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Sample records for adjusted prevalence odds

  1. Prevalence odds ratio versus prevalence ratio: choice comes with consequences.

    PubMed

    Tamhane, Ashutosh R; Westfall, Andrew O; Burkholder, Greer A; Cutter, Gary R

    2016-12-30

    Odds ratio, risk ratio, and prevalence ratio are some of the measures of association which are often reported in research studies quantifying the relationship between an independent variable and the outcome of interest. There has been much debate on the issue of which measure is appropriate to report depending on the study design. However, the literature on selecting a particular category of the outcome to be modeled and/or change in reference group for categorical independent variables and the effect on statistical significance, although known, is scantly discussed nor published with examples. In this article, we provide an example of a cross-sectional study wherein prevalence ratio was chosen over (Prevalence) odds ratio and demonstrate the analytic implications of the choice of category to be modeled and choice of reference level for independent variables. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Teenage Parenthood among Child Welfare Clients: A Swedish National Cohort Study of Prevalence and Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Franzen, Eva; Danielsson, Maria

    2007-01-01

    To assess prevalence and odds for teenage parenthood among former child welfare clients, we used national register data for all children born in Sweden 1972-1983 (n = 1,178,207), including 49,582 former child welfare clients with varying intervention experiences. Logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and familial…

  3. Odds, prevalence and predictors of sleep problems in school-age normal children.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Karen; O'Brien, Louise M; Cluydts, Raymond; Verleye, Gino Benjamin; Ferri, Raffaele

    2005-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the prevalence, odds, and predictors of 36 paediatric sleep behaviours and describe their coexistence in a school-age normal population. The design was community-based questionnaire survey of sleep-wake patterns, sleep environment, and 36 sleep behaviours indicative of six sleep disorder-subscales using the Health-Behaviour Questionnaire. A caregivers' report of 3045 children aged 6-13 years in Belgium constituted the participants. Prevalence of each sleep behaviour was calculated. Log-linear modelling within and between the sleep disorder-subscales was used to screen for coexistence. The effect size of selected night-time parameters to the likelihood of sleep behaviours and disorder-subscale was expressed as odds ratios via logit regression analysis. Significant differences in sleep-wake patterns were found between weekday and weekend. Ranking by odds showed that: (1) sleep problems such as 'tired when waking up', 'repetitive limb movements', 'going to bed reluctantly', and 'sleep paralysis' and; (2) the disorder-subscale 'excessive somnolence' are common in children. Coexistences within and between disorder-subscales of sleep problems are evident in a school-age, normal population. These results suggest that disorders of excessive somnolence (DES) are highly prevalent in a non-clinical sample of school-age children. Furthermore, sleep-onset latency and a noisy, not well-darkened room are predictive towards the odds for exhibiting sleep problems and disorders. It is advocated that more information on the importance of good sleep-wake hygiene should reach parents and children.

  4. Adjustment Disorder in Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Correlates in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women is largely unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico. Methods Pregnant women (n = 300) attending in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico were studied. All enrolled pregnant women had a psychiatric interview to evaluate the presence of adjustment disorder using the DSM-IV criteria. A questionnaire was submitted to obtain general epidemiological data of the pregnant women studied. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of adjustment disorder with the epidemiological data of the women studied. Results Fifteen (5.0%) of the 300 women studied had adjustment disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria. Adjustment disorder was not associated with age, occupation, marital status, or education of pregnant women. In contrast, multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables showed that adjustment disorder was associated with the variables lack of support from her couple (odds ratio (OR) = 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 - 14.63; P = 0.04) and couple living abroad (OR = 10.12; 95% CI: 1.56 - 65.50; P = 0.01). Conclusions This is the first report about the epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results provide evidence of the presence of adjustment disorder and contributing psychosocial factors associated with this disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results point towards further clinical and research attention should be given to this neglected disorder in pregnant women. PMID:26346070

  5. What are the odds? How demographic similarity affects the prevalence of perceived employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Avery, Derek R; McKay, Patrick F; Wilson, David C

    2008-03-01

    Because research is needed to identify the conditions that facilitate or impede the prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination, the authors examined the effects of demographics and demographic similarity on the prevalence of sex- and race/ethnicity-based perceived workplace discrimination. Results from a national survey of 763 full-time, United States employees show perceived sex-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among female than male employees, and perceived race-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among Black and Hispanic than White employees. Additionally, perceived racial/ethnic discrimination was less prevalent among those with same-race/ethnicity supervisors. The effect of employee-coworker sex similarity on perceived sex discrimination was significant only for women, and the effects of supervisor-subordinate racial similarity on the prevalence of perceived racial discrimination varied between Black and White respondents, depending on employee-residential-community racial similarity.

  6. The odd man out in Sub-Saharan Africa: understanding the tobacco use prevalence in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The tobacco industry has globalized and tobacco use continues to increase in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, the data and research to inform policy initiatives for addressing this phenomenon is sparse. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of adult tobacco use in 17 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries, and to identify key factors associated with adult tobacco consumption choices (smoked, smokeless tobacco and dual use) in Madagascar. Methods We used Demographic Health Survey for estimating tobacco use prevalence among adults in SSA. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify key determinants of adult tobacco consumption choices in Madagascar. Results While differences in tobacco use exist in SSA, Madagascar has exceptionally higher prevalence rates (48.9% of males; 10.3% of females). The regression analyses showed complexity of tobacco use in Madagascar and identified age, education, wealth, employment, marriage, religion and place of residence as factors significantly associated with the choice of tobacco use among males, while age, wealth, and employment were significantly associated with that of females. The effects, however, differ across the three choices of tobacco use compared to non-use. Conclusions Tobacco use in Madagascar was higher than the other 16 SSA countries. Although the government continues to enact policies to address the problem, there is a need for effective implementation and enforcement. There is also the need for health education to modify social norms and denormalize tobacco use. PMID:24044737

  7. Demonization of Divorce: Prevalence Rates and Links to Postdivorce Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    The meaning-making process can be crucial to individuals as they adjust to their divorce. Demonization is a negative coping response (also known as spiritual struggle) that involves appraising someone or something as related to demonic forces. Individuals may cognitively frame a divorce as the work of Satan in order to understand suffering while…

  8. Capture-recapture-adjusted prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes are related to social deprivation.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A A; Beeching, N J; Gill, G V; Bellis, M A

    1999-12-01

    We examined the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and social deprivation in one urban district in Liverpool from October 1995 to September 1996 inclusive. This area has a stable Caucasian population of 176, 682. Lists were made of all known diabetics attending six different medical points of contact during the year, and were condensed and aggregated to eliminate duplicates. From postcode data, each patient was assigned to residence in one of the 14 electoral wards in the district, for which demographic structure and standardized measures of social deprivation were known (Townsend index). The crude period prevalences of type 1 and type 2 diabetes were estimated for each ward. Crude prevalence data were then corrected by applying capture-recapture (CR) techniques to the different patient datasets to allow for undercount. The crude period prevalence (95%CI) of diabetes was 1.5% (1.4-1.5%), or 2585/176, 682. The mean age of people with diabetes was not significantly different between electoral wards. The crude period prevalence of type 2 diabetes within individual wards ranged from 0.4% (0.3-0.6%) in the least deprived area to 4.1% (3.6-4.6%) in the most deprived area. The corresponding range of CR-adjusted period prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes was from 3.2% (2.8-3.6%) to 6.7% (6.1-7.4%), and there was strong correlation between both crude and CR-adjusted prevalence and social deprivation in each ward (r=0.76, p<0.001 for crude; and r=0. 49, p<0.005 for CR-adjusted prevalence). There was no correlation between the crude or CR-adjusted period prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes and Townsend index (r=0.14, p=NS). This strong correlation between the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and social deprivation has important implications for the planning of health-care delivery.

  9. Odd + Odd = Odd: Is It Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinitsky, Ilya; Zazkis, Rina; Leikin, Roza

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the reasons why some mathematical functions are referred to as odd, and others as even. They start by recalling the definitions of both functions. Simply stated, the value of an even function is the same for a number and its opposite, whereas the value of an odd function changes for the opposite number when the…

  10. Outdoor NOx and stroke mortality: adjusting for small area level smoking prevalence using a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Ravi; Haining, Robert P; Pearson, Tim; Law, Jane; Brindley, Paul; Best, Nicola G

    2006-10-01

    There is increasing evidence, mainly from daily time series studies, linking air pollution and stroke. Small area level geographical correlation studies offer another means of examining the air pollution-stroke association. Populations within small areas may be more homogeneous than those within larger areal units, and census-based socioeconomic information may be available to adjust for confounding effects. Data on smoking from health surveys may be incorporated in spatial analyses to adjust for potential confounding effects but may be sparse at the small area level. Smoothing, using data from neighbouring areas, may be used to increase the precision of smoking prevalence estimates for small areas. We examined the effect of modelled outdoor NOx levels on stroke mortality using a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to incorporate random effects, in order to allow for unmeasured confounders and to acknowledge sampling error in the estimation of smoking prevalence. We observed an association between NOx and stroke mortality after taking into account random effects at the small area level. We found no association between smoking prevalence and stroke mortality at the small area level after modelling took into account imprecision in estimating smoking prevalence. The approach we used to incorporate smoking as a covariate in a single large model is conceptually sound, though it made little difference to the substantive results.

  11. Incidence, prevalence, and hybrid approaches to calculating disability-adjusted life years

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    When disability-adjusted life years are used to measure the burden of disease on a population in a time interval, they can be calculated in several different ways: from an incidence, pure prevalence, or hybrid perspective. I show that these calculation methods are not equivalent and discuss some of the formal difficulties each method faces. I show that if we don’t discount the value of future health, there is a sense in which the choice of calculation method is a mere question of accounting. Such questions can be important, but they don’t raise deep theoretical concerns. If we do discount, however, choice of calculation method can change the relative burden attributed to different conditions over time. I conclude by recommending that studies involving disability-adjusted life years be explicit in noting what calculation method is being employed and in explaining why that calculation method has been chosen. PMID:22967055

  12. Anger toward God: social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer.

    PubMed

    Exline, Julie J; Park, Crystal L; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Many people see themselves as being in a relationship with God and see this bond as comforting. Yet, perceived relationships with God also carry the potential for experiencing anger toward God, as shown here in studies with the U.S. population (Study 1), undergraduates (Studies 2 and 3), bereaved individuals (Study 4), and cancer survivors (Study 5). These studies addressed 3 fundamental issues regarding anger toward God: perceptions and attributions that predict anger toward God, its prevalence, and its associations with adjustment. Social-cognitive predictors of anger toward God paralleled predictors of interpersonal anger and included holding God responsible for severe harm, attributions of cruelty, difficulty finding meaning, and seeing oneself as a victim. Anger toward God was frequently reported in response to negative events, although positive feelings predominated. Anger and positive feelings toward God showed moderate negative associations. Religiosity and age correlated negatively with anger toward God. Reports of anger toward God were slightly lower among Protestants and African Americans in comparison with other groups (Study 1). Some atheists and agnostics reported anger involving God, particularly on measures emphasizing past experiences (Study 2) and images of a hypothetical God (Study 3). Anger toward God was associated with poorer adjustment to bereavement (Study 4) and cancer (Study 5), particularly when anger remained unresolved over a 1-year period (Study 5). Taken together, these studies suggest that anger toward God is an important dimension of religious and spiritual experience, one that is measurable, widespread, and related to adjustment across various contexts and populations.

  13. Validation, replication, and sensitivity testing of Heckman-type selection models to adjust estimates of HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Clark, Samuel J; Houle, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A recent study using Heckman-type selection models to adjust for non-response in the Zambia 2007 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) found a large correction in HIV prevalence for males. We aim to validate this finding, replicate the adjustment approach in other DHSs, apply the adjustment approach in an external empirical context, and assess the robustness of the technique to different adjustment approaches. We used 6 DHSs, and an HIV prevalence study from rural South Africa to validate and replicate the adjustment approach. We also developed an alternative, systematic model of selection processes and applied it to all surveys. We decomposed corrections from both approaches into rate change and age-structure change components. We are able to reproduce the adjustment approach for the 2007 Zambia DHS and derive results comparable with the original findings. We are able to replicate applying the approach in several other DHSs. The approach also yields reasonable adjustments for a survey in rural South Africa. The technique is relatively robust to how the adjustment approach is specified. The Heckman selection model is a useful tool for assessing the possibility and extent of selection bias in HIV prevalence estimates from sample surveys.

