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Sample records for adjusted prevalence odds

  1. "Dealing" with Incidence, Prevalence, and Odds Concepts in Undergraduate Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senchina, David S.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts and associated statistical formulae of incidence, prevalence, and odds/odds ratios are core knowledge in epidemiology yet can be confusing for students. The purpose of this project was to develop, validate, and share one possible pedagogical technique using playing cards that could be employed to improve undergraduate understanding of…

  2. Teenage Parenthood among Child Welfare Clients: A Swedish National Cohort Study of Prevalence and Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Franzen, Eva; Danielsson, Maria

    2007-01-01

    To assess prevalence and odds for teenage parenthood among former child welfare clients, we used national register data for all children born in Sweden 1972-1983 (n = 1,178,207), including 49,582 former child welfare clients with varying intervention experiences. Logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and familial…

  3. Does the Prevalence of CD and ODD Vary across Cultures?

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Rohde, Luis A.; Frick, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is presented in order to examine the first of four criteria used in other studies to determine the validity of psychiatric disorders across cultures. The authors searched Medline and PsycINFO from 1987 to 2008. Studies were included if they were representative of specific communities or countries and reported point prevalence of CD or ODD according to DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria for children 18 years or younger. Only methodological and not geographic factors were associated with variability of the prevalence estimates. The results are discussed in terms of their significance for the classification of disorders and the need for further research to establish the validity of these two disorders across cultures. PMID:20532864

  4. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…

  5. Estimating adjusted prevalence ratio in clustered cross-sectional epidemiological data

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos Antônio ST; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L; Oliveira, Nelson F; Cunha, Sérgio; Barreto, Maurício L; do Carmo, Maria Beatriz B; Moncayo, Ana-Lucia; Rodrigues, Laura C; Cooper, Philip J; Amorim, Leila D

    2008-01-01

    Background Many epidemiologic studies report the odds ratio as a measure of association for cross-sectional studies with common outcomes. In such cases, the prevalence ratios may not be inferred from the estimated odds ratios. This paper overviews the most commonly used procedures to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios and extends the discussion to the analysis of clustered cross-sectional studies. Methods Prevalence ratios(PR) were estimated using logistic models with random effects. Their 95% confidence intervals were obtained using delta method and clustered bootstrap. The performance of these approaches was evaluated through simulation studies. Using data from two studies with health-related outcomes in children, we discuss the interpretation of the measures of association and their implications. Results The results from data analysis highlighted major differences between estimated OR and PR. Results from simulation studies indicate an improved performance of delta method compared to bootstrap when there are small number of clusters. Conclusion We recommend the use of logistic model with random effects for analysis of clustered data. The choice of method to estimate confidence intervals for PR (delta or bootstrap method) should be based on study design. PMID:19087281

  6. Adjustment Disorder in Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Correlates in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women is largely unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico. Methods Pregnant women (n = 300) attending in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico were studied. All enrolled pregnant women had a psychiatric interview to evaluate the presence of adjustment disorder using the DSM-IV criteria. A questionnaire was submitted to obtain general epidemiological data of the pregnant women studied. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of adjustment disorder with the epidemiological data of the women studied. Results Fifteen (5.0%) of the 300 women studied had adjustment disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria. Adjustment disorder was not associated with age, occupation, marital status, or education of pregnant women. In contrast, multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables showed that adjustment disorder was associated with the variables lack of support from her couple (odds ratio (OR) = 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 - 14.63; P = 0.04) and couple living abroad (OR = 10.12; 95% CI: 1.56 - 65.50; P = 0.01). Conclusions This is the first report about the epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results provide evidence of the presence of adjustment disorder and contributing psychosocial factors associated with this disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results point towards further clinical and research attention should be given to this neglected disorder in pregnant women. PMID:26346070

  7. The odd man out in Sub-Saharan Africa: understanding the tobacco use prevalence in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The tobacco industry has globalized and tobacco use continues to increase in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, the data and research to inform policy initiatives for addressing this phenomenon is sparse. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of adult tobacco use in 17 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries, and to identify key factors associated with adult tobacco consumption choices (smoked, smokeless tobacco and dual use) in Madagascar. Methods We used Demographic Health Survey for estimating tobacco use prevalence among adults in SSA. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify key determinants of adult tobacco consumption choices in Madagascar. Results While differences in tobacco use exist in SSA, Madagascar has exceptionally higher prevalence rates (48.9% of males; 10.3% of females). The regression analyses showed complexity of tobacco use in Madagascar and identified age, education, wealth, employment, marriage, religion and place of residence as factors significantly associated with the choice of tobacco use among males, while age, wealth, and employment were significantly associated with that of females. The effects, however, differ across the three choices of tobacco use compared to non-use. Conclusions Tobacco use in Madagascar was higher than the other 16 SSA countries. Although the government continues to enact policies to address the problem, there is a need for effective implementation and enforcement. There is also the need for health education to modify social norms and denormalize tobacco use. PMID:24044737

  8. Prevalence, correlates, and costs of patients with poor adjustment to mixed cancers.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lorna; Downe-Wamboldt, Barbara; Melanson, Patricia; Coulter, Lynn; Keefe, Janice; Singleton, Jerome; Bell, David

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 2% to 3% of the Canadian society has experienced cancer. Literature indicates that there is poor adjustment to chronic illness. Individuals with poor adjustment to chronic illness have been found to disproportionately use more health services. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, correlates, and costs associated with poor adjustment to mixed cancer. A consecutive sample (n = 171) of breast, lung, and prostate cancer patients at the Nova Scotia Regional Cancer Center were surveyed. Twenty-eight percent of the cancer group showed fair to poor adjustment to illness using the Psychological Adjustment to Illness Self-report Scale Psychological Adjustment to Illness Self-Report Scale raw score. Poor adjustment was moderately correlated with depression (r = 0.50, P < .0001) and evasive coping (r = 0.38, P < .0001) and unrelated to demographic variables. Depression explained 25% of the variance in poor adjustment to illness in regression analysis. Cancer patients with fair to poor adjustment to illness had statistically significantly higher annual healthcare expenditures (P < .002) than those with good adjustment to illness. Expenditure findings agree with previous literature on chronic illnesses. The prevalence of fair to poor adjustment in this cancer population using the Psychological Adjustment to Illness Self-Report Scale measure is similar to that reported for chronic illness to date, suggesting that only those with better adjustment consented to this study. PMID:16557115

  9. Demonization of Divorce: Prevalence Rates and Links to Postdivorce Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    The meaning-making process can be crucial to individuals as they adjust to their divorce. Demonization is a negative coping response (also known as spiritual struggle) that involves appraising someone or something as related to demonic forces. Individuals may cognitively frame a divorce as the work of Satan in order to understand suffering while…

  10. Odds per adjusted standard deviation: comparing strengths of associations for risk factors measured on different scales and across diseases and populations.

    PubMed

    Hopper, John L

    2015-11-15

    How can the "strengths" of risk factors, in the sense of how well they discriminate cases from controls, be compared when they are measured on different scales such as continuous, binary, and integer? Given that risk estimates take into account other fitted and design-related factors-and that is how risk gradients are interpreted-so should the presentation of risk gradients. Therefore, for each risk factor X0, I propose using appropriate regression techniques to derive from appropriate population data the best fitting relationship between the mean of X0 and all the other covariates fitted in the model or adjusted for by design (X1, X2, … , Xn). The odds per adjusted standard deviation (OPERA) presents the risk association for X0 in terms of the change in risk per s = standard deviation of X0 adjusted for X1, X2, … , Xn, rather than the unadjusted standard deviation of X0 itself. If the increased risk is relative risk (RR)-fold over A adjusted standard deviations, then OPERA = exp[ln(RR)/A] = RR(s). This unifying approach is illustrated by considering breast cancer and published risk estimates. OPERA estimates are by definition independent and can be used to compare the predictive strengths of risk factors across diseases and populations. PMID:26520360

  11. Respiratory hospitalizations of children living near a hazardous industrial site adjusted for prevalent dust: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nirel, Ronit; Maimon, Nimrod; Fireman, Elizabeth; Agami, Sarit; Eyal, Arnona; Peretz, Alon

    2015-03-01

    The Neot Hovav Industrial Park (IP), located in southern Israel, hosts 23 chemical industry facilities and the national site for treatment of hazardous waste. Yet, information about its impact on the health of local population has been mostly ecological, focused on Bedouins and did not control for possible confounding effect of prevalent dust storms. This case-control study examined whether living near the IP could lead to increased risk of pediatric hospitalization for respiratory diseases. Cases (n=3608) were residents of the Be'er Sheva sub-district aged 0-14 years who were admitted for respiratory illnesses between 2004 and 2009. These were compared to children admitted for non-respiratory conditions (n=3058). Home addresses were geocoded and the distances from the IP to the child's residence were calculated. The association between hospitalization and residential distance from the IP was examined for three age groups (0-1, 2-6, 7-14) by logistic regressions adjusting for gender, socioeconomic status, urbanity and temperature. We found that infants in the first year of life who lived within 10 km of the IP had increased risk of respiratory hospitalization when compared with those living >20 km from the IP (adjusted odds ratio, OR=2.07, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.19-3.59). In models with both distance from the IP and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM(10)) the estimated risk was modestly attenuated (OR=1.96, 95% CI: 1.09-3.51). Elevated risk was also observed for children 2-5 years of age but with no statistical significance (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 0.76-1.76). Our findings suggest that residential proximity to a hazardous industrial site may contribute to early life respiratory admissions, beyond that of prevailing PM(10). PMID:25547415

  12. Incidence, prevalence, and hybrid approaches to calculating disability-adjusted life years

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    When disability-adjusted life years are used to measure the burden of disease on a population in a time interval, they can be calculated in several different ways: from an incidence, pure prevalence, or hybrid perspective. I show that these calculation methods are not equivalent and discuss some of the formal difficulties each method faces. I show that if we don’t discount the value of future health, there is a sense in which the choice of calculation method is a mere question of accounting. Such questions can be important, but they don’t raise deep theoretical concerns. If we do discount, however, choice of calculation method can change the relative burden attributed to different conditions over time. I conclude by recommending that studies involving disability-adjusted life years be explicit in noting what calculation method is being employed and in explaining why that calculation method has been chosen. PMID:22967055

  13. International variation in reported livebirth prevalence rates of Down syndrome, adjusted for maternal age.

    PubMed

    Carothers, A D; Hecht, C A; Hook, E B

    1999-05-01

    Reported livebirth prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) may be affected by the maternal age distribution of the population, completeness of ascertainment, accuracy of diagnosis, extent of selective prenatal termination of affected pregnancies, and as yet unidentified genetic and environmental factors. To search for evidence of the latter, we reviewed all published reports in which it was possible to adjust both for effects of maternal age and for selective termination (where relevant). We constructed indices that allowed direct comparisons of prevalence rates after standardising for maternal age. Reference rates were derived from studies previously identified as having near complete ascertainment. An index value significantly different from 1 may result from random fluctuations, as well as from variations in the factors listed above. We found 49 population groups for which an index could be calculated. Methodological descriptions suggested that low values could often be attributed to under-ascertainment. A possible exception concerned African-American groups, though even among these most acceptable studies were compatible with an index value of 1. As we have reported elsewhere, there was also a suggestive increase in rates among US residents of Mexican or Central American origin. Nevertheless, our results suggest that "real" variation between population groups reported to date probably amounts to no more than +/-25%. However, reliable data in many human populations are lacking including, surprisingly, some jurisdictions with relatively advanced health care systems. We suggest that future reports of DS livebirth prevalence should routinely present data that allow calculation of an index standardised for maternal age and adjusted for elective prenatal terminations. PMID:10353785

  14. Canine echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan: using prevalence data adjusted for measurement error to develop transmission dynamics models

    PubMed Central

    Ziadinov, I.; Mathis, A.; Trachsel, D.; Rysmukhambetova, A.; Abdyjaparov, T. A.; Kuttubaev, O. T.; Deplazes, P.; Torgerson, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A cross-sectional study of dogs in four villages in rural Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Echinococcus spp. A total of 466 dogs were examined by arecoline purgation for the presence of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. In addition, a faecal sample from each dog was examined for taeniid eggs. Any taeniid eggs found were investigated using PCR techniques (multiplex and single target PCR) to improve the diagnostic sensitivity by confirming the presence of Echinococcus spp. and to identify E. granulosus strains. A total of 83 (18%) dogs had either E. granulosus adults in purge material and/or E. granulosus eggs in their faeces as confirmed by PCR. Three genotypes of E. granulosus: G1, G4 and the G6/7 complex were shown to be present in these dogs through subsequent sequence analysis. Purge analysis combined with PCR identified 50 dogs that were infected with adult E. multilocularis and/or had E. multilocularis eggs in their faeces (11%). Bayesian techniques were employed to estimate the true prevalence, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the procedures used and the transmission parameters. The sensitivity of arecoline purgation for the detection of echinococcosis in dogs was rather low, with a value of 38% (Credible intervals (CIs) 27–50%) for E. granulosus and 21% (CIs 11–34%) for E. multilocularis. The specificity of arecoline purgation was assumed to be 100%. The sensitivity of coproscopy followed by PCR of the isolated eggs was calculated as 78% (CIs 57–87%) for E. granulosus and 50% (CIs 29–72%) for E. multilocularis with specificity of 93% (CIs 88–96%) and 100% (CIs 97–100), respectively. The 93% specificity of the coprological-PCR for E. granulosus could suggest coprophagia rather than true infections. After adjusting for the sensitivity of the diagnostic procedures, the estimated true prevalence of infection of

  15. The Prevalence of Cyber Bullying Victimization and Its Relationship to Academic, Social, and Emotional Adjustment among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the prevalence and frequency of cyber bullying victimization and examined the impact of cyber bullying on academic, social, and emotional college adjustment. Participants were recruited from two universities in the United States. Participants completed the Revised Cyber Bullying Survey (Kowalski & Limber, 2007) and…

  16. Adjusting HIV prevalence estimates for non-participation: an application to demographic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Mark E.; Marra, Giampiero; Radice, Rosalba; Canning, David; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV testing is a cornerstone of efforts to combat the HIV epidemic, and testing conducted as part of surveillance provides invaluable data on the spread of infection and the effectiveness of campaigns to reduce the transmission of HIV. However, participation in HIV testing can be low, and if respondents systematically select not to be tested because they know or suspect they are HIV positive (and fear disclosure), standard approaches to deal with missing data will fail to remove selection bias. We implemented Heckman-type selection models, which can be used to adjust for missing data that are not missing at random, and established the extent of selection bias in a population-based HIV survey in an HIV hyperendemic community in rural South Africa. Methods We used data from a population-based HIV survey carried out in 2009 in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In this survey, 5565 women (35%) and 2567 men (27%) provided blood for an HIV test. We accounted for missing data using interviewer identity as a selection variable which predicted consent to HIV testing but was unlikely to be independently associated with HIV status. Our approach involved using this selection variable to examine the HIV status of residents who would ordinarily refuse to test, except that they were allocated a persuasive interviewer. Our copula model allows for flexibility when modelling the dependence structure between HIV survey participation and HIV status. Results For women, our selection model generated an HIV prevalence estimate of 33% (95% CI 27–40) for all people eligible to consent to HIV testing in the survey. This estimate is higher than the estimate of 24% generated when only information from respondents who participated in testing is used in the analysis, and the estimate of 27% when imputation analysis is used to predict missing data on HIV status. For men, we found an HIV prevalence of 25% (95% CI 15–35) using the selection model, compared to 16% among those who

  17. Bias From Using Occupational Smoking Prevalence to Adjust Occupational Incidence Cohort Lung Cancer Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how smoking correction factors based on comparing worker smoking prevalence with population smoking prevalence are biased if applied to an occupational incidence cohort. Methods: Relative rates of smoking for shorter-tenure workers derived from occupational cohort lung cancer studies were applied to incidence and prevalence population tenure distributions to calculate relative smoking estimates. Results: High smoking rates in short-tenure workers have little effect on prevalent worker rates (relative smoking estimates, 1.04 and 1.02) and much larger effect in occupational incidence populations (relative smoking estimates, 1.58 and 1.21), which have a much higher proportion of short tenure-workers. Conclusions: Smoking correction estimates derived from surveys of smoking habits in prevalent workers may introduce bias when applied to incidence workers because of very different proportions of short-tenure workers (length-time biased sampling). PMID:25427172

  18. Bullying Among South Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Association With Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence rates of physical, verbal, relational, property, and cyber bullying among a sample of South Korean middle school students. Associations between bullying and a list of psychopathological symptoms were also examined. Finally, whether a link between bullying and psychopathological symptoms is modified by the level of parental attachment was examined. Results show that, contrary to Western studies, girls were more likely than boys to be involved in school bullying. Significant interaction effects between parental attachment and bully/victim status on depression were also discovered. PMID:26645381

  19. Friendships with Co-Participants in Organized Activities: Prevalence, Quality, Friends' Characteristics, and Associations with Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, Francois; Denault, Anne-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of friendships within organized activities. The prevalence of friendships with co-participants, their quality and characteristics, and their associations with adjustment were investigated. A sample of 281 (60% girls) 8th grade adolescents reported their friendships, activities, and…

  20. Few Preschool Boys and Girls with ADHD Are Well-Adjusted during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Steve S.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of being well-adjusted in adolescence, boys and girls with (n = 96) and without (n = 26) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were assessed seven times in eight years starting when they were 4-6 years of age. Symptoms of ADHD, ODD/CD, and depression/anxiety in addition to social skills and social preference…

  1. Computing Power and Sample Size for Informational Odds Ratio †

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.

    2013-01-01

    The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (i.e., information gained after knowing exposure status). A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder. Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs, analogous to relative risks (RRs) generally are collapsible. IORs are a useful measure of disease association in case-referent studies, especially when the disease is common in the exposed and/or unexposed groups. This paper outlines how to compute power and sample size in the simple case of unadjusted IORs. PMID:24157518

  2. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... Research in Bethesda. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson "Against the Odds" is a remarkable story of achievement ...

  3. Informational Odds Ratio: A Useful Measure of Epidemiologic Association in Environment Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.; Lea, Suzanne; Toland, Amanda; Phillips, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (ie, information gained after knowing exposure status). A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility (ie, the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder). Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs generally are collapsible. IORs are a useful measure of disease association in environmental case-referent studies, especially when the disease is common in the exposed and/or unexposed groups. PMID:22518087

  4. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  5. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1993-09-14

    In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of {sup 170}Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements.

  6. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1985-01-15

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earch region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  7. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1984-09-07

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Nonadiabatic effects in odd-odd deformed proton emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Patial, M.; Jain, A. K.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2011-11-30

    We present for the first time, the nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach to study proton emission from odd-odd deformed nuclei. Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wavefunctions and hence our formalism allows us to study their complete role on the decay widths. First results obtained for the nucleus {sup 112}Cs suggest a weak dependance on Coriolis effect. However, we are able to reproduce the experimental half-lives without assuming the exact Nilsson orbital from which the decay proceeds.

  9. At Odds: Concerns Raised by Using Odds Ratios for Continuous or Common Dichotomous Outcomes in Research on Physical Activity and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Gina S.; Underhill, Lindsay J.; Jack, Darby; Richards, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher; Rundle, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Research on obesity and the built environment has often featured logistic regression and the corresponding parameter, the odds ratio. Use of odds ratios for common outcomes such obesity may unnecessarily hinder the validity, interpretation, and communication of research findings. Methods We identified three key issues raised by the use of odds ratios, illustrating them with data on walkability and body mass index from a study of 13,102 New York City residents. Results First, dichotomization of continuous measures such as body mass index discards theoretically relevant information, reduces statistical power, and amplifies measurement error. Second, odds ratios are systematically higher (further from the null) than prevalence ratios; this inflation is trivial for rare outcomes, but substantial for common outcomes like obesity. Third, odds ratios can lead to incorrect conclusions during tests of interactions. The odds ratio in a particular subgroup might higher simply because the outcome is more common (and the odds ratio inflated) compared with other subgroups. Conclusion Our recommendations are to take full advantage of continuous outcome data when feasible and to use prevalence ratios in place of odds ratios for common dichotomous outcomes. When odds ratios must be used, authors should document outcome prevalence across exposure groups. PMID:23002407

  10. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1993-09-01

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of {sup 224}Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides.

  11. On Quantizable Odd Lie Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, Anton; Merkulov, Sergei; Willwacher, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the obstruction to the deformation quantization of Poisson structures in infinite dimensions, we introduce the notion of a quantizable odd Lie bialgebra. The main result of the paper is a construction of the highly non-trivial minimal resolution of the properad governing such Lie bialgebras, and its link with the theory of so-called quantizable Poisson structures.

  12. Excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthaus, T.; Reiter, P.; Hess, H.; Kalkühler, M.; Wendt, A.; Wiens, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Morgan, T.; Thirolf, P. G.; Wirth, H.-F.; Faestermann, T.

    2013-04-01

    The completely unknown spectrum of excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa was studied employing the one-neutron transfer reaction 231Pa(d,t)230Pa at a beam energy of 22 MeV. The excitation energy and the cross section were measured for, in total, 81 states below 1.4 MeV. Level assignments of these states are based on a semiempirical model and comparison with theoretical predictions, based on distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations for the cross sections. For 12 rotational bands the band-head energy and the rotational parameter are determined. The K quantum numbers and the Nilsson configurations are established. Empirical values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and for Newby shifts are obtained.

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Low Back Pain Among Professional Drivers in Kano, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Rufa'i, Adamu Ahmad; Sa'idu, Isma'ila Adamu; Ahmad, Rufa'i Yusuf; Elmi, Omar Salad; Aliyu, Salamatu Umar; Jajere, Abdurrahman Mohammed; Digil, Abbas Abdullahi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of low back pain (LBP) among professional drivers in Nigeria. Two hundred male drivers aged 19-64 years were recruited in the study. Data regarding prevalence, individual risk factors, and impact of LBP were obtained. The prevalence rate of LBP was 73.5%, and LBP have affected the driving performance of up to 74% drivers. After adjustment for age, LBP prevalence was associated with driving for >15 hours/day (odds ratio [OR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]): (0.04; 0.01, 0.20), driving car (5.52; 1.55, 19.64), and driving bus (10.49; 2.63, 41.82). No association was found between LBP prevalence and years spent driving. The study found that high prevalence of LBP affected the performance of a substantial percentage of the participants. PMID:24219691

  14. Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus 184Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P. C.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus 184 73Ta111 is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from 184Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that 184Hf ( Q_{β}=1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β-branches to 184Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak ( 1fu β-branches populating J^{π}=2- levels in 184Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying ( Ex = 260(40) keV) high-spin ( J^{π}=10-) long-lived isomer in this nucleus.

  15. Parent-adolescent conflict in teenagers with ADHD and ODD.

    PubMed

    Edwards, G; Barkley, R A; Laneri, M; Fletcher, K; Metevia, L

    2001-12-01

    Eighty-seven male teens (ages 12-18 years) with ADHD/ODD and their parents were compared to 32 male teens and their parents in a community control (CC) group on mother, father, and teen ratings of parent-teen conflict and communication quality, parental self-reports of psychological adjustment, and direct observations of parent-teen problem-solving interactions during a neutral and conflict discussion. Parents and teens in the ADHD/ODD group rated themselves as having significantly more issues involving parent-teen conflict, more anger during these conflict discussions, and more negative communication generally, and used more aggressive conflict tactics with each other than did parents and teens in the CC group. During a neutral discussion, only the ADHD/ODD teens demonstrated more negative behavior. During the conflict discussion, however, the mothers, fathers, and teens in the ADHD/ODD group displayed more negative behavior, and the mothers and teens showed less positive behavior than did participants in the CC group. Differences in conflicts related to sex of parent were evident on only a few measures. Both mother and father self-rated hostility contributed to the level of mother-teen conflict whereas father self-rated hostility and anxiety contributed to father-teen conflict beyond the contribution made by level of teen ODD and ADHD symptoms. Results replicated past studies of mother-child interactions in ADHD/ODD children, extended these results to teens with these disorders, showed that greater conflict also occurs in father-teen interactions, and found that degree of parental hostility, but not ADHD symptoms, further contributed to levels of parent-teen conflict beyond the contribution made by severity of teen ADHD and ODD symptoms. PMID:11761288

  16. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms Among Middle-Aged Women: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Harlow, Sioban; Avis, Nancy; Kravitz, Howard M.; Cordal, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We examined racial/ethnic differences in significant depressive symptoms among middle-aged women before and after adjustment for socioeconomic, health-related, and psychosocial characteristics. Methods. Racial/ethnic differences in unadjusted and adjusted prevalence of significant depressive symptoms (score ≥ 16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] Scale) were assessed with univariate and multiple logistic regressions. Results. Twenty-four percent of the sample had a CES-D score of 16 or higher. Unadjusted prevalence varied by race/ethnicity (P < .0001). After adjustment for covariates, racial/ethnic differences overall were no longer significant. Conclusions. Hispanic and African American women had the highest odds, and Chinese and Japanese women had the lowest odds, for a CES-D score of 16 or higher. This variation is in part because of health-related and psychosocial factors that are linked to socioeconomic status. PMID:15284047

  17. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among immigrant Latino farmworkers and non-farmworkers in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Mora, Dana C; Miles, Christopher M; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A; Summers, Phillip; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    This paper evaluates the variability in the prevalence of epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, low back pain, and lower extremity pathology among immigrant Latino farmworkers and non-farmworkers. Data were collected from a study among 272 farmworkers and non-farmworkers. Participants were recruited in eastern and central North Carolina. A physical examination was conducted by trained physicians. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among Latino manual workers is high compared with other workers in similar occupations. Non-farmworkers (49%) had a higher prevalence of MSDs than farmworkers (35%). Epicondylitis (20.2%) and rotator cuff syndrome (19.1%) were most prevalent. Age was found to be significant among those who had epicondylitis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.04) and lower extremity pathology (AOR = 1.07). Latino immigrant manual workers have high prevalence of MSDs. Further studies are needed to identify possible factors that make these populations more vulnerable to MSDs. PMID:25454715

  18. Lifetime Prevalence, Correlates, and Persistence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Matthew K.; Kazdin, Alan E.; Hiripi, Eva; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a leading cause of referral for youth mental health services; yet, many uncertainties exist about ODD given it is rarely examined as a distinct psychiatric disorder. We examined the lifetime prevalence, onset, persistence, and correlates of ODD. Methods: Lifetime prevalence of ODD and 18 other…

  19. Odd frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen; Woelfle, Peter; Balatsky, Alexandar

    Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. While the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e. non-interacting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory allowing to discuss a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing. Work supported by USDOE DE-AC52-06NA25396 E304, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and ERC DM-321031.

  20. General parity-odd CMB bispectrum estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2014-05-01

    We develop a methodology for estimating parity-odd bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This is achieved through the extension of the original separable modal methodology to parity-odd bispectrum domains (ℓ{sub 1}+ℓ{sub 2}+ℓ{sub 3} = odd). Through numerical tests of the parity-odd modal decomposition with some theoretical bispectrum templates, we verify that the parity-odd modal methodology can successfully reproduce the CMB bispectrum, without numerical instabilities. We also present simulated non-Gaussian maps produced by modal-decomposed parity-odd bispectra, and show the consistency with the exact results. Our new methodology is applicable to all types of parity-odd temperature and polarization bispectra.

  1. Odds of observing the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, A.

    2010-03-15

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H{sub O}/H{sub I}){sup 2}, where H{sub O} is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H{sub I} is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  2. Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2015-01-01

    Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: ℓ{sub 1} + ℓ{sub 2} + ℓ{sub 3} = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-03-01

    The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical

  4. Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis ... Threatening Bacterial Infection Remains Mysterious This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  5. Association between Hypertension and the Prevalence of Low Back Pain and Osteoarthritis in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung; Cho, Jae-Heung; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension and musculoskeletal disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between hypertension and prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and osteoarthritis in Koreans. Methods A total 17,128 participants (age ≥20 years) who answered low back pain and osteoarthritis items in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2009) were analyzed. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression and were adjusted for age, sex, income level, education, occupation, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Results Lifetime prevalence of LBP in hypertensive subjects was 34.4%, and that of osteoarthritis 26.2%. LBP prevalence was significantly lower in hypertensives (fully adjusted OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.70–0.90), and both LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence was significantly lower in participants with systolic blood pressure ≥140mmHg than those with <120mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.70–0.94, and 0.81; 95% CI 0.68–0.96, respectively). Prevalence of LBP in subjects with diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg was also significantly lower than those with <80mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.63–0.85). LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence did not differ by systolic or diastolic blood pressure interval in respondents taking antihypertensive medication. LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence increased with longer hypertension duration (fully adjusted p for trend 0.028, and 0.0008, respectively). Conclusions Hypertension showed an inverse relationship with LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence, which may be ascribed to hypertension-associated hypalgesia, and antihypertensive medication intake and longer hypertension duration attenuated this association. PMID:26393797

  6. The nuclear structure of deformed odd-odd nuclei: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Jain, A.K.; Sood, P.C.; Sheline, R.K.

    1988-06-06

    Previous surveys of experimental level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei have been updated with recent results for the lanthanide and actinide regions. The relative strengths of the effective neutron-proton interaction derived from these data are compared. The predictive power of a semi-empirical model for level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei is demonstrated. Comparison is made with recent Hartree-Fock calculations of selected nuclei.

  7. Metabolic Syndrome Components After Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Prevalence and the Impact of Obesity and Immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Perito, E R; Lustig, R H; Rosenthal, P

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with long-term morbidity and mortality after adult liver transplantation (LT). Whether pediatric LT recipients have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome remains controversial. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated pediatric LT recipients aged 8-30 years using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) protocols. LT recipients were matched by gender, race/ethnicity, and age with controls from NHANES. Pediatric LT recipients (n = 83), after adjusting for overweight/obesity and glucocorticoid use, had increased prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 2-h glucose after oral glucose tolerance test ≥140 mg/dL), and low high-density lipoprotein compared to matched NHANES controls (n = 235) despite a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity. Among LT recipients, the adjusted odds of IGT doubled for every 7.5 years taking calcineurin inhibitors (odds ratio = 2.10, 95% confidence interval 1.06-4.17 per 7.5 years taking calcineurin inhibitors, p = 0.03). Among all subjects with IGT, LT recipients had a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and less insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) than did controls with IGT. Among normal weight subjects, LT recipients were significantly more likely than controls to have prehypertension/hypertension, IGT, low high-density lipoprotein, and metabolic syndrome. Pediatric LT recipients have unique metabolic syndrome profiles and risk factors and will require tailored screening and management protocols. PMID:26751054

  8. Measuring additive interaction using odds ratios

    PubMed Central

    Kalilani, Linda; Atashili, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Interaction measured on the additive scale has been argued to be better correlated with biologic interaction than when measured on the multiplicative scale. Measures of interaction on the additive scale have been developed using risk ratios. However, in studies that use odds ratios as the sole measure of effect, the calculation of these measures of additive interaction is usually performed by directly substituting odds ratios for risk ratios. Yet assessing additive interaction based on replacing risk ratios by odds ratios in formulas that were derived using the former may be erroneous. In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which three measures of additive interaction – the interaction contrast ratio (ICR), the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S), estimated using odds ratios versus using risk ratios differ as the incidence of the outcome of interest increases in the source population and/or as the magnitude of interaction increases. Our analysis shows that the difference between the two depends on the measure of interaction used, the type of interaction present, and the baseline incidence of the outcome. Substituting odds ratios for risk ratios, when calculating measures of additive interaction, may result in misleading conclusions. Of the three measures, AP appears to be the most robust to this direct substitution. Formulas that use stratum specific odds and odds ratios to accurately calculate measures of additive interaction are presented. PMID:16620385

  9. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  10. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930

  11. Obesity in older adults is associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of pain.

    PubMed

    Heim, Noor; Snijder, Marieke B; Deeg, Dorly J H; Seidell, Jaap C; Visser, Marjolein

    2008-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between BMI and pain. This prospective study investigated the associations of measured BMI and waist circumference with prevalent and incident pain in older adults. The study included participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, aged 55-85 years at baseline (1992-1993). Pain was assessed using a subscale of the Nottingham Health Profile at baseline (N = 2,000), after 3 years (N = 1,478) and 6 years (N = 1,271) of follow-up. The overall prevalence of pain was 32.7% at baseline and increased significantly with higher quartiles of BMI or waist circumference. After adjustment for age, education, depression, smoking, physical activity, and chronic diseases, multiple logistic regression analyses showed odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval)) for prevalent pain of 2.16 (1.32-3.54) in men and 1.93 (1.26-2.95) in women comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of BMI. Of the participants without pain at baseline, those in the highest quartile of BMI had a twofold increased odds for incident pain after 3 years of follow-up. After 6 years of follow-up, ORs for incident pain were 2.34 (1.17-4.72) in men and 2.78 (1.36-5.70) in women. Additional adjustment for weight change did not change these associations. Similar results were found for the associations between waist circumference and pain. Exploring the reversed causal relation, analyses showed no significant associations between prevalent pain and weight gain. In conclusion, the prevalence of pain is higher among obese older men and women compared to their normal-weight peers. Furthermore, obese older adults are at increased odds to develop pain. PMID:18787527

  12. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  13. The Prevalence and Incidence of Epiretinal Membranes in Eyes With Inactive Extramacular CMV Retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Igor; Vaidya, Vijay; Van Natta, Mark L.; Pak, Jeong W.; May, K. Patrick; Thorne, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the prevalence and incidence of epiretinal membranes (ERM) in eyes with inactive extramacular cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods. A case–control report from a longitudinal multicenter observational study by the Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (SOCA) Research Group. A total of 357 eyes of 270 patients with inactive CMV retinitis and 1084 eyes of 552 patients with no ocular opportunistic infection (OOI) were studied. Stereoscopic views of the posterior pole from fundus photographs were assessed at baseline and year 5 visits for the presence of macular ERM. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence and 5-year incidence of ERM in eyes with and without CMV retinitis at enrollment. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was performed adjusting for possible confounders. Main outcome measures included the prevalence, incidence, estimated prevalence, and incidence odds ratios. Results. The prevalence of ERM at enrollment was 14.8% (53/357) in eyes with CMV retinitis versus 1.8% (19/1084) in eyes with no OOI. The incidence of ERM at 5 years was 18.6% (16/86) in eyes with CMV retinitis versus 2.4% (6/253) in eyes with no OOI. The crude odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI) for prevalence was 9.8 (5.5–17.5) (P < 0.01). The crude OR (95% CI) for incidence was 9.4 (3.2–27.9) (P < 0.01). Conclusions. A history of extramacular CMV retinitis is associated with increased prevalence and incidence of ERM formation compared to what is seen in eyes without ocular opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. PMID:24925880

  14. Prevalence and correlates of prenatal vitamin A deficiency in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebreselassie, Samson Gebremedhin; Gase, Fikre Enquselassie; Deressa, Melaku Umeta

    2013-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and correlates of prenatal vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. Seven hundred randomly-selected pregnant women took part in the study. Serum retinol concentration was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed by logistic and linear regression. Interpretation of data was made using adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and adjusted linear regression coefficient. The prevalence of VAD (serum retinol < 0.7 micromol/L) was 37.9%. Advanced gestational age and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP > or = 5 mg/dL) were negatively associated with retinol concentration (p < 0.05). The odds of VAD was significantly higher among the women with no education and those devoid of self-income. Women aged 35-49 years had 2.23 (95% CI 1.31-3.81) times higher odds compared to those aged 15-24 years. The lower the dietary diversity score in the preceding day of the survey, the higher were the odds of VAD. With reference to nulliparas, grand multiparas had 1.92 (95% CI 1.02-3.64) times increased odds of VAD. VAD and zinc deficiency (serum zinc <8.6 pmol/L during the first trimester, or <7.6 pmol/L during the second or third trimester) were significantly associated with AOR of 1.80 (95% CI 1.28-2.53). VAD has major public-health significance in the area. Accordingly, it should be combated through enhancement of diet diversity, birth control, and socioeconomic empowerment of women. PMID:23930336

  15. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Kenya, 2007.

    PubMed

    Ly, Kathleen N; Kim, Andrea A; Umuro, Mamo; Drobenuic, Jan; Williamson, John M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fields, Barry S; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2016-08-01

    Current estimates put the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Kenya at 5-8%. We determined the HBV infection prevalence in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative Kenyan adult and adolescent population based on samples collected from a national survey. We analyzed data from HIV-negative participants in the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the HBV infection prevalence. We defined past or present HBV infection as presence of total hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), and chronic HBV infection (CHBI) as presence of both total HBcAb and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). We calculated crude and adjusted odds of HBV infection by demographic characteristics and risk factors using logistic regression analyses. Of 1,091 participants aged 15-64 years, approximately 31.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.0-35.3%) had exposure to HBV, corresponding to approximately 6.1 million (CI = 5.4-6.8 million) with past or present HBV infection. The estimated prevalence of CHBI was 2.1% (95% CI = 1.4-3.1%), corresponding to approximately 398,000 (CI = 261,000-602,000) with CHBI. CHBI is a major public health problem in Kenya, affecting approximately 400,000 persons. Knowing the HBV infection prevalence at baseline is important for planning and public health policy decision making and for monitoring the impact of viral hepatitis prevention programs. PMID:27273644

  16. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  17. Odd-frequency Superconductivity in Driven Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Balatsky, Alexander

    We show that Berezinskii's classification of the symmetries of Cooper pair amplitudes in terms of parity under transformations that invert spin, space, time, and orbital degrees of freedom holds for driven systems even in the absence of translation invariance. We then discuss the conditions under which pair amplitudes which are odd in frequency can emerge in driven systems. Considering a model Hamiltonian for a superconductor coupled to an external driving potential, we investigate the influence of the drive on the anomalous Green's function, density of states, and spectral function. We find that the anomalous Green's function develops odd in frequency component in the presence of an external drive. Furthermore we investigate how these odd-frequency terms are related to satellite features in the density of states and spectral function. Supported by US DOE BES E 304.

  18. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Astatkie, Ayalew; Demissie, Meaza; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Khat (Catha edulis) is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%). After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01]), and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74]) were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use khat. A multipronged prevention approach involving students, the university officials, the surrounding community, and regulatory bodies is required. PMID:25750551

  19. Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances.

    PubMed

    Depetri, G I; Sartorelli, J C; Marin, B; Baptista, M S

    2016-07-01

    Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case. PMID:27575118

  20. Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depetri, G. I.; Sartorelli, J. C.; Marin, B.; Baptista, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case.

  1. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  2. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Four Resource-Limited Settings in Peru: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Association with Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Noah G.; Rattner, Adi; Schwartz, Alan R.; Mokhlesi, Babak; Gilman, Robert H.; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a highly prevalent condition in high-income countries, with major consequences for cardiopulmonary health, public safety, healthcare utilization, and mortality. However, its prevalence and effect in low- and middle-income countries are less well known. We sought to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities of SDB symptoms in four resource-limited settings. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort, a population-based age- and sex-stratified sample. Setting: Four resource-limited settings in Peru varying in altitude, urbanization, and air pollution. Participants: There were 2,682 adults aged 35 to 92 y. Measurements and Results: Self-reported SDB symptoms (habitual snoring, observed apneas, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), sociodemographics, medical history, anthropometrics, spirometry, blood biomarkers were reported. We found a high prevalence of habitual snoring (30.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5–32.0%), observed apneas (20.9%, 95% CI 19.4–22.5%) and excessive daytime sleepiness (18.6%, 95% CI 17.1–20.1%). SDB symptoms varied across sites; prevalence and adjusted odds for habitual snoring were greatest at sea level, whereas those for observed apneas were greatest at high altitude. In multivariable analysis, habitual snoring was associated with older age, male sex, body mass index (BMI), and higher socioeconomic status; observed apneas were associated with BMI; and excessive daytime sleepiness was associated with older age, female sex, and medium socioeconomic status. Adjusted odds of cardiovascular disease, depression, and hypertension and total chronic disease burden increased progressively with the number of SDB symptoms. A threefold increase in the odds of having an additional chronic comorbid disease (adjusted odds ratio 3.57, 95% CI 2.18–5.84) was observed in those with all three versus no SDB symptoms. Conclusions: Sleep disordered breathing symptoms were highly

  3. Experimental level-structure determination in odd-odd actinide nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1985-04-04

    The status of experimental determination of level structure in odd-odd actinide nuclei is reviewed. A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei is applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation are derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings are used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  4. The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marietta, Don E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)

  5. Odd numbers of photons and teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Enk, S.J. van

    2003-02-01

    Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.

  6. Odd-Man-Out and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diascro, Matthew N.; Brody, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between odd-man-out reaction time tasks and intelligence was examined in 2 experiments involving 79 college students. The two experiments indicate that tasks that assess the ability to perceive relationships among stimuli rapidly are good measures of general intelligence. (SLD)

  7. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  8. Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Children Based on Data From the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Kim, Kyung Min; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Korean children are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, geographic distribution, and risk factors of AD in the Korean pediatric population. We examined AD prevalence using data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of 8,947 children up to age 18 throughout the country. Overall, 13.50% of children reported a diagnosis of AD. The age-standardized prevalence ranged from 9.13% to 17.67% between cities and provinces, with the highest prevalence-observed in many of the larger cities at low latitudes, as well as Jeju-do. After adjusting for confounders, high economic status was found to be a significant factor for predicting increased prevalence of AD, with an odds ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval of 1.02-1.79, P=0.0034). Urban living (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval of 1.00-1.53, P=0.0526) was also associated with a higher prevalence of AD. In this first large scale, nationwide study in Korean children, we found that the overall prevalence of AD depends on age, household income, and geographic distribution. PMID:26540505

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Ching; Wu, Shwu-Tzy; Lin, Juei-Jueng; Lin, Che-Chen; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the Parkinson disease (PD) prevalence of cognitive impairment in Taiwan. The case–control study consisted of 6177 cognitive impairment patients and 24,708 noncognitive impairment as controls for the period of 2006 to 2010 and both of the groups aged ≥50 years. The multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for cognitive impairment, and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among patients with PD were compared with those of non-PD patients. PD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] is 3.07, 95% CI 2.76–3.41) is the one of the most contributed risk factors for cognitive impairment. Besides, we found a remarkable result of the diagnosed cognitive impairment of PD that was found highest in the first 6 months (aOR 11.98, 95% CI 8.51–16.86) and then decrease the incident year by year. The PD prevalence in a patient with cognitive impairment in our data present is 12.1% lower than those with truly dementia published previously and documented by western studies. We found a remarkable result of the diagnosed cognitive impairment of PD that was found highest in the first 6 months and then decrease the incident year by year. PMID:25929923

  10. Latino High School Graduation. Defying the Odds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romo, Harriett D.; Falbo, Toni

    This book describes how "at-risk" Hispanic youth defy the odds and stay in school to earn a high school diploma. Information about success is needed because Hispanic youth drop out at about twice the rate of non-Hispanic Whites. The discussion is based on the results of a 4-year longitudinal study of 100 Hispanic youth labeled at-risk by their…

  11. Stratospheric distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional pole-to-pole chemical model of the stratosphere is developed which extends from 8 to 38 km in altitude. Atmospheric motions are simulated by mean vertical and meridional winds and eddy diffusion coefficients. Seasonally averaged distributions of important odd nitrogen (NO, NO2, and HNO3) and odd hydrogen (H, OH, HO2, H2O2) compounds are computed. Photodissociation of N2O leads to production of odd nitrogen in the stratosphere, and the odd nitrogen is ultimately removed by downward transport into the troposphere and by rain-out (modeled by a rain-out lifetime of 30 days below 8-km altitude). Results are presented for a quasi-steady state in which seasonal cycles repeat themselves. These results show significant latitudinal as well as vertical variations in the predicted species which emphasize the need for at least two dimensions in accurate stratospheric modeling. Computed concentrations are compared with observations when they exist.

  12. Odd top partners at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Collins, Jack H.; Farina, Marco; Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    LHC searches for fermionic top partners T focus on three decay topologies: T →b W , T →t Z , and T →t h . However, top partners may carry new conserved quantum numbers that forbid these decays. The simplest possibility is a conserved parity, under which the top partner is odd and all SM states are even. In this case, decays of top partners may involve new particle-odd scalars, leading to signal topologies more commonly associated with supersymmetry, either with or without R -parity conservation. We study a simplified model in which this possibility is realized, and estimate the bounds on the top partner mass in this model implied by LHC searches for supersymmetry. We find that the bounds can be significantly weaker than in the conventional top partner decay scenario. For example, if the new parity is exact, a 500 GeV top partner is allowed as long as the lightest parity-odd scalar mass is between 325 and 500 GeV. The lower allowed top partner mass reduces the need for fine-tuning in the Higgs mass parameter, compared to the conventional decay scenario. We also present an explicit model, the oddest little Higgs, which exhibits this phenomenology.

  13. Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.

    2009-08-26

    We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.

  14. [Prevalence and burden of visual impairment in Catalonia, Spain].

    PubMed

    Guisasola, Laura; Tresserras-Gaju, Ricard; García-Subirats, Irene; Rius, Anna; Brugulat-Guiteras, Pilar

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the prevalence of visual impairment in Catalonia and analyze inequalities in vision. Cross sectional study in the population having ≥ 15 years of age (7,881 men and 8,045 women) based on data from the Encuesta de Salud de Cataluña 2006. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio by age, civil state, level of studies, income and working situation with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. A 4.7% (CI 95% 4.4-5.0) of the population of Catalonia, a 5.3% of female (CI 95% 4.8-5.8), and 4.1% of men (CI 95% 3.7-4.5) state that they have poor vision. The most unfavourable situations of self-reported poor vision by the Catalan population correspond to the elderly and women with lower levels of both studies and income. PMID:22310359

  15. Beyond-mean-field boson-fermion model for odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2016-05-01

    A novel method for calculating spectroscopic properties of medium-mass and heavy atomic nuclei with an odd number of nucleons is introduced, based on the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-core coupling scheme. The deformation energy surface of the even-even core, as well as the spherical single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the odd particle(s), are obtained in a self-consistent mean-field calculation determined by the choice of the energy density functional and pairing interaction. This method uniquely determines the parameters of the Hamiltonian of the boson core, and only the strength of the particle-core coupling is specifically adjusted to selected data for a particular nucleus. The approach is illustrated in a systematic study of low-energy excitation spectra and transition rates of axially deformed odd-mass Eu isotopes.

  16. Association Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Older Adults: Results From the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Virginia J.; McClure, Leslie A.; Buys, Katie Crawford; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.; Levitan, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) on older adults’ prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. Methods. Data were from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, an observational study of 1000 community-dwelling Black and White Alabamians aged 65 years and older, in 1999 to 2001. We assessed hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control with blood pressure measurements and self-report data. We assessed ND with US Census data corresponding with participants’ census tracts, created tertiles of ND, and fit models with generalized estimating equations via a logit link function with a binomial distribution. Adjusted models included variables assessing personal advantage and disadvantage, place-based factors, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. Results. Living in mid-ND (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 2.1) and high-ND tertiles (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.3) was associated with higher hypertension prevalence, and living in high-ND tertiles was associated with lower odds of controlled hypertension (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6). In adjusted models, ND was not associated with hypertension awareness or treatment. Conclusions. These findings show that neighborhood environmental factors matter for hypertension outcomes and suggest the importance of ND for hypertension management in older adults. PMID:25322309

  17. Prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder Among Spouses of Men Who Use Alcohol in a Rural Community in Central Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ariyasinghe, Dewasmika; Abeysinghe, Ranil; Siriwardhana, Prabhash; Dassanayake, Tharaka

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among spouses of men who use alcohol in two rural areas in Sri Lanka, and to examine whether the severity of alcohol-related problems (ARPs) in men and presence of alcohol-related domestic violence are associated with MDD among these women. Method: In a cross-sectional study, ARPs among men were assessed using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire filled in by men, and domestic violence and husbands' drinking pattern data obtained from the women. MDD among the women was ascertained using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Disorders for major depression. Using logistic regression we examined whether age, past history of depression, different indices of ARPs and domestic violence were associated with current MDD among the women. Results: Point prevalence of MDD in the sample was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.93, 40.73%). Once adjusted for other factors, morning drinking of the spouse (odds ratio = 4.11, 95% CI: 1.25, 13.47; P = 0.019) and increasing age (odds ratio = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09; P = 0.003) significantly increased the odds of MDD. Being subjected to domestic violence/arguments also had a trend to be associated with MDD among women, but was not significant (odds ratio = 2.29, 95% CI: 0.95, 5.48; P = 0.062). Conclusion: The prevalence of MDD among spouses of men who use alcohol is markedly higher than that has been observed among Sri Lankan women in previous studies. The prevalence of MDD in women seems to increase when their husbands are morning drinkers, and with increasing age. PMID:25589089

  18. Odd-parity D states in He.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.

    1972-01-01

    The states considered lie below the n = 2 threshold of He(+) and decay radiatively to the lower states. The most general D-state wave function of odd parity of two electrons is examined. The results presented are optimized with respect to four nonlinear parameters for 112 terms. A mass-polarization correction is given for all the states listed. The positions of the D states, including the reduced mass and the mass-polarization corrections, with respect to the ground state of He are reported.

  19. Empirical residual neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zheying; Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong

    2016-03-01

    Two types of average neutron-proton interaction formulas are compared: In the first type, neutron-proton interactions for even-even and odd-A nuclei extracted from experimental binding energies show a smooth behavior as a function of mass number A and are dominated by the contribution from the symmetry energy. Whereas in the second type large systematic staggering is seen between even-A and odd-A nuclei. This deviation is understood in terms of the additional neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei relative to the neighboring even-even and odd-A systems. We explore three possible ways to extract this additional interaction from the binding energy difference of neighboring nuclei. The extracted interactions are positive in nearly all cases and show weak dependence on the mass number. The empirical interactions are also compared with theoretical values extracted from recent nuclear mass models where large unexpected fluctuations are seen in certain nuclei. The reproduction of the residual neutron-proton interaction and the correction of those irregular fluctuations can be a good criterion for the refinement of those mass models.

  20. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-09-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Location-scale cumulative odds models for ordinal data: a generalized non-linear model approach.

    PubMed

    Cox, C

    1995-06-15

    Proportional odds regression models for multinomial probabilities based on ordered categories have been generalized in two somewhat different directions. Models having scale as well as location parameters for adjustment of boundaries (on an unobservable, underlying continuum) between categories have been employed in the context of ROC analysis. Partial proportional odds models, having different regression adjustments for different multinomial categories, have also been proposed. This paper considers a synthesis and further generalization of these two families. With use of a number of examples, I discuss and illustrate properties of this extended family of models. Emphasis is on the computation of maximum likelihood estimates of parameters, asymptotic standard deviations, and goodness-of-fit statistics with use of non-linear regression programs in standard statistical software such as SAS. PMID:7667560

  2. Socioeconomic Inequality and Peripheral Artery Disease Prevalence in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Reena L.; Creager, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine whether there is a higher prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in individuals with lower socioeconomic status. Methods and Results We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. PAD was defined based on an ankle-brachial index (ABI) ≤ 0.90. Measures of SES included poverty-income ratio (PIR), a ratio of self-reported income relative to the poverty line, and attained education level. Of 6791 eligible participants, overall weighted prevalence of PAD was 5.8% (SE 0.3). PAD prevalence was significantly higher in individuals with low income and lower education. Individuals in the lowest of the 6 PIR categories had more than a 2-fold increased odds of PAD compared to those in the highest PIR category (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.80–4.03, p<0.0001). This association remained significant even after multivariable adjustment (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.04–2.6, p=0.034). Lower attained education level also associated with higher PAD prevalence (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.96–4.0, p<0.0001) but was no longer significant after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions Low income and lower attained education level are associated with peripheral artery disease in US adults. These data suggest that individuals of lower socioeconomic status remain at high risk and highlight the need for education and advocacy efforts focused on these at-risk populations. PMID:24987053

  3. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

    2016-04-01

    In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  5. Meissner effect of odd-frequency superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Katsufumi

    2001-10-01

    We present theoretical results on the Meissner effect of odd-frequency superconductors with the order parameter of the form, sgn(ωn)φ(k,iωn), where φ(k,iωn) is even in the Matsubara frequency ωn as in the conventional case. It is shown that the spectral function of the anomalous Green's function is given in the form of the Hilbert transformation of the one for the even-frequency part, and the anomalous contribution to the paramagnetic kernel consists of the conventional term but with the opposite sign and a term expressed by the digamma function. In the static limit the latter term reduces to twice the former one with the opposite sign so that the net contribution becomes the same as the conventional one. This indicates the presence of the Meissner effect for this class of the odd-frequency superconductors. A model interaction is discussed that leads to the order parameter mentioned above.

