the RR for smoking differ. We show that the modification can be derived explicitly by assuming an arithmetic mixture model for the joint RR for smoking and exposure to radon progeny. In this way, smoking parameters in the population of interest (the proportion of smokers and the RR of smoking) can be used directly to adjust radon progeny risk models and obtain risk estimates that are specific for smokers and nonsmokers. With an intermediate RR relationship for smoking and radon progeny, the attributable percentage of lung cancer deaths from residential radon may be twofold greater in nonsmokers than in smokers. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Simple, Internally Adjustable Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Valve containing simple in-line, adjustable, flow-control orifice made from ordinary plumbing fitting and two allen setscrews. Construction of valve requires only simple drilling, tapping, and grinding. Orifice installed in existing fitting, avoiding changes in rest of plumbing.

  2. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  3. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  4. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  5. Hyperspectral characterization of the adjustable nano-coating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzina, Marina V. A.; Farrell, J. Paul; Aktsipetrov, Oleg A.; Murzina, Tatyana V.

    2005-05-01

    Nano-coatings with adjustable optical features is one of the revolutionary technologies of today. In this work, we investigate how hyperspectral imaging can detect adjustable nano-surfaces used, for example, for active camouflage. The distinct attributes of the nano-coating spectra are discussed. Fast algorithms of utilizing hyperspectral information for recognizing these attributes are suggested. The research applies to both recognizing the camouflaged objects and to building unrecognizable camouflage technology. In the context of tracking active camouflage, the identification of characteristic spectral attributes is especially important. Active spectra can constantly change, therefore confusing traditional hyperspectral classification. In contrast, the identified general spectral attributes stay the same allowing for robust identification and reliable tracking of the camouflaged objects.

  6. Attribution Theory, Learned Helplessness and Achievement: Implications for the Exceptional Hispanic Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Cheryl Yelich; Sanchez, Julita Elemi Hernandez

    The annotated bibliography examines research regarding achievement attribution and the limited English proficient (LEP) handicapped child. The first major topic area addressed is the application of attribution theory to special populations. Research describing attribution patterns of handicapped children and comparing the patterns to those of…

  7. Population attributes of lake trout in Tennessee reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Drew; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2013-01-01

    We sampled stocked Salvelinus namaycush (Lake Trout) in Watauga Lake and South Holston Lake, TN using experimental gill nets in 2009-2010 to describe their growth, longevity, and condition. Annuli in sagittal otoliths formed once a year in early spring in both reservoirs. South Holston Lake (n = 99 Lake Trout) has been stocked since 2006, and the oldest fish was age 4. Watauga Lake has been stocked since the mid-1980s, and we collected 158 Lake Trout up to age 20. Annual mortality for age-3 and older fish in Watauga Lake was 24%. When compared to Lake Trout in northern lakes, Tennessee Lake Trout exhibited average to above-average growth and longevity. Condition of Lake Trout in both reservoirs varied seasonally and tended to be lowest in fall, but rebounded in winter and spring. Lake Trout in both reservoirs appeared to be spatially segregated from pelagic prey fishes during summer stratification, but growth rates and body condition were high enough to suggest that neither system was being overstocked.

  8. Mathematicians, Attributional Complexity, and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.

  9. Deaths and Medical Visits Attributable to Environmental Pollution in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline; Thomsen, Jens; Launay, Frederic; Harder, Elizabeth; DeFelice, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Background This study estimates the potential health gains achievable in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with improved controls on environmental pollution. The UAE is an emerging economy in which population health risks have shifted rapidly from infectious diseases to chronic conditions observed in developed nations. The UAE government commissioned this work as part of an environmental health strategic planning project intended to address this shift in the nature of the country’s disease burden. Methods and Findings We assessed the burden of disease attributable to six environmental exposure routes outdoor air, indoor air, drinking water, coastal water, occupational environments, and climate change. For every exposure route, we integrated UAE environmental monitoring and public health data in a spatially resolved Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate the annual disease burden attributable to selected pollutants. The assessment included the entire UAE population (4.5 million for the year of analysis). The study found that outdoor air pollution was the leading contributor to mortality, with 651 attributable deaths (95% confidence interval [CI] 143–1,440), or 7.3% of all deaths. Indoor air pollution and occupational exposures were the second and third leading contributors to mortality, with 153 (95% CI 85–216) and 46 attributable deaths (95% CI 26–72), respectively. The leading contributor to health-care facility visits was drinking water pollution, to which 46,600 (95% CI 15,300–61,400) health-care facility visits were attributed (about 15% of the visits for all the diseases considered in this study). Major study limitations included (1) a lack of information needed to translate health-care facility visits to quality-adjusted-life-year estimates and (2) insufficient spatial coverage of environmental data. Conclusions Based on international comparisons, the UAE’s environmental disease burden is low for all factors except outdoor air pollution. From a

  10. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  11. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-14

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  12. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1980-01-15

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  13. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-07

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  14. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  15. A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression.

    PubMed

    Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs.

  16. 45 CFR 153.330 - State alternate risk adjustment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH CARE ACCESS STANDARDS RELATED TO REINSURANCE, RISK CORRIDORS, AND RISK ADJUSTMENT UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT State Standards Related to the Risk Adjustment Program § 153.330 State alternate risk... methodology: (i) Accurately explains the variation in health care costs of a given population; (ii) Links...

  17. 45 CFR 153.330 - State alternate risk adjustment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH CARE ACCESS STANDARDS RELATED TO REINSURANCE, RISK CORRIDORS, AND RISK ADJUSTMENT UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT State Standards Related to the Risk Adjustment Program § 153.330 State alternate risk... methodology: (i) Accurately explains the variation in health care costs of a given population; (ii) Links...

  18. Alcohol-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost--11 States, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Katherine; Roeber, Jim; Kanny, Dafna; Tran, Annie; Saiki, Cathy; Johnson, Hal; Yeoman, Kristin; Safranek, Tom; Creppage, Kathleen; Lepp, Alicia; Miller, Tracy; Tarkhashvili, Nato; Lynch, Kristine E; Watson, Joanna R; Henderson, Danielle; Christenson, Megan; Geiger, Sarah Dee

    2014-03-14

    Excessive alcohol consumption, the fourth leading preventable cause of death in the United States, resulted in approximately 88,000 deaths and 2.5 million years of potential life lost (YPLL) annually during 2006-2010 and cost an estimated $223.5 billion in 2006. To estimate state-specific average annual rates of alcohol-attributable deaths (AAD) and YPLL caused by excessive alcohol use, 11 states analyzed 2006-2010 data (the most recent data available) using the CDC Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) application. The age-adjusted median AAD rate was 28.5 per 100,000 population (range = 50.9 per 100,000 in New Mexico to 22.4 per 100,000 in Utah). The median YPLL rate was 823 per 100,000 (range = 1,534 YPLL per 100,000 for New Mexico to 634 per 100,000 in Utah). The majority of AAD (median = 70%) and YPLL (median = 82%) were among working-age (20-64 years) adults. Routine monitoring of alcohol-attributable health outcomes, including deaths and YPLL, in states could support the planning and implementation of evidence-based prevention strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force to reduce excessive drinking and related harms. Such strategies include increasing the price of alcohol, limiting alcohol outlet density, and holding alcohol retailers liable for harms related to the sale of alcoholic beverages to minors and intoxicated patrons (dram shop liability). PMID:24622285

  19. Motive attribution asymmetry for love vs. hate drives intractable conflict.

    PubMed

    Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane L; Ginges, Jeremy

    2014-11-01

    Five studies across cultures involving 661 American Democrats and Republicans, 995 Israelis, and 1,266 Palestinians provide previously unidentified evidence of a fundamental bias, what we term the "motive attribution asymmetry," driving seemingly intractable human conflict. These studies show that in political and ethnoreligious intergroup conflict, adversaries tend to attribute their own group's aggression to ingroup love more than outgroup hate and to attribute their outgroup's aggression to outgroup hate more than ingroup love. Study 1 demonstrates that American Democrats and Republicans attribute their own party's involvement in conflict to ingroup love more than outgroup hate but attribute the opposing party's involvement to outgroup hate more than ingroup love. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate this biased attributional pattern for Israelis and Palestinians evaluating their own group and the opposing group's involvement in the current regional conflict. Study 4 demonstrates in an Israeli population that this bias increases beliefs and intentions associated with conflict intractability toward Palestinians. Finally, study 5 demonstrates, in the context of American political conflict, that offering Democrats and Republicans financial incentives for accuracy in evaluating the opposing party can mitigate this bias and its consequences. Although people find it difficult to explain their adversaries' actions in terms of love and affiliation, we suggest that recognizing this attributional bias and how to reduce it can contribute to reducing human conflict on a global scale.

  20. Motive attribution asymmetry for love vs. hate drives intractable conflict

    PubMed Central

    Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane L.; Ginges, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Five studies across cultures involving 661 American Democrats and Republicans, 995 Israelis, and 1,266 Palestinians provide previously unidentified evidence of a fundamental bias, what we term the “motive attribution asymmetry,” driving seemingly intractable human conflict. These studies show that in political and ethnoreligious intergroup conflict, adversaries tend to attribute their own group’s aggression to ingroup love more than outgroup hate and to attribute their outgroup’s aggression to outgroup hate more than ingroup love. Study 1 demonstrates that American Democrats and Republicans attribute their own party’s involvement in conflict to ingroup love more than outgroup hate but attribute the opposing party’s involvement to outgroup hate more than ingroup love. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate this biased attributional pattern for Israelis and Palestinians evaluating their own group and the opposing group’s involvement in the current regional conflict. Study 4 demonstrates in an Israeli population that this bias increases beliefs and intentions associated with conflict intractability toward Palestinians. Finally, study 5 demonstrates, in the context of American political conflict, that offering Democrats and Republicans financial incentives for accuracy in evaluating the opposing party can mitigate this bias and its consequences. Although people find it difficult to explain their adversaries’ actions in terms of love and affiliation, we suggest that recognizing this attributional bias and how to reduce it can contribute to reducing human conflict on a global scale. PMID:25331879

  1. Factorial Validity of the Mathematics Attribution Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choroszy, Melisa; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Mathematics Attribution Scale (MAS) (Algebra) was designed to assess attributions of success and failure in algebra to ability, effort, task, and environment. This study examined the MAS (Algebra) for a separate dimension of attributes for success and a dimension of attributes for failure. The two hypothesized dimensions did not emerge.…

  2. Attributes of Images in Describing Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Corinne

    1998-01-01

    Report on exploratory research which investigated image attributes in a series of describing tasks. Results suggest that access to a wide range of attributes is needed to address all facets of interest and that certain classes of attributes may appear more frequently (literal objects, human form and associated attributes, color, and location).…

  3. Learned Helplessness and Attribution Theory: Redefining Children's Learning Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Lynn

    1981-01-01

    The article explores attribution theory and the concept of learned helplessness in teaching learning disabled individuals. Suggestions are given for areas of future research with learning disabled populations. The discussion includes current teaching techniques which may be related to the self regulatory behaviors and perception of personal…

  4. University Students' Attributions towards Academic Success or Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chireshe, R.; Shumba, A.; Mudhovozi, P.; Denhere, C.

    2009-01-01

    The study explored university students' perceptions of attributions to success or failure. A random cross-sectional survey design was employed. Seventy-two students (male = 44, female = 28) were randomly selected from the student population of a state university of age ranges 20 to 49 years. The data, collected using a self-administered…

  5. Postdetonation nuclear debris for attribution.

    PubMed

    Fahey, A J; Zeissler, C J; Newbury, D E; Davis, J; Lindstrom, R M

    2010-11-23

    On the morning of July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico on the White Sands Proving Ground. The device was a plutonium implosion device similar to the device that destroyed Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9 of that same year. Recently, with the enactment of US public law 111-140, the "Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act," scientists in the government and academia have been able, in earnest, to consider what type of forensic-style information may be obtained after a nuclear detonation. To conduct a robust attribution process for an exploded device placed by a nonstate actor, forensic analysis must yield information about not only the nuclear material in the device but about other materials that went into its construction. We have performed an investigation of glassed ground debris from the first nuclear test showing correlations among multiple analytical techniques. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence, obtainable only through microanalysis, that secondary materials used in the device can be identified and positively associated with the nuclear material.

  6. Postdetonation nuclear debris for attribution

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, A. J.; Zeissler, C. J.; Newbury, D. E.; Davis, J.; Lindstrom, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    On the morning of July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico on the White Sands Proving Ground. The device was a plutonium implosion device similar to the device that destroyed Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9 of that same year. Recently, with the enactment of US public law 111-140, the “Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act,” scientists in the government and academia have been able, in earnest, to consider what type of forensic-style information may be obtained after a nuclear detonation. To conduct a robust attribution process for an exploded device placed by a nonstate actor, forensic analysis must yield information about not only the nuclear material in the device but about other materials that went into its construction. We have performed an investigation of glassed ground debris from the first nuclear test showing correlations among multiple analytical techniques. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence, obtainable only through microanalysis, that secondary materials used in the device can be identified and positively associated with the nuclear material. PMID:21059943

  7. Postdetonation nuclear debris for attribution.

    PubMed

    Fahey, A J; Zeissler, C J; Newbury, D E; Davis, J; Lindstrom, R M

    2010-11-23

    On the morning of July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico on the White Sands Proving Ground. The device was a plutonium implosion device similar to the device that destroyed Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9 of that same year. Recently, with the enactment of US public law 111-140, the "Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act," scientists in the government and academia have been able, in earnest, to consider what type of forensic-style information may be obtained after a nuclear detonation. To conduct a robust attribution process for an exploded device placed by a nonstate actor, forensic analysis must yield information about not only the nuclear material in the device but about other materials that went into its construction. We have performed an investigation of glassed ground debris from the first nuclear test showing correlations among multiple analytical techniques. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence, obtainable only through microanalysis, that secondary materials used in the device can be identified and positively associated with the nuclear material. PMID:21059943

  8. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  9. Urinary arsenic concentration adjustment factors and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Nermell, Barbro; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Berglund, Marika; Persson, Lars Ake; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2008-02-01

    This study aims at evaluating the suitability of adjusting urinary concentrations of arsenic, or any other urinary biomarker, for variations in urine dilution by creatinine and specific gravity in a malnourished population. We measured the concentrations of metabolites of inorganic arsenic, creatinine and specific gravity in spot urine samples collected from 1466 individuals, 5-88 years of age, in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, where arsenic-contaminated drinking water and malnutrition are prevalent (about 30% of the adults had body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 kg/m(2)). The urinary concentrations of creatinine were low; on average 0.55 g/L in the adolescents and adults and about 0.35 g/L in the 5-12 years old children. Therefore, adjustment by creatinine gave much higher numerical values for the urinary arsenic concentrations than did the corresponding data expressed as microg/L, adjusted by specific gravity. As evaluated by multiple regression analyses, urinary creatinine, adjusted by specific gravity, was more affected by body size, age, gender and season than was specific gravity. Furthermore, urinary creatinine was found to be significantly associated with urinary arsenic, which further disqualifies the creatinine adjustment. PMID:17900556

  10. Childhood celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment: the young performers study.

    PubMed

    Rapport, L J; Meleen, M

    1998-06-01

    The associations between celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment were examined among 74 famous, former young performers in television and film. As adults, former young performers whose parents served as their professional managers viewed their mothers as less caring and more overcontrolling than did performers whose parents were not their managers. Other factors affecting the quality of the parent-child relationship included dissatisfaction with money management, poor peer support, the perception that involvement in acting was determined by others, and the specific nature of professional experience. Together, these variables accounted for 59% of the variance in perceived caring and 40% of the variance in perceived autonomy support. The relation could not be attributed to a generalized response bias, as attachment was unrelated to degree of positive thinking. A Celebrity x Parental Attachment interaction indicated that the quality of the parent-child relationship moderated the effects of celebrity on adult adjustment: Among participants with good parental attachment, there was no relation between professional experience and adjustment; however, among participants with poor attachment, this relation was strong. Possible implications for parenting child actors and analogous populations of talented children in high-stress arenas are discussed.

  11. Estimation of the Disease Burden Attributable to 11 Risk Factors in Hubei Province, China: A Comparative Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fangfang; Zhang, Lan; Yu, Chuanhua; Hu, Songbo; Zhang, Yunquan

    2016-01-01

    In order to estimate the health losses caused by common risk factors in the Hubei province, China, we calculated the deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to 11 risk factors. We estimated the exposure distributions of risk factors in Hubei Province in 2013 from the monitoring system on chronic disease and related risk factors, combined with relative risk (RR) in order to calculate the population attributable fraction. Deaths and DALYs attributed to the selected risk factors were then estimated together with cause-specific deaths and DALYs. In total, 53.39% of the total deaths and 36.23% of the total DALYs in Hubei were a result of the 11 selected risk factors. The top five risk factors were high blood pressure, smoking, high body mass index, diet low in fruits and alcohol use, accounting for 14.68%, 12.57%, 6.03%, 3.90% and 3.19% of total deaths, respectively, and 9.41%, 7.22%, 4.42%, 2.51% and 2.44% of total DALYs, respectively. These risk factors, especially high blood pressure, smoking and high body mass index, significantly influenced quality of life, causing a large number of deaths and DALYs. The burden of chronic disease could be substantially reduced if these risk factors were effectively controlled, which would allow people to enjoy healthier lives. PMID:27669279

  12. Estimation of the Disease Burden Attributable to 11 Risk Factors in Hubei Province, China: A Comparative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Fangfang; Zhang, Lan; Yu, Chuanhua; Hu, Songbo; Zhang, Yunquan

    2016-01-01

    In order to estimate the health losses caused by common risk factors in the Hubei province, China, we calculated the deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to 11 risk factors. We estimated the exposure distributions of risk factors in Hubei Province in 2013 from the monitoring system on chronic disease and related risk factors, combined with relative risk (RR) in order to calculate the population attributable fraction. Deaths and DALYs attributed to the selected risk factors were then estimated together with cause-specific deaths and DALYs. In total, 53.39% of the total deaths and 36.23% of the total DALYs in Hubei were a result of the 11 selected risk factors. The top five risk factors were high blood pressure, smoking, high body mass index, diet low in fruits and alcohol use, accounting for 14.68%, 12.57%, 6.03%, 3.90% and 3.19% of total deaths, respectively, and 9.41%, 7.22%, 4.42%, 2.51% and 2.44% of total DALYs, respectively. These risk factors, especially high blood pressure, smoking and high body mass index, significantly influenced quality of life, causing a large number of deaths and DALYs. The burden of chronic disease could be substantially reduced if these risk factors were effectively controlled, which would allow people to enjoy healthier lives. PMID:27669279

  13. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  14. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  15. Imagining Your Child's Mind: Psychosocial Adjustment and Mothers' Ability to Predict Their Children's Attributional Response Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Carla; Fonagy, Peter; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2006-01-01

    One class of parent-child interaction that has recently received attention is a mother's engagement with her child at a mental level. The current study operationalizes this notion by asking the mothers of 354 7- to 11-year-old children drawn from a larger community sample (N=659) to guess the responses of their children, who, in turn, were asked…

  16. 26 CFR 1.1503(d)-5 - Attribution of items and basis adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (iii) Gain or loss on the direct or indirect disposition of a separate unit or an interest in a... entity (as determined in paragraph (f) of this section). See § 1.1503(d)-7(c) Example 27. (B) Multiple... loss generated or incurred during the period the dual resident corporation qualified as such shall...

  17. 48 CFR 1352.271-85 - Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-85 Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.116... to lessen the disruptive effect of the change. (6) The delay in delivery attributable solely to...

  18. 48 CFR 1352.271-85 - Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-85 Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.116... to lessen the disruptive effect of the change. (6) The delay in delivery attributable solely to...

  19. 48 CFR 1352.271-85 - Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-85 Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.116... to lessen the disruptive effect of the change. (6) The delay in delivery attributable solely to...

  20. Attributions of athletes on collegiate sports teams.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Darhl M; Manning, Craig L

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated the patterns of attributions for success made by intercollegiate athletes in three categories: more versus less successful teams, men versus women athletes, and individual versus group sport participants. 74 men and 83 women on 17 varsity teams across a number of sports took the Sports Attribution Style Scale, measuring internal, stable, controllable, intentional, and global attributions. It was hypothesized that (a) the athletes on more successful teams would have higher internal, stable, controllable, and intentional attributions, (b) that athletes in individual sports would have lower internal, stable, and controllable attributions, and (c) that women would score higher on all five attributions. Profile analyses of the attributions led to the confirmation of the first hypothesis. For the second hypothesis, the pattern of sport attributions did not differ for individual and team athletes. The third hypothesis was not confirmed. Women athletes scored higher on the attributional dimensions (except globality).

  1. Role loss and emotional adjustment in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Harris, Samantha; Morley, Stephen; Barton, Stephen B

    2003-09-01

    Chronic pain interrupts behaviour, interferes with functioning, and may affect a person's identity: their sense of self. We tested whether loss of role and personal attributes and current and past self-concept differentiation, predicted adjustment as indexed by measures of depression. Chronic pain patients (n=80) completed measures of pain (MPQ), disability (PDI), depression and anxiety (BDI, HADS). Measures of role and attribute loss and self-concept differentiation were derived from a Role-Attribute Test in which participants identified four social roles in four domains (friendship, occupation, leisure, family) and nominated two personal attributes in each role prior to pain onset and current. Participants reported mean losses of 3.38 roles, and 6.97 attributes. Greater losses were observed in friendship, occupation and leisure domains compared with the family domain. Multiple regression analyses revealed that after controlling for demographic and clinical differences, role and attribute loss predicted depression scores. There was no evidence that depression was associated with past self-concept differentiation. The results are discussed with reference to the methodology used and the relevance of self-identity to understand adjustment to chronic pain. PMID:14499455

  2. Condom social marketing, Pentecostalism, and structural adjustment in Mozambique: a clash of AIDS prevention messages.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, James

    2004-03-01

    Despite significant debate about the efficacy, ideology, and ethics of the method, condom social marketing (CSM) has become the dominant approach to AIDS education in many sub-Saharan African countries. However, critics have charged that social marketing (SM) distracts from the structural determinants of health-related behavior and excludes genuine community participation. This article argues that the diffusion of SM techniques in Africa is not driven by demonstrated efficacy but is attributable to the promotion of privatization and free markets in the structural adjustment era across the region. The CSM experience in a central Mozambican community reveals the dangers of using the method at the expense of community dialogue and participation to confront the AIDS epidemic. The advertising campaign developed to sell condoms has clashed with Pentecostal and Independent Churches, now a majority of the population, that have expanded rapidly across the region spreading a contrasting message about sexuality and risky behavior. PMID:15098428

  3. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  4. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  5. Attributions and Relapse in Opiate Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Brendan P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated whether attributions of opiate addicts would predict abstinence and reactions to abstinence violations. Found that addicts who at admission attributed to themselves greater responsibility for negative outcomes and who attributed relapse episodes to more personally controllable factors were subsequently more likely either to be…

  6. Sex Differences in Attribution for Occupational Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reno, Rochelle

    1981-01-01

    Tested and extended Deaux's expectancy model of sex-linked differences in attribution for success. Finding's indicated that female occupational subjects, relative to males, tended to attribute success more to unstable causes of effort and luck. Male subjects attributed success more to the stable causes of ability and task ease. (Author/RC)

  7. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in infants with CP.

    PubMed

    Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, I B; Stremmelaar, E F; Touwen, B C

    1999-11-01

    The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment consisted of a simultaneous recording of video data and surface EMGs of arm, neck, trunk, and leg muscles during reaching in various lying and sitting positions. The basic organization of postural adjustments of the children developing spastic CP was intact. Their main problem was a deficient capacity to modulate the postural adjustments to task-specific constraints - a deficit which was attributed to a combination of an impaired motor coordination and deficits in sensory integration. The child with spastic-dyskinetic CP showed distinct abnormalities in the basic organization of postural adjustments. PMID:10576641

  8. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  9. Osmotic adjustment and requirement for sodium in marine protist thraustochytrid.