  14. Friendships with Co-Participants in Organized Activities: Prevalence, Quality, Friends' Characteristics, and Associations with Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, Francois; Denault, Anne-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of friendships within organized activities. The prevalence of friendships with co-participants, their quality and characteristics, and their associations with adjustment were investigated. A sample of 281 (60% girls) 8th grade adolescents reported their friendships, activities, and…

  15. The Prevalence of Cyber Bullying Victimization and Its Relationship to Academic, Social, and Emotional Adjustment among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the prevalence and frequency of cyber bullying victimization and examined the impact of cyber bullying on academic, social, and emotional college adjustment. Participants were recruited from two universities in the United States. Participants completed the Revised Cyber Bullying Survey (Kowalski & Limber, 2007)…

  16. Adjusting HIV prevalence estimates for non-participation: an application to demographic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Mark E.; Marra, Giampiero; Radice, Rosalba; Canning, David; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV testing is a cornerstone of efforts to combat the HIV epidemic, and testing conducted as part of surveillance provides invaluable data on the spread of infection and the effectiveness of campaigns to reduce the transmission of HIV. However, participation in HIV testing can be low, and if respondents systematically select not to be tested because they know or suspect they are HIV positive (and fear disclosure), standard approaches to deal with missing data will fail to remove selection bias. We implemented Heckman-type selection models, which can be used to adjust for missing data that are not missing at random, and established the extent of selection bias in a population-based HIV survey in an HIV hyperendemic community in rural South Africa. Methods We used data from a population-based HIV survey carried out in 2009 in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In this survey, 5565 women (35%) and 2567 men (27%) provided blood for an HIV test. We accounted for missing data using interviewer identity as a selection variable which predicted consent to HIV testing but was unlikely to be independently associated with HIV status. Our approach involved using this selection variable to examine the HIV status of residents who would ordinarily refuse to test, except that they were allocated a persuasive interviewer. Our copula model allows for flexibility when modelling the dependence structure between HIV survey participation and HIV status. Results For women, our selection model generated an HIV prevalence estimate of 33% (95% CI 27–40) for all people eligible to consent to HIV testing in the survey. This estimate is higher than the estimate of 24% generated when only information from respondents who participated in testing is used in the analysis, and the estimate of 27% when imputation analysis is used to predict missing data on HIV status. For men, we found an HIV prevalence of 25% (95% CI 15–35) using the selection model, compared to 16% among those who

  17. Friendships with co-participants in organized activities: prevalence, quality, friends' characteristics, and associations with adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Poulin, François; Denault, Anne-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of friendships within organized activities. The prevalence of friendships with co-participants, their quality and characteristics, and their associations with adjustment were investigated. A sample of 281 (60% girls) 8th grade adolescents reported their friendships, activities, and adjustment. The results showed that 70% of youths have friends who co-participate with them. Friends in individual sports are more academically oriented whereas friends in team sports are more supportive but display higher levels of problem behavior. Finally, having friends in activities is associated with lower problem behavior and better academic functioning.

  18. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... manage a child with ODD. Doctors, counselors and child development experts can help. Treatment of ODD involves therapy, ... exhibit oppositional behavior at certain stages of a child's development. Signs of ODD generally begin during preschool years. ...

  19. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders in patients with age-related macular degeneration in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Louis; Spiess, Alexandra; Kostev, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders in patients diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Germany. Methods: This study included 7,580 patients between the ages of 40 and 90 diagnosed with AMD between January 2011 and December 2014 in 1,072 primary care practices (index date). The last follow-up was in July 2016. We also included 7,580 controls without AMD, which were matched (1:1) to the AMD cases by age, sex, type of health insurance (private or statutory), physician, and Charlson comorbidity score as a generic marker of comorbidity. The outcome of the study was the prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders recorded in the database between the index date and the end of follow-up. Results: The mean age among subjects was 75.7 years (SD=10.1 years), 34.0% were men, and 7.8% had private health insurance coverage. The Charlson comorbidity index was 2.0 (SD=1.8). Depression was the most frequent disease (33.7% in AMD patients versus 27.3% in controls), followed by somatoform disorders (19.6% and 16.7%), adjustment disorders (14.8% and 10.5%), and anxiety disorders (11.7% and 8.2%). Depression (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.27–1.47), anxiety (OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.35–1.67), adjustment disorders (OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.36–1.65), and somatoform disorders (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) were all positively associated with AMD. Conclusion: Overall, a significant association was found between AMD and depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders. PMID:28243189

  20. Bullying Among South Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Association With Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence rates of physical, verbal, relational, property, and cyber bullying among a sample of South Korean middle school students. Associations between bullying and a list of psychopathological symptoms were also examined. Finally, whether a link between bullying and psychopathological symptoms is modified by the level of parental attachment was examined. Results show that, contrary to Western studies, girls were more likely than boys to be involved in school bullying. Significant interaction effects between parental attachment and bully/victim status on depression were also discovered.

  1. Odd-odd deformed proton emitters.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L S; Maglione, E

    2001-02-26

    Proton decay from odd-odd deformed nuclei is a long-standing unsolved problem. We present for the first time an exact solution using single particle Nilsson resonances. The lifetime is found to depend strongly on the single particle level occupied by the unpaired neutron, allowing a clear assignment of its Nilsson level. The emitters 112Cs, 140Ho, 150Lu, and 150Lu(m) are considered. The agreement with the experimental data is very good with deformations 0.1

  2. Against All Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2005-01-01

    More than a decade ago, no one held out much hope for the poor, immigrant children at Kennedy Middle School. Nobody thinks that now. This article presents how Kennedy Middle School transformed and beat all the odds to be a "school to watch." In many ways, Kennedy Middle School has become a model of middle-grades improvement. Test scores,…

  3. Odd Shape Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Jo Ann; Wells, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The Odd Shape Out task was an open-ended problem that engaged students in comparing shapes based on their properties. Four teachers submitted the work of 116 students from across the country. This article compares various student's responses to the task. The problem allowed for differentiation, as shown by the many different ways that students…

  4. Community water fluoridation predicts increase in age-adjusted incidence and prevalence of diabetes in 22 states from 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Kyle

    2016-10-01

    Community water fluoridation is considered a significant public health achievement of the 20th century. In this paper, the hypothesis that added water fluoridation has contributed to diabetes incidence and prevalence in the United States was investigated. Panel data from publicly available sources were used with population-averaged models to test the associations of added and natural fluoride on the outcomes at the county level in 22 states for the years 2005 and 2010. The findings suggest that a 1 mg increase in the county mean added fluoride significantly positively predicts a 0.23 per 1,000 person increase in age-adjusted diabetes incidence (P < 0.001), and a 0.17% increase in age-adjusted diabetes prevalence percent (P < 0.001), while natural fluoride concentration is significantly protective. For counties using fluorosilicic acid as the chemical additive, both outcomes were lower: by 0.45 per 1,000 persons (P < 0.001) and 0.33% (P < 0.001), respectively. These findings are adjusted for county-level and time-varying changes in per capita tap water consumption, poverty, year, population density, age-adjusted obesity and physical inactivity, and mean number of years since water fluoridation started. Sensitivity analyses revealed robust effects for both types of fluoride. Community water fluoridation is associated with epidemiological outcomes for diabetes.

  5. Community water fluoridation predicts increase in age-adjusted incidence and prevalence of diabetes in 22 states from 2005 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Fluegge, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Community water fluoridation is considered a significant public health achievement of the 20th century. In this paper, the hypothesis that added water fluoridation has contributed to diabetes incidence and prevalence in the United States was investigated. Panel data from publicly available sources were used with population-averaged models to test the associations of added and natural fluoride on the outcomes at the county level in 22 states for the years 2005 and 2010. The findings suggest that a 1 mg increase in the county mean added fluoride significantly positively predicts a 0.23 per 1,000 person increase in age-adjusted diabetes incidence (P < 0.001), and a 0.17% increase in age-adjusted diabetes prevalence percent (P < 0.001), while natural fluoride concentration is significantly protective. For counties using fluorosilicic acid as the chemical additive, both outcomes were lower: by 0.45 per 1,000 persons (P < 0.001) and 0.33% (P < 0.001), respectively. These findings are adjusted for county-level and time-varying changes in per capita tap water consumption, poverty, year, population density, age-adjusted obesity and physical inactivity, and mean number of years since water fluoridation started. Sensitivity analyses revealed robust effects for both types of fluoride. Community water fluoridation is associated with epidemiological outcomes for diabetes. PMID:27740551

  6. Sleeping at the limits: the changing prevalence of short and long sleep durations in 10 countries.

    PubMed

    Bin, Yu Sun; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Glozier, Nick

    2013-04-15

    Short (≤6 hours) and long (>9 hours) sleep durations are risk factors for mortality and morbidity. To investigate whether the prevalences of short and long sleep durations have increased from the 1970s to the 2000s, we analyzed data from repeated cross-sectional surveys of 10 industrialized countries (38 nationally representative time-use surveys; n = 328,018 adults). Logistic regression models for each country were used to determine changes in the prevalence of short and long sleep durations over time, controlling for sampling differences in gender, age, number of weekend days included, and season of data collection. Over the periods covered by data, the prevalence of short sleep duration increased in Italy (adjusted odds ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.41, 2.89) and Norway (adjusted odds ratio = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.77, 3.08) but decreased in Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The prevalence of long sleep duration increased in Australia (adjusted odds ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.25), Finland (adjusted odds ratio = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.48), Sweden (adjusted odds ratio = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.69), the United Kingdom (adjusted odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.68, 2.46), and the United States (adjusted odds ratio = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.65) but decreased in Canada and Italy. No changes were observed in Germany or the Netherlands. Limited increases in short sleep duration challenge the claim of increasingly sleep-deprived societies. Long sleep duration is more widespread than is short sleep duration. It has become more prevalent and thus should not be overlooked as a potential contributor to ill health.

  7. A comparison of marginal odds ratio estimators.

    PubMed

    Loux, Travis M; Drake, Christiana; Smith-Gagen, Julie

    2017-02-01

    Uses of the propensity score to obtain estimates of causal effect have been investigated thoroughly under assumptions of linearity and additivity of exposure effect. When the outcome variable is binary relationships such as collapsibility, valid for the linear model, do not always hold. This article examines uses of the propensity score when both exposure and outcome are binary variables and the parameter of interest is the marginal odds ratio. We review stratification and matching by the propensity score when calculating the Mantel-Haenszel estimator and show that it is consistent for neither the marginal nor conditional odds ratio. We also investigate a marginal odds ratio estimator based on doubly robust estimators and summarize its performance relative to other recently proposed estimators under various conditions, including low exposure prevalence and model misspecification. Finally, we apply all estimators to a case study estimating the effect of Medicare plan type on the quality of care received by African-American breast cancer patients.

  8. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  9. ODD Symptom Network during Preschool.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tess E; Lee, Christine A; Martel, Michelle M; Axelrad, Marni E

    2016-08-15

    Several different conceptualizations of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms have been proposed, including one undivided set of symptoms (DSM-IV-TR; APA 2000); two domains of symptoms subdivided into affective and behavioral; and three domains of symptoms subdivided as angry/irritable, argumentative/defiant, and spiteful. The current study utilizes a novel approach to examining the division of ODD symptoms through use of network analysis. Participants were 109 preschoolers (64 male) between the ages of three and six (M = 4.34 years, SD = 1.08) and their parents and teachers/caregivers, who provided ratings of ODD symptoms. Results are consistent with one-, two-, and three- cluster solutions of ODD, but perhaps provide most support for the three-cluster solution. In addition, results support the idea that negative affect, particularly anger, forms the core of the ODD symptom network during preschool. These results suggest the importance of targeting anger in preschool interventions for ODD.

  10. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1985-01-15

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earch region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  11. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1984-09-07

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Nonadiabatic effects in odd-odd deformed proton emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Patial, M.; Jain, A. K.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2011-11-30

    We present for the first time, the nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach to study proton emission from odd-odd deformed nuclei. Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wavefunctions and hence our formalism allows us to study their complete role on the decay widths. First results obtained for the nucleus {sup 112}Cs suggest a weak dependance on Coriolis effect. However, we are able to reproduce the experimental half-lives without assuming the exact Nilsson orbital from which the decay proceeds.

  13. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Eckmanns, Tim; Abu Sin, Muna; Ducomble, Tanja; Harder, Thomas; Sixtensson, Madlen; Velasco, Edward; Weiß, Bettina; Kramarz, Piotr; Monnet, Dominique L.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.; Suetens, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011–2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs. Methods and Findings The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP), healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI), healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI). The burden of these HAIs was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Evidence relating to the disease progression pathway of each type of HAI was collected through systematic literature reviews, in order to estimate the risks attributable to HAIs. For each of the six HAIs, gender and age group prevalence from the ECDC PPS was converted into incidence rates by applying the Rhame and Sudderth formula. We adjusted for reduced life expectancy within the hospital population using three severity groups based on McCabe score data from the ECDC PPS. We estimated that 2,609,911 new cases of HAI occur every year in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA). The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was estimated at 501 DALYs per 100,000 general population each year in EU/EEA. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden and represented more than 60% of the total burden, with 169 and 145 DALYs per 100,000 total population, respectively. HA UTI, SSI, HA CDI, and HA primary BSI ranked as the third to sixth syndromes in terms of burden of disease

  14. Theoretical description of fine structure in the α decay of heavy odd-odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Dongdong; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2013-02-01

    The newly developed multichannel cluster model (MCCM), based on the coupled-channel Schrödinger equation with outgoing wave boundary conditions, is extended to study the α-decay fine structure in heavy odd-odd nuclei. Calculations are performed for the α transitions to favored rotational bands where the unpaired nucleons remain unchanged. The simple WKB barrier penetration formula is also used to evaluate the branching ratios for various daughter states. It is found that the WKB formula seems to overestimate the branching ratios for the second and third members of the favored rotational band, while the MCCM gives a precise description of them without any adjustable parameters. Moreover, the experimental total α-decay half-lives are well reproduced within the MCCM.

  15. On Quantizable Odd Lie Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, Anton; Merkulov, Sergei; Willwacher, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the obstruction to the deformation quantization of Poisson structures in infinite dimensions, we introduce the notion of a quantizable odd Lie bialgebra. The main result of the paper is a construction of the highly non-trivial minimal resolution of the properad governing such Lie bialgebras, and its link with the theory of so-called quantizable Poisson structures.

  16. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1993-09-01

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of {sup 224}Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides.