  6. Overtime Work and Prevalence of Diabetes in Japanese Employees: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Akiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Uehara, Akihiko; Kuroda, Reiko; Omoto, Daisuke; Kurotani, Kayo; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2014-01-01

    Objective Epidemiologic evidence on long working hour and diabetes has been conflicting. We examined the association between overtime work and prevalence of diabetes among Japanese workers. Methods The subjects were 40,861 employees (35,170 men and 5,691 women), aged 16 to 83 years, of 4 companies in Japan. Hours of overtime were assessed using self-reported questionnaires. Diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l), hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol), or current use of anti-diabetic drug. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratio of diabetes for each category of overtime. Results After adjustment for age, sex, company, smoking, and BMI, there was a suggestion of U-shaped relationship between overtime work and prevalence of diabetes (P for quadratic trend = 0.07). Compared with those who worked <45 hours of overtime per month, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of diabetes were 0.86 (0.77–0.94), 0.69 (0.53–0.89), and 1.03 (0.72–1.46) for those who worked 45–79, 80–99, and ≥100 hours of overtime per month, respectively. In one company (n = 33,807), where other potential confounders including shift work, job position, type of department, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, leisure time physical activity, and family history of diabetes was additionally adjusted for, similar result was obtained (P for quadratic trend = 0.05). Conclusions Long hours of overtime work may not be associated with increased prevalence of diabetes among Japanese workers. PMID:24787995

  7. Comparison of model results transporting the odd nitrogen family with results transporting separate odd nitrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    A fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric family transport model, designed to minimize computer requirements, is developed. The model was used to calculate the ambient and perturbed atmospheres in which odd nitrogen species are transported as a family, and the results were compared with calculations in which HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HO2NO2 are transported separately. It was found that ozone distributions computed by the two models for a present-day atmosphere are nearly identical. Good agreement was also found between calculated species concentrations and the ozone response, indicating the general applicability of the odd-nitrogen family approximations.

  8. Shell Model Description of the Odd-Odd Co and Cu Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, N. H.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Oliveira, J. R. B. de; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.

    2007-10-26

    The known excited states of the odd-odd nuclei {sup 54,56,58,60}Co and 60,62,64,66Cu were interpreted in the framework of the large scale shell model (LSSM), using several effective interactions and configuration spaces. For the description of the negative parity states, we have allowed one particle excitation to the g{sub 9/2} orbital. The LSSM using the GXPF1 effective interaction reproduces well the first excited states in all of these nuclei.

  9. Proton emission from the deformed odd-odd nuclei near drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patial, M.; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Proton emission from odd-odd nuclei is studied within the two quasiparticle plus rotor model which includes the non-adiabatic effects and the residual interaction between valence proton and neutron. Justification of the formalism is discussed through corroboration of our results with the experimental spectrum of 180Ta. Exact calculations are performed to get the proton emission halflives. Our results for the proton emitter 130Eu leads to the assignment of spin and parity Jπ = 1+ for the ground state. The role of Coriolis and residual neutron-proton interactions on the proton emission halflives and their interplay are also discussed.

  10. Odd perfect numbers have at least nine distinct prime factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Pace P.

    2007-12-01

    An odd perfect number, N , is shown to have at least nine distinct prime factors. If 3nmid N then N must have at least twelve distinct prime divisors. The proof ultimately avoids previous computational results for odd perfect numbers.

  11. W${'}$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may show up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.

  12. W$${'}$$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may showmore » up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.« less

  13. The ODD protocol: A review and first update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Polhill, J. Gary; Giske, Jarl; Railsback, Steve F.

    2010-01-01

    The 'ODD' (Overview, Design concepts, and Details) protocol was published in 2006 to standardize the published descriptions of individual-based and agent-based models (ABMs). The primary objectives of ODD are to make model descriptions more understandable and complete, thereby making ABMs less subject to criticism for being irreproducible. We have systematically evaluated existing uses of the ODD protocol and identified, as expected, parts of ODD needing improvement and clarification. Accordingly, we revise the definition of ODD to clarify aspects of the original version and thereby facilitate future standardization of ABM descriptions. We discuss frequently raised critiques in ODD but also two emerging, and unanticipated, benefits: ODD improves the rigorous formulation of models and helps make the theoretical foundations of large models more visible. Although the protocol was designed for ABMs, it can help with documenting any large, complex model, alleviating some general objections against such models.

  14. Prevalence of sensory and cognitive disabilities and falls, and their relationships: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Gauchard, Gérome C; Deviterne, Dominique; Guillemin, Francis; Sanchez, Jésus; Perrin, Philippe P; Mur, Jean-Marie; Ravaud, Jean-François; Chau, Nearkasen

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of sensory and cognitive disabilities and falls for various age groups, sexes, and socio-occupational categories, and their associations in the Lorraine population. The sample included 6,159 subjects, aged 15 years or more, randomly selected from the Lorraine population. They filled in a mailed questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, job, falls with physical injuries at the time of the survey, and sensory and cognitive disabilities. Data analysis was made via the adjusted odds ratios. The prevalences of sensory and cognitive disabilities were 3.0 and 4.7%, respectively, that of falls with physical injuries 2.4%: 1.2% for falls on the same level and 1.2% for falls to a lower level. Subjects aged over 70 were markedly affected, but the other age groups had relatively high prevalences as well; the workmen had the highest prevalence, followed by the foremen, farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen, and employees. A twofold risk independently of age, sex and job was found for the subjects with sensory or cognitive disabilities for all falls combined. These findings show the high prevalences of sensory and cognitive disabilities and falls with physical injuries, and their strong associations in the general population. Preventive measures are needed to detect and follow up the persons with these disabilities, limit their risk of falls and reduce occupational hazards. PMID:16374036

  15. Risk-adjusted monitoring of survival times

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Reynolds, Marion R.; Woodall, William H.

    2009-02-26

    We consider the monitoring of clinical outcomes, where each patient has a di®erent risk of death prior to undergoing a health care procedure.We propose a risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM chart (RAST CUSUM) for monitoring clinical outcomes where the primary endpoint is a continuous, time-to-event variable that may be right censored. Risk adjustment is accomplished using accelerated failure time regression models. We compare the average run length performance of the RAST CUSUM chart to the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, using data from cardiac surgeries to motivate the details of the comparison. The comparisons show that the RAST CUSUM chart is more efficient at detecting a sudden decrease in the odds of death than the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, especially when the fraction of censored observations is not too high. We also discuss the implementation of a prospective monitoring scheme using the RAST CUSUM chart.

  16. Isospin and deformation studies in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Ekman, J.; Erten, O.; Fahlander, C.; Johansson, E. K.; Andreoiu, C.; Bengtsson, R.; Ragnarsson, I.; Bentley, M. A.; Williams, S. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Seweryniak, D.; Charity, R. J.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Svensson, C. E.

    2010-11-15

    High-spin states in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co have been investigated by the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 28}Si({sup 32}S,1{alpha}1p1n){sup 54}Co. Gamma-ray information gathered with the Ge detector array Gammasphere was correlated with evaporated particles detected in the charged particle detector system Microball and a 1{pi} neutron detector array. A significantly extended excitation scheme of {sup 54}Co is presented, which includes a candidate for the isospin T=1, 6{sup +} state of the 1f{sub 7/2}{sup -2} multiplet. The results are compared to large-scale shell-model calculations in the fp shell. Effective interactions with and without isospin-breaking terms have been used to probe isospin symmetry and isospin mixing. A quest for deformed high-spin rotational cascades proved negative. This feature is discussed by means of cranking calculations.

  17. Influence of Traxiality on the Signature Inversion in Odd Odd Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ren-Rong; Zhu, Shun-Quan; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Janos, Timár; Andree, Gizon; Jean, Gizon; Sohler, D.; Nyakó M., B.; Zolnai, L.; Paul S., E.

    2004-08-01

    The nature of signature inversion in the pig9/2nuh11/2 bands of odd-odd 98,102Rh nuclei is studied. Calculations are performed by using a triaxial rotor plus two-quasiparticle model and are compared with the experimentally observed signature inversions. The calculations reproduce well the observations and suggest that, in these bands, the signature inversion can be interpreted mainly as a competition between the Coriolis and the proton-neutron residual interactions in low K space. The triaxiality applied in the Hamiltonian enlarges the amplitudes of high spin signature zigzags at small triaxial deformation and might push the signature inversion point to higher spin at large triaxial deformation.

  18. Meeting report for "OddPols" 2014: the odds invite an even.

    PubMed

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2015-02-01

    The Ninth International Biennial Conference on RNA Polymerases I and III (the "OddPols") was held on June 19-21, 2014 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. Sponsored by New England Biolabs, the Cayman Chemical Company, the Rackham Graduate School and the University of Michigan Health System, and organized by David Engelke, Craig Pikaard, Lawrence Rothblum, Andrzej Wierzbicki and Astrid Engel. This year at the conference, the "odds" were increased by expanding the usual topics on the advances in RNA polymerases I and III research to include presentations on RNA polymerase IV and V. The keynote speaker, Craig Pikaard, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "Five nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases". The meeting drew attendees from fourteen countries that shared their research discoveries through oral and poster presentations. The talks were organized into 11 sessions covering seven distinct topics. Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants. PMID:25445280

  19. Chiral Symmetry and Signature Splitting in Odd-Odd Neutron deficient Pr Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetea, Mirela; Nikolova, Veronika; Crider, Benjamin

    2004-10-01

    Over the past few years, sufficient data have been accumulated to enable a meaningful study of the systematic trends in nuclei far from stability. While general characteristics seen in experiments are understood by various mean-field nuclear models, there are key features that are not fully explained. Of particular interest are the chiral symmetry (chiral bands) and signature splitting/inversion phenomena. We report on our investigation on the association of signature inversion in an odd-odd band of two quasiparticles pointed along different axes with the formation of chiral twin bands, and understanding systematic chiral symmetry and signature splitting/inversion features within the framework of particle rotor model for neutron deficient Pr nuclei. This work was supported by the NSF Grant No. PHY 0204811 and U.S. Research Corporation Grant No. CC5494.

  20. Structure of the yrast band in the odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Sai, K. Vijay; Gowrishankar, R.; Sainath, M.

    2011-05-15

    The six-level sequence deduced for the odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm in the high-spin studies following spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf is shown to constitute the K{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} yrast band having the two-quasiparticle configuration {l_brace}p:5/2[532]+ n:3/2[521]{r_brace}. Spin parities I{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} through 9{sup +} are assigned to the earlier suggested six levels. The location and the decay {gamma}'s of the 10{sup +} level of this band are indicated. It is also pointed out that there are no {gamma} rays common to these postfission high-spin spectra and those seen in the {sup 156}Nd {beta}-decay studies.

  1. Scores on the Safe Functional Motion Test Are Associated with Prevalent Fractures and Fall History

    PubMed Central

    Recknor, Chris P.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Recknor, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The Safe Functional Motion test (SFM) was developed to measure observed body mechanics and functional motion associated with spine load, balance, strength, and flexibility during everyday tasks to profile modifiable risks for osteoporotic fracture. This cross-sectional study evaluated the associations between SFM score and history of vertebral compression fracture (VCF), hip fracture, and injurious falls, all established predictors of future risk. Method: An osteoporosis clinic database was queried for adults with an initial SFM score and corresponding data for prevalent VCF and/or hip fracture, femoral neck bone mineral density (fnBMD), and history of injurious fall (n=847). Multiple logistic regressions, adjusted for age, gender, and fnBMD (and injurious falls in the prevalent fracture analyses), were used to determine whether associations exist between SFM score and prevalent VCF, prevalent hip fracture, and history of injurious fall. Results: SFM score was associated with prevalent VCF (odds ratio [OR]=0.89; 95% CI, 0.79–0.99; p=0.036), prevalent hip fracture (OR=0.77; 95% CI, 0.65–0.92; p=0.004), and history of injurious fall (OR=0.80; 95% CI, 0.70–0.93; p=0.003) after adjusting for other important covariates. Conclusions: Adults with higher SFM scores (“safer motion” during performance of everyday tasks) were less likely to have a history of fracture or injurious fall. Further study is warranted to evaluate the predictive value of this tool. PMID:24381386

  2. Positronium Decay and C-Odd Bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalsey, M.; Conti, R. S.

    1996-05-01

    Triplet-state orthopositronium (o-Ps) decay rate measurements are in marked disagreement by 0.17% with QED theoretical calculations done up to, but not including order α ^2 radiative and relativistic corrections. The existence of a rare exotic decay branch o-Ps arrow 2γ + X^0 (where X^0 is a neutral, massive C-odd boson) could resolve the discrepancy. We have searched for, but have not found evidence of the X^0 in two recent experiments.(M. Skalsey and R.S. Conti, Phys. Rev. D51), 6292 (1995) and submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. Stringent limits are placed on the exotic decay branching ratio e^+ +e^- arrow X^0 +γ as a function of the X^0 mass and lifetime. The results are interpreted for two distinct models of X^0 interactions and related to o-Ps decay as well as other experiments, including singlet-state parapositronium decay rate measurements. *Supported by NSF grant PHY-9417854 and the University of Michigan.

  3. Associations of Structural and Functional Social Support with Diabetes Prevalence in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos: Results from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda C.; Fortmann, Addie L.; McCurley, Jessica L.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Penedo, Frank J.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Gouskova, Natalia; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Schneiderman, Neil; Carnethon, Mercedes R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little research has examined associations of social support with diabetes (or other physical health outcomes) in Hispanics, who are at elevated risk. Purpose We examined associations between social support and diabetes prevalence in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Methods Participants were 5181 adults, 18–74 years old, representing diverse Hispanic backgrounds, who underwent baseline exam with fasting blood draw, oral glucose tolerance test, medication review, sociodemographic assessment, and sociocultural exam with functional and structural social support measures. Results In adjusted analyses, one standard deviation higher structural and functional social support related to 16% and 15% lower odds, respectively, of having diabetes. Structural and functional support were related to both previously diagnosed diabetes (OR = .84 and .88, respectively) and newly recognized diabetes prevalence (OR = .84 and .83, respectively). Conclusions Higher functional and structural social support are associated with lower diabetes prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos. PMID:25107504

  4. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in a hospital for pulmonary diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schablon, Anja; Beckmann, Gudrun; Harling, Melanie; Diel, Roland; Nienhaus, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI) in health care workers (HCW) in low-incidence countries especially in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. With Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA), a new method for diagnosis of LTBI is available which is more specific than the tuberculin skin test (TST). Objectives The study was designed to estimate prevalence of LTBI among 270 HCW in a Hospital of Pulmonary Diseases routinely screened for TB. Methods LTBI was assessed by the QuantiFERON-Gold In Tube (QFT-IT). Information on gender, age, workplace, job title, BCG vaccination and history of both TB and TST were collected using a standardised questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios for potential risk factors for LTBI were calculated. Results The prevalence of LTBI was 7.2%. In HCW younger than 30 years LTBI prevalence was 3.5% and in those older than 50 years 22%. Physicians and nurses showed a higher prevalence rate than other professions (10.8% to 4.5%). The putative risk factors for LTBI were age (>50 year OR 9.3, 95%CI 2.5–33.7), working as physicians/nurses (OR 3. 95%CI 1.2–10.4) and no previous TST in medical history (OR 4.4, 95%CI 1.01–18.9) when compared to those with a negative TST. Conclusion Prevalence of LTBI assessed by QFT-IT is low, this indicates a low infection risk even in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. No statement can be made regarding the occupational risk as compared to the general population because there are no LTBI prevalence data from Germany available. The higher LTBI prevalence rate in older HCWs might be due to the cohort effect or the longer time at risk. PMID:19134168

  5. Association Between Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life, South Carolina, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Susan E.; Heidari, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in various population subgroups in South Carolina and examined associations between COPD and 4 core measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods Data from 12,851 participants of the 2011 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. COPD prevalence rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 standard US population. Logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR’s) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The overall age-adjusted prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of COPD among community-dwelling adults in South Carolina in 2011 was 7.1% (standard error [SE] ±0.3). Prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of COPD was highest among women (8.9%; SE, ±0.5), those aged 65 years or older (12.9%; SE, ±0.5), current smokers (15.9%; SE, ±0.7), and those with low levels of education and income. Compared with community-dwelling adults without COPD, those with COPD were more likely to report fair or poor general health status (AOR, 3.97; 95% CI, 3.13–5.03), 14 or more physically unhealthy days (AOR, 2.10, 95% CI, 1.57–2.81), 14 or more mentally unhealthy days (AOR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21–2.43), and 14 or more days of activity limitation (AOR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.53–3.22) within the previous 30 days. Conclusion COPD is a highly prevalent disease in South Carolina, especially among older people and smokers, and it is associated with poor HRQOL. Future work aimed at reducing risk factors may decrease the disease prevalence, and increasing early detection and improving access to appropriate medical treatments can improve HRQOL for those living with COPD. PMID:24370110

  6. GT Strength in Odd-A Nuclei^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J. W.; Du, Q. Q.

    1998-04-01

    We measured the complete set of polarization-transfer observables (D_ij) for the ^13C(p,n)^13N and ^15N(p,n)^15O reactions at 135 MeV. From the D_ijs we constructed the spin-independent, spin-longitudinal, and spin-transverse responses [1] D_0, D_q, Dn and D_p. From these responses we extracted, in a model-independent way, the Δ J=0 and Δ J=1 (``F'' and ``GT'') fractions of the J^π=1/2^-arrow1/2^- g.s. to g.s. transitions for these reactions. The ``F'' fraction, f_F=D_0(0^circ); the ``GT'' fraction, f_GT=D_q(0^circ)+D_n(0^circ)+D_p(0^circ)= 1- D_0(0^circ). The extracted GT fractions, f_GT, are substantially larger than one would predict from β-decay matrix elements and the systematics of the (p,n) reaction on even-A nuclei. These results confirm earlier, model-dependent determinations of f_GT obtained from the (p,n) reaction on ^13C, ^15N and ^39K at other energies [2], [3], [4], indicating that considerable caution must be used when extracting B(GT) matrix elements from odd-A (p,n) data. * Research supported in part by the U.S. NSF. [1] M. Ichimura, K. Kawahigashi, Phys. Rev. C 45 1822 (1992). [2] T. N. Taddeucci, C. A. Goulding, T. A. Carey, R. C. Byrd, C. D. Goodman, C. Gaarde, J. Larsen, D. Horen, J. Rapaport, and E. Sugarbaker, Nucl. Phys. A469 125 (1987). [3] H. Sakai, H. Okamura, N. Matsuoka, A. Shimizu, T. Suda, M. Ieiri and H. M. Shimizu, Nuclear Physics A579 45-61 (1994). [4] W. Huang, Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana U., 1991, (unpublished).

  7. Associations of Undergoing a Routine Medical Examination or Not with Prevalence Rates of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Undergoing a routine medical examination may be associated with the prevalence rate of chronic diseases from a population-based household interview survey. However, this important issue has not been examined so far. Methods: Data came from the first health service household interview of Hunan province, China, in 2013. A Rao–Scott chi-square test was performed to examine the difference in prevalence rates between subgroups. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure of SAS9.1 statistical software. Results: In total, 24,282 residents of 8400 households were surveyed. A higher proportion of elderly adults had undergone a medical examination within the prior 12 months compared with young adults (≥65 years, 60%; 45–64 years, 46%; 18–44 years, 37%). After controlling for location, sex, and household income per capita, undergoing a medical examination was significantly associated with high prevalence rates of hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1–3.5) and of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.7–6.5) for young adults aged 18–44 years. The associations were not statistically significant for age groups 45–64 years and 65 years or older. Conclusion: The prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus may be seriously underestimated for young adults not undergoing a routine medical examination in a health household interview survey. PMID:27347985

  8. Prevalence and treatment patterns of psoriatic arthritis in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Ogdie, Alexis; Langan, Sinéad; Love, Thorvardur; Haynes, Kevin; Shin, Daniel; Seminara, Nicole; Mehta, Nehal N.; Troxel, Andrea; Choi, Hyon; Gelfand, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PsA in The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a large population-based medical records database in the UK, to examine factors associated with prevalent PsA among patients with psoriasis and to describe the use of DMARDs in patients with PsA. Methods. Two cohorts were derived from THIN to examine the prevalence of PsA in a cross-sectional study among all patients aged 18–90 years and among a subcohort of 4900 psoriasis patients aged 45–65 years. Prescription codes were used to describe therapies after the diagnosis of PsA. Associations for prevalent PsA among psoriasis patients were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results. Among 4.8 million patients in THIN between the ages of 18 and 90 years, 9045 patients had at least one medical code for PsA, giving an overall prevalence of 0.19% (95% CI 0.19%, 0.19%). Of those patients, 45.9% with PsA have been prescribed DMARDs. Among the 4064 confirmed psoriasis patients, the prevalence of PsA was 8.6% (95% CI 7.7%, 9.5%). PsA was more prevalent among patients with severe psoriasis [odds ratio (OR) 3.34; 95% CI 2.40, 4.65], obesity (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.30, 2.41) and duration of psoriasis for ≥10 years (OR 7.42; 95% CI 3.86, 14.25) in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion. The prevalence of PsA in THIN is consistent with previous population-based estimates. Limitations include a definition of PsA based on a diagnostic code rather than Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) criteria. Given the large population of PsA patients, THIN is an important resource for the study of PsA. PMID:23221331

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for gastroschisis in a public hospital from west México.

    PubMed

    Robledo-Aceves, Mireya; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Mellín-Sánchez, Estrella Lizbeth; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo; Pérez-Molina, J Jesús; Cárdenas-Ruiz Velasco, Juan José; Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román

    2015-05-01

    Mexico is recognized as a country with a high prevalence of gastroschisis, although the cause of this remains unclear. We define the prevalence and potential risk factors for gastroschisis in a public hospital from west México. A case-control study was conducted among 270 newborns, including 90 patients with nonsyndromic gastroschisis (cases) and 180 infants without birth defects (controls), born all during the period 2009 to 2013 at the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca" (Guadalajara, Mexico), from a total of 51,145 live births. Potential maternal risk factors for gastroschisis were compared using multivariate logistic regression analysis to evaluate the deviance explained by different variables of interest. The overall prevalence of gastroschisis in live births was 17.6 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.0-21.2), whereas in offspring of women ≤ 19 years old was 29.9 per 10,000 births (95% CI 21.9-38.0). Mothers ≤ 19 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.8: 95% CI 1.5-5.1), anemia during pregnancy (aOR 10.7; 95% CI 2.0-56.9), first-trimester exposure to hormonal contraceptives (aOR 3.7; 95% CI 1.0-13.0), and first-trimester alcohol consumption (aOR 3.4; 95% CI 1.6-7.3), were associated with gastroschisis. Contrarily, adjusted OR for pre-pregnancy body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2) has protective odds (aOR 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.5). Our results suggest an increased risk for gastroschisis among mothers under the age of 20, with anemia during pregnancy, and those who used hormonal contraceptives or consumed alcohol during early pregnancy, whereas, pre-pregnancy overweight has a protective OR, and they are discussed as clues in its pathogenesis. PMID:25243388

  10. Global variations and time trends in the prevalence of childhood myopia, a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis: implications for aetiology and early prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicka, Alicja R; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Wathern, Andrea K; Gilmartin, Bernard; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Owen, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to quantify the global variation in childhood myopia prevalence over time taking account of demographic and study design factors. A systematic review identified population-based surveys with estimates of childhood myopia prevalence published by February 2015. Multilevel binomial logistic regression of log odds of myopia was used to examine the association with age, gender, urban versus rural setting and survey year, among populations of different ethnic origins, adjusting for study design factors. 143 published articles (42 countries, 374 349 subjects aged 1–18 years, 74 847 myopia cases) were included. Increase in myopia prevalence with age varied by ethnicity. East Asians showed the highest prevalence, reaching 69% (95% credible intervals (CrI) 61% to 77%) at 15 years of age (86% among Singaporean-Chinese). Blacks in Africa had the lowest prevalence; 5.5% at 15 years (95% CrI 3% to 9%). Time trends in myopia prevalence over the last decade were small in whites, increased by 23% in East Asians, with a weaker increase among South Asians. Children from urban environments have 2.6 times the odds of myopia compared with those from rural environments. In whites and East Asians sex differences emerge at about 9 years of age; by late adolescence girls are twice as likely as boys to be myopic. Marked ethnic differences in age-specific prevalence of myopia exist. Rapid increases in myopia prevalence over time, particularly in East Asians, combined with a universally higher risk of myopia in urban settings, suggest that environmental factors play an important role in myopia development, which may offer scope for prevention. PMID:26802174

  11. Clopidogrel Use Is Associated With an Increased Prevalence of Cerebral Microbleeds in a Stroke‐Free Population: The Rotterdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Darweesh, Sirwan K.L.; Leening, Maarten J.G.; Akoudad, Saloua; Loth, Daan W.; Hofman, Albert; Arfan Ikram, M.; Vernooij, Meike W.; Stricker, Bruno H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although clopidogrel reduces the incidence of atherothrombotic events, its use is associated with an increased risk of major bleeding. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are indicative of subclinical microangiopathy in the brain and may prelude symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. We examined the association between use of clopidogrel and CMBs in persons without a history of stroke. Methods and Results We performed a cross‐sectional analysis using data from the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population‐based cohort of persons aged 45 years and older. Among 4408 stroke‐free individuals who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of CMBs, we identified 121 ever‐users and 4287 never‐users of clopidogrel before magnetic resonance imaging. We used multiple logistic regression to analyze the association between clopidogrel and CMBs with adjustment for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and common cardiovascular medication. Users of clopidogrel had a higher prevalence of CMBs (odd ratio 1.55, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.37) than nonusers and more often had a high number (>4) of CMBs (odds ratio 3.19, 95% CI 1.52 to 6.72). Clopidogrel use was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of deep or infratentorial CMBs (odd ratio 1.90, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.45). Among clopidogrel users, we were unable to demonstrate differences in the prevalence of CMBs by indication of prescription, history of coronary heart disease, or common genetic variants in CYP2C19. Conclusions In stroke‐free individuals, clopidogrel use was associated with a higher prevalence and higher number of CMBs. Whether this association is causal requires confirmation in prospective studies, especially given the small number of participants taking clopidogrel and the possibility of residual confounding in this study. PMID:24072532

  12. Delayed sleep phase syndrome in adolescents: prevalence and correlates in a large population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) in adolescence, and to examine the association to insomnia and school non-attendance. Methods Data stem from a large population based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012, the ung@hordaland study. In all, 10,220 adolescents aged 16–18 years (54% girls) provided self-reported data on a range of sleep parameters: DSPS was defined according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Revised (ICSD-R) criteria, while insomnia was defined according to the Quantitative Criteria for Insomnia. Other sleep parameters included time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, oversleeping, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, subjective sleep need, sleep deficiency, sleepiness and tiredness. Sleep data were calculated separately for weekdays and weekends. Data on school non-attendance were provided by official registers. Results The prevalence of DSPS was 3.3%, and significantly higher among girls (3.7%) than boys (2.7%). There was a strong overlap between DSPS and insomnia, with more than half of the adolescents with DSPS also meeting the criteria for insomnia (53.8% for boys and 57.1% for girls). Adolescents with DSPS had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of non-attendance at school. After adjusting for sociodeographical factors, insomnia and depression, the adjusted ORs for days of non-attendance were OR = 3.22 (95% CI: 1.94-5.34) for boys and OR = 1.87 (95% CI: 1.25-2.80) for girls. A similar effect was found for hours of non-attendance for boys, with an adjusted OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 1.89-4.92). The effect for girls was no longer significant after full adjustment (OR =1.48 [95% CI: 0.94-2.32]). Conclusions This is one of the first studies to estimate the prevalence of DSPS in adolescents. The high prevalence of DSPS, and overlap with insomnia, in combination with the odds of school non-attendance, suggest that a broad

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chronic Otitis Media: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mina; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Park, Moo Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The performance of nationwide studies of chronic otitis media (COM) in adults has been insufficient in Korea. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of COM in Korea. Methods This study was conducted using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 23,621). After excluding the subjects under 20 year old and suffered from cancers, 16,063 patients were evaluated for COM. Participants underwent a medical interview, physical examination, endoscopic examination, and blood and urine test. COM was diagnosed by trained residents in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology using an ear, nose, and throat questionnaire and otoendoscopy findings. Data on the presence and absence of COM were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results Of the 16,063 participants aged above 20 year old, the weighted prevalence of COM was 3.8%. In the multivariate analyses, the following factors showed high odds ratios (ORs) for COM: pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted OR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.01), chronic rhinosinusitis (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-2.98), mild hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.34-2.85), moderate hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 2.21-7.22), tinnitus (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34-2.49), increased hearing thresholds in pure tone audiometry in the right ear (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), and left ear (adjusted OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04). The following factors showed low odds ratios for COM: hepatitis B (adjusted OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.94) and rhinitis (adjusted OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88). In addition, high levels of vitamin D, lead, and cadmium, EQ-5D index; and low red blood cell counts were associated with development of COM (Student’s t-test, P < 0.01). Conclusions Our population-based study showed that COM is not rare in Korea, and its development may be associated with various host and

  14. Influence of secondary decay on odd-even staggering of fragment cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelbauer, J. R.; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.

    2013-10-01

    Odd-even staggering (OES) appears in many areas of nuclear physics and is generally associated with the pairing term in the nuclear binding energy. To explore this effect, we use the improved statistical multifragmentation model to populate an ensemble of hot primary fragments, which are then de-excited using the Weisskopf-Ewing statistical emission formalism. The yields are then compared to experimental data. Our results show that, before secondary decay, OES appears only in the yields of even mass fragments and not in the yields of odd mass fragments. De-excitation of the hot fragments must be taken into account to describe the data, suggesting that the OES in fragment yields is a useful criterion for validating or adjusting theoretical de-excitation models.

  15. Prevalence of postpartum depression among immigrant women: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Falah-Hassani, Kobra; Shiri, Rahman; Vigod, Simone; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were threefold: to estimate the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women, compare this prevalence to non-immigrant women, and determine risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, ResearchGate and Google Scholar databases from 1950 until October 2014. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria of which 22 (12 cross-sectional and 10 prospective cohort) contributed data for meta-analyses. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17-23%, 18 studies, N = 13,749 women). Immigrant women were twice more likely to experience depressive symptoms in the postpartum period than non-immigrant women (pooled unadjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.10 [95% CI 1.62-2.73, 15 studies, N = 50,519 women] and adjusted OR = 2.18 [95% CI 1.60-2.96, 7 studies, N = 35,557 women]). There was, however, evidence of publication bias with the pooled adjusted OR reduced to 1.63 (95% CI 1.22-2.17) after adjustment for bias. Risk factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms among immigrant women included shorter length of residence in the destination country, lower levels of social support, poorer marital adjustment, and perceived insufficient household income. This study suggests that postpartum depression is a common condition among immigrant women. Moreover, immigrant women are at higher risk of postpartum depression than non-immigrant women. Further prospective studies on the risk factors of postpartum depression among immigrant women verified by a clinical diagnosis are needed. PMID:26424425

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Olfson, Mark; Villegas, Laura; Morcillo, Carmen; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examines the prevalence, correlates, and psychiatric disorders of adults with history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methods Data were derived from a large national sample of the U.S. population. More that 34,000 adults aged 18 years and older residing in households were face-to-face interviewed in a survey conducted during the 2004–2005 period. Diagnoses were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors and other axis I psychiatric disorders. Results The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 10.14% (24.8% in men, and 75.2% in women). Child physical abuse, maltreatment, and neglect was more prevalent among individuals with CSA than among those without it. Adults with child sexual abuse history had significantly higher rates of any Axis I disorder and suicide attempts. The frequency, type and number of CSA were significantly correlated with psychopathology. Conclusions The high correlation rates of CSA with psychopathology and increased risk for suicide attempts in adulthood suggest the need for a systematic assessment of psychiatric disorders and suicide risk in these individuals. The risk factors for CSA emphasize the need for health care initiatives geared towards increasing recognition and development of treatment approaches for the emotional sequelae CSA as well as early preventive approaches. PMID:22854279

  17. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  18. General population job exposure matrix applied to a pooled study of prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dale, Ann Marie; Zeringue, Angelique; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Rempel, David; Bao, Stephen; Thiese, Matthew S; Merlino, Linda; Burt, Susan; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Gerr, Fred; Hegmann, Kurt T; Eisen, Ellen A; Evanoff, Bradley

    2015-03-15

    A job exposure matrix may be useful for the study of biomechanical workplace risk factors when individual-level exposure data are unavailable. We used job title-based exposure data from a public data source to construct a job exposure matrix and test exposure-response relationships with prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Exposures of repetitive motion and force from the Occupational Information Network were assigned to 3,452 active workers from several industries, enrolled between 2001 and 2008 from 6 studies. Repetitive motion and force exposures were combined into high/high, high/low, and low/low exposure groupings in each of 4 multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for personal factors. Although force measures alone were not independent predictors of CTS in these data, strong associations between combined physical exposures of force and repetition and CTS were observed in all models. Consistent with previous literature, this report shows that workers with high force/high repetition jobs had the highest prevalence of CTS (odds ratio = 2.14-2.95) followed by intermediate values (odds ratio = 1.09-2.27) in mixed exposed jobs relative to the lowest exposed workers. This study supports the use of a general population job exposure matrix to estimate workplace physical exposures in epidemiologic studies of musculoskeletal disorders when measures of individual exposures are unavailable. PMID:25700886

  19. General Population Job Exposure Matrix Applied to a Pooled Study of Prevalent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ann Marie; Zeringue, Angelique; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Rempel, David; Bao, Stephen; Thiese, Matthew S.; Merlino, Linda; Burt, Susan; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Gerr, Fred; Hegmann, Kurt T.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Evanoff, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    A job exposure matrix may be useful for the study of biomechanical workplace risk factors when individual-level exposure data are unavailable. We used job title–based exposure data from a public data source to construct a job exposure matrix and test exposure-response relationships with prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Exposures of repetitive motion and force from the Occupational Information Network were assigned to 3,452 active workers from several industries, enrolled between 2001 and 2008 from 6 studies. Repetitive motion and force exposures were combined into high/high, high/low, and low/low exposure groupings in each of 4 multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for personal factors. Although force measures alone were not independent predictors of CTS in these data, strong associations between combined physical exposures of force and repetition and CTS were observed in all models. Consistent with previous literature, this report shows that workers with high force/high repetition jobs had the highest prevalence of CTS (odds ratio = 2.14–2.95) followed by intermediate values (odds ratio = 1.09–2.27) in mixed exposed jobs relative to the lowest exposed workers. This study supports the use of a general population job exposure matrix to estimate workplace physical exposures in epidemiologic studies of musculoskeletal disorders when measures of individual exposures are unavailable. PMID:25700886

  20. Prevalence of adult-onset multifactorial disease among offspring of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, S; Suyama, A; Cologne, J B; Akahoshi, M; Yamada, M; Suzuki, G; Koyama, K; Takahashi, N; Kasagi, E; Grant, E J; Lagarde, E; Hsu, W L; Furukawa, K; Ohishi, W; Tatsukawa, Y; Neriishi, K; Takahashi, I; Ashizawa, K; Hida, A; Imaizumi, M; Nagano, J; Cullings, H M; Katayama, H; Ross, N P; Kodama, K; Shore, R E

    2008-10-01

    The first study to examine whether parental radiation exposure leads to increased heritable risk of common adult-onset multifactorial diseases (i.e., hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, ischemic heart disease, and stroke) was conducted among 11,951 participants in the clinical examination program out of a potential of 24,673 mail survey subjects who were offspring of survivors born from May 1946 through December 1984. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated no evidence of an association between the prevalence of multifactorial diseases in the offspring and parental radiation exposure, after adjusting for age, city, gender and various risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) for a paternal dose of 1 Gy was 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-1.01, P = 0.08], and that for a maternal dose of 1 Gy was 0.98 (95% CI 0.86-1.10, P = 0.71). There was no apparent effect of parental age at exposure or of elapsed time between parental exposure and birth, but male offspring had a low odds ratio (OR = 0.76 at 1 Gy) for paternal exposure, but cautious interpretation is needed for this finding. The clinical assessment of nearly 12,000 offspring of A-bomb survivors who have reached a median age of about 50 years provided no evidence for an increased prevalence of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in relation to parental radiation exposure. PMID:19024652

  1. Prevalence of Sexual Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in an Urban African-American Population

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan C.; Aiello, Allison E.; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual violence is prevalent nationally and contributes to psychopathology in the general population. Despite elevated traumatic event exposure among economically disadvantaged urban-dwelling African-Americans, there is insufficient information on lifetime sexual violence exposure and associated psychopathology in this population. Methods In 2008–2009, 1,306 African Americans from a Detroit household probability sample reported on lifetime rape and sexual assault and past-month and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results Lifetime sexual violence prevalence was 26.3% for women and 5.1% for men. Relative to non-victims, sexual violence victims: reported more other traumatic events; had 4 times greater unadjusted odds of past-month and lifetime PTSD; had 1.6 times greater adjusted odds of lifetime PTSD only after controlling for other traumatic events. Conclusions Sexual violence was associated with increased risk for lifetime PTSD and exposure to other traumas. Findings highlight a need to screen for sexual violence and PTSD among urban African Americans. PMID:23686528

  2. The impact of regular lifestyle behavior in migraine: a prevalence case-referent study.

    PubMed

    Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W; Cowan, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    Regular lifestyle behaviors (RLBs) of sleep, exercise, mealtime pattern and hydration status independently affect migraine occurrence. We aimed herein to evaluate the differences in migraine occurrence among participants who do and do not maintain the RLB triumvirate. Cases of chronic migraine (CM) and referents of episodic migraine (EM) ≥aged 15 years with charts regularly documenting RLB notes were continuously enrolled from a retrospective case-referent cohort study performed on electronic chart review from January 1, 2014 to January 1, 2015 at the Stanford Headache and Facial Pain Program. Association between RLB prevalence and migraine occurrence was studied. 175 CM and 175 EM patients were enrolled (mean age 44.4 years, 22 % males). Migraine was diagnosed according to the ICHD-3 beta criteria, and was confirmed by a Headache Specialist attending the Clinic. The CM cohort (22 %) exhibited less RLB than the EM cohort (69 %), with crude odds ratio of 0.13 (95 % confidence interval or CI 0.08-0.21). The adjusted odds ratio and adjusted relative risk between RLB+, Meds+ (those taking medication) and CM were 0.67 (95 % CI 0.32-1.40) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.43-1.28), indicating no significant effect modification. Engaging in regular lifestyle behavior helps quell chronic migraine. PMID:26810728

  3. Predictors of dyspnea prevalence: Results from the BOLD study

    PubMed Central

    Grønseth, Rune; Vollmer, William M.; Hardie, Jon A.; Ólafsdóttir, Inga Sif; Lamprecht, Bernd; Buist, A. Sonia; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Gulsvik, Amund; Johannessen, Ane; Enright, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dyspnea is a cardinal symptom for cardiorespiratory diseases. No study has assessed worldwide variation in dyspnea prevalence or predictors of dyspnea. We used cross-sectional data from population-based samples in 15 countries of the BOLD study to estimate prevalence of dyspnea in the full sample as well as in an a priori defined low-risk group (few risk factors or dyspnea-associated diseases). Dyspnea was defined by the modified Medical Research Council questions. We used ordered logistic regression analysis to study the association of dyspnea with site, sex, age, education, smoking habits, low/high BMI, self-reported disease, and spirometry results. Of the 9,484 participants, 27% reported any dyspnea. In the low-risk subsample (N=4,329), 16% reported some dyspnea. In multivariate analyses, all covariates were correlated to dyspnea, but only 13% of dyspnea variation was explained. Women reported more dyspnea than men (odds ratio ≈ 2.1). When forced vital capacity (FVC) fell below 60% of predicted, dyspnea was much more likely. There was considerable geographical variation in dyspnea, even when we adjusted for known risk factors and spirometry results. We were only able to explain 13% of dyspnea variation. PMID:24176991

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis. PMID:26461837

  5. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis. PMID:26461837

  6. Diabatic crossing of chiral "twins" in the odd-odd 106Ag nucleus: A theoretical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Sham S.

    2016-07-01

    A systematic study of both the observed positive-parity magnetic rotation band and the negative-parity Δ I =1 doublet bands in an odd-odd 106Ag nucleus is carried out. The negative-parity doublet bands depict some unusual features that have not been observed in any isotope in the mass A =100 region. For instance, (i) the moment of inertia of the partner band is quite different from that of the yrast band, and (ii) these bands cross each other at an angular momentum of I =14 ℏ . Also, the observed significantly large but constant B (M 1 ) transitions confirm that the strong M 1 transitions are being reinforced by the contributions from collective rotation. To explain these features, a collective model has been developed whose kinetic and potential energies are extracted from the tilted-axis cranking model. Instead of the triaxial parameter γ , a second-order phase transition is found to be responsible for the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. Analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation has generated a doublet nondegenerate eigenvalue spectrum. The ensuing model results based on the two-quasiparticle configuration π g9/2⊗ν h11/2 exhibit similarities with many observed features of the negative-parity doublet bands and hence confirm their chiral character. The cranking mass parameter in kinetic energy plays an important role in diabatic crossing between these emerged chiral twin bands.

  7. Neutron-proton multiplets in the odd-odd nucleus 53 37 90Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwiński, M.; RzÄ ca-Urban, T.; Urban, W.; BÄ czyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Timár, J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Kuti, I.; Tornyi, T. G.; Atanasova, L.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Mutti, P.; Köster, U.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Medium-spin excited levels in 90Rb, populated in the fission of 235U induced by neutrons, have been observed for the first time. γ radiation from fission has been measured by using the EXILL array of Ge detectors at the cold-neutron-beam facility PF1B of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble. Low-energy levels are interpreted as members of the π p3/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , π f5/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , and π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 multiplets with the 0- ground state due to the seniority-3 coupling in the ν d5 /2 shell. Analogous anomalous coupling within the π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 configuration explains the 5+, 6+, and 7+ triplet of states, observed at medium spins, similar to the triplet seen in the N =53 isotone, 88Br. Shell-model calculations reproduce well the proposed structures in Rb,9088 and support the seniority-3 coupling in N =53 isotones and its absence in N =51 isotones. The structure of the odd-odd 88Rb and 90Rb nuclei provides an argument in favor of the collectivity building up at the neutron number N =53 .

  8. Pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in chronic pain: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Michele; Müller, Monika; Ashraf, Aroosiah; Neziri, Alban Y; Streitberger, Konrad; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-11-01

    Hypersensitivity of pain pathways is considered a relevant determinant of symptoms in chronic pain patients, but data on its prevalence are very limited. To our knowledge, no data on the prevalence of spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity are available. We studied the prevalence of pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in 961 consecutive patients with various chronic pain conditions. Pain threshold and nociceptive withdrawal reflex threshold to electrical stimulation were used to assess pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity, respectively. Using 10th percentile cutoff of previously determined reference values, the prevalence of pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity (95% confidence interval) was 71.2 (68.3-74.0) and 80.0 (77.0-82.6), respectively. As a secondary aim, we analyzed demographic, psychosocial, and clinical characteristics as factors potentially associated with pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity using logistic regression models. Both hypersensitivity parameters were unaffected by most factors analyzed. Depression, catastrophizing, pain-related sleep interference, and average pain intensity were significantly associated with hypersensitivity. However, none of them was significant for both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Furthermore, the odds ratios were very low, indicating modest quantitative impact. To our knowledge, this is the largest prevalence study on central hypersensitivity and the first one on the prevalence of spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in chronic pain patients. The results revealed an impressively high prevalence, supporting a high clinical relevance of this phenomenon. Electrical pain thresholds and nociceptive withdrawal reflex explore aspects of pain processing that are mostly independent of sociodemographic, psychological, and clinical pain-related characteristics. PMID:26172555

  9. Prevalence and correlates for diarrhoea in the mountainous informal settlements of Huye town, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Uwizeye, Dieudonné; Sokoni, Cosmas H; Kabiru, Caroline W

    2014-01-01

    Dwellers of urban informal settlements in developing countries are consistently reported to be victims of high diarrhoea prevalence. Studies have frequently reported the association between high diarrhoea prevalence and other factors, such as poor living conditions, inadequate hygiene, and sanitation in these settings. However, little is known about the dynamics of diarrhoea prevalence in mountainous urban informal settlements similar to the Rwandan context. This study was conducted in the Matyazo cell of Huye town to review the prevalence and correlates of diarrhoea. A survey of 214 households and transect walks in the neighbourhoods were conducted during the rainy and dry seasons. Logistic regression was used to analyse the survey data while the thematic analysis technique was used to analyse qualitative data. Results indicated a substantial reduction of diarrhoea prevalence from the rainy to the dry season. It was also found that the prevalence was unequally distributed in the neighbourhoods according to household location. After controlling for other household characteristics and sanitation conditions of around homes, the study indicated that households established at 1800 metres or more above sea level were protected against diarrhoea during both rainy seasons (Adjusted Odds Ratio_ AOR: .42, 95% Confidence Interval_ CI: .13-.81) and dry seasons (AOR: .58, CI: .12-.90) while households found further from the road were likely to suffer from diarrhoea during rainy seasons (AOR: 3.32, CI: 1.47-7.48) as well as in dry seasons (AOR: 1.60, CI: 1.26-4.10). Poor sanitation within and around homes was also found to be associated with the increase of diarrhoea in either season. However, the evidence was not sufficient enough to confirm a significant association between diarrhoea prevalence and other household characteristics. We believe this is due to the strength of environmental factors in mountainous settings. PMID:25674474

  10. Dynapenic Obesity and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ryoko; Sawada, Susumu S.; Lee, I-Min; Matsushita, Munehiro; Gando, Yuko; Okamoto, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Koji; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The independent and combined associations of muscle strength and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men remain unclear. Methods Hand grip strength was cross-sectionally evaluated between 2011 and 2013 to assess muscle strength in 5039 male workers aged 40 to 64 years. Weight and height were measured, and overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% and/or self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, was evaluated. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence of type 2 diabetes were obtained using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 611 participants had type 2 diabetes, and 1763 participants were overweight/obese. After adjustment for covariates, we found an inverse association between muscle strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (P for trend <0.01). In addition, when the analyses were stratified by obesity status, the multivariable-adjusted OR per 2-standard-deviation increase in muscle strength was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49–0.83) in the overweight/obese group, compared to a weaker relationship in the normal-weight group (OR 0.79 per 2-standard-deviation increase; 95% CI, 0.60–1.06). Conclusions Dynapenia, an age-related decrease in muscle strength, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this relationship is stronger in overweight/obese middle-aged Japanese men than in normal-weight men. PMID:26256772

  11. The association between regular use of aspirin and the prevalence of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wan-Ting; Erickson, Steven R.; Hansen, Richard A.; Wu, Chung-Hsuen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is prevalent with significant morbidity in the United States. Aspirin previously has been found to be associated with reduced carcinogenesis of prostate cells. However, it remains unclear whether regularly taking aspirin could lower the risk of prostate cancer. Therefore, our aim was to examine the association between self-reported regular use of aspirin and the prevalence of prostate cancer in a national sample of the US adult population. The National Health Interview Survey is an annual survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics to investigate health and healthcare use of the US population. The current study is a population-based cross-sectional study using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey data. Adult male respondents who self-reported regularly taking aspirin at least 3 times per week were grouped as regular users. The prostate cancer prevalence was measured by respondents’ self-report of prostate cancer. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between these 2 factors by adjusting for covariates selected based on Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Use. An estimated 23 million (23.7%) males in the United States reported that they took aspirin regularly. Of them, 5.0% had prostate cancer. Regular aspirin use was significantly associated with a lower self-reported prevalence of prostate cancer after adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.38–0.94). Regular aspirin use was found to be significantly associated with a lower self-reported prevalence of prostate cancer in the United States in 2010. Further clinical trials and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the causality between regular aspirin use and prostate cancer. PMID:27336878

  12. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  13. On the largest prime divisor of an odd harmonic number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishiki, Yusuke; Goto, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo

    2007-09-01

    A positive integer is called a (Ore's) harmonic number if its positive divisors have integral harmonic mean. Ore conjectured that every harmonic number greater than 1 is even. If Ore's conjecture is true, there exist no odd perfect numbers. In this paper, we prove that every odd harmonic number greater than 1 must be divisible by a prime greater than 10^5 .

  14. Checking the odd Goldbach conjecture up to 10(20)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saouter, Y.

    1998-04-01

    Vinogradov's theorem states that any sufficiently large odd integer is the sum of three prime numbers. This theorem allows us to suppose the conjecture that this is true for all odd integers. In this paper, we describe the implementation of an algorithm which allowed us to-check this conjecture up to 10(20).

  15. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Josephine; Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye; Moran, Brian J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  16. Prevalence and Determinants of Masked Hypertension Among Black Nigerians Compared With a Reference Population.

    PubMed

    Odili, Augustine N; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hara, Azusa; Wei, Fang-Fei; Ogedengbe, John O; Nwegbu, Maxwell M; Aparicio, Lucas S; Asayama, Kei; Niiranen, Teemu J; Boggia, José; Luzardo, Leonella; Jacobs, Lotte; Stergiou, George S; Johansson, Jouni K; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jula, Antti M; Imai, Yutaka; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2016-06-01

    Hitherto, diagnosis of hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa was largely based on conventional office blood pressure (BP). Data on the prevalence of masked hypertension (MH) in this region is scarce. Among individuals with normal office BP (<140/90 mm Hg), we compared the prevalence and determinants of MH diagnosed with self-monitored home blood pressure (≥135/85 mm Hg) among 293 Nigerians with a reference population consisting of 3615 subjects enrolled in the International Database on Home Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. In the reference population, the prevalence of MH was 14.6% overall and 11.1% and 39.6% in untreated and treated participants, respectively. Among Nigerians, the prevalence standardized to the sex and age distribution of the reference population was similar with rates of 14.4%, 8.6%, and 34.6%, respectively. The mutually adjusted odds ratios of having MH in Nigerians were 2.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.39-3.94) for a 10-year higher age, 1.92 (1.11-3.31) and 1.70 (1.14-2.53) for 10- or 5-mm Hg increments in systolic or diastolic office BP, and 3.05 (1.08-8.55) for being on antihypertensive therapy. The corresponding estimates in the reference population were similar with odds ratios of 1.80 (1.62-2.01), 1.64 (1.45-1.87), 1.13 (1.05-1.22), and 2.84 (2.21-3.64), respectively. In conclusion, MH is as common in Nigerians as in other populations with older age and higher levels of office BP being major risk factors. A significant proportion of true hypertensive subjects therefore remains undetected based on office BP, which is particularly relevant in sub-Saharan Africa, where hypertension is now a major cause of death. PMID:27067719

  17. Substituting Homemade Fruit Juice for Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Is Associated with Lower Odds of Metabolic Syndrome among Hispanic Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Josiemer; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B.; Campos, Hannia

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, studies conducted on Hispanic adults are scarce. To determine the association between beverages consumed by Hispanic adults and MetS and its components, data were analyzed in 1872 Costa Rican adults who served as controls of a population-based, case-control study of coronary heart disease. Multivariate-adjusted means were calculated for components of MetS by servings (never, ≤1/wk; 2–6/wk, ≥1/d) of 2 traditional fruit-based beverages (“fresco” and freshly-squeezed homemade fruit juice, separately) and 2 SSB (instant drinks and regular sodas, separately and combined). The prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS was calculated for each beverage and the OR was calculated by substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice or water for one of SSB. Significant positive trends were observed for increasing servings of instant drinks with plasma TG and waist circumference and for regular soda with waist circumference (all P-trend < 0.001). Increasing servings of homemade fruit juice were positively associated with HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.033). Consuming ≥1 serving/d of instant drinks was associated with a higher PR of MetS [1.42 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.83)] compared with no consumption. Substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice for instant drink was associated with 29% (95% CI: 7, 47%) lower odds of MetS and for regular soda with 30% (95% CI: 1, 50%) lower odds. Substituting water for combined SSB was marginally significant (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.00). In conclusion, reducing the consumption of SSB and substituting them with homemade fruit juices in moderation may be a culturally appropriate approach to lower MetS among Hispanic adults. PMID:22551801

  18. Coronary heart disease: prevalence and dietary sugars in Scotland.

    PubMed Central

    Bolton-Smith, C; Woodward, M

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary intakes of different types of sugars (extrinsic, intrinsic, and lactose) and the dietary fat to sugar ratio on prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD). DESIGN--This was a baseline cross sectional survey of CHD risk factors. SETTING--Twenty two Scottish health districts were surveyed between 1984 and 1986. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 10,359 men and women aged 40-59 years were screened as part of the Scottish Heart Health Study, and a further 1267 men and women aged 25-39 and 60-64 years were screened as part of the Scottish MONICA (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) Study. The response rates were 74% and 64% respectively. METHODS--Subjects completed a questionnaire which included sociodemographic, health, and food frequency information. Medical history, response to the Rose chest pain questionnaire, and results of a 12 lead ECG recording were used to categorize subjects into CHD diagnosed, previously CHD undiagnosed, or no CHD groups. The chi 2 statistic was used to determine whether the CHD groups differed in their sugar consumption, and multiple logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for other potential coronary risk factors, was used to calculate odds ratios for prevalent CHD by intake fifths of dietary sugars. MAIN RESULTS--Men, but not women, differed in their sugar consumption by CHD group. The odds ratios showed a tendency for a U shaped relationship for extrinsic sugar intake with CHD prevalence, but no significant effect of the fat to sugar ratio (possible marker of obesity) on CHD was seen. CONCLUSIONS--The results suggest that neither extrinsic sugar, intrinsic sugar, nor the fat to sugar ratio are significant independent predictors of prevalent CHD in the Scottish population, when the other major risk factors such as cigarette smoking, blood cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant vitamins intake are accounted for. These new data for different sugar types

  19. Nuclear spin of odd-odd α emitters based on the behavior of α -particle preformation probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M.; Adel, A.; Botros, M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The preformation probabilities of an α cluster inside radioactive parent nuclei for both odd-even and odd-odd nuclei are investigated. The calculations cover the isotopic chains from Ir to Ac in the mass regions 166 ≤A ≤215 and 77 ≤Z ≤89 . The calculations are employed in the framework of the density-dependent cluster model. A realistic density-dependent nucleon-nucleon (N N ) interaction with a finite-range exchange part is used to calculate the microscopic α -nucleus potential in the well-established double-folding model. The main effect of antisymmetrization under exchange of nucleons between the α and daughter nuclei has been included in the folding model through the finite-range exchange part of the N N interaction. The calculated potential is then implemented to find both the assault frequency and the penetration probability of the α particle by means of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The correlation of the α -particle preformation probability and the neutron and proton level sequences of the parent nucleus as obtained in our previous work is extended to odd-even and odd-odd nuclei to determine the nuclear spin and parities. Two spin coupling rules are used, namely, strong and weak rules to determine the nuclear spin for odd-odd isotopes. This work can be a useful reference for theoretical calculation of undetermined nuclear spin of odd-odd nuclei in the future.