    PubMed

    Shabala, Lana; McMeekin, Tom; Shabala, Sergey

    2009-07-01

    A non-invasive ion-selective microelectrode technique was used to elucidate the ionic mechanisms of osmotic adjustment in a marine protist thraustochytrid. Hypoosmotic stress caused significant efflux of Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) from thraustochytrid cells. Model calculations showed that almost complete osmotic adjustment was achieved within the first 30 min after stress onset. Of these, sodium was the major contributor (more than half of the total osmotic adjustment), with chloride being the second major contributor. The role of K(+) in the process of osmotic adjustment was relatively small. Changes in Ca(2+) and H(+) flux were attributed to intracellular signalling. Ion flux data were confirmed by growth experiments. Thraustochytrium cells showed normal growth patterns even when grown in a sodium-free solution provided the medium osmolality was adjusted by mannitol to one of the seawater. That suggests that the requirement of sodium for thraustochytrid growth cycle is due to its role in cell osmotic adjustment rather than because of the direct Na(+) involvement in cell metabolism. Altogether, these data demonstrate the evidence for turgor regulation in thraustochytrids and suggest that these cells may be grown in the absence of sodium providing that cell turgor is adjusted by some other means. PMID:20849566

  10. The proportion of cancer attributable to occupational exposures

    PubMed Central

    Purdue, Mark P.; Hutchings, Sally J.; Rushton, Lesley; Silverman, Debra T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To review the literature on the estimation of the population attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer due to occupational exposures and to describe challenges in the estimation of this metric. To help illustrate the inherent challenges, we also estimate PAFs for selected cancers diagnosed in the United States in 2010 attributable to work as a painter (causally associated with bladder and lung cancer) and shiftwork (possibly associated with breast cancer). Methods We reviewed and summarized previous reports providing quantitative estimates of PAF for total cancer due to occupational exposures. We calculated PAF estimates for painters and shiftwork using methodology from a detailed investigation of the occupational cancer burden in Great Britain, with adaptations made for the U.S. population. Results The estimated occupation-attributable fraction for total cancer generally ranged between 2% and 8% (men, 3-14%; women, 1-2%) based on previous reports. We calculated that employment as a painter accounted for a very small proportion of cancers of the bladder and lung diagnosed in the United States in 2010, with PAFs of 0.5% for each site. In contrast, our calculations suggest that the potential impact of shiftwork on breast cancer (if causal) could be substantial, with a PAF of 5.7%, translating to 11,777 attributable breast cancers. Conclusions Continued efforts to estimate the occupational cancer burden will be important as scientific evidence and economic trends evolve. Such projects should consider the challenges involved in PAF estimation, which we summarize in this report. PMID:25487971

  11. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to infectious agents

    PubMed Central

    Antonsson, Annika; Wilson, Louise F; Kendall, Bradley J; Bain, Christopher J; Whiteman, David C; Neale, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and numbers of cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to infectious agents. Methods The population attributable fraction (PAF) and number of cancers caused by hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV), Helicobacter pylori and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were calculated using standard formulae incorporating prevalence of infection in the Australian population, the relative risks associated with that infection and cancer incidence. For cancers with very strong associations to the infectious agent (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human papillomavirus [HPV] and HIV/Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus [KSHV]), calculations were based on viral prevalence in the tumour. Results An estimated 3,421 cancers (2.9% of all cancers) in Australia in 2010 were attributable to infections. Infectious agents causing the largest numbers of cancers were HPV (n=1,706), H. pylori (n=793) and HBV/HCV (n=518). Cancer sites with the greatest number of cancers caused by infections were cervix (n=818), stomach (n=694) and liver (n=483). Cancers with highest proportions attributable to infectious agents were Kaposi's sarcoma (100%), cervix (100%), nasopharynx (87%), anus (84%) and vagina (70%). Conclusions Infectious agents cause more than 3,000 cancers annually in Australia. Implications Opportunities for cancer prevention through infection control are considerable, even in a ‘first world’ nation like Australia. PMID:26437730

  12. Mortality risk attributable to smoking, hypertension and diabetes among English and Brazilian older adults (The ELSA and Bambui cohort ageing studies)

    PubMed Central

    Marmot, Michael G.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Juliana; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: The main aim of this study was to quantify and compare 6-year mortality risk attributable to smoking, hypertension and diabetes among English and Brazilian older adults. This study represents a rare opportunity to approach the subject in two different social and economic contexts. Methods: Data from the data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Bambuí Cohort Study of Ageing (Brazil) were used. Deaths in both cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Risk factors considered in this study were baseline smoking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Both age–sex adjusted hazard ratios and population attributable risks (PAR) of all-cause mortality and their 95% confidence intervals for the association between risk factors and mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Participants were 3205 English and 1382 Brazilians aged 60 years and over. First, Brazilians showed much higher absolute risk of mortality than English and this finding was consistent in all age, independently of sex. Second, as a rule, hazard ratios for mortality to smoking, hypertension and diabetes showed more similarities than differences between these two populations. Third, there was strong difference among English and Brazilians on attributable deaths to hypertension. Conclusions: The findings indicate that, despite of being in more recent transitions, the attributable deaths to one or more risk factors was twofold among Brazilians relative to the English. These findings call attention for the challenge imposed to health systems to prevent and treat non-communicable diseases, particularly in populations with low socioeconomic level. PMID:26666869

  13. Methodologies used to estimate tobacco-attributable mortality: a review

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Montes, Agustín

    2008-01-01

    Background One of the most important measures for ascertaining the impact of tobacco on a population is the estimation of the mortality attributable to its use. To measure this, a number of indirect methods of quantification are available, yet there is no consensus as to which furnishes the best information. This study sought to provide a critical overview of the different methods of attribution of mortality due to tobacco consumption. Method A search was made in the Medline database until March 2005 in order to obtain papers that addressed the methodology employed for attributing mortality to tobacco use. Results Of the total of 7 methods obtained, the most widely used were the prevalence methods, followed by the approach proposed by Peto et al, with the remainder being used in a minority of studies. Conclusion Different methodologies are used to estimate tobacco attributable mortality, but their methodological foundations are quite similar in all. Mainly, they are based on the calculation of proportional attributable fractions. All methods show limitations of one type or another, sometimes common to all methods and sometimes specific. PMID:18211696

  14. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  15. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  16. The burden of smoking in Israel–attributable mortality and costs (2014)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death, incurring huge resource costs in terms of treating morbidity and lost productivity. This paper estimates smoking attributable mortality (SAM) as health costs in 2014 in Israel. Methods Longitudinal data on prevalence of smokers and ex-smokers were combined with diagnostic and gender specific data on Relative Risks (RR) to gender and disease specific population attributable risks (PAR). PAR was then applied to mortality and hospitalization data from 2011, adjusted by population growth to 2014 to calculate SAM and hospitalization days (SAHD) caused by active smoking. These were used as a base for calculating deaths, hospital days and costs attributable to passive smoking, smoking by pregnant women, residential fires and productivity losses based on international literature. Results The lagged model estimated active SAM in Israel in 2014 to be 7,025 deaths. Cardio-vascular causes accounted for 45.0% of SAM, malignant neoplasms (39.2%) and respiratory diseases (15.5%). Lung cancer alone accounted for 24.1% of SAM. There were an estimated 793, 17 and 12 deaths from passive smoking, mothers-to-be smoking and residential fires. Total SAM is around 7,847 deaths (95% CI 7,698-7,997) in 2014. We estimated 319,231 active SAHD days (95% CI 313,135-325,326). Respiratory care accounted for around one-half of active SAHD (50.5%). Cardio-Vascular causes for 33.5% and malignant neoplasms (13.2%). Lung cancer only for 4.6%. Total SAHD was around 356,601 days including 36,049 days from passive smoking. Estimated direct acute care costs of 356,601 days in a general hospital amount to around 849 (95% CI 832–865) million NIS ($244 million). Non acute care costs amount to an additional 830 million NIS ($238 million). The total health service costs amount to 1,678 million NIS (95% CI 1,646-1,710) or $482 million, 0.2% of GNP. Productivity losses account for a further 1,909 million NIS ($548 million), giving an

  17. Getting off on the Wrong Foot: Longitudinal Effects of Hispanic Students' Stability Attributions Following Poor Initial Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Cody B.; Yang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Though studies have established that following poor performance, attributions to stable causes affect the performance of minority students, few studies have explored the impact of stability attributions over time. This study explored attributions following initial failure among a predominantly Hispanic student population. We measured students'…

  18. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  19. Psychosocial adjustment in adolescent child molesters.

    PubMed

    Katz, R C

    1990-01-01

    This study compared adolescent child molesters (n = 31) with nonsex offending delinquents (n = 34) and normal adolescents (n = 71) on standardized measures of social competence and psychological adjustment. The measures included the Adolescent Assertiveness Scale, the Survey of Heterosocial Interactions, the Self-Consciousness Scale, the Social Anxiety and Distress Scale, the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Norwicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale, and the Jesness Inventory. Results were consistent with predictions. Molesters showed significantly more global maladjustment than normals and were more socially anxious and threatened by heterosocial interactions than nonsex offending delinquents. A discriminant function analysis suggested that molesters, more than delinquents, were likely to perceive themselves as socially inadequate and to be externally oriented in their attributional style. Results support the hypothesis that social skill deficits and social isolation are risk factors that may predispose some adolescents to commit sexual crimes against children.

  20. Proportion of gestational diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity among non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic women in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Cavicchia, Philip P; Liu, Jihong; Adams, Swann A; Steck, Susan E; Hussey, James R; Daguisé, Virginie G; Hebert, James R

    2014-10-01

    Objective was to estimate race-specific proportions of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) attributable to overweight and obesity in South Carolina. South Carolina birth certificate and hospital discharge data were obtained from 2004 to 2006. Women who did not have type 2 diabetes mellitus before pregnancy were classified with GDM if a diagnosis was reported in at least one data source. Relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using the log-binomial model. The modified Mokdad equation was used to calculate population attributable fractions for overweight body mass index (BMI: 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)), obese (30.0-34.9 kg/m(2)), and extremely obese (≥35 kg/m(2)) women after adjusting for age, gestational weight gain, education, marital status, parity, tobacco use, pre-pregnancy hypertension, and pregnancy hypertension. Overall, the adjusted RR of GDM was 1.6, 2.3, and 2.9 times higher among the overweight, obese, and extremely obese women compared to normal-weight women in South Carolina. RR of GDM for extremely obese women was higher among White (3.1) and Hispanic (3.4) women than that for Black women (2.6). The fraction of GDM cases attributable to extreme obesity was 14.0 % among White, 18.1 % among Black, and 9.6 % among Hispanic women. The fraction of GDM cases attributable to obesity was about 12 % for all racial groups. Being overweight (BMI: 25.0-29.9) explained 8.8, 7.8, and 14.4 % of GDM cases among White, Black, and Hispanic women, respectively. Results indicate a significantly increased risk of GDM among overweight, obese, and extremely obese women. The strength of the association and the proportion of GDM cases explained by excessive weight categories vary by racial/ethnic group.

  1. Adjustment versus no adjustment when using adjustable sutures in strabismus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liebermann, Laura; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.; Holmes, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare long-term postoperative outcomes when performing an adjustment to achieve a desired immediate postoperative alignment versus simply tying off at the desired immediate postoperative alignment when using adjustable sutures for strabismus surgery. Methods We retrospectively identified 89 consecutive patients who underwent a reoperation for horizontal strabismus using adjustable sutures and also had a 6-week and 1-year outcome examination. In each case, the intent of the surgeon was to tie off and only to adjust if the patient was not within the intended immediate postoperative range. Postoperative success was predefined based on angle of misalignment and diplopia at distance and near. Results Of the 89 patients, 53 (60%) were adjusted and 36 (40%) were tied off. Success rates were similar between patients who were simply tied off immediately after surgery and those who were adjusted. At 6 weeks, the success rate was 64% for the nonadjusted group versus 81% for the adjusted group (P = 0.09; difference of 17%; 95% CI, −2% to 36%). At 1 year, the success rate was 67% for the nonadjusted group versus 77% for the adjusted group (P = 0.3; difference of 11%; 95% CI, −8% to 30%). Conclusions Performing an adjustment to obtain a desired immediate postoperative alignment did not yield inferior long-term outcomes to those obtained by tying off to obtain that initial alignment. If patients were who were outside the desired immediate postoperative range had not been not adjusted, it is possible that their long-term outcomes would have been worse, therefore, overall, an adjustable approach may be superior to a nonadjustable approach. PMID:23415035

  2. Impaired ranking of semantic attributes in dementia.

    PubMed

    Grober, E; Buschke, H; Kawas, C; Fuld, P

    1985-11-01

    The present work explored the loss of semantic attributes that is said to occur in dementia. In the first two experiments, subjects had to select attributes that went with concepts like airplane and church. The finding that demented subjects maintained high levels of accuracy when selecting attributes suggested that the semantic content of their concepts was relatively well preserved. The organization of the content was explored in a third experiment by having subjects order attributes according to their relative importance in defining concepts. While demented subjects performed better than chance, they did not rank attributes as well as healthy aged subjects, suggesting a disruption in organization whereby the importance of central attributes is reduced. The hypothesized disruption in organization is viewed in relation to the learning and memory deficit that is the hallmark of the dementias.

  3. Attributional style and life-events.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, N; Williams, J M

    1983-06-01

    The study addressed the question of the significance of intervening life-events in linking attributional style and depression. Twenty male subjects who had experienced an uncontrollable event, job redundancy, were compared with 20 controls on measures of attributional style, depression and self-esteem. The reformulated helplessness hypothesis implies that attribution and depression should be correlated only after the uncontrollable event. This was found to be the case for internal--external dimension, providing tentative support for the reformulated helplessness model.

  4. 26 CFR 301.6316-3 - Allocation of tax attributable to foreign currency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Provisions § 301.6316-3 Allocation of tax attributable to foreign currency. (a) Adjusted gross income ratio... which: (1) The amount which bears the same ratio to the entire tax for the taxable year as (i) the...: Deduction for personal exemptions $3,000 Charitable contributions 500 Interest expense 400 Taxes 300...

  5. Attributions of responsibility for motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alan E

    2005-07-01

    A sample of 321 motor vehicle crash survivors completed a survey in which they provided attribution ratings of the extent to which they were responsible for their crashes, other people (drivers) were responsible, or road/weather conditions were responsible. The attribution ratings were consistent with the predictions of defensive attribution theory (DAT; [Walster, E., 1966. Assignment of responsibility for an accident. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 3, 73-79]) in that people who experienced crashes of greater severity (necessitating medical treatment for injuries) attributed greater responsibility to other drivers than to self or to weather/road conditions. People who were in crashes of lesser severity attributed approximately the same amount of responsibility to themselves as they did to others. An actor-observer effect also appeared in survivors' attribution ratings in that self-acceptance of responsibility for the crash was positively correlated with attributions to the situation (road/weather conditions) whereas such attributions to the situation were negatively correlated with attributions of responsibility to other drivers. Consistent with results of prior research, survivors who assigned crash responsibility to other drivers reported increased levels of driving and riding avoidance compared to people who accepted responsibility for their crashes.

  6. Effect of prolonged deprivation on attributional style.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Nathawat, S S

    1989-08-01

    The effects of prolonged deprivation and outcome on attributional style were examined in a 2 x 2 factorial design with two levels of deprivation (high and low) and two levels of outcome (good and bad). Indian subjects (N = 80) were selected on the basis of extreme scores on a prolonged deprivation scale; they provided an attributional style scale of good and bad outcome situations. High-deprived subjects attributed bad outcomes to more internal, stable, and global causes compared with low-deprived subjects. In addition, high-deprived subjects showed internal attributions of a stable and global type for both bad and good outcomes.

  7. Emotional and cognitive adjustment in abused children.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, M A; Frias, D

    1994-11-01

    Research on the impact of maltreatment on children has increased in the last years, as there is a need to design appropriate treatment strategies. Social, cognitive, and emotional areas may be affected in these children. This research is aimed to study the psychological functioning of child victims, particularly in their emotional and cognitive adjustment. Nineteen children (10.3 years old) with case histories of at least 2 years of physical and emotional parental abuse and a group of 26 nonmaltreated children (9.4 years old) matched in socio-economic characteristics and coming from the same community area were compared in depressive symptomatology and attributional style by using the standardized measures from Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and Kaslow's Children Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ). General and detailed statistical analyses on the emotional and cognitive areas assessed showed significant differences between groups. Child victims showed greater feelings of sadness, lower self-esteem and self-worth, and they perceived the aversive events in their lives as unpredictable which generated helplessness. This is a result of their lack of control of those aversive events. Results are contrasted with those obtained by other researchers who used similar methodology and are discussed in terms of the learned helplessness' model proposed and developed by Seligman, Kaslow, Alloy, Peterson, Tanenbaum, and Abramson (1984). Implications for the child abuse victims' emotional and cognitive rehabilitation are also analyzed and discussed. PMID:7850601

  8. The fraction of breast cancer attributable to smoking: The Norwegian women and cancer study 1991–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gram, Inger T; Little, Melissa A; Lund, Eiliv; Braaten, Tonje

    2016-01-01

    Background: Results from several recent cohort studies on smoking and breast cancer incidence and mortality suggest that the burden of smoking on society is underestimated. We estimated the fraction of breast cancer attributable to smoking in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study, a nationally representative prospective cohort study. Methods: We followed 130 053 women, aged 34–70 years, who completed a baseline questionnaire between 1991 and 2007, through linkages to national registries through December 2012. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), while adjusting for confounders. Never smokers, excluding passive smokers, were used as the reference group in all main analyses. We estimated attributable fractions (AFs) % in smokers and in the population (PAFs) % with 95% CIs. Results: Altogether, 4293 women developed invasive breast cancer, confirmed by histology. Compared with never active, never passive smokers, ever (former and current) smokers had an overall risk of breast cancer that was 21% higher (HR=1.21; 95% CI=1.08–1.34). For ever smokers, the AF was 17.3% (95% CI =7.4–25.4) and for the population the PAF of breast cancer was 11.9% (95% CI=5.3–18.1). For passive smokers, the PAF of breast cancer was 3.2% (95% CI=1.0–5.4). When we applied PAF estimates for ever smoking on the 2907 new breast cancer cases among Norwegian women aged 35+ at diagnosis in 2012, this yielded 345 (95% CI=154–526) breast cancer cases that could have been avoided in the absence of active smoking that year. Conclusions: In smokers, one in six and in the population, one in nine breast cancer cases could have been avoided in the absence of active smoking. Our findings support the notion that the global cancer burden due to smoking is substantially underestimated. PMID:27280631

  9. A Statistical Framework for Microbial Source Attribution

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P; Allen, J E; Cunningham, C T

    2009-04-28

    This report presents a general approach to inferring transmission and source relationships among microbial isolates from their genetic sequences. The outbreak transmission graph (also called the transmission tree or transmission network) is the fundamental structure which determines the statistical distributions relevant to source attribution. The nodes of this graph are infected individuals or aggregated sub-populations of individuals in which transmitted bacteria or viruses undergo clonal expansion, leading to a genetically heterogeneous population. Each edge of the graph represents a transmission event in which one or a small number of bacteria or virions infects another node thus increasing the size of the transmission network. Recombination and re-assortment events originate in nodes which are common to two distinct networks. In order to calculate the probability that one node was infected by another, given the observed genetic sequences of microbial isolates sampled from them, we require two fundamental probability distributions. The first is the probability of obtaining the observed mutational differences between two isolates given that they are separated by M steps in a transmission network. The second is the probability that two nodes sampled randomly from an outbreak transmission network are separated by M transmission events. We show how these distributions can be obtained from the genetic sequences of isolates obtained by sampling from past outbreaks combined with data from contact tracing studies. Realistic examples are drawn from the SARS outbreak of 2003, the FMDV outbreak in Great Britain in 2001, and HIV transmission cases. The likelihood estimators derived in this report, and the underlying probability distribution functions required to calculate them possess certain compelling general properties in the context of microbial forensics. These include the ability to quantify the significance of a sequence 'match' or 'mismatch' between two isolates

  10. Contrasting Attributes of Preventive Health Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Marcy; Johnson, J. David; Ethington, Caroline

    1997-01-01

    Uses diffusion of innovations theory to contrast three different preventive health interventions (undertaken by the contractual network of the Cancer Information Service) by their innovation attributes. Shows that innovation attributes were rated differentially by organizational members, depending on the nature of the specific intervention,…

  11. An Attributional Approach to Counselor Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Hollis W.; Claiborn, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    Examined two components of counselor attractiveness--perceived similarity and liking--in a comparison of two theoretical approaches to attractiveness and influence in counseling--the referent power hypothesis and an attributional approach. Results generally support the attributional approach over the reference power hypothesis. (Author)

  12. Race, Class, and the Attributional Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra; Long, Anna

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to examine the process of attributional thinking in Black and White children who differed in social class. Blacks did not display a less adaptive attributional pattern than did whites following actual performance on exams, and no differences existed in children's understanding of the meaning of causes. (Author/LMO)

  13. Internality, Academic Status, and Intergroup Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Nicole; Beauvois, Jean-Leon

    1996-01-01

    Explores the extent that intergroup attributions may be affected by the mobilization of an academic status that explicitly positions students within a school hierarchy. Calculates internality scores for students categorized as good versus bad based on a questionnaire of attributions. Explains the results within the frame of two theoretical fields.…

  14. Attributional Style and the Freshman Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas K.; Mercier, Judith D.

    Martin Seligman's psychology research on depression, published in 7 books and hundreds of articles, shows a correlation between attributional style and depression. "Explanatory style" is another term nearly synonymous with attributional style, a habitual way to explain, positively or negatively, external events. A "learned" optimist himself,…

  15. Children's Causal Attributions regarding Help Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cathleen L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Second- and third-grade children receiving no consequences or only social consequences for donating to needy peers attributed their behavior to a concern for the other child. Children receiving material consequences together with social consequences tended to attribute their help giving to external sources. (JMB)

  16. Crisis Workers' Attributions for Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Margaret E.

    Attributions affect coping with victimization. Battered women who blame their husbands' moods are less likely to leave than are women who blame their husbands' permanent characteristics for the violence. Abused women often have repeated contacts with crisis intervention workers and the attitudes of those workers may affect the attributions made by…

  17. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  18. Playing "Twenty Questions" with Attribute Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the problem of finding the expected number of questions necessary to identify 1 out of a set of 30 attribute blocks. Solutions include the use of a tree diagram or a computer simulation. Generalizes the problem for increased numbers of attributes. (MDH)

  19. An Exploration of EFL Teachers' Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Ghazanfari, Mohammad; Ghabanchi, Zargham

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attributions of success and failure. It also set out to investigate whether these attributions vary by teachers' age, teaching experience, gender and educational level. To do so, 200 EFL teachers were selected according to convenience sampling among EFL teachers teaching…

  20. Attributional Models of Depression and Marital Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horneffer, Karen J.; Fincham, Frank D.

    1996-01-01

    Compares attributional models presented in depression and marital literatures by examining simultaneously their prediction of depressive symptoms and marital distress with 150 married couples. Findings show that a model including paths from depressogenic and distress-maintaining marital attributions to both depressive symptoms and marital distress…

  1. Scaling Terrain Attributes By Fractal Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terrain attributes derived from grid digital elevation models (DEMs) are commonly used in distributed hydrologic models. However, many attribute estimations are biased by DEM grid cell size. For example, land surface slopes estimated from 30-m DEMs are, on average, less than slopes estimated from ...

  2. Attributes of an Effective Feedback Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Not all feedback is created equal. It is actually quite uneven in its design and effectiveness. Feedback forms typically used by educators and the feedback process used to support learning have markedly different attributes. Understanding the key attributes of effective feedback is important for those involved in the feedback process. The tools…

  3. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  4. Time-adjusted variable resistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.

  5. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances...,'' is ``premised on the recent recession as an exigent event.'' Id. at 1, 2. In Order No. 1059,...