  17. Excited states of the 150Pm odd-odd nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Drăgulescu, E.; Pascu, S.; Wirth, H.-F.; Filipescu, D.; Căta-Danil, G.; Căta-Danil, I.; Deleanu, D.; Eppinger, K.; Faestermann, T.; Ghiţă, D. G.; Glodariu, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Ivaşcu, M.; Krücken, R.; Mărginean, N.; Mărginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Negret, A.; Sava, T.; Stroe, L.; Wimmer, K.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of excited states in the odd-odd 150Pm, completely unknown until recently, is important both for understanding double β decay of 150Nd and for nuclear structure studies in mass regions with a quantum phase transition. A large number of excited states have been determined for the first time in this nucleus by measuring spectra of the 152Sm(d,α) direct reaction at 25 MeV with the Munich Q3D spectrograph and by γ-ray spectroscopy with the (p,nγ) reaction at 7.1 MeV at the Bucharest tandem accelerator. Some of these levels correspond to peaks recently observed with the (3He,t) reaction at 140 MeV/u.

  18. Structure of odd-odd 136La at high spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Tumpa; Chanda, Somen; Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Basu, Swapan Kumar; Bhowmik, R. K.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Pattabiraman, N. S.; Ghugre, S. S.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2005-04-01

    The high spin states in the N=79 odd-odd 136La nucleus have been investigated by in-beam γ-spectroscopic techniques following the 130Te( 11B, 5 n) 136La reaction at E=52 MeV using an array, consisting of eight Compton-suppressed clover germanium detectors. Thirty nine new γ rays have been assigned to 136La on the basis of γ ray singles and γγ-coincidence data. The level scheme of 136La has been extended above the known 115 ms isomer upto an excitation energy of 4.6 MeV and spin 18 ℏ. Thirty one new levels have been proposed and spin-parity assignments for most of the newly proposed levels have been made on the basis of the deduced asymmetry ratios and polarisation information for the de-exciting transitions. The observed positive parity yrast band has been compared with the theoretical calculation, done within the framework of particle rotor coupling model (PRM) where the two odd quasi-particles are coupled to an axially symmetric core. The level structure has been discussed in the light of the known systematics of the neighbouring N=79 isotonic nuclei.

  19. At Odds: Concerns Raised by Using Odds Ratios for Continuous or Common Dichotomous Outcomes in Research on Physical Activity and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Lovasi, Gina S; Underhill, Lindsay J; Jack, Darby; Richards, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher; Rundle, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Research on obesity and the built environment has often featured logistic regression and the corresponding parameter, the odds ratio. Use of odds ratios for common outcomes such obesity may unnecessarily hinder the validity, interpretation, and communication of research findings. METHODS: We identified three key issues raised by the use of odds ratios, illustrating them with data on walkability and body mass index from a study of 13,102 New York City residents. RESULTS: First, dichotomization of continuous measures such as body mass index discards theoretically relevant information, reduces statistical power, and amplifies measurement error. Second, odds ratios are systematically higher (further from the null) than prevalence ratios; this inflation is trivial for rare outcomes, but substantial for common outcomes like obesity. Third, odds ratios can lead to incorrect conclusions during tests of interactions. The odds ratio in a particular subgroup might higher simply because the outcome is more common (and the odds ratio inflated) compared with other subgroups. CONCLUSION: Our recommendations are to take full advantage of continuous outcome data when feasible and to use prevalence ratios in place of odds ratios for common dichotomous outcomes. When odds ratios must be used, authors should document outcome prevalence across exposure groups.

  20. Executive functions in preschoolers with ADHD, ODD, and comorbid ADHD-ODD: Evidence from ecological and performance-based measures.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser

    2015-09-01

    Executive functioning in 3-year-old preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), comorbid ADHD+ODD, and children without any of these conditions (control group) was examined. A community sample including 622 children was diagnosed using a diagnostic interview following DSM-IV criteria, and assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool version (BRIEF-P) and the Kiddie-Conners' Continuous Performance Test. The children diagnosed with ADHD showed the poorest executive function (EF) profile in comparison with controls, and were closely followed up in this respect by the comorbid ADHD+ODD children. The ADHD and comorbid groups presented similar executive difficulties. The ODD group obtained mean scores statistically equal to those of controls in EF. These findings suggest that, in preschoolers, executive functioning deficits assessed with a performance-based measure or with behavioural descriptions are specific to children with ADHD, in comparison with those with ODD. This study contributes knowledge about EFs in two prevalent and comorbid disorders in preschool children, ADHD and ODD, knowledge that can help our understanding of specific deficits and the design of specific early intervention initiatives.

  1. Odds of observing the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, A.

    2010-03-15

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H{sub O}/H{sub I}){sup 2}, where H{sub O} is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H{sub I} is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  2. Hybrid configuration mixing model for odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colò, G.; Bortignon, P. F.; Bocchi, G.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we introduce a new approach which is meant to be a first step towards complete self-consistent low-lying spectroscopy of odd nuclei. So far, we essentially limit ourselves to the description of a double-magic core plus an extra nucleon. The model does not contain any free adjustable parameter and is instead based on a Hartree-Fock (HF) description of the particle states in the core, together with self-consistent random-phase approximation (RPA) calculations for the core excitations. We include both collective and noncollective excitations, with proper care of the corrections due to the overlap between them (i.e., due to the nonorthonormality of the basis). As a consequence, with respect to traditional particle-vibration coupling calculations in which one can only address single-nucleon states and particle-vibration multiplets, we can also describe states of shell-model types like 2 particle-1 hole. We will report results for 49Ca and 133Sb and discuss future perspectives.

  3. Odd frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen; Woelfle, Peter; Balatsky, Alexandar

    Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. While the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e. non-interacting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory allowing to discuss a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing. Work supported by USDOE DE-AC52-06NA25396 E304, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and ERC DM-321031.

  4. General parity-odd CMB bispectrum estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2014-05-01

    We develop a methodology for estimating parity-odd bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This is achieved through the extension of the original separable modal methodology to parity-odd bispectrum domains (ℓ{sub 1}+ℓ{sub 2}+ℓ{sub 3} = odd). Through numerical tests of the parity-odd modal decomposition with some theoretical bispectrum templates, we verify that the parity-odd modal methodology can successfully reproduce the CMB bispectrum, without numerical instabilities. We also present simulated non-Gaussian maps produced by modal-decomposed parity-odd bispectra, and show the consistency with the exact results. Our new methodology is applicable to all types of parity-odd temperature and polarization bispectra.

  5. The prevalence and determinants of hypothyroidism in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Bao, Cuiping; Deng, Meiyu; Xu, Hui; Fan, Meijuan; Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie; Xu, Weili; Qi, Xiuying

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hypothyroidism among hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related factors, and to assess the prevalence of macrovascular and microvascular diseases among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. A total of 1662 type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients hospitalized at the Metabolic Diseases Hospital, Tianjin Medical University from 1 January 2008 to 1 March 2013 were included in this study. Information on demographic and anthropometric factors and additional variables related to hypothyroidism were collected from medical records. Prevalence rates were calculated and standardized using direct method based on the age-specific and sex-specific structure of all participants. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and 77.0 % of the patients with hypothyroidism had subclinical hypothyroidism. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age, and was higher in women (10.8 %) than in men (3.4 %). Older age (odds ratio, 1.74; 95 % confidence interval, 1. 05 to 2.89), female gender (odds ratio, 2.02; 95 % confidence interval, 1.05 to 3.87), and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody (odds ratio, 4.99; 95 % confidence interval, 2.83 to 8.79) were associated with higher odds of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients. The type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism had higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than those with euthyroidism after adjustment for age and gender. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and most patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. Older age, female gender, and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody could be indicators for detecting hypothyroidism in type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients.

  6. Do Race, Ethnicity, and Psychiatric Diagnoses Matter in the Prevalence of Multiple Chronic Medical Conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Humensky, Jennifer; Druss, Benjamin; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Gomes, Arminda P.; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background The proportion of people in the United States with multiple chronic medical conditions (MCMC) is increasing. Yet, little is known about the relationship that race, ethnicity, and psychiatric disorders have on the prevalence of MCMCs in the general population. Methods This study used data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N= 33,107). Multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for socio-demographic variables, body mass index, and quality of life were used to examine differences in the 12-month prevalence of MCMC by race/ethnicity, psychiatric diagnosis, and the interactions between race/ethnicity and psychiatric diagnosis. Results Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics reported lower odds of MCMC and African Americans reported higher odds of MCMC after adjusting for covariates. People with psychiatric disorders reported higher odds of MCMC compared to people without psychiatric disorders. There were significant interactions between race and psychiatric diagnosis associated with rates of MCMC. In the presence of certain psychiatric disorders, the odds of MCMC were higher among African Americans with psychiatric disorders compared to non-Hispanic Whites with similar psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Our study results indicate that race, ethnicity, and psychiatric disorders are associated with the prevalence of MCMC. As the rates of MCMC rise, it is critical to identify which populations are at increased risk and how to best direct services to address their health care needs. PMID:23552429

  7. Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2015-01-01

    Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: ℓ{sub 1} + ℓ{sub 2} + ℓ{sub 3} = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.

  8. Analyses of Sensitivity to the Missing-at-Random Assumption Using Multiple Imputation With Delta Adjustment: Application to a Tuberculosis/HIV Prevalence Survey With Incomplete HIV-Status Data.

    PubMed

    Leacy, Finbarr P; Floyd, Sian; Yates, Tom A; White, Ian R

    2017-01-10

    Multiple imputation with delta adjustment provides a flexible and transparent means to impute univariate missing data under general missing-not-at-random mechanisms. This facilitates the conduct of analyses assessing sensitivity to the missing-at-random (MAR) assumption. We review the delta-adjustment procedure and demonstrate how it can be used to assess sensitivity to departures from MAR, both when estimating the prevalence of a partially observed outcome and when performing parametric causal mediation analyses with a partially observed mediator. We illustrate the approach using data from 34,446 respondents to a tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence survey that was conducted as part of the Zambia-South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction Study (2006-2010). In this study, information on partially observed HIV serological values was supplemented by additional information on self-reported HIV status. We present results from 2 types of sensitivity analysis: The first assumed that the degree of departure from MAR was the same for all individuals with missing HIV serological values; the second assumed that the degree of departure from MAR varied according to an individual's self-reported HIV status. Our analyses demonstrate that multiple imputation offers a principled approach by which to incorporate auxiliary information on self-reported HIV status into analyses based on partially observed HIV serological values.

  9. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Peer Victimization (Bullying) among Grades 7 and 8 Middle School Students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Abdulsalam, Ahmad J; Al Daihani, Abdullah E; Francis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Background. Peer victimization (bullying) is a universal phenomenon with detrimental effects. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors of bullying among grades 7 and 8 middle school students in Kuwait. Methods. The study is a cross-sectional study that includes a sample of 989 7th and 8th grade middle school students randomly selected from schools. The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure different forms of bullying. After adjusting for confounding, logistic regression identified the significant associated factors related to bullying. Results. Prevalence of bullying was 30.2 with 95% CI 27.4 to 33.2% (3.5% bullies, 18.9% victims, 7.8% bully victims). Children with physical disabilities and one or both non-Kuwaiti parents or children with divorced/widowed parents were more prone to be victims. Most victims and bullies were found to be current smokers. Bullies were mostly in the fail/fair final school grade category, whereas victims performed better. The logistic regression showed that male gender (adjusted odds ration = 1.671, p = 0.004), grade 8 student (adjusted odds ratio = 1.650, p = 0.004), and student with physical disabilities (adjusted odds ratio = 1.675, p = 0.003), were independently associated with bullying behavior. Conclusions. There is a need for a school-wide professional intervention program and improvement in the students' adjustment to school environment to control bullying behavior.

  10. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Peer Victimization (Bullying) among Grades 7 and 8 Middle School Students in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al Daihani, Abdullah E.; Francis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Background. Peer victimization (bullying) is a universal phenomenon with detrimental effects. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors of bullying among grades 7 and 8 middle school students in Kuwait. Methods. The study is a cross-sectional study that includes a sample of 989 7th and 8th grade middle school students randomly selected from schools. The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure different forms of bullying. After adjusting for confounding, logistic regression identified the significant associated factors related to bullying. Results. Prevalence of bullying was 30.2 with 95% CI 27.4 to 33.2% (3.5% bullies, 18.9% victims, 7.8% bully victims). Children with physical disabilities and one or both non-Kuwaiti parents or children with divorced/widowed parents were more prone to be victims. Most victims and bullies were found to be current smokers. Bullies were mostly in the fail/fair final school grade category, whereas victims performed better. The logistic regression showed that male gender (adjusted odds ration = 1.671, p = 0.004), grade 8 student (adjusted odds ratio = 1.650, p = 0.004), and student with physical disabilities (adjusted odds ratio = 1.675, p = 0.003), were independently associated with bullying behavior. Conclusions. There is a need for a school-wide professional intervention program and improvement in the students' adjustment to school environment to control bullying behavior. PMID:28348603

  11. [Odds Ratio: review about the meaning of an epidemiological measure].

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Pedro; Nunes, Baltazar

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: É importante rever a validade do Odds Ratio como medida de associação e efeito, assim como, qual o viés introduzido pelo Odds Ratio quando este representa uma razão de riscos ou uma razão de prevalências em situação de doença mais frequente.Material e Métodos: Simulámos numa coorte de 200 indivíduos com 100 expostos e 100 não expostos a um fator de risco, um cenário de doença rara e outro de doença mais frequente, com razão de riscos igual em ambos os cenários. Determinaram-se o Odds Ratio e o Risco Relativo pelo método clássico (padrão) e respectivamente por regressão logística e regressão de Poisson. Introduziu-se de seguida uma variável de confundimento e determinaram-se o Odds Ratio e o Risco Relativo pelo método de Mantel-Hanszel (análise estratificada padrão) e respectivamente por regressão logística e regressão de Poisson. As análises estatísticas foram efectuadas em SPSS V20.Resultados: Para a doença rara, o Odds Ratio aproximou-se do Risco Relativo. Quando a doença foi mais frequente, o Odds Ratio sobrestimou o Risco Relativo. Nesta situação, e com a presença de uma variável de confundimento, o Risco Relativo ajustado por regressão de Poisson permitiu obter estimativas mais válidas da razão de riscos que o Odds Ratio ajustado por regressão logística. Os intervalos de confiança do Risco Relativo estimado por regressão de Poisson foram sempre mais largos que os determinados por análise de Mantel-Hanszel.Conclusões: O Odds Ratio e a regressão logística múltipla são procedimentos válidos em estudos caso-controlo e em estudosprospetivos e transversais de natureza exploratória. O Odds Ratio não deve ser interpretado como uma razão de riscos ou razão de prevalências se o resultado de saúde não é raro. A análise de regressão múltipla de Poisson deve ser considerada como alternativa válida à regressão logística múltipla, especialmente em estudos de uma exposição específica.