  20. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  1. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  2. Observation of odd toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes.

    PubMed

    Kramer, G J; Sharapov, S E; Nazikian, R; Gorelenkov, N N; Budny, R V

    2004-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented for the existence of the theoretically predicted odd toroidicity induced Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) from the simultaneous appearance of odd and even TAEs in a normal shear discharge of the joint European torus. The modes are observed in low central magnetic shear plasmas created by injecting lower hybrid current drive. A fast ion population was created by applying ion cyclotron heating at the high-field side to excite the TAEs. The odd TAEs were identified from their frequency, mode number, and timing relative to the even TAEs. PMID:14753994

  3. Occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma in Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Neil; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S.V.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Occupational asthma remains relatively under-recognized in India with little or no information regarding preventable causes. We studied occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India. Methods Analysis is based on 64 725 men aged 15–54 years and 52 994 women aged 15–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006, and reported their current occupation. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for specific occupations and asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, separately for men and women, adjusting for age, education, household wealth index, current tobacco smoking, cooking fuel use, rural/urban residence and access to healthcare. Results The prevalence of asthma among the working population was 1.9%. The highest odds ratios for asthma were found among men in the plant and machine operators and assemblers major occupation category (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.14–2.45; p = 0.009). Men working in occupation subcategories of machine operators and assemblers (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.24–2.76; p = 0.002) and mining, construction, manufacturing and transport (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00–1.77; p = 0.051) were at the highest risk of asthma. Reduced odds of asthma prevalence in men was observed among extraction and building trades workers (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53–0.97; p = 0.029). Among women none of the occupation categories or subcategories was found significant for asthma risk. Men and women employed in high-risk occupations were not at a higher risk of asthma when compared with those in low-risk occupations. Conclusions This large population-based, nationally representative cross-sectional study has confirmed findings from high income countries showing high prevalence of asthma in men in a number of occupational categories and subcategories; however, with no evidence of increased risks for women in the same occupations. PMID:24712498

  4. The competition between alpha decay and spontaneous fission in odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the range 99 ≤ Z ≤ 129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Priyanka, B.

    2015-08-01

    The predictions on the mode of decay of the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z = 99- 129, in the range 228 ≤ A ≤ 336, have been done within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). A comparison of our calculated alpha half lives with the values computed using other theoretical models shows good agreement with each other. An extensive study on the spontaneous fission half lives of all the isotopes under study has been performed to identify the long-lived isotopes in the mass region. The study reveals that the alpha decay half lives and the mode of decay of the isotopes with Z = 109, 111, 113, 115 and 117, evaluated using our formalisms, agree well with the experimental observations. As our study on the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of Z = 99- 129 predicts that, the isotopes 238,240-25499, 244,246-258101, 248,250,252-260,262103, 254,256,258-262,264105, 258,260,262-264,266107, 262,264,266-274109, 266,268-279111, 270-284,286113, 272-289,291115, 274-299117, 276-307119, 281-314121, 287-320,322123, 295-325125, 302-327127 and 309-329129 survive fission and have alpha decay channel as the prominent mode of decay, these nuclei could possibly be synthesized in the laboratory and this could be of great interest to the experimentalists. The behavior of these nuclei against the proton decay has also been studied to identify the probable proton emitters in this region of nuclei.

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Depressive Reaction among Resident Survivors after the Tsunami following the Great East Japan Earthquake, March 11, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Chieko; Murakami, Hitoshi; Imai, Koubun; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Akashi, Hidechika; Miyoshi, Chiaki; Nakasa, Tamotsu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a gigantic tsunami which devastated coastal areas of northern Japan on 11 March 2011. Despite the large number of ‘resident survivors’ who continued to reside in their damaged houses on the second or upper floors, research on the mental health of these individuals has been limited. This study explored the prevalence of depressive reaction and risk factors for depressive reaction among these resident survivors. Methods A cross-sectional household health support needs screening was conducted for resident survivors in Higashi-Matsushima city, Miyagi prefecture, two to four months after the tsunami. The health interview that was conducted including mental status, assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2). Results Of 5,454 respondents, 8.1% had depressive reaction. After adjustment by the number of weeks from the tsunami and the mortality rate at each respondent's place of residence, depressive reaction was significantly associated with house flooding below or above the ground floor (odds ratios of 1.92, 2.36, respectively), the unavailability of gas supply (odds ratio, 1.67), being female (odds ratio, 1.47), middle aged or elderly (odds ratios of 2.41, 2.42, respectively), regular intake of psychotropic medicine(s) since before the tsunami (odds ratio, 2.53) and the presence of one to five or more than six cohabiters (odds ratios of 0.61, 0.52, respectively). Conclusions The results suggest a considerable psychological burden (depressive reaction) following the tsunami among resident survivors. Special supports for families with psychiatric problems need to be considered among resident survivors. Restoration of lifeline utilities and the strengthening of social ties of persons living alone may help prevent depressive reaction among resident survivors after a tsunami. PMID:25279563

  6. Superdeformation studies in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 192}Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.

    1995-08-01

    The study of yrast and near-yrast structures of odd-odd nuclei to high spins is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the spectra resulting from the many proton-neutron couplings near the Fermi surface. In superdeformed nuclei, the number of available protons and neutrons near the Fermi surface is somewhat limited due to the presence of large-shell gaps which stabilize the nuclear shape. A relatively small number of available neutron and proton configurations can lead to fragmentation of the SD intensity into a number of different bands. Two good examples of this phenomenon were found in {sup 192}Tl and {sup 194}Tl where the presence of six superdeformed bands were reported in both nuclei. We reexamined {sup 192}Tl at Gammasphere using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 37}Cl,5n) reaction at 178 MeV to populate states in the superdeformed well of this nucleus. While our previous study on {sup 192}Tl at ATLAS was very successful, a number of questions remained which formed the basis of our objectives in this experiment: obtain better {gamma}-ray energies for the known transitions and identify higher spin members in each band; determine how the bands feed the known yrast states in {sup 192}Tl as well as determine the complete spectrum in coincidence with the SD bands; look for M1 transitions connecting proposed signature partners; and attempt to identify other excitations in the superdeformed well. Analysis is underway and four of the six bands were confirmed. The reasons that two of the reported bands were not observed in this latest work is still under investigation. As of this time, no other superdeformed bands were identified in the data. Two of the confirmed SD bands have a constant moment of inertia and show indications of cross-talk between each other. This observation is not unexpected since the calculated M1 rates for the proposed configuration of the band, {pi}{sub 13/2} x {upsilon}j{sub 15/2}, indicate that M1 transitions linking the two SD bands should be observed.

  7. Prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Wai Fong; Masyita, Mamot; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Boo, Nem Yun; Zin, Thaw; Choo, Kong Bung; Yap, Sook Fan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor associated with most chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity, and its associated risk factors, among apparently healthy Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the Chinese residents in Seri Kembangan New Village, Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling was used for the selection of participants. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting venous plasma was drawn for the measurement of fasting glucose level and lipid profile. Data on sociodemographic factors, dietary habits, physical activity, perceived stress level and sleep duration were collected using interviewer-administered, pretested and validated questionnaires. RESULTS Among the 258 Chinese residents (mean age 41.4 ± 10.0 years) recruited, the prevalence of obesity was 40%. The obese participants had significantly higher mean blood pressure, and triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels than the non-obese participants (p < 0.05). The obese participants also had a significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than the non-obese participants. Logistic regression analysis showed that drinking soy milk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.447; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.253–0.787; p < 0.05) and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables (adjusted OR 0.440; 95% CI 0.215–0.900; p < 0.05) were associated with a reduced risk of obesity. The risk of obesity was higher in younger participants (adjusted OR 2.714; 95% CI 1.225–6.011; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION The prevalence of obesity was high among the apparently healthy suburban Chinese. Our findings suggest that soy milk consumption and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables are associated with a lower risk of developing obesity in this population. PMID:24570317

  8. New description of the doublet bands in doubly odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.; Brant, S.; Ventura, A.

    2009-04-15

    The experimentally observed {delta}I=1 doublet bands in some odd-odd nuclei are analyzed within the orthosymplectic extension of the interacting vector boson model (IVBM). A new, purely collective interpretation of these bands is given on the basis of the obtained boson-fermion dynamical symmetry of the model. It is illustrated by its application to three odd-odd nuclei from the A{approx}130 region, namely {sup 126}Pr, {sup 134}Pr, and {sup 132}La. The theoretical predictions for the energy levels of the doublet bands as well as E2 and M1 transition probabilities between the states of the yrast band in the last two nuclei are compared with experiment and the results of other theoretical approaches. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the orthosymplectic extension of the IVBM.

  9. Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158554.html Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies Variants ... families, researchers say they've just pinpointed two genes that seem to be associated with having such ...

  10. Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158554.html Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies Variants ... families, researchers say they've just pinpointed two genes that seem to be associated with having such ...

  11. Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use 3 of 4 who tried the illicit ... narcotic painkillers may be at high risk for heroin use, a new study cautions. The research included ...

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Ayesha S.; Mohamad, Maysm N.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; Ohuma, Eric O.; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Al Meqbaali, Fatima T.; Souka, Usama; Shah, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17–25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity. Methods In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013–2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%), as compared with normal-weight (1.7%) and overweight (10.1%) participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15–12.52) and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1–40.9), as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10–8.44) was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37–79.42) compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%–6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4–23.5). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction. PMID:27414402

  13. The odd-number sequence: squares and sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    Direct study of various characteristics of integers and their interactions is readily accessible to undergraduate students. Integers obviously fall in different classes of modular rings and thus have features unique to that class which can result in a variety of formations, particularly with sums of squares. The sum of the first n odd numbers is itself the square of n within the odd number sequence, from which testing for primality within the Fibonacci sequence is investigated in this note.

  14. Characterization of isomers in the neutron-rich odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R; Sai, K. Vijay; Sainath, M.

    2011-02-15

    Critical examination of the experimental data from {sup 156}Nd and {sup 156}Pm {beta} decays and the observed location of relevant neutron and proton orbitals in the neighboring odd-A isotones and isotopes, taken together with the low-lying two-quasiparticle (2qp) structures expected in {sup 156}Pm from the rotor-particle model, lead to the conclusion that a consistent description of all the available data is achieved with the I{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} spin-parity assignment to the 26.7s {sup 156}Pm ground state (g.s.) and assignment of I{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} to its 150.3-keV isomer with the 2qp configuration 4{sub g.s.}{sup +}{l_brace}p{sub o}:5/2[532{up_arrow}]{+-}n{sub o}:3/2[521{up_arrow}]{r_brace}1{sub 150}{sup +}. In the process, a two-neutron configuration is also suggested for the 1509-keV 4{sup +} level in the daughter nucleus {sup 156}Sm. The present analysis reiterates the important question of whether the {beta}-decay log ft value, by itself, can be employed to deduce the relative parity of the {beta}-connected states.

  15. Prevalence of autism in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is 1% in developed countries, but little data are available from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. This study synthesizes evidence relating to the prevalence of ASC in these areas and assesses the effects of research methodology on prevalence estimates. Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, China Web of Knowledge and Weipu databases, as well as relevant papers published from 1987 to 2011, reporting prevalence estimates of ASC or childhood autism in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Summary estimates of prevalence were calculated with a random effects model. The effects of research methodology on the prevalence estimates were assessed using a meta-regression model. Results There were 25 studies eligible for review, 18 of which were suitable for inclusion in a meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence of childhood autism was 11.8 per 10,000 individuals (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2, 15.3) in mainland China. Pooled prevalence of ASC was 26.6 per 10,000 (95% CI: 18.5, 34.6) in three areas. Substantial heterogeneity was identified between studies (I2>75%). The prevalence estimate of childhood autism was most strongly associated with the choice of screening instrument. After adjustment for age group, the odds ratio for prevalence estimates when using the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) as the screening instrument compared with those using the Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABS) was 0.29 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.69), and 1.79 (95% CI: 0.70, 4.55; P= 0.20) when using the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) compared to the CABS. Conclusions The available studies investigating the prevalence of ASC in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan have focused mainly on childhood autism rather than the whole spectrum. The prevalence estimates are lower than estimates from developed countries. Studies using more recently developed screening instruments reported higher prevalence than older

  16. [Prevalence of intimate partner physical violence in men and women from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Lindner, Sheila Rubia; Coelho, Elza Berger Salema; Bolsoni, Carolina Carvalho; Rojas, Paulo Fernando; Boing, Antonio Fernando

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the association between gender and intimate partner physical violence. A random cluster sample was chosen as the baseline cohort population in a cross-sectional design. Lifetime prevalence rates were as follows: any physical violence (17%), moderate physical violence (16.6%), and severe physical violence (7.3%). There were no significant differences between genders in moderate physical violence, but women were more likely to suffer severe abuse. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between violence and gender, adjusting for exploratory variables. Women that were older, widowed/separated, had less schooling or lower income, and African-descendants were all more likely to have suffered intimate partner violence. Prevalence of severe physical violence experienced by men only changed significantly according to marital status. Alcohol abuse by women increased the odds of suffering physical violence. PMID:25945990

  17. Interaction of Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality on Hypertension Prevalence in Adult Chinese Males

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jia; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Ji; Hu, Dayi

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies demonstrated conflicting results about the association of sleep duration and hypertension. Given the potential relationship between sleep quality and hypertension, this study aimed to investigate the interaction of self-reported sleep duration and sleep quality on hypertension prevalence in adult Chinese males. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of 4144 male subjects. Sleep duration were measured by self-reported average sleep time during the past month. Sleep quality was evaluated using the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure level ≥140/90 mm Hg or current antihypertensive treatment. The association between hypertension prevalence, sleep duration, and sleep quality was analyzed using logistic regression after adjusting for basic cardiovascular characteristics. Results Sleep duration shorter than 8 hours was found to be associated with increased hypertension, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.03–1.52) for 7 hours, 1.41 (95% CI, 1.14–1.73) for 6 hours, and 2.38 (95% CI, 1.81–3.11) for <6 hours. Using very good sleep quality as the reference, good, poor, and very poor sleep quality were associated with hypertension, with odds ratios of 1.20 (95% CI, 1.01–1.42), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.32–2.11), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.67–3.21), respectively. More importantly, further investigation of the association of different combinations of sleep duration and quality in relation to hypertension indicated an additive interaction. Conclusions There is an additive interaction of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration on hypertension prevalence. More comprehensive measurement of sleep should be performed in future studies. PMID:25912096

  18. Prevalence of and risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Ebonyi, Augustine O.; Oguche, Stephen; Ejeliogu, Emeka U.; Agbaji, Oche O.; Shehu, Nathan Y.; Abah, Isaac O.; Sagay, Atiene S.; Ugoagwu, Placid O.; Okonkwo, Prosper I.; Idoko, John A.; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies on the prevalence of and risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce and in Nigeria there is paucity of reported data. We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for pulmonary TB (PTB) in newly diagnosed (treatment-naïve) HIV-1 infected children at the pediatric HIV clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in Nigeria. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 876 children, aged 2 months – 13 years, diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between July 2005 and December 2012, of which 286 were diagnosed with PTB at presentation after TB screening. The study site was the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN)-supported Pediatric HIV clinic at JUTH, Jos. A multivariate forward logistic regression modelling was used to identify risk factors for PTB-HIV co-infection. Results The prevalence of PTB-HIV co-infection was 32% (286/876). Severe immunosuppression (SI) and World Health Organization (WHO) HIV clinical stage 3/4 were identified as independent risk factors for PTB-HIV co-infection in HIV infected children. The odds of PTB-HIV co-infection was increased two-fold in HIV-infected children with WHO clinical stage 3/4 compared to those with stage 1/2 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.76 [1.31-2.37], p<0.001) and 1.5-fold in children with SI compared to those without SI (AOR 1.52 [1.12-2.06], p=0.007). Conclusion In our setting, the burden of PTB was high among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children, and late WHO HIV clinical stage and severe immunosuppression were associated with PTB-HIV co-infection. Therefore there is a clear need to improve strategies for early diagnosis of both HIV and PTB to optimize clinical outcomes. PMID:27019829

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Chagas Disease in Pregnant Women in Casanare, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Flórez, Astrid C.; Cárdenas, Ángela; Pavía, Paula; Montilla, Marleny; Aldana, Rodrigo; Villamizar, Katherine; Ríos, Lyda C.; Nicholls, Rubén S.; Puerta, Concepción J.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors associated with maternal infection is the first step to develop a surveillance system for congenital transmission of Chagas disease. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Casanare, a disease-endemic area in Colombia. A total of 982 patients were enrolled in the study. A global prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection of 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8–5.3%) was found. Multivariate analysis showed that the most important risk-associated factors were age > 29 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.4, 95% CI = 0.9–12.4), rural residency (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–4.6), low education level (aOR = 10.2, 95% CI = 1.6–82.7), and previous knowledge of the vector (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–4.9). Relatives and siblings of infected mothers showed a prevalence of 9.3%. These findings may help physicians to investigate congenital cases, screen Chagas disease in siblings and relatives, and provide early treatment to prevent the chronic complications of Chagas disease. PMID:23033397

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among bus drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Bus provides a main mode of public transport in Vietnam, but the risk of road traffic crash for bus drivers is unknown. This retrospective study estimated the crash prevalence among bus drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam, and identified driver characteristics affecting their crashes. Information on bus crashes for the period 2006-2009 was collected by interviewing drivers from five bus companies in Hanoi using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine pertinent risk factors affecting the crash prevalence for bus drivers. Of the total 365 participants recruited, 73 drivers reported 76 crashes, giving an overall crash prevalence of 20%. Among the crashed group, three drivers (4%) were involved in two crashes during the past 3 years. Crashes mainly occurred on streets or local roads (81%). Migrant worker (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.20-8.25) and insufficient income perceived (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.37-4.93) were identified to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are needed to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of bus drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent traffic injury of these drivers. PMID:23190322

  1. Prevalence and associated factors of myopia among primary and middle school-aged students: a school-based study in Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Yang, J; Mai, J; Du, X; Guo, Y; Li, P; Yue, Y; Tang, D; Lu, C; Zhang, W-H

    2016-06-01

    PurposeTo estimate the prevalence of myopia among primary and middle school-aged students in Guangzhou and to explore the potentially contributing factors to myopia.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was based on a sample of students in grades 1-6 and grades 7-9. Data were collected from refractive error measurements and a structured questionnaire.ResultsA total of 3055 participants were involved in this analysis, and the overall prevalence of myopia was 47.4% (95% confidence interval (CI)= 45.6-49.2%). The prevalence of myopia in students increased along with the growth of grade level; the prevalence of myopia in students in grade 1 was only 0.2%, as it increased to 38.8% in students in grade 3, and the rate was the highest (68.4%) in students in grade 9. Girls were at a higher risk of myopia than boys (adjusted odds ratio=1.22, 95% CI=1.04-1.44). Both male and female students whose distance of reading was longer than 25 cm were less likely to have myopia and who have one or two myopic parents were at a higher risk of myopia. In addition, reading for pleasure more than 2 h per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.84, 95% CI=1.09-3.12) was only positively associated with myopia in boys and spending time watching television per week was only positively associated with myopia in girls.ConclusionMyopia in students is a significant public health problem in Guangzhou. Female gender, higher grade, longer time spent for near work, shorter distance of near work, and parental myopia were shown to be associated with the increasing risk of myopia in children. PMID:26965016

  2. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds. PMID:21707977

  3. The prevalence of and factors associated with chronic atrial fibrillation in Medicare/Medicaid-eligible dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Wetmore, James B.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Rigler, Sally K.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Mukhopadhyay, Purna; Spertus, John A.; Hou, Qingjiang; Shireman, Theresa I.

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is an important comorbidity with substantial therapeutic implications in dialysis patients but its prevalence varies in different studies. We used a database that includes patients in the United States on hemodialysis who were eligible for government assistance with prescription drugs. We then used ICD-9 codes from billing claims in this database to identify patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine adjusted prevalence odds ratios for associated factors. Of 63,884 individuals, the prevalence of chronic atrial fibrillation was 7%. The factors of age over 60 years, male, Caucasian, body mass index over 25 kg/m2, coronary artery disease, and heart failure were all significantly associated with chronic atrial fibrillation. Prevalence rates, particularly in younger patients, were far higher than those reported in an age group–matched nondialysis population. Thus, given its clinical impact, future efforts are needed to examine risk factors for adverse outcomes in chronic atrial fibrillation, and to identify appropriate management strategies for this disorder, as well as opportunities for quality improvement in this vulnerable population. PMID:22189842

  4. The prevalence of and factors associated with chronic atrial fibrillation in Medicare/Medicaid-eligible dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, James B; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Rigler, Sally K; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Mukhopadhyay, Purna; Spertus, John A; Hou, Qingjiang; Shireman, Theresa I

    2012-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation is an important comorbidity with substantial therapeutic implications in dialysis patients but its prevalence varies in different studies. We used a database that includes patients in the United States on hemodialysis who were eligible for government assistance with prescription drugs. We then used ICD-9 codes from billing claims in this database to identify patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine adjusted prevalence odds ratios for associated factors. Of 63,884 individuals, the prevalence of chronic atrial fibrillation was 7%. The factors of age over 60 years, male, Caucasian, body mass index over 25 kg/m(2), coronary artery disease, and heart failure were all significantly associated with chronic atrial fibrillation. Prevalence rates, particularly in younger patients, were far higher than those reported in an age group-matched nondialysis population. Thus, given its clinical impact, future efforts are needed to examine risk factors for adverse outcomes in chronic atrial fibrillation, and to identify appropriate management strategies for this disorder, as well as opportunities for quality improvement in this vulnerable population. PMID:22189842

  5. Prevalence and individual risk factors associated with clinical lumbar instability in rice farmers with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Yodchaisarn, Wantanee; Emasithi, Alongkot; Keawduangdee, Petcharat; Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Clinical lumbar instability (CLI) is one of the subgroups of chronic non-specific low back pain. Thai rice farmers often have poor sustained postures during a rice planting process and start their farming at an early age. However, individual associated factors of CLI are not known and have rarely been diagnosed in low back pain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and individual associated factors of CLI in Thai rice farmers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 323 Thai rice farmers in a rural area of Khon Kaen province, Thailand. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using the 13-item Delphi criteria questionnaire, after which an objective examination was performed using aberrant movement sign, painful catch sign, and prone instability test to obtain information. Individual factors such as sex, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, smoking, and number of years of farming experience, were recorded during the face-to-face interview. Results The prevalence of CLI in Thai rice farmers calculated by the method described in this study was 13% (age 44±10 years). Number of years of farming experience was found to be significantly correlated with the prevalence of CLI (adjusted odds ratio =2.02, 95% confidence interval =1.03–3.98, P<0.05). Conclusion This study provides prevalence of CLI in Thai rice farmers. Those with long-term farming experience of at least 30 years have a greater risk of CLI. PMID:25565778

  6. High Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Associated Oral Mucosal Lesion Among Interstate Male Migrant Workers in Urban Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Aslesh, Ottapura Prabhakaran; Paul, Sam; Paul, Lipsy; Jayasree, Anandabhavan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kerala is a highly urbanized state in India and interstate migrant laborers working there forms a marginalized community. It was generally perceived that use of tobacco and alcohol was high among the workers, but there are no epidemiological studies assessing the actual burden. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of use of tobacco and also the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions associated with such use consumption among the adult male interstate migrant workers in North Kerala. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among male migrant workers above 18 years working in different factories in urban parts of Kannur district. Total of 244 participants attending routine health check-up camp were assessed for the use of tobacco/alcohol, type, frequency and duration of their use by a questionnaire. The trained dental interns conducted oral cavity examination for detecting oral mucosal lesions associated with tobacco use. Results: The prevalence of current use of smoked tobacco, smokeless tobacco and alcohol use were 41.8%, 71.7% and 56.6%, respectively among migrants. Oral mucosal lesions (OML) were seen in 36.3% of participants. Among smokeless tobacco users, 44.6% had lesions. Adjusted odds ratio for OML was 4.5 (CI: 1.9 - 19.84) among smokeless tobacco users. Conclusions: The current use of smokeless tobacco and oral mucosal lesions are highly prevalent among migrant workers. PMID:26855720

  7. The Association between Serum Uric Acid Levels and the Prevalence of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Zhou, Yong; Dong, Kehui; Wang, Anxin; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Caifeng; Zhu, Yi; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the associations between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and atherosclerotic carotid plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of SUA levels with the prevalence of vulnerable atherosclerotic carotid plaque in a community-based cohort. In the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community (APAC) study, cross-sectional data from 2860 Chinese residents who underwent SUA measurement and ultrasonographic assessment of carotid plaque were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of SUA levels with presence of vulnerable carotid plaque. After adjustment for potential confounders, SUA levels were significantly associated with the prevalence of vulnerable plaque amongst the middle-aged adults (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–1.28). Compared to the lowest quartile, quartiles 2, 3 and 4 had a prevalence OR of 1.33 (1.02–1.74), 1.70 (1.27–2.27) and 2.05 (1.53–2.75), respectively, for the presence of vulnerable carotid plaque (p for trend across quartiles < 0.001). In the APAC study, elevated SUA levels were independently associated with the prevalence of vulnerable carotid plaque in middle-aged adults. PMID:25961501

  8. Low Prevalence of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Active Trachoma in the Western Division of Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Pavluck, Alexandre L.; Willis, Rebecca; Alexander, Neal; Mabey, David C. W.; Cikamatana, Luisa; Kama, Mike; Rafai, Eric; Roberts, Chrissy H.; Solomon, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experience of local healthcare workers who do not consider trachoma to be highly prevalent. We aimed to determine whether conjunctival infection with Ct could be detected in one administrative division of Fiji. Methods A population-based survey of 2306 individuals was conducted using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. Population prevalence of active trachoma in children and trichiasis in adults was estimated using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 1009 children aged 1–9 years. DNA from swabs was tested for the presence of the Ct plasmid and human endogenous control. Results The prevalence of active trachoma in 1–9 year olds was 3.4%. The age-adjusted prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI: 1.4–4.3%). The unadjusted prevalence of ocular Ct infection in 1–9 year-olds was 1.9% (19/1009), and the age-adjusted infection prevalence was 2.3% (95% CI: 0.4–2.5%). The median DNA load was 41 Ct plasmid copies per swab (min 20, first quartile 32, mean 6665, third quartile 161, max 86354). There was no association between current infection and follicular trachoma. No cases of trachomatous trichiasis were identified. Discussion The Western Division of Fiji has a low prevalence of clinical trachoma. Ocular Ct infections were observed, but they were predominantly low load infections and were not correlated with clinical signs. Our study data suggest that trachoma does not meet the WHO definition of a public health problem in

  9. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  10. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  11. Multicomponent fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, René D.; Santos, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Mixtures of hard hyperspheres in odd-space dimensionalities are studied with an analytical approximation method. This technique is based on the so-called rational function approximation and provides a procedure for evaluating equations of state, structure factors, radial distribution functions, and direct correlation functions of additive mixtures of hard hyperspheres with any number of components and in arbitrary odd-dimension space. The method gives the exact solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation coupled with the Percus-Yevick closure, thus, extending the solution for hard-sphere mixtures [J. L. Lebowitz, Phys. Rev.PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.133.A895 133, A895 (1964)] to arbitrary odd dimensions. Explicit evaluations for binary mixtures in five dimensions are performed. The results are compared with computer simulations, and a good agreement is found.

  12. Racial Disparities in the Prevalence of Arthritis among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, Whites, and Asians.

    PubMed

    Obana, Kyle K; Davis, James

    2016-06-01

    The health disparities of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are well established for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but less is known about disparities in arthritis. This study examined possible disparities in the prevalence of arthritis by age, sex, and severity comparing NHPI, Whites, and Asians. The study population included adult Hawai'i participants in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. NHPI males had a significantly higher prevalence of arthritis, which peaked twenty years earlier, than White and Asian males (P<.001). The prevalence of arthritis peaked at 65-79 years in males and females in all racial groups, except in NHPI males where it peaked at 45-54 years. The mean ages (years) for males with arthritis were 46.2 for NHPI, 59.1 for Whites, and 60.5 for Asians; the respective ages for females were 54.2, 60.5, and 58.8. NHPI males body mass index averaged 2.4 kg/m(2) greater than White males (P<.001), and obese NHPI males had twice the age-adjusted odds of arthritis than obese White males. Although NHPI females had a greater body mass index than White females (P=.05), the prevalence of arthritis was only slightly and not significantly higher. NHPI males and females reported high pain scores more frequently than Whites did, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Diabetes was a comorbidity more than twice as often in NHPI and Asians of both sexes than among Whites. This study demonstrated racial disparities in the prevalence of arthritis among NHPI, Whites, and Asians. PMID:27413625

  13. Racial Disparities in the Prevalence of Arthritis among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, Whites, and Asians

    PubMed Central

    Obana, Kyle K

    2016-01-01

    The health disparities of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are well established for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but less is known about disparities in arthritis. This study examined possible disparities in the prevalence of arthritis by age, sex, and severity comparing NHPI, Whites, and Asians. The study population included adult Hawai‘i participants in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. NHPI males had a significantly higher prevalence of arthritis, which peaked twenty years earlier, than White and Asian males (P<.001). The prevalence of arthritis peaked at 65–79 years in males and females in all racial groups, except in NHPI males where it peaked at 45–54 years. The mean ages (years) for males with arthritis were 46.2 for NHPI, 59.1 for Whites, and 60.5 for Asians; the respective ages for females were 54.2, 60.5, and 58.8. NHPI males body mass index averaged 2.4 kg/m2 greater than White males (P<.001), and obese NHPI males had twice the age-adjusted odds of arthritis than obese White males. Although NHPI females had a greater body mass index than White females (P=.05), the prevalence of arthritis was only slightly and not significantly higher. NHPI males and females reported high pain scores more frequently than Whites did, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Diabetes was a comorbidity more than twice as often in NHPI and Asians of both sexes than among Whites. This study demonstrated racial disparities in the prevalence of arthritis among NHPI, Whites, and Asians. PMID:27413625

  14. Prevalence of depression and suicidal behaviors among male migrant workers in United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Maskari, F; Shah, S M; Al-Sharhan, R; Al-Haj, E; Al-Kaabi, K; Khonji, D; Schneider, J D; Nagelkerke, N J; Bernsen, R M

    2011-12-01

    Migrant workers comprise 80% of the population of the United Arab Emirates, but there is little research on their mental health. To determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among workers living in labor camps, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in labor camps in Al Ain city. The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42) was used to assess depression and suicidal ideation among the study participants. Off the 319 contacted workers agreed to participate, however 239 fully completed the DASS-42. The prevalence of a score >=10 ("depression") was 25.1% (60/239). Depression was correlated with physical illness (97/301), (adjusted odds ratio-AOR = 2.9; 95% CI 2.26-5.18), working in construction industry (prevalence 124/304), AOR = 2.2; 95%CI 1.56-3.83), earning less than 1,000 UAE Dirham per month (prevalence 203/314), (AOR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.33-3.16), and working more than 8 h a day (prevalence 213/315), (AOR = 2.7; 95%CI 1.19-6.27). 20/261 (6.3%) of the study participants reported thoughts of suicide and 8/265 (2.5%) had attempted suicide. People with suicidal ideation were more likely to have a physical illness (AOR = 8.1, 95%CI 2.49-26.67), earn less than 1,000 UAE Dirham per month (AOR = 5.98, 95%CI 1.26-28.45), and work for more than 8 h a day (AOR = 8.35, 95%CI 1.03-67.23). The study identified self reported indicators of a substantial burden of depression, and thoughts of self-harm among laborers surveyed. Policy level intervention and implementation, is needed to improve working conditions, including minimum wages and regulation of working hours is recommended. PMID:21503739

  15. Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass combustion on prevalence of asthma in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vinod

    2003-01-01

    In this study I examined the effect of cooking smoke on the reported prevalence of asthma among elderly men and women greater than or equal to 60 years old). The analysis is based on 38,595 elderly persons included in India's second National Family Health Survey conducted in 1998-1999. Effects of exposure to cooking smoke, ascertained by type of fuel used for cooking (biomass fuels, cleaner fuels, or a mix of biomass and cleaner fuels), on the reported prevalence of asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Because the effects of cooking smoke are likely to be confounded with effects of age, tobacco smoking, education, living standard, and other such factors, the analysis was carried out after statistically controlling for such factors. Results indicate that elderly men and women living in households using biomass fuels have a significantly higher prevalence of asthma than do those living in households using cleaner fuels [odds ratio (OR) = 1.59; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.30-1.94], even after controlling for the effects of a number of potentially confounding factors. Active tobacco smoking was also associated with higher asthma prevalence in the elderly, but not environmental tobacco smoke. Availability of a separate kitchen in the house and a higher living standard of the household were associated with lower asthma prevalence. The adjusted effect of cooking smoke on asthma was greater among women (OR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.32-2.53) than among men (OR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14-1.88). The findings have important program and policy implications for countries such as India, where large proportions of the population rely on polluting biomass fuels for cooking and space heating. More epidemiologic research with better measures of smoke exposure and clinical measures of asthma is needed to validate the findings. PMID:12515681

  16. Effect of time-odd fields on odd-even mass differences of semi-magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kun; Zhou, XianRong; Cui, JiWei; Sagawa, H.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of time-odd fields of Skyrme interaction on neutron odd-even mass differences is studied in the framework of axially deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock (DSHF)+BCS model. To this end, we take into account both the time-even and time-odd fields to calculate the one-neutron and two-neutron separation energies and pairing gaps of semi-magic Ca, Ni, and Sn isotopic chains. In the calculations, a surface-type pairing interaction (IS pairing) and an isospin dependent contact pairing interaction (IS+IV pairing) are adopted on top of Skyrme interactions SLy4, SLy6 and SkM*, respectively. We find that the time-odd fields have in general small effects on pairing gaps, but achieve better agreement with experimental data using SLy4 and Sly6 interactions, respectively. It is also shown that the calculations with IS+IV pairing reproduce the one-neutron separation energies of Sn isotopes better than those with the IS pairing interaction when the contributions of the time-odd fields are included.

  17. Extremal charged rotating dilaton black holes in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Employing higher-order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity. PMID:25070697

  19. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  20. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  1. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  2. The Competition Between Collective and Single - Effects in the Odd-Odd Nuclei LANTHANUM-128,130.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Mark Jonathan

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Excited states in the odd-odd nuclei ^{128,130}La have been investigated to high-spin using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The nucleus ^{128}La was identified using the Daresbury Recoil Separator, and gamma -gamma coincidence data were taken on both nuclei with the TESSA3 array. Angular distributions were also measured for ^{128} La. Seven distinct bands have been observed, three in ^{128}La and four in ^{130}La, with four of these structures being seen for the first time. Two of the bands in each nucleus correspond to near-prolate nuclear shapes, one based on a pih _{11/2} otimes nuh _{11/2} structure and the other on a pih_{11/2 } otimes nug_{7/2 } configuration. A further band in each nucleus has similar properties to what would be expected for a collective oblate structure. In addition the first odd -proton system superdeformed band has been found in ^{130}La. The experimental evidence for these structures will be discussed in terms of the variation in energy level signature splitting, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios and mixing ratios as a function of rotational frequency and single particle configuration. The nature of the particles responsible for backbends in the near-prolate bands will be conclusively proved. The results will be interpreted in terms of the cranked shell model, an odd-odd particle-rotor model and deformation self-consistent cranking calculations. They will be compared to other odd and odd-odd systems in the A = 130 region. Long-range p-n and n-n interactions are investigated through the measurement of residual interactions. Theoretical interactions are obtained from deformation self-consistent cranking calculations, which contain no long-range interactions, to estimate the nuclear mean field. The results are discussed in terms of the variation in the spatial overlap of the various wavefunctions and changes in the mean field, as a function of particle number, configuration and rotational frequency.

  3. CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-10-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, {theta}{sub A}, induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tan{beta}, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by {theta}{sub A}. We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development.

  4. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the anti-evolutionists…

  5. Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2011-05-06

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.

  6. Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

  7. Despite the Odds: The Contentious Politics of Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindle, Merilee S.

    2004-01-01

    "Despite the Odds" poses an important question: How can we account for successful policy reform initiatives when the political cards are stacked against change? Theories of politics usually predict that reform initiatives will be unsuccessful when powerful groups are opposed to change and institutions are biased against it. This book, however,…

  8. The Differential Graded Odd NilHecke Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Alexander P.; Qi, You

    2016-05-01

    We equip the odd nilHecke algebra and its associated thick calculus category with diagrammatically local differentials. The resulting differential graded Grothendieck groups are isomorphic to two different forms of the positive part of quantum {{{sl}_2}} at a fourth root of unity.

  9. Quantum description of T-odd correlations in ternary fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G.

    2008-07-15

    A quantum version of a unified description of two T-odd effects recently observed in the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by polarized neutrons is considered. These effects are explained by the effect of the Coriolis interaction of the rotating fissile system on the angular distributions of light charged particles in the interior and exterior regions of the nucleus.

  10. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  11. Association of Leisure-Time Physical Activity to Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in Relation to Smoking among Adult Nevadans

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Masaru; Moonie, Sheniz; Cross, Chad L.; Chino, Michelle; Alpert, Patricia T.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cigarette smoking and physical activity have significant impacts on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity. Meanwhile, it is of interest to understand whether physical activity protects against CVD for smokers in a similar manner as it does for non-smokers. The present study examined how leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with the prevalence of CVD in relation to smoking status among adult Nevadans, using data from the 2010 Nevada Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Of the 3,913 survey respondents, 8.5% self-reported that they had ever been diagnosed with CVD. People with a history of CVD were significantly less likely to engage in LTPA than those with no history of CVD (p < 0.05). After adjusting for common sociodemographic variables, it was revealed that people with CVD were twice more likely to not engage in LTPA than their counterparts independent of smoking status. Without taking LTPA into account, the odds of having CVD for current and former smokers was 1.87–2.25 times higher than the odds for non-smokers. Interestingly, however, if LTPA was accounted for, there was no significant difference in the odds of having CVD between current and non-smokers. These results indicate that LTPA is inversely associated with the prevalence of CVD independent of smoking status, and that regular physical activity may protect against CVD for smokers as well as for non-smokers. Physical activity, along with smoking cessation, should be promoted to better prevent and control CVD among smokers. PMID:26010914

  12. Food Insecurity Increases the Odds of Obesity Among Young Hispanic Children.

    PubMed

    Papas, Mia A; Trabulsi, Jillian C; Dahl, Alicia; Dominick, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a growing public health concern and is more prevalent among low-income and minority populations. Food insecurity may increase the odds of obesity in children. We investigated the association between food insecurity and obesity among low-income, Hispanic, mother-child dyads (n = 74). The United States Department of Agriculture 18-item Household Food Security Survey was used to determine food security status. The majority of households were food insecure (74 %) and one-third (30 %) of children were obese. Food insecurity increased the odds of childhood obesity (OR 10.2; 95 % CI 1.2, 85.5) with stronger associations found within households where mothers were also overweight/obese compared to normal weight (p-for interaction < 0.05). Rates of household food insecurity and childhood obesity were high among this low-income Hispanic sample. Future studies should elucidate the mechanisms through which food insecurity impacts childhood obesity. PMID:26377352

  13. Antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with odd-numbered coupled spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.; Nsofini, J.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, studies on cyclic molecular nanomagnets have captivated the attention of researchers. These magnets are finite in size and contain very large spins. They are interesting because they possess macroscopic quantum tunneling of Néel vectors. For antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with finite number of even-numbered coupled spins, tunneling involves two classical localized Néel ground states separated by a magnetic energy barrier. The question is: can such phenomena be observed in nanomagnets with odd number of magnetic ions? The answer is not directly obvious because cyclic chains with odd-numbered coupled spins are frustrated as one cannot obtain a perfect Néel order. These frustrated spins can indeed be observed experimentally, so they are of interest. In this letter, we theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling in this odd spin system with arbitrary spins s, in the presence of a magnetic field applied along the plane of the magnet. In contrast to systems with an even-numbered coupled spins, the ground state of the cyclic odd-spin system contains a topological soliton due to spin frustration. Thus, the classical ground state is 2N-fold degenerate as the soliton can be placed anywhere along the ring with total S_z=+/- s . Small quantum fluctuations delocalize the soliton with a formation of an energy band. We obtain this energy band using degenerate perturbation theory at order 2s. We show that the soliton ground state is chiral for half-odd integer spins and non-chiral for integer spins. From the structure of the energy band we infer that as the value of the spin increases the inelastic polarized neutron-scattering intensity may increase or decrease depending on the strengths of the parameters of the Hamiltonian.

  14. Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes. PMID:25773521

  15. Isospin Dependence in the Odd-Even Staggering of Nuclear Binding Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinov, Yu.A.; Geissel, H.; Buervenich, T.J.; Novikov, Yu.N.; Patyk, Z.; Scheidenberger, C.; Attallah, F.; Beckert, K.; Bosch, F.; Franzke, B.; Klepper, O.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nolden, F.; Radon, T.; Steck, M.; Typel, S.; Audi, G.; Falch, M.

    2005-07-22

    The FRS-ESR facility at GSI provides unique conditions for precision measurements of large areas on the nuclear mass surface in a single experiment. Values for masses of 604 neutron-deficient nuclides (30{<=}Z{<=}92) were obtained with a typical uncertainty of 30 {mu}u. The masses of 114 nuclides were determined for the first time. The odd-even staggering (OES) of nuclear masses was systematically investigated for isotopic chains between the proton shell closures at Z=50 and Z=82. The results were compared with predictions of modern nuclear models. The comparison revealed that the measured trend of OES is not reproduced by the theories fitted to masses only. The spectral pairing gaps extracted from models adjusted to both masses, and density related observables of nuclei agree better with the experimental data.

  16. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  17. Regional and neighborhood disparities in the odds of type 2 diabetes: results from 5 population-based studies in Germany (DIAB-CORE consortium).

    PubMed

    Müller, Grit; Kluttig, Alexander; Greiser, Karin Halina; Moebus, Susanne; Slomiany, Uta; Schipf, Sabine; Völzke, Henry; Maier, Werner; Meisinger, Christa; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Berger, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between residential environment and type 2 diabetes. We pooled cross-sectional data from 5 population-based German studies (1997-2006): the Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle Study, the Dortmund Health Study, the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg Study, and the Study of Health in Pomerania. The outcome of interest was the presence of self-reported type 2 diabetes. We conducted mixed logistic regression models in a hierarchical data set with 8,879 individuals aged 45-74 years on level 1; 226 neighborhoods on level 2; and 5 study regions on level 3. The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, social class, and employment status. The odds ratio for type 2 diabetes was highest in eastern Germany (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.81, 2.14) and northeastern Germany (odds ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval: 1.40, 1.77) and lowest in southern Germany (reference) after adjustment for individual variables. Neighborhood unemployment rates explained a large proportion of regional differences. Individuals residing in neighborhoods with high unemployment rates had elevated odds of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.09). The diverging levels of unemployment in neighborhoods and regions are an independent source of disparities in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23648804

  18. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  19. Prevalence, Predictors, and Outcomes of Pulmonary Hypertension in CKD.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, Sankar D; Roy, Jason; Tao, Kelvin; Brecklin, Carolyn S; Chen, Jing; Deo, Rajat; Flack, John M; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Plappert, Theodore J; Raj, Dominic S; Saydain, Ghulam; Sondheimer, James H; Sood, Ruchi; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Townsend, Raymond R; Dweik, Raed A; Rahman, Mahboob

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with poor outcomes in the dialysis and general populations, but its effect in CKD is unclear. We evaluated the prevalence and predictors of PH measures and their associations with long-term clinical outcomes in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study participants who had Doppler echocardiography performed were considered for inclusion. PH was defined as the presence of estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) >35 mmHg and/or tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV) >2.5 m/s. Associations between PH, PASP, and TRV and cardiovascular events, renal events, and all-cause mortality were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Of 2959 eligible participants, 21% (n=625) had PH, with higher rates among those with lower levels of kidney function. In the multivariate model, older age, anemia, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and presence of left ventricular hypertrophy were associated with greater odds of having PH. After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, PH was independently associated with higher risk for death (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.72) and cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.52) but not renal events. Similarly, TRV and PASP were associated with death and cardiovascular events but not renal events. In this study of patients with CKD and preserved left ventricular systolic function, we report a high prevalence of PH. PH and higher TRV and PASP (echocardiographic measures of PH) are associated with adverse outcomes in CKD. Future studies may explain the mechanisms that underlie these findings. PMID:26386072

  20. Executive Functioning in Children: A Comparison of Hospitalised ODD and ODD/ADHD Children and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Snoek, Heddeke; Matthys, Walter; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in executive functioning are supposed to have a predisposing influence on impulsive or aggressive behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) children with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have problems in executive functioning. Method: Seventy-seven 7- to 12-year-old…

  1. Alignments, additivity, and signature inversion in odd-odd {sup 170}Ta : a comprehensive high-spin study.

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A.; Hartley, D. J.; Riley, M. A.; Teal, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Danchev, M.; Djongolov, M. K.; Hagemann, G. B.; Hecht, A. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Ma, W. C.; Mohr, W. H.; Moore, E. F.; Odegard, S. W.; Riedinger, L. L.; Sletten, G.; Tandel, S. K.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Wang, X.; Zhu, S.; Florida State Univ.; U.S. Naval Academy; Univ. of Massachusetts; Univ. of Tennessee; Niels Bohr Inst.; Mississippi State Univ.; Univ. of Oslo

    2010-01-01

    High-spin states (I?50?) of the odd-odd nucleus 170Ta have been investigated with the 124Sn(51V,5n) reaction. The resolving power of Gammasphere has allowed for the observation of eleven rotational bands (eight of which are new) and over 430 transitions ( 350 of which are new) in this nucleus. Many interband transitions have been observed such that the relative spins and excitation energies of the 11 bands have been established. This is an unusual circumstance in an odd-odd study. Configurations have been assigned to most of these bands based upon features such as alignment properties, band crossings, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, and the additivity of Routhians. A systematic study of the frequency at which normal signature ordering occurs in the ?h9/2?i13/2 band has been performed and it is found that its trend is opposite to that observed in the ?h11/2?i13/2 bands. A possible interpretation of these trends is discussed based on a proton-neutron interaction.

  2. Prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and relation to glycemic control therapies at baseline in the BARI 2D cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Busui, Rodica; Lu, Jiang; Lopes, Neuza; Jones, Teresa L. Z.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the associations between glycemic therapies and prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) at baseline among participants in the Bypass-Angioplasty-Revascularization-Investigation-2-Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial on medical and revascularization therapies for coronary artery disease (CAD) and on insulin-sensitizing versus insulin-providing treatments for diabetes. 2368 patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD were evaluated. DPN was defined as clinical examination score >2 using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). DPN odds ratios across different groups of glycemic therapy were evaluated by multiple logistic regression, adjusted for multiple covariates including age, sex, HbA1c, diabetes duration. 51% BARI 2D subjects with valid baseline characteristics and MNSI scores had DPN. After adjusting for all variables, use of insulin was significantly associated with DPN (OR1.57, 1.15, 2.13). Patients on sulfonylurea or combination of sulfonylurea/metformin/TZD had marginally higher rates of DPN than the metformin/TZD group. This cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD showed association of insulin use with higher DPN prevalence, independent of disease duration, glycemic control and other characteristics. The causality between a glycemic control strategy and DPN cannot be evaluated in this cross-sectional study, but continued assessment of DPN and randomized therapies in BARI 2D trial may provide further explanations on the development of DPN. PMID:19335534

  3. Prevalence, molecular typing and risk factor analysis for Giardia duodenalis infections in dogs in a central London rescue shelter.

    PubMed

    Upjohn, Melissa; Cobb, Charlotte; Monger, Joanne; Geurden, Thomas; Claerebout, Edwin; Fox, Mark

    2010-09-20

    A cross-sectional survey to investigate canine infections with Giardia duodenalis was undertaken at a central London rescue shelter between October 2006 and March 2007. The objectives of the study were to (i) estimate the prevalence of infection in dogs admitted to a London dog shelter using a commercially available ELISA-based test kit; (ii) identify the relative importance of potential dog level risk factors for infection; and (iii) identify the occurrence of different G. duodenalis assemblages present in this population in order to identify presence of any potentially zoonotic assemblages. A faecal sample was collected from each dog entering the shelter within 1 day of arrival. Each sample was tested for the presence of parasite cyst wall protein using the Giardia SNAP test kit (Idexx Laboratories). Samples were graded for faecal consistency on a standard scale and data on age, breed, categorized breed group, sex and neutered status were collected for each dog. Associations between infection status and each dog level variable were investigated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Selected G. duodenalis-positive samples were genotyped using previously described primers targeting the 18S rDNA gene and the beta-giardin gene. Samples from a total of 878 dogs were collected and the true prevalence found to be 21.0% (95% CI 16.7-25.4%). In the present study, the odds of infection decreased with increasing age (adjusted odds ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.54-0.80, p<0.0001) and was increased for Rottweilers (adjusted odds ratio 2.12, 95% CI 1.03-4.34, p=0.04). Of the 51 samples selected for genotyping, 41 samples yielded a good amplification at one or both of the targeted genes, demonstrating the occurrence of mainly dog-specific assemblages C and D. The potentially zoonotic assemblage A and a mixed template C/D were found in two individual dogs. The results of the present study illustrate the high prevalence of G. duodenalis in shelter dogs. Although

  4. The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Sokana, Oliver; Solomon, Anthony W.; Mabey, David C.; Romani, Lucia; Kaldor, John; Steer, Andrew C.; Engelman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data. Methodology Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. All residents were eligible to participate, and 1908 people were enrolled. Participants were interviewed and examined by a paediatric registrar, who recorded relevant demographic information, and made a clinical diagnosis of scabies and/or impetigo, severity and distribution. Principal Findings The total unweighted prevalence of scabies was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5–21.0), and age and gender weighted prevalence 19.2% (95%CI 16.7–21.9). The adult prevalence of scabies was 10.4% (95%CI 8.2–13.2), and the highest prevalence was found in infants < 1 year of age (34.1%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] compared with adults: 3.6, 95%CI 2.2–6.0) and children aged 1–4 years (25.7%, AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.7–3.9). Scabies affected two or more body regions in 80.9% of participants, and 4.4% of scabies cases were classified as severe. The total unweighted prevalence of active impetigo was 32.7% (95%CI 30.6–34.8), and age and gender weighted prevalence 26.7% (95%CI 24.2–29.5). The highest prevalence was found in children aged 1–4 years (42.6%, AOR compared with adults: 4.1, 95%CI 2.9–5.8). Scabies infestation was associated with active impetigo infection (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6–2.6); with 41.1% of active impetigo cases also having scabies. Conclusions and Significance Scabies and impetigo are very common in the rural Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Scabies infestation is strongly associated with impetigo. Community control strategies

  5. Association between Self-Reported Global Sleep Status and Prevalence of Hypertension in Chinese Adults: Data from the Kailuan Community

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Ding, Rongjing; Tang, Qin; Chen, Jia; Wang, Li; Wang, Changying; Wu, Shouling; Hu, Dayi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Assessment of sleep only by sleep duration is not sufficient. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the potential association of self-reported global sleep status, which contained both qualitative and quantitative aspects, with hypertension prevalence in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 5461 subjects (4076 of them were male) were enrolled in the current study and were divided into two groups with the age of 45 years as the cut-off value. Sleep status of all subjects was assessed using the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg in the current study. Results: After adjusting for basic cardiovascular characteristics, the results of multivariate logistic regression indicated that sleep status, which was defined as the additive measurement of sleep duration and sleep quality, was associated with hypertension prevalence in males of both age groups (odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–1.15, p < 0.05; OR = 1.12, 95% CI, 1.08–1.15, p < 0.05) and in females aged ≤45years (OR = 1.10, 95% CI, 1.02–1.18, p < 0.05). As one component of PSQI, short sleep duration was associated with hypertension prevalence only in Chinese male subjects, but this association disappeared after the further adjustment of the other components of PSQI that measured the qualitative aspect of sleep. Conclusion: Association between sleep status and hypertension prevalence in Chinese adults varied by age and sex. Sleep should be measured qualitatively and quantitatively when investigating its association with hypertension. PMID:25575370

  6. Systematic Differences in Risk Behaviours and Syphilis Prevalence across Types of Female Sex Workers: a Preliminary Study in Liuzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Merli, M. Giovanna; Weir, Sharon S.; Henderson, Gail E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) have become one of the key populations for HIV/STI control in China. Categorization of FSWs can help prioritize HIV/STI intervention efforts. We examined two possible categorizations of FSWs and the relationship with syphilis infection risk in Liuzhou City, China. Methods From October 2009 to February 2010, a total of 583 FSWs recruited by respondent-driven sampling in a cross-sectional survey were tested for syphilis and interviewed to collect socio-demographic and behavioural information. Respondents were categorized based on transaction price for vaginal sex and type of sex work location. The relationship between the two categorizations and syphilis infection risk was assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence rates of lifetime and active syphilis infection were 8.6% and 4.1% respectively. Lifetime and active syphilis prevalence were higher among FSWs in the lowest price category (52.7% and 25.4% respectively) and those working in streets (69.7% and 39.8% respectively) or through telephone (46.3% and 17.0% respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that lifetime syphilis prevalence was significantly higher among street-(Adjusted odds ratio AOR 38.7, 95% CI 10.7-139.9) and telephone-based FSWs (AOR 10.8, 95% CI 3.3-35.1), and that active syphilis prevalence was significantly higher among street-based FSWs (AOR 15.2, 95% CI 3.7-62.1) after adjusting for demographic and behavioural factors. Conclusions Categorization based on sex work location was more closely related to the risk of syphilis infection than the price classification. Street- and telephone-based FSWs had significantly higher risk of syphilis infection. Focused interventions among these particular high-risk FSWs subgroups are warranted. PMID:22337106

  7. Precision spectroscopy of the {sup 207}Pb{sup 19}F molecule: Implications for measurement of P-odd and T-odd effects

    SciTech Connect

    Alphei, Lukas D.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Petrov, A. N.; Mawhorter, Richard; Murphy, Benjamin; Baum, Alexander; Sears, Trevor J.; Yang, T. Zh.; Rupasinghe, P. M.; McRaven, C. P.; Shafer-Ray, N. E.