  6. Attribute Reduction Based on Property Pictorial Diagram

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qing; Wei, Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly studies attribute reduction which keeps the lattice structure in formal contexts based on the property pictorial diagram. Firstly, the property pictorial diagram of a formal context is defined. Based on such diagram, an attribute reduction approach of concept lattice is achieved. Then, through the relation between an original formal context and its complementary context, an attribute reduct of complementary context concept lattice is obtained, which is also based on the property pictorial diagram of the original formal context. Finally, attribute reducts in property oriented concept lattice and object oriented concept lattice can be acquired by the relations of attribute reduction between these two lattices and concept lattice of complementary context. In addition, a detailed illustrative example is presented. PMID:25247200

  7. Adjustment Failures in an Immigrant Population: Finns in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarela, Jan; Finnas, Fjalar

    2007-01-01

    Using data sets from both Sweden and Finland, which have been linked at the individual level, we analyse whether Finnish immigrants who lived in Sweden in 1990 were employed, non-employed, return-migrated, or dead by 2001. The aim is to see how they interrelate with socio-demographic characteristics, and to compare Finnish-speaking and…

  8. Penrose's law revisited: the relationship between mental institution beds, prison population and crime rate.

    PubMed

    Hartvig, Pål; Kjelsberg, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    In 1939, Lionel Penrose published a cross-sectional study from 18 European countries, including the Nordic, in which he demonstrated an inverse relationship between the number of mental hospital beds and the number of prisoners. He also found strong negative correlations between the number of mental hospital beds and the number of deaths attributed to murder. He argued that by increasing the number of mental institution beds, a society could reduce serious crimes and imprisonment rates. The aim of the study was to test Penrose's theories longitudinally by monitoring the capacity of all psychiatric institutions and prisons in a society over time. From official statistics, we collected and systematized all relevant information regarding the number of mental institution beds and prisoners in Norway during the years 1930-2004, along with major crime statistics for the same period. During the years 1930-59, there was a 2% population-adjusted increase in mental institution beds and a 30% decrease in the prison population. During 1960-2004, there was a 74% population-adjusted decrease in mental institution beds and a 52% increase in the prison population. The same period saw a 500% increase in overall crime and a 900% increase in violent crimes, with a concurrent 94% increase in the size of the country's police force. Penrose's law proved remarkably robust in the longitudinal perspective. As opposed to Penrose, however, we argue that the rise in crime rates only to a very limited extent can be attributed to mental health de-institutionalization.

  9. A methodologic framework to evaluate the number of cancers attributable to lifestyle and environment in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Anne; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous research to estimate population attributable risks for cancer in Alberta has been limited. Attributable burden estimates are important for planning and implementing population-based cancer prevention strategies. This article describes a methodologic framework to estimate the number of incident cancers attributable to modifiable lifestyle and environmental risk factors in Alberta. Methods: We estimated population attributable risks for cancer for exposures to 24 established cancer risk factors including tobacco consumption and environmental tobacco exposure, environmental factors, infectious agents, hormone therapies, dietary intake, obesity and physical inactivity. We used risk estimates to quantify the association between individual exposures and cancer sites as well as prevalence estimates for individual exposures in Alberta to estimate the proportion of cancer in Alberta that could be attributed to each exposure. These estimations were conducted in the context of a theoretical minimum risk principle, whereby exposures corresponding to the lowest levels of population risk were used as the comparisons for alternative exposure levels. Inte rpretation: We outline the main methodologic principles for the protocol used in evaluating population attributable risks for modifiable lifestyle and environmental risk factors for cancer in Alberta. The data produced by this project will provide important information concerning which known cancer risk factors are responsible for the largest proportions of cancer in Alberta and could inform future cancer prevention strategies. PMID:27730111

  10. Ants learn to rely on more informative attributes during decision-making.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takao; Pratt, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that animals act to maximize their fitness when choosing among a set of options, such as what to eat or where to live. Making the best choice is challenging when options vary in multiple attributes, and animals have evolved a variety of heuristics to simplify the task. Many of these involve ranking or weighting attributes according to their importance. Because the importance of attributes can vary across time and place, animals might benefit by adjusting weights accordingly. Here, we show that colonies of the ant Temnothorax rugatulus use their experience during nest site selection to increase weights on more informative nest attributes. These ants choose their rock crevice nests on the basis of multiple features. After exposure to an environment where only one attribute differentiated options, colonies increased their reliance on this attribute relative to a second attribute. Although many species show experience-based changes in selectivity based on a single feature, this is the first evidence in animals for adaptive changes in the weighting of multiple attributes. These results show that animal collectives, like individuals, change decision-making strategies according to experience. We discuss how these colony-level changes might emerge from individual behaviour.

  11. Predictors of attributional style change in children.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Brandon E; Alloy, Lauren B; Walshaw, Patricia D; Comer, Jonathan S; Shen, Gail H C; Villari, Annette G

    2006-06-01

    A number of studies have supported the hypothesis that negative attributional styles may confer vulnerability to the development of depression. The goal of this study was to explore factors that may contribute to the development of negative attributional styles in children. As hypothesized, elevated levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness at the initial assessment predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the 6-month follow-up period. In addition, elevated levels of verbal victimization occurring between the 2 assessments, as well as that occurring in the 6 months preceding the initial assessment, prospectively predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the follow-up. Further, initial depressive symptoms and verbal victimization during the follow-up continued to significantly predict attributional style change even when the overlap among the predictors was statistically controlled. Contrary to the hypotheses, however, neither parent-reported levels of overall negative life events nor parents' attributions for their children's events predicted changes in children's attributional styles.

  12. Predictors of attributional style change in children.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Brandon E; Alloy, Lauren B; Walshaw, Patricia D; Comer, Jonathan S; Shen, Gail H C; Villari, Annette G

    2006-06-01

    A number of studies have supported the hypothesis that negative attributional styles may confer vulnerability to the development of depression. The goal of this study was to explore factors that may contribute to the development of negative attributional styles in children. As hypothesized, elevated levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness at the initial assessment predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the 6-month follow-up period. In addition, elevated levels of verbal victimization occurring between the 2 assessments, as well as that occurring in the 6 months preceding the initial assessment, prospectively predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the follow-up. Further, initial depressive symptoms and verbal victimization during the follow-up continued to significantly predict attributional style change even when the overlap among the predictors was statistically controlled. Contrary to the hypotheses, however, neither parent-reported levels of overall negative life events nor parents' attributions for their children's events predicted changes in children's attributional styles. PMID:16619141

  13. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  14. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  15. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  16. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  17. Defining Attributes and Metrics of Effective Research Mentoring Relationships.

    PubMed

    Pfund, Christine; Byars-Winston, Angela; Branchaw, Janet; Hurtado, Sylvia; Eagan, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Despite evidence of mentoring's importance in training researchers, studies to date have not yet determined which mentoring relationships have the most impact and what specific factors in those mentoring relationships contribute to key outcomes, such as the commitment to and persistence in research career paths for emerging researchers from diverse populations. Efforts to broaden participation and persistence in biomedical research careers require an understanding of why and how mentoring relationships work and their impact, not only to research training but also to promoting career advancement. This paper proposes core attributes of effective mentoring relationships, as supported by the literature and suggested by theoretical models of academic persistence. In addition, both existing and developing metrics for measuring the effectiveness of these attributes within mentoring relationships across diverse groups are presented, as well as preliminary data on these metrics from the authors' work.

  18. Defining Attributes and Metrics of Effective Research Mentoring Relationships.

    PubMed

    Pfund, Christine; Byars-Winston, Angela; Branchaw, Janet; Hurtado, Sylvia; Eagan, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Despite evidence of mentoring's importance in training researchers, studies to date have not yet determined which mentoring relationships have the most impact and what specific factors in those mentoring relationships contribute to key outcomes, such as the commitment to and persistence in research career paths for emerging researchers from diverse populations. Efforts to broaden participation and persistence in biomedical research careers require an understanding of why and how mentoring relationships work and their impact, not only to research training but also to promoting career advancement. This paper proposes core attributes of effective mentoring relationships, as supported by the literature and suggested by theoretical models of academic persistence. In addition, both existing and developing metrics for measuring the effectiveness of these attributes within mentoring relationships across diverse groups are presented, as well as preliminary data on these metrics from the authors' work. PMID:27062425

  19. Smoking-attributable mortality in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzhi; An, Qiang; Yeh, Fawn; Zhang, Ying; Howard, Barbara V; Lee, Elisa T; Zhao, Jinying

    2015-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. American Indians have the highest proportion of smoking in the United States. However, few studies have examined the impact of cigarette smoking on disease mortality in this ethnically important but traditionally understudied minority population. Here we estimated the association of cigarette smoking with cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and all-cause mortality in American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study, a large community-based prospective cohort study comprising of 4549 American Indians (aged 45-74 years) followed for about 20 years (1989-2008). Hazard ratio and population attributable risk (PAR) associated with cigarette smoking were estimated by Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for sex, study site, age, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activity, BMI, lipids, renal function, hypertension or diabetes status at baseline, and interaction between current smoker and study site. We found that current smoking was significantly associated with cancer mortality (HR 5.0, [1.9-13.4]) in men, (HR 3.9 [1.6-9.7] in women) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.8, [1.2-2.6] in men, HR 1.6, [1.1-2.4] in women). PAR for cancer and all-cause mortality in men were 41.0 and 18.4 %, respectively, whereas the corresponding numbers in women were 24.9 and 10.9 %, respectively. Current smoking also significantly increases the risk of CVD deaths in women (HR 2.2 [1.1, 4.4]), but not men (HR 1.2 [0.6-2.4]). PAR for CVD mortality in women was 14.9 %. In summary, current smoking significantly increases the risk of CVD (in women), cancer and all-cause mortality in American Indians, independent of known risk factors. Culturally specific smoking cessation programs are urgently needed to reduce smoking-related premature deaths.

  20. Examining the relationship between autistic traits and college adjustment.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Dominic; Birmingham, Elina

    2016-08-01

    We examined the relationship between characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder and college adjustment in a sample of neurotypical college students. Using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, we found that higher levels of autism spectrum disorder characteristics were associated with poorer adjustment to college. One subscale of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire, pragmatic language difficulties, explained the most variance in adjustment. In addition, students who met the previously established cut-off scores for possessing the broad autism phenotype scored significantly lower on all Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire subscales. Finally, pragmatic language difficulties mediated the relationship between college major and academic adjustment. These findings underscore the need for future research to examine how pragmatic language difficulties may impede college success in students with autism spectrum disorder and in the typical population.

  1. Attributes of Interactive Online Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pingree, Suzanne; Hawkins, Robert P; Buller, David B

    2005-01-01

    The development of online communication systems related to prevention, decision making, and coping with cancer has outpaced theoretical attention to the attributes that appeal to system users and that create effective interactions. This essay reviews a number of sociotechnical attributes related to online discussion systems and tutorials, including interactivity, presence, homophily, social distance, anonymity/privacy, and interaction management. These attributes are derived from different theoretical perspectives which have led to clinical trials and other empirical studies demonstrating effectiveness or attraction to end users. The effects of a subset of these attributes are connected to learning, social influence, and coping, as illustrated in evaluations of an interactive smoking prevention site and a cancer advice/support discussion system. PMID:15998624

  2. Attributions about Addiction among Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Frank; De La Rosa, Mario; Rojas, Patria; Schwartz, Seth J.; Duan, Rui

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional, secondary analysis study utilizes data from a prior study of intergenerational substance use among Latina women (n = 316). We explored the influence of substance use frequency and type, as well as cultural and socioeconomic factors on attributions about addiction among a predominantly immigrant sample of Latina women. Women who were less proficient in English (an indicator of adoption of the receiving culture in the acculturation process) and more proficient in Spanish (an indicator of heritage-culture retention) endorsed more spiritual model attributions than women who were more proficient in English and less proficient in Spanish. Women were more proficient in Spanish more frequently endorsed the disease attribution model. Alcohol, marijuana use and non-medical sedative use were linked with spiritual, moral /character and disease attribution models respectively. Participants reporting higher education levels indicated less agreement with the moral/character model of addiction. Implications for culturally tailored social work interventions for Latina women are discussed. PMID:22162943

  3. Object attributes combine additively in visual search.

    PubMed

    Pramod, R T; Arun, S P

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes. PMID:26967014

  4. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, Wayne D.

    2002-05-29

    This project is intended to enhance the ability to use seismic data for the determination of rock and fluid properties through an improved understanding of the physics underlying the relationships between seismic attributes and formation.

  5. Dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia: salience attribution revisited.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2010-05-01

    A dysregulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system in schizophrenia patients may lead to aberrant attribution of incentive salience and contribute to the emergence of psychopathological symptoms like delusions. The dopaminergic signal has been conceptualized to represent a prediction error that indicates the difference between received and predicted reward. The incentive salience hypothesis states that dopamine mediates the attribution of "incentive salience" to conditioned cues that predict reward. This hypothesis was initially applied in the context of drug addiction and then transferred to schizophrenic psychosis. It was hypothesized that increased firing (chaotic or stress associated) of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum of schizophrenia patients attributes incentive salience to otherwise irrelevant stimuli. Here, we review recent neuroimaging studies directly addressing this hypothesis. They suggest that neuronal functions associated with dopaminergic signaling, such as the attribution of salience to reward-predicting stimuli and the computation of prediction errors, are indeed altered in schizophrenia patients and that this impairment appears to contribute to delusion formation.

  6. Object attributes combine additively in visual search

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, R. T.; Arun, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes. PMID:26967014

  7. Mortality attributable to passive smoking in Spain, 2002

    PubMed Central

    López, M J; Pérez‐Ríos, M; Schiaffino, A; Nebot, M; Montes, A; Ariza, C; García, M; Juárez, O; Moncada, A; Fernández, E

    2007-01-01

    Objective Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and ischaemic heart disease. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of deaths caused by exposure to ETS among non‐smokers in Spain during the year 2002 Methods Prevalence of ETS exposure among never smokers was gathered from three region based health interview surveys. The relative risks of lung cancer and ichaemic heart diseases were selected from three meta‐analyses. Population attributable risk (PAR) was computed using a range of prevalences (minimum‐maximum). The number of deaths attributable to ETS was calculated by applying PARs to mortality not attributable to active smoking in 2002. The analyses were stratified by sex, age and source of exposure (home, workplace and both combined). In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed for different scenarios. Results Among men, deaths attributable to ETS ranged from 408 to 1703. From 247 to 1434 of these deaths would be caused by the exposure only at home, 136–196 by exposure only in the workplace and 25–73 by exposure at both home and the workplace. Among women, the number of attributable deaths ranged from 820 to 1534. Between 807 and 1477 of these deaths would be caused by exposure only at home, 9–32 by exposure only in the workplace and 4–25 by exposure both at home and in the workplace. Conclusion Exposure to ETS at home and at work in Spain could be responsible for 1228–3237 of deaths from lung cancer and ischaemic heart disease. These data confirm that passive smoking is an important public health problem in Spain that needs urgent attention. PMID:18048612

  8. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  9. Exploring the Adjustment Problems among International Graduate Students in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Stephanie; Salzman, Michael; Yang, Cheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Due to the advance of technology, the American society has become more diverse. A huge population of international students in the U.S. faces unique issues. According to the existing literature, the top-rated anxieties international student faces are generally caused by language anxiety, cultural adjustments, and learning differences and barriers.…

  10. Enhancing Anticipatory Postural Adjustments: A Novel Approach to Balance Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Aruin, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Balance impairment is common in individuals with neurological disorders and older adults and is a major cause of falls in these populations. Evidence on the effectiveness of conventional interventions for balance restoration is limited. We describe a novel approach to balance rehabilitation that is based on enhancing anticipatory postural adjustments. PMID:27335705

  11. Improving the Accuracy of Attribute Extraction using the Relatedness between Attribute Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollegala, Danushka; Tani, Naoki; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    Extracting attribute-values related to entities from web texts is an important step in numerous web related tasks such as information retrieval, information extraction, and entity disambiguation (namesake disambiguation). For example, for a search query that contains a personal name, we can not only return documents that contain that personal name, but if we have attribute-values such as the organization for which that person works, we can also suggest documents that contain information related to that organization, thereby improving the user's search experience. Despite numerous potential applications of attribute extraction, it remains a challenging task due to the inherent noise in web data -- often a single web page contains multiple entities and attributes. We propose a graph-based approach to select the correct attribute-values from a set of candidate attribute-values extracted for a particular entity. First, we build an undirected weighted graph in which, attribute-values are represented by nodes, and the edge that connects two nodes in the graph represents the degree of relatedness between the corresponding attribute-values. Next, we find the maximum spanning tree of this graph that connects exactly one attribute-value for each attribute-type. The proposed method outperforms previously proposed attribute extraction methods on a dataset that contains 5000 web pages.

  12. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  13. The economic burden of cancers attributable to tobacco smoking, excess weight, alcohol use, and physical inactivity in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, H.; Andres, E.N.; Koot, J.M.; Reilly, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to calculate the proportion of cancers in Canada attributable to tobacco smoking (ts), alcohol use (au), excess weight (ew), and physical inactivity (pia); to explore variation in the proportions of those risk factors (rfs) over time by sex and province; to estimate the economic burden of cancer attributable to the 4 rfs; and to calculate the potential reduction in cancers and economic burden if all provinces achieved rf prevalence rates equivalent to the best in Canada. Methods We used a previously developed approach based on population-attributable fractions (pafs) to estimate the cancer-related economic burden associated with the four rfs. Sex-specific relative risk and age- and sex-specific prevalence data were used in the modelling. The economic burden was adjusted for potential double counting of cases and costs. Results In Canada, 27.7% of incident cancer cases [95% confidence interval (ci): 22.6% to 32.9%] in 2013 [47,000 of 170,000 (95% ci: 38,400–55,900)] were attributable to the four rfs: ts, 15.2% (95% ci: 13.7% to 16.9%); ew, 5.1% (95% ci: 3.8% to 6.4%); au, 3.9% (95% ci: 2.4% to 5.3%); and pia, 3.5% (95% ci: 2.7% to 4.3%). The annual economic burden attributable to the 47,000 total cancers was $9.6 billion (95% ci: $7.8 billion to $11.3 billion): consisting of $1.7 billion in direct and $8.0 billion in indirect costs. Applying the lowest rf rates to each province would result in an annual reduction of 6204 cancers (13.2% of the potentially avoidable cancers) and a reduction in economic burden of $1.2 billion. Conclusions Despite substantial reductions in the prevalence and intensity of ts, ts remains the dominant risk factor from the perspective of cancer prevention in Canada, although ew and au are becoming increasingly important rfs. PMID:27536174

  14. Recovery Planning for Endangered Salmon : A Multiple Attribute Analysis, Final Report,

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, Charles M.; Hyman, Jeffrey B.; Wernstedt, Kris

    1993-12-09

    This analysis addresses multiple dimensions or attributes of recovery planning for endangered Snake River chinook stocks. The authors present a range of biological, economic, and social attributes for a number of recovery actions, and discuss aspects of the recovery actions that relate to each attribute. The emphasis on multiple attributes rather than on narrower biological measures alone reflects their belief that biological issues are only one of several sets of concerns that warrant attention in developing a recovery plan. Furthermore, the authors focus on both qualitative and quantitative factors because a lack of numerical information on certain attributes and recovery actions does not justify ignoring the non-numerical attributes or actions. After introducing the approach and providing the background, they define the attributes. An overview is provided of the biological modeling embedded in the analysis. The model used, the Stochastic Life Cycle Model (SLCM), determines the survival changes (relative to a base case) necessary to meet several biological criteria. These criteria reflect both the likelihood of population extinction and the projected population abundance 100 years into the future, relative to the initial abundance. The recovery options are outlined. The passage and harvest actions are characterized across the attributes is provided. The report assesses the life-stage survival improvements deemed necessary to avoid extinction and comments on the likelihood of meeting these improvements with the proposed actions. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the recovery strategies is provided.

  15. Climate Change Detection and Attribution of Infrared Spectrum Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Parker, Peter A.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change occurs when the Earth's energy budget changes due to natural or possibly anthropogenic forcings. These forcings cause the climate system to adjust resulting in a new climate state that is warmer or cooler than the original. The key question is how to detect and attribute climate change. The inference of infrared spectral signatures of climate change has been discussed in the literature for nearly 30 years. Pioneering work in the 1980s noted that distinct spectral signatures would be evident in changes in the infrared radiance emitted by the Earth and its atmosphere, and that these could be observed from orbiting satellites. Since then, a number of other studies have advanced the concepts of spectral signatures of climate change. Today the concept of using spectral signatures to identify and attribute atmospheric composition change is firmly accepted and is the foundation of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) satellite mission being developed at NASA. In this work, we will present an overview of the current climate change detection concept using climate model calculations as surrogates for climate change. Any future research work improving the methodology to achieve this concept will be valuable to our society.

  16. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(21)-1 - Pre-1954 adjustments resulting from change in method of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... method of accounting. 1.381(c)(21)-1 Section 1.381(c)(21)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...(c)(21)-1 Pre-1954 adjustments resulting from change in method of accounting. (a) Carryover... to adjustments arising from changes in accounting methods initiated by the taxpayer attributable...

  17. Children's understandings of the attributes of life.

    PubMed

    Richards, D D; Siegler, R S

    1986-08-01

    Previous investigations of children's understandings of the life concept have focused on their classifications of the life status of familiar objects. In this study, we attempted to examine more directly the processes by which children infer life status by examining their reasoning about unfamiliar objects. In Experiment 1, 4- to 11-year-olds and adults were asked to name attributes of living things to establish which attributes they associated most closely with life. Children age 7 and younger most often named attributes true only of animals but not of plants; older children more often named attributes true of both animals and plants. However, movement was the single attribute cited most frequently by children of all ages tested. In Experiment 2, 4- to 11-year-olds and adults were presented information about attributes of imaginary objects on a distant planet and were asked to infer if those objects were alive. Again, young children relied relatively heavily on qualities true only of animals but not of plants, whereas older children relied more on attributes true of both plants and animals. Also as before, movement was viewed as indicative of life at all ages tested. In Experiment 3, we examined the hypothesis that children discriminate among different types of motion and that the types of motion they associate with life are in fact typical of living things. Children ranging from age 5 through 11 were found to discriminate among different types of motion and to infer that objects were alive only when they showed the types of motion typical of living beings. The results of Experiment 3 allowed interpretation of seemingly conflicting results that have arisen in previous studies, as well as in Experiments 1 and 2 of the present study.

  18. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  19. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  20. Cortical organization of environmental sounds by attribute.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Julia; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I

    2011-05-01

    Semantic knowledge is supported by a widely distributed neuronal network, with differential patterns of activation depending upon experimental stimulus or task demands. Despite a wide body of knowledge on semantic object processing from the visual modality, the response of this semantic network to environmental sounds remains relatively unknown. Here, we used fMRI to investigate how access to different conceptual attributes from environmental sound input modulates this semantic network. Using a range of living and manmade sounds, we scanned participants whilst they carried out an object attribute verification task. Specifically, we tested visual perceptual, encyclopedic, and categorical attributes about living and manmade objects relative to a high-level auditory perceptual baseline to investigate the differential patterns of response to these contrasting types of object-related attributes, whilst keeping stimulus input constant across conditions. Within the bilateral distributed network engaged for processing environmental sounds across all conditions, we report here a highly significant dissociation within the left hemisphere between the processing of visual perceptual and encyclopedic attributes of objects.

  1. Perinatal mortality attributable to complications of childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Kusiako, T.; Ronsmans, C.; Van der Paal, L.

    2000-01-01

    Very few population-based studies of perinatal mortality in developing countries have examined the role of intrapartum risk factors. In the present study, the proportion of perinatal deaths that are attributable to complications during childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh, was assessed using community-based data from a home-based programme led by professional midwives between 1987 and 1993. Complications during labour and delivery--such as prolonged or obstructed labour, abnormal fetal position, and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy--increased the risk of perinatal mortality fivefold and accounted for 30% of perinatal deaths. Premature labour, which occurred in 20% of pregnancies, accounted for 27% of perinatal mortality. Better care by qualified staff during delivery and improved care of newborns should substantially reduce perinatal mortality in this study population. PMID:10859856

  2. Self-esteem and causal attributions.

    PubMed

    Chandler, T A; Lee, M S; Pengilly, J W

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between self-esteem and causal attributions of success and failure in achievement-related behavior was examined among undergraduate students. An integration of a self-consistency model of causal attribution and self-enhancement theory was attempted. Self-esteem and performance outcome conditions of success and failure served as independent variables. Success and failure conditions were created via feedback regarding the participants' performance on an anagram task. The participants' attributions of six causal elements (ability, effort, immediate effort, task difficulty, luck, and mood) were categorized and combined with three causal dimensions (internal-external locus, stability, and controllability), which served as dependent variables. Participants' expectations regarding performance also served as a dependent variable. The relationship between self-esteem, expectancies of success and failure, performance, and stable causality were reported. In terms of causal dimensions, internal, stable, and controllable dimensions were explained by self-enhancement.