  12. Lifetime Prevalence, Correlates, and Persistence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Matthew K.; Kazdin, Alan E.; Hiripi, Eva; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a leading cause of referral for youth mental health services; yet, many uncertainties exist about ODD given it is rarely examined as a distinct psychiatric disorder. We examined the lifetime prevalence, onset, persistence, and correlates of ODD. Methods: Lifetime prevalence of ODD and 18 other…

  13. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  14. Intrinsic excitations in doubly odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P.C.

    1985-01-15

    A procedure is outlined for predicting the bandhead energies of the two-particle (intrinsic) states of odd-odd deformed nuclei based on a quantitative evaluation of the zero range n-p residual interaction energy. We present our results for 250Bk, where many such levels are experimentally known, and for 236Np and 246Am, where the information is very scarce and that too uncertain, to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  15. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930

  16. Signatures of shape phase transitions in odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2016-12-01

    Quantum phase transitions between competing ground-state shapes of atomic nuclei with an odd number of protons or neutrons are investigated in a microscopic framework based on nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-plus-boson-core coupling scheme. The boson-core Hamiltonian, as well as the single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the unpaired nucleon, are completely determined by constrained self-consistent mean-field calculations for a specific choice of the energy density functional and paring interaction, and only the strength parameters of the particle-core coupling are adjusted to reproduce selected spectroscopic properties of the odd-mass system. We apply this method to odd-A Eu and Sm isotopes with neutron number N ≈90 , and explore the influence of the single unpaired fermion on the occurrence of a shape phase transition. Collective wave functions of low-energy states are used to compute quantities that can be related to quantum order parameters: deformations, excitation energies, E 2 transition rates, and separation energies, and their evolution with the control parameter (neutron number) is analyzed.

  17. Is cirrhosis associated with lower odds of ischemic stroke: A nationwide analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Abhinav; Chatterjee, Kshitij; Shah, Nishi; Singh, Shailender

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the association between cirrhosis and ischemic stroke in a large nationally representative sample. METHODS A retrospective cross-sectional study of all hospitalized patients during 2012 and 2013 in the United States was performed using the National Inpatient Sample database. Hospitalizations with acute stroke, cirrhosis and other risk factors were identified using ICD-9-CM codes. RESULTS There were a total of 72082638 hospitalizations in the United States during the years 2012 and 2013. After excluding hospitalizations with missing demographic variables, that there were a total of 1175210 (1.6%) out of these were for acute ischemic stroke. Cirrhosis was present among 5605 (0.4%) cases of ischemic stroke. Mean age among the cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups with ischemic stroke were 66.4 and 70.5 years, respectively. Prevalence of risk factors among the two groups was also calculated. After adjusting for various known risk factors the odds of having an ischemic stroke (OR = 0.28, P < 0.001) were 72% lower in cirrhotics compared to non-cirrhotics. CONCLUSION Our study suggests that in a large, nationally representative sample of the United States population, cirrhosis is associated with a lower likelihood of stroke. PMID:28050237

  18. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Lebanon, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has a major public health impact through high disease prevalence, significant downstream pathophysiologic effects, and enormous financial liabilities. Diet is an important environmental factor in the development and prevention of T2D. Dietary patterns may exert greater effects on health than individual foods, nutrients, or food groups. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dietary patterns and the odds of T2D among Lebanese adults. Methods Fifty-eight recently diagnosed cases of T2D and 116 population-based age, sex, and place of residence matched control participants were interviewed. Data collection included a standard socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative 97-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat were also obtained. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with T2D. Pearson correlations between these patterns and obesity markers, energy, and nutrient intakes were also examined. Results Four dietary patterns were identified: Refined Grains & Desserts, Traditional Lebanese, Fast Food and Meat & Alcohol. While scores of the “Refined Grains & Desserts” had the highest correlations with energy (r = 0.74) and carbohydrates (r = 0.22), those of the “Fast Food” had the highest correlation with fat intake (r = 0.34). After adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, scores of the Refined Grains & Desserts and Fast Food patterns were associated with higher odds of T2D (OR: 3.85, CI: 1.13-11.23 and OR: 2.80, CI: 1.14-5.59; respectively) and scores of the Traditional Lebanese pattern were inversely associated with the odds of T2D (OR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97). Conclusions The findings of this study

  19. Odd-frequency Superconductivity in Driven Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Balatsky, Alexander

    We show that Berezinskii's classification of the symmetries of Cooper pair amplitudes in terms of parity under transformations that invert spin, space, time, and orbital degrees of freedom holds for driven systems even in the absence of translation invariance. We then discuss the conditions under which pair amplitudes which are odd in frequency can emerge in driven systems. Considering a model Hamiltonian for a superconductor coupled to an external driving potential, we investigate the influence of the drive on the anomalous Green's function, density of states, and spectral function. We find that the anomalous Green's function develops odd in frequency component in the presence of an external drive. Furthermore we investigate how these odd-frequency terms are related to satellite features in the density of states and spectral function. Supported by US DOE BES E 304.

  20. Odd-frequency superconductivity in driven systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2016-09-01

    We show that Berezinskii's classification of the symmetries of Cooper pair amplitudes holds for driven systems even in the absence of translation invariance. We then consider a model Hamiltonian for a superconductor coupled to an external driving potential and, treating the drive as a perturbation, we investigate the corrections to the anomalous Green's function, density of states, and spectral function. We find that in the presence of an external drive the anomalous Green's function develops terms that are odd in frequency and that the same mechanism responsible for these odd-frequency terms generates additional features in the density of states and spectral function.

  1. Chiropractic Adjustment

    MedlinePlus

    ... structural alignment and improve your body's physical function. Low back pain, neck pain and headache are the most common ... treated. Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only ...

  2. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from other people Skipped heartbeats and other physical complaints Trembling or twitching To have adjustment disorder, you ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  3. Anaemia prevalence may be reduced among countries that fortify flour.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Jonathan S; Wheeler, Kathleen S; Pachón, Helena

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of flour fortification in reducing anaemia prevalence is equivocal. The goal was to utilise the existing national-level data to assess whether anaemia in non-pregnant women was reduced after countries began fortifying wheat flour, alone or in combination with maize flour, with at least Fe, folic acid, vitamin A or vitamin B12. Nationally representative anaemia data were identified through Demographic and Health Survey reports, the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System database and other national-level nutrition surveys. Countries with at least two anaemia surveys were considered for inclusion. Within countries, surveys were excluded if altitude was not consistently adjusted for, or if the blood-draw site (e.g. capillary or venous) or Hb quantification method (e.g. HemoCue or Cyanmethaemoglobin) differed. Anaemia prevalence was modelled for countries that had pre- and post-fortification data (n 12) and for countries that never fortified flour (n 20) using logistic regression models that controlled for time effects, human development index (HDI) and endemic malaria. After adjusting for HDI and malaria, each year of fortification was associated with a 2.4% reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence (PR 0.976, 95% CI 0.975, 0.978). Among countries that never fortified, no reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence over time was observed (PR 0.999, 95% CI 0.997, 1.002). Among both fortification and non-fortification countries, HDI and malaria were significantly associated with anaemia (P,0.001). Although this type of evidence precludes a definitive conclusion, results suggest that after controlling for time effects, HDI and endemic malaria, anaemia prevalence has decreased significantly in countries that fortify flour with micronutrients, while remaining unchanged in countries that do not.

  4. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  5. PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD.

    SciTech Connect

    KHARZEEV,D.; PISARSKI,R.D.; TYTGAT,M.H.G.

    1998-04-16

    We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N {r_arrow} {infinity}. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T{sub d}, is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero {theta}--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T{sub d}. Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the {eta}{prime} meson, and especially the {eta} meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as {eta} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define.

  6. Odd numbers of photons and teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enk, S. J.

    2003-02-01

    Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.

  7. Experimental level-structure determination in odd-odd actinide nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1985-04-04

    The status of experimental determination of level structure in odd-odd actinide nuclei is reviewed. A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei is applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation are derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings are used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  8. Association between Hypertension and the Prevalence of Low Back Pain and Osteoarthritis in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung; Cho, Jae-Heung; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension and musculoskeletal disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between hypertension and prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and osteoarthritis in Koreans. Methods A total 17,128 participants (age ≥20 years) who answered low back pain and osteoarthritis items in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2009) were analyzed. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression and were adjusted for age, sex, income level, education, occupation, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Results Lifetime prevalence of LBP in hypertensive subjects was 34.4%, and that of osteoarthritis 26.2%. LBP prevalence was significantly lower in hypertensives (fully adjusted OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.70–0.90), and both LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence was significantly lower in participants with systolic blood pressure ≥140mmHg than those with <120mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.70–0.94, and 0.81; 95% CI 0.68–0.96, respectively). Prevalence of LBP in subjects with diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg was also significantly lower than those with <80mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.63–0.85). LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence did not differ by systolic or diastolic blood pressure interval in respondents taking antihypertensive medication. LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence increased with longer hypertension duration (fully adjusted p for trend 0.028, and 0.0008, respectively). Conclusions Hypertension showed an inverse relationship with LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence, which may be ascribed to hypertension-associated hypalgesia, and antihypertensive medication intake and longer hypertension duration attenuated this association. PMID:26393797

  9. Odd-frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Zhoushen; Wolfle, P.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. Although the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e., noninteracting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd-frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical valuemore » gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory that allows discussing a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing.« less

  10. Odd-frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen; Wölfle, P.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. Although the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e., noninteracting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd-frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory that allows discussing a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing.

  11. Odd-frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhoushen; Wolfle, P.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. Although the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e., noninteracting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd-frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory that allows discussing a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing.

  12. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Hand, Gregory A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Blair, Steven N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of physical activity and incidence of physician-diagnosed depression have been limited to a single estimate of self-reported physical activity exposure, despite follow-up periods lasting many years. Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness, an objective marker of habitual physical activity, and incident depression complaints made to a physician. Methods Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at four clinic visits between 1971 and 2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used to objectively measure cumulative physical activity exposure in cohorts of 7936 men and 1261 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study who did not complain of depression at their first clinic visit in 1971–2003. Data were analyzed in August 2010. Results Across subsequent visits, there were 446 incident cases in men and 153 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, BMI at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each 1-minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately 1 half-MET) between ages 51 and 55 years in men and ages 53 and 56 years in women, increased the odds of incident depression complaints by approximately 2% and 9.5%, respectively. The increased odds remained significant but were attenuated to 1.3% and 5.4% after further adjustment at each visit for smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, anxiety, and sleep problems. Conclusions Maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during late middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates, helps protect against the onset of depression complaints made to a physician. PMID:22992353

  13. Spectroscopic evidence of odd frequency superconducting order

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Avradeep; Ouassou, J. A.; Eschrig, M.; Linder, J.; Blamire, M. G.

    2017-01-01

    Spin filter superconducting S/I/N tunnel junctions (NbN/GdN/TiN) show a robust and pronounced Zero Bias Conductance Peak (ZBCP) at low temperatures, the magnitude of which is several times the normal state conductance of the junction. Such a conductance anomaly is representative of unconventional superconductivity and is interpreted as a direct signature of an odd frequency superconducting order. PMID:28106102

  14. Stratospheric distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional pole-to-pole chemical model of the stratosphere is developed which extends from 8 to 38 km in altitude. Atmospheric motions are simulated by mean vertical and meridional winds and eddy diffusion coefficients. Seasonally averaged distributions of important odd nitrogen (NO, NO2, and HNO3) and odd hydrogen (H, OH, HO2, H2O2) compounds are computed. Photodissociation of N2O leads to production of odd nitrogen in the stratosphere, and the odd nitrogen is ultimately removed by downward transport into the troposphere and by rain-out (modeled by a rain-out lifetime of 30 days below 8-km altitude). Results are presented for a quasi-steady state in which seasonal cycles repeat themselves. These results show significant latitudinal as well as vertical variations in the predicted species which emphasize the need for at least two dimensions in accurate stratospheric modeling. Computed concentrations are compared with observations when they exist.