    2011-04-15

    Here we report precision microwave spectroscopy of pure rotational transitions of the {sup 207}Pb{sup 19}F isotopologue. We use these data to make predictions of the sensitivity of the molecule to P-odd, T-even and P-odd, T-odd effects.

  8. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  9. Ambient Temperature and Prevalence of Obesity: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Han, Kyungdo; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested a possible association between outdoor or indoor temperature and obesity. We aimed to examine whether ambient temperature is associated with the prevalence of obesity or abdominal obesity in the Korean population. Methods Data on anthropometric, socio-demographic, laboratory and lifestyle factors were retrieved from National Health Insurance System data obtained in 2009–2010. Thirty years (1981 to 2010) of meteorological parameters for 71 observation areas were acquired from the Korea Meteorological Administration. Included in this analysis were 124,354 individuals. A body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference (WC) ≥ 90 cm (men) or 85 cm (women) were considered to represent obesity and abdominal obesity, respectively. Results The mean annual temperature (MAT) ranged from 6.6°C to 16.6°C, and BMI was positively correlated with MAT (r = 0.0078, P = 0.0065). WC was positively correlated with MAT (r = 0.0165, P < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with the number of days with mean temperature < 0°C (DMT0; r = –0.0129, P = 0.0002). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise, income, residential area and altitude, the odds ratios (95% CI) for obesity and abdominal obesity in the highest quintile MAT group were 1.045 (1.010, 1.081) and 1.082 (1.042, 1.124), respectively, compared with the lower four quintiles of the MAT group. Similarly, subjects in the area of the lowest quintile of DMT0 had significantly higher odds of abdominal obesity compared with the higher four quintile groups of DMT0. Conclusion This study finds an association between ambient temperature and prevalence of obesity in the Korean population when controlling for several confounding factors. Adaptive thermogenesis might be a possible explanation for this phenomenon. PMID:26524686

  10. Mesospheric Odd Nitrogen Enhancements During Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Smith, H. J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The behavior of mesospheric odd nitrogen species during and following relativistic and diffuse auroral precipitation events is simulated, Below 75 km nitric oxide is enhanced in proportion to the ion pair production function associated with the electron precipitation and the length of the event. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid are also enhanced. At 65 km the percentage of odd nitrogen for N is 0.1%, HNO3 is 1.6%, NO2 is 15%, and NO is 83.3%. Between 75 and 85 km NO is depleted during particle events due to the faster destruction of NO by N relative to the production of NO by N reacting with O2. Recovery of NO depends on transport from the lower thermosphere, where NO is produced in abundant amounts during particle events.

  11. Beating the regulatory odds with new simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.B.

    1994-06-20

    Complying with environmental regulations is like a horse race. When it comes to selecting pollution control technologies, the odds against picking a winner are high. A system that`s supposedly an odds-on favorite can come up short if the track conditions are wrong. The penalty for picking a loser is steep and even the best manufacturers can be put out to pasture for poor performance. Certainly, the stakes are high: the federal government projects that environmental rules will cost industry $184 billion annually by 2000. Others say it could be four times that. {open_quotes}But unless you have a crystal ball no one knows what it will cost{close_quotes}, says Robert Sackellares, head of the Atlanta office of SBE Environmental Company, New York City. {open_quotes}The final price tag will depend on the technologies that companies choose, and how effective they are.{close_quotes}.

  12. Predator fitness increases with selectivity for odd prey.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Christian

    2012-05-01

    The fundamental currency of normative models of animal decision making is Darwinian fitness. In foraging ecology, empirical studies typically assess foraging strategies by recording energy intake rates rather than realized reproductive performance. This study provides a rare empirical link, in a vertebrate predator-prey system, between a predator's foraging behavior and direct measures of its reproductive fitness. Goshawks Accipiter gentilis selectively kill rare color variants of their principal prey, the feral pigeon Columba livia, presumably because targeting odd-looking birds in large uniform flocks helps them overcome confusion effects and enhances attack success. Reproductive performance of individual hawks increases significantly with their selectivity for odd-colored pigeons, even after controlling for confounding age effects. Older hawks exhibit more pronounced dietary preferences, suggesting that hunting performance improves with experience. Intriguingly, although negative frequency-dependent predation by hawks exerts strong selection against rare pigeon phenotypes, pigeon color polymorphism is maintained through negative assortative mating. PMID:22503502

  13. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yaqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  14. Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2008-11-11

    We investigate shape phase transitions in odd nuclei within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. Special attention is given to the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation. The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2 with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that leads to the occurrence of the SU{sup BF}(3) boson-fermion symmetry when the boson part approaches the SU(3) condition. Both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions show characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The role of the additional particle in characterizing the properties of the critical points in finite quantal systems is investigated by resorting to the formalism based on the intrinsic frame.

  15. Urinary arsenic concentration adjustment factors and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Nermell, Barbro; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Berglund, Marika; Persson, Lars Ake; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2008-02-01

    This study aims at evaluating the suitability of adjusting urinary concentrations of arsenic, or any other urinary biomarker, for variations in urine dilution by creatinine and specific gravity in a malnourished population. We measured the concentrations of metabolites of inorganic arsenic, creatinine and specific gravity in spot urine samples collected from 1466 individuals, 5-88 years of age, in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, where arsenic-contaminated drinking water and malnutrition are prevalent (about 30% of the adults had body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 kg/m(2)). The urinary concentrations of creatinine were low; on average 0.55 g/L in the adolescents and adults and about 0.35 g/L in the 5-12 years old children. Therefore, adjustment by creatinine gave much higher numerical values for the urinary arsenic concentrations than did the corresponding data expressed as microg/L, adjusted by specific gravity. As evaluated by multiple regression analyses, urinary creatinine, adjusted by specific gravity, was more affected by body size, age, gender and season than was specific gravity. Furthermore, urinary creatinine was found to be significantly associated with urinary arsenic, which further disqualifies the creatinine adjustment. PMID:17900556

  16. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  17. Improved techniques for lower bounds for odd perfect numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, R. P.; Cohen, G. L.; Riele, H. J. J. Te

    1991-10-01

    If N is an odd perfect number, and {q^k}\\vert\\vert N , q prime, k even, then it is almost immediate that N > {q^{2k}} . We prove here that, subject to certain conditions verifiable in polynomial time, in fact N > {q^{5k/2}} . Using this and related results, we are able to extend the computations in an earlier paper to show that N > {10^{300}} .

  18. Even-odd effect in short antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machens, A.; Konstantinidis, N. P.; Waldmann, O.; Schneider, I.; Eggert, S.

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on chemically synthesized magnetic molecular chains, we investigate the lowest-lying energy band of short spin-s antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains focusing on effects of open boundaries. By numerical diagonalization we find that the Landé pattern in the energy levels, i.e., E(S)∝S(S+1) for total spin S, known from, e.g., ring-shaped nanomagnets, can be recovered in odd-membered chains, while strong deviations are found for the lowest excitations in chains with an even number of sites. This particular even-odd effect in the short Heisenberg chains cannot be explained by simple effective Hamiltonians and symmetry arguments. We go beyond these approaches, taking into account quantum fluctuations by means of a path-integral description and the valence bond basis, but the resulting quantum edge-spin picture which is known to work well for long chains does not agree with the numerical results for short chains and cannot explain the even-odd effect. Instead, by analyzing also the classical chain model, we show that spatial fluctuations dominate the physical behavior in short chains, with length N≲eπs, for any spin s. Such short chains are found to display a unique behavior, which is not related to the thermodynamic limit and cannot be described well by theories developed for this regime.

  19. Wind-induced odd gravitational harmonics of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    While the rotational distortion of Jupiter makes a major contribution to its lowermost order even zonal gravitational coefficients Jn with n ≥ 2, the component of the zonal winds with equatorial antisymmetry, if sufficiently deep, produces a gravitational signature contained in the odd zonal gravitational coefficients Jn with n ≥ 3. Based on a non-spherical model of a polytropic Jupiter with index unity, we compute Jupiter's odd gravitational coefficients J3, J5, J7, …, J11 induced by the equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds that are assumed to be deep. It is found that the lowermost odd gravitational coefficients J3, J5 and J7 are of the same order of magnitude with J3 = -1.6562 × 10-6, J5 = 1.5778 × 10-6 and J7 = -0.7432 × 10-6, and are within the accuracy of high-precision gravitational measurements to be carried out by the Juno spacecraft.

  20. Fluctuation theorems and entropy production with odd-parity variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunggyu; Lee, Hyun Keun; Kwon, Chulan

    2013-03-01

    We show that the total entropy production in stochastic processes with odd-parity variables (under time reversal) is separated into three parts, only two of which satisfy the integral fluctuation theorems in general. One is the usual excess contribution, which can appear only transiently and is called non-adiabatic. Another one is attributed solely to the breakage of detailed balance. The last part not satisfying the fluctuation theorem comes from the steady-state distribution asymmetry for odd-parity variables, which is activated in a non-transient manner. The latter two parts combine together as the house-keeping (adiabatic) contribution, whose positivity is not guaranteed except when the excess contribution completely vanishes. Our finding reveals that the equilibrium requires the steady-state distribution symmetry for odd-parity variables independently, in addition to the usual detailed balance. This work was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant (No. 2010-0026627) funded by the MEST.

  1. A loop group extension of the odd Chern character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Scott O.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the universal odd Chern form, defined on the stable unitary group U, extends to the loop group LU as an equivariantly closed differential form. This provides an odd analogue to the Bismut-Chern form that appears in supersymmetric field theories. We also describe the associated transgression form, the so-called Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and explicate some properties it inherits as a differential form on the space of maps of a cylinder into the stable unitary group. As one corollary, we show that in a precise sense the spectral flow of a loop of self adjoint Fredholm operators equals the lowest degree component of the Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and the latter, when restricted to cylinders which are tori, is an equivariantly closed extension of spectral flow. As another corollary, we construct the Chern character homomorphism from odd K-theory to the periodic cohomology of the free loop space, represented geometrically on the level of differential forms.

  2. Associations between ambient air pollution and prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases in 33 Chinese communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Wang, Jing; Chen, Weiqing; Ma, Wenjun; Trevathan, Edwin; Xaverius, Pamela K.; DeClue, Richard; Wiese, Andrew; Langston, Marvin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Inconsistent results have been reported that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the increased prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In order to examine whether the exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with the prevalence of stroke and CVDs among people living in a heavy industrial province of northeast China, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 24,845 Chinese adults, ages 18-74 years old, from 33 communities in the 11 districts of the three Northeastern Chinese Cities during 2009. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and Ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. We used two-level logistic regressions models to examine the effects of yearly variations in exposure to each pollutant, controlling for important covariates. We found significant associations between PM10 and SO2 levels and stroke prevalence after accounting for important covariates: the adjusted odds ratio for stroke increased by 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.30) per 19 μg m-3 increase in PM10, and 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01-1.29) per 20 μg m-3 increase in SO2, respectively. When stratified analysis by gender, these associations were significant only in men, but not in women. In conclusion, this study shows the association between long-term exposure to PM10 and SO2 and increased stroke prevalence, and the associations were more apparent in men than in women.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of airflow obstruction in ∼317,000 never-smokers in China.

    PubMed

    Smith, Margaret; Li, Liming; Augustyn, Mareli; Kurmi, Om; Chen, Junshi; Collins, Rory; Guo, Yu; Han, Yabin; Qin, Jingxin; Xu, Guanqun; Wang, Jian; Bian, Zheng; Zhou, Gang; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhengming

    2014-07-01

    In China, the burden of chronic obstructive disease (COPD) is high in never-smokers but little is known about its causes in this group. We analysed data on 287 000 female and 30 000 male never-smokers aged 30-79 years from 10 regions in China, who participated in the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey (2004-2008). Prevalence of airflow obstruction (AFO) (pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.7 and below the lower limit of normal (LLN)) was estimated, by age and region. Cross-sectional associations of AFO (FEV1/FVC <0.7), adjusted for confounding, were examined. AFO prevalence defined as FEV1/FVC <0.7 was 4.0% in females and 5.1% in males (mean ages 51 and 54 years, respectively). AFO prevalence defined as FEV1/FVC odds ratios of AFO were positively associated with lower household income (1.63, 95% CI 1.55-1.72 for lowest versus highest income groups), prior tuberculosis (2.36, 95% CI 2.06-2.71), less education (1.17, 95% CI 1.12-1.23 for no schooling versus college education), rural region and lower body mass index. AFO was positively associated with cooking with coal but not with other sources of household air pollution. Associations were similar for males. AFO is prevalent in Chinese never-smokers, particularly among those with low socioeconomic status or prior tuberculosis, and in rural males. PMID:24603814

  4. Analysis of the Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Tinnitus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Jong; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; An, Soo-Youn; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Si Whan; Lee, Joong Seob; Hong, Sung Kwang; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is a common condition in adults; however, the pathophysiology of tinnitus remains unclear, and no large population-based study has assessed the associated risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and associated risk factors of tinnitus. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with 19,290 participants ranging in age from 20 to 98 years old, between 2009 and 2012. We investigated the prevalence of tinnitus using a questionnaire and analyzed various possible factors associated with tinnitus using simple and multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. Results The prevalence of tinnitus was 20.7%, and the rates of tinnitus associated with no discomfort, moderate annoyance, and severe annoyance were 69.2%, 27.9%, and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of tinnitus and the rates of annoying tinnitus increased with age. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of tinnitus was higher for females, those with a smoking history, those reporting less sleep (≤ 6 h), those with more stress, those in smaller households, those with a history of hyperlipidemia osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, thyroid disease, an abnormal tympanic membrane, unilateral hearing loss, bilateral hearing loss, noise exposure from earphones, noise exposure at the workplace, noise exposure outside the workplace, and brief noise exposure. Additionally, unemployed individuals and soldiers had higher AORs for tinnitus. The AOR of annoying tinnitus increased with age, stress, history of hyperlipidemia, unilateral hearing loss, and bilateral hearing loss. Conclusions Tinnitus is very common in the general population and is associated with gender, smoking, stress, sleep, hearing loss, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, and thyroid disease history. PMID:26020239

  5. Prevalence and correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among female sex workers in a city in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Reilly, Kathleen H; Xu, Jun-Jie; Wang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Guo-Wei; Wang, Ning; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2016-05-01

    Sexual transmission is the fastest growing route of HIV transmission in China, andTrichomonas vaginalis(TV) can facilitate HIV transmission and acquisition. Our goal was to determine the prevalence and correlates of TV infection among female sex workers (FSWs). This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city of Yunnan Province in southern China, with confidential face-to-face interviews and laboratory tests for TV (wet mount) and other sexually transmitted infections. A total of 734 FSWs participated in the study. The prevalence of TV was 9.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.02-11.30). In multivariate analyses, adjusted odds ratios of TV infection were 3.0 (95% CI 1.47-6.01) for herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositive, 2.4 (95% CI 1.37-4.14) forChlamydia trachomatisinfection, 2.6 (95% CI 1.30-5.31) for genital ulcer, 1.9 (95% CI 1.11-3.30) for starting age in commercial sex <20 years, and 0.5 (95% CI 0.27-0.87) for vaginal douching. We found a relatively high prevalence of TV infection among FSWs in Yunnan Province. A range of control strategies that include TV screening are recommended among FSWs, which could contribute significantly to the disruption of transmission by the provision of immediate treatment. PMID:25957327

  6. Prevalence, comorbidities, and cofactors associated with alcohol consumption among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Mala A; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B; Abdul Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Kamaruddin, Rozanim Bt; Sabtu, Mohd Yusoff B

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol is deleterious to physical and mental health as well as social well-being. This study aims to examine the prevalence of alcohol consumption and factors associated with its use among school-going Malaysian adolescents. The Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 employed 2-stage clustering design to Malaysian secondary school respondents aged 12 to 17 years. The prevalence of current alcohol usage was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-10.07) overall, 11.2% (95% CI: 9.80-12.80) among males, and 23.4 (95% CI: 21.40-25.50) among Chinese students. Multivariate logistic regression showed that adolescents who had used alcohol were more likely to have used substance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.39; 95% CI: 2.33-4.99), experienced injury (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.20-1.95), and engaged in sexual behaviors (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.12-1.79), and fights (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08-1.41). The current national policies on alcohol should be strengthened to curb alcohol consumption among adolescents. PMID:25038196

  7. Prevalence of uterine myoma detected by ultrasound examination in the atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Sachiko |; Kodama, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Saeko

    1997-06-01

    Benign tumors of several organs have been demonstrated to occur as late effects of atomic bomb exposure, and a recent addition to the list of affected organs in the uterus. The increased incidence of uterine myoma noted in Radiation Effects Research Foundation (REFR) Adult Health Study Report 7, however, was based on self-reported information, optional gynecological examination and patient-requested ultrasound examination. Thus the possibility of dose-related bias in case detection was a serious concern. Therefore, the relationship between the prevalence of uterine myoma and dose to the uterus was examined after excluding as much bias as possible by asking all women who had undergone biennial examinations from December 1991 through December 1993 to undergo ultrasound examinations. Among 2506 female participants in Hiroshima, the uterus was visualized by ultrasound examination in 1190, and 238 were found to have uterine nodules. Multiple logistic analysis using Dosimetry System 1986 uterine doses revealed a significant dose response for the prevalence of uterine nodules. The odds ratio at 1 Gy was 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.12-2.31). It is unlikely that the observed relationship after adjusting for bladder filling, volume of the uterus, age and menopause status was the result of dose-related bias. These results support previous findings at RERF and provide further evidence that radiation exposure is one of the factors associated with uterine myoma. 28 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci with reduced daptomycin susceptibility in Singapore: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Chow, A; Win, N N; Ng, P Y; Lee, W; Win, M K

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and use of daptomycin are increasing in Asia. To determine the prevalence of daptomycin non-susceptible enterococci (DNSE) and understand factors associated with reduced daptomycin susceptibility in VRE, we conducted a case-control study in a 1600-bed adult tertiary hospital in Singapore. All VRE isolates from inpatients in 2012 were tested for daptomycin susceptibility. Patients with VRE isolates of daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ⩾3 µg/ml were classified as daptomycin-reduced susceptible VRE (DRS-VRE) and those with daptomycin MIC 4 µg/ml (DNSE). About half (135, 55%) had reduced susceptibility to daptomycin (MIC 3-4 µg/ml). None in the DS-VRE group had prior exposure to daptomycin. After adjusting for age, gender, comorbidity, hospitalization duration, surgical history, indwelling device use, and duration of antibiotic exposure in the prior 3 months, >1 movement between wards [odds ratio (OR) 0·35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·16-0·74, P = 0·006] and minocycline resistance (OR 0·45, 95% CI 0·25-0·84, P = 0·011) were independently associated with DRS-VRE. Our study suggests that daptomycin exposure, >1 movement between wards, and resistance to minocycline, were associated with reduced daptomycin susceptibility in VRE. PMID:27174845

  9. Azithromycin-Resistant Syphilis-Causing Strains in Sydney, Australia: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jeoffreys, Neisha; Tagg, Kaitlin; Guy, Rebecca J.; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.; Donovan, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Azithromycin has shown high efficacy in randomized trials when used for treating infectious syphilis in Africa. However, its use in clinical practice has been limited by the development of antimicrobial drug resistance. Resistance has not previously been reported from Australasia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for azithromycin-resistant syphilis-causing strains in Sydney, Australia. We evaluated 409 samples that were PCR positive for Treponema pallidum DNA collected between 2004 and 2011 for the presence of the A2058G mutation, which confers resistance to macrolide antibiotics such as azithromycin. Overall, 84% of samples harbored the mutation. The prevalence of the mutation increased during the study period (P trend, 0.003). We also collected clinical and demographic data on 220 patients from whom these samples had been collected to determine factors associated with the A2058G mutation; 97% were from men who have sex with men. Reporting sex in countries other than Australia was associated with less macrolide resistance (adjusted odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.66; P = 0.005), with other study factors showing no association (age, HIV status, recent macrolide use, stage of syphilis, or history of prior syphilis). Azithromycin cannot be recommended as an alternative treatment for syphilis in Sydney. PMID:24850356

  10. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  11. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  12. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  13. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Myopia and Ocular Biometry in 10- and 11-Year-Old Children: The Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Ethnic differences in childhood prevalence of myopia have not been well characterized in the United Kingdom. In this study, ethnic differences in refractive status and ocular biometry were examined in a multiethnic sample of British children. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of 10- and 11-year-old school children of South Asian, black African Caribbean, and white European ethnic origin. Vision, open-field autorefraction (without cycloplegia), and ocular biometry were measured in each eye. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent refraction of −0.50 D with unaided vision of 20/30 or worse (in one or both eyes). Ethnic differences in the prevalence of myopia were examined by using logistic regression, and multiple linear regression was used for ethnic differences in ocular biometry. All models were adjusted for age, sex, and clustering within school. Results. Data were available for 1179 children. The prevalence of myopia was 25.2%, 10.0%, and 3.4%, respectively, in the South Asian, black African Caribbean, and white European children. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of myopia compared with the white European children were 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0 to 19.4) in the South Asian and 3.2 (95% CI, 1.4 to 7.2) in black African Caribbean children. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of myopia were largely accounted for by ethnic differences in axial length. The South Asian and black African Caribbean children had longer axial lengths (0.44 mm; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.57 mm and 0.30 mm; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.44 mm, respectively). Conclusions. Among British children exposed to the same schooling environment, the South Asians had the highest prevalence of myopia, followed by the black African Caribbeans compared with the white Europeans. A quarter of British South Asian children were myopic, which is strongly related to increased axial length. PMID:20631242

  14. Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among women in Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania: a population based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is a simple and cost-effective intervention to improve child health and survival. Effective EBF has been estimated to avert 13% - 15% of under-five mortality and contribute to reduce mother to child transmission of HIV. The prevalence of EBF for infant less than six months is low in most developing countries, including Tanzania (50%). While the Tanzania Demographic Health Survey collects information on overall EBF prevalence, it does not evaluate factors influencing EBF. The aim of this paper was to determine the prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding in urban and rural areas in Kilimanjaro region. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2010 to March 2011 among women with infants aged 6–12 months in Kilimanjaro. Multi-stage proportionate to size sampling was used to select participants from all the seven districts of the region. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, reproductive, alcohol intake, breastfeeding patterns and nutritional data during the interviews. Estimation on EBF was based on recall since birth. Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain independent predictors of EBF. Results A total of 624 women participated, 77% (483) from rural areas. The prevalence of EBF up to six months in Kilimanjaro region was 20.7%, without significant differences in the prevalence of EBF up to six months between urban (22.7%) and rural areas (20.1%); (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5,1.4). In multivariable analysis, advice on breastfeeding after delivery (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.5, 4.6) was positively associated with EBF up to six months. Compared to married/cohabiting and those who do not take alcohol, single mothers (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.9) and mothers who drank alcohol (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.3, 0.7) had less odds to practice EBF up to six months. Conclusion Prevalence of EBF up to six months is still low in

  15. Apolipoprotein L1 gene variants associate with prevalent kidney but not prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Langefeld, Carl D; Divers, Jasmin; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Hawfield, Amret T; Reboussin, David M; Bild, Diane E; Kaysen, George A; Kimmel, Paul L; Raj, Dominic S; Ricardo, Ana C; Wright, Jackson T; Sedor, John R; Rocco, Michael V; Freedman, Barry I

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 coding variants are strongly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans (AAs). Here APOL1 association was tested with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 2571 AAs from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), a trial assessing effects of systolic blood pressure reduction on renal and CVD outcomes. Logistic regression models that adjusted for potentially important confounders tested for association between APOL1 risk variants and baseline clinical CVD (myocardial infarction, coronary, or carotid artery revascularization) and CKD (eGFR under 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and/or UACR over 30 mg/g). AA SPRINT participants were 45.3% female with a mean (median) age of 64.3 (63) years, mean arterial pressure 100.7 (100) mm Hg, eGFR 76.3 (77.1) ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and UACR 49.9 (9.2) mg/g, and 8.2% had clinical CVD. APOL1 (recessive inheritance) was positively associated with CKD (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.73) and log UACR estimated slope (β) 0.33) and negatively associated with eGFR (β -3.58), all significant. APOL1 risk variants were not significantly associated with prevalent CVD (1.02, 0.82-1.27). Thus, SPRINT data show that APOL1 risk variants are associated with mild CKD but not with prevalent CVD in AAs with a UACR under 1000 mg/g. PMID:25029429

  16. Apolipoprotein L1 gene variants associate with prevalent kidney but not prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Langefeld, Carl D.; Divers, Jasmin; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Hawfield, Amret T.; Reboussin, David M.; Bild, Diane E.; Kaysen, George A.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Raj, Dominic; Ricardo, Ana C.; Wright, Jackson T.; Sedor, John R.; Rocco, Michael V.; Freedman, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 coding variants are strongly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans. Here APOL1 association was tested with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 2,571 African Americans from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), a trial assessing effects of systolic blood pressure reduction on renal and CVD outcomes. Logistic regression models that adjusted for potentially important confounders tested for association between APOL1 risk variants and baseline clinical CVD (myocardial infarction, coronary or carotid artery revascularization) and CKD (eGFR under 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or UACR over 30 mg/g). African American SPRINT participants were 45.3% female with mean (median) age of 64.3 (63) years, mean arterial pressure 100.7 (100) mmHg, eGFR 76.3 (77.1) ml/min/1.73m2, UACR 49.9 (9.2) mg/g, and 8.2% had clinical CVD. APOL1 (recessive inheritance) was positively associated with CKD (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.08–1.73) and log UACR estimated slope [β] 0.33) and negatively associated with eGFR (β −3.58), all significant. APOL1 risk variants were not significantly associated with prevalent CVD (1.02, 0.82–1.27). Thus, SPRINT data show that APOL1 risk variants are associated with mild CKD but not prevalent CVD in African American with a UACR under 1000 mg/g. PMID:25029429

  17. Area-Level Socioeconomic Characteristics, Prevalence and Trajectories of Cardiometabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Anh D.; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J.; Coffee, Neil T.; Taylor, Anne W.; Adams, Robert J.; Daniel, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR), prevalence risk ratio (SRR), ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI)). Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42). However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely) and unemployment rate (positively) were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI) = 0.76 (0.63–0.90), and 1.48 (1.26–1.74), respectively), and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI) = 0.96 (0.93–0.99), and 1.06 (1.04–1.09), respectively). The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI) = 0.58 (0.45–0.73), and SRR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.88–0.94)). Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education

  18. Baseline HCV Antibody Prevalence and Risk Factors among Drug Users in China’s National Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Rou, Keming; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Xiaobin; Luo, Wei; Liu, Enwu; Wu, Zunyou

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common viral infection among injecting drug users worldwide. We aimed to assess HCV antibody prevalence and associated risk factors among clients in the Chinese national methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program. Methods Data from 296,209 clients who enrolled in the national MMT program between March 2004 and December 2012 were analyzed to assess HCV antibody prevalence, associated risk factors, and geographical distribution. Results Anti-HCV screening was positive for 54.6% of clients upon MMT entry between 2004 and 2012. HCV antibody prevalence at entry declined from 66.8% in 2005 to 45.9% in 2012. The most significant predictors of HCV seropositivity were injecting drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.17–8.52, p<0.0001) and a history of drug use ≥9 years (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.96–2.06, p<0.0001). Being female, of Uyghur or Zhuang ethnicity, and unmarried were identified as demographic risk factors (all p-values<0.0001). Of the 28 provincial-level divisions included in the study, we found that 5 divisions had HCV antibody prevalence above 70% and 20 divisions above 50%. The HCV screening rate within 6 months after MMT entry greatly increased from 30.4% in 2004 to 93.1% in 2012. Conclusions The current HCV antibody prevalence remains alarmingly high among MMT clients throughout most provincial-level divisions in China, particularly among injecting drug users and females. A comprehensive prevention strategy is needed to control the HCV epidemic among MMT clients in China. PMID:26906025

  19. GENERAL: Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Odd Coherent State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Gao, Ming; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2008-07-01

    We propose a decoy state quantum key distribution scheme with odd coherent state which follows sub-Poissonian distributed photon count and has low probability of the multi-photon event and vacuum event in each pulse. The numerical calculations show that our scheme can improve efficiently the key generation rate and secure communication distance. Furthermore, only one decoy state is necessary to approach to the perfect asymptotic limit with infinite decoy states in our scheme, but at least two decoy states are needed in other scheme.

  20. Odds ratios of work related deaths in United States workers.

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J P

    1988-01-01

    A new data set on job related mortality within 347 3 digit occupations is merged with two national probability samples of United States workers to assess which groups are in hazardous and which in safe jobs. Logistic regressions are fitted to the two samples and the following covariates are assumed to explain employment in a hazardous job: age, race, gender, schooling, region, and marital status. Results from both samples are remarkably similar. Odds ratios for non-whites versus whites are roughly 1.2/1; for high school dropouts versus people with some college education roughly 2.2/1; and for men versus women roughly 5.0/1. PMID:3348992

  1. Dimension-5 C P -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Yoon, Boram

    2015-12-01

    We study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T - and P -odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. We present the renormalization matrix to one loop in the MS ¯ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the MS ¯ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and 't Hooft-Veltman prescriptions for γ5.

  2. Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-03-30

    An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.

  3. HTLV-1 in rural Guinea-Bissau: prevalence, incidence and a continued association with HIV between 1990 and 2007

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background HTLV-1 is endemic in Guinea-Bissau, and the highest prevalence in the adult population (5.2%) was observed in a rural area, Caió, in 1990. HIV-1 and HIV-2 are both prevalent in this area as well. Cross-sectional associations have been reported for HTLV-1 with HIV infection, but the trends in prevalence of HTLV-1 and HIV associations are largely unknown, especially in Sub Saharan Africa. In the current study, data from three cross-sectional community surveys performed in 1990, 1997 and 2007, were used to assess changes in HTLV-1 prevalence, incidence and its associations with HIV-1 and HIV-2 and potential risk factors. Results HTLV-1 prevalence was 5.2% in 1990, 5.9% in 1997 and 4.6% in 2007. Prevalence was higher among women than men in all 3 surveys and increased with age. The Odds Ratio (OR) of being infected with HTLV-1 was significantly higher for HIV positive subjects in all surveys after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The risk of HTLV-1 infection was higher in subjects with an HTLV-1 positive mother versus an uninfected mother (OR 4.6, CI 2.6-8.0). The HTLV-1 incidence was stable between 1990-1997 (Incidence Rate (IR) 1.8/1,000 pyo) and 1997-2007 (IR 1.6/1,000 pyo) (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 0.9, CI 0.4-1.7). The incidence of HTLV-1 among HIV-positive individuals was higher compared to HIV negative individuals (IRR 2.5, CI 1.0-6.2), while the HIV incidence did not differ by HTLV-1 status (IRR 1.2, CI 0.5-2.7). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest community based study that has reported on HTLV-1 prevalence and associations with HIV. HTLV-1 is endemic in this rural community in West Africa with a stable incidence and a high prevalence. The prevalence increases with age and is higher in women than men. HTLV-1 infection is associated with HIV infection, and longitudinal data indicate HIV infection may be a risk factor for acquiring HTLV-1, but not vice versa. Mother to child transmission is likely to contribute to the

  4. Disparities in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and its Components Among University Employees by Age, Gender and Occupation

    PubMed Central

    Cheserek, Maureen Jepkorir; Wu, Gui-Rong; Shen, Li-Ye; Shi, Yong-Hui; Le, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolic Syndrome (MS), a known risk factor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and type II diabetes is an emerging epidemic in China. Studies carried out on the general population indicate a varied clustering of cardiovascular risks in many parts of the country. However, there is limited data on its prevalence in the working population. Workplace can serve as an important place for prevention, control and management of CVD risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MS and its components among University workers, and determine how the prevalence varied according to sex and occupation. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 2,428 University employees (22-60 years) who received an annual clinical examination at the University hospital. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), and lipid profiles were measured. MS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment panel III modified criteria. Results: Overall prevalence of MS was 6.1%, higher in males (5.1%) than females (1.1%), and increased with age. The most prevalent MS components in all workers were hypertension (37.9%) and hypertryglyceridemia (20.8%), corresponding rates in males were 28.3% and 16.1% while females had a prevalence of 9.6% and 4.7%. After adjustment for age, administrative work was associated (p<0.05) with increased hypertension (odds ratio (OR) =1.474; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.146-1.896) and hyperglycemia (OR=1.469; 95% CI, 1.082-1.993) in male workers, and with hypertension (OR=1.492; 95% CI, 1.071-2.080) in females. However, prevalence of hypertryglyceridemia was lower (OR=0.390; 95% CI, 0.204-0.746) in female administrators compared to those in academics. Obesity, MS and reduced High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol prevalence was not different (p>0.05) between the two occupations in both sexes. Conclusions: Prevalence of MS and its components was higher in male workers than

  5. [Razón de posibilidades: a proposed translation of the term odds ratio].

    PubMed

    Tapia, J A; Nieto, F J

    1993-01-01

    In English, odds ratio is a basic epidemiological measure approximating the relative risk. Odds ratio has been translated into Spanish in several ways, which has produced great terminological confusion. On the other hand, the English word odds is often used in epidemiology or statistics English textbooks, alone or as part of other expressions, but always keeping a definite mathematical meaning, which calls for a similarly definite term in Spanish. We discuss several translations of odds ratio found in the literature and propose the Spanish word "posibilidades" as a translation of odds and "razón de posibilidades" as a translation of odds ratio. PMID:8342087

  6. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  7. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  8. Geographical Variation in Diabetes Prevalence and Detection in China: Multilevel Spatial Analysis of 98,058 Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Maigeng; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Bi, Yufang; Feng, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Yong; Li, Yichong; Page, Andrew; Wang, Limin; Xu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the geographic variation in diabetes prevalence and detection in China. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Self-report and biomedical data were collected from 98,058 adults aged ≥18 years (90.5% response) from 162 areas spanning mainland China. Diabetes status was assessed using American Diabetes Association criteria. Among those with diabetes, detection was defined by prior diagnosis. Choropleth maps were used to visually assess geographical variation in each outcome at the provincial level. The odds of each outcome were assessed using multilevel logistic regression, with adjustment for person- and area-level characteristics. RESULTS Geographic visualization at the provincial level indicated widespread variation in diabetes prevalence and detection across China. Regional prevalence adjusted for age, sex, and urban/rural socioeconomic circumstances (SECs) ranged from 8.3% (95% CI 7.2%, 9.7%) in the northeast to 12.7% (11.1%, 14.6%) in the north. A clear negative gradient in diabetes prevalence was observed from 13.1% (12.0%, 14.4%) in the urban high-SEC to 8.7% (7.8%, 9.6%) in rural low-SEC counties/districts. Adjusting for health literacy and other person-level characteristics only partially attenuated these geographic variations. Only one-third of participants living with diabetes had been previously diagnosed, but this also varied substantively by geography. Regional detection adjusted for age, sex, and urban/rural SEC, for example, spanned from 40.4% (34.9%, 46.3%) in the north to 15.6% (11.7%, 20.5%) in the southwest. Compared with detection of 40.8% (37.3%, 44.4%) in urban high-SEC counties, detection was poorest among rural low-SEC counties at just 20.5% (17.7%, 23.7%). Person-level characteristics did not fully account for these geographic variations in diabetes detection. CONCLUSIONS Strategies for addressing diabetes risk and improving detection require geographical targeting. PMID:25352654

  9. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  10. An Odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme Finite State Machine.

    PubMed

    Eshra, Abeer; El-Sayed, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    A finite-state machine (FSM) is an abstract mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs and sequential logic circuits. Considered as an abstract model of computation, FSM is weak; it has less computational power than some other models of computation such as the Turing machine. This paper discusses the finite-state automata based on Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and different implementations of DNA FSMs. Moreover, a comparison was made to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of presented DNA FSMS. Since it is a major goal for nanoscince, nanotechnology and super molecular chemistry is to design synthetic molecular devices that are programmable and run autonomously. Programmable means that the behavior of the device can be modified without redesigning the whole structure. Autonomous means that it runs without externally mediated change to the work cycle. In this paper we present an odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme FSM. Our paper makes use of a known design for a DNA nanorobotic device due to Reif and Sahu for executing FSM computations using DNAzymes. The main contribution of our paper is a description of how to program that device to do a FSM computation known as odd parity checking. We describe in detail finite state automaton built on 10-23 DNAzyme, and give its procedure of design and computation. The design procedure has two major phases: designing the language potential alphabet DNA strands, and depending on the first phase to design the DNAzyme possible transitions. PMID:26355779

  11. Odd-even staggering in neutron drip line nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong

    2016-07-01

    We have done systematic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations in coordinate space on the one-quasi-particle energies and binding energy odd-even staggering (OES) in semi-magic nuclei with the zero-range volume, mixed and surface pairing forces in order to explore the influence of their density dependence. The odd-N isotopes are calculated within the blocking scheme. The strengths for the pairing forces are determined in two schemes by fitting locally to reproduce pairing gap in 120Sn and globally to all available data on the OES of semi-magic nuclei with Z ≥ 8. In the former calculations, there is a noticeable difference between the neutron mean gaps in neutron-rich O, Ca, Ni and Sn isotopes calculated with the surface pairing and those with the mixed and volume pairing. The difference gets much smaller if the globally optimized pairing strengths are employed. The heavier Pb isotopes show the opposite trend. Moreover, large differences between the mean gap and the OES may be expected in both calculations when one goes towards the neutron drip line.

  12. Beyond mean-field calculations for odd-mass nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bally, B; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P-H

    2014-10-17

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to ^{25}Mg illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. PMID:25361253

  13. Structure of hard-hypersphere fluids in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, René D.; Santos, Andrés

    2007-11-01

    The structural properties of single component fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd space dimensionalities d are studied with an analytical approximation method that generalizes the rational function approximation earlier introduced in the study of hard-sphere fluids [S. B. Yuste and A. Santos, Phys. Rev. A 43, 5418 (1991)]. The theory makes use of the exact form of the radial distribution function to first order in density and extends it to finite density by assuming a rational form for a function defined in Laplace space, the coefficients being determined by simple physical requirements. Fourier transform in terms of reverse Bessel polynomials constitute the mathematical framework of this approximation, from which an analytical expression for the static structure factor is obtained. In its most elementary form, the method recovers the solution of the Percus-Yevick closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equation for hyperspheres at odd dimensions. The present formalism allows one to go beyond by yielding solutions with thermodynamic consistency between the virial and compressibility routes to any desired equation of state. Excellent agreement with available computer simulation data at d=5 and d=7 is obtained.

  14. Beyond Mean-Field Calculations for Odd-Mass Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, B.; Avez, B.; Bender, M.; Heenen, P.-H.

    2014-10-01

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to Mg25 illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart.

  15. Prevalence and predictors for domestic violence among pregnant women in a rural community Northwest, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ashimi, Adewale O.; Amole, Taiwo G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Domestic violence (DV) against women constitutes a violation of human rights. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors for DV among pregnant women in a rural community northwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study which utilised an interviewer-administered semi-structured pretested questionnaire. This assessed the type of DV experienced, the perpetrators and the trigger factor. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relative effect of determinants, adjusting for other predictor variables. The dependent variable was the occurrence of DV classified as Yes or No and the covariates included variables that were significantly associated with DV. Results: Of the 314 respondents, 108 (34.3%) had experienced at least one form of DV and the types observed are: Verbal violence 79(68.5%); psychological violence72 (66.7%) and physical violence 55(50.9%). The perpetrators were the current husband in 40 (37.0%); co-wives in 33 (30.6%) and in-laws in 25 (23.1%). Of the cases, domestic issues were the trigger factor in 69 (63.9%) of cases and 54 (50%) of, the incidence was never reported. Ethnicity and type of marriage were significantly associated with occurrence of DV ( P ≤ 0.05) and both remained predictors for DV after controlling for confounders [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.20 and 95% C.I = 1.42-11.9; AOR = 4.2 and 95% C.I = 1.36-3.57, respectively]. Conclusion: The prevalence of DV in pregnancy is high with women of Hausa/Fulani ethnicity and those in polygamous relationships at a higher risk. Effort should be made to screen pregnant women for DV during antenatal care. PMID:25838627

  16. Joint associations of insomnia and sleep duration with prevalent diabetes: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

    PubMed Central

    CESPEDES, Elizabeth M.; DUDLEY, Katherine A.; SOTRES-ALVAREZ, Daniela; ZEE, Phyllis C.; DAVIGLUS, Martha L.; SHAH, Neomi A.; TALAVERA, Gregory A.; GALLO, Linda C.; MATTEI, Josiemer; QI, Qibin; RAMOS, Alberto R.; SCHNEIDERMAN, Neil; ESPINOZA-GIACINTO, Rebeca A.; PATEL, Sanjay R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate sleep quantity and quality are associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. This relationship is not well-examined in US Hispanics/Latinos, and prior analyses may be confounded by sleep apnea. This cross-sectional study examined joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia with diabetes among diverse US Hispanic/Latinos. Methods Baseline data on sleep quantity and quality were obtained from 15227 participants (mean age 41; range 18–74 years) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Complex survey multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associations between prevalent diabetes and six phenotypes defined by cross-classifying sleep duration (short ≤6 h, average >6–9 h, long >9 h) and insomnia, adjusting for sex, age, site and Hispanic/Latino background interaction, education, physical activity, diet quality, and sleep apnea. Results In the weighted population, 14% had diabetes, 28% had insomnia, 9% were short sleepers, and 19% were long sleepers. Compared with those with average sleep and no insomnia, those with short sleep and insomnia were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 2.11). Average sleepers with insomnia (1.28; 95% CI 1.02, 1.61) and long sleepers without insomnia (1.33; 95% CI 1.07, 1.65) also had elevated odds of diabetes. Further adjustment for body mass index attenuated associations, except with long sleep without insomnia. Conclusions Both decreased quantity and quality of sleep are associated with diabetes in Hispanic/Latinos, with the greatest odds among those with short sleep duration and insomnia. The association is largely explained by obesity. PMID:25952169

  17. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12–59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the child’s defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mother’s and child’s hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, child’s bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Results Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged < 2 years (adjusted OR 4.55, 95% CI = 1.08-19.1). Conclusions Overall poor mother’s food-hygiene practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children < 2 years from low socioeconomic urban areas they were associated with more diarrhea. PMID:24138899

  18. Obesity increases the odds of acquiring and incarcerating noninguinal abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Lau, Briana; Kim, Hanjoo; Haigh, Philip I; Tejirian, Talar

    2012-10-01

    The current data available describing the relationship of obesity and abdominal wall hernias is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate the current prevalence of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias and their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and other demographic risk factors. Patients with umbilical, incisional, ventral, epigastric, or Spigelian hernias with or without incarceration were identified using the regional database for 14 hospitals over a 3-year period. Patients were stratified based on their BMI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish other significant risk factors associated with the hernias. Of 2,807,414 patients, 26,268 (0.9%) had one of the specified diagnoses. Average age of the patients was 52 years and 61 per cent were male. The majority of patients had nonincarcerated umbilical hernias (74%). Average BMI was 32 kg/m2. Compared with patients with a normal BMI, the odds of having a hernia increased with BMI: BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 odds ratio (OR) 1.63, BMI of 30 to 39.9 kg/m2 OR 2.62, BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m2 OR 3.91, BMI 50 to 59.9 kg/m2 OR 4.85, and BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 OR 5.17 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years was associated with a higher risk for having a hernia (OR, 2.12; 95% [CI], 2.07 to 2.17), whereas female gender was associated with a lower risk (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.55). Those with incarcerated hernias had a higher average BMI (32 kg/m2 vs 35 kg/m2; P<0.0001). Overall, BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 showed an increased chance of incarceration, and a BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 had the highest chance of incarceration, OR 12.7 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years and female gender were also associated with a higher risk of incarceration (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59 and OR, 1.80; CI, 1.45 to 2.24). Increasing BMI and increasing age are associated with a higher prevalence and an increased risk of incarceration of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias. PMID:23025954

  19. Does cultural assimilation influence prevalence and presentation of depressive symptoms in older Japanese-American men? The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Nobuharu; Takeshita, Junji; Ahmed, Iqbal; Chen, Randi; Petrovitch, Helen; Ross, G. Webster; Masaki, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Objective Sociocultural factors have been implicated in affecting prevalence, incidence, and diagnosis of depression but previous studies have included heterogeneous ethnic populations. We studied the influence of cultural assimilation on the prevalence and presentation of depressive symptoms in elderly Japanese-American men. Method This analysis was based on 3,139 Japanese-American men aged 71–93 years who were participants in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study between 1991 and 1993. We created a Cultural Assimilation Scale (CAS) using 8 questions assessing the degree of Japanese identity and lifestyle compared to a Western one. Subjects were divided into tertiles of CAS score for analysis. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was measured using an 11-question version of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale questionnaire (CESD-11), and presence of depressive symptoms was defined as score ≥ 9. Results Prevalent depressive symptoms did not reach a statistically significant association with CAS tertiles (Western 10.8%, Mixed 9.6%, Japanese 8.5%). However after adjusting for demographic, functional and disease factors, the most culturally Japanese group had significantly lower odds for prevalent depressive symptoms, compared to the most Western group. Among the subset of subjects with a high CESD-11 score, there were no significant differences in both mean psychological scores and mean somatic scores between the three Cultural Assimilation Scale groups. Conclusions Prevalent depressive symptoms were significantly lower among elderly Japanese-American men who were most culturally Japanese, compared to more Westernized men. Improving knowledge and understanding about the pathogenesis of depression will have important public health implications. PMID:21358388

  20. Age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in young pregnant women, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Sahota, Daljit S; Law, Lai-Wa; Cheng, Yvonne KY; Leung, Tak-Yeung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in young pregnant women in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, and to determine whether an increase in prevalence occurs during adolescence. Methods HBV prevalence was quantified using data from routine antenatal screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in 10 808 women aged 25 years or younger born in Hong Kong SAR and managed at a single hospital between 1998 and 2011. The effect on prevalence of maternal age, parity and birth before or after HBV vaccine availability in 1984 was assessed, using Spearman’s correlation and multiple logistic regression analysis. Findings Overall, 7.5% of women were HBsAg-positive. The prevalence ranged from 2.3% to 8.4% in those aged ≤ 16 and 23 years, respectively. Women born in or after 1984 and those younger than 18 years of age were less likely to be HBsAg-positive (odds ratio, OR: 0.679; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.578–0.797) and (OR: 0.311; 95% CI: 0.160–0.604), respectively. For women born before 1984, there was no association between HBsAg carriage and being younger than 18 years of age (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.262–1.370) Logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence of HBsAg carriage was influenced more by the woman being 18 years old or older (adjusted OR, aOR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.46–5.47) than being born before 1984 (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.21–1.67). Conclusion Immunity to HBV in young pregnant women who had been vaccinated as neonates decreased in late adolescence. PMID:25378739

  1. Injecting and HIV prevalence among young heroin users in three Spanish cities and their association with the delayed implementation of harm reduction programmes

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Luis; Bravo, María José; Toro, Carlos; Brugal, M Teresa; Barrio, Gregorio; Soriano, Vicente; Vallejo, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate changes in the prevalence of HIV infection among young heroin users in three Spanish cities, and their association with harm reduction programmes (HRPs). Methods Two cross sectional studies. The 1995 study included 596 users; half were street recruited and half were recruited at drug treatment centres. The 2001–03 study included 981 street recruited users. Face to face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire. Samples for HIV testing (saliva in 1995 and dried blood spot in 2001–03) were collected. Results The proportion who had ever injected (IDUs) decreased in all three cities. HIV prevalence in IDUs decreased by half in Barcelona (44.1% to 20.8%) and Seville (44.2% to 22.2%), but remained constant in Madrid (36.8% and 34.9%). This difference was attributable to a decrease in HIV prevalence in long term IDUs in Barcelona and Seville, but not in Madrid. The crude odds ratio for HIV prevalence in Madrid compared with Barcelona in long term IDUs was 2.3 (95%CI 1.4 to 3.7), increasing to 3.1 (95%CI 1.5 to 6.2) after adjusting for sociodemographic and risk factors. HIV prevalence in short term IDUs was similar in all cities. In 1992 Barcelona already had 20 heroin users in methadone maintenance programmes (MMPs) per 10 000 population aged 15–49 years; Seville reached this rate in 1994, and Madrid, not until 1998. Conclusions The prevalence of HIV infection did not decrease in long term injectors in Madrid. The delayed implementation of HRPs, especially MMPs, may be the most plausible hypothesis. This finding should shed light on decision making in countries in a similar epidemiological and sociological situation. PMID:16698987

  2. Prevalence of hypertension and noise-induced hearing loss in Chinese coal miners

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Xu, Ming; Ding, Lu; Zhang, Hengdong; Pan, Liping; Liu, Qingdong; Ding, Enming; Zhao, Qiuni; Wang, Boshen; Han, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Owing to inconsistent epidemiologic evidence and the presence of confounding factors, the relation between occupational noise exposure and hypertension still remained unclear. We aimed to assess whether Chinese coal miners were at risk of developing hypertension and noise induced hearing loss (NIHL), and whether occupational noise exposure was a risk factor of hypertension. Methods A questionnaire was designed to collect information from 738 study participants, all of whom were employees from the Datun Xuzhou Coal Company. The participants were divided into a noise-exposed group and a control group based on the noise level to which they were exposed in the workplace. The differences in the mean of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were compared between the noise-exposed and control groups. Also the prevalence and age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of audiometric deficit and hypertension was compared in the study. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the relation between occupational noise level and hypertension while controlling for potential confounding factors. Results Hypertension was more prevalent in noise-exposed group than the control group, 29.2% vs. 21.2% (P=0.012). The noise-exposed group faced an increased risk of hypertension (age-adjusted OR =1.52, 95% CI =1.07–2.15) when the control group was used as reference. The mean values of SBP and DBP of the noise-exposed groups were significantly higher than the control group (P=0.006 and P=0.002 respectively). Hearing loss at low frequencies was significantly more prevalent in the noise-exposed group than the control group, 12.8% vs. 7.4% (P=0.015), while the noise-exposed group faced the increased risk of hearing loss at low frequencies (age-adjusted OR =1.81, 95% CI =1.10–2.96). LEX, 8h (OR =1.036, 95% CI =1.012–1.060) was an independent risk of hypertension when controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusions We

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in myanmar: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Naing, Cho; Aung, Kyan

    2014-11-01

    Hypertension (HPT) is the most common condition seen in primary care that can lead to health consequences and death if not detected early and treated appropriately.This study aimed to synthesize the prevalence, awareness, and control of HPT, and investigate the risk factors for HPT in Myanmar.We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies. Relevant studies were searched in electronic databases. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed in 3 domains: selection bias, measurement bias, and bias related to data analysis. The overall prevalence and proportions was calculated using random-effect model of DerSimonian-Laird method. To identify the risk factors for HPT in Myanmar, we entered the ratio measures of the (adjusted) effect as a log odds ratio (OR) and the standard error of the log OR using generic inverse-variance weighting method. For stability of results, we performed leave-one-study-out sensitivity analysis by omitting individual studies one at a time from the meta-analysis.Seven studies (n = 20,901) were included in this analysis. Overall prevalence of HPT in Myanmar was 22% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14%-31.7%, I: 99.6%), stratified as 21.5% (95% CI: 14.1%-29.9%, I: 98.7%) in men and 22.7% (95% CI: 10.8%-34.6%, I: 99.5%) in women. Overall, prevalence of HPT increased with an advancing age of the participants. The proportions of awareness and controlled HPT were 55% (95% CI: 43%-67%, I: 97.7%) and 11% (95% CI: 6%-15%, I: 93.8%), respectively. A weak but significant association was observed between HPT and alcohol drinking (summary OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.14%-1.65, I: 0%) and smoking (summary OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.0%-1.74, I: 50%). In sensitivity analysis, when a study that made confirmation of HPT by the former World Health Organization criteria was dropped, the prevalence increased to 26% (95% CI: 20.8%-32.1%, I: 98.1%).HPT was considerably prevalent in Myanmar, while the levels of awareness and controlled HPT were low. Health

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Myanmar: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Cho; Aung, Kyan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension (HPT) is the most common condition seen in primary care that can lead to health consequences and death if not detected early and treated appropriately. This study aimed to synthesize the prevalence, awareness, and control of HPT, and investigate the risk factors for HPT in Myanmar. We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies. Relevant studies were searched in electronic databases. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed in 3 domains: selection bias, measurement bias, and bias related to data analysis. The overall prevalence and proportions was calculated using random-effect model of DerSimonian–Laird method. To identify the risk factors for HPT in Myanmar, we entered the ratio measures of the (adjusted) effect as a log odds ratio (OR) and the standard error of the log OR using generic inverse-variance weighting method. For stability of results, we performed leave-one-study-out sensitivity analysis by omitting individual studies one at a time from the meta-analysis. Seven studies (n = 20,901) were included in this analysis. Overall prevalence of HPT in Myanmar was 22% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14%–31.7%, I2: 99.6%), stratified as 21.5% (95% CI: 14.1%–29.9%, I2: 98.7%) in men and 22.7% (95% CI: 10.8%–34.6%, I2: 99.5%) in women. Overall, prevalence of HPT increased with an advancing age of the participants. The proportions of awareness and controlled HPT were 55% (95% CI: 43%–67%, I2: 97.7%) and 11% (95% CI: 6%–15%, I2: 93.8%), respectively. A weak but significant association was observed between HPT and alcohol drinking (summary OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.14%–1.65, I2: 0%) and smoking (summary OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.0%–1.74, I2: 50%). In sensitivity analysis, when a study that made confirmation of HPT by the former World Health Organization criteria was dropped, the prevalence increased to 26% (95% CI: 20.8%–32.1%, I2: 98.1%). HPT was considerably prevalent in Myanmar, while the levels of

  5. Odd-frequency superconducting states with different types of Meissner response: Problem of coexistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fominov, Ya. V.; Tanaka, Y.; Asano, Y.; Eschrig, M.