  3. Attributional style and depressive mood reactions.

    PubMed

    Stiensmeier-Pelster, J

    1989-09-01

    According to the reformulated learned helplessness model of depression, individuals who characteristically attribute negative events to internal-stable-global causes become depressed when confronted with negative life events. This proposition was tested in a field and a laboratory study in settings with an interpersonal, socially relevant character. In the field study, the attributional style of 86 female college students was investigated before Christmas, and their mood was recorded both before and after Christmas. The laboratory study recorded the mood of 46 female students before and after either success or failure. In both studies changes in depressive mood were predicted by the Attribution X Outcome interaction. The direction and form of the interaction were in line with the diathesis-stress model. In the field study, but not the laboratory study, outcome was a significant predictor of changes in depressive mood.

  4. 20 CFR 345.118 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... calendar year because of an error that does not constitute a compensation adjustment as defined in... compensation adjustment as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, the employer shall adjust the error by... compensation, proper adjustments with respect to the contributions shall be made, without interest,...

  5. 20 CFR 345.118 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... calendar year because of an error that does not constitute a compensation adjustment as defined in... compensation adjustment as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, the employer shall adjust the error by... compensation, proper adjustments with respect to the contributions shall be made, without interest,...

  6. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  7. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  8. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  9. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  10. Process attributes in bio-ontologies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biomedical processes can provide essential information about the (mal-) functioning of an organism and are thus frequently represented in biomedical terminologies and ontologies, including the GO Biological Process branch. These processes often need to be described and categorised in terms of their attributes, such as rates or regularities. The adequate representation of such process attributes has been a contentious issue in bio-ontologies recently; and domain ontologies have correspondingly developed ad hoc workarounds that compromise interoperability and logical consistency. Results We present a design pattern for the representation of process attributes that is compatible with upper ontology frameworks such as BFO and BioTop. Our solution rests on two key tenets: firstly, that many of the sorts of process attributes which are biomedically interesting can be characterised by the ways that repeated parts of such processes constitute, in combination, an overall process; secondly, that entities for which a full logical definition can be assigned do not need to be treated as primitive within a formal ontology framework. We apply this approach to the challenge of modelling and automatically classifying examples of normal and abnormal rates and patterns of heart beating processes, and discuss the expressivity required in the underlying ontology representation language. We provide full definitions for process attributes at increasing levels of domain complexity. Conclusions We show that a logical definition of process attributes is feasible, though limited by the expressivity of DL languages so that the creation of primitives is still necessary. This finding may endorse current formal upper-ontology frameworks as a way of ensuring consistency, interoperability and clarity. PMID:22928880

  11. Affordable Care Act risk adjustment: overview, context, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C; Keenan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 2014, individuals and small businesses will be able to purchase private health insurance through competitive marketplaces. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides for a program of risk adjustment in the individual and small group markets in 2014 as Marketplaces are implemented and new market reforms take effect. The purpose of risk adjustment is to lessen or eliminate the influence of risk selection on the premiums that plans charge and the incentive for plans to avoid sicker enrollees. This article--the first of three in the Medicare & Medicaid Research Review--describes the key program goal and issues in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) developed risk adjustment methodology, and identifies key choices in how the methodology responds to these issues. The goal of the HHS risk adjustment methodology is to compensate health insurance plans for differences in enrollee health mix so that plan premiums reflect differences in scope of coverage and other plan factors, but not differences in health status. The methodology includes a risk adjustment model and a risk transfer formula that together address this program goal as well as three issues specific to ACA risk adjustment: 1) new population; 2) cost and rating factors; and 3) balanced transfers within state/market. The risk adjustment model, described in the second article, estimates differences in health risks taking into account the new population and scope of coverage (actuarial value level). The transfer formula, described in the third article, calculates balanced transfers that are intended to account for health risk differences while preserving permissible premium differences. PMID:25364625

  12. Pretest probability assessment derived from attribute matching

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Johnson, Charles L; Pollack, Charles V; Diercks, Deborah B; Hollander, Judd E; Newgard, Craig D; Garvey, J Lee

    2005-01-01

    Background Pretest probability (PTP) assessment plays a central role in diagnosis. This report compares a novel attribute-matching method to generate a PTP for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We compare the new method with a validated logistic regression equation (LRE). Methods Eight clinical variables (attributes) were chosen by classification and regression tree analysis of a prospectively collected reference database of 14,796 emergency department (ED) patients evaluated for possible ACS. For attribute matching, a computer program identifies patients within the database who have the exact profile defined by clinician input of the eight attributes. The novel method was compared with the LRE for ability to produce PTP estimation <2% in a validation set of 8,120 patients evaluated for possible ACS and did not have ST segment elevation on ECG. 1,061 patients were excluded prior to validation analysis because of ST-segment elevation (713), missing data (77) or being lost to follow-up (271). Results In the validation set, attribute matching produced 267 unique PTP estimates [median PTP value 6%, 1st–3rd quartile 1–10%] compared with the LRE, which produced 96 unique PTP estimates [median 24%, 1st–3rd quartile 10–30%]. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.74 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.82) for the attribute matching curve and 0.68 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.77) for LRE. The attribute matching system categorized 1,670 (24%, 95% CI = 23–25%) patients as having a PTP < 2.0%; 28 developed ACS (1.7% 95% CI = 1.1–2.4%). The LRE categorized 244 (4%, 95% CI = 3–4%) with PTP < 2.0%; four developed ACS (1.6%, 95% CI = 0.4–4.1%). Conclusion Attribute matching estimated a very low PTP for ACS in a significantly larger proportion of ED patients compared with a validated LRE. PMID:16095534

  13. Integrating stakeholder values with multiple attributes to quantify watershed performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shriver, Deborah M.; Randhir, Timothy O.

    2006-08-01

    Integrating stakeholder values into the process of quantifying impairment of ecosystem functions is an important aspect of watershed assessment and planning. This study develops a classification and prioritization model to assess potential impairment in watersheds. A systematic evaluation of a broad set of abiotic, biotic, and human indicators of watershed structure and function was used to identify the level of degradation at a subbasin scale. Agencies and communities can use the method to effectively target and allocate resources to areas of greatest restoration need. The watershed performance measure (WPM) developed in this study is composed of three major components: (1) hydrologic processes (water quantity and quality), (2) biodiversity at a species scale (core and priority habitat for rare and endangered species and species richness) and landscape scale (impacts of fragmentation), and (3) urban impacts as assessed in the built environment (effective impervious area) and population effects (densities and density of toxic waste sites). Simulation modeling using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), monitoring information, and spatial analysis with GIS were used to assess each criterion in developing this model. Weights for attributes of potential impairment were determined through the use of the attribute prioritization procedure with a panel of expert stakeholders. This procedure uses preselected attributes and corresponding stakeholder values and is data intensive. The model was applied to all subbasins of the Chicopee River Watershed of western Massachusetts, an area with a mixture of rural, heavily forested lands, suburban, and urbanized areas. Highly impaired subbasins in one community were identified using this methodology and evaluated for principal forms of degradation and potential restoration policies and BMPs. This attribute-based prioritization method could be used in identifying baselines, prioritization policies, and adaptive community

  14. Risk adjustment for high utilizers of public mental health care.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Kanika; Young, Alexander S.; Murata, Dennis

    2000-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Publicly funded mental health systems are increasingly implementing managed care systems, such as capitation, to control costs. Capitated contracts may increase the risk for disenrollment or adverse outcomes among high cost clients with severe mental illness. Risk-adjusted payments to providers are likely to reduce providers' incentives to avoid or under-treat these people. However, most research has focused on Medicare and private populations, and risk adjustment for individuals who are publicly funded and severely mentally ill has received far less attention. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Risk adjustment models for this population can be used to improve contracting for mental health care. Our objective is to develop risk adjustment models for individuals with severe mental illness and assess their performance in predicting future costs. We apply the risk adjustment model to predict costs for the first year of a pilot capitation program for the severely mentally ill that was not risk adjusted. We assess whether risk adjustment could have reduced disenrollment from this program. METHODS: This analysis uses longitudinal administrative data from the County of Los Angeles Department of Mental Health for the fiscal years 1991 to 1994. The sample consists of 1956 clients who have high costs and are severely mentally ill. We estimate several modified two part models of 1993 cost that use 1992 client-based variables such as demographics, living conditions, diagnoses and mental health costs (for 1992 and 1991) to explain the variation in mental health and substance abuse costs. RESULTS: We find that the model that incorporates demographic characteristics, diagnostic information and cost data from two previous years explains about 16 percent of the in-sample variation and 10 percent of the out-of-sample variation in costs. A model that excludes prior cost covariates explains only 5 percent of the variation in costs. Despite the relatively low predictive power, we find some

  15. Reduced fecundity in small populations of the rare plant Gentianopsis ciliate (Gentianaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Matthies, D.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat destruction is the main cause for the biodiversity crisis. Surviving populations are often fragmented, i.e., small and isolated from each other. Reproduction of plants in small populations is often reduced, and this has been attributed to inbreeding depression, reduced attractiveness for pollinators, and reduced habitat quality in small populations. Here we present data on the effects of fragmentation on the rare, self-compatible perennial herb Gentianopsis ciliata (Gentianaceae), a species with very small and presumably well-dispersed seeds. We studied the relationship between population size, plant size, and the number of flowers produced in 63 populations from 1996-1998. In one of the years, leaf and flower size and the number of seeds produced per fruit was studied in a subset of 25 populations. Plant size, flower size, and the number of seeds per fruit and per plant increased with population size, whereas leaf length and the number of flowers per plant did not. The effects of population size on reproduction and on flower size remained significant if the effects were adjusted for differences in plant size, indicating that they could not be explained by differences in habitat quality. The strongly reduced reproduction in small populations may be due to pollination limitation, while the reduced flower size could indicate genetic effects.

  16. Reduced fecundity in small populations of the rare plant Gentianopsis ciliate (Gentianaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    Habitat destruction is the main cause for the biodiversity crisis. Surviving populations are often fragmented, i.e., small and isolated from each other. Reproduction of plants in small populations is often reduced, and this has been attributed to inbreeding depression, reduced attractiveness for pollinators, and reduced habitat quality in small populations. Here we present data on the effects of fragmentation on the rare, self-compatible perennial herb Gentianopsis ciliata (Gentianaceae), a species with very small and presumably well-dispersed seeds. We studied the relationship between population size, plant size, and the number of flowers produced in 63 populations from 1996-1998. In one of the years, leaf and flower size and the number of seeds produced per fruit was studied in a subset of 25 populations. Plant size, flower size, and the number of seeds per fruit and per plant increased with population size, whereas leaf length and the number of flowers per plant did not. The effects of population size on reproduction and on flower size remained significant if the effects were adjusted for differences in plant size, indicating that they could not be explained by differences in habitat quality. The strongly reduced reproduction in small populations may be due to pollination limitation, while the reduced flower size could indicate genetic effects.

  17. Cognitive Diagnostic Attribute-Level Discrimination Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Robert; Roussos, Louis; Douglas, Jeff; He, Xuming

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) model the probability of correctly answering an item as a function of an examinee's attribute mastery pattern. Because estimation of the mastery pattern involves more than a continuous measure of ability, reliability concepts introduced by classical test theory and item response theory do not apply. The cognitive…

  18. Sex Differences in Attributions and Learned Helplessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jacquelynne Eccles

    1982-01-01

    Over 300 students assessed their causal attributions and expectations for success and failure in mathematics, and their self concepts of math ability. Results varied, depending on research method employed, but did not when taken together support the hypothesis that girls are more learned helpless in mathematics than are boys. (Author/GC)

  19. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire: A Conceptual Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Daniel

    The rich complexity of the concepts of masculinity and femininity has been reflected in personality measures in at least two different ways: by employing a variety of subscales with comparatively homogeneous items or by using a single scale with comparatively heterogeneous items. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) was the subject of an…

  20. Empathy and attribution: turning observers into actors.

    PubMed

    Regan, D T; Totten, J

    1975-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to test Jones and Nisbett's information-processing explanation of the often-observed tendency for individuals (actors) to provide relatively more situational and less dispositional causal attributions for their behavior than those provided by observers of the same behavior. According to this explanation, aspects of the situation are phenomenologically more salient for actors, whereas characteristics of the actor and his behavior are more salient for observers. To test this explanation, the phenomenological perspective of observers are altered without making available any additional information. Subjects watched a videotape of a get-acquainted conversation after instructions either to observe a target conversant or to empathize with her. As predicted, taking the perspective of the target through empathy resulted in attributions that were relatively more situational and less dispositional than attributions provided by standard observers. The results support Jones and Nisbett's information-processing explanation of actor-observer attributional differences, and shed additional light on the process of empathy.

  1. Acquiring Ownership and the Attribution of Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palamar, Max; Le, Doan T.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    How is ownership established over non-owned things? We suggest that people may view ownership as a kind of credit given to agents responsible for making possession of a non-owned object possible. On this view, judgments about the establishment of ownership depend on attributions of responsibility. We report three experiments showing that people's…

  2. The Modification of Compounds by Attributive Adjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the modification of nominal compounds by attributive adjectives in English. It draws on a distinction between compound-external (i.e. syntactic) and compound-internal (i.e. morphological) modification. An analysis is presented of more than 1000 pertinent cases, which are roughly equally divided into two-, three- and four-noun…

  3. Attributions and Coping Styles in Reducing Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Danielle; Craig, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the role of attributions and coping on children's victimization over time, 220 children completed questionnaires twice over a 6-month period. Direct and mediational models were tested using regressions, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Characterological self-blame was positively related to victimization within and across time for…

  4. Memory for Recently Accessed Visual Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Shupe, Joshua M.; Swallow, Khena M.; Tan, Deborah H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the attended features of an item may be rapidly forgotten once they are no longer relevant for an ongoing task (attribute amnesia). This finding relies on a surprise memory procedure that places high demands on declarative memory. We used intertrial priming to examine whether the representation of an item's…

  5. Flexible goal attribution in early mindreading.

    PubMed

    Michael, John; Christensen, Wayne

    2016-03-01

    The 2-systems theory developed by Apperly and Butterfill (2009; Butterfill & Apperly, 2013) is an influential approach to explaining the success of infants and young children on implicit false-belief tasks. There is extensive empirical and theoretical work examining many aspects of this theory, but little attention has been paid to the way in which it characterizes goal attribution. We argue here that this aspect of the theory is inadequate. Butterfill and Apperly's characterization of goal attribution is designed to show how goals could be ascribed by infants without representing them as related to other psychological states, and the minimal mindreading system is supposed to operate without employing flexible semantic-executive cognitive processes. But research on infant goal attribution reveals that infants exhibit a high degree of situational awareness that is strongly suggestive of flexible semantic-executive cognitive processing, and infants appear moreover to be sensitive to interrelations between goals, preferences, and beliefs. Further, close attention to the structure of implicit mindreading tasks--for which the theory was specifically designed--indicates that flexible goal attribution is required to succeed. We conclude by suggesting 2 approaches to resolving these problems. PMID:26413769

  6. 12 CFR 614.4359 - Attribution rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... outstanding to the borrower and attributed to the borrower when any one of the following three conditions... credit banks operating under title III authorities of the Act, look-through notes are exempt from the... percent or more of the related borrower's annual gross receipts, and reliance on the income from...

  7. 12 CFR 614.4359 - Attribution rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... outstanding to the borrower and attributed to the borrower when any one of the following three conditions... credit banks operating under title III authorities of the Act, look-through notes are exempt from the... percent or more of the related borrower's annual gross receipts, and reliance on the income from...

  8. Attribution of Hostile Intent in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadel, Barbara S.; Altrocchi, John

    1969-01-01

    Presents a selective literary analysis, including Melville, Shakespeare, J. P. Donleavy, Truman Capote, Dostoevsky, Emily Bronte, Ken Kesey and John Knowles, that attempts to show which types of people attribute hostile intent to which other types of people under which conditions. (MB)

  9. Aspirations, Attributions, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, William; McNall, Sidne J.

    Self-evaluation is thought to play a major role in personality and motivation. Preliminary experience with success or failure, levels of aspiration, attributions for performance, and locus of control may all be interrelated factors in human motivation. After receiving success, failure, or no feedback on a concept formation task, subjects (N=90)…

  10. Multi-Attribute Consensus Building Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyyan, Vitaliy; Christensen, Laurene; Thurlow, Martha; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Attribute Consensus Building (MACB) method is a quantitative approach for determining a group's opinion about the importance of each item (strategy, decision, recommendation, policy, priority, etc.) on a list (Vanderwood, & Erickson, 1994). This process enables a small or large group of participants to generate and discuss a set…

  11. Object Discovery: Soft Attributed Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanshi; Song, Xuan; Shao, Xiaowei; Zhao, Huijing; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-03-01

    We categorize this research in terms of its contribution to both graph theory and computer vision. From the theoretical perspective, this study can be considered as the first attempt to formulate the idea of mining maximal frequent subgraphs in the challenging domain of messy visual data, and as a conceptual extension to the unsupervised learning of graph matching. We define a soft attributed pattern (SAP) to represent the common subgraph pattern among a set of attributed relational graphs (ARGs), considering both their structure and attributes. Regarding the differences between ARGs with fuzzy attributes and conventional labeled graphs, we propose a new mining strategy that directly extracts the SAP with the maximal graph size without applying node enumeration. Given an initial graph template and a number of ARGs, we develop an unsupervised method to modify the graph template into the maximal-size SAP. From a practical perspective, this research develops a general platform for learning the category model (i.e., the SAP) from cluttered visual data (i.e., the ARGs) without labeling "what is where," thereby opening the possibility for a series of applications in the era of big visual data. Experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method on RGB/RGB-D images and videos.

  12. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  13. Object Discovery: Soft Attributed Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanshi; Song, Xuan; Shao, Xiaowei; Zhao, Huijing; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-03-01

    We categorize this research in terms of its contribution to both graph theory and computer vision. From the theoretical perspective, this study can be considered as the first attempt to formulate the idea of mining maximal frequent subgraphs in the challenging domain of messy visual data, and as a conceptual extension to the unsupervised learning of graph matching. We define a soft attributed pattern (SAP) to represent the common subgraph pattern among a set of attributed relational graphs (ARGs), considering both their structure and attributes. Regarding the differences between ARGs with fuzzy attributes and conventional labeled graphs, we propose a new mining strategy that directly extracts the SAP with the maximal graph size without applying node enumeration. Given an initial graph template and a number of ARGs, we develop an unsupervised method to modify the graph template into the maximal-size SAP. From a practical perspective, this research develops a general platform for learning the category model (i.e., the SAP) from cluttered visual data (i.e., the ARGs) without labeling "what is where," thereby opening the possibility for a series of applications in the era of big visual data. Experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method on RGB/RGB-D images and videos. PMID:27046496

  14. Infants Attribute to Agents Goals and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Choi, You-jung

    2012-01-01

    This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). What do infants know about agents' goals? The authors see this issue consisting of two closely related questions. First, what is an agent to infants? Second, how do infants attribute goals to agents? Hernik and Southgage (H&S) focused on the second question.…

  15. Desirable ICT Graduate Attributes: Theory vs. Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debuse, J.; Lawley, M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of ICT graduates must begin their careers by successfully fulfilling the requirements advertised within online recruitment sites. Although considerable research into employer requirements is commonly undertaken when preparing curricula, studies investigating how well the graduate attributes on which curricula are based match those…

  16. ANALYZING CORRELATIONS BETWEEN STREAM AND WATERSHED ATTRIBUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bivariate correlation analysis has been widely used to explore relationships between stream and watershed attributes that have all been measured on the same set of watersheds or sampling locations. Researchers routinely test H0: =0 for each correlation in a large table and then ...

  17. Diabetes burden in Brazil: fraction attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight.

    PubMed

    Flor, Luísa Sorio; Campos, Monica Rodrigues; Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira de; Schramm, Joyce Mendes de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its percentage attributable to overweight and obesity in Brazil. METHODS The burden of diabetes mellitus was described in terms of disability-adjusted life years, which is the sum of two components: years of life lost and years lived with disability. To calculate the fraction of diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight, we used the prevalence of these risk factors according to sex and age groups (> 20 years) obtained from the 2008 Pesquisa Dimensões Sociais das Desigualdades (Social Dimensions of Inequality Survey) and the relative risks derived from the international literature. RESULTS Diabetes mellitus accounted for 5.4% of Brazilian disability-adjusted life years in 2008, with the largest fraction attributed to the morbidity component (years lived with disability). Women exhibited higher values for disability-adjusted life years. In Brazil, 49.2%, 58.3%, and 70.6% of diabetes mellitus in women was attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight, respectively. Among men, these percentages were 40.5%, 45.4%, and 60.3%, respectively. Differences were observed with respect to Brazilian regions and age groups. CONCLUSIONS A large fraction of diabetes mellitus was attributable to preventable individual risk factors and, in about six years, the contribution of these factors significant increased, particularly among men. Policies aimed at promoting healthy lifestyle habits, such as a balanced diet and physical activity, can have a significant impact on reducing the burden of diabetes mellitus in Brazil. PMID:26018787

  18. Diabetes burden in Brazil: fraction attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight

    PubMed Central

    Flor, Luísa Sorio; Campos, Monica Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira; Schramm, Joyce Mendes de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its percentage attributable to overweight and obesity in Brazil. METHODS The burden of diabetes mellitus was described in terms of disability-adjusted life years, which is the sum of two components: years of life lost and years lived with disability. To calculate the fraction of diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight, we used the prevalence of these risk factors according to sex and age groups (> 20 years) obtained from the 2008 Pesquisa Dimensões Sociais das Desigualdades (Social Dimensions of Inequality Survey) and the relative risks derived from the international literature. RESULTS Diabetes mellitus accounted for 5.4% of Brazilian disability-adjusted life years in 2008, with the largest fraction attributed to the morbidity component (years lived with disability). Women exhibited higher values for disability-adjusted life years. In Brazil, 49.2%, 58.3%, and 70.6% of diabetes mellitus in women was attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight, respectively. Among men, these percentages were 40.5%, 45.4%, and 60.3%, respectively. Differences were observed with respect to Brazilian regions and age groups. CONCLUSIONS A large fraction of diabetes mellitus was attributable to preventable individual risk factors and, in about six years, the contribution of these factors significant increased, particularly among men. Policies aimed at promoting healthy lifestyle habits, such as a balanced diet and physical activity, can have a significant impact on reducing the burden of diabetes mellitus in Brazil. PMID:26018787

  19. Diabetes burden in Brazil: fraction attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight.

    PubMed

    Flor, Luísa Sorio; Campos, Monica Rodrigues; Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira de; Schramm, Joyce Mendes de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its percentage attributable to overweight and obesity in Brazil. METHODS The burden of diabetes mellitus was described in terms of disability-adjusted life years, which is the sum of two components: years of life lost and years lived with disability. To calculate the fraction of diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight, we used the prevalence of these risk factors according to sex and age groups (> 20 years) obtained from the 2008 Pesquisa Dimensões Sociais das Desigualdades (Social Dimensions of Inequality Survey) and the relative risks derived from the international literature. RESULTS Diabetes mellitus accounted for 5.4% of Brazilian disability-adjusted life years in 2008, with the largest fraction attributed to the morbidity component (years lived with disability). Women exhibited higher values for disability-adjusted life years. In Brazil, 49.2%, 58.3%, and 70.6% of diabetes mellitus in women was attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight, respectively. Among men, these percentages were 40.5%, 45.4%, and 60.3%, respectively. Differences were observed with respect to Brazilian regions and age groups. CONCLUSIONS A large fraction of diabetes mellitus was attributable to preventable individual risk factors and, in about six years, the contribution of these factors significant increased, particularly among men. Policies aimed at promoting healthy lifestyle habits, such as a balanced diet and physical activity, can have a significant impact on reducing the burden of diabetes mellitus in Brazil.