  15. Variation in the prevalence, awareness, and control of diabetes in a multiethnic population: a nationwide population study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rampal, Sanjay; Rampal, Lekhraj; Rahmat, Ramlee; Zain, Azhar Md; Yap, Yee Guan; Mohamed, Mafauzy; Taha, Mohamad

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between different ethnic groups and the prevalence, awareness, and control of diabetes in Malaysia. A population-based cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was conducted in Malaysia. Diabetes is defined as having a fasting blood glucose > or =7 mmol/L or a self-reported diabetic on treatment. Among the 7683 respondents aged > or =30 years, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 15.2% (95% CI = 14.1, 16.4). Multivariate analysis showed that compared with Malays, Chinese had lower odds (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.71; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.91) and Indians had higher odds of having diabetes (aOR 1.54; 95% CI = 1.20, 1.98). The odds of diabetes increased with age, family history of diabetes, body mass index, and lower education levels. Among those with diabetes mellitus, 45.0% were aware and 42.7% were under treatment. Among treated diabetics, 25.1% had their fasting blood sugar under control. There is a significant association between prevalence of diabetes and different ethnic groups.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of prenatal vitamin A deficiency in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebreselassie, Samson Gebremedhin; Gase, Fikre Enquselassie; Deressa, Melaku Umeta

    2013-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and correlates of prenatal vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. Seven hundred randomly-selected pregnant women took part in the study. Serum retinol concentration was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed by logistic and linear regression. Interpretation of data was made using adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and adjusted linear regression coefficient. The prevalence of VAD (serum retinol < 0.7 micromol/L) was 37.9%. Advanced gestational age and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP > or = 5 mg/dL) were negatively associated with retinol concentration (p < 0.05). The odds of VAD was significantly higher among the women with no education and those devoid of self-income. Women aged 35-49 years had 2.23 (95% CI 1.31-3.81) times higher odds compared to those aged 15-24 years. The lower the dietary diversity score in the preceding day of the survey, the higher were the odds of VAD. With reference to nulliparas, grand multiparas had 1.92 (95% CI 1.02-3.64) times increased odds of VAD. VAD and zinc deficiency (serum zinc <8.6 pmol/L during the first trimester, or <7.6 pmol/L during the second or third trimester) were significantly associated with AOR of 1.80 (95% CI 1.28-2.53). VAD has major public-health significance in the area. Accordingly, it should be combated through enhancement of diet diversity, birth control, and socioeconomic empowerment of women.

  17. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  18. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  19. The Prevalence and Incidence of Epiretinal Membranes in Eyes With Inactive Extramacular CMV Retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Igor; Vaidya, Vijay; Van Natta, Mark L.; Pak, Jeong W.; May, K. Patrick; Thorne, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the prevalence and incidence of epiretinal membranes (ERM) in eyes with inactive extramacular cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods. A case–control report from a longitudinal multicenter observational study by the Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (SOCA) Research Group. A total of 357 eyes of 270 patients with inactive CMV retinitis and 1084 eyes of 552 patients with no ocular opportunistic infection (OOI) were studied. Stereoscopic views of the posterior pole from fundus photographs were assessed at baseline and year 5 visits for the presence of macular ERM. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence and 5-year incidence of ERM in eyes with and without CMV retinitis at enrollment. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was performed adjusting for possible confounders. Main outcome measures included the prevalence, incidence, estimated prevalence, and incidence odds ratios. Results. The prevalence of ERM at enrollment was 14.8% (53/357) in eyes with CMV retinitis versus 1.8% (19/1084) in eyes with no OOI. The incidence of ERM at 5 years was 18.6% (16/86) in eyes with CMV retinitis versus 2.4% (6/253) in eyes with no OOI. The crude odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI) for prevalence was 9.8 (5.5–17.5) (P < 0.01). The crude OR (95% CI) for incidence was 9.4 (3.2–27.9) (P < 0.01). Conclusions. A history of extramacular CMV retinitis is associated with increased prevalence and incidence of ERM formation compared to what is seen in eyes without ocular opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. PMID:24925880

  20. Odd-parity D states in He.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.

    1972-01-01

    The states considered lie below the n = 2 threshold of He(+) and decay radiatively to the lower states. The most general D-state wave function of odd parity of two electrons is examined. The results presented are optimized with respect to four nonlinear parameters for 112 terms. A mass-polarization correction is given for all the states listed. The positions of the D states, including the reduced mass and the mass-polarization corrections, with respect to the ground state of He are reported.

  1. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-09-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Estimation of conditional and marginal odds ratios using the prognostic score.

    PubMed

    Hajage, David; De Rycke, Yann; Chauvet, Guillaume; Tubach, Florence

    2017-02-20

    Introduced by Hansen in 2008, the prognostic score (PGS) has been presented as 'the prognostic analogue of the propensity score' (PPS). PPS-based methods are intended to estimate marginal effects. Most previous studies evaluated the performance of existing PGS-based methods (adjustment, stratification and matching using the PGS) in situations in which the theoretical conditional and marginal effects are equal (i.e., collapsible situations). To support the use of PGS framework as an alternative to the PPS framework, applied researchers must have reliable information about the type of treatment effect estimated by each method. We propose four new PGS-based methods, each developed to estimate a specific type of treatment effect. We evaluated the ability of existing and new PGS-based methods to estimate the conditional treatment effect (CTE), the (marginal) average treatment effect on the whole population (ATE), and the (marginal) average treatment effect on the treated population (ATT), when the odds ratio (a non-collapsible estimator) is the measure of interest. The performance of PGS-based methods was assessed by Monte Carlo simulations and compared with PPS-based methods and multivariate regression analysis. Existing PGS-based methods did not allow for estimating the ATE and showed unacceptable performance when the proportion of exposed subjects was large. When estimating marginal effects, PPS-based methods were too conservative, whereas the new PGS-based methods performed better with low prevalence of exposure, and had coverages closer to the nominal value. When estimating CTE, the new PGS-based methods performed as well as traditional multivariate regression. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Quantum Hall effect on odd spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkun, Ü. H.; Kürkçüoǧlu, S.; Toga, G. C.

    2017-03-01

    We solve the Landau problem for charged particles on odd dimensional spheres S2 k -1 in the background of constant SO (2 k -1 ) gauge fields carrying the irreducible representation (I/2 ,I/2 ,…,I/2 ). We determine the spectrum of the Hamiltonian, the degeneracy of the Landau levels and give the eigenstates in terms of the Wigner D -functions, and for odd values of I , the explicit local form of the wave functions in the lowest Landau level (LLL). The spectrum of the Dirac operator on S2 k -1 in the same gauge field background together with its degeneracies is also determined, and in particular, its number of zero modes is found. We show how the essential differential geometric structure of the Landau problem on the equatorial S2 k -2 is captured by constructing the relevant projective modules. For the Landau problem on S5, we demonstrate an exact correspondence between the union of Hilbert spaces of LLLs, with I ranging from 0 to Imax=2 K or Imax=2 K +1 to the Hilbert spaces of the fuzzy CP 3 or that of winding number ±1 line bundles over CP 3 at level K , respectively.

  4. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

    2016-04-01

    In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  5. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Meeting report for Odd Pols 2012.

    PubMed

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M; Moss, Thomas; Maraia, Richard J

    2013-08-15

    The Eighth International Biennial Conference on RNA polymerases I and III (the 'Odd Pols') was held June 7-11, 2012 at The Airlie Center in Warrenton Virginia, USA. It was sponsored by the Universite Laval and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, and organized by Rich Maraia and Tom Moss. The meeting honored the memory of Pierre Thuriaux (Jan 1, 1950-March 18, 2012) and David Schneider reminisced on the important accomplishments his mentor Masayasu Nomura (1927-2011). The goal of the conference was to bring together the world's experts on RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III to highlight and share their latest results and varied experimental approaches. The meeting drew attendees from twelve countries and most contributed through oral and poster presentations. The talks were organized into several sessions subdivided into 10 distinct topics. The keynote speaker, Ian Willis, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "New Regulators of Signaling to Odd Pols" and the closing presentation was given by Patrick Cramer with his presentation "Conservation of the RNA polymerase I, II and III transcription initiation machineries". Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants.

  7. Odd-even staggering of heavy cluster spontaneous emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Greiner, W.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mazilu, D.; Plonski, I. H.

    1986-12-01

    Experimentally observed enhanced14C and24Ne emission rates from even-even parents in comparison with that from even-odd or odd-even nuclei are explained in the framework of the analytical superasymmetric fission model, by taking various prescriptions for the zero point vibration energy of even-even, even-odd, odd-even and odd-odd emitters. Longer half-lives than previously computed are obtained by extrapolating the present prescriptions to emitted clusters heavier than24Ne.

  8. Substituting homemade fruit juice for sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome among Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Josiemer; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B; Campos, Hannia

    2012-06-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, studies conducted on Hispanic adults are scarce. To determine the association between beverages consumed by Hispanic adults and MetS and its components, data were analyzed in 1872 Costa Rican adults who served as controls of a population-based, case-control study of coronary heart disease. Multivariate-adjusted means were calculated for components of MetS by servings (never, ≤ 1/wk; 2-6/wk, ≥ 1/d) of 2 traditional fruit-based beverages ("fresco" and freshly-squeezed homemade fruit juice, separately) and 2 SSB (instant drinks and regular sodas, separately and combined). The prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS was calculated for each beverage and the OR was calculated by substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice or water for one of SSB. Significant positive trends were observed for increasing servings of instant drinks with plasma TG and waist circumference and for regular soda with waist circumference (all P-trend < 0.001). Increasing servings of homemade fruit juice were positively associated with HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.033). Consuming ≥1 serving/d of instant drinks was associated with a higher PR of MetS [1.42 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.83)] compared with no consumption. Substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice for instant drink was associated with 29% (95% CI: 7, 47%) lower odds of MetS and for regular soda with 30% (95% CI: 1, 50%) lower odds. Substituting water for combined SSB was marginally significant (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.00). In conclusion, reducing the consumption of SSB and substituting them with homemade fruit juices in moderation may be a culturally appropriate approach to lower MetS among Hispanic adults.

  9. Shell Model Description of the Odd-Odd Co and Cu Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, N. H.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Oliveira, J. R. B. de; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.

    2007-10-26

    The known excited states of the odd-odd nuclei {sup 54,56,58,60}Co and 60,62,64,66Cu were interpreted in the framework of the large scale shell model (LSSM), using several effective interactions and configuration spaces. For the description of the negative parity states, we have allowed one particle excitation to the g{sub 9/2} orbital. The LSSM using the GXPF1 effective interaction reproduces well the first excited states in all of these nuclei.

  10. Proton emission from the deformed odd-odd nuclei near drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patial, M.; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Proton emission from odd-odd nuclei is studied within the two quasiparticle plus rotor model which includes the non-adiabatic effects and the residual interaction between valence proton and neutron. Justification of the formalism is discussed through corroboration of our results with the experimental spectrum of 180Ta. Exact calculations are performed to get the proton emission halflives. Our results for the proton emitter 130Eu leads to the assignment of spin and parity Jπ = 1+ for the ground state. The role of Coriolis and residual neutron-proton interactions on the proton emission halflives and their interplay are also discussed.

  11. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Astatkie, Ayalew; Demissie, Meaza; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Khat (Catha edulis) is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%). After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01]), and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74]) were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use khat. A multipronged prevention approach involving students, the university officials, the surrounding community, and regulatory bodies is required. PMID:25750551

  12. W${'}$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may show up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.

  13. W$${'}$$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    DOE PAGES

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may showmore » up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.« less

  14. Levels in doubly odd 138Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhowal, Samit; Bhowmik, R. K.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Ghosh, P.; Goswami, A.; Petrache, C.; Mukherjee, A.; Muralithar, S.; Raut, Rajarshi; Saha Sarkar, M.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2005-05-01

    The band structures of the doubly odd 138Pr nucleus have been investigated using the 128Te(14N, 4n)138Pr reaction at a beam energy of 55-65 MeV. Altogether six distinct structures have been established, of which the lower part of the yrast band and two side bands were known from earlier works. The observed level properties of the members of the yrast band have been compared with theoretical calculations performed within the Particle Rotor Model (PRM) with axially symmetric core. The experimental branching ratios and B(M1)/B(E2) values when compared with the theoretical results of the PRM, suggest an oblate core.

  15. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Four Resource-Limited Settings in Peru: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Association with Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Noah G.; Rattner, Adi; Schwartz, Alan R.; Mokhlesi, Babak; Gilman, Robert H.; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a highly prevalent condition in high-income countries, with major consequences for cardiopulmonary health, public safety, healthcare utilization, and mortality. However, its prevalence and effect in low- and middle-income countries are less well known. We sought to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities of SDB symptoms in four resource-limited settings. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort, a population-based age- and sex-stratified sample. Setting: Four resource-limited settings in Peru varying in altitude, urbanization, and air pollution. Participants: There were 2,682 adults aged 35 to 92 y. Measurements and Results: Self-reported SDB symptoms (habitual snoring, observed apneas, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), sociodemographics, medical history, anthropometrics, spirometry, blood biomarkers were reported. We found a high prevalence of habitual snoring (30.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5–32.0%), observed apneas (20.9%, 95% CI 19.4–22.5%) and excessive daytime sleepiness (18.6%, 95% CI 17.1–20.1%). SDB symptoms varied across sites; prevalence and adjusted odds for habitual snoring were greatest at sea level, whereas those for observed apneas were greatest at high altitude. In multivariable analysis, habitual snoring was associated with older age, male sex, body mass index (BMI), and higher socioeconomic status; observed apneas were associated with BMI; and excessive daytime sleepiness was associated with older age, female sex, and medium socioeconomic status. Adjusted odds of cardiovascular disease, depression, and hypertension and total chronic disease burden increased progressively with the number of SDB symptoms. A threefold increase in the odds of having an additional chronic comorbid disease (adjusted odds ratio 3.57, 95% CI 2.18–5.84) was observed in those with all three versus no SDB symptoms. Conclusions: Sleep disordered breathing symptoms were highly

  16. Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Children Based on Data From the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Kim, Kyung Min; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Korean children are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, geographic distribution, and risk factors of AD in the Korean pediatric population. We examined AD prevalence using data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of 8,947 children up to age 18 throughout the country. Overall, 13.50% of children reported a diagnosis of AD. The age-standardized prevalence ranged from 9.13% to 17.67% between cities and provinces, with the highest prevalence-observed in many of the larger cities at low latitudes, as well as Jeju-do. After adjusting for confounders, high economic status was found to be a significant factor for predicting increased prevalence of AD, with an odds ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval of 1.02-1.79, P=0.0034). Urban living (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval of 1.00-1.53, P=0.0526) was also associated with a higher prevalence of AD. In this first large scale, nationwide study in Korean children, we found that the overall prevalence of AD depends on age, household income, and geographic distribution.