    2015-04-01

    We consider physical properties of a superconductor with a recently proposed type of odd-frequency pairing that exhibits diamagnetic Meissner response ("odd-dia state"). Such a state was suggested in order to address stability issues arising in an odd-frequency superconducting state with paramagnetic Meissner response ("odd-para state"). Assuming the existence of an odd-dia state (due to a proper retarded interaction), we study its coexistence with an odd-para state. The latter is known to be generated as an induced superconducting component in, e.g., singlet superconductor/ferromagnet proximity structures or triplet superconductor/normal metal systems. Calculating the superfluid density of the mixed odd-para/odd-dia state and the Josephson current between the odd-para and odd-dia states, we find that the expressions for the currents in both cases have nonvanishing imaginary contributions and are therefore unphysical. We show that a realization of the odd-dia state implies the absence of a Hamiltonian description of the system, and suggest that there exists no physically realizable perturbation that could give rise to the spontaneous symmetry breaking necessary for an actual realization of the odd-dia superconducting state.

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of At-Risk Drinking Among Older Adults: The Project SHARE Study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alison A.; Xu, Haiyong; Ang, Alfonso; Tallen, Louise; Mirkin, Michelle; Ettner, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND At-risk drinking, excessive or potentially harmful alcohol use in combination with select comorbidities or medication use, affects about 10% of elderly adults and is associated with higher mortality. Yet, our knowledge is incomplete regarding the prevalence of different categories of at-risk drinking and their associations with patient demographics. OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence and correlates of different categories of at-risk drinking among older adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. SUBJECTS Current drinkers ages 60 and older accessing primary care clinics around Santa Barbara, California (n = 3,308). MEASUREMENTS At-risk drinkers were identified using the Comorbidity Alcohol Risk Evaluation Tool (CARET). At-risk alcohol use was categorized as alcohol use in the setting of 1) high-risk comorbidities or 2) high-risk medication use, and 3) excessive alcohol use alone. Adjusted associations of participant characteristics with at-risk drinking in each of the three at-risk categories and with at-risk drinking of any kind were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS Over one-third of our sample (34.7%) was at risk. Among at-risk individuals, 61.9% had alcohol use in the context of high-risk comorbidities, 61.0% had high-risk medication use, and 64.3% had high-risk alcohol behaviors. The adjusted odds of at-risk drinking of any kind were decreased and significant for women (odds ratio, OR = 0.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.48; p-value < 0.001), adults over age 80 (OR = 0.55; CI: 0.43-0.72; p < 0.001 vs. ages 60-64), Asians (OR = 0.40; CI: 0.20-0.80; p = 0.01 vs. Caucasians) and individuals with higher education levels. Similar associations were observed in all three categories of at-risk drinking. CONCLUSIONS High-risk alcohol use was common among older adults in this large sample of primary care patients, and male Caucasians, those ages 60-64, and those with lower levels of education

  7. The Euler current and relativistic parity odd transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkar, Siavash; Roberts, Matthew M.; Son, Dam T.

    2015-04-01

    For a spacetime of odd dimensions endowed with a unit vector field, we introduce a new topological current that is identically conserved and whose charge is equal to the Euler character of the even dimensional spacelike foliations. The existence of this current allows us to introduce new Chern-Simons-type terms in the effective field theories describing relativistic quantum Hall states and (2 + 1) dimensional superfluids. Using effective field theory, we calculate various correlation functions and identify transport coefficients. In the quantum Hall case, this current provides the natural relativistic generalization of the Wen-Zee term, required to characterize the shift and Hall viscosity in quantum Hall systems. For the superfluid case this term is required to have nonzero Hall viscosity and to describe superfluids with non s-wave pairing.

  8. Effect of odd hydrogen on ozone depletion by chlorine reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Cicerone, R. J.; Liu, S. C.; Chameides, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper discusses how the shape of the ozone layer changes under the influence of injected ClX for several choices of two key HOx reaction rates. The two HOx reactions are: OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. Results of calculations are presented which show that the two reaction rates determine the stratospheric concentrations of OH and HO2, and that these concentrations regulate the amount by which the stratospheric ozone column can be reduced due to injections of odd chlorine. It is concluded that the amount of ozone reduction by a given mixing ratio of ClX will remain very uncertain until the significance of several possible feedback effects involving HOx in a chlorine-polluted atmosphere are determined and measurements of the reaction rates and HOx concentrations are made at the relevant temperatures.

  9. Phase transition in odd-N Pd-isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hou-Bing; Dong, Guo-Xiang; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Fu-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Phase transition in odd-N isotopes 99,101,103Pd are investigated via the E-GOS (E-Gamma Over Spin) curves, which strongly suggest a structure evolution from vibration to rotation along the yrast lines with increasing spin. Theoretical calculations have been performed for the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd in the framework of the cranked shell model (CSM) and the alignment properties observed experimentally are analyzed employing this model. The results show that the phase transition in the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd can be interpreted as the valence nucleons start to occupy the g9/2 proton orbitals with increasing spin which would polarize the core to a small, but rigid quadrupole deformation. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi (2014jjBA10016, 2014jjDA10012) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11465005)

  10. Topological Blount's theorem of odd-parity superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayshi, Shingo; Shiozaki, Ken; Sato, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Yukio

    2014-03-01

    Nontrivial nodal structures are one of the most salient features of gap functions of the unconventional superconductors. In a system with spin-orbit coupling and crystal field, the group theory plays a key role to determine the node of the gap function. From the group theoretical ground, Blount proved that the line node is ``vanishingly improbable'' in spin-triplet superconductors. Namely, it is impossible to create a stable line node in odd-parity superconductors. Our motivation is to compare the group theoretical result with topological stability of nodes by K-theory As a result, we found that K-theory not only rebuilds the original Blount's argument but also exhibits counterexamples with the stable line node. In this talk, we will show the physical interpretation of them.

  11. Near yrast states in doubly odd [sup 214]Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Ozafran, M.; Romo, A.; Somacal, H.; Vazquez, M.E. ); Davidson, J.; Davidson, M. ); Ahn, K.; Fossan, D.B.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Piel, W.F. Jr.; Xu, N. )

    1993-11-01

    High spin states of doubly odd [sup 214]Fr[sub 127] have been investigated using in-beam [gamma]-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy techniques through the [sup 206]Pb([sup 11]B, 3[ital n]) and [sup 208]Pb([sup 11]B, 5[ital n]) fusion-evaporation reactions. Completely new spectrocopic information has been obtained. The yrast level structure is established up to spin (19[sup +]) and some information on [gamma] transitions from higher-lying levels is also obtained. Two new isomers [ital T][sub 1/2]=174(20) ns and [ital T][sub 1/2]=11(2) ns were found. Configuration assignments for the low-lying levels are discussed. Information on residual proton-neutron interactions is extracted.

  12. Cotunneling into a Kondo lattice with odd hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruselli, Pier Paolo; Vojta, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Cotunneling into Kondo systems, where an electron enters an f -electron material via a cotunneling process through the local-moment orbital, has been proposed to explain the characteristic line shapes observed in scanning-tunneling-spectroscopy (STS) experiments. Here we extend the theory of electron cotunneling to Kondo-lattice systems in which the bulk hybridization between conduction and f electrons is odd under inversion, being particularly relevant to Kondo insulators. Compared to the case of even hybridization, we show that the interference between normal tunneling and cotunneling processes is fundamentally altered: it is entirely absent for layered, i.e., quasi-two-dimensional materials, while its energy dependence is strongly modified for three-dimensional materials. We discuss implications for STS experiments.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ≥60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

  14. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Åke

    2016-02-01

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a random sample (n = 2,739) was patch tested to PPD. Overall, 5,286 individuals (50.9%) reported having used hair colorants at least once in their lifetime (78% female, 20% male), and 35% had used hair colorants during the last 12 months. Hair colorant avoidance because of any skin problem during the lifetime was reported by 6%. Black henna tattoos had been used by 5.5% during their lifetime. The prevalence of PPD contact allergy was 0.8% (95% confidence interval 0.6-1.0%), with no statistically significant association with gender or hair dye use. The prevalence of PPD in black henna tattoo users was 3.2% versus 0.6% in nonusers (P < 0.001). A clinically relevant positive patch test reaction to PPD related to hair coloring products was found in 0.1% (95% confidence interval 0.0-0.2%). A significant association with PPD contact allergy was observed for subjects who had black henna tattoos in their lifetime, with an age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio of 9.33 (95% confidence interval 3.45-25.26, P < 0.001). Black henna tattoos are an important risk factor for PPD contact allergy. PMID:26802237

  15. Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Information on potential cough triggers including environmental irritants is vital for successful management of chronic cough in patients. We investigated the relationship between ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and sulphur dioxide (SO₂) exposures with cough prevalence. Eighty-three adult patients, who had been physician diagnosed with at least asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough, were divided into asthma and non-asthma groups. They recorded daily cough symptoms during 4 January-30 June 2011 study period while daily samples of total suspended particles were simultaneously collected by use of glass fiber filters and the particulate PAH content determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector. Ambient concentrations of NO₂ and SO₂ were obtained from a local monitoring site. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to determine population-averaged estimates of association between cough prevalence and ambient pollutant exposures for the two groups. Fully adjusted odds ratios from single pollutant models were 1.083 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.029, 1.140) and 1.097 (95% CI: 1.016, 1.185) per 0.57 ng/m³ for lag2 PAH exposure, while only for asthma group had significant associations with NO₂ and SO₂ exposures for both lag2 and lag02. Similar associations were observed in multipollutant models. This finding suggests that ambient PAH, NO₂, and SO₂ exposure even at low levels is related to cough prevalence in adult chronic cough patients and may be considered as aggravating factor during clinical management of the condition. PMID:27517941

  16. Hearing Loss Prevalence and Risk Factors Among Older Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Roland; Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Background. Hearing loss has been associated with cognitive and functional decline in older adults and may be amenable to rehabilitative interventions, but national estimates of hearing loss prevalence and hearing aid use in older adults are unavailable. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2005–2006 cycle of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, which is the first cycle to ever incorporate hearing assessment in adults aged 70 years and older. Audiometry was performed in 717 older adults, and data on hearing aid use, noise exposure, medical history, and demographics were obtained from interviews. Analyses incorporated sampling weights to account for the complex sampling design and yield results that are generalizable to the U.S. population. Results. The prevalence of hearing loss defined as a speech frequency pure tone average of more than 25 dB in the better ear was 63.1% (95% confidence interval: 57.4–68.8). Age, sex, and race were the factors most strongly associated with hearing loss after multivariate adjustment, with black race being substantially protective against hearing loss (odds ratio 0.32 compared with white participants [95% confidence interval: 0.19–0.53]). Hearing aids were used in 40.0% (95% confidence interval: 35.1–44.8) of adults with moderate hearing loss, but in only 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 0.8–6.0) of those with a mild hearing loss. Conclusion. Hearing loss is prevalent in nearly two thirds of adults aged 70 years and older in the U.S. population. Additional research is needed to determine the epidemiological and physiological basis for the protective effect of black race against hearing loss and to determine the role of hearing aids in those with a mild hearing loss. PMID:21357188

  17. Plant Oils Were Associated with Low Prevalence of Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Japanese Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kurotani, Kayo; Kochi, Takeshi; Nanri, Akiko; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid has been suggested to be involved in development of diabetes. However, its association is unclear among Japanese populations, which consume large amounts of fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The present cross-sectional study examined the association of individual dietary fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns with abnormal glucose metabolism among 1065 Japanese employees, aged 18–69 years. Impaired glucose metabolism is defined if a person has a history of diabetes, current use of anti-diabetic drug, fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dl (≥6.1 mmol/L) or greater, or hemoglobin A1C of 6.0% (≥42 mmol/mol) or greater. Dietary intake was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary fatty acid patterns were extracted by principal component analysis. Odds ratios of impaired glucose metabolism according to tertile categories of each fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounding variables. A higher intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04, respectively). Alpha-linolenic acid was marginally significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.12). Of three fatty acid patterns identified, a higher plant oil pattern score, which characterized by high intake of alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, was associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.03). No association was observed for other patterns. In conclusion, plant source fatty acids might be protectively associated with development of diabetes in Japanese adults. PMID:23741386

  18. Plant oils were associated with low prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Kurotani, Kayo; Kochi, Takeshi; Nanri, Akiko; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid has been suggested to be involved in development of diabetes. However, its association is unclear among Japanese populations, which consume large amounts of fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The present cross-sectional study examined the association of individual dietary fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns with abnormal glucose metabolism among 1065 Japanese employees, aged 18-69 years. Impaired glucose metabolism is defined if a person has a history of diabetes, current use of anti-diabetic drug, fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dl (≥6.1 mmol/L) or greater, or hemoglobin A1C of 6.0% (≥42 mmol/mol) or greater. Dietary intake was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary fatty acid patterns were extracted by principal component analysis. Odds ratios of impaired glucose metabolism according to tertile categories of each fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounding variables. A higher intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04, respectively). Alpha-linolenic acid was marginally significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.12). Of three fatty acid patterns identified, a higher plant oil pattern score, which characterized by high intake of alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, was associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend = 0.03). No association was observed for other patterns. In conclusion, plant source fatty acids might be protectively associated with development of diabetes in Japanese adults. PMID:23741386

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Atrial Fibrillation among Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, M. Benjamin; Gidfar, Sanaz; Pipilas, Daniel C.; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Galimberti, Eleonora Savio; Williams, D. Brandon; Clements, Ronald H.; Darbar, Dawood

    2013-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose While AF is a disease of the elderly, it can occur earlier in the presence of risk factors such as obesity. Bariatric surgery patients are significantly younger and more obese than previously described populations with AF. Therefore, it remains to be determined whether current estimates of the prevalence and predictors for AF remain true in the bariatric surgery population. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1341 consecutive patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 1/2008 to 10/2012. Baseline characteristics were compared between patients with and without AF. For additional comparison, 176 patients with AF and body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m2 were identified from the Vanderbilt AF Registry. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of AF within the bariatric surgery cohort. Results The prevalence of AF in the bariatric surgery cohort was 1.9% (25/1341). Patients with AF were older (median 56 years (Interquartile range [52-64) vs.46 [38-56] years, p<0.001), were more often male (48% vs. 23%, p=0.004), had more comorbidities, but had no difference in BMI (50 kg/m2 [44-58] vs. 48 [43-54], p=0.4). In multivariable analysis, the odds of AF increased 2.2-fold by age per decade (95% CI: 1.4-3.5, p<0.001) and 2.4-fold by male gender (1.1-5.4, p=0.03) when adjusted for BMI. BMI was not independently associated with AF (OR 1.15 [95% CI: 0.98-1.41], p=0.09). Conclusions The prevalence of AF is 1.9% among patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Risk of AF was found to increase with age and male gender, but not with higher BMI. PMID:24214203

  20. Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Information on potential cough triggers including environmental irritants is vital for successful management of chronic cough in patients. We investigated the relationship between ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) exposures with cough prevalence. Eighty-three adult patients, who had been physician diagnosed with at least asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough, were divided into asthma and non-asthma groups. They recorded daily cough symptoms during 4 January–30 June 2011 study period while daily samples of total suspended particles were simultaneously collected by use of glass fiber filters and the particulate PAH content determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector. Ambient concentrations of NO2 and SO2 were obtained from a local monitoring site. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to determine population-averaged estimates of association between cough prevalence and ambient pollutant exposures for the two groups. Fully adjusted odds ratios from single pollutant models were 1.083 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.029, 1.140) and 1.097 (95% CI: 1.016, 1.185) per 0.57 ng/m3 for lag2 PAH exposure, while only for asthma group had significant associations with NO2 and SO2 exposures for both lag2 and lag02. Similar associations were observed in multipollutant models. This finding suggests that ambient PAH, NO2, and SO2 exposure even at low levels is related to cough prevalence in adult chronic cough patients and may be considered as aggravating factor during clinical management of the condition. PMID:27517941

  1. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  2. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  3. Multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nathan A; Block, Stephen B; Yurs, Lena A; Kornau, Kathryn M; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Wright, John C

    2009-12-01

    Extending current coherent multidimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) methods to higher order multiwave mixing requires excitation intensities where dynamic Stark effects become important. This paper examines the dynamic Stark effects that occur in mixed frequency/time domain CMDS methods at high excitation intensities in a model system with an isolated vibrational state. The phase-matching restrictions in CMDS define the excitation beams that interact by nonlinear mixing while the dynamic Stark effects create vibrational ladders of increasingly more energetic overtone and combination band states. The excited quantum states form coherences that reemit the output beams. This paper uses the phase-matching conditions k(out) = k(1) - k(2) + k(2') and k(out) =- k(1) + k(2) + k(2'), where the subscripts denote the excitation frequencies of each excitation pulse and the output pulse. The phase-matching condition constrains each pulse to have an odd number of interactions so the overall mixing process that creates the output coherence must also involve an odd number of interactions. Tuning the excitation frequencies and spectrally resolving the output intensity creates three-dimensional spectra that resolve the individual overtone states. Changing the excitation pulse time delays measures the dynamics of the coherences and populations created by the multiple excitations. The multidimensional spectra probe the highly excited states of a molecular potential energy surface. This paper uses tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO)(6)) as a model for observing how dynamic Stark effects change the multidimensional spectra of a simple system. The simplicity of the W(CO)(6) system provides the experimental data required to develop the nonperturbative theoretical methods that will be necessary to model this new approach to CMDS. PMID:19860444

  4. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Ewa; Pięta, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. Aim of the study The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. Material and methods The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. Results The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. Conclusions A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated. PMID:27095953

  5. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  6. Prevalence, Incidence, and Clearance of Anogenital Warts in Kenyan Men Reporting High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Including Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Neme, Santiago; Wahome, Elizabeth; Mwashigadi, Grace; Thiong'o, Alexander N.; Stekler, Joanne D.; Wald, Anna; Sanders, Eduard J.; Graham, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes a spectrum of disease, ranging from warts to cancer. Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with anogenital warts in East African men are unknown. Methods. Kenyan men reporting high-risk sexual behavior were inspected for anogenital warts at enrollment and follow-up visits. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations with anogenital warts at baseline. Cox regression was performed to analyze predictors of incident anogenital warts, and Kaplan–Meier curves were used to estimate clearance. Results. Baseline anogenital wart prevalence in 1137 men was 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0%–4.0%) overall, 2.0% in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected men, and 9.4% in HIV-1-infected men (adjusted odds ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.03–11.29). Over a median of 1.4 years, anogenital wart incidence among 1104 men was 5.3 (95% CI, 4.3–6.5) per 100 person-years. Having HIV-1 infection at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01–2.72) or a genital syndrome during follow-up (aHR, 4.78; 95% CI, 3.03–7.56) was associated with increased wart incidence. Wart clearance was lower in HIV-1-infected men (log-rank P<.001). Conclusions. Anogenital wart prevalence and incidence were increased in HIV-1-infected men, and anogenital warts co-occurred with other genital syndromes. Quadrivalent HPV vaccination should be recommended for young men in settings with high HIV-1 prevalence. PMID:26110169

  7. The association between the prevalence, treatment and control of hypertension and the risk of mild cognitive impairment in an elderly urban population in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Miao; Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear whether lowering the blood pressure effectively prevents cognitive impairment. The aim of the current study was to explore the association between the prevalence, treatment and control of hypertension and the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among elderly Chinese people. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Beijing, China. A two-stage stratified clustering sampling method was used, and 2065 participants, aged ⩾60 years, were included in the analysis. The Mini-Mental State Examination was used to assess participants' cognitive function. The prevalence of MCI was higher in hypertensive (16.5%) than in normotensive individuals (13.1% P=0.043). Furthermore, in those hypertensive patients, the prevalence of MCI was lower in those treated (14.9%) than in those not treated (19.9% P=0.019) and lower in those controlled (13.4%) than in those uncontrolled (17.9% P=0.042). The adjusted odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval (CI)) of having MCI was 1.59 (1.07–2.35) in those with hypertension compared with those normotensive individuals. The assessment of the hypertensive patients revealed the adjusted OR (95% CI) of having MCI in those with treated hypertension was 0.60 (0.42–0.86) compared with those untreated hypertension, and in those with controlled hypertension was 0.64 (0.43–0.93) compared with those non-controlled hypertension (regardless of treatment). However, among the treated hypertensive patients, there was no difference in the prevalence of MCI between the patients who reached and those who did not reach their treatment goal. We suggest that improved diagnoses and optimal therapeutics are needed to achieve the aim of cognitive decline prevention. PMID:26739869

  8. The association between the prevalence, treatment and control of hypertension and the risk of mild cognitive impairment in an elderly urban population in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Miao; Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan

    2016-05-01

    It remains unclear whether lowering the blood pressure effectively prevents cognitive impairment. The aim of the current study was to explore the association between the prevalence, treatment and control of hypertension and the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among elderly Chinese people. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Beijing, China. A two-stage stratified clustering sampling method was used, and 2065 participants, aged ⩾60 years, were included in the analysis. The Mini-Mental State Examination was used to assess participants' cognitive function. The prevalence of MCI was higher in hypertensive (16.5%) than in normotensive individuals (13.1%; P=0.043). Furthermore, in those hypertensive patients, the prevalence of MCI was lower in those treated (14.9%) than in those not treated (19.9%; P=0.019) and lower in those controlled (13.4%) than in those uncontrolled (17.9%; P=0.042). The adjusted odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval (CI)) of having MCI was 1.59 (1.07-2.35) in those with hypertension compared with those normotensive individuals. The assessment of the hypertensive patients revealed the adjusted OR (95% CI) of having MCI in those with treated hypertension was 0.60 (0.42-0.86) compared with those untreated hypertension, and in those with controlled hypertension was 0.64 (0.43-0.93) compared with those non-controlled hypertension (regardless of treatment). However, among the treated hypertensive patients, there was no difference in the prevalence of MCI between the patients who reached and those who did not reach their treatment goal. We suggest that improved diagnoses and optimal therapeutics are needed to achieve the aim of cognitive decline prevention. PMID:26739869

  9. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: The Fukushima health management survey.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-08-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer for all areas, with the lowest dose area as reference, were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex. Furthermore, the ORs of thyroid cancer for individual external doses of 1 mSv or more and 2 mSv or more, with the external dose less than 1 mSv as reference, were calculated. Prevalence of thyroid cancer for the location groups were 48/100,000 for the highest dose area, 36/100,000 for the middle dose area, and 41/100,000 for the lowest dose area. Compared with the lowest dose area, age-, and sex-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest-dose and middle-dose areas were 1.49 (0.36-6.23) and 1.00 (0.67-1.50), respectively. The duration between accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident. PMID:27583855

  10. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer for all areas, with the lowest dose area as reference, were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex. Furthermore, the ORs of thyroid cancer for individual external doses of 1 mSv or more and 2 mSv or more, with the external dose less than 1 mSv as reference, were calculated. Prevalence of thyroid cancer for the location groups were 48/100,000 for the highest dose area, 36/100,000 for the middle dose area, and 41/100,000 for the lowest dose area. Compared with the lowest dose area, age-, and sex-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest-dose and middle-dose areas were 1.49 (0.36–6.23) and 1.00 (0.67–1.50), respectively. The duration between accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident. PMID:27583855

  11. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126 mg/dL). Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG

  12. Marijuana use and pregnancy: prevalence, associated characteristics, and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mark, Katrina; Desai, Andrea; Terplan, Mishka

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the prevalence, behaviors, and birth outcomes associated with marijuana use in pregnancy. This was a retrospective cohort from a university-based prenatal care clinic from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. The primary exposure was marijuana use, defined by self-report or urine toxicology. Demographic and outcome data were determined by chart review and analyzed by chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three hundred and ninety-six patients initiated prenatal care during this time frame; 116 (29.3 %) of whom screened positive for marijuana at initial visit. Patients who used marijuana were less likely to have graduated high school (p = 0.016) or be employed (p = 0.015); they were more likely to use tobacco (p < 0.001) or alcohol (p = 0.032) and report a history of abuse (p = 0.010) or depressed mood (p = 0.023). When analyzed via logistic regression, only tobacco use remained associated with marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.9-5.9). Birth outcomes were available for 170 (43.0 %) patients. Only 3 (1.9 %) tested positive for marijuana at the time of delivery. Marijuana use was not related to incidence of low birth weight (13.8 % vs 14.0 %, p = 1.00), preterm delivery (17.7 % vs 12.0 %, p = 0.325), or NICU admissions (25.5 % vs 15.8 %, p = 0.139). Prenatal care utilization was equal between marijuana users and non-users. Although marijuana is common among obstetric patients at prenatal care initiation, most cease use by delivery. Marijuana is strongly correlated with cigarette use. We found no differences in birth outcomes or utilization of prenatal care by marijuana exposure. PMID:25895138

  13. 77 FR 40387 - Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to adjust prices for several market dominant products... announcing its intent to adjust prices for several market dominant products within First-Class Mail...

  14. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Human Papillomavirus in Healthy Skin Specimens Collected from Rural Anyang, China, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiuju; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Liu, Fangfang; He, Zhonghu; Liu, Mengfei; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chanyuan; Abliz, Amir; Shen, Na; Hang, Dong; Xu, Zhongyao; Wang, Qiyan; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Skin infections with cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) have been linked to the development of non-melanoma skin cancer, in which mucosal HPV may also play a crucial role. However, systematic investigations of the distribution and associated factors of HPV infection in healthy skin of the general population are scarce. HPV DNA from palmar exfoliated cells of 2,087 individuals was detected by FAP6085/64 and SPF1/GP6+ primers followed by sequencing. A total of 338 papillomavirus types were detected, with HPV-3, HPV-57, and HPV-49 being the most dominant types. The overall prevalence for HPV DNA on skin was 79.92% and for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-HPV were 27.07%, 38.76%, and 29.56%, respectively. Having multiple lifetime sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio 1.60), being a migrant worker (adjusted odds ratio 2.05, reference: farmers), and frequent bathing (Ptrend = 0.001) were associated with alpha-HPV DNA presence. Advancing age increased the detection risk of beta-HPV (Ptrend = 0.001). Higher education (Ptrend = 0.017) and frequent bathing (Ptrend = 0.001) were positively related to gamma-HPV positivity. This study demonstrates that alpha-HPV commonly exists on healthy skin of the general population in rural China, and alpha- and gamma-HPV infections are related to certain behaviors, different from beta-HPV infection. These findings are crucial to better understanding the biology of HPV infection and may be suggestive of the potential transmission of these viruses. PMID:26916390

  15. Estimated prevalence of antenatal depression in the US population.

    PubMed

    Ashley, June M; Harper, Bridgette D; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J; LoBello, Steven G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of minor and major depression among pregnant women in the USA. Also, we compare prevalence of depression among pregnant and non-pregnant women while controlling for relevant covariates. A population-representative sample of pregnant women (n = 3010) surveyed for the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was compared to a sample of women who were not pregnant (n = 68,620). Binary logistic regression was used to determine prevalence ratios of depression for pregnant and non-pregnant women while controlling for the effects of age, race, annual income, employment status, educational level, marital status, general health, and availability of emotional support. Depression was measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8). The prevalence of major depression was no greater among pregnant women (6.1 %) compared to non-pregnant women (7 %; adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.1, 95 % confidence interval (CI) .8 and 1.5). The prevalence of minor depression was greater among pregnant women (16.6 %) compared to non-pregnant women (11.4 %; adjusted PR = 1.5, 95 % CI 1.2 and 1.9). Prevalence ratios are adjusted for the effects of covariates noted above. Prevalence of major depression is not associated with pregnancy, but minor depression is more likely among women who are pregnant. PMID:26687691

  16. Gender Differences in Dietary Patterns and Their Association with the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shu-Hong; Qiao, Nan; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Cui, Yan; Tian, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Cong; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Wang, Hui; Liang, Jie; Lu, Qing; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated gender differences in dietary intake. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine gender differences in dietary patterns and their association with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The food intakes of 3794 subjects enrolled by a two-stage cluster stratified sampling method were collected using a valid semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and its prevalence was 35.70% in the sample (37.67% in men and 24.67% in women). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis combined with cluster analysis and multiple group confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factorial invariance between gender groups. The dominating dietary pattern for men was the “balanced” dietary pattern (32.65%) and that for women was the “high-salt and energy” dietary pattern (34.42%). For men, the “animal and fried food” dietary pattern was related to higher risk of MetS (odds ratio: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.01–1.60), after adjustment for age, marital status, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. For women, the “high-salt and energy” dietary pattern was related to higher risk of MetS (odds ratio: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.24–4.14). We observed gender differences in dietary patterns and their association with the prevalence of MetS. For men, the “animal and fried food” dietary pattern was associated with enhancive likelihood of MetS. For women, it was the “high-salt and energy” dietary pattern. PMID:27023599

  17. Gender Differences in Dietary Patterns and Their Association with the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu-Hong; Qiao, Nan; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Cui, Yan; Tian, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Cong; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Wang, Hui; Liang, Jie; Lu, Qing; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated gender differences in dietary intake. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine gender differences in dietary patterns and their association with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The food intakes of 3794 subjects enrolled by a two-stage cluster stratified sampling method were collected using a valid semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and its prevalence was 35.70% in the sample (37.67% in men and 24.67% in women). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis combined with cluster analysis and multiple group confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factorial invariance between gender groups. The dominating dietary pattern for men was the "balanced" dietary pattern (32.65%) and that for women was the "high-salt and energy" dietary pattern (34.42%). For men, the "animal and fried food" dietary pattern was related to higher risk of MetS (odds ratio: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.01-1.60), after adjustment for age, marital status, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. For women, the "high-salt and energy" dietary pattern was related to higher risk of MetS (odds ratio: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.24-4.14). We observed gender differences in dietary patterns and their association with the prevalence of MetS. For men, the "animal and fried food" dietary pattern was associated with enhancive likelihood of MetS. For women, it was the "high-salt and energy" dietary pattern. PMID:27023599

  18. The Interplay Among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later ODD symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Method Participants were 258 3-year-old children (138 boys and 120 girls) and their parents from diverse backgrounds who participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Results Early child behavior, parenting, and family adversity did not significantly interact in the predicted direction. Reciprocal relations between ODD symptoms and parent functioning were observed for maternal and paternal depression, and maternal warmth. Paternal laxness at age 4 predicted ODD symptoms at age 5 and paternal laxness at age 5 predicted ODD symptoms at age 6, but child ODD did not significantly predict paternal laxness. Conclusion Results suggest that ODD symptoms may develop through a transactional process between parent and child functioning across the preschool years. PMID:22530755

  19. Medically Unexplained and Explained Physical Symptoms in the General Population: Association with Prevalent and Incident Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van Eck van der Sluijs, Jonna; ten Have, Margreet; Rijnders, Cees; van Marwijk, Harm; de Graaf, Ron; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical studies have shown that Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) are related to common mental disorders. It is unknown how often common mental disorders occur in subjects who have explained physical symptoms (PHY), MUS or both, in the general population, what the incidence rates are, and whether there is a difference between PHY and MUS in this respect. Aim To study the prevalence and incidence rates of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders in groups with PHY, MUS and combined MUS and PHY compared to a no-symptoms reference group in the general population. Method Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2), a nationally representative face-to-face survey of the general population aged 18-64 years. We selected subjects with explained physical symptoms only (n=1952), with MUS only (n=177), with both MUS and PHY (n=209), and a reference group with no physical symptoms (n=4168). The assessment of common mental disorders was through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between group membership and the prevalence and first-incidence rates of comorbid mental disorders, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. Results MUS were associated with the highest prevalence rates of mood and anxiety disorders, and combined MUS and PHY with the highest prevalence rates of substance disorder. Combined MUS and PHY were associated with a higher incidence rate of mood disorder only (OR 2.9 (95%CI:1.27,6.74)). Conclusion In the general population, PHY, MUS and the combination of both are related to mood and anxiety disorder, but odds are highest for combined MUS and PHY in relation to substance use disorder. Combined MUS and PHY are related to a greater incidence of mood disorder. These findings warrant further research into possibilities to improve recognition and early intervention in subjects with combined MUS and

  20. The Prevalence of Dry Eye Syndrome’s and the Likelihood to Develop Sjögren’s Syndrome in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Ju-Chuan; Hsu, Chia-An; Li, Yu-Chuan (Jack); Hsu, Min-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the key clinical features and possibly an early clinical presentation of Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). We explore DES prevalence and assess the likelihood of DES patients to develop SS in Taiwan through the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Methods: Through a cohort comparison study, longitudinal data from the NHIRD (2000 to 2008) in Taiwan was used to probe the prevalence of DES and the odds that DES patients would later develop SS. Results: The prevalence of DES in the present study is 4.87%. The incidence rates of developing SS were 4.8% for the DES group and 1.5% for comparison group. The median age and interquartile range of DES and comparison patients was 49.8 (10) and 48.7 (15) years old, respectively. The crude hazard ratio (with 95% confidence interval) for DES patients to develop SS was 3.13 (3.10–3.50) for the DES group, and the adjusted hazard ratio (with 95% confidence interval) was 3.64 (3.43–3.87). The observation period and interquartile range for DES and comparison patients to develop SS later were 1418 (781–2316) versus 1641 (971–2512) days respectively. Conclusions: DES patients carried a higher risk for developing SS (hazard ratio 3.13) and presented for SS 3.88 years earlier than comparison group patients in this study. PMID:26184245

  1. Use of Folk Therapy in Taiwan: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey of Prevalence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chun-Chuan; Huang, Lu-Hsiang; Lane, Hsin-Long; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Ta-Liang; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Liao, Chien-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with users of folk therapy in Taiwan. Methods. Using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and the National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 16,750 adults aged 20 years and older. Sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, medical utilization, and health behaviors were compared between people using and not using folk therapy. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of factors associated with folk therapy were analyzed. Results. The one-month prevalence of folk therapy use was 6.8%, which was significantly associated with ages of 30–59 years (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.49–2.63), women (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.40–1.90), nonindigenous population (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.14–3.17), having two or more unhealthy lifestyle habits (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.26–1.81), high density of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) physicians (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.20–1.62), and being ill without receiving medical care in past six months (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.76–2.53). Medical care utilization of TCM and Western medicine were also associated factors for folk therapy. Conclusions. The use of folk therapy is correlated with sociodemographics, lifestyle and health behaviors. PMID:26170878

  2. HIV prevalence and risk in long-distance truck drivers in South Africa: a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Bello, Braimoh; Kinross, Peter; Oliff, Monique; Chersich, Matthew; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rees, Helen

    2014-05-01

    We estimated the prevalence of HIV and assessed correlates of HIV infection in long-distance truck drivers in South Africa. Between October 2003 and July 2004, 1900 long-distance truck drivers aged ≥18 years consented to interview and for testing for HIV. Participants were selected from a 10% stratified random sample of registered truck depots. A proximate-determinants framework was used to assess the hierarchical relationship between risk factors and HIV infection using logistic regression. HIV prevalence was 26% (95% confidence interval 24% to 28%). In multivariate analyses, HIV infection was associated with spending 2-4 weeks on the road (adjusted odds ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.9). There was modest evidence of a dose-response relationship between time on the road and HIV risk. Mobility increased risk by creating conditions for unsafe sex and reducing access to health services. Targeted HIV interventions for long-distance truck drivers are needed. PMID:24352131

  3. Prevalence of suggestive images of carotid artery calcifications on panoramic radiographs and its relationship with predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Brito, Ana Caroline Ramos de; Nascimento, Helena Aguiar Ribeiro; Argento, Rafaela; Beline, Thamara; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz

    2016-06-01

    Panoramic radiographs (PR) can display radiopaque images suggestive of calcified atheroma in the carotid artery in asymptomatic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of these images on PR and their linkage with hypertension, obesity, age, gender and smoking habits. PR of 505 patients were evaluated. They were older than 30 years old and their PR had been taken for different clinical reasons. Their body mass index was calculated; their waist circumference was also taken into consideration. Information about smoking habits and hypertension was obtained. The observers analyzed the presence of radiopaque mass in the region of the cervical vertebrae C3-C4 through the PR, confirmed by an antero-posterior (AP) radiograph. The results showed a 7.92% prevalence of suggestive images of calcifications on PR and on AP radiograph. The adjusted Odds Ratio showed association with age and smoking habits. The calcification process is almost nine times higher for the elderly when compared to the young. As far as smokers are concerned, this process is twice worse when compared to no smokers. In conclusion, 7.92% of the group studied presented suggestive images of carotid atherosclerosis on PR, which is directly associated with the age and smoking habits. PMID:27383353

  4. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Intracranial Abnormalities in Unprovoked Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Kathleen; Bennett, Jonathan; Conners, Gregory; Bailey, Pam; Callahan, James; Akman, Cigdem; Feldstein, Neil; Kriger, Joshua; Hauser, W. Allen; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prospective data are lacking to determine which children might benefit from prompt neuroimaging after unprovoked seizures. We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, relevant intracranial abnormalities in children with first, unprovoked seizures. METHODS: We conducted a 6-center prospective study in children aged >28 days to 18 years with seemingly unprovoked seizures. Emergency department (ED) clinicians documented clinical findings on a standardized form. Our main outcome was the presence of a clinically relevant intracranial abnormality on computed tomography (CT) or MRI, defined as those that might change management, either emergently, urgently, or nonurgently. RESULTS: We enrolled 475 of 625 (76%) eligible patients. Of 354 patients for whom cranial MRI or CT scans were obtained in the ED or within 4 months of the ED visit, 40 (11.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–14.6%) had clinically relevant intracranial abnormalities, with 3 (0.8%; 95% CI: 0.1–1.8%) having emergent/urgent abnormalities. On logistic regression analysis, a high-risk past medical history (adjusted odds ratio: 9.2; 95% CI: 2.4–35.7) and any focal aspect to the seizure (odds ratio: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2–5.3) were independently associated with clinically relevant abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically relevant intracranial abnormalities occur in 11% of children with first, unprovoked seizures. Emergent/urgent abnormalities, however, occur in <1%, suggesting that most children do not require neuroimaging in the ED. Findings on patient history and physical examination identify patients at higher risk of relevant abnormalities. PMID:26195538

  5. Higher Body Mass Index and Increased Prevalence of Paranasal Sinus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kabeya, Yusuke; Kato, Kiyoe; Tomita, Masuomi; Katsuki, Takeshi; Oikawa, Yoichi; Shimada, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with increased prevalence of paranasal sinus disease and examined the hypothesis in Japanese adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including 1350 Japanese adults aged 40 years or more who participated in a health check-up program focusing on brain diseases and metabolic syndrome. Participants were divided into quartiles of BMI levels. Paranasal sinus disease was confirmed by a head MRI scan. The association between BMI and paranasal sinus disease was examined using logistic regression analysis, which was adjusted for age, sex, waist:hip ratio, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, alcohol intake, and white blood cell count. Results Of the 1350 participants, 151 (11.2%) had paranasal sinus disease. In relation to those in the lowest quartile of BMI, the odds ratios of having the disease among those in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles of BMI were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–3.48), 2.26 (95% CI, 1.20–4.23) and 2.26 (95% CI, 1.14–4.51), respectively. When BMI was analysed as a continuous variable, an increase of one unit in BMI was significantly associated with increased odds of having the disease, with an OR of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.01–1.16). Conclusions The present study suggests that patients with higher BMI are more likely to have paranasal sinus disease. PMID:26830349

  6. Rural Elderly: Impact of Social, Psychological Health and Demographic Experiences on Adjustment in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, R.; And Others

    An amended form of the Older American's Status and Needs Assessment Questionnaire assessed the prevalence of adjustment, as measured by the Bradburn Affect Scale, in a random stratified sample of 301 female and 140 male elderly rural residents in Allegany County, New York. The relationship between adjustment and biosocial, demographic, social, and…

  7. Odd-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kim Jye Lee; Mansour, Maged P; Dunstan, Graeme A; Blackburn, Susan I; Koutoulis, Anthony; Nichols, Peter D

    2011-08-01

    A series of unusual odd-chain fatty acids (OC-FA) were identified in two thraustochytrid strains, TC 01 and TC 04, isolated from waters off the south east coast of Tasmania, Australia. FA compositions were determined by capillary GC and GC-MS, with confirmation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) structure performed by analysis of 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. PUFA constituted 68-74% of the total FA, with the essential PUFA; eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3, EPA), arachidonic acid (20:4ω6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3, DHA), accounting for 42-44% of the total FA. High proportions of the saturated OC-FA 15:0 (7.1% in TC 01) and 17:0 (6.2% in TC 04) were detected. The OC-FA 17:1ω8 was present at 2.8% in TC 01. Of particular interest, the C₂₁ PUFA 21:5ω5 and 21:4ω7 were detected at 3.5% and 4.1%, respectively, in TC 04. A proposed biosynthesis pathway for these OC-PUFA is presented. It is possible that the unsaturated OC-PUFA found previously in a number of marine animals were derived from dietary thraustochytrids and they could be useful biomarkers in environmental and food web studies. PMID:21546043

  8. Decay Properties of N = 77 odd-Z Isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelder, J. C.; Tantawy, M. N.; Danchev, M.; Hartley, D. J.; Mazzocchi, C.; Bingham, C. R.; Grzywacz, R.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Gross, C. J.; Shapira, D.; Yu, C.-H.; Krolas, W.; Fong, D.; Hamilton, J. H.; Li, K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Ginter, T. N.; Stolz, A.; Hagino, K.; Karny, M.

    2007-11-30

    The systematics of the {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}h{sub 11/2} and {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}s{sub 1/2} isomeric configurations were studied for the odd-Z N = 77 isotones near the proton dripline. The spin and parity of I{sup {pi}} = 8{sup +} and 5{sup -} were deduced for the isomers in {sup 140}Eu and {sup 142}Tb. No evidence for the expected 1{sup +} ground-state was found in the {sup 144}Ho decay data. The proton emission from {sup 146}Tm was restudied and the spin and parity values of I{sup {pi}} = 10{sup +} and 5{sup -} were established for {sup 146m}Tm and {sup 146gs}Tm, respectively. The interpretation of the observed decay properties and structure of the proton-emitting states was made by accounting for deformation and proton and neutron coupling to the core excitations.

  9. Massive and massless higher spinning particles in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Bonezzi, Roberto; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    We study actions for massive bosonic particles of higher spins by dimensionally reducing an action for massless particles. For the latter we take a model with a SO( N) extended local supersymmetry on the worldline, that is known to describe massless (conformal) particles of higher spins in flat spacetimes of even dimensions. Dimensional reduction produces an action for massive spinning particles in odd dimensions. The field equations that emerge in a quantization à la Dirac are shown to be equivalent to the Fierz-Pauli ones. The massless limit generates a multiplet of massless states with higher spins, whose first quantized field equations have a geometric form with fields belonging to various types of Young tableaux. These geometric equations can be partially integrated to show their equivalence with the standard Fronsdal-Labastida equations. We covariantize our model to check whether an extension to curved spacetimes can be achieved. Restricting to (A)dS spaces, we find that the worldline gauge algebra becomes nonlinear, but remains first class. This guarantees consistency on such backgrounds. A light cone analysis confirms the presence of the expected propagating degrees of freedom. A covariant analysis is worked out explicitly for the massive case, which is seen to give rise to the Fierz-Pauli equations extended to (A)dS spaces. It is worth noting that in D = 3 the massless limit of our model with N → ∞ has the same field content of the Vasiliev's theory that accommodates each spin exactly once.

  10. Explicit energy expansion for general odd-degree polynomial potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanayakkara, Asiri; Mathanaranjan, Thilagarajah

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we derive an almost explicit analytic formula for asymptotic eigenenergy expansion of arbitrary odd-degree polynomial potentials of the form V (x) = (ix)2N+1 + β1x2N + β2x2N-1 + ··· + β2Nx, where β‧k are real or complex for 1 ⩽ k ⩽ 2N. The formula can be used to find semiclassical analytic expressions for eigenenergies up to any order, very efficiently. Each term of the expansion is given explicitly as a multinomial of the parameters β1,β2… and β2N of the potential. Unlike in the even-degree polynomial case, the highest-order term in the potential is pure imaginary and hence the system is non-Hermitian. Therefore all the integrations have been carried out along a contour enclosing two complex branch points, which lies within a wedge in the complex plane. With the help of some examples we demonstrate the accuracy of the method for both real and complex eigenspectra.

  11. Redistribution of reactive odd nitrogen in the lower arctic stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebler, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Montzka, D. D.; Carroll, M. A.; Tuck, A. F.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gregory, G. L.; Vedder, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    In-situ measurements of total reactive odd nitrogen NO(y), were made from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in the lower arctic stratosphere during the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. Throughout January and February, NO(y) mixing ratios were typically between 0.5 and 3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at altitudes between 10 and 12.5 km. During several flights late in the mission, events of unusually light NO(y) occurred with mixing ratios up to 12 ppbv at these altitudes. Simultaneous measurements of N2O, O3, and H2O during these events suggest that large changes in NO(y) are not expected. The elevated NO(y) values are interpreted as a vertical redistribution of NO(y) in the lower stratosphere resulting from gravitational sedimentation of aerosol particles containing HNO3. No evidence of the redistribution of H2O is noted, consistent with observations of denitrification without dehydration higher in the stratosphere.

  12. Strain-induced time-reversal odd superconductivity in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juricic, Vladimir; Roy, Bitan

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss the possibility of realizing a time-reversal-symmetry breaking superconducting state that exhibits an f + is pairing symmetry in strained graphene. Although the underlying attractive interactions need to be sufficiently strong and comparable in pristine graphene to support such pairing state, I will argue that strain can be conducive for its formation even for weak interactions. I will show that quantum-critical behavior near the transition is controlled by a fermionic multicritical point, characterized by various critical exponents computed in the framework of an ɛ-expansion near four spacetime dimensions. I will then discuss the scaling of the superconducting gap with the strain-induced axial pseudo-magnetic field. Furthermore, a vortex in this mixed superconducting state hosts a pair of Majorana fermions supporting a quartet of insulating and superconducting orders, among which quantum spin Hall topological insulator. Finally, I will mention some experimental signatures of this f + is time-reversal odd superconductor. These findings suggest that strained graphene could provide a platform for the realization of exotic superconducting states of Dirac fermions. VJ is supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).

  13. Succinate esters: odd-even effects in melting points.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sumy; Sathishkumar, Ranganathan

    2014-10-01

    Dialkyl succinates show a pattern of alternating behavior in their melting points, as the number of C atoms in the alkane side chain increases, unlike in the dialkyl oxalates [Joseph et al. (2011). Acta Cryst. B67, 525-534]. Dialkyl succinates with odd numbers of C atoms in the alkyl side chain show higher melting points than the immediately adjacent analogues with even numbers. The crystal structures and their molecular packing have been analyzed for a series of dialkyl succinates with 1-4 C atoms in the alkyl side chain. The energy difference (ΔE) between the optimized and observed molecular conformations, density, Kitaigorodskii packing index (KPI) and C-H...O interactions are considered to rationalize this behavior. In contrast to the dialkyl oxalates where a larger number of moderately strong C-H...O interactions were characteristic of oxalates with elevated melting points, here the molecular packing and the density play a major role in raising the melting point. On moving from oxalate to succinate esters the introduction of the C2 spacer adds two activated H atoms to the asymmetric unit, resulting in the formation of stronger C-H...O hydrogen bonds in all succinates. As a result the crystallinity of long-chain alkyl substituted esters improves enormously in the presence of hydrogen bonds from activated donors. PMID:25274517

  14. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  15. The Prevalence of ADHD, ODD, Depression, and Anxiety in a Community Sample of 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, John V.; LeBailly, Susan A.; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Binns, Helen J.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the epidemiology of preschoolers' psychopathology. This study included 796 4-year-old children recruited from schools and pediatric practices in a diverse, urban area. Psychiatric disorder was assessed by a structured interview adapted for preschool children and by questionnaire. The most common disorders were…

  16. Prevalence of bovine genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis of bulls in northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis, and their concurrence with brucellosis, in cattle in three states of northern Nigeria. Methods A total of 602 preputial samples was collected from bulls in 250 herds and tested using culture and identification. Various indigenous and exotic breeds were studied and four major management systems were encountered. Age of the cattle was estimated using dentition, farm records or cornual rings. Results The estimated true animal-level prevalence of Campylobacter fetus infection was 16.4% (95% CI: 13.0-20.7), of which 18.5% was C. f. fetus and 81.5% was C. f. venerealis. Of the latter, 92% were C. f. venerealis biovar intermedius strains. Animal-level prevalences in Adamawa, Kano and Kaduna states were 31.8%, 11.6% and 8.3% respectively, and were highest in bulls >7 years old (33.4%) and in the Gudali breed (28.8%). Of the 250 herds, 78 (25.5%, 95% CI: 19.4-32.7) had at least one infected bull, and herd prevalence was highest in the pastoral management system (43.5%). After adjustment for confounding using multivariable analysis, the odds of C. fetus infection were highest in Adamawa state (P < 0.01), in the pastoral management system (P < 0.01), and in bulls >7 years old (P = 0.01), and tended to be higher in Bos taurus breeds (P = 0.06). There was a strong positive association between the presence of campylobacteriosis and brucellosis (P < 0.01), both within bulls (OR = 8.3) and within herds (OR = 16.0). Trichomonosis was not detected in any herds. Conclusion Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is prevalent particularly in the pastoral management system in northern Nigeria, with C. f. venerealis biovar intermedius as the major aetiology. There was a strong positive correlation between the occurrence of campylobacteriosis and brucellosis. No evidence of trichomonosis was found in herds in this study. PMID:23927676

  17. First Evidence for the Existence of Odd Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs) from the Simultaneous Observation of Even and Odd TAEs on the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Kramer; S.E. Sharapov; R. Nazikian; N.N. Gorelenkov; R. Budny; JET-EFDA contributors

    2003-01-15

    Experimental evidence is presented for the existence of the theoretically predicted odd Torodicity-induced Alfven Eigenmode (TAEs) from the simultaneous appearance of odd and even TAEs in a normal shear discharge. The modes are observed in low central magnetic shear plasmas created by injecting lower hybrid current drive. A fast ion population was created by applying ion cyclotron heating at the high field side to excite the TAEs in the weak magnetic shear region. The odd TAEs were identified from their frequency, mode number, and timing relative to the even TAEs.