  20. Prioritizing the Determinants of Social-health Inequality in Iran: A Multiple Attribute Decision Making Application

    PubMed Central

    Zaboli, Rouhollah; Tourani, Sogand; Seyedin, Seyed Hesam; Oliaie Manesh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the main challenges of healthcare systems of developing countries is health inequality. Health inequality means inequality in individuals’ ability and proper functioning, resulting in inequality in social status and living conditions, which thwarts social interventions implemented by the government. Objectives: This study aimed to determine and prioritize the social determinants of health inequality in Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a mixed method study with two phases of qualitative and quantitative research. The study population consisted of experts dealing with social determinants of health. A purposive, stratified and non-random sampling method was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data along with a multiple attribute decision making method for the quantitative phase of the research in which the TOPSIS technique was employed for prioritization. The qualitative findings were entered into NVivo for analysis, as were the quantitative data entered into MATLAB software. Results: The results approved the suitability of the conceptual framework of social determinants of health suggested by the WHO (world health organization) for studying social determinants of health inequality; however, this framework general and theoretical rather than a guideline for practice. Thus, in this study, 15 themes and 31 sub-themes were determined as social determinants of social health inequality in Iran. Based on the findings of the quantitative phase of our research, socioeconomic status, living facilities such as housing, and social integrity had the greatest effect on decreasing health inequality. Conclusions: A major part of the inequality in health distribution is avoidable because they are mostly caused by adjustable factors like economic conditions, educational conditions, employment, living facilities, etc. As in the majority of developing countries the living and health conditions are the same as Iran, the

  1. The cost of hypertension-related ill-health attributable to environmental noise.

    PubMed

    Harding, Anne-Helen; Frost, Gillian A; Tan, Emma; Tsuchiya, Aki; Mason, Howard M

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is associated with environmental noise exposure and is a risk factor for a range of health outcomes. The study aims were to identify key HT related health outcomes and to quantify and monetize the impact on health outcomes attributable to environmental noise-related HT. A reiterative literature review identified key HT related health outcomes and their quantitative links with HT. The health impact of increases in environmental noise above recommended daytime noise levels (55 dB[A]) were quantified in terms of quality adjusted life years and then monetized. A case study evaluated the cost of environmental noise, using published data on health risks and the number of people exposed to various bands of environmental noise levels in the United Kingdom (UK). Three health outcomes were selected based on the strength of evidence linking them with HT and their current impact on society: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and dementia. In the UK population, an additional 542 cases of HT-related AMI, 788 cases of stroke and 1169 cases of dementia were expected per year due to daytime noise levels ≥55 dB(A). The cost of these additional cases was valued at around £1.09 billion, with dementia accounting for 44%. The methodology is dependent on the availability and quality of published data and the resulting valuations reflect these limitations. The estimated intangible cost provides an insight into the scale of the health impacts and conversely the benefits that the implementation of policies to manage environmental noise may confer.

  2. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  3. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  4. Population studies.

    PubMed

    Heenan, B

    1989-01-01

    A number of studies have been published about the population change in New Zealand between 1936 and 1986. During this time an intellectual and demographic revolution also took place simultaneously. From 1961 and 1986 the population increased from 2.4 million to 3.3 million mainly because of Polynesian immigration, and the elderly and females also increased. The Maoris became urban. Mortality stayed stable, but fertility declined to below replacement level in the 1980's. Murray Wilson (1988) analyzed the relationship of fertility and mortality in terms of a post-transitional (developed) society like Australia or the European norm of a 2-children family. In his view the youth culture, television, and female aspirations greatly influenced childrearing. Daniel Noin (1988) examined the current state of geographical research on mortality from a methodological point of view finding wide differences in mortality in Quebec, Brussels, Paris, and London attributable to culture. Mosley and Chen (1984) argued that social, cultural, and economic factors to mortality are mediated by individual, household, and community variables. Jones and Moon (1987) dealt with medical geography in the context of the consumption of health care and disease ecology. Momsen and Townsend (1987) addressed the role of women in developing countries stating that gender is socially created and it examined the worldwide subordination of women. In the 1980's a host of other authors have also touched on the subject of the demography of gender analyzing discrimination against female children, unmarried American women, and single parent families. Yet Fahey (1988) stated that gender was only regarded relevant by Australian geographers as a demographic variable. PMID:12283966

  5. Neural correlates of attributing causes to the self, another person and the situation.

    PubMed

    Kestemont, Jenny; Ma, Ning; Baetens, Kris; Clément, Nikki; Van Overwalle, Frank; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study compares brain activation during causal attribution to three different loci, the self, another person and the situation; and further explores correlations with clinical scales (i.e. depression, anxiety and autism) in a typical population. While they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, 20 participants read short sentences about another person ('someone') who engaged in behaviors with the participant or made comments about the participant. The participants then attributed these behaviors to three attribution loci: themselves, the other person or the situation. The results revealed common activation across the three attribution loci in the bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), left posterior superior temporal sulcus, precuneus and right temporal pole (TP). Comparisons between the attribution loci revealed very little differences, except for increased activation of the right TP while making attributions to the situation compared with the self. In addition, when making attributions to the situation or other persons for negative events, there were reliable correlations between low activity in the left TPJ and high levels of anxiety and problematic social interaction in autism. The results indicate that attributions to different loci are based on the same underlying brain process, which might be atypical among persons with anxiety or autism symptoms.

  6. Exploring Mexican American adolescent romantic relationship profiles and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Danyel A V; Roosa, Mark W

    2015-08-01

    Although Mexican Americans are the largest ethnic minority group in the nation, knowledge is limited regarding this population's adolescent romantic relationships. This study explored whether 12th grade Mexican Americans' (N = 218; 54% female) romantic relationship characteristics, cultural values, and gender created unique latent classes and if so, whether they were linked to adjustment. Latent class analyses suggested three profiles including, relatively speaking, higher, satisfactory, and lower quality romantic relationships. Regression analyses indicated these profiles had distinct associations with adjustment. Specifically, adolescents with higher and satisfactory quality romantic relationships reported greater future family expectations, higher self-esteem, and fewer externalizing symptoms than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Similarly, adolescents with higher quality romantic relationships reported greater academic self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Overall, results suggested higher quality romantic relationships were most optimal for adjustment. Future research directions and implications are discussed. PMID:26141198

  7. Integrating Risk Adjustment and Enrollee Premiums in Health Plan Payment

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Thomas G.; Glazer, Jacob; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Shi, Julie; Sinaiko, Anna D.; Zuvekas, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    In two important health policy contexts – private plans in Medicare and the new state-run “Exchanges” created as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) – plan payments come from two sources: risk-adjusted payments from a Regulator and premiums charged to individual enrollees. This paper derives principles for integrating risk-adjusted payments and premium policy in individual health insurance markets based on fitting total plan payments to health plan costs per person as closely as possible. A least squares regression including both health status and variables used in premiums reveals the weights a Regulator should put on risk adjusters when markets determine premiums. We apply the methods to an Exchange-eligible population drawn from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). PMID:24308878

  8. Linking amphibian call structure to the environment: the interplay between phenotypic flexibility and individual attributes.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Lucía; Arim, Matías; Narins, Peter M

    2011-05-01

    The structure of the environment surrounding signal emission produces different patterns of degradation and attenuation. The expected adjustment of calls to ensure signal transmission in an environment was formalized in the acoustic adaptation hypothesis. Within this framework, most studies considered anuran calls as fixed attributes determined by local adaptations. However, variability in vocalizations as a product of phenotypic expression has also been reported. Empirical evidence supporting the association between environment and call structure has been inconsistent, particularly in anurans. Here, we identify a plausible causal structure connecting environment, individual attributes, and temporal and spectral adjustments as direct or indirect determinants of the observed variation in call attributes of the frog Hypsiboas pulchellus. For that purpose, we recorded the calls of 40 males in the field, together with vegetation density and other environmental descriptors of the calling site. Path analysis revealed a strong effect of habitat structure on the temporal parameters of the call, and an effect of site temperature conditioning the size of organisms calling at each site and thus indirectly affecting the dominant frequency of the call. Experimental habitat modification with a styrofoam enclosure yielded results consistent with field observations, highlighting the potential role of call flexibility on detected call patterns. Both, experimental and correlative results indicate the need to incorporate the so far poorly considered role of phenotypic plasticity in the complex connection between environmental structure and individual call attributes.

  9. Response Patterns in Health State Valuation Using Endogenous Attribute Attendance and Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hole, Arne Risa; Norman, Richard; Viney, Rosalie

    2016-02-01

    Not accounting for simplifying decision-making heuristics when modelling data from discrete choice experiments has been shown potentially to lead to biased inferences. This study considers two ways of exploring the presence of attribute non-attendance (that is, respondents considering only a subset of the attributes that define the choice options) in a health state valuation discrete choice experiment. The methods used include the latent class (LC) and endogenous attribute attendance (EAA) models, which both required adjustment to reflect the structure of the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) framework for valuing health outcomes. We find that explicit consideration of attendance patterns substantially improves model fit. The impact of allowing for non-attendance on the estimated QALY weights is dependent on the assumed source of non-attendance. If non-attendance is interpreted as a form of preference heterogeneity, then the inferences from the LC and EAA models are similar to those from standard models, while if respondents ignore attributes to simplify the choice task, the QALY weights differ from those using the standard approach. Because the cause of non-attendance is unknown in the absence of additional data, a policymaker may use the range of weights implied by the two approaches to conduct a sensitivity analysis.

  10. Linking amphibian call structure to the environment: the interplay between phenotypic flexibility and individual attributes.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Lucía; Arim, Matías; Narins, Peter M

    2011-05-01

    The structure of the environment surrounding signal emission produces different patterns of degradation and attenuation. The expected adjustment of calls to ensure signal transmission in an environment was formalized in the acoustic adaptation hypothesis. Within this framework, most studies considered anuran calls as fixed attributes determined by local adaptations. However, variability in vocalizations as a product of phenotypic expression has also been reported. Empirical evidence supporting the association between environment and call structure has been inconsistent, particularly in anurans. Here, we identify a plausible causal structure connecting environment, individual attributes, and temporal and spectral adjustments as direct or indirect determinants of the observed variation in call attributes of the frog Hypsiboas pulchellus. For that purpose, we recorded the calls of 40 males in the field, together with vegetation density and other environmental descriptors of the calling site. Path analysis revealed a strong effect of habitat structure on the temporal parameters of the call, and an effect of site temperature conditioning the size of organisms calling at each site and thus indirectly affecting the dominant frequency of the call. Experimental habitat modification with a styrofoam enclosure yielded results consistent with field observations, highlighting the potential role of call flexibility on detected call patterns. Both, experimental and correlative results indicate the need to incorporate the so far poorly considered role of phenotypic plasticity in the complex connection between environmental structure and individual call attributes. PMID:22479134

  11. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P; Chylarecki, Przemysław; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Noble, David G; Reif, Jiri; Schmid, Hans; van Turnhout, Chris; Burfield, Ian J; Foppen, Ruud; Voříšek, Petr; van Strien, Arco; Gregory, Richard D; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses that can be attributed to both climate change and land-use change, including long-term increases in populations of hot-dwelling species and declines in long-distance migrants and farmland specialists. In contrast, analysis of annual growth rates yield novel insights into the potential mechanisms driving long-term climate induced change. In particular, we find that birds are affected by winter, spring, and summer conditions depending on the distinct breeding phenology that corresponds to their migratory strategy. Birds in general benefit from higher temperatures or higher primary productivity early on or in the peak of the breeding season with the largest effect sizes observed in cooler parts of species' climatic ranges. Our results document the potential of combining time scales and integrating both species attributes and environmental variables for global change attribution. We suggest such an approach will be of general use when high-resolution time series are available in large-scale biodiversity surveys. PMID:26486804

  12. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P; Chylarecki, Przemysław; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Noble, David G; Reif, Jiri; Schmid, Hans; van Turnhout, Chris; Burfield, Ian J; Foppen, Ruud; Voříšek, Petr; van Strien, Arco; Gregory, Richard D; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses that can be attributed to both climate change and land-use change, including long-term increases in populations of hot-dwelling species and declines in long-distance migrants and farmland specialists. In contrast, analysis of annual growth rates yield novel insights into the potential mechanisms driving long-term climate induced change. In particular, we find that birds are affected by winter, spring, and summer conditions depending on the distinct breeding phenology that corresponds to their migratory strategy. Birds in general benefit from higher temperatures or higher primary productivity early on or in the peak of the breeding season with the largest effect sizes observed in cooler parts of species' climatic ranges. Our results document the potential of combining time scales and integrating both species attributes and environmental variables for global change attribution. We suggest such an approach will be of general use when high-resolution time series are available in large-scale biodiversity surveys.

  13. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  14. Causal attributions of obese men and women in genetic testing: implications of genetic/biological attributions.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Dierk, Jan-Michael; Conradt, Matthias; Schlumberger, Pia; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Rief, Winfried

    2009-09-01

    The present study sought to investigate genetic/biological attributions of obesity, their associations with a predisposition to obesity and their crossectional and longitudinal implications for weight regulation in obese individuals presenting for genetic testing and counselling. A total of 421 obese men and women underwent psychological and anthropometric assessment and a mutation screen of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene. At study entry, women revealed more genetic/biological attributions than men on the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted to obesity (86.2% versus 59.7%). Genetic/biological attributions of obesity were associated in both sexes with a family history of obesity, assessed through Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale. In both sexes, genetic/biological attributions were unrelated to weight regulation beliefs and behaviour (i.e. self-efficacy, controllability beliefs, restrained eating and physical activity), assessed through standardised questionnaires or interview at baseline and at six-month follow-up. In addition, causal attributions and weight regulation beliefs and behaviour were not predictive of body mass index at six-month follow-up. Overall, the results indicate that causal attributions of obesity to genetic/biological factors in obese individuals presenting for genetic screening and counselling are crossectionally and longitudinally unrelated to weight regulation and longer-term weight outcome. Those who attribute their obesity to genetic/biological factors likely have a familial obesity risk. PMID:20205024

  15. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  16. Sentencing goals, causal attributions, ideology, and personality.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J S; Perkowitz, W T; Lurigio, A J; Weaver, F M

    1987-01-01

    Disparity in sentencing of criminals has been related to a variety of individual difference variables. We propose a framework establishing resonances or coherent patterns among sentencing goals, causal attributions, ideology, and personality. Two studies are described, one with law and criminology students, the other with probation officers. Relations among the different types of variables reveal two resonances among both students and officers. One comprises various conservative and moralistic elements: a tough, punitive stance toward crime; belief in individual causality for crime; high scores on authoritarianism, dogmatism, and internal locus of control; lower moral stage; and political conservatism. The second comprises various liberal elements: rehabilitation, belief in economic and other external determinants of crime, higher moral stage, and belief in the powers and responsibilities of government to correct social problems. Implications of these results are discussed for individual differences in sentencing, attribution theory, and attempts to reduce disparity.

  17. Innovation cascades: artefacts, organization and attributions.

    PubMed

    Lane, David A

    2016-03-19

    Innovation cascades inextricably link the introduction of new artefacts, transformations in social organization, and the emergence of new functionalities and new needs. This paper describes a positive feedback dynamic, exaptive bootstrapping, through which these cascades proceed, and the characteristics of the relationships in which the new attributions that drive this dynamic are generated. It concludes by arguing that the exaptive bootstrapping dynamic is the principal driver of our current Innovation Society.

  18. Chronic Cholestatic Liver Injury Attributable to Vedolizumab

    PubMed Central

    Stine, Jonathan G.; Wang, Jennifer; Behm, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Drug-induced liver injury is a rare but clinically important diagnosis. Vedolizumab is an α4β7 integrin inhibitor recently approved for use in patients with moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease. Cases of hepatoxicity due to vedolizumab in the pre-marketing stage were rare, and all cases resolved upon drug withdrawal. We present here the first reported case of hepatotoxicity attributable to vedolizumab, which despite drug cessation persisted with chronic cholestatic liver injury. PMID:27777897

  19. Time valuation of historical outbreak attribution data.

    PubMed

    Ebel, E D; Williams, M S; Golden, N J; Schlosser, W D; Travis, C

    2016-01-01

    Human illness attribution is recognized as an important metric for prioritizing and informing food-safety decisions and for monitoring progress towards long-term food-safety goals. Inferences regarding the proportion of illnesses attributed to a specific commodity class are often based on analyses of datasets describing the number of outbreaks in a given year or combination of years. In many countries, the total number of pathogen-related outbreaks reported nationwide for an implicated food source is often fewer than 50 instances in a given year and the number of years for which data are available can be fewer than 10. Therefore, a high degree of uncertainty is associated with the estimated fraction of pathogen-related outbreaks attributed to a general food commodity. Although it is possible to make inferences using only data from the most recent year, this type of estimation strategy ignores the data collected in previous years. Thus, a strong argument exists for an estimator that could 'borrow strength' from data collected in the previous years by combining the current data with the data from previous years. While many estimators exist for combining multiple years of data, most either require more data than is currently available or lack an objective and biologically plausible theoretical basis. This study introduces an estimation strategy that progressively reduces the influence of data collected in past years in accordance with the degree of departure from a Poisson process. The methodology is applied to the estimation of the attribution fraction for Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 for common food commodities and the estimates are compared against two alternative estimators.

  20. Fuzzy attributes for knowledge representation and acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L.; Webster, R.B.

    1996-04-01

    Repertory grids and other matrix-like structures can be used to represent knowledge and elicit knowledge from experts. A grid or matrix is a representation of a knowledge domain where the elements in the domain appear long the horizontal axis and constructs or attributes of the elements appear along the horizontal axis and constructs or attributes of the elements appear along the vertical axis. Each construct is rated for its presence in a given element or how much a construct applies to an element. Analysis of these ratings can determine similarities and differences between the elements. Traditionally, constructs are bipolar entities where a rating falls on a range from one pole to the other. For example, temperature may be represented by the bipolar construct hot-cold and a range of 1 to 5 in which 1 represents hot and 5 represents cold. Ratings of 2, 3, and 4 lie in between hot and cold. Additionally, all constructs in a grid have the same range of values and the range in arbitrarily chosen. This paper presents a method for translating grid ratings in to fuzzy membership values. The fuzzy membership values become the values for describing and analyzing the associations between elements. Thus, constructs no longer need to use the same scaling range and no longer need to be bipolar. A construct of an element now becomes a true attribute of an element. An attribute can be rated in its own range and with its own unit of measurement. In the previous example, the bipolar construct hot-cold becomes simply, temperature measured in degrees. Experts or users need no longer translate to an artificial rating range.

  1. Time valuation of historical outbreak attribution data.

    PubMed

    Ebel, E D; Williams, M S; Golden, N J; Schlosser, W D; Travis, C

    2016-01-01

    Human illness attribution is recognized as an important metric for prioritizing and informing food-safety decisions and for monitoring progress towards long-term food-safety goals. Inferences regarding the proportion of illnesses attributed to a specific commodity class are often based on analyses of datasets describing the number of outbreaks in a given year or combination of years. In many countries, the total number of pathogen-related outbreaks reported nationwide for an implicated food source is often fewer than 50 instances in a given year and the number of years for which data are available can be fewer than 10. Therefore, a high degree of uncertainty is associated with the estimated fraction of pathogen-related outbreaks attributed to a general food commodity. Although it is possible to make inferences using only data from the most recent year, this type of estimation strategy ignores the data collected in previous years. Thus, a strong argument exists for an estimator that could 'borrow strength' from data collected in the previous years by combining the current data with the data from previous years. While many estimators exist for combining multiple years of data, most either require more data than is currently available or lack an objective and biologically plausible theoretical basis. This study introduces an estimation strategy that progressively reduces the influence of data collected in past years in accordance with the degree of departure from a Poisson process. The methodology is applied to the estimation of the attribution fraction for Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 for common food commodities and the estimates are compared against two alternative estimators. PMID:26095014

  2. Software attribute visualization for high integrity software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.

  3. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-29

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along `phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines.

  4. Issues with inferring Internet topological attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Lisa D.; Shaikh, Anees; Schulzrinne, Henning G.

    2002-07-01

    A number of recent studies are based on data collected from routing tables of inter-domain routers utilizing Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and tools, such as traceroute, to probe end-to-end paths. The goal is to infer Internet topological properties. However, as more data is collected, it becomes obvious that data intended to represent the same properties, if gathered at different points within the network, can depict significantly different characteristics. While systematic data collection from a number of network vantage points can reduce certain ambiguities, thus far, no methods have been reported for fully resolving these issues. The goal of our study was to quantify the effect these anomalies have on key Internet structural attributes. We report on our analysis of over 290,000 measurements from globally distributed sites. We contrast results obtained from router-level measurements with those obtained from BGP routing tables, and offer insights as to why certain inferred properties differ. We demonstrate that the effect on some attributes, such as the average path length and the AS degree distribution can be minimized through careful data collection techniques. We also illustrate how using this same data to model other attributes, such as the actual forwarding path between a pair of nodes, or the level of AS path asymmetry, can produce substantially misleading results.

  5. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2005-11-04

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R&D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development.

  6. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meghan A; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2012-02-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers' and fathers' parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with lower parenting self-efficacy, but self-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with higher parenting satisfaction. For fathers, societal-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with higher parenting stress, whereas higher levels of self-oriented parenting perfectionism were associated with higher parenting self-efficacy, lower parenting stress, and greater parenting satisfaction. These findings support the distinction between societal- and self-oriented perfectionism, extend research on perfectionism to interpersonal adjustment in the parenting domain, and provide the first evidence for the potential consequences of holding excessively high standards for parenting. PMID:22328797

  7. Adjustment Disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Adjustment Disorder is a condition strongly tied to acute and chronic stress. Despite clinical suggestion of a large prevalence in the general population and the high frequency of its diagnosis in the clinical settings, there has been relatively little research reported and, consequently, very few hints about its treatments. Methods the authors gathered old and current information on the epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidity, treatment and outcome of adjustment disorder by a systematic review of essays published on PUBMED. Results After a first glance at its historical definition and its definition in the DSM and ICD systems, the problem of distinguishing AD from other mood and anxiety disorders, the difficulty in the definition of stress and the implied concept of 'vulnerability' are considered. Comorbidity of AD with other conditions, and outcome of AD are then analyzed. This review also highlights recent data about trends in the use of antidepressant drugs, evidence on their efficacy and the use of psychotherapies. Conclusion AD is a very common diagnosis in clinical practice, but we still lack data about its rightful clinical entity. This may be caused by a difficulty in facing, with a purely descriptive methods, a "pathogenic label", based on a stressful event, for which a subjective impact has to be considered. We lack efficacy surveys concerning treatment. The use of psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants, in AD with anxious or depressed mood is not properly supported and should be avoided, while the usefulness of psychotherapies is more solidly supported by clinical evidence. To better determine the correct course of therapy, randomized-controlled trials, even for the combined use of drugs and psychotherapies, are needed vitally, especially for the resistant forms of AD. PMID:19558652

  8. Taxonomic congruence in Eskimoid populations.

    PubMed

    Zegura, S L

    1975-09-01

    The study compares distance relationships in Eskimoid populations based on metric and attribute data with linguistic relationships based on structural and lexicostatistical data. Taxonomic congruence and the non-specificity hypothesis are investigated by matrix correlations and by a clustering procedure. The matrix correlation approaches employed are the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient. An unweighted pair-group clustering procedure provides a visual comparison of biological and linguistic relationships. Data consist of 74 craniometric measurements and 28 cranial observations taken on 12 Eskimoid populations. Mahalanobis' D2 and Balakrishnan and Sanghvi's B2 were used to compute the metric and attribute distances, respectively. The results indicate that a strict adherence to the non-specificity hypothesis is untenable. Also, there is better concordance between the sexes for metric distances than for attribute distances, and the metric data are more concordant with linguistic relationships than are the attribute data.