  17. Neighborhood Incarceration Rate and Asthma Prevalence in New York City: A Multilevel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Clemens S.; Subramanian, S. V.; Wang, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between neighborhood incarceration rate and asthma prevalence and morbidity among New York City adults. Methods. We used multilevel modeling techniques and data from the New York City Community Health Survey (2004) to analyze the association between neighborhood incarceration rate and asthma prevalence, adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic, behavioral, and environmental characteristics. We examined interactions between neighborhood incarceration rate, respondent incarceration history, and race/ethnicity. Results. The mean neighborhood rate of incarceration was 5.4% (range = 2.1%–12.8%). Neighborhood incarceration rate was associated with individual-level asthma prevalence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.10) in unadjusted models but not after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics (OR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.04). This association did not differ according to respondent race/ethnicity. Conclusions. Among New York City adults, the association between neighborhood incarceration rate and asthma prevalence is explained by the sociodemographic composition of neighborhoods and disparities in asthma prevalence at the individual level. Public health practitioners should further engage with criminal justice professionals and correctional health care providers to target asthma outreach efforts toward both correctional facilities and neighborhoods with high rates of incarceration. PMID:23488496

  18. Disparities in Current Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Type of Disability, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Alissa; Caraballo, Ralph; Ramon, Ismaila; Armour, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Smoking, the leading cause of disease and death in the United States, has been linked to a number of health conditions including cancer and cardiovascular disease. While people with a disability have been shown to be more likely to report smoking, little is known about the prevalence of smoking by type of disability, particularly for adults younger than 50 years of age. Methods We used data from the 2009–2011 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the prevalence of smoking by type of disability and to examine the association of functional disability type and smoking among adults aged 18–49 years. Results Adults with a disability were more likely than adults without a disability to be current smokers (38.8% vs. 20.7%, p<0.001). Among adults with disabilities, the prevalence of smoking ranged from 32.4% (self-care difficulty) to 43.8% (cognitive limitation). When controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, having a disability was associated with statistically significantly higher odds of current smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.40, 1.77). Conclusions The prevalence of current smoking for adults was higher for every functional disability type than for adults without a disability. By understanding the association between smoking and disability type among adults younger than 50 years of age, resources for cessation services can be better targeted during the ages when increased time for health improvement can occur. PMID:24791023

  19. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus of Chinese populations in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kam Cheong; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2006-08-01

    This article reviews and describes trends and differences in prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus of Chinese populations in Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan based on literatures published in the MEDLINE Advanced database (January 1966-October 2005) in both Chinese and English languages. Chinese populations in Hong Kong and Taiwan have significant higher prevalence rates of diabetes than their Mainland counterparts, with odds ratios 1.5 (95% confidence intervals: 1.4, 1.7) and 2.0 (95% confidence intervals: 1.8, 2.2), respectively in 1995-2003 adjusted for age and diagnostic criteria. Using stratified diagnostic criteria; the odds ratios in Hong Kong and Taiwan were consistently higher than Mainland China for the periods of 1985-1994 and 1995-2003. A large proportion, i.e. 68.6% (95% confidence intervals: 67.4%, 69.7%) of diabetic patients remains undiagnosed in Mainland China as compared to 52.6% (95% confidence intervals: 49.8%, 55.5%) undiagnosed in Hong Kong and Taiwan. The prevalence rates of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance of the Chinese populations rise in older age groups. In tandem with economic development and change toward lifestyle that is lack of physical activity and rich in high-fat diet, prevalence of diabetes of the Chinese populations are on the rise. If the undiagnosed individuals left uncontrolled, they are subject to higher risks of developing diabetes and its complications. These will increase the burdens of diabetes medically and financially.

  20. How Salmonella survive against the odds.

    PubMed

    Foster, J W; Spector, M P

    1995-01-01

    The enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium faces daunting odds during its voyages in the natural environment and through an infected host. It must manage stresses ranging from feast to famine, acid to base, and high to low osmolarity, among others, as well as counter various types of oxidative stress and a variety of antimicrobial peptides. The defenses used to survive these encounters can be specific or can provide cross protection to a variety of hostile conditions. Once inside a host, Salmonella spp. escape the extracellular environment and thus humoral immunity by invading professional and nonprofessional phagocytes in which a new set of challenges await. Some of these stresses are similar to those encountered in the natural environment (e.g. acid, starvation) but the bacterial response is complicated by the simultaneous occurrence of multiple stresses. S. typhimurium appears to sense various in vivo cues and responds by seducing the host signal-transduction pathways that are required to phagocytize the bacterial cell. The pathogen then calls upon components of its stress-response arsenal to survive the intracellular environment. These survival strategies enable the organism to persist in nature, where conditions are usually suboptimal, and equip the bacterium with pathogenic properties that, if successful, will provide it with a very rich and stress-free growth environment, a dead host.

  1. Beating the odds--surviving extreme hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Muck, Philip M; Letterer, Sebastian; Lindner, Ulrich; Lehnert, Hendrik; Haas, Christian Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Severe hyperkalemia (>7 mmol/L) is a medical emergency because of possible fatal arrhythmias. We here report the case of a 58-year-old woman surviving extreme hyperkalemia (>10 mmol/L). The patient with a history of congestive heart failure, a DDD pacemaker and mild chronic renal insufficiency was admitted with progressive weakness and sudden onset of hypotension and bradycardia in the absence of any pacemaker action. Laboratory tests revealed an extreme serum potassium level of 10.1 mmol/L, with a slightly elevated serum creatinine of 149 μmol/L. Treatment with norepinephrine, sodium bicarbonate, and insulin improved both the hemodynamic situation and the serum potassium with subsequent regaining pacemaker actions even before additional hemodialysis normalized the potassium level. A thorough investigation demonstrated that several mechanisms contributed to the extreme potassium level: urinalysis and a low transtubular potassium gradient in the presence of metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap pointed to preexisting interstitial nephritis, with renal tubular acidosis type IV as the predisposing factor, whereas several drugs and acute impairment of renal function contributed to the dangerous situation. Despite the odds for fatal outcome, the patient recovered completely, and long-term management was initiated to prevent recurrent hyperkalemia.

  2. The ODD protocol: A review and first update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Polhill, J. Gary; Giske, Jarl; Railsback, Steve F.

    2010-01-01

    The 'ODD' (Overview, Design concepts, and Details) protocol was published in 2006 to standardize the published descriptions of individual-based and agent-based models (ABMs). The primary objectives of ODD are to make model descriptions more understandable and complete, thereby making ABMs less subject to criticism for being irreproducible. We have systematically evaluated existing uses of the ODD protocol and identified, as expected, parts of ODD needing improvement and clarification. Accordingly, we revise the definition of ODD to clarify aspects of the original version and thereby facilitate future standardization of ABM descriptions. We discuss frequently raised critiques in ODD but also two emerging, and unanticipated, benefits: ODD improves the rigorous formulation of models and helps make the theoretical foundations of large models more visible. Although the protocol was designed for ABMs, it can help with documenting any large, complex model, alleviating some general objections against such models.

  3. The distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in the natural and perturbed stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.; Katz, A.

    1974-01-01

    In order to quantitatively illustrate the effects of quasi-horizontal transport of certain gases and of the reactions influencing their concentrations, a vertical-meridional pole-to-pole stratospheric model is presented which explicitly predicts concentrations of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen compounds in the natural stratosphere and also in a perturbed stratosphere incorporating artificial injection of nitrogen oxides by an SST fleet. The northern hemisphere SST operations clearly have a very large local effect on the nitrogen oxide distribution and also have a significant effect on the southern hemisphere. The largest changes are seen at the point of injection of the nitrogen oxides. Results are in agreement with previous one-dimensional models.

  4. Structure of the yrast band in the odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Sai, K. Vijay; Gowrishankar, R.; Sainath, M.

    2011-05-15

    The six-level sequence deduced for the odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm in the high-spin studies following spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf is shown to constitute the K{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} yrast band having the two-quasiparticle configuration {l_brace}p:5/2[532]+ n:3/2[521]{r_brace}. Spin parities I{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} through 9{sup +} are assigned to the earlier suggested six levels. The location and the decay {gamma}'s of the 10{sup +} level of this band are indicated. It is also pointed out that there are no {gamma} rays common to these postfission high-spin spectra and those seen in the {sup 156}Nd {beta}-decay studies.

  5. GT Strength in Odd-A Nuclei^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J. W.; Du, Q. Q.

    1998-04-01

    We measured the complete set of polarization-transfer observables (D_ij) for the ^13C(p,n)^13N and ^15N(p,n)^15O reactions at 135 MeV. From the D_ijs we constructed the spin-independent, spin-longitudinal, and spin-transverse responses [1] D_0, D_q, Dn and D_p. From these responses we extracted, in a model-independent way, the Δ J=0 and Δ J=1 (``F'' and ``GT'') fractions of the J^π=1/2^-arrow1/2^- g.s. to g.s. transitions for these reactions. The ``F'' fraction, f_F=D_0(0^circ); the ``GT'' fraction, f_GT=D_q(0^circ)+D_n(0^circ)+D_p(0^circ)= 1- D_0(0^circ). The extracted GT fractions, f_GT, are substantially larger than one would predict from β-decay matrix elements and the systematics of the (p,n) reaction on even-A nuclei. These results confirm earlier, model-dependent determinations of f_GT obtained from the (p,n) reaction on ^13C, ^15N and ^39K at other energies [2], [3], [4], indicating that considerable caution must be used when extracting B(GT) matrix elements from odd-A (p,n) data. * Research supported in part by the U.S. NSF. [1] M. Ichimura, K. Kawahigashi, Phys. Rev. C 45 1822 (1992). [2] T. N. Taddeucci, C. A. Goulding, T. A. Carey, R. C. Byrd, C. D. Goodman, C. Gaarde, J. Larsen, D. Horen, J. Rapaport, and E. Sugarbaker, Nucl. Phys. A469 125 (1987). [3] H. Sakai, H. Okamura, N. Matsuoka, A. Shimizu, T. Suda, M. Ieiri and H. M. Shimizu, Nuclear Physics A579 45-61 (1994). [4] W. Huang, Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana U., 1991, (unpublished).

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for adult paternity among adolescent females ages 14 through 16 years.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita

    2010-11-01

    To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.

  7. Cosmic impact: What are the odds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. W.

    2009-12-01

    Firestone et al. (PNAS 104, 16016-16021, 2007) propose that the impact of a ~4 km diameter comet (or multiple bodies making up a similar mass) led to the Younger Dryas cooling and extinction of megafauna in North America, 12,900 years ago. Even more provocatively, Firestone et al. (Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes, Bear & Co. Books, 2006, 392pp), suggest that a nearby supernova may have produced a comet shower leading to the impact event, either by disturbing the Oort Cloud or by direct injection of 4-km comet-like bodies to the solar neighborhood. Here we show: (a) A supernova shockwave or mass ejection is not capable of triggering a shower of comets from the Oort Cloud. (b) An Oort Cloud shower from whatever cause would take 100,000 years or more for the perturbed comets to arrive in the inner solar system, and the peak flux would persist for some hundreds of thousands more years. (c) Even if all 20 solar masses or so of ejected matter from a SN were in the form of 4-km diameter balls, the probability of even one such ball hitting the Earth from an event 100 light years away would be about 3e-5. (d) A 4-km diameter ball traveling fast enough to get here from 100 LY away in some tens of thousands of years would deliver the energy of a 50 km diameter impactor traveling at typical Earth-impact velocity (~20 km/sec). We review the current impact flux on the Earth from asteroids and comets, and show that the probability of an impact of a 4-km diameter asteroid in an interval of 13,000 years is about one in a thousand, and the probability of a comet impact of that size is a few in a million. An "impact shower" caused by the injection or breakup of comets or asteroids in the inner solar system by whatever means would take tens to hundreds of thousands of years to clear out, thus the population of NEOs we see now with our telescopic surveys is what we’ve had for the last few tens of thousands of years, at least. Faced with such low odds, the evidence that such a large

  8. Association Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Older Adults: Results From the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Virginia J.; McClure, Leslie A.; Buys, Katie Crawford; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.; Levitan, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) on older adults’ prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. Methods. Data were from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, an observational study of 1000 community-dwelling Black and White Alabamians aged 65 years and older, in 1999 to 2001. We assessed hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control with blood pressure measurements and self-report data. We assessed ND with US Census data corresponding with participants’ census tracts, created tertiles of ND, and fit models with generalized estimating equations via a logit link function with a binomial distribution. Adjusted models included variables assessing personal advantage and disadvantage, place-based factors, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. Results. Living in mid-ND (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 2.1) and high-ND tertiles (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.3) was associated with higher hypertension prevalence, and living in high-ND tertiles was associated with lower odds of controlled hypertension (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6). In adjusted models, ND was not associated with hypertension awareness or treatment. Conclusions. These findings show that neighborhood environmental factors matter for hypertension outcomes and suggest the importance of ND for hypertension management in older adults. PMID:25322309

  9. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in union ironworkers.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Punnett, Laura; Wegman, David H

    2005-04-01

    The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) symptoms and doctor-diagnosed musculoskeletal disorders (DDMDs) were estimated among union construction ironworkers by a telephone-administered questionnaire. Of 1996 ironworkers eligible, 1566 were contacted and 981 were interviewed. The prevalence of self-reported MSD symptoms was high for the lower back (56%), wrist/hands/fingers (40%), knees (39%), and shoulders (36%). The most common DDMDs were tendonitis (19%), ruptured disk in the back (18%), bursitis in the shoulder (15%), and carpal tunnel syndrome (12%). Generally, the prevalence of DDMDs and MSD symptoms increased with duration of employment. In age-adjusted logistic regression analyses, those who worked 25 to 35 years were more likely to have tendonitis (odds ratio [OR] 7.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.116.6), shoulder bursitis (OR 13.7, 95% CI 3.160.4), knee bursitis (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.025.1), and ruptured intervertebral back disk (OR 6.7, 95% CI 2.617.5). The effect of prior injury was also consistently high (upper extremities, OR 4.6; lower extremities OR 5.1; lower back, OR 6.0). Among workers without prior injuries, MSD symptoms were more frequent for the lower back in structural ironwork (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.12.6), and for the upper extremity in concrete reinforcement ironwork (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.22.9). These findings suggest that some musculoskeletal morbidity in construction ironworkers may be work related and thus preventable.