  18. Prevalence and Predictors of Antibiotic Administration during Pregnancy and Birth

    PubMed Central

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise; Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar; Carson, Charlotte G.; Chawes, Bo L. K.; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Mølgaard, Anne; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Bisgaard, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors. Methods 706 pregnant women from the novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010) pregnancy cohort participated in this analysis. Detailed information on oral antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy filled at the pharmacy was obtained and verified longitudinally. Information on intrapartum antibiotics, social, and lifestyle-factors was obtained by personal interviews. Results The prevalence of antibiotic use was 37% during pregnancy and 33% intrapartum. Lower maternal age at birth; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.94, 95% CI, [0.90-0.98], p = 0.003 and maternal smoking; aOR 1.97, 95% CI, [1.07-3.63], p = 0.030 were associated with use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Maternal educational level (low vs. high), aOR 2.32, 95% CI, [1.24-4.35], p = 0.011, maternal asthma; aOR 1.99, 95% CI, [1.33-2.98], p < 0.001 and previous childbirth; aOR 1.80, 95% CI, [1.21-2.66], p = 0.004 were associated with use of antibiotics for respiratory tract infection during pregnancy. Lower gestational age; aOR 0.72, 95% CI, [0.61-0.85], p < 0.001, maternal smoking; aOR 2.84, 95% CI, [1.33-6.06], p = 0.007, and nulliparity; aOR 1.79, 95% CI, [1.06-3.02], p = 0.030 were associated with administration of intrapartum antibiotics in women giving birth vaginally. Conclusion Antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth may be influenced by social and lifestyle-factors. Understanding such risk factors may guide preventive strategies in order to avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics. PMID:24340068

  19. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Otovic, Natasa Eftimovska; Taneva, Borjanka

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) became a new epidemic of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal failure as a result of the diabetes epidemic worldwide. AIM: The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of CKD in the Republic of Macedonia and its association with diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a part of a study conducted in 2006 in terms of screening for early detection of kidney disease. It was a cross-sectional study based on a random sample of patients aged > 20, consecutively consulting their primary physician for any cause. Fifty physicians throughout the country were included in the study. A total of 2637 patients have been analyzed based on integrity data. GFR was estimated using corrected values of serum creatinine and calculating kidney function by the Cockroft & Gault formula, adjusted for body surface using the Gehan & George formula. Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min were considered as having CKD. Blood pressure, body weight, height, serum creatinine, glucose, hemoglobin, hematocrit, urinalysis and medical history for presence of cardiovascular diseases or diabetes were also assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 45.97 ± 16.55 SD and 17.97% were older than 60. Regarding gender, 44.14% were males. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 13.9%. Subjects with CKD (eGFR less than 60 ml/min) were 7.53% of the total. Subjects aged 60 or above, had 20 times higher risk of having CKD (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Out of the total group of subjects, 13.9% had diabetes mellitus and they had 3.13 times higher risk of having CKD stage 3-5 (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) when compared to non-diabetics. The results showed that diabetes was significantly more associated with lower eGFR (less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) in younger subjects (age less than 60) compared to older ones (odds ratio 3

  20. Interpretation of Genetic Association Studies: Markers with Replicated Highly Significant Odds Ratios May Be Poor Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Gorin, Michael B.; Conley, Yvette P.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Weeks, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent successful discoveries of potentially causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for complex diseases hold great promise, and commercialization of genomics in personalized medicine has already begun. The hope is that genetic testing will benefit patients and their families, and encourage positive lifestyle changes and guide clinical decisions. However, for many complex diseases, it is arguable whether the era of genomics in personalized medicine is here yet. We focus on the clinical validity of genetic testing with an emphasis on two popular statistical methods for evaluating markers. The two methods, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, are applied to our age-related macular degeneration dataset. By using an additive model of the CFH, LOC387715, and C2 variants, the odds ratios are 2.9, 3.4, and 0.4, with p-values of 10−13, 10−13, and 10−3, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is 0.79, but assuming prevalences of 15%, 5.5%, and 1.5% (which are realistic for age groups 80 y, 65 y, and 40 y and older, respectively), only 30%, 12%, and 3% of the group classified as high risk are cases. Additionally, we present examples for four other diseases for which strongly associated variants have been discovered. In type 2 diabetes, our classification model of 12 SNPs has an AUC of only 0.64, and two SNPs achieve an AUC of only 0.56 for prostate cancer. Nine SNPs were not sufficient to improve the discrimination power over that of nongenetic predictors for risk of cardiovascular events. Finally, in Crohn's disease, a model of five SNPs, one with a quite low odds ratio of 0.26, has an AUC of only 0.66. Our analyses and examples show that strong association, although very valuable for establishing etiological hypotheses, does not guarantee effective discrimination between cases and controls. The scientific community should be cautious to avoid overstating the value of association findings in terms of

  1. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the U.S. working population: an analysis of data from the 1997-2004 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Bang, Ki Moon; Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2009-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence and the population attributable fraction of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the U.S. adult workers, we analyzed data obtained from the National Health Interview Surveys for the period 1997-2004. The overall COPD prevalence was 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9-4.1%). The prevalence was higher in females (5.4%, 95% CI 5.3-5.6%) than in males (2.8%, 95% CI 2.7-2.9%); in Whites (4.2%, 95% CI 4.1-4.3%) than in Blacks (3.4%, 95% CI 3.1-3.7%) and other races (2.4%, 95% CI 2.1-2.8%). Compared with insurance, real estate and other finance industry, the top three industries associated with significantly higher prevalence odds ratios (PORs) (adjusted for age, sex, race, and smoking) were other educational services (POR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3); transportation equipment (POR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8); and social services, religious and membership organizations (POR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Compared with managers and administrators, except public administration occupation, the top three occupations with significantly higher PORs were health service (1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1), other protective service (POR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2), and material moving equipment operators (POR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3). The overall population attributable fraction for association of COPD with employment was 12.2% for industry and 17.4% for occupation. Further studies are needed to determine specific risk factors associated with COPD in industries and occupations with elevated prevalence and POR. PMID:19863367

  2. Shifting Prevalence of Gallbladder Polyps in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated the population-adjusted prevalence of gallbladder polyps (GBP). This study aimed to evaluate the changes in GBP prevalence and risk factors at a single health screening center in Korea from 2002 to 2012. Of 48,591 adults who underwent health screening between 2002 and 2012, 14,250 age- and gender-matched subjects were randomly selected to evaluate prevalence. Risk factors were analyzed between the GBP-positive and GBP-negative groups during 2002-2004 (Period A) and 2010-2012 (Period B). The annual prevalence of GBP over the 11-yr period was 5.4%. Annual prevalence increased from 3.8% in Period A to 7.1% in Period B. Male gender and obesity were independent risk factors for GBP in both periods. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity was a risk factor for GBP in Period A but not in Period B. The risk factors for GBP changed from HBsAg positivity to lipid profile abnormalities. Other variables including age, hypertension, diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, chronic hepatitis C virus infection, and liver function tests did not correlate with GBP. In conclusion, GBP prevalence is increasing and risk factors for GBP have changed in Korea. More attention should be paid to this issue in the future. PMID:25246743

  3. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  4. Does marital status predict the odds of suicidal death in taiwan? A seven-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jui-Yuan; Xirasagar, Sudha; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Li, Chong-Yi; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2008-06-01

    Using nationwide, 7-year population-based data for 1997-2003, we examined marital status to see if it predicted suicide among the ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan. Using cause of death data, with a case-control design, two groups-total adult suicide deaths, n = 17,850, the study group, and adult deaths other than suicide, n = 71,400 (randomly selected from age, sex, and geographic region matched controls, four per suicide)-were studied. Using multiple logistic regression analysis including age-marital status interaction, adjusted estimates show divorced status to be the most detrimental for suicide propensity, with males showing stronger effect size. Females never married, aged below 35 and 65-plus, and widowed 65-plus had lower suicide odds. PMID:18611128

  5. Experimental Identification of Intruder Bandheads in Odd-Mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    A.N. Andreyev; J.F.C. Cocks; O. Dorvaux; K. Eskola; P. Greenlees; P. Jones; R. Julin; S. Juutinen; K. Helariutta; M. Huyse; H. Kettunen; P. Kuusiniemi; M. Leino; M. Muikku; W.H. Trzaska; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; R. Wyss

    1999-12-31

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  6. Experimental identification of intruder bandheads in odd-mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Greenlees, P.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Helariutta, K.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Eskola, K.; Wyss, R.

    1999-11-16

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  7. Prevalence and predictors of harmful khat use among university students in ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrehanna, Ewenat; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of harmful khat use is lacking because often researchers rely on a simple tool for studying it. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of harmful khat use among Ethiopian university students by developing a comprehensive scale based on Alcohol Use Identification Test, Severity of Dependency Syndrome scale, and International Classification of Diseases definition of harmful substance use. Logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of harmful khat use. One in five current khat user students were identified as harmful khat users [20.6% (95% CI: 14.3-22.3)]. Harmful khat use in this study was strongly associated with chewing at commercial places [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.01-5.33)], and having non-student friends accompanying the khat-chewing ceremony [AOR = 3.77 (95% CI: 1.09-13.03). Students who started chewing khat at the age of 20 years or later [AOR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.07-0.55)] and those who preferred to study in the library [AOR = 0.31(95% CI: 0.12-0.81)] were less likely to be harmful khat users. The university authorities, in addition to provision of student guidance on substance-use prevention, need to work in collaboration with the surrounding community and responsible public authorities in order to reduce harmful use of khat by their students. PMID:24940069

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Harmful Khat Use Among University Students in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebrehanna, Ewenat; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of harmful khat use is lacking because often researchers rely on a simple tool for studying it. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of harmful khat use among Ethiopian university students by developing a comprehensive scale based on Alcohol Use Identification Test, Severity of Dependency Syndrome scale, and International Classification of Diseases definition of harmful substance use. Logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of harmful khat use. One in five current khat user students were identified as harmful khat users [20.6% (95% CI: 14.3–22.3)]. Harmful khat use in this study was strongly associated with chewing at commercial places [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.01–5.33)], and having non-student friends accompanying the khat-chewing ceremony [AOR = 3.77 (95% CI: 1.09–13.03). Students who started chewing khat at the age of 20 years or later [AOR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.07–0.55)] and those who preferred to study in the library [AOR = 0.31(95% CI: 0.12–0.81)] were less likely to be harmful khat users. The university authorities, in addition to provision of student guidance on substance-use prevention, need to work in collaboration with the surrounding community and responsible public authorities in order to reduce harmful use of khat by their students. PMID:24940069

  9. Association of programmatic factors with low contraceptive prevalence rates in a rural area of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study was conducted to identify selected programmatic factors relating to low contraceptive-use in a low-performing rural sub-district in Sylhet division of Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 6983 currently-married women of reproductive age (MWRA) (15–49 years). To estimate the association between current contraceptive-use and other selected factors, multivariate analyse were performed, estimating the crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR), including 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The use of health facility by the MWRA in the last three months, distance from the residence to the nearest health facility, and contact with field workers in the last six months was significantly associated with contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR). There were potential differences regarding CPR, sources of contraceptive supply and Family Welfare Assistant (FWA) visit between hard to reach and non-hard to reach unions of Nabiganj sub-district. Conclusion Strategies should be devised to increase the accessibility of MWRA to contraceptive methods by increased partnership with non-public sector and increased contacts with outreach workers through introducing community volunteers, and mobile phones help lines, by organizing frequent satellite clinics (SCs) and making community clinics (CCs) functional. Innovative strategies should be piloted for improving use of contraception in such hard to reach and low performing locality. PMID:23782912

  10. Prevalence of suicidal ideation and associated factors among HIV-positive MSM in Anhui, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Le; Yang, Hui-Yun; Wang, Jun; Yao, Hui; Zhao, Xue; Chen, Jian; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Bi, Peng; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with suicidal ideation among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Anhui, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted to recruit HIV-positive MSM in Anhui, China. A total of 184 HIV-positive MSM gave informed consent and completed the interview. Correlates of suicidal ideation were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Fifty-seven (31%) of HIV-positive MSM had suicidal ideations within six months before the interview. Multivariable analyses showed that learning of their HIV status in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.6-7.3), perceived HIV stigma (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.2), depression symptoms (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1-5.9) and anxiety symptoms (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2-6.1) were significantly associated with the suicidal ideation among HIV-positive MSM. The results indicated that suicidal ideation was common among HIV-positive MSM in Anhui, China. There is an urgent need to establish psychological counselling services among HIV-positive MSM in China. Targeting of these potential risk factors could be an effective approach to reduce the suicide risk among this high-risk subgroup by the implementation of early intervention measurements. PMID:25060699

  11. Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity

  12. Prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and relation to glycemic control therapies at baseline in the BARI 2D cohort.

    PubMed

    Pop-Busui, Rodica; Lu, Jiang; Lopes, Neuza; Jones, Teresa L Z

    2009-03-01

    We evaluated the associations between glycemic therapies and prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) at baseline among participants in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial on medical and revascularization therapies for coronary artery disease (CAD) and on insulin-sensitizing vs. insulin-providing treatments for diabetes. A total of 2,368 patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD was evaluated. DPN was defined as clinical examination score >2 using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). DPN odds ratios across different groups of glycemic therapy were evaluated by multiple logistic regression adjusted for multiple covariates including age, sex, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and diabetes duration. Fifty-one percent of BARI 2D subjects with valid baseline characteristics and MNSI scores had DPN. After adjusting for all variables, use of insulin was significantly associated with DPN (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.15-2.13). Patients on sulfonylurea (SU) or combination of SU/metformin (Met)/thiazolidinediones (TZD) had marginally higher rates of DPN than the Met/TZD group. This cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD showed association of insulin use with higher DPN prevalence, independent of disease duration, glycemic control, and other characteristics. The causality between a glycemic control strategy and DPN cannot be evaluated in this cross-sectional study, but continued assessment of DPN and randomized therapies in BARI 2D trial may provide further explanations on the development of DPN. PMID:19335534

  13. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Rate Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances... On September 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed an exigent rate request with the Commission...

  14. Adjustable holder for transducer mounting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deotsch, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Positioning of acoustic sensor, strain gage, or similar transducer is facilitated by adjustable holder. Developed for installation on Space Shuttle, it includes springs for maintaining uniform load on transducer with adjustable threaded cap for precisely controlling position of sensor with respect to surrounding structure.

  15. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  16. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  17. Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveticanin, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics

  18. CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population.

    PubMed

    Brück, Katharina; Stel, Vianda S; Gambaro, Giovanni; Hallan, Stein; Völzke, Henry; Ärnlöv, Johan; Kastarinen, Mika; Guessous, Idris; Vinhas, José; Stengel, Bénédicte; Brenner, Hermann; Chudek, Jerzy; Romundstad, Solfrid; Tomson, Charles; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Bello, Aminu K; Ferrieres, Jean; Palmieri, Luigi; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Van Biesen, Wim; Zoccali, Carmine; Gansevoort, Ron; Navis, Gerjan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Nitsch, Dorothea; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J

    2016-07-01

    CKD prevalence estimation is central to CKD management and prevention planning at the population level. This study estimated CKD prevalence in the European adult general population and investigated international variation in CKD prevalence by age, sex, and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. We collected data from 19 general-population studies from 13 European countries. CKD stages 1-5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), as calculated by the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation, or albuminuria >30 mg/g, and CKD stages 3-5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) CKD prevalence was age- and sex-standardized to the population of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU27). We found considerable differences in both CKD stages 1-5 and CKD stages 3-5 prevalence across European study populations. The adjusted CKD stages 1-5 prevalence varied between 3.31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.30% to 3.33%) in Norway and 17.3% (95% CI, 16.5% to 18.1%) in northeast Germany. The adjusted CKD stages 3-5 prevalence varied between 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.3%) in central Italy and 5.9% (95% CI, 5.2% to 6.6%) in northeast Germany. The variation in CKD prevalence stratified by diabetes, hypertension, and obesity status followed the same pattern as the overall prevalence. In conclusion, this large-scale attempt to carefully characterize CKD prevalence in Europe identified substantial variation in CKD prevalence that appears to be due to factors other than the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. PMID:26701975

  19. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinghua; Mo, Phoenix K H; Kahler, Christopher W; Lau, Joseph T F; Du, Mengran; Dai, Yingxue; Shen, Hanyang

    2016-01-01

    HIV-positive men who have sex with men (HIVMSM) face severe stigma and high levels of stressors, and have high prevalence of mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety). Very few studies explored the role of positive psychological factors on mental health problems among HIVMSM. The present study investigated the prevalence of two mental health problems (anxiety and depression), and their associated protective (gratitude) and risk (enacted HIV-related stigma, and perceived stress) factors among HIVMSM in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 321 HIVMSM in Chengdu, China, by using a structured questionnaire. Over half (55.8%) of the participants showed probable mild to severe depression (as assessed by the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale); 53.3% showed probable anxiety (as assessed by the General Anxiety Disorder scale). Adjusted logistic regression models revealed that gratitude (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 0.90, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) = 0.86-0.94) was found to be protective, whilst perceived stress (ORa = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.12-1.22) and enacted stigma (ORa = 7.72, 95% CI = 2.27-26.25) were risk factors of depression. Gratitude (ORa = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.91-0.99) was also found to be protective whilst perceived stress (ORa = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.14-1.24) was a risk factor of anxiety. Gratitude did not moderate the associations found between related factors and poor mental health. It is warranted to promote mental health among HIVMSM, as depression/anxiety was highly prevalent. Such interventions should consider enhancement of gratitude, reduction of stress, and removal of enacted stigma as potential strategies, as such factors were significantly associated with depression/anxiety among HIVMSM. PMID:26689341

  20. Strong Country Level Correlation between Syphilis and HSV-2 Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Chris Richard; Tsoumanis, Achilleas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Syphilis is curable but Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is not. As a result, the prevalence of syphilis but not HSV-2 may be influenced by the efficacy of national STI screening and treatment capacity. If the prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is found to be correlated, then this makes it more likely that something other than differential STI treatment is responsible for variations in the prevalence of both HSV-2 and syphilis. Methods. Simple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between national antenatal syphilis prevalence and HSV-2 prevalence in women in two time periods: 1990–1999 and 2008. Adjustments were performed for the laboratory syphilis testing algorithm used and the prevalence of circumcision. Results. The prevalence of syphilis was positively correlated with that of HSV-2 for both time periods (adjusted correlations, 20–24-year-olds: 1990–99: R2 = 0.54, P < 0.001; 2008: R2 = 0.41, P < 0.001 and 40–44-year-olds: 1990–99: R2 = 0.42, P < 0.001; 2008: R2 = 0.49, P < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is positively correlated. This could be due to a common set of risk factors underpinning both STIs. PMID:27069710

  1. Analysis of familial aggregation of atopic eczema and other atopic diseases by ODDS RATIO regression models.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Blettner, M

    1996-05-01

    In order to determine the relative importance of genetics and the environment on the occurrence of atopic diseases, we investigated the familial aggregation of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis, and allergic asthma in the relatives of 426 patients with atopic eczema and 628 subjects with no history of eczema (5,136 family members in total). Analyses were performed by regression models for odds ratios (OR) allowing us to estimate OR for the familial aggregation and simultaneously to adjust for other covariates. Three models were analyzed assuming that the OR i) is the same among any two members of a family, ii) depends on different familial constellations, i.e., whether the pairs are siblings, parents, or parent/sibling pairs, and iii) is not the same between the father and the children and between the mother and the children. The OR of familial aggregation for atopic eczema was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.58-2.96) if no distinction was made between the degree of relationship. Further analyses within the members of the family showed a high OR among siblings (OR = 3.86; 95%-CI 2.10-7.09), while the OR between parents and siblings was only 1.90 (95%-CI 1.31-2.97). Only for atopic eczema was the familial aggregation between fathers and siblings (ms: OR = 2.66; fs: OR = 1.29). This can be explained by stronger maternal heritability, shared physical environment of mother and child, or environmental events that affect the fetus in utero. Since for all atopic diseases a stronger correlation was found between siblings than between siblings and parents, our study indicates that environmental factors, especially during childhood, seem to explain the recently observed increased frequencies of atopic diseases. PMID:8618061

  2. Prevalence and predictors of HIV sero-discordance among cohabiting couples tested in northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ngilangwa, David Paul; Ochako, Rhoune; Mboya, Beati Alphonce; Noronha, Rita Honoratha; Mgomella, George Suleman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In sub-Saharan Africa where HIV/AIDS epidemic is predominantly generalized, majority of HIV infections occur among heterosexual couples. The majority of people do not know their sero-status. Thus, utilisation of Couples’ HIV Counselling and Testing (CHCT) services remain to be critical in preventing new infections. The objective was to establish prevalence and predictors of HIV sero-discordance among cohabiting couples presenting for CHCT services in northern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study inteveviewed 1,333 couples aged 18-49 years tested from 2005 to 2007 in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions. A CHCT checklist was used to collect data from couples. Data were analyzed using STATA 10. Results Generally, 220(16%) out of 1,333 couples were HIV sero-discordant. In sero-discordance unions, women were likely to be HIV positive than men (71% versus 29% respectively p<0.001). HIV sero-discordant relationship was associated with age (35-45 years) for both men and women (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.3, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.7-3.2) and (AOR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.7) respectively. Women with older men partners were less likely to be in HIV sero-discordance relationships (AOR: 0.5 95% CI 0.3-09). Arusha couples were likely to be HIV sero-discordant than those of Kilimanjaro (AOR: 2.3 95% CI 1.7-3.2). Couples living far away from CHCT centres were less likely to be sero-discordant than those live nearby (AOR: 0.4 95% CI 0.2-0.9). Conclusion HIV sero-discordance prevalence is high among our participants. Thus, we recommend CHCT utilization should widely be promoted as entry point in treatment as prevention strategy in order to protect uninfected partners in HIV sero-discordance relationships. PMID:26958138

  3. Association between Sickle Cell Trait and the Prevalence and Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Al Harbi, Majed; Khandekar, Rajiv; Kozak, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether Sickle cell trait (SCT) is associated with an increased severity of diabetic retinopathy. Methods This was a single center retrospective study case control study of 100 eyes of 100 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) with SCT (SCT group) and 100 eyes of 100 age-matched patients with DM without SCT (control group). The main outcome measure was the difference in the prevalence of sight threatening DR [here defined as diabetic macular edema (DME) and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR)], between the SCT and control groups. Secondary outcome measures included differences in visual acuity, ocular comorbidities, intraocular pressure, glycemic control as assessed by random blood glucose measurement, diabetes duration, nephropathy, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Results The SCT group had statistically significantly shorter duration of DM (median [25% quartile] 15 [8.3] years versus 20 [14.7] years, respectively)(P<0.001) and presented with statistically better metabolic control (mean difference 1.6 mmol/l, (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1–3.3;P = 0.03). The prevalence of PDR and/or DME was significantly lower in the SCT group (58%) compared to the control group, (95%)(P<0.001). The absence of SCT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 24; 95% CI, 8–72; P<0.001) and longer duration of DM (AOR = 1.1 [95% CI, 1.02–1.13]; P = 0.003) were independent predictors of PDR and/or DME. Conclusions SCT seems to protect against the development and progression of DR. This may have implications for monitoring and screening. Prospective studies are required to confirm this association. If true, this association may indicate an increased blood glucose buffering capacity of abnormal hemoglobin. PMID:27414024

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Antenatal Depression among Omani Women in a Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azri, Mohammed; Al-Lawati, Iman; Al-Kamyani, Raya; Al-Kiyumi, Maisa; Al-Rawahi, Aisha; Davidson, Robin; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of antenatal depression and the risk factors associated with its development among Omani women. No previous studies on antenatal depression have been conducted in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out between January and November 2014 in Muscat, Oman. Pregnant Omani women ≥32 gestational weeks who were attending one of 12 local primary care health centres in Muscat for routine antenatal care were invited to participate in the study (n = 986). An Arabic version of the validated self-administered Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale questionnaire was used to measure antenatal depression. A cut-off score of ≥13 was considered to indicate probable depression. Results: A total of 959 women participated in the study (response rate: 97.3%). Of these, 233 were found to have antenatal depression (24.3%). A bivariate analysis showed that antenatal depression was associated with unplanned pregnancies (P = 0.010), marital conflict (P = 0.001) and a family history of depression (P = 0.019). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) after logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that antenatal depression was significantly associated with unplanned pregnancies (OR: 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.86) and marital conflict (OR: 13.83; 95% CI: 2.99–63.93). Conclusion: The prevalence of antenatal depression among the studied Omani women was high, particularly in comparison to findings from other Arab countries. Thus, antenatal screening for depression should be considered in routine primary antenatal care. Couples should also be encouraged to seek psychological support should marital conflicts develop during pregnancy. PMID:26909211

  5. Racial Differences in the Prevalence and Outcomes of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Subir; Qazi, Mohammad; Erande, Ashwini; Shah, Kunjan; Amin, Alpesh; Patel, Pranav; Malik, Shaista

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has shown that roughly 15% to 30% of those with heart failure (HF) develop atrial fibrillation (AF). Although studies have shown variations in the incidence of AF in patients with HF, there has been no evidence of mortality differences by race. The purpose of this study was to assess AF prevalence and inhospital mortality in patients with HF among different racial groups in the United States. Using the National Inpatient Sample registry, the largest publicly available all-payer inpatient care database representing >95% of the US inpatient population, we analyzed subjects hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of HF from 2001 to 2011 (n = 11,485,673) using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD 9) codes 428.0-0.1, 428.20-0.23, 428.30-0.33, 428.40-0.43, and 428.9; patients with AF were identified using the ICD 9 code 427.31. We assessed prevalence and mortality among racial groups. Using logistic regression, we examined odds of mortality adjusted for demographics and co-morbidity using Elixhauser co-morbidity index. We also examined utilization of procedures by race. Of the 11,485,673 patients hospitalized with HF in our study, 3,939,129 (34%) had AF. Patients with HF and AF had greater inhospital mortality compared with those without AF (4.6% vs 3.3% respectively, p <0.0001). Additionally, black, Hispanic, Asian, and white patients with HF and AF had a 24%, 17%, 13%, and 6% higher mortality, respectively, than if they did not have AF. Among patients with HF and AF, minority racial groups had underutilization of catheter ablation and cardioversion compared with white patients. In conclusion, minority patients with HF and AF had a disproportionately higher risk of inpatient death compared with white patients with HF. We also found a significant underutilization of cardioversion and catheter ablation in minority racial groups compared with white patients. PMID:26970814

  6. Prevalence and correlates of HIV among men who have sex with men in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Goodman-Meza, David; Burgos, Jose Luis; Abramovitz, Daniela; Chavarin, Claudia V; Torres, Karla; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Men who have sex with men (MSM) in developing countries such as Mexico have received relatively little research attention. In Tijuana, Mexico, a border city experiencing a dynamic HIV epidemic, data on MSM are over a decade old. Our aims were to estimate the prevalence and examine correlates of HIV infection among MSM in this city. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 191 MSM recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in 2012. Biological males over the age of 18 who resided in Tijuana and reported sex with a male in the past year were included. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and rapid tests for HIV and syphilis with confirmation. Results A total of 33 MSM tested positive for HIV, yielding an RDS-adjusted estimated 20% prevalence. Of those who tested positive, 89% were previously unaware of their HIV status. An estimated 36% (95% CI: 26.4–46.5) had been tested for HIV in the past year, and 30% (95% CI: 19.0–40.0) were estimated to have ever used methamphetamine. Independent correlates of being infected with HIV were methamphetamine use (odds ratio [OR]=2.24, p=0.045, 95% CI: 1.02, 4.92) and active syphilis infection (OR=4.33, p=0.01, 95% CI: 1.42, 13.19). Conclusions Our data indicate that MSM are a key sub-population in Tijuana at higher risk for HIV. Tijuana would also appear to have the highest proportion among upper-middle-income countries of HIV-positive MSM who are unknowingly infected. More HIV prevention research on MSM is urgently needed in Tijuana. PMID:25669423

  7. High Levels of Heavy Metals Increase the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in the Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite increasing concern regarding health problems as a result of environmental pollutants, no association of toxic heavy metals with sarcopenia has been demonstrated in the general population. We investigated the association of heavy metals, including lead, mercury and cadmium, with sarcopenia in the Korean population. Methods Participants included 344 males and 360 females older than 65 years based on data from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys. Measurements of blood lead, mercury and cadmium levels were performed. To evaluate the cumulative effect of the three heavy metals, subjects were categorized into quartiles. Sarcopenia was defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) (SMI<5.4 kg/m2 in females and <7.0 kg/m2 in males). Results Of 704 elderly persons (344 in males and 360 in females), prevalences of sarcopenia were 26.7% (92/344) in male and 7.5% (27/360) in female. Mean serum levels of lead in sarcopenia group were significantly higher than non-sarcopenia males (P=0.03). After adjustment for confounding factors, odds ratio for sarcopenia were increased with concentration category of lead (P=0.005 and P<0.001), mercury (P=0.001 and P<0.001) and cadmium (P=0.010 and P<0.001) in males and females, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates that high levels of blood lead, mercury and cadmium increase the prevalence of sarcopenia in both genders of elderly populations. PMID:27294082

  8. Agent Orange Exposure and Prevalence of Self-reported Diseases in Korean Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Conclusions Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure. PMID:24137524

  9. Prevalence and Impact of Short Sleep Duration in Redeployed OIF Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Luxton, David D.; Greenburg, David; Ryan, Jenny; Niven, Alexander; Wheeler, Gary; Mysliwiec, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Short sleep duration (SSD) is common among deployed soldiers. The prevalence of SSD during redeployment, however, is unknown. Design: Cross-sectional study of a brigade combat team (n = 3152 US Army soldiers) surveyed 90–180 days after completing a 6–15 month deployment to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Survey items targeted sleep habits and comorbid medical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios of medical comorbidities associated with SSD. Setting: US Army Infantry Post. Subjects: All soldiers from a redeploying brigade combat team participated in a health assessment between 90 and 180 days upon return to Ft. Lewis from Iraq. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: A total of 2738 (86.9%) soldiers answered questions regarding self-perceived sleep and were included in the analysis. Mean sleep duration was 5.8 ± 1.2 hours. Nineteen hundred fifty-nine (72%) slept ≤ 6 h, but only 16% reported a daytime nap or felt their job performance was affected due to lack of sleep. Short sleep was more common among soldiers who reported combat exposure. After controlling for combat exposure, short sleep duration (SSD) was associated with symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic syndrome, and with high-risk health behaviors such as abuse of tobacco and alcohol products, and suicide attempts. Conclusions: SSD is common among redeployed soldiers. Soldiers who experienced combat are at increased risk for persistent SSD and comorbidities associated with SSD. Efforts to reestablish good sleep habits and aggressive evaluation of soldiers with persistent SSD following deployment may aid in the prevention and management of associated medical conditions. Citation: Luxton DD; Greenburg D; Ryan J; Niven A; Wheeler G; Mysliwiec V. Prevalence and impact of short sleep duration in redeployed OIF soldiers. SLEEP 2011;34(9):1189-1195. PMID:21886356

  10. The prevalence of fatigue and associated health and safety risk factors among taxi drivers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lim, See Ming; Chia, Sin Eng

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Driver fatigue is one of the biggest health and safety concerns within the road transport sector. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of fatigue among taxi drivers in Singapore, to better understand the general working and health conditions of this group of people, and to determine the risk factors associated with fatigued driving. METHODS A total of 340 taxi drivers were randomly selected for participation in a self-administered questionnaire survey, which included height and weight measurements. The response rate was 68.2%. The survey consisted of four main categories: personal particulars; social habits; work patterns; and sleep profile. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to estimate the level of daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with risk factors related to fatigue among taxi drivers. RESULTS A high proportion of taxi drivers were obese and had self-reported hypertension, diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol. Driver fatigue was associated with very poor/poor self-rating of quality of sleep, having an additional part-time job, drinking three or more caffeinated drinks daily, and driving more than 10 hours a day. CONCLUSION We hope that the findings of the present study will improve awareness of the work and health conditions of taxi drivers, and contribute toward efforts to achieve a healthier workforce. A lower prevalence of fatigued driving may lead to lower risks of road traffic accidents, decreased economic loss, increased productivity, and safer roads for all. PMID:25532512

  11. Prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease in former elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Kujala, U M; Kaprio, J; Taimela, S; Sarna, S

    1994-10-01

    Diabetes, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease are less frequent among physically active subjects. The aim of the present national population-based study was to compare the prevalence of these three diseases between former Finnish elite athletes and referents. The subjects consisted of surviving former male athletes who represented Finland between the years 1920 and 1965 at least once in international competitions and referents who at the age of 20 were classified as completely healthy at a medical examination, and who responded to a questionnaire in 1985 (athletes, n = 1,282; referents n = 777). In 1985, they completed a questionnaire with medical, life-style, and psychosocial items; at that time, the leisure physical activity was greater in previous athletes than in referents. The presence or absence of the three diseases was identified from the questionnaire or from at least one of three registers: Finnish hospital inpatient discharge register, reimbursable medication register, and disability pension register. When compared with referents, both endurance and mixed-sports athletes had lower age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for all studied diseases. Compared with referents, power-sports athletes had a higher risk for high body mass index (BMI) but a lower risk for ischemic heart disease. Subjects with high BMI had an increased risk for all three diseases. Smokers had a higher risk for diabetes and ischemic heart disease compared with those who were never smokers. After adjustments for age, BMI, smoking history, and occupational group, compared with referents, former endurance athletes had the lowest ORs for diabetes (OR 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 0.81) and ischemic heart disease (OR 0.33; 0.18 to 0.61).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7934977

  12. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. Child under-nutrition is estimated to be the largest contributor to global burden of disease, and it clusters in South Asia but literature on under-nutrition among school-aged children is difficult to find in this region. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Stunting (< -2 SD of height-for-age z-score) and thinness (< -2 SD of BMI-for-age z-score) were defined using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of stunting and thinness and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of height- and BMI-for-age z-scores. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results Eight percent (95% CI 6.9-9.4) children were stunted and 10% (95% CI 8.7-11.5) children were thin. Stunting and thinness were not significantly associated with gender. Prevalence of stunting significantly increased with age among both boys and girls (both P < 0.001) while thinness showed significant increasing trend with age among boys only (P = 0.034). Significant correlates of stunting included age > 8 years, rural area and urban area with low SES, low-income neighborhoods, lower parental education, more siblings, crowded housing and smoking in living place (all P < 0.001). Significant correlates of thinness included rural area and urban area with low SES, low-income neighborhoods and lower parental education (all P < 0.001), and age > 10 years (P = 0.003), more siblings (P = 0.016) and

  13. Menstrual Needs and Associations with Sexual and Reproductive Risks in Rural Kenyan Females: A Cross-Sectional Behavioral Survey Linked with HIV Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, George; Burmen, Barbara; Otieno, Frederick; Odongo, Frederick; Odour, Clifford; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Amek, Nyanguara; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Odhiambo, Frank; Zeh, Clement; Kwaro, Daniel; Mills, Lisa A.; Laserson, Kayla F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Females in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have difficulty coping with menstrual needs, but few studies have examined the social or health implications of these needs. Methods: Responses from 3418 menstruating females aged 13–29 years were extracted from an HIV and behavioral risks cross-sectional survey conducted in rural western Kenya. We examined sanitary products used, provision of products from sexual partners or from transactional sex, and demographic and sexual exposures. Results: Overall, 75% of females reported using commercial pads and 25% used traditional materials such as cloth or items like paper or tissue, with 10% of girls <15 years old depending on makeshift items. Two-thirds of females with no education relied on traditional items. Having attended secondary school increased the odds of using commercial pads among married (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 4.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.25–7.12) and single females (AOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.04–4.55). Married females had lower odds of pad use if they reported early (<12 years of age) compared with later (≥18 years) sexual debut (64% vs. 78%, AOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21–0.97). Two-thirds of pad users received them from sexual partners. Receipt was lower among married females if partners were violent (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53–0.85). Receipt among single females was higher if they had two or more sexual partners in the past year (AOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.04–4.29). Prevalence of engaging in sex for money to buy pads was low (1.3%); however, 10% of 15-year-olds reported this, with girls ≤15 having significantly higher odds compared with females over 15 (AOR 2.84, 95% CI 0.89–9.11). The odds of having transactional sex for pads was higher among females having two or more partners in the past 12 months (AOR 4.86, 95% CI 2.06–11.43). Conclusions: Menstrual needs of impoverished females in rural LMICs settings likely leads to increased physical and sexual harms. Studies are required

  14. Psycho-Trauma, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Symptomatic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Internally Displaced Persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Agunbiade, Samuel; Ike, Joseph; Ebiti, William N.; Adekeye, Oluwatosin

    2014-01-01

    Background: In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment. Methods: Cross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose “symptomatic PTSD,” composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI) for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Results: Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2%) had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1%) had poor living conditions, and only 12 (4.7%) had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%), been evacuated from their town (96%) and witnessing violence (88%). More than half (58%) of IDPs had experienced 11–15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (adjusted odds ratios 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7–7.5; p = 0.001) and witnessing death of a family member (3.7, 1.2–11.5; p = 0.0259). Conclusion: We concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma. PMID:25309461

  15. Comparative study of Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 50}V and its impact on electron capture rates in astrophysical environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Sajjad, Muhammad

    2007-11-15

    Gamow-Teller (GT) strength transitions are an ideal probe for testing nuclear structure models. In addition to nuclear structure, GT transitions in nuclei directly affect the early phases of Type Ia and Type-II supernovae core collapse since the electron capture rates are partly determined by these GT transitions. In astrophysics, GT transitions provide an important input for model calculations and element formation during the explosive phase of a massive star at the end of its life-time. Recent nucleosynthesis calculations show that odd-odd and odd-A nuclei cause the largest contribution in the rate of change of lepton-to-baryon ratio. In the present manuscript, we have calculated the GT strength distributions and electron capture rates for odd-odd nucleus {sup 50}V by using the pn-QRPA theory. At present {sup 50}V is the first experimentally available odd-odd nucleus in fp-shell nuclei. We also compare our GT strength distribution with the recently measured results of a {sup 50}V(d, {sup 2}He){sup 50}Ti experiment, with the earlier work of Fuller, Fowler, and Newman (referred to as FFN) and subsequently with the large-scale shell model calculations. One curious finding of the paper is that the Brink's hypothesis, usually employed in large-scale shell model calculations, is not a good approximation to use at least in the case of {sup 50}V. SNe Ia model calculations performed using FFN rates result in overproduction of {sup 50}Ti, and were brought to a much acceptable value by employing shell model results. It might be interesting to study how the composition of the ejecta using presently reported QRPA rates compare with the observed abundances.

  16. Prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle patterns among overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Robert F; Choi, Seung W

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the prevalence of unhealthy eating, exercise, and coping pattern traits among a large sample of overweight and obese adults. We analyzed responses to a 53-item lifestyle pattern questionnaire posted on a commercial weight loss program Web site collected from 2004 through 2008. Subjects included 446,608 healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults, 18-65 years old, average age 31.9 (s.d. = 11.8), average BMI 30.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. = 7.5). Categorically, 25.5% were healthy weight, 29.0% were overweight, 33.7% were class I-II obesity, and 11.8% class III obesity. A stratified random sample was used to estimate the prevalence of the 21 lifestyle patterns (7 eating, 7 exercise, and 7 coping) in the general population, and the prevalence of patterns in the complete dataset was further analyzed by gender, age, and BMI. Finally, we analyzed the odds ratio of the pattern prevalence for each BMI category. We found that unhealthy lifestyle patterns in diet, exercise, and coping were highly prevalent among this population. In general, the prevalence of these patterns rose with increasing BMI and is correlated with advancing age. Gender differences were seen with many of the patterns, most noticeably among the coping patterns. The odds ratio for 18 of the 21 patterns was >1.0 and steadily increased with higher BMI categories. We conclude that unhealthy lifestyle patterns in diet, exercise, and coping are highly prevalent among the overweight and obese population. Pattern recognition represents a new method to analyze the cluster of behaviors, attitudes, and traits seen among this population. PMID:19875995

  17. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, María Luisa; Beletsky, Leo; Patiño, Efraín; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rocha, Teresita; Arredondo, Jaime; Bañuelos, Arnulfo; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI), which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Methods Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM) is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Results Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503). Respondents were predominantly male (86.5%) and ≤35 years old (42.6%). Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%), of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%); factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56–5.67) and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29–3.91), while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22–0.69), and wearing needle-stick resistant gloves (AOR: 0

  18. Patterns of amphibian infection prevalence across wetlands on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Love, Cara N; Winzeler, Megan E; Beasley, Rochelle; Scott, David E; Nunziata, Schyler O; Lance, Stacey L

    2016-08-31

    Amphibian diseases, such as chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranaviral disease caused by ranaviruses, are often linked to global amphibian population declines, yet the ecological dynamics of both pathogens are poorly understood. The goal of our study was to determine the baseline prevalence, pathogen loads, and co-infection rate of Bd and ranavirus across the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, a region with rich amphibian diversity and a history of amphibian-based research. We tested over 1000 individuals, encompassing 21 amphibian species from 11 wetlands for both Bd and ranavirus. The prevalence of Bd across individuals was 9.7%. Using wetland means, the mean (±SE) Bd prevalence was 7.9 ± 2.9%. Among toad species, Anaxyrus terrestris had 95 and 380% greater odds of being infected with Bd than Scaphiopus holbrookii and Gastrophryne carolinensis, respectively. Odds of Bd infection in adult A. terrestris and Lithobates sphenocephalus were 75 to 77% greater in metal-contaminated sites. The prevalence of ranavirus infections across all individuals was 37.4%. Mean wetland ranavirus prevalence was 29.8 ± 8.8% and was higher in post-metamorphic individuals than in aquatic larvae. Ambystoma tigrinum had 83 to 85% higher odds of ranavirus infection than A. opacum and A. talpoideum. We detected a 4.8% co-infection rate, with individuals positive for ranavirus having a 5% higher occurrence of Bd. In adult Anaxyrus terrestris, odds of Bd infection were 13% higher in ranavirus-positive animals and odds of co-infection were 23% higher in contaminated wetlands. Overall, we found the pathogen prevalence varied by wetland, species, and life stage. PMID:27596855

  19. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Factors Associated with Quality of Dialysis among Hemodialysis Patients in Southern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Shu-Fen; Chou, Yu-Ching; Sun, Chien-An; Hsueh, Shu-Chun; Yang, Tsan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among hemodialysis patients and factors associated with quality of dialysis. Methods: Data were collected from 377 long-term hemodialysis patients who received hemodialysis treatment from clinics in Tainan and Kaohsiung between November 2009 and February 2010. MetS was defined using criteria set by the adult treatment panel III (ATP-III). But, the cutpoint of waist circumference has been modified to adjust for Asian populations. The measurement of Kt/V was used as an indicator of the quality of dialysis. A below 1.4 Kt/V was considered poor dialysis quality. Results: Results showed that the prevalence of MetS among the chronic hemodialysis patients in this sample was 61.0%. Logistic regression results identified that the quality of dialysis in females was better than that in males (odds ratio (OR)=7.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.52-25.31). Better quality dialysis was associated with older age, longer treatment time, and increased blood flow rate (OR=1.49, 13.63, and 1.35, respectively). However, for every one kilogram increase in weight, the quality of dialysis decreased by 13 percents (OR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.83-0.92). Conclusions: MetS is common among hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycaemia were significantly higher among hemodialysis patients. Quality of dialysis related to gender, age, weight, and the dialysis prescription (treatment time and blood flow rate). PMID:22980378

  20. The prevalence of erosive osteoarthritis in carpometacarpal joints and its clinical burden in symptomatic community-dwelling adults

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, W.Y.; Kloppenburg, M.; Marshall, M.; Nicholls, E.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Peat, G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective To estimate the prevalence of erosive disease in first carpometacarpal joints (CMCJs) and investigate its clinical impact compared with radiographic thumb base (TB) osteoarthritis (OA). Patient and methods Standardized assessments with hand radiographs were performed in participants of two population-based cohort studies in North Staffordshire with hand symptoms lasting ≥1 day in the past month. Erosive disease was defined as the presence of eroded or remodeled phase in ≥1 interphalangeal joint (IPJ) or first CMCJ following the Verbruggen–Veys classification. Hand pain and function were assessed with Australian/Canadian Hand Osteoarthritis Index (AUSCAN). Prevalence was estimated by dividing the number of persons with erosive lesions by population size. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to contrast clinical determinants between persons with erosions and with radiographic TB OA. Results were presented as mean differences and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), adjusted for age, sex and radiographic severity. Results 1,076 participants were studied (60% women, mean age 64.7 years (SD 8.3); 24 persons had erosive disease in the TB. The prevalence of erosive disease in first CMCJs was 2.2% (95% CI 1.4, 3.3). Only 0.5% (95% CI 0.2, 1.2) had erosive disease affecting IPJs and first CMCJs combined. More persons with erosive disease of first CMCJs reported pain in their TB than persons with radiographic TB OA, AUSCAN pain and function scores were similar. Conclusion Erosive disease of first CMCJs was present in 2.2% of subjects with hand pain and was often not accompanied by erosions in IPJs. Erosive disease was associated with TB pain, but not with the level of pain, when compared with radiographic TB OA. PMID:24680934

  1. Prevalence of anxiety and its correlates among older adults in Latin America, India and China: cross-cultural study

    PubMed Central

    Prina, A. Matthew; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Brayne, Carol; Prince, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Anxiety is a common mental disorder among older people who live in the Western world, yet little is known about its prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. Aims We investigated the prevalence of anxiety and its correlates among older adults in low- and middle-income countries with diverse cultures. Method Cross-sectional surveys of all residents aged 65 or over (n = 15 021) in 11 catchment sites in 7 countries (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru) were carried out as part of the 10/66 collaboration. Anxiety was measured by using the Geriatric Mental State Examination (GMS) and the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (AGECAT) diagnostic algorithm. Results The age- and gender-standardised prevalence of anxiety varied greatly across sites, ranging from 0.1% (95% CI 0.0–0.3) in rural China to 9.6% (95% CI 6.2–13.1) in urban Peru. Urban centres had higher estimates of anxiety than their rural counterparts with adjusted (age, gender and site) odds ratios of 2.9 (95% CI 1.7–5.3). Age, gender, socioeconomic status and comorbid physical illnesses were all associated with a GMS/AGECAT diagnosis of anxiety, and so was disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II). Conclusions Anxiety is common in Latin America. Estimates from this region are similar to the ones from high-income European countries found in the literature. As demographic change will occur more rapidly in these countries, further research exploring the mental health of older people in developing areas is vital, with the inclusion of other specific anxiety disorders, along with evidence for strategies for supporting those with these disorders. PMID:22016438

  2. High Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Diabetic Patients Concomitant with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lu; Xin, Zhong; Yuan, Ming-Xia; Cao, Xi; Feng, Jian-Ping; Shi, Jing; Zhu, Xiao-Rong; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Research Design and Methods We conducted a case-controlled study, with data obtained from 2,551 Chinese participants between 18–79 years of age (representing a population of 1,660,500 in a district of Beijing). 74 cases of DR were found following data assessment by two 45° digital retinal images. Subjects without DR (NDR group) selected from the remaining 2,477 subjects were matched 1:1 to the DR group by HbA1c. MetS was defined by incorporating diagnostic criteria of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Results There were no statistical differences between the DR group and NDR group in a number of biological or laboratory tests. However, the percentage of patients with DR increased vs. patients without DR with the number of MetS components from 1 to 5 (14.3% vs. 85.7%, 38.9% vs. 61.1%, 49.1% vs. 50.9%, 61.4% vs. 38.6% and 83.3% vs. 16.7%, respectively) (Pearson χ2 = 9.938, P = 0.037). The trend to develop DR with MetS was significantly higher than that without MetS (NMetS) (χ2 = 5.540, P = 0.019). MetS was an independent statistical indicator of the presence of DR after adjusting for age and sex [odds ratio (95% CI): 2.701(1.248–5.849), P = 0.012], which is still the case with an additional adjustment for WC, SBP, TC, HbA1c and duration of diabetes [odds ratio (95% CI): 2.948(1.134–7.664), P = 0.027]. Conclusion DR is one of the diabetic microvascular complications. Apart from poor glycemic control, the concomitance of other metabolic factors can also influence DR. MetS, defined as a cluster of metabolic risk factors, is a strong and independent indicator of DR, even to the same extent as glycemic control. PMID:26745177

  3. The Correlation of Secondary Organic Aerosol with Odd Oxygen in Mexico City

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from a mountain location intercepting the Mexico City emission plume demonstrate a strong correlation between secondary organic aerosol and odd-oxygen (O3 + NO2). The measured oxygenated-organic aerosol correlates with odd-oxygen measurements with an a...

  4. Into the Cuckoo's Nest: "Silver Linings Playbook" and Movies about Odd People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Odd people have always been identified and often treated differently in human societies. In modern times, they have been described as being afflicted with a psychological condition to be treated by specialists and assigned to a "crazy" category by general society. Movies about such odd people have a long history. A recent movie,…

  5. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  6. Role of T-odd Functions in High Energy Hadronic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Salvo, E.

    2003-07-01

    I propose a simple model for predicting the enegy behavior of T-odd, chiral odd function h1⊥. Furthermore I illustrate a method for extracting h1⊥ and the transversity function from Drell-Yan. The method may be applied also to other reactions.

  7. The Short Supply of Saints: Limits on Replication of Models that "Beat the Odds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Tamara; Jacobsen, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have identified effective practices that allow schools to "beat the odds" and close the reading achievement gap. Although identifying these practices is important, researchers have paid little attention to the work it takes to implement them. Through interviews with teachers who work at schools identified as beating the odds, this…

  8. Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…

  9. The Interplay among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Participants were 258 three-year-old children (138 boys, 120…

  10. Fitting Proportional Odds Models to Educational Data in Ordinal Logistic Regression Using Stata, SAS and SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xing

    2008-01-01

    The proportional odds (PO) model, which is also called cumulative odds model (Agresti, 1996, 2002 ; Armstrong & Sloan, 1989; Long, 1997, Long & Freese, 2006; McCullagh, 1980; McCullagh & Nelder, 1989; Powers & Xie, 2000; O'Connell, 2006), is one of the most commonly used models for the analysis of ordinal categorical data and comes from the class…

  11. Focusing on the Basics in Beat-the-Odds Schools. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowits, Laura; Woempner, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Researchers at Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) recently completed a study of "beat-the-odds" schools--high-needs schools that demonstrated atypically high student achievement. This policy brief draws from the report of the study's findings, "High-Needs Schools--What Does It Take to Beat the Odds?"…

  12. Odd-Mode Surface Plasmon Polaritons Supported by Complementary Plasmonic Metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xi; Zhou, Liang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), either on metal-dielectric interfaces in optical frequencies or on structured metal surfaces in the lower frequencies, are dominantly even modes. Here we discover dominant odd-mode SPPs on a complementary plasmonic metamaterial, which is constructed by complementary symmetric grooves. We show that the fundamental SPP mode on such a plasmonic metamaterial is a tightly confined odd mode, whose dispersion curve can be tuned by the shape of groove. According to the electric field distributions of odd-mode SPPs, we propose a high-efficiency transducer using asymmetric coplanar waveguide and slot line to excite the odd-mode SPPs. Numerical simulations and experimental results validate the high-efficiency excitation and excellent propagation performance of odd-mode SPPs on the complementary plasmonic waveguides in the microwave frequencies. PMID:25783166

  13. Even-odd staggering of the spectroscopic factor as new evidence for α clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delion, D. S.; Dumitrescu, A.; Baran, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We evidence a staggering effect of the experimental spectroscopic factors corresponding to even-even and odd-mass (odd-mass and odd-odd) α emitters. The comparison to the theoretical estimate within the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) approach reveals a similar staggering, but with a different behavior. It turns out that the ratio between corresponding experimental and theoretical spectroscopic factors is proportional to the experimental reduced decay width. A similar dependence was found in a previous work between the strength of the quadrupole-quadrupole α -core interaction, describing the α -decay fine structure and the reduced width. Thus, the even-odd staggering effect in the spectroscopic factor is a new evidence of the α -clustering phenomenon in medium and heavy nuclei.