  9. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2001-04-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is on schedule and making unplanned discoveries in addition to those intended when the project commenced. The discoveries, planned and unplanned, can be grouped into four classes: pitfalls to avoid in interpretation of seismic attributes; suggested workflows to follow in working with seismic attributes; new methods of calculating certain new attributes which we feel to be useful; and new theoretical approaches to certain petrophysical properties. We are using data from Wyoming, North Texas, South Texas, and the Gulf of Mexico offshore of Louisiana. These environments provide a diverse array of physical conditions and rock types, and a variety of interpretation methods to be applied to them. The Wyoming field is a very difficult one, including alternating layers of thin beds of coals, shales, and hard sandstones, and there may be an observable effect due to hydrocarbon production; we are using this field as the ''test'' of those techniques and methods we have developed or that we prefer based on our work on the other fields. Work on this field is still underway, although progressing nicely. The work on the public domain data sets in Texas, Boonsville and Stratton, is complete except for some minor additional processing steps, and final write-ups are underway. The work on the Gulf of Mexico field has been completed to the extent originally planned, but it has led us to such important new observations and discoveries that we have expanded our original scope to include time-lapse studies and petrophysical aspects of pressure changes; work on this expanded scope is continuing. Presentations have been made at professional-society meetings, company offices, consortium workshops, and university settings. Papers, including one review paper on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' have been published. Several Master's theses, which will spin off one or more published papers each, are in their final stages of

  10. Adjusting the Contour of Reflector Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Giebler, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Postfabrication adjustment of contour of panels for reflector, such as parabolic reflector for radio antennas, possible with simple mechanism consisting of threaded stud, two nuts, and flexure. Contours adjusted manually.

  11. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.

    1978-01-01

    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  12. Self-adjustable glasses in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Gudlavalleti, Venkata S Murthy; Allagh, Komal Preet; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sv

    2014-01-01

    of the fluid-filled adjustable spectacles (AdSpecs, Adaptive Eyecare Ltd, Oxford, UK) is that once the spectacles are self-adjusted and the power fixed, they become unalterable, just like conventional spectacles. Therefore, they will need to be changed as refractive power changes over time. Current costs of adjustable spectacles are high in developing countries and therefore not affordable to a large segment of the population. Self-adjustable spectacles have potential for "upscaling" if some of the concerns raised are addressed satisfactorily.

  13. Generalized adjustment by least squares ( GALS).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elassal, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The least-squares principle is universally accepted as the basis for adjustment procedures in the allied fields of geodesy, photogrammetry and surveying. A prototype software package for Generalized Adjustment by Least Squares (GALS) is described. The package is designed to perform all least-squares-related functions in a typical adjustment program. GALS is capable of supporting development of adjustment programs of any size or degree of complexity. -Author

  14. Self-reported adjustment of teenagers at soccer training centers: the Soccer Trainee Adjustment Scale.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Raphaël; Nicolas, Michel; Labruère-Chazal, Catherine; Lacassagne, Marie-Françoise

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire to measure adjustment of teenagers at soccer training centers, particularly newcomers. The Soccer Trainee Adjustment Scale was adapted from the Institutional Integration Scale and assesses the trainee's adjustment to operating and social activities. The scale was tested on a sample of 136 trainees from four soccer centers. Exploratory analysis indicated that the 13 items formed five factors: peer adjustment, boarding supervisor adjustment, soccer adjustment, scholastic adjustment, and boarding adjustment. These factors had internal consistency reliability ranging from .76 to .94.

  15. City Forensics: Using Visual Elements to Predict Non-Visual City Attributes.

    PubMed

    Arietta, Sean M; Efros, Alexei A; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Agrawala, Maneesh

    2014-12-01

    We present a method for automatically identifying and validating predictive relationships between the visual appearance of a city and its non-visual attributes (e.g. crime statistics, housing prices, population density etc.). Given a set of street-level images and (location, city-attribute-value) pairs of measurements, we first identify visual elements in the images that are discriminative of the attribute. We then train a predictor by learning a set of weights over these elements using non-linear Support Vector Regression. To perform these operations efficiently, we implement a scalable distributed processing framework that speeds up the main computational bottleneck (extracting visual elements) by an order of magnitude. This speedup allows us to investigate a variety of city attributes across 6 different American cities. We find that indeed there is a predictive relationship between visual elements and a number of city attributes including violent crime rates, theft rates, housing prices, population density, tree presence, graffiti presence, and the perception of danger. We also test human performance for predicting theft based on street-level images and show that our predictor outperforms this baseline with 33% higher accuracy on average. Finally, we present three prototype applications that use our system to (1) define the visual boundary of city neighborhoods, (2) generate walking directions that avoid or seek out exposure to city attributes, and (3) validate user-specified visual elements for prediction.

  16. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  17. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  18. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  19. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  20. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  1. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  2. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  3. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  4. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  5. The concordance of directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes and physical activity adoption

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) adoption is essential for obesity prevention and control, yet ethnic minority women report lower levels of PA and are at higher risk for obesity and its comorbidities compared to Caucasians. Epidemiological studies and ecologic models of health behavior suggest that built environmental factors are associated with health behaviors like PA, but few studies have examined the association between built environment attribute concordance and PA, and no known studies have examined attribute concordance and PA adoption. Purpose The purpose of this study was to associate the degree of concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes with changes in PA over time among African American and Hispanic Latina women participating in a PA intervention. Method Women (N = 410) completed measures of PA at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2); environmental data collected at T1 were used to compute concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes. The association between changes in PA and the degree of concordance between each directly and indirectly measured environmental attribute was assessed using repeated measures analyses. Results There were no significant associations between built environment attribute concordance values and change in self-reported or objectively measured PA. Self-reported PA significantly increased over time (F(1,184) = 7.82, p = .006), but this increase did not vary by ethnicity or any built environment attribute concordance variable. Conclusions Built environment attribute concordance may not be associated with PA changes over time among minority women. In an effort to promote PA, investigators should clarify specific built environment attributes that are important for PA adoption and whether accurate perceptions of these attributes are necessary, particularly among the vulnerable population of minority women. PMID:21736740

  6. Development and Preliminary Validation of Diabetes Adjustment Assessment Scale (DAAS): a New Measure of Adjustment with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Namdar Areshtanab, Hossein; Jouybari, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several adjustment scales are available for Diabetes, but, unfortunately most of them focused on the limited dimensions of diabetes and are not specific for type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to develop a multidimensional scale for Diabetes type 2 Adjustment Assessment and to test preliminary validity, reliability and clinical utility of the scale for this population. Methods: In this methodological design study, the Diabetes Adjustment Assessment Scale was developed and the psychometric properties of this scale was assessed in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This study included internal consistency, content validity and exploratory factor analysis. Results: 1000 patients with type 2 diabetes completed the 45-item Diabetes Adjustment Scale. After eliminating two item, the 43-item measure demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α= 0.75). Factor analysis identified eight factors including; reshape (11 questions), seek to acceptance of illness (7 questions), normal life with the disease (6 questions), initial self-management (2 questions), comparing (4 questions), initial imaging of illness (4 questions), return to resources(3 questions), and advanced self- management (6 questions). Conclusion: Considering that validity and reliability indexes of the scale are reported in an appropriate level, it can be used as a valid and reliable tool in measuring level of adjustment with type2 diabetes. PMID:27354978

  7. Ambient Assisted Living Healthcare Frameworks, Platforms, Standards, and Quality Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Mukhtiar; Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Pedersen, Christian Fischer; Beevi, Femina Hassan Aysha; Hansen, Finn Overgaard

    2014-01-01

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is an emerging multi-disciplinary field aiming at exploiting information and communication technologies in personal healthcare and telehealth systems for countering the effects of growing elderly population. AAL systems are developed for personalized, adaptive, and anticipatory requirements, necessitating high quality-of-service to achieve interoperability, usability, security, and accuracy. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the AAL field with a focus on healthcare frameworks, platforms, standards, and quality attributes. To achieve this, we conducted a literature survey of state-of-the-art AAL frameworks, systems and platforms to identify the essential aspects of AAL systems and investigate the critical issues from the design, technology, quality-of-service, and user experience perspectives. In addition, we conducted an email-based survey for collecting usage data and current status of contemporary AAL systems. We found that most AAL systems are confined to a limited set of features ignoring many of the essential AAL system aspects. Standards and technologies are used in a limited and isolated manner, while quality attributes are often addressed insufficiently. In conclusion, we found that more inter-organizational collaboration, user-centered studies, increased standardization efforts, and a focus on open systems is needed to achieve more interoperable and synergetic AAL solutions. PMID:24599192

  8. Genetics and attribution issues that confront the microbial forensics field.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce

    2004-12-01

    The commission of an act of bioterrorism or biocrime is a real concern for law enforcement and society. Efforts are underway to develop a strong microbial forensic program to assist in identifying perpetrators of acts of bioterrorism and biocrimes, as well as serve as a deterrent for those who might commit such illicit acts. Genetic analyses of microbial organisms will likely be a powerful tool for attribution of criminal acts. There are some similarities to forensic human DNA analysis practices, such as: molecular biology technology, use of population databases, qualitative conclusions of test results, and the application of QA/QC practices. Differences include: database size and composition, statistical interpretation methods, and confidence/uncertainty in the outcome of an interpretation. PMID:15639572

  9. China's Tibetan population and population in Tibet.

    PubMed

    Guo, D

    1996-04-01

    This article addresses the Tibetan population distribution in Tibet and neighboring provinces of China. Tibet is one of China's autonomous regions that is ethnic-inhabited. In 1994 there were 2.36 million people living in Tibet, most of whom were of Tibetan nationality. The total Tibetan population living in China numbered 4,593,072 people, who lived mostly in Tibet, Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu, and Yunnan, in descending order of population size. The Tibetan population in 1953 numbered 2,775,622. The total increase during 1975-90 was 65.48% and the annual growth rate was 13.71%. The annual growth rate among Tibetans during 1982-90 was 21.79% in Tibet, 20.88% in Sichuan, 24.10% in Qinghai, 23.58% in Gansu, and 18.79% in Yunnan. The regional distribution of Tibetans and the ratio of Tibetan population to Han population was highest in Tibet Autonomous Region (a ratio of 25.94:1), followed by Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai (30.52:1). Other Tibet concentrations of population were in Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai (8.71:1), Hunagnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai (5.78:1), and Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan (3.53:1). The population size of Tibetans living in Tibetan prefectures of neighboring provinces was higher than in Tibet in 1990. The rapid growth of the Tibetan population is attributed to the end to the serf system and the improvement in living conditions.

  10. Learning to Reflect and to Attribute Constructively as Basic Components of Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masui, Chris; De Corte, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Background: Higher education is facing a number of problems: adjusting to larger and more heterogeneous student populations, increasing the number of graduating students, and preparing for lifelong learning. Improving learning competence can make a substantial contribution to solving each of these major concerns. The growing knowledge base on…

  11. Seismicity and faulting attributable to fluid extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yerkes, R.F.; Castle, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The association between fluid injection and seismicity has been well documented and widely publicized. Less well known, but probably equally widespread are faulting and shallow seismicity attributable solely to fluid extraction, particularly in association with petroleum production. Two unequivocable examples of seismicity and faulting associated with fluid extraction in the United States are: The Goose Creek, Texas oil field event of 1925 (involving surface rupture); and the Wilmington, California oil field events (involving subsurface rupture) of 1947, 1949, 1951 (2), 1955, and 1961. Six additional cases of intensity I-VII earthquakes (M < 4.6) without reported faulting may be attributable to shallow production from other large oil and gas fields. In addition to these examples are thirteen cases of apparently aseismic surface rupture associated with production from California and Texas oil fields. Small earthquakes in the Eloy-Picacho area of Arizona may be attributable to withdrawal of groundwater, but their relation to widespread fissuring is enigmatic. The clearest example of extraction-induced seismicity outside of North America is the 1951 series of earthquakes associated with gas production from the Po River delta near Caviga, Italy. Faulting and seismicity associated with fluid extraction are attributed to differential compaction at depth caused by reduction of reservoir fluid pressure and attendant increase in effective stress. Surface and subsurface measurements and theoretical and model studies show that differential compaction leads not only to differential subsidence and centripetally-directed horizontal displacements, but to changes in both vertical- and horizontal-strain regimes. Study of well-documented examples indicates that the occurrence and nature of faulting and seismicity associated with compaction are functions chiefly of: (1) the pre-exploitation strain regime, and (2) the magnitude of contractional horizontal strain centered over the

  12. Timing: An Attribute of Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    Molet, Mikael; Miller, Ralph R.

    2013-01-01

    The evidence reviewed in this paper suggests that when two events occur in spatiotemporal proximity to one another, an association between the two events is formed which encodes the timing of the events in relation to one another (including duration, order, and interval). The primary evidence supporting the view that temporal relationships are encoded is that subsequent presentation of one event ordinarily elicits behavior indicative of an expectation of the other event at a specific time. Thus, temporal relationships appear to be one of several attributes encoded at acquisition. PMID:23751257

  13. Attributing Atmospheric Methane to Anthropogenic Emission Sources.

    PubMed

    Allen, David

    2016-07-19

    Methane is a greenhouse gas, and increases in atmospheric methane concentration over the past 250 years have driven increased radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Increases in atmospheric methane concentration since 1750 account for approximately 17% of increases in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, and that percentage increases by approximately a factor of 2 if the effects of the greenhouse gases produced by the atmospheric reactions of methane are included in the assessment. Because of the role of methane emissions in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, the identification and quantification of sources of methane emissions is receiving increased scientific attention. Methane emission sources include biogenic, geogenic, and anthropogenic sources; the largest anthropogenic sources are natural gas and petroleum systems, enteric fermentation (livestock), landfills, coal mining, and manure management. While these source categories are well-known, there is significant uncertainty in the relative magnitudes of methane emissions from the various source categories. Further, the overall magnitude of methane emissions from all anthropogenic sources is actively debated, with estimates based on source sampling extrapolated to regional or national scale ("bottom-up analyses") differing from estimates that infer emissions based on ambient data ("top-down analyses") by 50% or more. To address the important problem of attribution of methane to specific sources, a variety of new analytical methods are being employed, including high time resolution and highly sensitive measurements of methane, methane isotopes, and other chemical species frequently associated with methane emissions, such as ethane. This Account describes the use of some of these emerging measurements, in both top-down and bottom-up methane emission studies. In addition, this Account describes how data from these new analytical methods can be used in conjunction with chemical mass balance (CMB) methods for source

  14. Attributing Atmospheric Methane to Anthropogenic Emission Sources.

    PubMed

    Allen, David

    2016-07-19

    Methane is a greenhouse gas, and increases in atmospheric methane concentration over the past 250 years have driven increased radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Increases in atmospheric methane concentration since 1750 account for approximately 17% of increases in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, and that percentage increases by approximately a factor of 2 if the effects of the greenhouse gases produced by the atmospheric reactions of methane are included in the assessment. Because of the role of methane emissions in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, the identification and quantification of sources of methane emissions is receiving increased scientific attention. Methane emission sources include biogenic, geogenic, and anthropogenic sources; the largest anthropogenic sources are natural gas and petroleum systems, enteric fermentation (livestock), landfills, coal mining, and manure management. While these source categories are well-known, there is significant uncertainty in the relative magnitudes of methane emissions from the various source categories. Further, the overall magnitude of methane emissions from all anthropogenic sources is actively debated, with estimates based on source sampling extrapolated to regional or national scale ("bottom-up analyses") differing from estimates that infer emissions based on ambient data ("top-down analyses") by 50% or more. To address the important problem of attribution of methane to specific sources, a variety of new analytical methods are being employed, including high time resolution and highly sensitive measurements of methane, methane isotopes, and other chemical species frequently associated with methane emissions, such as ethane. This Account describes the use of some of these emerging measurements, in both top-down and bottom-up methane emission studies. In addition, this Account describes how data from these new analytical methods can be used in conjunction with chemical mass balance (CMB) methods for source

  15. Detection and attribution of extreme weather disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Single disasters related to extreme weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of extreme weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the extreme event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain important challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the extreme weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of extreme weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an extreme weather event, and the associated consequences

  16. Attribution of Causality for Successful Performance by Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John L.; And Others

    Three hypotheses were tested regarding the attribution of causation for successful behavior by kindergarten children: (1) self concept--children with high self esteem make internal attributions and those with low self esteem make external attributions; (2) locus of control (LOC)--children with internal LOC make internal attributions and those with…

  17. Using attributable risk to assess the regional-scale impacts of environmental stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe the application of population attributable risk (AR) for assessing the relative importance of aquatic stressors across large regions. A stressor's importance depends on its regional extent (e.g., the total length of stream with elevated stressor levels), and also on i...

  18. Career and Technical Education Administrators' Perceptions of Secondary Teachers' Attire as Indicated by Selected Professional Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of career and technical education (CTE) administrators toward secondary teachers' attire as indicated by 10 occupational attributes. The population consisted of CTE administrators employed by West Virginia Department of Education during 2006-2007 academic school year. The top three attributes…

  19. Estimation of Cancer Burden Attributable to Infection in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He; Hu, Xiao-Feng; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Garland, Suzanne M.; Bhatla, Neerja; Qiao, You-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Some infectious agents have been shown to be human carcinogens. The current study focused on estimation of cancer burden attributable to infection in different regions of Asia. Methods By systematically reviewing previous studies of the infection prevalence data of 13 countries in Asia and relative risks of specific cancers, we calculated the population attributable fraction of carcinogenic infections. Using data from GLOBOCAN 2012, the overall country-specific and gender-specific number of new cancer cases and deaths resulting from infection were estimated. Results Across 13 principal Asian countries, the average prevalence and range was 6.6% (0.5% in Japanese women to 15.0% in Vietnamese men) for hepatitis B virus (HBV), 2.6% (0.3% in Iran to 5.1% in Saudi Arabia) for hepatitis C virus (HCV), 7.9% (2.8% in Pakistan to 17.7% in China) for human papillomavirus (HPV), and 61.8% (12.8% in Indonesia to 91.7% in Bangladesh) for Helicobacter pylori (HP). The estimated total number of cancer cases and deaths caused by infection in these 13 countries were 1 212 026 (19.6% of all new cancer cases) and 908 549 (22.0% of all deaths from cancer). The fractions of cancer incidence attributable to infection were 19.7% and 19.5% in men and women, respectively. The percentages of cancer deaths attributable to infection were 21.9% and 22.1% in men and women, respectively. Among the main infectious agents, HP was responsible for 31.5% of infection-related cancer cases and 32.8% of infection-related cancer deaths, followed by HBV (28.6% of new cases and 23.8% of deaths), HPV (22.0% of new cases and 27.3% of deaths), and HCV (12.2% of new cases and 10.6% of deaths). Conclusions Approximately one quarter of all cancer cases and deaths were infection-associated in Asia, which could be effectively prevented if appropriate long-term controls of infectious agents were applied. PMID:26399446

  20. Identifying image preferences based on demographic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; Lawrence, Daniel R.

    2014-02-01

    The intent of this study is to determine what sorts of images are considered more interesting by which demographic groups. Specifically, we attempt to identify images whose interestingness ratings are influenced by the demographic attribute of the viewer's gender. To that end, we use the data from an experiment where 18 participants (9 women and 9 men) rated several hundred images based on "visual interest" or preferences in viewing images. The images were selected to represent the consumer "photo-space" - typical categories of subject matter found in consumer photo collections. They were annotated using perceptual and semantic descriptors. In analyzing the image interestingness ratings, we apply a multivariate procedure known as forced classification, a feature of dual scaling, a discrete analogue of principal components analysis (similar to correspondence analysis). This particular analysis of ratings (i.e., ordered-choice or Likert) data enables the investigator to emphasize the effect of a specific item or collection of items. We focus on the influence of the demographic item of gender on the analysis, so that the solutions are essentially confined to subspaces spanned by the emphasized item. Using this technique, we can know definitively which images' ratings have been influenced by the demographic item of choice. Subsequently, images can be evaluated and linked, on one hand, to their perceptual and semantic descriptors, and, on the other hand, to the preferences associated with viewers' demographic attributes.

  1. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question.

  2. Nonintrusive verification attributes for excess fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, N.J.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Under US initiatives, over two hundred metric tons of fissile materials have been declared to be excess to national defense needs. These excess materials are in both classified and unclassified forms. The US has expressed the intent to place these materials under international inspections as soon as practicable. To support these commitments, members of the US technical community are examining a variety of nonintrusive approaches (i.e., those that would not reveal classified or sensitive information) for verification of a range of potential declarations for these classified and unclassified materials. The most troublesome and potentially difficult issues involve approaches for international inspection of classified materials. The primary focus of the work to date has been on the measurement of signatures of relevant materials attributes (e.g., element, identification number, isotopic ratios, etc.), especially those related to classified materials and items. The authors are examining potential attributes and related measurement technologies in the context of possible verification approaches. The paper will discuss the current status of these activities, including their development, assessment, and benchmarking status.

  3. Coronary Heart Disease Attributable to Passive Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lightwood, James M.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Williams, Lawrence W.; Goldman, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Background Passive smoking is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), and existing estimates are out of date due to recent and substantial changes in the level of exposure. Objective To estimate the annual clinical burden and cost of CHD treatment attributable to passive smoking. Outcome measures Annual attributable CHD deaths, myocardial infarctions (MI), total CHD events, and the direct cost of CHD treatment. Methods A Monte Carlo simulation estimated the CHD events and costs as a function of the prevalence of CHD risk factors, including passive-smoking prevalence and a low (1.26) and high (1.65) relative risk of CHD due to passive smoking. Estimates were calculated using the CHD Policy Model, calibrated to reproduce key CHD outcomes in the baseline Year 2000 in the U.S. Results At 1999–2004 levels, passive smoking caused 21,800 (SE=2400) to 75,100 (SE=8000) CHD deaths and 38,100 (SE=4300) to 128,900 (SE=14,000) MIs annually, with a yearly CHD treatment cost of $1.8 (SE=$0.2) to $6.0 (SE=$0.7) billion. If recent trends in the reduction in the prevalence of passive smoking continue from 2000 to 2008, the burden would be reduced by approximately 25%–30%. Conclusions Passive smoking remains a substantial clinical and economic burden in the U.S. PMID:19095162

  4. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question. PMID:26921497

  5. Variable sampling in the attribute mode

    SciTech Connect

    Avenhaus, R.

    1985-01-01

    Variables inspection can be used in the attribute mode, if an assumed mode, if an assumed falsification of reported data is sufficiently small so as to escape detection with the attribute tester, i.e., a variable tester can be used in order to make a qualitative statement. The efficiency of such a procedure can be determined if the statistical properties of the tester are known. In this paper first, for one class of material data the probability of detection is determined as function of the total number of item data to be verified, inspector's sample size, fraction of falsified data and false alarm probability, both for drawing without and with replacement. For the latter case and given total falsification, the minimal, i.e. guaranteed probability of detection is determined. Second, for several classes of material data it is shown under some simplifying assumptions in which way the available inspection effort has to be distributed optimally on the various classes. Finally, some remarks are made about the use of two different measurement techniques for the verification of data of one class of material.

  6. Attribution of polar warming to human influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, Nathan P.; Stone, Dáithí A.; Stott, Peter A.; Nozawa, Toru; Karpechko, Alexey Yu.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Wehner, Michael F.; Jones, Philip D.

    2008-11-01

    The polar regions have long been expected to warm strongly as a result of anthropogenic climate change, because of the positive feedbacks associated with melting ice and snow. Several studies have noted a rise in Arctic temperatures over recent decades, but have not formally attributed the changes to human influence, owing to sparse observations and large natural variability. Both warming and cooling trends have been observed in Antarctica, which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report concludes is the only continent where anthropogenic temperature changes have not been detected so far, possibly as a result of insufficient observational coverage. Here we use an up-to-date gridded data set of land surface temperatures and simulations from four coupled climate models to assess the causes of the observed polar temperature changes. We find that the observed changes in Arctic and Antarctic temperatures are not consistent with internal climate variability or natural climate drivers alone, and are directly attributable to human influence. Our results demonstrate that human activities have already caused significant warming in both polar regions, with likely impacts on polar biology, indigenous communities, ice-sheet mass balance and global sea level.

  7. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a

  8. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a

  9. Attribution Of Cyber Attacks On Process Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Hutchinson, Robert; Margulies, Jonathan

    The attribution of cyber attacks is an important problem. Attribution gives critical infrastructure asset owners and operators legal recourse in the event of attacks and deters potential attacks. This paper discusses attribution techniques along with the associated legal and technical challenges. It presents a proposal for a voluntary network of attributable activity, an important first step towards a more complete attribution methodology for the control systems community.