  10. High-spin states and shell structure of the odd-odd nucleus {sup 90}Nb

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, X.Z.; Zhang, Z.L.; Meng, R.; Yang, C.X.; Zhu, L.H.; Wu, X.G.; Wang, Z.M.; He, C.Y.; Li, G.S.; Wen, S.X.; Ma, R.G.; Liu, Y.; Luo, P.; Zheng, Y.; Ndontchueng, M.M.; Huo, J.D.

    2005-10-01

    The high-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus {sup 90}Nb have been investigated with in-beam {gamma}-spectroscopic techniques via the {sup 76}Ge({sup 19}F,5n){sup 90}Nb reaction at a beam energy of 80 MeV. {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences were measured using a {gamma}-ray detector array. Twenty new {gamma} rays have been assigned to {sup 90}Nb and the level scheme has been extended up to an excitation energy of 8.095 MeV at spin 18({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). The level structure of {sup 90}Nb at high spin states has been well reproduced using semiempirical shell-model calculations in the model space {pi}(1p{sub 1/2},0f{sub 5/2},0g{sub 9/2}){nu}(0g{sub 9/2}). The results show that the excitation of protons plays an important role in generating the high-spin states of {sup 90}Nb.

  11. Diabatic crossing of chiral "twins" in the odd-odd 106Ag nucleus: A theoretical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Sham S.

    2016-07-01

    A systematic study of both the observed positive-parity magnetic rotation band and the negative-parity Δ I =1 doublet bands in an odd-odd 106Ag nucleus is carried out. The negative-parity doublet bands depict some unusual features that have not been observed in any isotope in the mass A =100 region. For instance, (i) the moment of inertia of the partner band is quite different from that of the yrast band, and (ii) these bands cross each other at an angular momentum of I =14 ℏ . Also, the observed significantly large but constant B (M 1 ) transitions confirm that the strong M 1 transitions are being reinforced by the contributions from collective rotation. To explain these features, a collective model has been developed whose kinetic and potential energies are extracted from the tilted-axis cranking model. Instead of the triaxial parameter γ , a second-order phase transition is found to be responsible for the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. Analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation has generated a doublet nondegenerate eigenvalue spectrum. The ensuing model results based on the two-quasiparticle configuration π g9/2⊗ν h11/2 exhibit similarities with many observed features of the negative-parity doublet bands and hence confirm their chiral character. The cranking mass parameter in kinetic energy plays an important role in diabatic crossing between these emerged chiral twin bands.

  12. Neutron-proton multiplets in the odd-odd nucleus 53 37 90Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwiński, M.; RzÄ ca-Urban, T.; Urban, W.; BÄ czyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Timár, J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Kuti, I.; Tornyi, T. G.; Atanasova, L.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Mutti, P.; Köster, U.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Medium-spin excited levels in 90Rb, populated in the fission of 235U induced by neutrons, have been observed for the first time. γ radiation from fission has been measured by using the EXILL array of Ge detectors at the cold-neutron-beam facility PF1B of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble. Low-energy levels are interpreted as members of the π p3/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , π f5/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , and π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 multiplets with the 0- ground state due to the seniority-3 coupling in the ν d5 /2 shell. Analogous anomalous coupling within the π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 configuration explains the 5+, 6+, and 7+ triplet of states, observed at medium spins, similar to the triplet seen in the N =53 isotone, 88Br. Shell-model calculations reproduce well the proposed structures in Rb,9088 and support the seniority-3 coupling in N =53 isotones and its absence in N =51 isotones. The structure of the odd-odd 88Rb and 90Rb nuclei provides an argument in favor of the collectivity building up at the neutron number N =53 .

  13. Amaurosis fugax: risk factors and prevalence of significant carotid stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kvickström, Pia; Lindblom, Bertil; Bergström, Göran; Zetterberg, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and prevalence of carotid stenosis in patients with amaurosis fugax (AF). Method Patients diagnosed with AF and subjected to carotid ultrasound in 2004–2010 in Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (n=302), were included, and data were retrospectively collected from medical records. Results The prevalence of significant carotid stenosis was 18.9%, and 14.2% of the subjects were subjected to carotid endarterectomy. Significant associations with risk of having ≥70% stenosis were male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26–5.46), current smoking (aOR: 6.26; 95% CI: 2.62–14.93), diabetes (aOR: 3.68; 95% CI: 1.37–9.90) and previous vasculitis (aOR: 10.78; 95% CI: 1.36–85.5). A majority of the patients (81.4%) was seen by an ophthalmologist prior to the first ultrasound. Only 1.7% of the patients exhibited retinal artery emboli at examination. Conclusion The prevalence of carotid stenosis among patients with AF is higher than has previously been demonstrated in stroke patients. An association with previously reported vascular risk factors and with vasculitis is seen in this patient group. Ocular findings are scarce. PMID:27826182

  14. Lack of motor prediction, rather than perceptual conflict, evokes an odd sensation upon stepping onto a stopped escalator

    PubMed Central

    Gomi, Hiroaki; Sakurada, Takeshi; Fukui, Takao

    2014-01-01

    When stepping onto a stopped escalator, we often perceive an “odd sensation” that is never felt when stepping onto stairs. The sight of an escalator provides a strong contextual cue that, in expectation of the backward acceleration when stepping on, triggers an anticipatory forward postural adjustment driven by a habitual and implicit motor process. Here we contrast two theories about why this postural change leads to an odd sensation. The first theory links the odd sensation to a lack of sensorimotor prediction from all low-level implicit motor processes. The second theory links the odd sensation to the high-level conflict between the conscious awareness that the escalator is stopped and the implicit perception that evokes an endogenous motor program specific to a moving escalator. We show very similar postural changes can also arise from reflexive responses to visual stimuli, such as contracting/expanding optic flow fields, and that these reflexive responses produce similar odd sensations to the stopped escalator. We conclude that the high-level conflict is not necessary for such sensations. In contrast, the implicitly driven behavioral change itself essentially leads to the odd sensation in motor perception since the unintentional change may be less attributable to self-generated action because of a lack of motor predictions. PMID:24688460

  15. Level Density In Interacting Boson-Fermion-Fermion Model (IBFFM) Of The Odd-Odd Nucleus 196Au

    SciTech Connect

    Kabashi, Skender; Bekteshi, Sadik

    2007-04-23

    The level density of the odd-odd nucleus 196Au is investigated in the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model (IBFFM) which accounts for collectivity and complex interaction between quasiparticle and collective modes.The IBFFM total level density is fitted by Gaussian and its tail is also fitted by Bethe formula and constant temperature Fermi gas model.

  16. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Josephine; Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye; Moran, Brian J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  17. A community study of snoring and sleep-disordered breathing. Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Olson, L G; King, M T; Hensley, M J; Saunders, N A

    1995-08-01

    We conducted a study of the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in subjects derived from a random sample of the population. A total of 2,202 subjects 35 to 69 yr of age were approached. Four hundred forty-one answered a questionnaire concerning their sleep symptoms, general health, and habits such as alcohol consumption, and they were monitored for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The sample was biased in favor of snorers and those with other subjective sleep complaints. Fifty-six percent of the subjects were men. Of the 441 subjects 79 (17.9%) had SDB (more than 15 episodes of apnea or hypopnea per hour: respiratory distress index [RDI] > or = 15), 289 were snorers but had RDI < 15, and 73 were nonsnorers. The prevalence of SDB in this sample was therefore at least 3.6% (79 of 2,204). The minimum prevalence in men was 5.7%, and in women it was 1.2%. Logistic regression identified only male sex as an independent predictor of snoring without SDB (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.24; 95% CI, 1.33 to 7.82), body mass index (adjusted OR for an increase of 5 kg/m2, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.05), and alcohol consumption (adjusted OR for an increase of 10 g/day, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.37) were not significant predictors of snoring. The independent predictors of SDB among snorers were age (adjusted OR for an increase of 5 yr, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.47) and neck circumference (adjusted OR for an increase of 2 cm, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.00).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among people living with HIV in southern India.

    PubMed

    Chan, Brian T; Pradeep, Amrose; Prasad, Lakshmi; Murugesan, Vinothini; Chandrasekaran, Ezhilarasi; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-09-18

    Psychosocial conditions such as depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have been associated with poor HIV-related outcomes. In India, which has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world, little is understood about the impact of psychosocial conditions on people living with HIV (PLHIV). We aimed to understand the prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among PLHIV entering into HIV care at the Y.R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education in Chennai, India. Thirteen questions were added to the standard voluntary counseling and testing questionnaire, including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (a depression scale) and questions assessing for CSA and IPV. We fitted logistic regression models, stratified by gender, with psychosocial condition as the outcome of interest and substance use variables and socio-demographic variables as the correlates of interest. Three hundred and eighty-three persons were enrolled into the study; of these, 253 (66%) tested positive for HIV, including 149 men and 104 women, and were included in the models. More than one-quarter (28%) of the men and 19% of the women reported at least one psychosocial condition (probable depression, CSA, or IPV). In adjusted analysis, current alcohol use was associated with greater than two times higher odds of a psychosocial condition (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.24, 95% CI, 1.04-4.85) among men. In conclusion, we estimated the prevalence of probable depression, CSA, and IPV among PLHIV presenting for HIV care in southern India and found that, among male PLHIV, alcohol use was associated with a markedly higher odds of reporting a psychosocial condition. Further study is needed to characterize alcohol use among male PLHIV and the possible deleterious impact of psychosocial conditions and alcohol use on HIV-related outcomes in India.

  19. Alternatives for logistic regression in cross-sectional studies: an empirical comparison of models that directly estimate the prevalence ratio

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Aluísio JD; Hirakata, Vânia N

    2003-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies with binary outcomes analyzed by logistic regression are frequent in the epidemiological literature. However, the odds ratio can importantly overestimate the prevalence ratio, the measure of choice in these studies. Also, controlling for confounding is not equivalent for the two measures. In this paper we explore alternatives for modeling data of such studies with techniques that directly estimate the prevalence ratio. Methods We compared Cox regression with constant time at risk, Poisson regression and log-binomial regression against the standard Mantel-Haenszel estimators. Models with robust variance estimators in Cox and Poisson regressions and variance corrected by the scale parameter in Poisson regression were also evaluated. Results Three outcomes, from a cross-sectional study carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, with different levels of prevalence were explored: weight-for-age deficit (4%), asthma (31%) and mother in a paid job (52%). Unadjusted Cox/Poisson regression and Poisson regression with scale parameter adjusted by deviance performed worst in terms of interval estimates. Poisson regression with scale parameter adjusted by χ2 showed variable performance depending on the outcome prevalence. Cox/Poisson regression with robust variance, and log-binomial regression performed equally well when the model was correctly specified. Conclusions Cox or Poisson regression with robust variance and log-binomial regression provide correct estimates and are a better alternative for the analysis of cross-sectional studies with binary outcomes than logistic regression, since the prevalence ratio is more interpretable and easier to communicate to non-specialists than the odds ratio. However, precautions are needed to avoid estimation problems in specific situations. PMID:14567763

  20. The competition between alpha decay and spontaneous fission in odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the range 99 ≤ Z ≤ 129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Priyanka, B.

    2015-08-01

    The predictions on the mode of decay of the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z = 99- 129, in the range 228 ≤ A ≤ 336, have been done within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). A comparison of our calculated alpha half lives with the values computed using other theoretical models shows good agreement with each other. An extensive study on the spontaneous fission half lives of all the isotopes under study has been performed to identify the long-lived isotopes in the mass region. The study reveals that the alpha decay half lives and the mode of decay of the isotopes with Z = 109, 111, 113, 115 and 117, evaluated using our formalisms, agree well with the experimental observations. As our study on the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of Z = 99- 129 predicts that, the isotopes 238,240-25499, 244,246-258101, 248,250,252-260,262103, 254,256,258-262,264105, 258,260,262-264,266107, 262,264,266-274109, 266,268-279111, 270-284,286113, 272-289,291115, 274-299117, 276-307119, 281-314121, 287-320,322123, 295-325125, 302-327127 and 309-329129 survive fission and have alpha decay channel as the prominent mode of decay, these nuclei could possibly be synthesized in the laboratory and this could be of great interest to the experimentalists. The behavior of these nuclei against the proton decay has also been studied to identify the probable proton emitters in this region of nuclei.

  1. Colorings of odd or even chirality on hexagonal lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cépas, O.

    2017-02-01

    We define two classes of colorings that have odd or even chirality on hexagonal lattices. This parity is an invariant in the dynamics of all loops, and explains why standard Monte Carlo algorithms are nonergodic. We argue that adding the motion of "stranded" loops allows for parity changes. By implementing this algorithm, we show that the even and odd classes have the same entropy. In general, they do not have the same number of states, except for the special geometry of long strips, where a Z2 symmetry between even and odd states occurs in the thermodynamic limit.