  14. Prevalence and associated factors of condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yong; Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph TF; Li, Jinghua; Ma, Tiecheng; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, transgender women sex workers have a high prevalence of HIV and condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients (CRAIMC). We investigated the prevalence of CRAIMC and factors associated with CRAIMC among transgender women sex workers in China. Methods In 2014, we anonymously interviewed 220 transgender women sex workers face to face in Shenyang, China. Those who self-reported as HIV negative or as having unknown HIV serostatus were invited to take up free, anonymous HIV rapid testing (n=183); 90 did so. Using CRAIMC in the last month as the dependent variable, three types of associated factors were investigated, in addition to background factors: feminizing medical interventions, sex work and perceptions related to condom use. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Results Of the participants, 16.8% self-reported as HIV positive and 9.1% were detected to be HIV positive through free HIV testing; 26.8% had had CRAIMC in the last month, 45.5% had performed sex work in other Chinese cities (last year), and 23.2% had had condomless anal intercourse with men who were non-clients. In the adjusted analysis, significant factors associated with CRAIMC (last month) included the following: 1) any feminizing medical intervention performed (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 2.22); 2) sex-work-related factors, including recruitment of male clients most often at hotels (AOR: 5.02) and charge per episode of transactional sex (201 to 400 RMB, AOR: 0.27; reference group: ≤100 RMB); and 3) perceptions related to condom use, including perceived transgender identity's impact on condomless sex such as wearing feminine attire, concern about exposing their status as a transgender woman to male clients (AOR: 1.20) and perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients (AOR: 0.56). Perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients fully mediated the association between perceived transgender identity's impact

  15. UK community prevalence of knee chondrocalcinosis: evidence that correlation with osteoarthritis is through a shared association with osteophyte

    PubMed Central

    Neame, R; Carr, A; Muir, K; Doherty, M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To estimate the prevalence of chondrocalcinosis (CC) in the community and to characterise its compartmental distribution within the knee. (2) To investigate the associations between CC and individual radiographic features of osteoarthritis (OA) at the tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) and patellofemoral joint (PFJ). Methods: From three community questionnaire studies investigating the prevalence of knee pain, standing anteroposterior and skyline radiographs were obtained on 1727 subjects (1084 women, 643 men; mean age 63.7; 999 (58%) with knee pain). A single observer recorded the presence and site of CC and graded osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) using a line atlas. "OA" was globally defined as the presence of definite osteophyte and definite JSN. Minimum joint space width (JSW) was measured to 0.1 mm with a metred dial caliper Results: (1) The crude prevalence of CC was 7.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.8 to 8.2). This showed a strong association with age. The age adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for CC in women v men was 0.79 (95% CI 0.52 to 1.12). The age, sex, and knee pain standardised estimate for those aged >40 in Nottingham, UK was 4.5%. Patellofemoral CC was seen in only nine cases, all with tibiofemoral CC. (2) The age-sex aOR for the association between CC and OA was 2.08 at the PFJ (1.38 to 3.12) and 2.00 (1.11 to 3.60) at the TFJ. There was no association between measured JSW and CC at either the PFJ or TFJ. Both total osteophyte score and total number of sites with osteophyte were positively associated with CC; aOR for the upper quartile was 2.40 (1.48 to 3.90) and 1.94 (1.15 to 3.26), respectively. An association between CC and diuretic use was also demonstrated (aOR=2.07, 1.02 to 4.19). Conclusions: In this large UK community study the age, sex, and knee pain adjusted prevalence of CC was 4.5%. There was a strong age association, but no sex predisposition. Patellofemoral CC was uncommon. An association between OA and CC was confirmed

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes in older Vietnam-born Australians.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duong Thuy; Jorm, Louisa R; Johnson, Maree; Bambrick, Hilary; Lujic, Sanja

    2014-02-01

    Vietnamese immigrants in Australia represent the second largest Vietnamese community in developed countries, following the United States. However, limited information is available about prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relative roles of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and Vietnamese ethnicity per se in this population. This study investigated the prevalence of T2D and its risk factors in older Vietnam-born Australians, in comparison to native-born Australians. The study used baseline questionnaire data from 787 Vietnam- and 196,866 Australia-born individuals (≥45 years), who participated in the 45 and Up Study, which is Australia's largest population-based cohort study. Country of birth specific prevalence of T2D and its risk factors were age-standardised to the 2006 Australian population (≥45 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were built for each group to assess the relationship between T2D and socio-demographic characteristics, family history of diabetes, lifestyle factors and health status. Compared to Australia-born counterparts, Vietnam-born individuals had significantly (p < 0.001) higher age-standardised prevalence of T2D (14.7 vs 7.4 %) and significantly (p < 0.001) lower levels of vegetable consumption (≥5 serves/day, 19.4 vs 33.5 %), physical activity (≥5 sessions/week, 68.7 vs 78.5 %) and overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2), 21.5 vs 62.7 %). The increased risk of T2D associated with a family history of diabetes for Vietnam-born people [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.14, 95 % CI 4.15-12.28] was almost double that for Australia-born people (OR 3.77, 95 % CI 3.63-3.90). The patterns of association between T2D and other factors were similar between the two groups. The findings suggest a genetic predisposition to T2D in people of Vietnamese ethnicity. Reducing lifestyle risk factors for diabetes and better management of diabetes are priorities for Vietnam-born populations. PMID

  17. Prevalence dependent calibration of a predictive model for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Published models predicting nasal colonization with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among hospital admissions predominantly focus on separation of carriers from non-carriers and are frequently evaluated using measures of discrimination. In contrast, accurate estimation of carriage probability, which may inform decisions regarding treatment and infection control, is rarely assessed. Furthermore, no published models adjust for MRSA prevalence. Methods Using logistic regression, a scoring system (values from 0 to 200) predicting nasal carriage of MRSA was created using a derivation cohort of 3091 individuals admitted to a European tertiary referral center between July 2007 and March 2008. The expected positive predictive value of a rapid diagnostic test (GeneOhm, Becton & Dickinson Co.) was modeled using non-linear regression according to score. Models were validated on a second cohort from the same hospital consisting of 2043 patients admitted between August 2008 and January 2012. Our suggested correction score for prevalence was proportional to the log-transformed odds ratio between cohorts. Calibration before and after correction, i.e. accurate classification into arbitrary strata, was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow-Test. Results Treating culture as reference, the rapid diagnostic test had positive predictive values of 64.8% and 54.0% in derivation and internal validation corhorts with prevalences of 2.3% and 1.7%, respectively. In addition to low prevalence, low positive predictive values were due to high proportion (> 66%) of mecA-negative Staphylococcus aureus among false positive results. Age, nursing home residence, admission through the medical emergency department, and ICD-10-GM admission diagnoses starting with “A” or “J” were associated with MRSA carriage and were thus included in the scoring system, which showed good calibration in predicting probability of carriage and the rapid diagnostic test’s expected positive

  18. Prevalence of two homologous genes encoding glycosyltransferases of Helicobacter pylori in the United States and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Miyuki; Shiota, Seiji; Matsunari, Osamu; Watada, Masahide; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims jhp0562 and β-(1,3)galT (jhp0563) of Helicobacter pylori have been suggested as novel virulent factors; however the clinical associations and functions of these genes remain unclear. We examined the prevalence of jhp0562, β-(1,3)galT, and cagA in the United States (U.S.) and Japanese populations. Methods A total of 308 strains (171 from the U.S. and 137 from Japan) were examined for the status of jhp0562, β-(1,3)galT, and cagA by polymerase chain reaction. Results There were significant differences in the status of jhp0562, β-(1,3)galT and cagA between the U.S. and Japanese populations (P < 0.001). In the U.S., the prevalence of β-(1,3)galT was significantly lower in strains isolated from patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) or gastric ulcer (GU) than those with gastritis (47.8% and 32.1% vs. 72.0%, P < 0.01), and the absence of β-(1,3)galT was an independent factor discriminating DU and GU from gastritis (adjusted odds ratios, 4.21 and 8.52; 95% confidence intervals, 1.75 to 10.12 and 2.76 to 26.33, respectively). In the U.S., the prevalence of the jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3)galT-negative genotype was significantly higher in strains from DU and GU patients than in those from gastritis patients (50.0%, 67.9%, and 24.4%, P < 0.01) and the cagA status was significantly correlated with that of jhp0562 and inversely correlated with that of β-(1,3)galT. In contrast, the prevalence of these three genes was not significantly different in Japan. Conclusions jhp0562 or β-(1,3)galT can be used to discriminate peptic ulcers from gastritis in the U.S., but not in Japan. PMID:21592227

  19. Deformed ODD-ODD nuclei: Matrix elements for the residual n-p interaction and patterns of alternating perturbations in level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Jain, A.K.; Kvasil, J.; Sood, P.C.; Sheline, R.K.; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL )

    1989-09-01

    The application of a simple semi-empirical model is discussed in terms of interpreting experimental nuclear structure data for twelve of the best characterized odd-odd deformed nuclei. An essential part of this modeling is to calculate values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and Newby shifts, the observables that arise from the n-p residual interaction in odd-odd nuclei. Assumptions regarding the form for this n-p force are traced historically. The predictive power of a favored form of the n-p force, one that includes a central force with short and long-range components, a tensor force, and some effects of core polarization, is examined in light of experimental data obtained since its formulation. A data set of 42 experimentally determined Newby shifts has been reviewed as to the reliability of each entry. Exceptions to a recently proposed rule for the a priori determination of the sign of Newby shift are discussed. Evidence is presented for the existence of an odd-even staggering or signature effect in the rotational spacings of many K{sup {minus}} bands (with K > 0). By use of Coriolis-coupling calculations, it has been possible to reproduce the staggering observed in some of the K{sup {minus}} rotational bands of {sup 156}Tb, {sup 168}Tm, {sup 176}Lu, {sup 182}Ta, and {sup 182}Re. 27 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Prevalence of childhood hearing loss. The Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II.

    PubMed

    Lee, D J; Gomez-Marin, O; Lee, H M

    1996-09-01

    Comparative analysis of the epidemiology of childhood hearing loss was undertaken among African-American, Hispanic-American, and non-Hispanic white children. Audiometric data on children aged 6-19 years were obtained from 688 African Americans, 330 Cuban Americans, 2,602 Mexican Americans, 1,025 Puerto Ricans, and 3,243 non-Hispanic whites who participated in either the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II, 1976-1980, or the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-1984. Hearing loss was defined as a pure-tone decibel hearing threshold level (averaged over 500, 1,000, and 2,000 Hz) greater than 15 in the ear with the best response. The prevalence (per 1,000) of bilateral hearing loss was 17.0 for African-American, 68.3 for Cuban-American, 27.6 for Mexican-American, 57.7 for Puerto Rican, and 15.5 for non-Hispanic white children. Differences in prevalence by ethnicity/race diminished when a more stringent definition of hearing loss (i.e., moderate or greater than 30 dB hearing threshold level) was used. There were no adolescent African-American males aged 16-19 years who had a hearing loss. After adjustment for age, the odds of hearing loss was significantly greater in males than in females only in non-Hispanic whites (odds ratio = 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.6-3.3). On the basis of 1993 census population estimates in the United States, over 819,000 children aged 6-19 years have some degree of hearing impairment, and over 216,000 of these children have moderate or greater hearing impairment. PMID:8781458

  1. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  2. Retrospective analysis of the prevalence of and factors associated with condom use among young HIV-infected women in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Pilapil, Mariecel; Morris, Lee; Saito, Kohta; Kouya, Francine; Maku, Vivian; Kwalar, Rene; Palmer, Nancy; Tih, Pius Muffih; Jao, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Young women are more likely to be infected with HIV globally, in sub-Saharan Africa, and in Cameroon. Despite its clear clinical and public health benefits, condom use among HIV-infected women continues to be low. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of inconsistent condom use among HIV-infected women in Cameroon and the factors associated with it. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected young women aged 17–26 years from three semi-urban HIV clinics in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. This study was a subgroup analysis of a previously reported study on inconsistent condom use in HIV-infected and -uninfected youth. Inconsistent condom use was defined as reporting “sometimes” or “never” to questions regarding frequency of condom use. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine factors associated with inconsistent condom use. Results: A total of 84 participants were recruited and submitted completed questionnaires for analysis. Median age was 24 years (interquartile range = 22–25) and the median age at HIV diagnosis was 21 years (interquartile range = 20–23). Fifty percent of the participants reported no prior schooling or only primary school education. Overall, 61/84 (73%) reported inconsistent condom use. After adjusting for potential confounders, education to the secondary school level was protective against inconsistent condom use (odds ratio = 0.19; confidence interval: 0.04–0.95), and having ≥2 pregnancies was associated with inconsistent condom use (odds ratio = 7.52; confidence interval: 1.67–34.00). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of inconsistent condom use among young HIV-infected women in Cameroon, which appears to be associated with lower levels of educational attainment and higher parity. Further larger studies assessing the factors associated with poor condom use in this population are warranted and may inform public health policy in

  3. Individual and neighborhood correlates of membership in drug using networks with a higher prevalence of HIV in New York City (2006–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Abby E.; Crawford, Natalie D.; Latkin, Carl; Fowler, James H.; Fuller, Crystal M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify individual-/neighborhood-level correlates of membership within high HIV prevalence drug networks. Methods 378 New York City drug users were recruited via respondent-driven sampling (2006–2009). Individual-level characteristics and recruiter-recruit relationships were ascertained and merged with 2000 tract-level US Census data. Descriptive statistics and population average models were used to identify correlates of membership in high HIV prevalence drug networks (>10.54% HIV vs. <10.54% HIV). Results Individuals in high HIV prevalence drug networks were more likely to be recruited in neighborhoods with greater inequality (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=5.85; 95%CI:1.40–24.42), higher valued owner-occupied housing (AOR=1.48;95%CI:1.14–1.92), and a higher proportion of Latinos (AOR=1.83; 95%CI:1.19–2.80). They reported more crack use (AOR=7.23; 95%CI:2.43–21.55), exchange sex (AOR=1.82; 95%CI:1.03–3.23), and recent drug treatment enrollment (AOR=1.62; 95%CI:1.05–2.50) and were less likely to report cocaine use (AOR=0.40; 95%CI:0.20–0.79) and recent homelessness (AOR=0.32; 95%CI:0.17–0.57). Conclusions The relationship between exchange sex, crack use and membership within high HIV prevalence drug networks may suggest an ideal HIV risk target population for intervention. Coupling network-based interventions with those adding risk-reduction and HIV testing/care/adherence counseling services to the standard of care in drug treatment programs should be explored in neighborhoods with increased inequality, higher valued owner-occupied housing, and a greater proportion of Latinos. PMID:23523090

  4. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in children is influenced by their parents' education: results of two cross-sectional studies conducted in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Weber, Andrea S; Haidinger, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an important health problem worldwide. Several studies have shown that a positive family history is a strong risk factor. We studied the prevalence of AD among 23,583 Austrian school children and examined the association between the prevalence of AD in children and their parents' education at two points in time. As part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood programme, two cross-sectional studies were conducted in Upper Austria (Federal State of Austria) between the years 1995-97 (Phase I) and 2001-03 (Phase III). All pupils of pre-school classes and of first and second grade of all elementary schools in seven districts of Upper Austria received standardized questionnaires, resulting in a total of 13,399 (Phase I) and 13,731 (Phase III) children. All variables examined concerning AD showed an increase in prevalence in the age group examined: During the first study, 9.6% of the children ever had eczema diagnosed by a doctor (Phase III: 13.3%), whereas 9.2% ever had symptoms of AD (Phase III: 11.0%). In Phase I, 6.0% of the children had an itchy rash in the past 12 months (Phase III: 6.7%). In both studies, high parental education (i.e. high school or university degree) was an independent statistically significant risk factor for eczema in the child, resulting in an adjusted Odds Ratio between 1.13 and 1.37. In a census-like-survey, we are able to demonstrate a statistically significant association between parental education and the prevalence of AD in their children, which is independent of a possible parental AD. PMID:20444159

  5. HIV Prevalence and Risk among Heterosexual Methamphetamine Injectors in California

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Alex H.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Martinez, Alexis; Lewis, Megan A.; Orr, Alexander; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

    2013-01-01

    This CDC-funded study compares HIV prevalence and risk behavior among heterosexual methamphetamine (n=428) and non-methamphetamine (n=878) injectors in California, USA during 2001–2003. While HIV was not highly prevalent among methamphetamine injectors (3%), sexual and injection risk behaviors were highly prevalent (ranging from 21% to 72%). In multivariate analyses, methamphetamine injectors had higher odds than non-methamphetamine injectors of unprotected vaginal intercourse and sex with five or more sexual partners in the past six months, and of distributive and receptive syringe sharing in the past thirty days. There was no significant difference in HIV sero-status by methamphetamine use. Suggestions are made for designing HIV prevention programs. PMID:21391786

  6. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity. PMID:23181629

  7. Prevalence and degree of bother from pelvic floor disorders in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Emily L.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Nager, Charles W.; Luber, Karl M.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence and bother from pelvic floor disorders (PFD) by obesity severity, hypothesizing that both would increase with higher degrees of obesity. We performed a secondary analysis of 1,155 females enrolled in an epidemiologic study that used a validated questionnaire to identify PFD. Prevalence and degree of bother were compared across three obesity groups. Logistic regression assessed the contribution of degree of obesity to the odds of having PFD. Prevalence of any PFD was highest in morbidly (57%) and severely (53%) obese compared to obese women (44%). Regression models demonstrated higher prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse, overactive bladder, stress urinary incontinence, and any PFD in morbidly compared to obese women and higher prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in severely obese compared to obese women. Degree of bother did not vary by degree of obesity. Prevalence of PFD increases with higher degrees of obesity. PMID:19002365

  8. Even-odd effects in the prompt fission emission of even Z actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, Anabella; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Giubega, Georgiana; Visan, Iuliana

    2016-03-01

    The investigation of even-odd effects in the prompt emission of even Z actinides showed a sawtooth shape of ν(Z) with staggering in the asymmetric fission region. Average prompt emission quantities as a function of A, e.g. ν(A), of even Z fragmentations are higher than those of odd Z fragmentations and they exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units in the asymmetric fission region. This periodicity is not due to the Z even-odd effect in fragment distributions. The even-odd effect in <ν>(TKE) is increasing with increasing TKE and it decreases with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. The global even-odd effect in total average prompt emission quantities is decreasing with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. In the case of an even-odd fissioning nucleus, 234U(n,f), the global even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities exhibits a very slow variation with the incident neutron energy.

  9. High HIV Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors Among Female Sexual Partners of Male Injection Drug Users (MWID) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nadol, Patrick; Tran, Hoang; Hammett, Theodore; Phan, Son; Nguyen, Duong; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Injection drug use is a major factor in acquiring and transmitting HIV in Vietnam. This analysis aims to present estimates of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV infection among female sex partners (FSP) of MWID in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 among males who inject drugs (MWID) who then referred their FSP for a behavioral and biologic survey. In total, 445 MWID and FSPs were enrolled. HIV prevalence among MWID was 50 and 35 % among FSPs. Among FSPs, 60.3 % reported ever using illegal drugs and among those, 72.7 % reported ever injecting illicit drugs. Among FSP, injection drug for >1 year [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR), 95 % CI 2.94, 1.19-7.26), p value = <0.001] and having a male partner infected with HIV [(aOR 3.35: 1.97-5.69), p value = <0.001] were associated with HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection is high among FSP of MWID in HCMC and is highly associated with the injection drug use behavior of the FSP. Harm-reduction intervention programs that focus on the MWID-FSP couple or directly on the FSPs are required. PMID:26271814

  10. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  11. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  12. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  13. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  14. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems.

    PubMed

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E

    2016-06-24

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present. PMID:27391743

  15. Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yazar, Harun Resit

    2013-06-15

    The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  16. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M.; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Rossi, E.

    2016-06-01

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s -wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present.

  17. Understanding relative risk, odds ratio, and related terms: as simple as it can get.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-07-01

    Risk, and related measures of effect size (for categorical outcomes) such as relative risks and odds ratios, are frequently presented in research articles. Not all readers know how these statistics are derived and interpreted, nor are all readers aware of their strengths and limitations. This article examines several measures, including absolute risk, attributable risk, attributable risk percent, population attributable risk percent, relative risk, odds, odds ratio, and others. The concept and method of calculation are explained for each of these in simple terms and with the help of examples. The interpretation of each is presented in plain English rather than in technical language. Clinically useful notes are provided, wherever necessary. PMID:26231012

  18. Even and odd coherent states of supersymmetric harmonic oscillators and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Davood; Motamedinasab, Amin; Anbaraki, Azam; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed even and odd superpositions of supercoherent states, similar to the standard even and odd coherent states of the harmonic oscillator. Then, their nonclassical properties, that is, squeezing and entanglement have been studied. We have observed that even supercoherent states show squeezing behavior for some values of parameters involved, while odd supercoherent states do not show squeezing at all. Also sub-Poissonian statistics have been observed for some ranges of the parameters in both states. We have also shown that these states may be considered as logical qubits which reduce to the Bell states at a limit, with concurrence equal to 1.

  19. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  20. Sustainable Odds: Towards Quantitative Decision Support when Relevant Probabilities are not Available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    There is, at present, no attractive foundation for quantitative probabilistic decision support in the face of model inadequacy, or given ambiguity (deep uncertainty) regarding the relative likelihood of various outcomes, known or unknown. True model error arguably precludes the extraction of objective probabilities from an ensemble of model runs drawn from an available (inadequate) model class, while the acknowledgement of incomplete understanding precludes the justified use of (if not the very formation of) an individual's subjective probabilities. An alternative approach based on Sustainable Odds is proposed and investigated. Sustainable Odds differ from "fair odds" (and are easily distinguished any claim which implying well defined probabilities) as the probabilities implied by sustainable odds summed over all outcomes is expected to exceed one. Traditionally, a person's fair odds are found by identifying the probability level at which one would happily accept either side of a bet, thus the probabilities implied by fair odds always sum to one. Knowing that one has incomplete information and perhaps even erroneous beliefs, there is no compelling reason a rational agent should accept the constraint implied by "fair odds" in any bet. Rather, a rational agent might insist on longer odds both on the event and against the event in order to account for acknowledged ignorance. Let probabilistic odds imply any set of odds for which the implied probabilities sum to one; once model error is acknowledged can one rationally demand non-probabilistic odds? The danger of using fair odds (or probabilities) in decision making is illustrated by considering the risk of ruin a cooperative insurance scheme using probabilistic odds is exposed to. Cases where knowing merely that the insurer's model is imperfect, and nothing else, is sufficient to place bets which drive the insurer to an unexpectedly early ruin are presented. Methodologies which allow the insurer to avoid this early

  1. Sex Differences in Substance Use Among Adult Emergency Department Patients: Prevalence, Severity, and Need for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Francesca L.; Baird, Janette; Liu, Tao; Merchant, Roland C.

    2016-01-01

    between sexes for tobacco and drugs. After sociodemographic factors were adjusted for, women were less likely than men to need any intervention for alcohol (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4 to 0.8), but not other substances: tobacco (OR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.6 to 1.3), marijuana (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6 to 1.1), or other drugs (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7 to 1.7). Conclusions Although men have a higher overall prevalence of substance use, the frequency and severity of use were similar for men and women for most substances. After other characteristics were adjusted for, sex appears associated with the need for interventions for alcohol, but not tobacco, marijuana, or other drugs. PMID:26473942

  2. Dyadic Adjustment and Spiritual Activities in Parents of Children with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Grossoehme, Daniel H.; Szczesniak, Rhonda; Dodd, Caitlin; Opipari-Arrigan, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Children’s diseases can negatively impact marital adjustment and contribute to poorer child health outcomes. To cope with increased marital stress and childhood diseases severity, many people turn to spirituality. While most studies show a positive relationship between spirituality and marital adjustment, spirituality has typically been measured only in terms of individual behaviors. Using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and Daily Phone Diary data from a sample of 126 parents of children with cystic fibrosis as a context for increased marital stress, spiritual behavior of mother-father dyads and of whole families were used as predictors of marital adjustment. Frequency and duration of individual, dyadic and familial spiritual activities correlated positively with dyadic adjustment. Significant differences in spiritual activities existed between couples with marital adjustment scores above and below the cutoff for distress. The only significant factors in regressions of spiritual activities on marital adjustment scores were number of pulmonary exacerbations and parent age. Higher odds of maintaining a marital adjustment score greater than 100 were significantly associated with spending approximately twelve minutes per day in individual, but not conjugal or familial, spiritual activities. The Daily Phone Diary is a feasible tool to study conjugal and familial activities and their relationships with beliefs and attitudes, including spirituality. PMID:26900486

  3. Global variations and time trends in the prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Chan, Michelle P Y; Foster, Paul J; Cook, Derek G; Owen, Christopher G; Rudnicka, Alicja R

    2016-01-01

    Systematic review of published population based surveys to examine the relationship between primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) prevalence and demographic factors. A literature search identified population-based studies with quantitative estimates of POAG prevalence (to October 2014). Multilevel binomial logistic regression of log-odds of POAG was used to examine the effect of age and gender among populations of different geographical and ethnic origins, adjusting for study design factors. Eighty-one studies were included (37 countries, 216 214 participants, 5266 POAG cases). Black populations showed highest POAG prevalence, with 5.2% (95% credible interval (CrI) 3.7%, 7.2%) at 60 years, rising to 12.2% (95% CrI 8.9% to 16.6%) at 80 years. Increase in POAG prevalence per decade of age was greatest among Hispanics (2.31, 95% CrI 2.12, 2.52) and White populations (1.99, 95% CrI 1.86, 2.12), and lowest in East and South Asians (1.48, 95% CrI 1.39, 1.57; 1.56, 95% CrI 1.31, 1.88, respectively). Men were more likely to have POAG than women (1.30, 95% CrI 1.22, 1.41). Older studies had lower POAG prevalence, which was related to the inclusion of intraocular pressure in the glaucoma definition. Studies with visual field data on all participants had a higher POAG prevalence than those with visual field data on a subset. Globally 57.5 million people (95% CI 46.4 to 73.1 million) were affected by POAG in 2015, rising to 65.5 million (95% CrI 52.8, 83.2 million) by 2020. This systematic review provides the most precise estimates of POAG prevalence and shows omitting routine visual field assessment in population surveys may have affected case ascertainment. Our findings will be useful to future studies and healthcare planning. PMID:26286821

  4. A cross sectional study evaluating the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii, potential risk factors for infection, and agreement between diagnostic methods in goats in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Amy E; Hubbard, Kirk R A; Johnson, April J; Messick, Joanne B; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Pogranichniy, Roman M

    2016-04-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the etiologic agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever and is considered to be endemic in domestic ruminants. Small ruminants in particular are important reservoirs for human infection. Serologic and molecular methods are both available for diagnosis of infection with C. burnetii, but there has been little research evaluating the prevalence of this organism in small ruminants outside of the context of clinical disease outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to estimate seroprevalence of C. burnetii and the prevalence of shedding of C. burnetii DNA in milk by goats in Indiana, USA, to evaluate potential risk factors for association with C. burnetii exposure and shedding, and to assess the level of agreement between the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests used to estimate prevalence. A total of 649 does over 1 year of age and not pregnant at the time of sampling were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from 608 does representing 89 farms. Milk samples were collected from 387 does representing 85 farms. Both milk and serum samples were collected from 356 does representing 80 farms. The estimated individual seroprevalence and shedding prevalence in milk adjusted for clustering were 3.1% (n=23/608, 95% CI: 1.2-7.0%) and 2.5% (n=9/387, 9.5% CI: 1.0-5.6%) respectively. Estimated adjusted herd level C. burnetii seroprevalence and herd level shedding prevalence were 11.5% (n=10/89, 95% CI: 6.4-20.1%) and 7.0% (n=6/85, 95% CI: 3.3-14.6%) respectively. Based on a generalized estimating equation model (GEE), meat breeds of goat had 7.0 times increased odds of shedding C. burnetii DNA in milk samples as compared to dairy breeds. Agreement between tests as determined by Cohen's kappa was poor at both the individual (kappa=0.04, 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.2) and herd (kappa=0.2, 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.5) levels. This indicates that serologic screening alone is unlikely to prevent the introduction

  5. Lipid Adjustment for Chemical Exposures: Accounting for Concomitant Variables

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daniel; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Dunson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Some environmental chemical exposures are lipophilic and need to be adjusted by serum lipid levels before data analyses. There are currently various strategies that attempt to account for this problem, but all have their drawbacks. To address such concerns, we propose a new method that uses Box-Cox transformations and a simple Bayesian hierarchical model to adjust for lipophilic chemical exposures. Methods We compared our Box-Cox method to existing methods. We ran simulation studies in which increasing levels of lipid-adjusted chemical exposure did and did not increase the odds of having a disease, and we looked at both single-exposure and multiple-exposures cases. We also analyzed an epidemiology dataset that examined the effects of various chemical exposures on the risk of birth defects. Results Compared with existing methods, our Box-Cox method produced unbiased estimates, good coverage, similar power, and lower type-I error rates. This was the case in both single- and multiple-exposure simulation studies. Results from analysis of the birth-defect data differed from results using existing methods. Conclusion Our Box-Cox method is a novel and intuitive way to account for the lipophilic nature of certain chemical exposures. It addresses some of the problems with existing methods, is easily extendable to multiple exposures, and can be used in any analyses that involve concomitant variables. PMID:24051893

  6. Factors Associated with Prevalent Tuberculosis Among Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Iroezindu, MO; Ofondu, EO; Mbata, GC; van Wyk, B; Hausler, HP; DH, Au; Lynen, L; Hopewell, PC

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity/mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals in Africa. Reducing TB burden in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a public health priority. Aim: We determined the factors associated with prevalent TB among patients receiving HAART. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients who had received HAART for ≥12 weeks in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Patients whose TB diagnosis predated HAART were excluded from the study. Pre-HAART data were collected from the clinic records, whereas post-HAART data were obtained through medical history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Standard TB screening/diagnostic algorithms as applicable in Nigeria were used. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors independently associated with prevalent TB. Results: about 65.8% (222/339) were women. The mean age was 41.1 (10.0) years and 23.6% (73/339) had past history of TB. The prevalence of active TB was 7.7% (26/339). Among these patients, 42.3% (11/26) had pulmonary TB, 34.6% (9/26) had disseminated TB, whereas 23.1% (6/26) had only extra-pulmonary disease. Only 45% (9/20) of patients with pulmonary involvement had positive sputum smear. Factors independently associated with prevalent TB were lower social class (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 31.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–1417.3), HAART non-adherence (aOR125.5; 95% CI: 9.6–1636.3), baseline CD4 <200cells/μl (aOR31.0; 95%CI: 1.6–590.6), previous TB (aOR13.8; 95% CI: 2.0–94.1), and current hemoglobin <10 g/dl (aOR10.3; 95% CI: 1.1–99.2). Conclusion: Factors associated with prevalent TB were a lower social class, HAART non-adherence, severe immunosuppression before HAART initiation, previous TB, and anemia post-HAART. TB case finding should be intensified in these high-risk groups. PMID:27213096

  7. The Prevalence and Incidence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Its Associated Factors among Village Doctors in China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Haiying; Gao, Fangfang; Gao, Fei; Han, Guoxin; Ren, Liping; Song, Yudan; Xiong, Yongchao; Geng, Mengjie; Hou, Yueyun; He, Guoming; Li, Jianbo; Guo, Shufang; Yang, Jun; Yan, Daiqin; Wang, Yali; Gao, Haiyan; An, Jing; Duan, Xiaoyan; Wu, Chunru; Duan, Fengming; Hu, Dongmei; Lu, Kai; Zhao, Yanlin; Rao, Carol Y.; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background China is a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country. More than half of acute TB cases first seek medical care in village doctors’ clinics or community health centers. Despite being responsible for patient referral and management, village doctors are not systematically evaluated for TB infection or disease. We assessed prevalence and incidence of latent TB infection (LTBI) among village doctors in China. Methods and Findings A longitudinal study was conducted in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. We administered a questionnaire on demographics and risk factors for TB exposure and disease; Tuberculin skin testing (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube assay (QFT-GIT) was conducted at baseline and repeated 12 months later. We used a logistic regression model to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for risk factors for TST and QFT-GIT prevalence and incidence. At the time of follow up, 19.5% of the 880 participating village doctors had a positive TST and 46.0% had a positive QFT-GIT result. Factors associated with TST prevalence included having a BCG scar (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.03–2.04) and smoking (OR = 1.69, 95%CI 1.17–2.44). Risk factors associated with QFT-GIT prevalence included being male (OR = 2.17, 95%CI 1.63–2.89), below college education (OR=1.42, 95%CI 1.01–1.97), and working for ≥25 years as a village doctor (OR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.12–2.39). The annual incidence of LTBI was 11.4% by TST and 19.1% by QFT-GIT. QFT-GIT conversion was associated with spending 15 minutes or more per patient on average (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.39–4.97) and having BCG scar (OR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.28–1.00). Conclusions Prevalence and incidence of LTBI among Chinese village doctors is high. TB infection control measures should be strengthened among village doctors and at village healthcare settings. PMID:25996960

  8. Prevalence of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers in Kisumu, Western Kenya, 1997 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Vandenhoudt, Hilde M.; Langat, Lilian; Menten, Joris; Odongo, Fredrick; Oswago, Simon; Luttah, Geoffrey; Zeh, Clement; Crucitti, Tania; Laserson, Kayla; Vulule, John; Buve, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1997, a survey in Kisumu found a prevalence of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSW) of 75%. Only 50% reported using a condom with the last client. In 2008, we conducted another survey to collect data to inform an intervention targeting FSW in Kisumu. Methods In 2008 FSW were recruited by respondent-driven sampling. Women completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to explore factors associated with HIV-infection, and with condom use. Prevalence of HIV infection was compared in the two surveys from 1997 and 2008. Multivariate analysis was used to assess whether a change in HIV prevalence between the two surveys could be explained by changes in socio-demographic characteristics and/or behavioral factors. Results 481 FSW participated in the 2008 study. HIV prevalence was 56.5% (95% CI 52.0–61.6). Factors independently associated with HIV were age older than 29 years; being a widow; STI treatment in the past year; herpes simplex virus Type-2 infection; bacterial vaginosis; and trichomoniasis. Condom use with last client was reported by 75.0% (95% CI 70.9–78.9). Predictors of condom use with the last client were age older than 29 years; higher price paid by last client; ever having been tested for HIV. Predictors of unprotected sex were being drunk during last sex act; usually having sex during menses; and STI treatment in the past year. The odds ratio of HIV infection associated with year of survey was 0.49 (95% CI 0.33–0.75) after adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Conclusions The prevalence of HIV among FSW in Kisumu was found to be lower in 2008 than in 1997, while reported condom use was higher. However, access to HIV/STI prevention and care services needs to improve to further decrease HIV transmission between FSW and their clients. PMID:23372801

  9. Regional Differences of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Prevalence Are Not Explained by Known Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Teresa; Schipf, Sabine; Meisinger, Christine; Schunk, Michaela; Maier, Werner; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Nauck, Matthias; Peters, Annette; Völzke, Henry; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously found regional differences in the prevalence of known type 2 diabetes between northeastern and southern Germany. We aim to also provide prevalence estimates for prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated glucose intolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG and IGT) and unknown type 2 diabetes for both regions. Methods Prevalence (95%CI) of prediabetes (i-IFG: fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/l; i-IGT: 2 h postchallenge gluose 7.8–11.0 mmol/l, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), ≥8 h overnight fasting) and unknown diabetes were analyzed in two regional population-based surveys (age group 35–79 years): SHIP-TREND (Study of Health in Pomerania (northeast), 2008–2012) and KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the region of Augsburg (south), 2006–2008). Both studies used similar methods, questionnaires, and identical protocols for OGTT. Overall, 1,980 participants from SHIP-TREND and 2,617 participants from KORA F4 were included. Results Age-sex-standardized prevalence estimates (95%CI) of prediabetes and unknown diabetes were considerably higher in the northeast (SHIP-TREND: 43.1%; 40.9–45.3% and 7.1%; 5.9–8.2%) than in the south of Germany (KORA F4: 30.1%; 28.4–31.7% and 3.9%; 3.2–4.6%), respectively. In particular, i-IFG (26.4%; 24.5–28.3% vs. 17.2%; 15.7–18.6%) and IFG+IGT (11.2%; 9.8–12.6% vs. 6.6%; 5.7–7.5%) were more frequent in SHIP-TREND than in KORA. In comparison to normal glucose tolerance, the odds of having unknown diabetes (OR, 95%CI: 2.59; 1.84–3.65) or prediabetes (1.98; 1.70–2.31) was higher in the northeast than in the south after adjustment for known risk factors (obesity, lifestyle). Conclusions The regional differences of prediabetes and unknown diabetes are in line with the geographical pattern of known diabetes in Germany. The higher prevalences in the northeast were not explained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25402347

  10. Prevalence of measles antibodies among health care workers in Catalonia (Spain) in the elimination era

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interruption of measles transmission was achieved in Catalonia (Spain) in 2000. Six years later, a measles outbreak occurred between August 2006 and June 2007 with 381 cases, 11 of whom were health care workers (HCW). The objective was to estimate susceptibility to measles in HCW and related demographic and occupational characteristics. Methods A measles seroprevalence study was carried out in 639 HCW from six public tertiary hospitals and five primary healthcare areas. Antibodies were tested using the Vircell Measles ELISA IgG Kit. Data were analyzed according to age, sex, type of HCW, type of centre and vaccination history. The odds ratios (OR) and their 95% CI were calculated to determine the variables associated with antibody prevalence. OR were adjusted using logistic regression. Positive predictive values (PPV) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of having two documented doses of a measles containing vaccine (MCV) for the presence of measles antibodies and of reporting a history of measles infection were calculated. Results The prevalence of measles antibodies in HCW was 98% (95% CI 96.6-98.9), and was lower in HCW born in 1981 or later, after the introduction of systematic paediatric vaccination (94.4%; 95% CI 86.4-98.5) and higher in HCW born between 1965 and 1980 (99.0%; 95% CI 97.0-99.8). Significant differences were found for HCW born in 1965–1980 with respect to those born in 1981 and after (adjusted OR of 5.67; 95% CI: 1.24-25.91). A total of 187 HCW reported being vaccinated: the proportion of vaccinated HCW decreased with age. Of HCW who reported being vaccinated, vaccination was confirmed by the vaccination card in 49%. Vaccination with 2 doses was documented in only 50 HCW, of whom 48 had measles antibodies. 311 HCW reported a history of measles. The PPV of having received two documented doses of MCV was 96% (95% CI 86.3-99.5) and the PPV of reporting a history of measles was 98.7% (95% CI 96.7-99.6). Conclusions Screening to detect

  11. Depression and emotional stress is highly prevalent among women with recurrent pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Kolte, A.M.; Olsen, L.R.; Mikkelsen, E.M.; Christiansen, O.B.; Nielsen, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is the prevalence of psychological stress and moderate/severe depression higher for women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) than pregnancy planners trying to conceive naturally? SUMMARY ANSWER Both psychological stress and major depression are significantly more common among women with RPL than in those trying to conceive naturally. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY RPL has a significant emotional impact on couples, especially the woman. Previous studies have shown inconclusive results. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION In this cross-sectional study, we compared the prevalence of stress and depression among 301 women with RPL and 1813 women attempting to conceive naturally. We defined RPL as three or more pregnancy losses before 12 weeks' gestation. RPL patients were enrolled from 2010 to 2013 and the comparison group from 2011 to 2014. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS RPL patients completed an online questionnaire before their first consultation at the Danish RPL Unit. In addition, we included data from a comparison group of 1813 women who participated in the Soon Parents Study (www.SnartForældre.dk). The Major Depression Index (MDI) was used to assess symptoms of depression, and Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used to measure stress. Relevant demographic data were also retrieved. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Of the RPL patients, 26 (8.6%) had a score on the MDI corresponding to moderate/severe depression, as did 40 (2.2%) of the women in Soon Parents Study (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 5.53 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.09; 14.61)). A high stress level, defined as ≥19 on the PSS scale, was reported by 124 (41.2%) of the patients and 420 (23.2%) in the comparison group (adjusted OR 1.59 (95% CI 1.03; 2.44)). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION We used online questionnaires, and have no interview data. We were unaware if any of the women in the comparison group suffer from RPL. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS This study should entail a

  12. Final RQ adjustments rule issued

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    On June 12, 1995, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its long awaited final rule adjusting certain reportable quantities (RQs) for hazardous substances under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The rule: revises the table of hazardous substances to add 47 individual Clean Air Act (CAA) hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); adjustments their statutory one-pound RQs; adds five other CAA HAPs that are categories of substances and assigns no RQ to the categories; and adjusts RQs for 11 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed hazardous wastes. EPA made conforming changes to the Clean Water Act table of hazardous substances and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) table of extremely hazardous substances. The rule became effective July 12, 1995.

  13. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  14. Sarcocystis spp. in llamas (Lama glama) in Southern Bolivia: a cross sectional study of the prevalence, risk factors and loss in income caused by carcass downgrades.

    PubMed

    Rooney, A L; Limon, G; Vides, H; Cortez, A; Guitian, J

    2014-10-01

    Llamas (Lama glama) are intermediate hosts of the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis spp. This parasite is described as causing economic losses in the production of llama meat in South America. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence, identify risk factors and explore spatial patterns of Sarcocystis in llamas in an area of the Bolivian High Plateau including estimating financial losses due to carcass downgrades as a result of the presence of Sarcocystis cysts. Information was collected from a local abattoir between 2006 and 2011 on 1196 llamas. Sarcocystis status was determined at meat inspection where any carcasses with one or more visible cysts were deemed Sarcocystis positive. A high prevalence was found, estimated to vary between 23.4% (95% CI 16.6-30.1) in 2007 and 50.3% (95% CI 44.4-56.3) in 2011. Period prevalence between 2006 and 2011 was estimated at 34.1% (95% CI 31.4-36.8). Age, sex and type (analogous to breed) were identified as risk factors for Sarcocystis using a mixed-effects logistic regression model adjusting for clustering by community and owner. Llamas over 4.5 years of age had an increased odds of being Sarcocystis positive (OR 19.31, 95% CI 9.10-40.98) as well as females (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13-2.68) and long haired type llamas (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.26-2.87). An interaction between age and sex was detected indicating that the increased odds of disease from the youngest age group to the 2.5-4.5 years group was much more pronounced in females than in males. Spatial patterns of Sarcocystis were explored at district level by means of Standardised Morbidity Ratios and some spatial heterogeneity was revealed. Estimates of financial loss due to the disease were calculated using the difference in price paid for Sarcocystis positive and negative meat. Loss due to Sarcocystis varied per year but could be up to 20% of the annual income generated through the abattoir by sale of meat. Overall this study shows a high prevalence of Sarcocystis in the study

  15. Functional disability of adults in Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Galvão, Taís Freire; Pereira, Maurício Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with functional disability in adults in Brazil. METHODS We used information from the health supplement of the National Household Sample Survey in 2008. The dependent variable was the functional disability among adults of 18 to 65 years, measured by the difficulty of walking about 100 meters; independent variables were: health plan membership, region of residence, state of domicile, education level, household income, economic activity, self-perception of health, hospitalization, chronic diseases, age group, sex, and color. We calculated the gross odds ratios (OR), and their respective confidence intervals (95%), and adjusted them for variables of study by ordinal logistic regression, following hierarchical model. Sample weights were considered in all calculations. RESULTS We included 18,745 subjects, 74.0% of whom were women. More than a third of adults reported having functional disability. The disability was significantly higher among men (OR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.09;1.27), people from 35 to 49 years (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.17;1.45) and 50 to 65 years (OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.24;1.54); economically inactive individuals (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.65;2.96); adults who reported heart disease (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03;1.24), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.05;1.29), arterial systemic hypertension (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02;1.18), and arthritis/rheumatism (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.15;1.34); and participants who were admitted in the last 12 months (OR = 2.35; 95%CI 1.73;3.2). CONCLUSIONS Functional disability is common among Brazilian adults. Hospitalization is the most strongly associated factor, followed by economic activity, and chronic diseases. Sex, age, education, and income are also associated. Results indicate specific targets for actions that address the main factors associated with functional disabilities and contribute to the projection of interventions for the improvement of the well-being and promotion of adults

  16. Physical abuse during pregnancy: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Muhajarine, N; D'Arcy, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Violence during pregnancy is a health and social problem that poses particular risks to the woman and her fetus. To address the lack of Canadian information on this issue, the authors studied the prevalence and predictors of physical abuse in a sample of pregnant women in Saskatoon. METHODS: Of 728 women receiving prenatal services through the Saskatoon District public health system between Apr. 1, 1993, and Mar. 31, 1994, 605 gave informed consent to participate in the study and were interviewed in the second trimester. Of these, 543 were interviewed again late in the third trimester. During the initial interview, information was collected on the women's sociodemographic characteristics, the current pregnancy, health practices and psychosocial variables. The second interview focused on the women's experience of physical abuse during the pregnancy and during the preceding year, the demographic characteristics and the use of alcohol or illicit drugs by their male partner. RESULTS: In all, 31 (5.7%) of the women reported experiencing physical abuse during pregnancy; 46 (8.5%) reported experiencing it within the 12 months preceding the second interview. Of the 31 women 20 (63.3%) reported that the perpetrator was her husband, boyfriend or ex-husband. Although all ethnic groups of women suffered abuse, aboriginal women were at greater risk than nonaboriginal women (adjusted odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-7.8). Women whose partner had a drinking problem were 3.4 times (95% CI 1.2-9.9) more likely to have been abused than women whose partner did not have a drinking problem. Perceived stress and number of negative life events in the preceding year were also predictors of abuse. Abused women tended to report having fewer people with whom they could talk about personal issues or get together; however, they reported socializing with a larger number of people in the month before the second interview than did the women who were not abused

  17. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the ‘rules’ of plating

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1–6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  18. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W A

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  19. Changing the Odds: A North Carolina Family's Search to Help Those with TBI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI Past Issues / ... with traumatic brain injury (TBI)—and changed his family's life forever. "Back then there were no roadmaps ...

  20. Odd-even dependence of rectifying behavior in carbon chains modified diphenyl-dimethyl molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiu-Hua; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Hai-Ying; Liu, De-Sheng; Chen, Gang

    2014-06-01

    Using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of asymmetric nonequi-length carbon chains on the electron transport properties of diphenyl-dimethyl molecule. The results show significant odd-even dependence: the rectification appears only in the hybrid nanostructure with odd carbon chain on one side and even carbon chain on the other side, while it is negligible in those with odd/even carbon chain on both sides. The mechanism for the odd-even dependence of rectification is analyzed by the bias-dependent transmission spectra, evolution of molecular orbital levels, their spatial distributions, and projected density of states with the applied bias.

  1. Appearance of p-odd nuclear forces in photoproduction of pions on /sup 6/Li

    SciTech Connect

    Rekalo, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies P-odd effects in the photoproduction of pions on Li-6 nuclei, ..gamma.. + Li-6 ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/ + He-6. Collisions of linearly and circularly polarized photons with a polarized nuclear target are studied, and in addition both vectorial and tensorial polarization are taken into account. It is shown that in the general case P-odd effects in ..gamma.. + Li-6..--> pi../sup +/ + He-6 are characterized by 18 real structure functions, which determine different P-odd asymmetries in the angular distribution of the pions. The structure functions in their turn depend on different products of three p-even and three p-odd amplitudes of the process.

  2. Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI Past Issues / ... with traumatic brain injury (TBI)—and changed his family's life forever. "Back then there were no roadmaps ...

  3. Testing Lorentz invariance using an odd-parity asymmetric optical resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Baynes, Fred N.; Luiten, Andre N.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2011-10-15

    We present the first experimental test of Lorentz invariance using the frequency difference between counter-propagating modes in an asymmetric odd-parity optical resonator. This type of test is {approx}10{sup 4} more sensitive to odd-parity and isotropic (scalar) violations of Lorentz invariance than equivalent conventional even-parity experiments due to the asymmetry of the optical resonator. The disadvantages of odd-parity resonators have been negated by the use of counter-propagating modes, delivering a high level of immunity to environmental fluctuations. With a nonrotating experiment our result limits the isotropic Lorentz violating parameter {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} to 3.4{+-}6.2x10{sup -9}, the best reported constraint from direct measurements. Using this technique the bounds on odd-parity and scalar violations of Lorentz invariance can be improved by many orders of magnitude.

  4. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  5. A set of exactly solvable Ising models with half-odd-integer spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Onofre; de Souza, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    We present a set of exactly solvable Ising models, with half-odd-integer spin- S on a square-type lattice including a quartic interaction term in the Hamiltonian. The particular properties of the mixed lattice, associated with mixed half-odd-integer spin- (S,1/2) and only nearest-neighbor interaction, allow us to map this system either onto a purely spin-1/2 lattice or onto a purely spin- S lattice. By imposing the condition that the mixed half-odd-integer spin- (S,1/2) lattice must have an exact solution, we found a set of exact solutions that satisfy the free fermion condition of the eight vertex model. The number of solutions for a general half-odd-integer spin- S is given by S+1/2. Therefore we conclude that this transformation is equivalent to a simple spin transformation which is independent of the coordination number.

  6. Adjustable spacer with rotational lock

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, M.L.

    1984-02-28

    A spacing apparatus for tubing conduit in a subterranean well, normally for use with an electric component with a longitudinally extending external electrical cable, permits irrotational adjustment of the length of the tubing conduit. The spacing apparatus comprises telescoping members which are keyed to prevent rotation therebetween. A threaded member, longitudinally fixed relative to one longitudinal member, normally engages threads extending substantially along the entire length of the other telescoping member. Movement of a retaining sleeve permits disengagement of the threaded segments which ratchet along the threads during telescoping movement. The length of the conduit can thus be irrotationally adjusted to remove slack from the electrical cable.

  7. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  8. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  9. Adjustment Disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Adjustment Disorder is a condition strongly tied to acute and chronic stress. Despite clinical suggestion of a large prevalence in the general population and the high frequency of its diagnosis in the clinical settings, there has been relatively little research reported and, consequently, very few hints about its treatments. Methods the authors gathered old and current information on the epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidity, treatment and outcome of adjustment disorder by a systematic review of essays published on PUBMED. Results After a first glance at its historical definition and its definition in the DSM and ICD systems, the problem of distinguishing AD from other mood and anxiety disorders, the difficulty in the definition of stress and the implied concept of 'vulnerability' are considered. Comorbidity of AD with other conditions, and outcome of AD are then analyzed. This review also highlights recent data about trends in the use of antidepressant drugs, evidence on their efficacy and the use of psychotherapies. Conclusion AD is a very common diagnosis in clinical practice, but we still lack data about its rightful clinical entity. This may be caused by a difficulty in facing, with a purely descriptive methods, a "pathogenic label", based on a stressful event, for which a subjective impact has to be considered. We lack efficacy surveys concerning treatment. The use of psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants, in AD with anxious or depressed mood is not properly supported and should be avoided, while the usefulness of psychotherapies is more solidly supported by clinical evidence. To better determine the correct course of therapy, randomized-controlled trials, even for the combined use of drugs and psychotherapies, are needed vitally, especially for the resistant forms of AD. PMID:19558652

  10. Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Teryaev, O.V.

    2015-04-10

    Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.

  11. Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2010-09-01

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.

  12. Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2010-09-15

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.

  13. Working Long Hours is Associated with Higher Prevalence of Diabetes in Urban Male Chinese Workers: The Rosai Karoshi Study.

    PubMed

    Tayama, Jun; Li, Jue; Munakata, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between number of weekly working hours and the prevalence of diabetes in the urban Chinese population. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose level and number of hours worked per week were collected from 2228 workers in Shanghai, China (Mage  = 44 years; 64% men). Participants were divided into three groups according to the number of hours worked per week (<45, 45-54 and ≥55), and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted with diabetes as the dependent variable. Subjects with a HbA1c of 6.5% or above or those prescribed anti-diabetic medications were defined as having diabetes. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio for having diabetes was found to be significantly higher for those who worked ≥55 h per week compared with those who worked <45 h per week, but only for men. This finding indicates that working long hours could be a risk factor for diabetes in Chinese male workers. PMID:24789310

  14. Visual adjustments to temporal blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilson, Aaron C.; Mizokami, Yoko; Webster, Michael A.

    2005-10-01

    After observers have adapted to an edge that is spatially blurred or sharpened, a focused edge appears too sharp or blurred, respectively. These adjustments to blur may play an important role in calibrating spatial sensitivity. We examined whether similar adjustments influence the perception of temporal edges, by measuring the appearance of a step change in the luminance of a uniform field after adapting to blurred or sharpened transitions. Stimuli were square-wave alternations (at 1 to 8 Hz) filtered by changing the slope of the amplitude spectrum. A two-alternative-forced-choice task was used to adjust the slope until it appeared as a step change, or until it matched the perceived transitions in a reference stimulus. Observers could accurately set the waveform to a square wave, but only at the slower alternation rates. However, these settings were strongly biased by prior adaptation to filtered stimuli, or when the stimuli were viewed within temporally filtered surrounds. Control experiments suggest that the latter induction effects result directly from the temporal blur and are not simply a consequence of brightness induction in the fields. These results suggest that adaptation and induction adjust visual coding so that images are focused not only in space but also in time.

  15. Self-Adjusting Fluency Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Presents a rationale and methodology for a self-adjusting "fluency sensitive" approach to working with children who exhibit overt speech-fluency interruptions and a minimal amount of avoidance behavior. The approach emphasizes repeated experiences of volitional increases and decreases in loudness and pauses. Case examples demonstrate how several…

  16. Adjustable Walker for the Handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Front legs adjust at touch of lever for use on stairs or ramps. Spring loaded legs extend when lever is depressed by user. Legs lock in position when lever is released. Lever mounted on either side of walker or on both sides, so legs operated independently.