  10. Be aware of the Adjusted Treatment Index.

    PubMed

    Langford, Melvyn

    2015-10-01

    The authors of the interim report relating to the Review of Operational Productivity in NHS providers, published in June of this year, are, as many will know, developing a set of Adjusted Treatment Index (ATI) metrics, and are also to publish a model of their interpretation of what an estates department should look like in terms of its operational productivity and cost. This article argues that the underlying reason for the past failures was the creation of static 'point-value' metrics similar to the ATIs proposed, and that this can only be overcome by designing and populating a series of non-linear dynamic simulation models with feedback control of an organisation's estate in relation to its asset base and condition with respect to time, together with the resultant financial capital and revenue consequences. It concludes by calling on IHEEM's Council to urgently make representation to the authors of the June 2015 report, and suggests that the Institute's members be fully involved in the design, testing, and interpretation, of the estates model and ATIs. IHEEM's Technology Platforms are ideally placed to play a central role in this. PMID:26750025

  11. The proportion of excessive fast-food consumption attributable to the neighbourhood food environment among youth living within 1 km of their school.

    PubMed

    Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2014-04-01

    The study objective was to estimate the proportion of excessive fast-food consumption by youth that is attributable to living and attending school in a neighbourhood with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. This was a cross-sectional study of 6099 Canadian youths (aged 11-15 years) from 255 school neighbourhoods. All participants lived within 1 km of their school. The density of chain fast-food restaurants within a 1-km circular buffer surrounding each school was determined using geographic information systems. Excessive fast-food consumption (≥2 times per week) was assessed by questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. The population attributable risk estimates of excessive fast-food consumption due to neighbourhood exposure to fast-food restaurants were determined based on the prevalence of exposure and the results from the logistic regression. Eight percent of participants were excessive fast-food consumers. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors (i.e., gender, race, and socioeconomic status), it was found that youths from neighbourhoods with a moderate (odds ratio (OR), 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.54) or high (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.56) density of chain fast-food restaurants were more likely to be excessive fast-food consumers than were youths from neighbourhoods with no chain fast-food restaurants. Approximately 31% of excessive consumption was attributable to living in neighbourhoods with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. Thus, the fast-food retail environment within which youth live and go to school is an important contributor to their eating behaviours.

  12. The proportion of excessive fast-food consumption attributable to the neighbourhood food environment among youth living within 1 km of their school.

    PubMed

    Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2014-04-01

    The study objective was to estimate the proportion of excessive fast-food consumption by youth that is attributable to living and attending school in a neighbourhood with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. This was a cross-sectional study of 6099 Canadian youths (aged 11-15 years) from 255 school neighbourhoods. All participants lived within 1 km of their school. The density of chain fast-food restaurants within a 1-km circular buffer surrounding each school was determined using geographic information systems. Excessive fast-food consumption (≥2 times per week) was assessed by questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. The population attributable risk estimates of excessive fast-food consumption due to neighbourhood exposure to fast-food restaurants were determined based on the prevalence of exposure and the results from the logistic regression. Eight percent of participants were excessive fast-food consumers. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors (i.e., gender, race, and socioeconomic status), it was found that youths from neighbourhoods with a moderate (odds ratio (OR), 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.54) or high (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.56) density of chain fast-food restaurants were more likely to be excessive fast-food consumers than were youths from neighbourhoods with no chain fast-food restaurants. Approximately 31% of excessive consumption was attributable to living in neighbourhoods with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. Thus, the fast-food retail environment within which youth live and go to school is an important contributor to their eating behaviours. PMID:24669990

  13. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  14. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    PubMed

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I

    1990-01-01

    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  15. The social psychology of seismic hazard adjustment: re-evaluating the international literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solberg, C.; Rossetto, T.; Joffe, H.

    2010-08-01

    The majority of people at risk from earthquakes do little or nothing to reduce their vulnerability. Over the past 40 years social scientists have tried to predict and explain levels of seismic hazard adjustment using models from behavioural sciences such as psychology. The present paper is the first to synthesise the major findings from the international literature on psychological correlates and causes of seismic adjustment at the level of the individual and the household. It starts by reviewing research on seismic risk perception. Next, it looks at norms and normative beliefs, focusing particularly on issues of earthquake protection responsibility and trust between risk stakeholders. It then considers research on attitudes towards seismic adjustment attributes, specifically beliefs about efficacy, control and fate. It concludes that an updated model of seismic adjustment must give the issues of norms, trust, power and identity a more prominent role. These have been only sparsely represented in the social psychological literature to date.

  16. Dynamic genetic architecture of metabolic syndrome attributes in the rat.

    PubMed

    Seda, Ondrej; Liska, Frantisek; Krenova, Drahomira; Kazdova, Ludmila; Sedova, Lucie; Zima, Tomas; Peng, Junzheng; Pelinkova, Kveta; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel; Kren, Vladimir

    2005-04-14

    The polydactylous rat strain (PD/Cub) is a highly inbred (F > 90) genetic model of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic architecture of the metabolic derangements found in the PD/Cub strain and to assess its dynamics in time and in response to diet and medication. We derived a PD/Cub x BN/Cub (Brown Norway) F2 intercross population of 149 male rats and performed metabolic profiling and genotyping and multiple levels of genetic linkage and statistical analyses at five different stages of ontogenesis and after high-sucrose diet feeding and dexamethasone administration challenges. The interval mapping analysis of 83 metabolic and morphometric traits revealed over 50 regions genomewide with significant or suggestive linkage to one or more of the traits in the segregating PD/Cub x BN/Cub population. The multiple interval mapping showed that, in addition to "single" quantitative train loci, there are more than 30 pairs of loci across the whole genome significantly influencing the variation of particular traits in an epistatic fashion. This study represents the first whole genome analysis of metabolic syndrome in the PD/Cub model and reveals several new loci previously not connected to the genetics of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In addition, it attempts to present the concept of "dynamic genetic architecture" of metabolic syndrome attributes, evidenced by shifts in the genetic determination of syndrome features during ontogenesis and during adaptation to the dietary and pharmacological influences.

  17. Design of Anonymous Attribute Authentication Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Fukushima, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Privacy remains an issue for IT services. Users are concerned that their history of service use may be traceable since each user is assigned a single identifier as a means of authentication.
    In this paper, we propose a perfectly anonymous attribute authentication scheme that is both unidentifiable and untraceable. Then, we present the evaluation results of a prototype system using a PC and mobile phone with the scheme. The proposed scheme employs a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly; thus the certificate is modified for each authentication, and the authentication scheme is unidentifiable and untraceable. Furthermore, our scheme can revoke self-blindable certificates without leaks of confidential private information and check the revocation status without online access.

  18. Memory for recently accessed visual attributes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Shupe, Joshua M; Swallow, Khena M; Tan, Deborah H

    2016-08-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the attended features of an item may be rapidly forgotten once they are no longer relevant for an ongoing task (attribute amnesia). This finding relies on a surprise memory procedure that places high demands on declarative memory. We used intertrial priming to examine whether the representation of an item's identity is lost completely once it becomes task irrelevant. If so, then the identity of a target on one trial should not influence performance on the next trial. In 3 experiments, we replicated the finding that a target's identity is poorly recognized in a surprise memory test. However, we also observed location and identity repetition priming across consecutive trials. These data suggest that, although explicit recognition on a surprise memory test may be impaired, some information about a particular target's identity can be retained after it is no longer needed for a task. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Ravens attribute visual access to unseen competitors.

    PubMed

    Bugnyar, Thomas; Reber, Stephan A; Buckner, Cameron

    2016-02-02

    Recent studies purported to demonstrate that chimpanzees, monkeys and corvids possess a basic Theory of Mind, the ability to attribute mental states like seeing to others. However, these studies remain controversial because they share a common confound: the conspecific's line of gaze, which could serve as an associative cue. Here, we show that ravens Corvus corax take into account the visual access of others, even when they cannot see a conspecific. Specifically, we find that ravens guard their caches against discovery in response to the sounds of conspecifics when a peephole is open but not when it is closed. Our results suggest that ravens can generalize from their own perceptual experience to infer the possibility of being seen. These findings confirm and unite previous work, providing strong evidence that ravens are more than mere behaviour-readers.

  20. Otoconia biogenesis, phylogeny, composition and functional attributes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Lychakov, D.; Campos, A.; Hara, H.; Sondag, E.; Jones, T.; Jones, S.; Taylor, M.; Meza-Ruiz, G.; Martin, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    This work consolidates data about these interesting organic crystals of vertebrate inner ears. It addresses 5 aspects of inner ear otoliths not completely understood to date: 1) embryological data that explains the formation of the crystals, 2) the significance of the organic and the inorganic phase of the otolith and the changing patterns of otoconia formation along the evolutionary tree, 3) otoliths contribution for detecting linear acceleration, 4) the effect that altered gravity and aminoglycosides have on the development and adult shape of the crystals, and the evolutionary significance of a changing shape of the crystals from primitive forms (lamprey) to high vertebrate birds and mammals is discussed, 5) functional attributes of the otolithic organs and morphological modifications of the otoliths by physical and chemical insults are presented with an extensive discussion of the most relevant literature published and available to us.

  1. Ravens attribute visual access to unseen competitors

    PubMed Central

    Bugnyar, Thomas; Reber, Stephan A.; Buckner, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies purported to demonstrate that chimpanzees, monkeys and corvids possess a basic Theory of Mind, the ability to attribute mental states like seeing to others. However, these studies remain controversial because they share a common confound: the conspecific's line of gaze, which could serve as an associative cue. Here, we show that ravens Corvus corax take into account the visual access of others, even when they cannot see a conspecific. Specifically, we find that ravens guard their caches against discovery in response to the sounds of conspecifics when a peephole is open but not when it is closed. Our results suggest that ravens can generalize from their own perceptual experience to infer the possibility of being seen. These findings confirm and unite previous work, providing strong evidence that ravens are more than mere behaviour-readers. PMID:26835849

  2. A comparison of attribute sampling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Lanning, B.M.

    1997-05-01

    This report describes, compares, and provides sample size selection criteria for the most common sampling plans for attribute data (i.e., data that is qualitative in nature such as Pass-Fail, Yes-No, Defect-Nondefect data). This report is being issued as a guide in prudently choosing the correct sampling plan to meet statistical plan objectives. The report discusses three types of sampling plans: AQL (Acceptable Quality Level expressed as a percent), RQL (Rejectable Quality Level as a percent), and the AQL/RQL plan which emphasizes both risks simultaneously. These plans are illustrated with six examples, one of which is an inventory of UF{sub 6} cans whose weight must agree within 100 grams of its listed weight to be acceptable.

  3. Diatremes and craters attributed to natural explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, Eugene Merle

    1956-01-01

    Diatremes - volcanic pipes attributed to explosion - and craters have been studied to infer the ultimate causes and physical conditions attending natural explosive processes. Initial piercement of diatremes on the Navajo reservation, Arizona was probably along a fracture propagated by a high-pressure aqueous fluid. Gas rising at high velocity along the fracture would become converted to a gas-solid fluidized system by entrainment of wall- rock fragments. The first stages of widening of the vent are probably accomplished mainly by simple abrasion of the high-velocity fluidized system on the walls of the fracture. As the vent widens, its enlargement may be accelerated by inward spalling of the walls. The inferred mechanics of the Navajo-Hopi diatremes is used to illustrate the possibility of diatreme formation over a molten salt mass.

  4. Virulence Attributes of Low-Virulence Organisms

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The vast majority of infections involving female pelvic structures arise from organisms that are members of the normal flora. In addition, exogenous organisms that invade through the lower genital tract must interact with organisms that are part of the host's flora. In contrast to the concept that the normal flora is entirely innocuous, recent research has begun to identify what appear to be virulence attributes among these ordinarily low-virulence organisms. Most of our understanding of virulence has been derived from highly virulent organisms, of which Neisseria gonorrhoeae provides an example of relevance to the female genital tract. A review of the virulence factors of the gonococcus is presented to serve as an example of the variety of virulence properties associated with pathogenic bacteria. Molecular biology has begun to clarify one of the important paradigms of pathogenic bacteriology—that bacteria change their expression of virulence properties in response to their location within a host or to the stage of infection. Thus, infection involves not only the possession of virulence factors, but also the carefully controlled use of those factors. Virulence is often controlled by the coordinate expression of many virulence-associated genes in response to one environmental signal. With regard to low- virulence organisms present in the female lower genital tract, we are beginning to identify some of their virulence attributes. Examples from the work of our laboratory include the hemolysin of Gardnerella vaginalis and an immunosuppressive mycotoxin produced by Candida albicans. Demonstrating the coordinate expression (or other control mechanisms) of virulence factors in these sometimes innocuous and sometimes inimical organisms represents the next frontier in the study of normal vaginal microbiology. PMID:18475373

  5. Adjustments for weighing clothed babies at high altitude or in cold climates.

    PubMed

    Roche, Marion L; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Sarsoza, Julieta; Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2015-01-01

    Public health nutritionists rely on anthropometry for nutritional assessment, program planning, and evaluation. Children are usually heavily clothed at high altitudes and in cold climates. Failing to adjust for clothing weight could underestimate malnutrition prevalence. The objective of this paper is to validate an adjustment process for estimating clothing weight and quantify potential misclassification error. In March and September 2009, 293 and 272 children under 2 years of age, respectively, were measured for weight and length in 14 highlands communities in Ecuador. Weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) were compared using clothing-unadjusted weights and two types of clothing-adjusted weights: individual clothing-weights and population-mean clothing-weights. Modelling showed up to 24% of children's nutritional status and degree of malnutrition were misclassified for WAZ, and 13% for WHZ, when clothing was not taken into account in this cold climate. Compared with the more time-intensive individual clothing-weight adjustment, the population-mean clothing-weight adjustments had high specificity and sensitivity for WAZ. In cold climates, adjusting for population mean clothing weight provides a better estimate of the prevalence of malnutrition to inform appropriate program decisions for addressing underweight. An individual clothing weight adjustment may also be essential to classify a specific child's nutritional status when acute malnutrition is a concern.

  6. Fundamental(ist) attribution error: Protestants are dispositionally focused.

    PubMed

    Li, Yexin Jessica; Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B; Williams, Melissa J; Knowles, Eric D; Chen, Zhansheng

    2012-02-01

    Attribution theory has long enjoyed a prominent role in social psychological research, yet religious influences on attribution have not been well studied. We theorized and tested the hypothesis that Protestants would endorse internal attributions to a greater extent than would Catholics, because Protestantism focuses on the inward condition of the soul. In Study 1, Protestants made more internal, but not external, attributions than did Catholics. This effect survived controlling for Protestant work ethic, need for structure, and intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity. Study 2 showed that the Protestant-Catholic difference in internal attributions was significantly mediated by Protestants' greater belief in a soul. In Study 3, priming religion increased belief in a soul for Protestants but not for Catholics. Finally, Study 4 found that experimentally strengthening belief in a soul increased dispositional attributions among Protestants but did not change situational attributions. These studies expand the understanding of cultural differences in attributions by demonstrating a distinct effect of religion on dispositional attributions.

  7. Quantifying Individual Variation in the Propensity to Attribute Incentive Salience to Reward Cues

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Paul J.; Lovic, Vedran; Saunders, Benjamin T.; Yager, Lindsay M.; Flagel, Shelly B.; Morrow, Jonathan D.; Robinson, Terry E.

    2012-01-01

    If reward-associated cues acquire the properties of incentive stimuli they can come to powerfully control behavior, and potentially promote maladaptive behavior. Pavlovian incentive stimuli are defined as stimuli that have three fundamental properties: they are attractive, they are themselves desired, and they can spur instrumental actions. We have found, however, that there is considerable individual variation in the extent to which animals attribute Pavlovian incentive motivational properties (“incentive salience”) to reward cues. The purpose of this paper was to develop criteria for identifying and classifying individuals based on their propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues. To do this, we conducted a meta-analysis of a large sample of rats (N = 1,878) subjected to a classic Pavlovian conditioning procedure. We then used the propensity of animals to approach a cue predictive of reward (one index of the extent to which the cue was attributed with incentive salience), to characterize two behavioral phenotypes in this population: animals that approached the cue (“sign-trackers”) vs. others that approached the location of reward delivery (“goal-trackers”). This variation in Pavlovian approach behavior predicted other behavioral indices of the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues. Thus, the procedures reported here should be useful for making comparisons across studies and for assessing individual variation in incentive salience attribution in small samples of the population, or even for classifying single animals. PMID:22761718

  8. Quantifying individual variation in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Paul J; Lovic, Vedran; Saunders, Benjamin T; Yager, Lindsay M; Flagel, Shelly B; Morrow, Jonathan D; Robinson, Terry E

    2012-01-01

    If reward-associated cues acquire the properties of incentive stimuli they can come to powerfully control behavior, and potentially promote maladaptive behavior. Pavlovian incentive stimuli are defined as stimuli that have three fundamental properties: they are attractive, they are themselves desired, and they can spur instrumental actions. We have found, however, that there is considerable individual variation in the extent to which animals attribute Pavlovian incentive motivational properties ("incentive salience") to reward cues. The purpose of this paper was to develop criteria for identifying and classifying individuals based on their propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues. To do this, we conducted a meta-analysis of a large sample of rats (N = 1,878) subjected to a classic Pavlovian conditioning procedure. We then used the propensity of animals to approach a cue predictive of reward (one index of the extent to which the cue was attributed with incentive salience), to characterize two behavioral phenotypes in this population: animals that approached the cue ("sign-trackers") vs. others that approached the location of reward delivery ("goal-trackers"). This variation in Pavlovian approach behavior predicted other behavioral indices of the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues. Thus, the procedures reported here should be useful for making comparisons across studies and for assessing individual variation in incentive salience attribution in small samples of the population, or even for classifying single animals. PMID:22761718

  9. Measuring Sojourner Adjustment among American students studying abroad.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2011-11-01

    The literature on "Sojourner Adjustment," a term expanding on the acculturation concept to apply to groups residing temporarily in foreign environments, suggests that engagement, participation, and temporary integration into the host culture may contribute to less psychological and sociocultural difficulty while abroad. The present study was designed to establish a brief multi-component measure of Sojourner Adjustment (the Sojourner Adjustment Measure; SAM) to be used in work with populations residing temporarily in foreign environments (e.g., international students, foreign aid workers). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a sample of 248 American study abroad college students, we established a 24-item measure of Sojourner Adjustment composed of four positive factors (social interaction with host nationals, cultural understanding and participation, language development and use, host culture identification) and two negative factors (social interaction with co-nationals, homesickness/feeling out of place). Preliminary convergent validity was examined through correlations with established measures of acculturation. Further research with the SAM is encouraged to explore the relevance of this measure with other groups of sojourners (e.g., foreign aid workers, international businessmen, military personnel) and to determine how SAM factors relate to psychological well-being, health behaviors, and risk behaviors abroad among these diverse groups. PMID:22125351

  10. Measuring Sojourner Adjustment among American students studying abroad

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.; Lee, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on “Sojourner Adjustment,” a term expanding on the acculturation concept to apply to groups residing temporarily in foreign environments, suggests that engagement, participation, and temporary integration into the host culture may contribute to less psychological and sociocultural difficulty while abroad. The present study was designed to establish a brief multi-component measure of Sojourner Adjustment (the Sojourner Adjustment Measure; SAM) to be used in work with populations residing temporarily in foreign environments (e.g., international students, foreign aid workers). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a sample of 248 American study abroad college students, we established a 24-item measure of Sojourner Adjustment composed of four positive factors (social interaction with host nationals, cultural understanding and participation, language development and use, host culture identification) and two negative factors (social interaction with co-nationals, homesickness/feeling out of place). Preliminary convergent validity was examined through correlations with established measures of acculturation. Further research with the SAM is encouraged to explore the relevance of this measure with other groups of sojourners (e.g., foreign aid workers, international businessmen, military personnel) and to determine how SAM factors relate to psychological well-being, health behaviors, and risk behaviors abroad among these diverse groups. PMID:22125351

  11. Measuring Sojourner Adjustment among American students studying abroad.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2011-11-01

    The literature on "Sojourner Adjustment," a term expanding on the acculturation concept to apply to groups residing temporarily in foreign environments, suggests that engagement, participation, and temporary integration into the host culture may contribute to less psychological and sociocultural difficulty while abroad. The present study was designed to establish a brief multi-component measure of Sojourner Adjustment (the Sojourner Adjustment Measure; SAM) to be used in work with populations residing temporarily in foreign environments (e.g., international students, foreign aid workers). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a sample of 248 American study abroad college students, we established a 24-item measure of Sojourner Adjustment composed of four positive factors (social interaction with host nationals, cultural understanding and participation, language development and use, host culture identification) and two negative factors (social interaction with co-nationals, homesickness/feeling out of place). Preliminary convergent validity was examined through correlations with established measures of acculturation. Further research with the SAM is encouraged to explore the relevance of this measure with other groups of sojourners (e.g., foreign aid workers, international businessmen, military personnel) and to determine how SAM factors relate to psychological well-being, health behaviors, and risk behaviors abroad among these diverse groups.

  12. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  13. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  14. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  15. Making Diagnostic Inferences about Cognitive Attributes Using the Rule-Space Model and Attribute Hierarchy Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the logic and identify key assumptions associated with making cognitive inferences using two attribute-based psychometric methods. The first method is Kikumi Tatsuoka's rule-space model. This model provides a strong point of reference for studying the nature of diagnostic inferences because it is important…

  16. Techniques and applications of adjustable sutures.

    PubMed

    Fells, P

    1987-02-01

    The 'rediscovery' of adjustable sutures some 10 years ago has given the ophthalmic surgeon much more confidence in his ability to correct strabismus. Three methods of use are described: during surgery under general anaesthesia with adjustment during the operation using the 'springback' test to centralise the eye; during surgery under general anaesthesia and subsequent adjustment under local anaesthesia using the patient's subjective responses to obtain optimal positioning; and performance of the operation and adjustment under topical local anaesthesia in one procedure. Full details are given of each technique and the indications for their application to particular problems are discussed. PMID:3297111

  17. Marital conflict, divorce, and children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J B

    1998-04-01

    This article summarizes current research on children's adjustment after separation and divorce, and then focuses on the contributions of marital conflict, marital violence, and hostile family environments to children's adjustment during marriage and after divorce. Children living in marriages with frequent and intense conflict are significantly more likely to have substantial adjustment problems before parental divorce and compromised parent-child relationships. These findings suggest that the deleterious effects of divorce per se have been overstated, with insufficient attention paid in the clinical and research literature to the damaging effects of highly troubled marriages on children's adjustment.