  17. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  18. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  19. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil, 2005 through 2009: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C chronic liver disease is a major cause of liver transplant in developed countries. This article reports the first nationwide population-based survey conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV antibodies and associated risk factors in the urban population of Brazil. Methods The cross sectional study was conducted in all Brazilian macro-regions from 2005 to 2009, as a stratified multistage cluster sample of 19,503 inhabitants aged between 10 and 69 years, representing individuals living in all 26 State capitals and the Federal District. Hepatitis C antibodies were detected by a third-generation enzyme immunoassay. Seropositive individuals were retested by Polymerase Chain Reaction and genotyped. Adjusted prevalence was estimated by macro-regions. Potential risk factors associated with HCV infection were assessed by calculating the crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and p values. Population attributable risk was estimated for multiple factors using a case–control approach. Results The overall weighted prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies was 1.38% (95% CI: 1.12%–1.64%). Prevalence of infection increased in older groups but was similar for both sexes. The multivariate model showed the following to be predictors of HCV infection: age, injected drug use (OR = 6.65), sniffed drug use (OR = 2.59), hospitalization (OR = 1.90), groups socially deprived by the lack of sewage disposal (OR = 2.53), and injection with glass syringe (OR = 1.52, with a borderline p value). The genotypes 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b), 2b and 3a were identified. The estimated population attributable risk for the ensemble of risk factors was 40%. Approximately 1.3 million individuals would be expected to be anti-HCV-positive in the country. Conclusions The large estimated absolute numbers of infected individuals reveals the burden of the disease in the near future, giving rise to costs for the health care system and society at

  1. Acute malnutrition among under-five children in Faryab, Afghanistan: prevalence and causes

    PubMed Central

    Frozanfar, Muhammad Kamel; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Yamamoto, Eiko; Reyer, Joshua A.; Dalil, Suraya; Rahimzad, Abdullah Darman; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute malnutrition affects more than 50 million under-five (U5) children, causing 8.0% of global child deaths annually. The prevalence of acute malnutrition (wasting) among U5 children in Afghanistan was 9.5% nationally and 3.7% in Faryab province in 2013. A cross-sectional study was conducted for 600 households in Faryab to find the prevalence and causes of acute malnutrition. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a logistic model. Demographic results of this study showed that 54.0% of the household heads and 92.3% of the mothers had no education. Three-fourths of households had a monthly income ≤ 250 USD. According to the measurement of weight for height Z-score (WHZ), 35.0% (210/600) of the children had acute malnutrition (wasting, WHZ < −2). In more than half of the households, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions were poor. When adjusted, a significant association of acute malnutrition among U5 children was found with the education level of household heads (OR=1.49; 95% CI, 1.02–2.17), age of household heads (OR=2.01; 95% CI, 1.21–3.35), income (OR=1.66; 95% CI, 1.04–2.27), education level of mothers (OR=2.21; 95% CI, 1.00–4.88), age of children (OR=1.99; 95% CI, 1.32–2.93), history of children with diarrhea in the last two weeks of data collection (OR=1.57; 95% CI, 1.10–2.27), feeding frequency (OR=3.01; 95% CI, 1.21–7.46), water sources (OR=1.89; 95% CI, 1.26–2.83), and iodized salt (OR=0.59; 95% CI, 0.39–0.88). The present study indicated that an increase in education level of parents, household income, and quality of WASH would result in a significant decrease in prevalence of wasting among U5 children. PMID:27019527

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hearing Loss Using the Korean Working Conditions Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives The hearing loss of workers can occur when they are affected by age, otologic disease, and work-related risks such as noise and chemicals. Based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) in 2010, this research aimed to estimate the prevalence rate of hearing loss and to identify the risk factors affecting its occurrence. Subjects and Methods The subjects were 10019 employees who completed an interview conducted as part of KWCS in 2010. The prevalence rate of hearing loss according to sex, age, education, income, smoking, drinking, hypertension, industrial type, occupations, employment status, working period, and hazards at the workplace were assessed. The factors that could affect the occurrence of hearing loss were investigated based on a logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence rate of hearing loss was 2.7%. In a logistic multivariate analysis, sex, age, occupations, working period, noise, and exposure to chemicals showed statistically significant correlations to the occurrence of hearing loss. The adjusted odd ratios were as follows: 1.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-2.96] for males, 2.11 (95% CI, 1.14-3.89) for those in their 40s, 2.24 (95% CI, 1.19-4.20) for those in their 50s, 2.21 (95% CI, 1.18-4.15) for manage/professional works, 2.73 (95% CI, 1.69-4.41) for manufacturing, 2.07 (95% CI, 1.36-3.15) for those who have worked for more than 20 years, 1.72 (95% CI, 1.14-2.58) for noise exposure, 1.53 (95% CI, 1.02-2.30) for vibration exposure and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.11-2.24) for chemical exposure. Conclusions The overall occupational and non-occupational risk factors related to employees' hearing loss were reviewed. In addition to the exposure to noise, occupational risks of hearing loss, such as isolated exposure to vibration and chemicals, and combined exposure to noise and these hazards, were identified. Multiple exposure to hazards, along with prolonged noise exposure increased the risk of hearing loss. PMID

  3. Sex prevalence of major congenital anomalies in the United Kingdom: A national population-based study and international comparison meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sokal, Rachel; Tata, Laila J; Fleming, Kate M

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess sex differences in major congenital anomaly (CA) diagnoses within a national population sample; to examine the influence of sociodemographic and maternal factors on these risks; and to conduct a meta-analysis using estimates from other population-based studies. Methods We conducted a population-based study in a United Kingdom research database of prospectively collected primary care data (The Health Improvement Network) including children born 1990 to 2009 (n = 794,169) and identified major CA diagnoses using EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) classification. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate the risk of CA in males compared with females for any CA, system-specific subgroups and specific CA diagnoses. In a subpopulation of children whose medical records were linked to their mothers', we assessed the effect of adjusting for sociodemographic and maternal factors on sex odds ratios. PRs were pooled with measures from previously published studies. Results The prevalence of any CA was 307/10,000 in males (95% CI, 302–313) and 243/10,000 in females (95% CI, 238–248). Overall the risk of any CA was 26% greater in males (PR (male: female) 1.26, 95% CI, 1.23–1.30) however there was considerable variation across specific diagnoses. The magnitude and direction of risk did not change for any specific CA upon adjustment for sociodemographic and maternal factors. Our PRs were highly consistent with those from previous studies. Conclusion The overall risk of CA is greater in males than females, although this masked substantial variation by specific diagnoses. Sociodemographic and maternal factors do not appear to affect these risks. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 100:79–91, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24523198

  4. Dystocia in dromedary camels: Prevalence, forms, risks and hematobiochemical changes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed; Derar, Derar; Tharwat, Mohamed; Zeitoun, Moustafa M; Alsobyil, Fahd A

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of dystocia in camel herds, its forms in primi- and multipara, the risks to fetus and dam, and the associated hematobiochemical changes. A total of 1890 calvings were surveyed for the prevalence of dystocia. Cases with dystocia (n=107) were examined for causes and treated with traction, fetotomy or Cesarean section. Logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors. The dependent variables were the fetal and maternal mortality, while the independent variables were parity, duration of dystocia, causes of dystocia, and method of treatment. Blood samples were collected from all dystocia camels and six controls for hematology and concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), estradiol-17β (E2), progesterone (P4), total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The overall prevalence of dystocia was 8.6%. Risk of dystocia was higher in camels managed in an intensive system than in those in a free system (Odds ratio=1.9, P=0.0003) and higher in primipara than in multipara (Odds ratio 1.7, P=0.005). Abnormal posture was the most important cause of dystocia (51.4%). Uterine torsion was the second most important cause (23.4%) and was mainly observed in multipara (P=0.0006). Dystocia was linked to high fetal mortality (87.9%). A significant relationship was found between fetal death and duration of dystocia (Odds ratio=8.04, P=0.005). The percentage of dam mortality was 17.8%. Significant associations were detected between dam mortality rate and the duration of dystocia (Odds ratio=4.74, P=0.03) and fetal viability (Odds ratio=5.82, P=0.02). Increasing duration of dystocia was associated with significant increases in SAA, Hp, BUN and AST, but with decreases in E2 (P<0.05). After a transient period of elevation, the white blood cell and neutrophil counts decreased (P<0.05). In conclusion, abnormal posture

  5. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass. PMID:26785759

  6. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass. PMID:26785759

  7. Stimulant Use, Religiosity, and the Odds of Developing or Maintaining an Alcohol Use Disorder Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about whether cocaine or methamphetamine use, particularly among stimulant users residing in rural areas, is associated with increased odds of developing or maintaining an alcohol use disorder (AUD) over time. One factor that may help to protect some users against the development of an AUD is religiosity. This study examined how stimulant use and religiosity are associated longitudinally with the odds of an AUD among a rural population-based cohort of stimulant users. Method: Recent stimulant users (N = 710) were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and were interviewed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Concurrent and lagged generalized estimating equations analyses were conducted to estimate how past-30-day crack cocaine, powder cocaine, and methamphetamine use; religiosity; and other covariates were associated with the odds of an AUD. Results: At baseline, 56% of the participants met AUD criteria. The odds of an AUD declined significantly over time in the concurrent, but not the lagged, model. Crack cocaine use was associated with increased odds of an AUD in both models, although the strength of the concurrent association between an AUD and crack cocaine use declined over time. Powder cocaine use and more frequent church attendance also were concurrently associated with decreased odds of an AUD. Conclusions: Rural stimulant users, especially those using cocaine, could potentially benefit from treatment for both alcohol use and stimulant use. In addition, our findings suggest that greater frequency of church attendance may be related to lower odds of the development or maintenance of an AUD. PMID:23490565

  8. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  9. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  10. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  11. Cultural Adjustment and the Puerto Rican.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    This review of the literature on cultural adjustment is divided into four sections: the nature of cultural adjustment; acculturation as a model of cultural adjustment; psychological responses to acculturation; and a model of cultural adjustment developed by the author as a result of his immigration from Puerto Rico to the United States mainland.…

  12. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  13. Higher Prevalence of Obesity Among Children With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Black, Mary Helen; Smith, Ning; Porter, Amy H.; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Koebnick, Corinna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association between childhood obesity and asthma, and whether this relationship varies by race/ethnicity. For this population-based, cross-sectional study, measured weight and height, and asthma diagnoses were extracted from electronic medical records of 681,122 patients aged 6–19 years who were enrolled in an integrated health plan 2007–2009. Weight class was assigned based on BMI-for-age. Overall, 18.4% of youth had a history of asthma and 10.9% had current asthma. Adjusted odds of current asthma for overweight, moderately obese, and extremely obese youth relative to those of normal weight were 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 1.24), 1.37 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.40), and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.64, 1.73), respectively (P trend < 0.001). Black youth are nearly twice as likely (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.89, 1.99), and Hispanic youth are 25% less likely (adjusted OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.77), to have current asthma than to non-Hispanic white youth. However, the relationship between BMI and asthma was strongest in Hispanic and weakest in black youth. Among youth with asthma, increasing body mass was associated with more frequent ambulatory and emergency department visits, as well as increased inhaled and oral corticosteroid use. In conclusion, overweight, moderate, and extreme obesity are associated with higher odds of asthma in children and adolescents, although the association varies widely with race/ethnicity. Increasing BMI among youth with asthma is associated with higher consumption of corticosteroids and emergency department visits. PMID:22252049

  14. The prevalence and nature of prescribing and monitoring errors in English general practice: a retrospective case note review

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Anthony J; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Barber, Nick; Dean Franklin, Bryony; Armstrong, Sarah J; Serumaga, Brian; Dhillon, Soraya; Freyer, Anette; Howard, Rachel; Talabi, Olanrewaju; Mehta, Rajnikant L

    2013-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about prescribing errors in general practice, or the factors associated with error. Aim To determine the prevalence and nature of prescribing and monitoring errors in general practices in England. Design and setting Retrospective case-note review of unique medication items prescribed over a 12-month period to a 2% random sample of patients. Fifteen general practices across three primary care trusts in England. Method A total of 6048 unique prescription items prescribed over the previous 12 months for 1777 patients were examined. The data were analysed by mixed effects logistic regression. The main outcome measures were prevalence of prescribing and monitoring errors, and severity of errors, using validated definitions. Results Prescribing and/or monitoring errors were detected in 4.9% (296/6048) of all prescription items (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.4% to 5.5%). The vast majority of errors were of mild to moderate severity, with 0.2% (11/6048) of items having a severe error. After adjusting for covariates, patient-related factors associated with an increased risk of prescribing and/or monitoring errors were: age <15 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.94, P = 0.006) or >64 years (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.73, P = 0.035), and higher numbers of unique medication items prescribed (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.19, P<0.001). Conclusion Prescribing and monitoring errors are common in English general practice, although severe errors are unusual. Many factors increase the risk of error. Having identified the most common and important errors, and the factors associated with these, strategies to prevent future errors should be developed, based on the study findings. PMID:23972195

  15. Medication Underuse in Aging Outpatients with Cardiovascular Disease: Prevalence, Determinants, and Outcomes in a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Meid, Andreas D.; Quinzler, Renate; Freigofas, Julia; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schöttker, Ben; Holleczek, Bernd; Heider, Dirk; König, Hans-Helmut; Brenner, Hermann; Haefeli, Walter E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in older people, and the impact of being exposed or not exposed to preventive cardiovascular medicines is accordingly high. Underutilization of beneficial drugs is common, but prevalence estimates differ across settings, knowledge on predictors is limited, and clinical consequences are rarely investigated. Methods Using data from a prospective population-based cohort study, we assessed the prevalence, determinants, and outcomes of medication underuse based on cardiovascular criteria from Screening Tool To Alert to Right Treatment (START). Results Medication underuse was present in 69.1% of 1454 included participants (mean age 71.1 ± 6.1 years) and was significantly associated with frailty (odds ratio: 2.11 [95% confidence interval: 1.24–3.63]), body mass index (1.03 [1.01–1.07] per kg/m2), and inversely with the number of prescribed drugs (0.84 [0.79–0.88] per drug). Using this information for adjustment in a follow-up evaluation (mean follow-up time 2.24 years) on cardiovascular and competing outcomes, we found no association of medication underuse with cardiovascular events (fatal and non-fatal) (hazard ratio: 1.00 [0.65–1.56]), but observed a significant association of medication underuse with competing deaths from non-cardiovascular causes (2.52 [1.01–6.30]). Conclusion Medication underuse was associated with frailty and adverse non-cardiovascular clinical outcomes. This may suggest that cardiovascular drugs were withheld because of serious co-morbidity or that concurrent illness can preclude benefit from cardiovascular prevention. In the latter case, adapted prescribing criteria should be developed and evaluated in those patients. PMID:26288222

  16. Studies of a Large Odd-Numbered Odd-Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8 Mn.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-26

    The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities. PMID:26748964

  17. Properties of the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in odd-odd {sup 184}Au

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.H.; Fang, Y.D.; Wang, H.L.; Zhou, X.H.; Guo, W.T.; Liu, M.L.; Guo, Y.X.; Lei, X.G.; De Angelis, G.; Marginean, N.; Gadea, A.; Napoli, D.R.; Axiotis, M.; Rusu, C.; Martinez, T.; Oshima, M.; Toh, Y.

    2004-11-01

    High-spin level structure in {sup 184}Au has been reinvestigated using the multidetector array of GASP via the {sup 159}Tb({sup 29}Si,4n{gamma}){sup 184}Au reaction at a beam energy of 140 MeV. The ground-state band and the excited {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} 2-qp band have been extended up to lower and higher spin states. An upbend has been observed in the excited band at ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}{approx}0.25 MeV and is interpreted as resulting from a pair of {pi}h{sub 9/2} alignment. This low-frequency ({pi}h{sub 9/2}){sup 2} alignment is supported by the measured B(M1)/B(E2) ratios and alignment properties in neighboring odd-A nuclei. The linking transitions between the two bands and to the ground state have been established leading to a firm spin-and-parity assignment for the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in {sup 184}Au. This result provides strong evidence for the low-spin signature inversion in the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} bands of odd-odd nuclei in the A{approx}180 mass region.

  18. Prevalence and Costs of Five Chronic Conditions in Children.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gabrielle F; Coffield, Edward; Leroy, Zanie; Wallin, Robin

    2016-10-01

    The objective is to examine the prevalence and health-care costs associated with asthma, epilepsy, hypertension, food allergies, and diabetes in children aged 0-18 years. Prevalence was calculated using 2005-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, a population-based, nationally representative sample. Using MEPS, two-part models estimated the cost of each condition for all children while controlling for sociodemographic categories. Prevalence rates varied by race and ethnicity across conditions. Females had higher prevalence of all chronic conditions, except epilepsy. An additional US$1,377.60-US$9,059.49 annually were spent on medical expenses for children aged 0-18 years, with asthma, diabetes, or epilepsy compared to children without these conditions. This is the first study to examine the costs and prevalence of chronic health conditions in children and adolescents using a single data set. Understanding the odds of having a condition by sociodemographic categories highlights disparities that can potentially inform school nurses on the best allocation of resources to serve students. PMID:27044668

  19. Mining machine with adjustable jib

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.

    1987-05-26

    A mining machine is described having a pair of crawler tracks, a means for individually driving each of the crawler tracks, a frame mounted on the crawler tracks, an elongated jib carrying a sprocket at each end, an endless cutting chain supported on the sprockets, cutters and loading flights mounted on the endless cutting chain, and means on the frame supporting the elongated jib. The means support the elongated jib consisting of a bridge on the frame, at least one scissors linkage pivotally mounted on the bridge, and arm having a first end attached to the scissors linkage, a front plate mounted on the second end of the arm and means adjustably mounting the elongated jib on the front plate. The means adjustably mount the elongated jib on the front plate including a first means for rotating the elongated jib between a vertical position and a horizontal position.

  20. The prevalence of carotid plaque with different stability and its association with metabolic syndrome in China: The Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anxin; Wu, Lingyun; Liu, Xiaoxue; Su, Zhaoping; Luo, Yanxia; Chen, Shuohua; Li, Haibin; Liu, Xiangtong; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Zhang, Feng; Cao, Yibin; Zhao, Xingquan; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the prevalence of carotid plaque with different stability in Chinese. As is well known, carotid atherosclerosis is tightly associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, the data about the association between the presence of carotid plaque with different stability and MetS was limited. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of carotid plaque with different stability and its potential association with MetS in general Chinese population.The Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community study is a community-based study to investigate the epidemiology of asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in Chinese adults. A total of 5393 participants were finally eligible and included in this study. The carotid plaque and its stability were assessed using ultrasonography. The MetS was defined using the criteria from US National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. Data were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression models.Of the 5393 subjects, 1397 (25.9%) participants had stable carotid plaque, 1518 (28.1%) had unstable carotid plaque in participants, and 1456 (27.0%) had a MetS. MetS was, respectively, significantly associated with the prevalence of carotid plaque (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07, 1.47), stable carotid plaque (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.02,1.48), and unstable carotid plaque (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.03,1.56) after adjusting for age, gender, level of education, income, smoking, drinking, physical activity, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. With the number of MetS components, the prevalence of carotid plaque, stable carotid plaque, and unstable carotid plaque significantly increased (P for trend <0.0001), respectively.In summary, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 54.1%, stable carotid plaque was 25.9%, and unstable carotid plaque was 28.1%. Our study revealed that the prevalence of carotid plaque, stable carotid plaque

  1. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite. PMID:17567838

  2. Flexible parametrization of generalized parton distributions: The chiral-odd sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Gary R.; Hernandez, J. Osvaldo Gonzalez; Liuti, Simonetta

    2015-06-01

    We present a physically motivated parametrization of the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions. The parametrization is an extension of our previous one in the chiral-even sector which was based on the Reggeized diquark model. While for chiral-even generalized distributions a quantitative fit with uncertainty estimation can be performed using deep inelastic scattering data, nucleon electromagnetic, axial and pseudoscalar form factors measurements, and all available deeply virtual Compton scattering data, the chiral-odd sector is far less constrained. While awaiting the analysis of measurements on pseudoscalar mesons exclusive electroproduction which are key for the extraction of chiral-odd GPDs, we worked out a connection between the chiral-even and chiral-odd reduced helicity amplitudes using parity transformations. The connection works for quark-parton models including both scalar and axial vector diquark models, and spectator models in general. This relation allows us to estimate the size of the various chiral-odd contributions and it opens the way for future quantitative fits.

  3. Odd-frequency Cooper pairs in two-band superconductors and their magnetic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Akihiro

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the appearance of odd-frequency Cooper pairs in two-band superconductors by solving the Gor'kov equation analytically. We introduce the equal-time s -wave pair potentials as realized in MgB2 and iron pnictides. Although the order parameter symmetry is conventional, the band degree of freedom enriches the symmetry variety of pairing correlations. The hybridization and the asymmetry between the two conduction bands induce odd-frequency pairs as a subdominant pairing correlation in the uniform ground state. To study the magnetic response of odd-frequency Cooper pairs, we analyze the Meissner kernel represented by the Gor'kov Green function. In contrast to the even-frequency pairs linked to the pair potential, the induced odd-frequency Cooper pairs indicate a paramagnetic property. We also discuss the relation between the amplitude of the odd-frequency pairing correlation and the stability of superconducting states in terms of the self-consistent equation for the pair potential.

  4. Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the general population: the HypnoLaus study

    PubMed Central

    Heinzer, R; Vat, S; Marques-Vidal, P; Marti-Soler, H; Andries, D; Tobback, N; Mooser, V; Preisig, M; Malhotra, A; Waeber, G; Vollenweider, P; Tafti, M; Haba-Rubio, J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with major morbidity and mortality. However, its prevalence has mainly been selectively studied in populations at risk for sleep-disordered breathing or cardiovascular diseases. Taking into account improvements in recording techniques and new criteria used to define respiratory events, we aimed to assess the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing and associated clinical features in a large population-based sample. Methods Between Sept 1, 2009, and June 30, 2013, we did a population-based study (HypnoLaus) in Lausanne, Switzerland. We invited a cohort of 3043 consecutive participants of the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study to take part. Polysomnography data from 2121 people were included in the final analysis. 1024 (48%) participants were men, with a median age of 57 years (IQR 49–68, range 40–85) and mean body-mass index (BMI) of 25·6 kg/m2 (SD 4·1). Participants underwent complete polysomnographic recordings at home and had extensive phenotyping for diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and depression. The primary outcome was prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing, assessed by the apnoea-hypopnoea index. Findings The median apnoea-hypopnoea index was 6·9 events per h (IQR 2·7–14·1) in women and 14·9 per h (7·2–27·1) in men. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe sleep-disordered breathing (≥15 events per h) was 23·4% (95% CI 20·9–26·0) in women and 49·7% (46·6–52·8) in men. After multivariable adjustment, the upper quartile for the apnoea-hypopnoea index (>20·6 events per h) was associated independently with the presence of hypertension (odds ratio 1·60, 95% CI 1·14–2·26; p=0·0292 for trend across severity quartiles), diabetes (2·00, 1·05–3·99; p=0·0467), metabolic syndrome (2·80, 1·86–4·29; p<0·0001), and depression (1·92, 1·01–3·64; p=0·0292). Interpretation The high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing recorded in our population-based sample might

  5. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway – the SAMINOR study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Brustad, Magritt; Johnsen, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study). Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%), Kven (7.3%) and Norwegian majority population (57.2%). Results Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%). Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese) was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely) consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR)=1.77 (p=0.001) and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001). Conclusion Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population. PMID:25694052

  6. Anaemia prevalence and associated factors among lactating mothers in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2005 and 2011 demographic and health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Lakew, Yihunie; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Haile, Demewoz

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with anaemia in lactating mothers in Ethiopia. Design A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data pooled from two rounds of the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) was used. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to determine the factors associated with anaemia. Population A total of 7332 lactating mothers (2285 from EDHS 2005 and 5047 from EDHS 2011) were included from 11 administrative states of Ethiopia. Main outcome measures Lactating mothers considered anaemic if haemoglobin level <12 g/dL. Results The overall prevalence of anaemia among lactating mothers was 22.1% (95% CI 21.13% to 23.03%). The highest prevalence was 48.7% (95% CI 40.80% to 56.62%) found in the Somali region, followed by 43.8% (95% CI 31.83% to 56.87%) in the Afar region. The multivariate statistical model showed that having a husband who had attended primary education (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.91), working during the 12 months preceding the survey (AOR 0.71; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.80), having a normal maternal body mass index (18.5–24.99 kg/m2) (AOR 0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89), being in the middle wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.98) or rich wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.98), having ever used family planning (AOR 0.68; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.80), having attended antenatal care (ANC) for the indexed pregnancy four times or more (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.91), having experienced time variation between the two surveys (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.85), and breastfeeding for 2 years (AOR 0.76; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.87) were factors associated with lower odds of having anaemia in lactating mothers. Conclusions Anaemia is highly prevalent among lactating mothers, particularly in the pastoralist communities of Somali and Afar. Promoting partner education, improving maternal nutritional status, and creating behavioural change to use family planning and ANC services at health facilities

  7. A population-based survey of prevalence of diabetes and correlates in an urban slum community in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urban slum populations in Africa continue to grow faster than national populations. Health strategies that focus on non-communicable diseases (NCD) in this segment of the population are generally lacking. We determined the prevalence of diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors correlates in Kibera, Nairobi’s largest slum. Methods We conducted a population-based household survey utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method and consenting residents aged 18 years and above were recruited. The WHO STEPS instrument was administered. A random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) was obtained; known persons with diabetes and subjects with a RCBS >11.1 had an 8 hours fasting blood sugar (FBS) drawn. Diabetes was defined as a RCBS of ≥ 11.1 mmol/l and a FBS of ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, or a prior diagnosis or receiving diabetes drug treatment. Results Out of 2061 enrolled; 50.9% were males, mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had a minimum of primary education. Only 10.6% had ever had a blood sugar measurement. Age adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.4) and prevalence increased with age peaking at 10.5% (95% CI 6.8-14.3%) in the 45–54 year age category. Diabetes mellitus (DM) correlates were: 13.1% smoking, 74.9% alcohol consumption, 75.7% high level of physical activity; 16.3% obese and 29% overweight with higher rates in women. Among persons with diabetes the odds of obesity, elevated waist circumference and hypertension were three, two and three fold respectively compared to those without diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with diabetes were high and mirrored that of the entire sample; however they had a significantly higher use of tobacco. Conclusions This previously unstudied urban slum has a high prevalence of DM yet low screening rates. Key correlates include cigarette smoking and high alcohol consumption. However high

  8. Prevalence of incontinence, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Niemczyk, Justine; Equit, Monika; Braun-Bither, Katrin; Klein, Anna-Maria; von Gontard, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Externalizing disorders as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common in children with nocturnal enuresis (NE), daytime urinary incontinence (DUI) and faecal incontinence (FI). We examined the prevalence rates of ADHD, ODD and incontinence in a defined geographical area and analysed the association between externalizing disorders and subtypes of incontinence. 1,676 parents of children who were presented at the mandatory school-entry medical examination completed a questionnaire with all DSM-IV items of ADHD, ODD and six questions regarding incontinence. 50.2% were male and mean age was 5.7 years. 9.1% had at least one subtype of incontinence (8.5% had NE, 1.9% DUI and 0.8% FI). Boys were significantly more affected by incontinence overall, NE, FI and ADHD than girls. 6.4% had ADHD, 6.2% had ODD and 2.6% were affected by ADHD and ODD. 10.3% of the children with incontinence had ADHD and 10.3% ODD. Children with FI were significantly more affected by externalizing disorders (50%) than children with isolated NE (14.5%), children with DUI (9.5%) and continent children (9.5%). Children with incontinence, especially those with FI, are at much higher risk of externalizing disorders. An additional effect of children with both ADHD and ODD having higher rates of incontinence than children with only one disorder could not be found. However, these children represent a high-risk group with lower compliance to treatment and worse outcome. Therefore, screening not only for ADHD but also for ODD should be implemented for all children with incontinence. PMID:25331539

  9. Enhancement of odd nitrogen modifies mesospheric ozone chemistry during polar winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verronen, P. T.; Lehmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) enhances odd nitrogen (NOx) in the polar upper atmosphere. Model studies have reported a solar cycle response in mesospheric ozone (O3) caused by EPP-related NOx enhancements which are included by applying a vertical NOx flux at around 80 km. However, it is not clear how O3 can be affected when the main chemical catalyst of odd oxygen (Ox = O + O(1D) + O3) loss in the mesosphere is odd hydrogen (HOx). Here we use a 1-D atmospheric model and show how enhanced NOx affects mesospheric chemistry and changes HOx partitioning, which subsequently leads to increase in Ox loss through standard HOx-driven catalytic cycles. Another, smaller increase of Ox loss results from HOx storage in HNO3 during night and its release by daytime photodissociation. Our results suggest that EPP, through NOx enhancements, could have a longer-term effect on mesospheric HOx and Ox in polar winter.

  10. Odd-frequency superconductivity in a nanowire coupled to Majorana zero modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Maciejko, Joseph

    Odd-frequency superconductivity, originally proposed by Berezinskii in 1974, is an exotic phase of matter in which pairing is entirely dynamical in nature. The pair potential is an odd function of frequency, leading to a vanishing static superconducting order parameter and exotic types of pairing seemingly inconsistent with Fermi statistics, such as spin triplet (singlet) pairing in an s-wave (p-wave) superconductor. Motivated by recent experimental progress in the realization of Majorana zero modes in semiconducting nanowires, we show that a spin-polarized nanowire coupled to a one-dimensional array of Majorana zero modes becomes an odd-frequency superconductor. This work was supported by NSERC, CRC, CIFAR, and the University of Alberta.

  11. Atmospheric odd oxygen production due to the photodissociation of ordinary and isotopic molecular oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.; Frederick, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations are performed to determine the contributions of the Schumann-Runge bands of ordinary and isotopic oxygen to the photodissociation of these molecules at different altitudes. The contributions to the dissociation rates of the satellite lines and of the first and higher vibrational states of the initial molecular states are found to be insignificant. At 70 km, (O-16)(O-18) is found to produce 10 times as much odd oxygen as would be produced if the isotope did not have selective absorption, and 6 percent of the odd oxygen produced is due to this isotope. It is noted that the excess odd oxygen produced is not enough to explain the excess quantity of ozone observed in the atmosphere, which cannot be accounted for in photochemical models. Comparison with previous results is made.

  12. Odd Viscosity in the Quantum Critical Region of a Holographic Weyl Semimetal.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Karl; Liu, Yan; Sun, Ya-Wen

    2016-08-19

    We study odd viscosity in a holographic model of a Weyl semimetal. The model is characterized by a quantum phase transition from a topological semimetal to a trivial semimetal state. Since the model is axisymmetric in three spatial dimensions there are two independent odd viscosities. Both odd viscosity coefficients are nonvanishing in the quantum critical region and nonzero only due to the mixed axial gravitational anomaly. It is therefore a novel example in which the mixed axial gravitational anomaly gives rise to a transport coefficient at first order in derivatives at finite temperature. In the quantum critical region, the physics of viscosities as well as conductivities is governed by the quantum critical point. PMID:27588846

  13. Innovative Bimolecular-Based Advanced Logic Operations: A Prime Discriminator and An Odd Parity Checker.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-08-17

    Herein, a novel logic operation of prime discriminator is first performed for the function of identifying the prime numbers from natural numbers less than 10. The prime discriminator logic operation is developed by DNA hybridizations and the conjugation of graphene oxide and single-stranded DNA as a reacting platform. On the basis of the similar reaction principle, an odd parity checker is also developed. The odd parity checker logic operation can identify the even numbers and odd numbers from natural numbers less than 10. Such advanced logic operations with digital recognition ability can provide a new field of vision toward prototypical DNA-based logic operations and promote the development of advanced logic circuits. PMID:27459592

  14. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, “vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck” was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of “vehicle type” variable, further investigation of vehicle “stiffness” and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244

  15. Prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    RAFFUL, CLAUDIA; WAGNER, KARLA D.; WERB, DAN; GONZÁLEZ-ZÚÑIGA, PATRICIA E.; VERDUGO, SILVIA; RANGEL, GUDELIA; STRATHDEE, STEFFANIE A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Injecting drugs in the neck has been related to adverse health conditions such as jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, aneurysm, haematomas, airway obstruction, vocal cord paralysis and wound botulism, among others. We identified prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico. Design and Methods Beginning in 2011, PWID aged ≥18 years who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective cohort. At baseline and semi-annually, PWID completed interviewer-administered surveys soliciting data on drug-injecting practices. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of injecting in the neck as the most frequent injection site at a single visit. Results Of 380 PWID, 35.3% injected in the neck at least once in the past 6 months, among whom 71.6% reported it as their most common injection site, the most common injecting site after the arms (47%). Controlling for age, years injecting and injecting frequency, injecting heroin and methamphetamine two or more times per day and having sought injection assistance were associated with injecting in the neck [adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 2.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.27–3.53 and AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.52–4.53 respectively]. Discussion and Conclusions Injecting in the neck was very common among PWID in Tijuana and was associated with polydrug use and seeking injection assistance. Tailoring harm reduction education interventions for individuals who provide injection assistance (‘hit doctors’) may allow for the dissemination of safe injecting knowledge to reduce injection-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25867795

  16. Prevalence and determinants of current contraceptive method use in a palm oil company in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ekani-Bessala, M M; Carre, N; Calvez, T; Thonneau, P

    1998-07-01

    The principal reasons given by African women for not using contraception include their lack of economic power and control over their choice of partner. An epidemiologic descriptive survey of a cross-section of the female personnel of a Cameroonian palm oil company (SOCAPALM) was carried out in August 1995, to evaluate the various determinants and level of use of various family planning methods in a well defined population of women in employment. An exhaustive list of all the households in the five villages of SOCAPALM was compiled and all women between 15 and 49 years of age who had lived on the palm oil plantation for at least a year were interviewed. The adjusted odds ratios showed that use of modern contraceptive methods was significantly associated with the woman having received secondary education, having more than three children, being the head of the household and, in cases where there was a man regularly present in the household, his approval of family planning. Recently receiving information (during the last month) about family planning was not identified by multivariate analysis as a significant factor affecting the decision to use modern or traditional contraception. The same factors were found to be associated with the use of traditional methods of contraception, but having had an illegal abortion was also associated with the use of such methods. Thus, the level of knowledge about family planning and the prevalence of contraceptive use was significantly higher for women living in industrial environments (such as SOCAPALM), than in the overall population of women in Cameroon. The economic power of the woman, the presence of a strong social reproductive health network, and the positive attitude of men and community leaders were the most important factors affecting the family planning decision of the women. PMID:9743893

  17. Adolescents' experience of comments about their weight – prevalence, accuracy and effects on weight misperception

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wing-Sze; Ho, Sai-Yin; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Yuen-Kwan; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2009-01-01

    Background Weight comments are commonly received by adolescents, but the accuracy of the comments and their effects on weight misperception are unclear. We assessed the prevalence and accuracy of weight comments received by Chinese adolescents from different sources and their relation to weight misperception. Methods In the Hong Kong Student Obesity Surveillance (HKSOS) project 2006–07, 22612 students aged 11–18 (41.5% boys) completed a questionnaire on obesity. Students responded if family members, peers and professionals had seriously commented over the past 30 days that they were "too fat" or "too thin" in two separate questions. The accuracy of the comments was judged against the actual weight status derived from self-reported height and weight. Self-perceived weight status was also reported and any discordance with the actual weight status denoted weight misperception. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odd ratios for weight misperception by the type of weight comments received. Results One in three students received weight comments, and the mother was the most common source of weight comments. Health professional was the most accurate source of weight comments, yet less than half the comments were correct. Adolescents receiving incorrect comments had increased risk of having weight misperception in all weight status groups. Receiving conflicting comments was positively associated with weight misperception among normal weight adolescents. In contrast, underweight and overweight/obese adolescents receiving correct weight comments were less likely to have weight misperception. Conclusion Weight comments, mostly incorrect, were commonly received by Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong, and such incorrect comments were associated with weight misperception. PMID:19642972

  18. Prevalence of renal artery disease and its prognostic significance in patients undergoing coronary bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Aboyans, Victor; Tanguy, Benedicte; Desormais, Ileana; Bonnet, Vincent; Chonchol, Michel; Laskar, Marc; Mohty, Dania; Lacroix, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Several studies demonstrated the prognostic importance of renal failure and peripheral artery disease in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), but data regarding the prognostic value of renal artery disease in this context are scarce. We aimed to study the prevalence and prognostic value of renal artery disease in patients undergoing CABG. We assessed by duplex ultrasound the renal arteries of 429 consecutive patients who underwent CABG, of whom 401 had satisfactory imaging quality to detect >60% renal artery stenosis (RAS) and/or an elevated resistive index (ERI>0.80). Of the 401 subjects included (age 68±10 years, 83% men), 40 (10%) had RAS and 35 (9%) had ERI. Nine patients (2.2%) had both conditions. Patients were followed up for 12.4±7.0 months. The primary outcome was composite, including 30-day death, stroke, and/or myocardial infarction. In a multivariate model adjusted for age, gender, cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, renal function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the use of off-pump CABG, CV co-morbidities, and drugs, the presence of ERI was strongly associated with the occurrence of the composite outcome (odds ratio 4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 9.9, p=0.0006). Similarly, ERI, not RAS, was significantly associated with the 30-day acute kidney disease and the midterm mortality, as well as fatal and nonfatal CV events. In conclusion, regardless of renal function and other factors, the renal resistive index is a strong predictor of CV and renal events after CABG. Renal duplex ultrasound can identify a subgroup of patients at high risk of CABG. PMID:25150754

  19. Being Bullied and Psychosocial Adjustment among Middle School Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yulan; Newman, Ian M.; Qu, Ming; Mbulo, Lazarous; Chai, Yan; Chen, Yan; Shell, Duane F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Using the Chinese version of the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS), this article describes the prevalence of being bullied among a nationally representative sample of Chinese students in grades 6-10 and explores the relationships between being bullied and selected indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Methods: A total of 9015…

  20. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  1. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  2. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  3. Effect of Wound Classification on Risk-Adjustment in American College of Surgeons NSQIP

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Mila H.; Cohen, Mark E.; Bilimoria, Karl Y.; Latus, Melissa S.; Scholl, Lisa M.; Schwab, Bradley J.; Byrd, Claudia M.; Ko, Clifford Y.; Dellinger, E. Patchen; Hall, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgical wound classification has been used in risk-adjustment models. However, it can be subjective and potentially improperly bias hospital quality comparisons. The objective is to examine the effect of wound classification on hospital performance risk-adjustment models. Study Design Retrospective review of the 2011 ACS NSQIP database was conducted for wound classification categories: clean, clean/contaminated, contaminated, and dirty/infected. To assess the influence of wound classification on risk-adjustment, two models were developed for each outcome: one including and one excluding wound classification. For each model, hospital postoperative complications were estimated using hierarchical multivariable regression methods. Absolute changes in hospital rank, correlations of odds-ratios, and outlier status agreement between models were examined. Results Of the 442,149 cases performed in 315 hospitals: 53.6% were classified as clean; 34.2% clean/contaminated; 6.7% contaminated; and 5.5% dirty/infected. The surgical site infection (SSI) rate was highest in dirty/infected (8.5%) and lowest in clean (1.8%) cases. For overall SSI, the absolute change in risk-adjusted hospital performance rank between models including vs. excluding wound classification was minimal (mean 4.5 out of 315 positions). The correlations between odds ratios of the two performance models were nearly perfect (R=0.9976, P<0.0001), and outlier status agreement was excellent (Kappa=0.9508, P<0.0001). Similar findings were observed in models of subgroups of SSI and other postoperative outcomes. Conclusions In circumstances where alternate information is available for risk-adjustment, there appear to be minimal differences in performance models that include vs. exclude wound classification. Therefore, ACS NSQIP is critically evaluating the continued use of wound classification in hospital performance risk-adjustment models. PMID:25053222

  4. Feline dystocia: prevalence, and association with cranial conformation and breed.

    PubMed

    Gunn-Moore, D A; Thrusfield, M V

    1995-04-01

    The litter prevalence of feline dystocia was investigated using a questionnaire survey of cat breeders. Information was obtained on 2928 litters, from 735 queens. Dystocia was reported to have occurred in 5.8 per cent of litters. The level of dystocia in individual breeds ranged from 0.4 per cent of litters born in a large colony of cats of mixed breeding, to 18.2 per cent of litters in the Devon rex. Pedigree litters were at significantly higher risk than litters of cats of mixed breeding (odds ratio: 22.6). Relatively high levels of dystocia were identified in Siamese-type, Persian and Devon rex litters, whereas cats of mixed breeding showed a relatively low litter prevalence. Dolicocephalic and brachycephalic types were found to have significantly higher levels of dystocia than mesocephalic cats. PMID:7610538

  5. Prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Elewonibi, Bilikisu Reni; BeLue, Rhonda

    2016-06-01

    Immigrants face barriers to accessing conventional health care systems. Hence, they are expected to have comparatively greater use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examines the prevalence of and reason for CAM use in the U.S. population by citizenship status. Data on 34,483 U.S.-born, naturalized, and non-U.S. citizens from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey was used. CAM was categorized into four domains. Analyses controlling for socioeconomic variables were identified patterns of utilization and reasons for use. The prevalence of all CAM domains was lowest among non-U.S. citizens followed by naturalized citizens. The odds of using CAM were also higher for the immigrants who attained citizenship than for non-citizens. Individuals in all groups reported using more CAM for prevention. Factors related to cost, accessibility, or knowledge of CAM use may contribute to lower use of CAM by naturalized and non-U.S. citizens. PMID:25921731

  6. Obese Mothers have Lower Odds of Experiencing Pro-breastfeeding Hospital Practices than Mothers of Normal Weight: CDC Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Kair, Laura R; Colaizy, Tarah T

    2016-03-01

    Objectives This study examines the extent to which a mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category is associated with her exposure to pro-breastfeeding hospital practices. Methods Data from the 2004-2008 CDC PRAMS were analyzed for three states (Illinois, Maine, and Vermont) that had administered an optional survey question about hospital pro-breastfeeding practices. Results Of 19,145 mothers surveyed, 19 % were obese (pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 30). Obese mothers had lower odds than mothers of normal weight of initiating breastfeeding [70 vs. 79 % (unweighted), p < 0.0001]. Compared with women of normal weight, obese mothers had lower odds of being exposed to pro-breastfeeding hospital practices during the birth hospitalization. Specifically, obese mothers had higher odds of using a pacifier in the hospital [odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) (1.17-1.48), p < 0.0001] and lower odds of: a staff member providing them with information about breastfeeding [OR 0.71, 95 % CI (0.57-0.89), p = 0.002], a staff member helping them breastfeed [OR 0.69, 95 % CI (0.61-0.78), p < 0.0001], breastfeeding in the first hour after delivery [OR 0.55, 95 % CI (0.49-0.62), p < 0.0001], being given a telephone number for breastfeeding help [OR 0.65, 95 % CI (0.57-0.74), p < 0.0001], rooming in [OR 0.84, 95 % CI (0.73-0.97), p = 0.02], and being instructed to breastfeed on demand [OR 0.66, 95 % CI (0.58-0.75), p < 0.0001]. Adjusting for multiple covariates, all associations except rooming in remained significant. Conclusions Obesity stigma may be a determinant of breastfeeding outcomes for obese mothers. Breastfeeding support should be improved for this at-risk population. PMID:26515471

  7. Prevalence, characteristics, and survival of frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Katrina M.; Patterson, Karalyn; Vázquez Rodríquez, Patricia; Wehmann, Eileen; Wilcox, Alicia; Lansdall, Claire J.; Dawson, Kate E.; Wiggins, Julie; Mead, Simon; Brayne, Carol; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the lifetime risk, prevalence, incidence, and mortality of the principal clinical syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) using revised diagnostic criteria and including intermediate clinical phenotypes. Methods: Multisource referral over 2 years to identify all diagnosed or suspected cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) in 2 UK counties (population 1.69 million). Diagnostic confirmation used current consensus diagnostic criteria after interview and reexamination. Results were adjusted to the 2013 European standard population. Results: The prevalence of FTD, PSP, and CBS was 10.8/100,000. The incidence and mortality were very similar, at 1.61/100,000 and 1.56/100,000 person-years, respectively. The estimated lifetime risk is 1 in 742. Survival following diagnosis varied widely: from PSP 2.9 years to semantic variant FTD 9.1 years. Age-adjusted prevalence peaked between 65 and 69 years at 42.6/100,000: the age-adjusted prevalence for persons older than 65 years is double the prevalence for those between 40 and 64 years. Fifteen percent of those screened had a relevant genetic mutation. Conclusions: Key features of this study include the revised diagnostic criteria with improved specificity and sensitivity, an unrestricted age range, and simultaneous assessment of multiple FTLD syndromes. The prevalence of FTD, PSP, and CBS increases beyond 65 years, with frequent genetic causes. The time from onset to diagnosis and from diagnosis to death varies widely among syndromes, emphasizing the challenge and importance of accurate and timely diagnosis. A high index of suspicion for FTLD syndromes is required by clinicians, even for older patients. PMID:27037234

  8. Collective states of odd nuclei in a model with quadrupole-octupole degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Minkov, N. Drenska, S. B.; Yotov, P.; Bonatsos, D. Scheid, W.

    2007-08-15

    We apply the collective axial quadrupole-octupole Hamiltonian to describe the rotation-vibration motion of odd nuclei with Coriolis coupling between the even-even core and the unpaired nucleon.We consider that the core oscillates coherently with respect to the quadrupole and octupole axialdeformation variables. The coupling between the core and the unpaired nucleon provides a split paritydoublet structure of the spectrum. The formalism successfully reproduces the parity-doublet splitting in a wide range of odd-A nuclei. It provides model estimations for the third angular-momentum projection K on the intrinsic symmetry axis and the related intrinsic nuclear structure.

  9. Valley-valve effect and even-odd chain parity in p-n graphene junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresti, Alessandro; Grosso, Giuseppe; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori

    2008-06-01

    We address the current blocking by a p-n junction in a zigzag graphene ribbon by means of numerical and analytic investigations. Ribbons with superimposed gate potentials perfectly block the current in the energy range, where a single energy band is active in both the n and the p regions, if the number of carbon chains is even. In the same conditions, an odd number of chains allows current transmission. We interpret this even-odd valley-valve effect in terms of the underlying honeycomb topology and crystal structure symmetry.

  10. Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of fragments emitted at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, I.; Lanzalone, G.; Agodi, C.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Han, J.; Maiolino, C.; Auditore, L.; Loria, D.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Cavallaro, S.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.

    2011-08-15

    Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of light fragments emitted at forward angles in nuclear collisions {sup 40}Ca + {sup 40}Ca, {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon and identified in charge and mass with the Chimera multidetector have been analyzed. The amplitude of even-odd staggering effects seems to be related to the neutron to proton ratio N/Z of the entrance channels. A qualitative explanation of this effect, taking into account the deexcitation phase of primary excited fragments, is discussed.

  11. Nonminimal derivative coupling scalar-tensor theories: Odd-parity perturbations and black hole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Cruz, Miguel; Delsate, Térence; Saavedra, Joel

    2015-11-01

    We derive the odd-parity perturbation equation for the nonminimal kinetic coupling sector of the general Horndeski theory, where the kinetic term is coupled to the metric and the Einstein tensor. We derive the potential of the perturbation, by identifying a master function and switching to tortoise coordinates. We then prove the mode stability under linear odd-parity perturbations of hairy black holes in this sector of Horndeski theory, when a cosmological constant term in the action is included. Finally, we comment on the existence of slowly rotating black hole solutions in this setup and discuss their implications on the physics of compact object configurations, such as neutron stars.

  12. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia versus stimulus-dichotomy synaesthesia: Odd, even or something else?

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebekah C.; Plassart, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli—for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers)—elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent). This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been “rediscovered.” Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth. PMID:26034572

  13. Electric dipole moments as probes of new CP-odd physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ritz, Adam

    2009-12-17

    We review the importance of precision probes for flavor-diagonal CP-violation, specifically searches for electric dipole moments of nucleons, atoms and molecules, in accessing new CP-odd physics at high scales. We summarize the effective field theory analysis of observable EDMs in terms of a general set of CP-odd operators at 1 GeV, and the ensuing model-independent new physics constraints, incorporating the recently improved limit on the Hg EDM. We also discuss the current status of these limits in the context of 1- and 2-loop contributions in supersymmetric models.

  14. Prevalence and Predictors of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan, A Secondary Analysis of National Nutrition Survey Data 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Black, Kirsten; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Bhatti, Zaid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) in children is a recognized public health problem that impacts adversely on child morbidity, mortality and impairs cognitive development. In Pakistan information on the true prevalence and predictors of IDA is limited. This study sought to investigate IDA in children under five years of age using data from a nationally representative stratified cross-sectional survey. Methods Secondary analysis was performed on the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011–2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic and nutritional data on mothers and children. We also collected Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. IDA was defined as having both haemoglobin levels of <110 g/L and ferritin levels of < 12 μg/L. Data analysis was performed by applying univariate and multivariate techniques using logistic regression through SPSS. Findings A total of 7138 children aged between 6–59 months were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 33.2%. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated. Age < 24 months (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18–1.55 p <0.05), stunting (AOR 1.42 CI 1.23–1.63 p<0.05), presence of clinical anemia (AOR 5.69 CI 4.93–6.56 p<0.05), having a mother with IDA (AOR 1.72 CI 1.47–2.01 p<0.05) and household food insecurity (AOR 1.20 CI 1.10–1.40 P<0.05) were associated with IDA. Living in a rural area (AOR 0.77 CI 0.65–0.90 p<0.05) and being a female child (AOR 0.87 CI 0.76–0.98 p<0.05) were associated with reduced odds of IDA. Conclusion The prevalence of IDA amongst Pakistani children represents a moderate burden that disproportionately affects the youngest, growth retarded children, affected children are more likely to have mothers with IDA and live in areas where food security is lacking. National efforts to alleviate the burden of IDA should involve both short term vertical programs such as iron supplementation

  15. Prevalence and social drivers of HIV among married and cohabitating heterosexual adults in south-eastern Tanzania: analysis of adult health community cohort data

    PubMed Central

    Mtenga, Sally M.; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Merten, Sonja; Mamdani, Masuma; Exavery, Amon; Haafkens, Joke; Tanner, Marcel; Geubbels, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of HIV among married and cohabiting couples is substantial. Information about the underlying social drivers of HIV transmission in couples is critical for the development of structural approaches to HIV prevention, but not readily available. We explored the association between social drivers, practices, and HIV status among stable couples in Ifakara, Tanzania. Design Using a cross-sectional design, we analyzed data from a sample of 3,988 married or cohabiting individuals, aged 15 years and older from the MZIMA adult health community cohort study of 2013. Sociodemographic factors (sex, income, age, and education), gender norms (perceived acceptability for a wife to ask her partner to use a condom when she knows he is HIV positive), marriage characteristics (being in a monogamous or a polygamous marriage, being remarried), sexual behavior practices (lifetime number of sexual partners and concurrent sexual partners), health system factors (ever used voluntary HIV counseling and testing), and lifestyle patterns (alcohol use) were used to explore the odds of being HIV positive, with 95% confidence intervals. Results Prevalence of HIV/AIDS was 6.7% (5.9% males and 7.1% females). Gender norms, that is, perception that a woman is not justified to ask her husband to use a condom even when she knows he has a disease (adjusted odds ratio AOR=1.51, 95% CI 1.06–2.17), marital characteristics, that is, being remarried (AOR=1.49, 95% CI 1.08–2.04), and sexual behavior characteristics, that is, lifetime number of sexual partners (2–4: AOR=1.47, 95% CI 1.02–2.11; 5+: AOR=1.61, 95% CI 1.05–2.47) were the main independent predictors of HIV prevalence. Conclusions Among married or cohabiting individuals, the key social drivers/practices that appeared to make people more vulnerable for HIV are gender norms, marriage characteristics (being remarried), and sexual behavior practices (lifetime number of sexual partners). Married

  16. Correlates of household seismic hazard adjustment adoption.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M K; Whitney, D J

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the relationships of self-reported adoption of 12 seismic hazard adjustments (pre-impact actions to reduce danger to persons and property) with respondents' demographic characteristics, perceived risk, perceived hazard knowledge, perceived protection responsibility, and perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments. Consistent with theoretical predictions, perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments differentiated among the adjustments and had stronger correlations with adoption than any of the other predictors. These results identify the adjustments and attributes that emergency managers should address to have the greatest impact on improving household adjustment to earthquake hazard. PMID:10795335

  17. Sex-specific difference of the association between ambient air pollution and the prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: 33 Communities Chinese Health Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael; Boutwell, Brian; Ward, Patrick; Lu, Tao; Lin, Shao; Zhao, Yang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Liu, Ru-Qing; Qin, Xiao-Di; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Experimental data suggests that exposure to airborne fine particulate matter is associated with obesity. There is little supporting epidemiologic evidence of this, however. To evaluate the effects of ambient air pollution on the prevalence of obesity among adults living in a primarily industrial province of northeast China, 24,845 Chinese adults between the ages of 18 and 74 were randomly recruited from 33 communities in 11 districts of three northeastern Chinese cities during 2009. The participants' weight and height were measured. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. Two-level logistic regressions models were used to examine the effects of pollutants exposure. Overall, 35.3% (8764) were overweight and 5.8% (1435) were obese. After adjusting for confounding factors, significant associations between concentrations of air pollutants and prevalence of obesity were found. When the analysis was stratified by sex, the associations were significant only in women. Among women, an increased prevalence of obesity was associated with an interquartile range increase in PM10 (19 μg/m3; odds ratio [ORs] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.06-1.32), NO2 (9 μg/m3; ORs = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.09-1.41), and O3 (22 μg/m3; ORs = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30). Associations were stronger among older participants. In conclusion, this study reveals a positive association between the long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and increased prevalence of obesity, and that these associations were more apparent in women than in men.

  18. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  19. Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: a national study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K

    2014-03-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005-2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41-11.54% during 2009-2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005-2011 (1.58-1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth. PMID:24342767

  20. Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T.; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K.

    2014-01-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41–11.54% during 2009–2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005–2011 (1.58–1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth. PMID:24342767