  18. Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Cigarette Smoking in Qingdao, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yani; Qi, Fei; Jia, Xiaorong; Lin, Peng; Liu, Hui; Geng, Meiyun; Liu, Yunning; Li, Shanpeng; Tan, Jibin

    2016-01-01

    In China, smoking is the leading preventable cause of deaths by a disease. Estimating the disease burden attributable to smoking contributes to an evaluation of the adverse impact of smoking. To aid in policy change and implementation, this study estimated the population-attributable fractions (PAFs) of smoking, the all-cause mortality and the loss of life expectancy attributable to smoking in 2014 of Qingdao. PAFs were calculated using the smoking impact ratio (SIR) or current smoking rate (P) and relative risk (RR). We determined the smoking-attributable mortality by multiplying the smoking-attributable fraction by the total mortality. This study used the method of an abridged life table to calculate the loss of life expectancy caused by smoking. Smoking caused about 8635 deaths (6883 males, 1752 females), and accounted for 16% of all deaths; 22% in males and 8% in females. The leading causes of deaths attributable to smoking were lung cancer (38%), ischemic heart disease (19%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 12%). The PAF for all causes was 22%; 30% in males and 10% in females. Tobacco use may cause a reduction of about 2.01 years of the loss of life expectancy; 3 years in males and 0.87 years in females. The findings highlight the need for taking effective measures to prevent initiation and induce cessation. PMID:27618084

  19. Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Cigarette Smoking in Qingdao, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yani; Qi, Fei; Jia, Xiaorong; Lin, Peng; Liu, Hui; Geng, Meiyun; Liu, Yunning; Li, Shanpeng; Tan, Jibin

    2016-01-01

    In China, smoking is the leading preventable cause of deaths by a disease. Estimating the disease burden attributable to smoking contributes to an evaluation of the adverse impact of smoking. To aid in policy change and implementation, this study estimated the population-attributable fractions (PAFs) of smoking, the all-cause mortality and the loss of life expectancy attributable to smoking in 2014 of Qingdao. PAFs were calculated using the smoking impact ratio (SIR) or current smoking rate (P) and relative risk (RR). We determined the smoking-attributable mortality by multiplying the smoking-attributable fraction by the total mortality. This study used the method of an abridged life table to calculate the loss of life expectancy caused by smoking. Smoking caused about 8635 deaths (6883 males, 1752 females), and accounted for 16% of all deaths; 22% in males and 8% in females. The leading causes of deaths attributable to smoking were lung cancer (38%), ischemic heart disease (19%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 12%). The PAF for all causes was 22%; 30% in males and 10% in females. Tobacco use may cause a reduction of about 2.01 years of the loss of life expectancy; 3 years in males and 0.87 years in females. The findings highlight the need for taking effective measures to prevent initiation and induce cessation. PMID:27618084

  20. Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Cigarette Smoking in Qingdao, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yani; Qi, Fei; Jia, Xiaorong; Lin, Peng; Liu, Hui; Geng, Meiyun; Liu, Yunning; Li, Shanpeng; Tan, Jibin

    2016-09-09

    In China, smoking is the leading preventable cause of deaths by a disease. Estimating the disease burden attributable to smoking contributes to an evaluation of the adverse impact of smoking. To aid in policy change and implementation, this study estimated the population-attributable fractions (PAFs) of smoking, the all-cause mortality and the loss of life expectancy attributable to smoking in 2014 of Qingdao. PAFs were calculated using the smoking impact ratio (SIR) or current smoking rate (P) and relative risk (RR). We determined the smoking-attributable mortality by multiplying the smoking-attributable fraction by the total mortality. This study used the method of an abridged life table to calculate the loss of life expectancy caused by smoking. Smoking caused about 8635 deaths (6883 males, 1752 females), and accounted for 16% of all deaths; 22% in males and 8% in females. The leading causes of deaths attributable to smoking were lung cancer (38%), ischemic heart disease (19%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 12%). The PAF for all causes was 22%; 30% in males and 10% in females. Tobacco use may cause a reduction of about 2.01 years of the loss of life expectancy; 3 years in males and 0.87 years in females. The findings highlight the need for taking effective measures to prevent initiation and induce cessation.

  1. Thermodynamics and Human Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordry, Sean M.

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses a Fermi-problem exercise through which I take students in several of my college courses. Students work in teams, determining the average daily Caloric needs per person. Then they use insolation values to determine the size of a collection area needed to absorb the previously determined daily energy requirements. Adjustments to the size of the collection area are made based on energy absorption per biological trophic level, as well as the consideration that most diets are a mixture of plant- and animal-derived elements. Finally, using the total amount of farmland available on the planet, students calculate a maximum population value. Although the maximum population values derived herewith should not be considered authoritative, the exercise has three beneficial purposes: 1) a chance to talk about the modeling process and extrapolations, 2) an unexpected application of physics to social contexts, and 3) raising student awareness of population and energy issues.

  2. Attribution of precipitation changes in African rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, F. E. L.; Allen, M. R.; Bowery, A.; Imbers, J.; Jones, R.; Massey, N.; Miller, J.; Rosier, S.; Rye, C.; Thurston, M.; Wilson, S.; Yamazaki, H.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change is almost certainly affecting the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather and hydrological events. However, whether and to what extend the occurrence of such an event can be attributed to climate change remains a challenge that relies on good observations as well as climate modelling. A number of recent studies have attempted to quantify the role of human influence on climate in observed weather events as e.g. the 2010 Russian heat wave (Dole et al, 2011; Rahmstorf and Coumou, 2011; Otto et al, 2012). The overall approach is to simulate, with as realistic a model as possible and accounting as far as possible for modelling uncertainties, both the statistics of observed weather and the statistics of the weather that would have obtained had specific external drivers of climate change been absent. This approach requires a large ensemble size to provide results from which the statistical significance and the shape of the distribution of key variables can be assessed. Also, a sufficiently long period of time must be simulated to evaluate model bias and whether the model captures the observed distribution. The weatherathome.net within the climateprediction.net projects provides such an ensemble with many hundred ensemble members per year via volunteer distributed computing. Most previous attribution studies have been about European extreme weather events but the most vulnerable regions to climate change are in Asia and Africa. One of the most complex hydrological systems is the tropical rainforest, which is expected to react highly sensible to a changing climate. Analysing the weatherathome.net results we find that conditions which are too dry for rainforests to sustain without damages occurred more frequently and more severe in recent years. Furthermore the changes in precipitation in that region can be linked to El Nino/ La Nina events. Linking extreme weather events to large-scale teleconnections helps to understand the occurrence of this

  3. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  4. Medicare Reimbursement Attributable to Periprosthetic Joint Infection Following Primary Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sarah H; Baggs, James; Culler, Steven D; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I; Jernigan, John A

    2015-06-01

    This study estimated Medicare reimbursement attributable to periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) across the continuum of covered services four years following hip or knee arthroplasty. Using 2001-2008 Medicare claims data, total and annual attributable reimbursements were assessed using generalized linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Within one year following arthroplasty, 109 (1.04%) of 10,418 beneficiaries were diagnosed with PJI. Cumulative Medicare reimbursement in the PJI arm was 2.2-fold (1.9-2.6, P<.0001) or $53,470 ($39,575-$68,221) higher than that of the non-PJI arm. The largest difference in reimbursement occurred the first year (3.2-fold); differences persisted the second (2.3-fold) and third (1.9-fold) follow up years. PJI following hip or knee arthroplasty appears costly to Medicare, with cost traversing several years and health care service areas.

  5. Self-Awareness of Peer-Rated Social Attributes in Children With Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated self-awareness of peer-rated social attributes and its relations to executive function (EF), theory of mind (TOM), and psychosocial adjustment in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Self- and peer perceptions of classroom social behavior were assessed for 87 children 8–13 years of age: 15 with severe TBI, 40 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 32 with orthopedic injury. Participants completed measures of EF and TOM, and parents rated children’s psychosocial adjustment. Results Self-ratings of classroom social behavior did not differ between injury groups. Self- and peer ratings generally agreed, although children with severe TBI rated themselves as less rejected/victimized than did their peers. Higher EF predicted better self- and peer ratings and smaller self–peer discrepancies, which in turn predicted better adjustment. Conclusions Children with TBI show variable social self-awareness, which relates to EF and adjustment. Future studies should identify additional factors that contribute to limited insight. PMID:25080604

  6. QUANTIFYING STRUCTURAL PHYSICAL HABITAT ATTRIBUTES USING LIDAR AND HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structural physical habitat attributes include indices of stream size, channel gradient, substrate size, habitat complexity and cover, riparian vegetation cover and structure, anthropogenic disturbances and channel-riparian interaction. These habitat attributes will vary dependen...

  7. Attributional Style among Youth at Clinical Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    DeVylder, Jordan E.; Ben-David, Shelly; Kimhy, David; Corcoran, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim A biased attributional style, in which negative events are attributed to external and personal causes, is associated with paranoid delusions in schizophrenia. It is not known whether this biased attributional style also characterizes individuals at clinical risk for psychosis, or if it is associated with their emergent paranoia. Methods 33 clinical high-risk patients and 15 age- and gender-similar controls were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire for externalizing and personalizing attributional biases and for potential correlates with suspiciousness and other symptoms. Results Both patients and controls had a similar external-personalizing attributional style, which was unrelated to symptoms, including suspiciousness. Conclusions Consistent with other studies, a biased attributional style was not associated with subthreshold paranoia. Therefore, a biased attributional style is likely not a trait that contributes to emergent paranoid delusions, but instead a state-dependent correlate of paranoid delusions. PMID:22390315

  8. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options: Space station program cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowls, R. S.; Goodwin, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the principal cost results (Task 3) derived from the Space Station Needs, Attributes, and Architectural Options study conducted for NASA by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company. The determined costs were those of Architectural Options (Task 2) defined to satisfy Mission Requirements (Task 1) developed within the study. A major feature of this part of the study was the consideration of realistic NASA budget constraints on the recommended architecture. Thus, the space station funding requirements were adjusted by altering schedules until they were consistent with current NASA budget trends.

  9. Health care costs attributable to overweight calculated in a standardized way for three European countries.

    PubMed

    Lette, M; Bemelmans, W J E; Breda, J; Slobbe, L C J; Dias, J; Boshuizen, H C

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a tool to calculate health care costs attributable to overweight in a comparable and standardized way. The purpose is to describe the methodological principles of the tool and to put it into use by calculating and comparing the costs attributable to overweight for The Netherlands, Germany and Czech Republic. The tool uses a top-down and prevalence-based approach, consisting of five steps. Step one identifies overweight-related diseases and age- and gender-specific relative risks. Included diseases are ischemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, colorectal cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer and osteoarthritis. Step two consists of collecting data on the age- and gender-specific prevalence of these diseases. Step three uses the population-attributable prevalence to determine the part of the prevalence of these diseases that is attributable to overweight. Step four calculates the health care costs associated with these diseases. Step five calculates the costs of these diseases that are attributable to overweight. Overweight is responsible for 20-26% of the direct costs of included diseases, with sensitivity analyses varying this percentage between 15-31%. Percentage of costs attributable to obesity and preobesity is about the same. Diseases with the highest percentage of costs due to overweight are diabetes, endometrial cancer and osteoarthritis. Disease costs attributable to overweight as a percentage of total health care expenditures range from 2 to 4%. Data are consistent for all three countries, resulting in roughly a quarter of costs of included diseases being attributable to overweight. PMID:25432787

  10. [Habitat selection attributes of giant panda].

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Wei; Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Guo, Wen-Xia; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Wen; Li, Jun-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1997-2009 inventory data of Wanglang Nature Reserve, the habitat selection attributes of giant panda were studied from the aspects of topography, forest community structure, and main feeding bamboo by the methods of frequency distribution and Bailey. The giant panda had obvious habitat preferences. Topographically, the preferred microhabitat was on the even or convex slopes at the ridge, top, or middle part of mountain body at an elevation 2500-3000 m, with southwest aspect, 6 degrees-30 degrees, and the distance to the nearest water source > 300 m. As for the forest community structure, the giant panda preferred the microhabitat with the bamboo succeeded from secondary forest or mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest, and with the average tree height being 20-29 m and the shrub coverage being 0-24%. The preferred main feeding bamboo by the giant panda was the growing well Fargesia denudate with an average height of 2-5 m and the coverage of > 50%.

  11. Reservoir permeability from seismic attribute analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, Dmitriy; Goloshubin, G.; Silin, D.; Vingalov, V.; Takkand, G.; Latfullin, M.

    2008-02-15

    In case of porous fluid-saturated medium the Biot's poroelasticity theory predicts a movement of the pore fluid relative to the skeleton on seismic wave propagation through the medium. This phenomenon opens an opportunity for investigation of the flow properties of the hydrocarbon-saturated reservoirs. It is well known that relative fluid movement becomes negligible at seismic frequencies if porous material is homogeneous and well cemented. In this case the theory predicts an underestimated seismic wave velocity dispersion and attenuation. Based on Biot's theory, Helle et al. (2003) have numerically demonstrated the substantial effects on both velocity and attenuation by heterogeneous permeability and saturation in the rocks. Besides fluid flow effect, the effects of scattering (Gurevich, et al., 1997) play very important role in case of finely layered porous rocks and heterogeneous fluid saturation. We have used both fluid flow and scattering effects to derive a frequency-dependent seismic attribute which is proportional to fluid mobility and applied it for analysis of reservoir permeability.

  12. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2014-08-19

    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.

  13. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program. PMID:25358529

  14. Which Fractures Are Most Attributable to Osteoporosis?

    PubMed Central

    Warriner, Amy H.; Patkar, Nivedita M.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Delzell, Elizabeth; Gary, Lisa; Kilgore, Meredith; Saag, Kenneth G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Determining anatomic sites and circumstances under which a fracture may be a consequence of osteoporosis is a topic of ongoing debate and controversy that is important to both clinicians and researchers. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review and generated an evidence report on fracture risk based on specific anatomic bone sites as well as fracture diagnosis codes. Using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness process, we convened a multi-disciplinary panel of 11 experts who rated fractures according to their likelihood of being due to osteoporosis based on the evidence report. Fracture sites (as determined by ICD-CM codes) were stratified by four clinical risk factor categories based on age, sex, race/ethnicity (African- American and Caucasian) and presence or absence of trauma. Results Consistent with current clinical experience, the fractures rated most likely due to osteoporosis were the femoral neck, pathologic fractures of the vertebrae, and lumbar and thoracic vertebral fractures. The fractures rated least likely due to osteoporosis were open proximal humerus fractures, skull, and facial bones. The expert panel rated open fractures of the arm (except proximal humerus) and fractures of the tibia/fibula, patella, ribs, and sacrum as being highly likely due to osteoporosis in older Caucasian women but a lower likelihood in younger African American men. Conclusion Osteoporosis attribution scores for all fracture sites were determined by a multidisciplinary expert panel to provide an evidence-based continuum of the likelihood of a fracture being associated with osteoporosis. PMID:21130353

  15. Power bases and attribution in three cultures.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Falah M; Rodrigues, Aroldo

    2003-06-01

    The authors used a Saudi context to verify the cross-cultural generality of findings (A. Rodrigues & K. L. Lloyd, 1998) reported for U.S. and Brazilian samples in which compliant behavior caused by reward, informational, and referent influences was perceived as more controllable and more internal than compliant behavior resulting from legitimate, expert, and coercive influences. This differential attribution led, in turn, to different affective and behavioral responses. In the present study, cognitive and affective reactions of Saudi students were measured with regard to compliant behavior (leading to a good outcome or a bad outcome) caused by each of the 6 bases of power described by B. H. Raven (1965). As expected, power bases had significant effects. However, when the outcome of the compliant behavior was bad, compliant behavior caused by a coercive influence led to the perception of more internality and controllability. Also--and not found in previous studies--the perception of less internality and controllability of compliant behavior was caused by an informational influence. Findings are discussed in the light of related research and Saudi cultural characteristics.

  16. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds qualifying dry-cured hams.

    PubMed

    García-González, Diego L; Tena, Noelia; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Morales, Maria T

    2008-10-01

    This work studies the relationship between 45 volatile compounds and 17 sensory attributes (13 flavour perceptions) of dry-cured hams. Volatile compounds were quantified by SPME-GC while the sensory assessment was carried out by 13 panellists. GC-sniffing was used to determine the odour impact zones of the chromatogram. The odour thresholds of the volatile compounds and their sensory characterisation were determined by dilution analysis. Six sensory attributes (acorn odour and flavour, rancid odour, rancid taste, fat rancid and fat pungent flavours) were explained by regression equations (adjusted -R(2)⩾0.70) based on ten compounds: benzaldehyde, 2-heptanone, hexanal, hexanol, limonene, 3-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanol, 2-nonanone, octanol, pentanol. Acorn flavour attribute was successfully emulated by mixing the volatile compounds selected by the equation. Its odour was evaluated by assessors that gave a sensory description that matches with the target. All the procedures performed for the elucidation of volatile-attribute relations showed a basic agreement in their results. PMID:22063336

  17. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  18. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  19. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  20. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  1. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  2. Risk Adjustment for Medicare Total Knee Arthroplasty Bundled Payments.

    PubMed

    Clement, R Carter; Derman, Peter B; Kheir, Michael M; Soo, Adrianne E; Flynn, David N; Levin, L Scott; Fleisher, Lee

    2016-09-01

    The use of bundled payments is growing because of their potential to align providers and hospitals on the goal of cost reduction. However, such gain sharing could incentivize providers to "cherry-pick" more profitable patients. Risk adjustment can prevent this unintended consequence, yet most bundling programs include minimal adjustment techniques. This study was conducted to determine how bundled payments for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) should be adjusted for risk. The authors collected financial data for all Medicare patients (age≥65 years) undergoing primary unilateral TKA at an academic center over a period of 2 years (n=941). Multivariate regression was performed to assess the effect of patient factors on the costs of acute inpatient care, including unplanned 30-day readmissions. This analysis mirrors a bundling model used in the Medicare Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative. Increased age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, and the presence of a Medicare Major Complications/Comorbid Conditions (MCC) modifier (typically representing major complications) were associated with increased costs (regression coefficients, $57 per year; $729 per ASA class beyond I; and $3122 for patients meeting MCC criteria; P=.003, P=.001, and P<.001, respectively). Differences in costs were not associated with body mass index, sex, or race. If the results are generalizable, Medicare bundled payments for TKA encompassing acute inpatient care should be adjusted upward by the stated amounts for older patients, those with elevated ASA class, and patients meeting MCC criteria. This is likely an underestimate for many bundling models, including the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement program, incorporating varying degrees of postacute care. Failure to adjust for factors that affect costs may create adverse incentives, creating barriers to care for certain patient populations. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(5):e911-e916.]. PMID:27359282

  3. 42 CFR 416.200 - Payment adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Adjustment in Payment Amounts for New Technology... the amount of the payment adjustment for classes of new technology IOLs through proposed and final... approved as belonging to a class of new technology IOLs for the 5-year period of time established for...

  4. 42 CFR 416.200 - Payment adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Adjustment in Payment Amounts for New Technology Intraocular... amount of the payment adjustment for classes of new technology IOLs through proposed and final rulemaking... approved as belonging to a class of new technology IOLs for the 5-year period of time established for...

  5. 42 CFR 416.200 - Payment adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Adjustment in Payment Amounts for New Technology... the amount of the payment adjustment for classes of new technology IOLs through proposed and final... approved as belonging to a class of new technology IOLs for the 5-year period of time established for...

  6. 42 CFR 416.200 - Payment adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Adjustment in Payment Amounts for New Technology Intraocular... amount of the payment adjustment for classes of new technology IOLs through proposed and final rulemaking... approved as belonging to a class of new technology IOLs for the 5-year period of time established for...

  7. 42 CFR 416.200 - Payment adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Adjustment in Payment Amounts for New Technology... the amount of the payment adjustment for classes of new technology IOLs through proposed and final... approved as belonging to a class of new technology IOLs for the 5-year period of time established for...

  8. Adjusting to Retirement: Considerations for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBauve, Bill J.; Robinson, Chester R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines retirement, while focusing on issues older adults face in adjusting to retirement, and suggests implications for counseling people who are making this transition. Discusses adjustment to retirement in terms of role, disengagement, activity, continuity, crisis, and compromise/negotiation theories. (Author/MKA)

  9. Family Adjustment Measure: Scale Construction and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daire, Andrew P.; Dominguez, Vanessa N.; Carlson, Ryan G.; Case-Pease, Jenene

    2014-01-01

    We administered the Family Adjustment Measure to 368 parents of children with special needs to identify positive adjustment. We randomly split the sample to conduct exploratory factor analysis ("n" = 194) and confirmatory factor analysis ("n" = 174). Results indicated four possible subscales and that explain 51% of the variance.

  10. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  11. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  12. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  13. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  14. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  15. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  16. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  17. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  18. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  19. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum, if... institution of higher education (IHE) to provide information on the cost of higher education to...

  20. Building Skills in Divorce Adjustment Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Sheila

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three different treatment modalities for divorce adjustment groups, that is, structured, unstructured, and control groups. Implications suggest that skill-building exercises might add an important therapeutic dimension for those experiencing adjustment to divorce. (Author)

  1. 12 CFR 611.1124 - Territorial adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Consolidations, and Charter Amendments of Associations § 611.1124 Territorial adjustments. This section shall apply to any request submitted to the Farm Credit Administration to modify association charters for the purpose of transferring territory from one association to another. (a) Territorial adjustments, except...

  2. 12 CFR 611.1124 - Territorial adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Consolidations, and Charter Amendments of Associations § 611.1124 Territorial adjustments. This section shall apply to any request submitted to the Farm Credit Administration to modify association charters for the purpose of transferring territory from one association to another. (a) Territorial adjustments, except...

  3. College Student Adjustment and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lisa Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between student adjustment theory and college student health behaviors. Specifically, this research examined first-year freshmen college student physical activity and nutrition behaviors and impact on adjustment to college (N = 37,564). The design for this study was a non-experimental "ex post facto"…

  4. 20 CFR 345.118 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments. 345.118 Section 345.118... additional contribution on the next report filed after discovery of the error; and (ii) Paying the amount... filed after discovery of the error. However, if the overpayment cannot be adjusted because the...

  5. 20 CFR 345.118 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustments. 345.118 Section 345.118... additional contribution on the next report filed after discovery of the error; and (ii) Paying the amount... filed after discovery of the error. However, if the overpayment cannot be adjusted because the...

  6. Individualized Client Planning for Work Adjustment Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Thomas J.

    To assist work adjustors, evaluators, and counselors in learning how to write individualized work adjustment plans, this publication describes one method of developing individual client plans--the Materials Development Center Individualized Work Adjustment Plan. The detailed description of this plan explains the two basic parts of its format: (1)…

  7. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  8. 45 CFR 84.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 84.44 Section 84.44 Public... Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure that such requirements do not...

  9. 22 CFR 142.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Academic adjustments. 142.44 Section 142.44... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 142.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make...

  10. 15 CFR 8b.22 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 8b.22 Section 8b... Secondary Education § 8b.22 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  11. 45 CFR 605.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 605.44 Section 605.44 Public... Postsecondary Education § 605.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  12. 34 CFR 104.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Academic adjustments. 104.44 Section 104.44 Education... Postsecondary Education § 104.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  13. 22 CFR 217.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Academic adjustments. 217.44 Section 217.44... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 217.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make...

  14. 7 CFR 15b.32 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 15b.32 Section 15b.32... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 15b.32 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to...

  15. 45 CFR 1170.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 1170.44 Section 1170.44... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Postsecondary Education § 1170.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its...

  16. 38 CFR 18.444 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Academic adjustments. 18....444 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient shall make necessary modifications to its academic requirements to ensure that these requirements do not discriminate or have the effect...

  17. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati

    2014-01-01

    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  18. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  19. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  20. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  1. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  2. 7 CFR 2201.30 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustments. 2201.30 Section 2201.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.30 Adjustments. (a) The...

  3. 7 CFR 2201.30 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustments. 2201.30 Section 2201.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.30 Adjustments. (a) The...

  4. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  5. Consanguineous Marriage and Marital Adjustment in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiloglu, Hurol

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between consanguineous marriage and marital adjustment in Turkey. The results of the study show that the consanguineous marriage group had significantly lower marital adjustment and had more conflict with extended family than the nonconsanguineous marriage group. The finding is discussed in the context of research and…

  6. Fuel injection pump with adjustable timing

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Abe, N.

    1987-04-28

    A fuel injection pump is described comprising: a pump body; a plunger disposed in the pump body for reciprocating within the pump body; and a pre-stroke adjusting mechanism disposed in the pump body and operatively connected with the plunger for adjusting an effective pre-stroke of the plunger.

  7. Does Fall History Influence Residential Adjustments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Natalie; Porell, Frank; Murphy, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To determine whether reported falls at baseline are associated with an older adult's decision to make a residential adjustment (RA) and the type of adjustment made in the subsequent 2 years. Design and Methods: Observations (n = 25,036) were from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of…

  8. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  9. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  10. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  11. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  12. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  13. 76 FR 42140 - Rate Adjustment Remand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... the amount of the revenue lost as a result of the exigent circumstances.'' Id. \\6\\ Id. The court... amount of the proposed adjustments precisely to the amount of revenue lost as a result of the exigent... amount of an exigent rate adjustment must match the amount of revenue lost as a result of an...

  14. Divorcing Parents: Guidelines for Promoting Children's Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kurt A.; Adams, Christina D; Drabman, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    There are measures that parents can take to help their children through the often distressing process of parental divorce. Describes the empirical literature regarding issues and factors relevant to children's adjustment to divorce. Provides practical guidelines and suggestions likely to help parents enhance their children's adjustment.…

  15. 7 CFR 15b.32 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 15b.32 Section 15b.32... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 15b.32 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to...

  16. 15 CFR 8b.22 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 8b.22 Section 8b... Secondary Education § 8b.22 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  17. 29 CFR 785.42 - Adjusting grievances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adjusting grievances. 785.42 Section 785.42 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Adjusting Grievances, Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems §...

  18. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  19. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  20. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...