  2. Superdeformation studies in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 192}Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.

    1995-08-01

    The study of yrast and near-yrast structures of odd-odd nuclei to high spins is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the spectra resulting from the many proton-neutron couplings near the Fermi surface. In superdeformed nuclei, the number of available protons and neutrons near the Fermi surface is somewhat limited due to the presence of large-shell gaps which stabilize the nuclear shape. A relatively small number of available neutron and proton configurations can lead to fragmentation of the SD intensity into a number of different bands. Two good examples of this phenomenon were found in {sup 192}Tl and {sup 194}Tl where the presence of six superdeformed bands were reported in both nuclei. We reexamined {sup 192}Tl at Gammasphere using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 37}Cl,5n) reaction at 178 MeV to populate states in the superdeformed well of this nucleus. While our previous study on {sup 192}Tl at ATLAS was very successful, a number of questions remained which formed the basis of our objectives in this experiment: obtain better {gamma}-ray energies for the known transitions and identify higher spin members in each band; determine how the bands feed the known yrast states in {sup 192}Tl as well as determine the complete spectrum in coincidence with the SD bands; look for M1 transitions connecting proposed signature partners; and attempt to identify other excitations in the superdeformed well. Analysis is underway and four of the six bands were confirmed. The reasons that two of the reported bands were not observed in this latest work is still under investigation. As of this time, no other superdeformed bands were identified in the data. Two of the confirmed SD bands have a constant moment of inertia and show indications of cross-talk between each other. This observation is not unexpected since the calculated M1 rates for the proposed configuration of the band, {pi}{sub 13/2} x {upsilon}j{sub 15/2}, indicate that M1 transitions linking the two SD bands should be observed.

  3. Effect of maternal birthplace on gestational diabetes prevalence in Colorado Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Braun, Patricia A; Huebschmann, Amy G; Kim, Christina A; Lezotte, Dennis C; Shupe, Alyson; Dabelea, Dana

    2011-06-01

    (1) Describe gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevalence time trends in USborn (USWH) and Mexico-born (MWH), white Hispanic Colorado women and (2) Determine effect of maternal birthplace on GDM prevalence. Retrospective population-based study of 1995-2004 Colorado birth certificate data for live, singleton births to white, Hispanic mothers estimated prevalence, trends, and association of GDM and maternal birthplace. Univariate, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. GDM prevalence in 154,957 births increased in both USWH (1.77-2.53%, P < 0.0001) and MWH (2.38-3.08%, P < 0.0001). Over study years, MWH had higher crude odds (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.22-1.38) for developing GDM than USWH. Adjustment for maternal age and maternal education reduced GDM risk by birth country (OR = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.98-1.13, P = ns). GDM prevalence increased in both US-born and Mexico-born, white, Hispanic Colorado women. Mexico-born immigrant women may have increased risk for GDM compared with their USborn counterparts. Lower education attainment may be determinant of disease risk.

  4. Household prevalence of seropositivity for Trypanosoma cruzi in three rural villages in northwest Argentina: environmental, demographic, and entomologic associations.

    PubMed

    Gürtler, R E; Chuit, R; Cécere, M C; Castañera, M B; Cohen, J E; Segura, E L

    1998-11-01

    Environmental, demographic, and entomologic variables were analyzed by logistic multiple regression analysis for their association with the likelihood of being seropositive for Trypanosoma cruzi in three highly infested rural villages of northwest Argentina. The prevalence of seropositivity for T. cruzi, as determined by the composite results of three serologic tests, was 34% among 338 persons in 1992. The strongest positive predictors of the adjusted odds of being infected were the household number of dogs, the density of T. cruzi-infected Triatoma infestans in bedroom areas, and each person's age. Dwellers from houses with roofs made completely or partly with a grass called simbol, or which used insecticides rudimentarily and nonsystematically, had a significantly lower odds of being seropositive for T. cruzi than residents from other types of dwellings. The adjusted odds of infection also increased with the number of T. cruzi-infected dogs or cats and the presence of chickens in bedroom areas. No significant effects on the adjusted odds of infection of a community-wide deltamethrin spraying carried out in one of the villages seven years before were detected. Socioeconomic indicators, such as domiciliary area, and numbers of corrals and livestock, were inversely related to being infected. Our study identified several manageable variables suitable for control actions, most of them not examined before in univariate or multivariate analyses. Environmental management based on low-cost housing with appropriate local materials and removal of domestic animals from domiciliary areas have a crucial role to play in the control of Chagas' disease in rural areas.

  5. Characterization of isomers in the neutron-rich odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R; Sai, K. Vijay; Sainath, M.

    2011-02-15

    Critical examination of the experimental data from {sup 156}Nd and {sup 156}Pm {beta} decays and the observed location of relevant neutron and proton orbitals in the neighboring odd-A isotones and isotopes, taken together with the low-lying two-quasiparticle (2qp) structures expected in {sup 156}Pm from the rotor-particle model, lead to the conclusion that a consistent description of all the available data is achieved with the I{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} spin-parity assignment to the 26.7s {sup 156}Pm ground state (g.s.) and assignment of I{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} to its 150.3-keV isomer with the 2qp configuration 4{sub g.s.}{sup +}{l_brace}p{sub o}:5/2[532{up_arrow}]{+-}n{sub o}:3/2[521{up_arrow}]{r_brace}1{sub 150}{sup +}. In the process, a two-neutron configuration is also suggested for the 1509-keV 4{sup +} level in the daughter nucleus {sup 156}Sm. The present analysis reiterates the important question of whether the {beta}-decay log ft value, by itself, can be employed to deduce the relative parity of the {beta}-connected states.

  6. Genes Plus Erratic Sleep May Raise Odds for Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164039.html Genes Plus Erratic Sleep May Raise Odds for Obesity ...

  7. Can Depression Up Odds for Arthritis Linked to Psoriasis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163780.html Can Depression Up Odds for Arthritis Linked to Psoriasis? Mood ... 24, 2017 FRIDAY, Feb. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Depression in people with the chronic inflammatory skin disease ...

  8. Cavity tests of parity-odd Lorentz violations in electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewes, Matthew; Petroff, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    Electromagnetic resonant cavities form the basis for a number modern tests of Lorentz invariance. The geometry of most of these experiments implies unsuppressed sensitivities to parity-even Lorentz violations only. Parity-odd violations typically enter through suppressed boost effects, causing a reduction in sensitivity by roughly 4 orders of magnitude. Here we discuss possible techniques for achieving unsuppressed sensitivities to parity-odd violations using asymmetric resonators.

  9. The odd-number sequence: squares and sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    Direct study of various characteristics of integers and their interactions is readily accessible to undergraduate students. Integers obviously fall in different classes of modular rings and thus have features unique to that class which can result in a variety of formations, particularly with sums of squares. The sum of the first n odd numbers is itself the square of n within the odd number sequence, from which testing for primality within the Fibonacci sequence is investigated in this note.

  10. Associations of Structural and Functional Social Support with Diabetes Prevalence in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos: Results from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda C.; Fortmann, Addie L.; McCurley, Jessica L.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Penedo, Frank J.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Gouskova, Natalia; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Schneiderman, Neil; Carnethon, Mercedes R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little research has examined associations of social support with diabetes (or other physical health outcomes) in Hispanics, who are at elevated risk. Purpose We examined associations between social support and diabetes prevalence in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Methods Participants were 5181 adults, 18–74 years old, representing diverse Hispanic backgrounds, who underwent baseline exam with fasting blood draw, oral glucose tolerance test, medication review, sociodemographic assessment, and sociocultural exam with functional and structural social support measures. Results In adjusted analyses, one standard deviation higher structural and functional social support related to 16% and 15% lower odds, respectively, of having diabetes. Structural and functional support were related to both previously diagnosed diabetes (OR = .84 and .88, respectively) and newly recognized diabetes prevalence (OR = .84 and .83, respectively). Conclusions Higher functional and structural social support are associated with lower diabetes prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos. PMID:25107504

  11. Are the new IADPSG criteria for gestational diabetes useful in a country with a very high prevalence?

    PubMed

    Minsart, Anne-Frederique; N'guyen, Thai-Son Pierre; Dimtsu, Hirut; Ratsimandresy, Rachel; Dada, Fouad; Ali Hadji, Rachid

    2014-09-01

    The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups released new recommendations on screening methods and diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes. The main objectives of the present study were to analyze characteristics of mothers who underwent the new screening test, and to assess the prevalence of gestational diabetes and related pregnancy complications such as the 5-minute Apgar score <7, in a urban maternity clinic in Djibouti. The effect of treating gestational diabetes was also evaluated. Totally, 231 mothers underwent the new screening test, and 106 were diagnosed as having gestational diabetes (45.9%). Mothers with gestational diabetes had an excess risk of low Apgar scores, even after adjustment for socio-economic and medical covariates, with an odds ratio of 6.34 (1.77-22.66), p value <0.005. Only 46.2% of mothers with gestational diabetes followed the recommendations regarding treatment. Among these patients, 18.6% of infants from untreated mothers had a 5-minute Apgar score <7, compared to 3.9% infants from treated mothers (p value = 0.017). After adjustment, untreated mothers still had a high excess risk of low Apgar scores, although non-significant, with an odds ratio of 4.67 (0.78-27.87), p value = 0.09. In conclusion, gestational diabetes is highly prevalent in Djibouti and is related to low Apgar scores.

  12. Projected shell model study of odd-odd f-p-g shell proton-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palit, R.; Sheikh, J. A.; Sun, Y.; Jain, H. C.

    2003-01-01

    A systematic study of two-quasiparticle bands of the proton-rich odd-odd nuclei in the mass A˜70 80 region is performed using the projected shell model approach. The study includes Br, Rb, and Y isotopes with N=Z+2 and Z+4. We describe the energy spectra and electromagnetic transition strengths in terms of the configuration mixing of the angular-momentum projected multi-quasiparticle states. Signature splitting and signature inversion in the rotational bands are discussed and are shown to be well described. A preliminary study of the odd-odd N=Z nucleus 74Rb, using the concept of spontaneous symmetry breaking is also presented.

  13. Is the prevalence of coronary heart disease falling in British men?

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, F; Morris, R; Whincup, P; Walker, M; Ebrahim, S; Shaper, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess whether long term trends over time in acute coronary heart disease (CHD) event rates have influenced the burden of prevalent CHD in British men.
DESIGN—Longitudinal cohort study.
PARTICIPANTS—7735 men, aged 40-59 at entry (1978-80), selected from 24 British towns.
METHODS—The prevalences of current angina symptoms and history of diagnosed CHD were ascertained by questionnaire in 1978-80, 1983-85, 1992, and 1996. New major CHD events (fatal and non-fatal) were ascertained throughout the study from National Health Service central registers and general practice record reviews. Age adjusted trends in CHD prevalence were compared with trends in major CHD event rates.
RESULTS—From 1978-1996 there was a clear decline in the prevalence of current angina symptoms: the age adjusted annual percentage change in odds was -1.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.8% to -0.8%). However, there was no evidence of a trend in the prevalence of history of diagnosed CHD (annual change in odds 0.1%, 95% CI -1.0% to 1.2%). Over the same period, the CHD mortality rate fell substantially (annual change -4.1%, 95% CI -6.5% to -1.6%); rates of non-fatal myocardial infarction, all major CHD events, and first major CHD event fell by -1.7% (95% CI -3.9% to 0.5%), -2.5% (95% CI -4.1% to -0.8%), and -2.4% (95% CI% -4.3 to -0.4%), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that middle aged British men are less likely to experience symptoms of angina than in previous decades but are just as likely to have a history of diagnosed CHD. Despite falling rates of new major events and falling symptom prevalence, the need for secondary prevention among middle aged men with established CHD is as great as ever.


Keywords: coronary heart disease; angina; prevalence; trends PMID:11602539

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for gastroschisis in a public hospital from west México.

    PubMed

    Robledo-Aceves, Mireya; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Mellín-Sánchez, Estrella Lizbeth; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo; Pérez-Molina, J Jesús; Cárdenas-Ruiz Velasco, Juan José; Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román

    2015-05-01

    Mexico is recognized as a country with a high prevalence of gastroschisis, although the cause of this remains unclear. We define the prevalence and potential risk factors for gastroschisis in a public hospital from west México. A case-control study was conducted among 270 newborns, including 90 patients with nonsyndromic gastroschisis (cases) and 180 infants without birth defects (controls), born all during the period 2009 to 2013 at the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca" (Guadalajara, Mexico), from a total of 51,145 live births. Potential maternal risk factors for gastroschisis were compared using multivariate logistic regression analysis to evaluate the deviance explained by different variables of interest. The overall prevalence of gastroschisis in live births was 17.6 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.0-21.2), whereas in offspring of women ≤ 19 years old was 29.9 per 10,000 births (95% CI 21.9-38.0). Mothers ≤ 19 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.8: 95% CI 1.5-5.1), anemia during pregnancy (aOR 10.7; 95% CI 2.0-56.9), first-trimester exposure to hormonal contraceptives (aOR 3.7; 95% CI 1.0-13.0), and first-trimester alcohol consumption (aOR 3.4; 95% CI 1.6-7.3), were associated with gastroschisis. Contrarily, adjusted OR for pre-pregnancy body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2) has protective odds (aOR 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.5). Our results suggest an increased risk for gastroschisis among mothers under the age of 20, with anemia during pregnancy, and those who used hormonal contraceptives or consumed alcohol during early pregnancy, whereas, pre-pregnancy overweight has a protective OR, and they are discussed as clues in its pathogenesis.

  15. Periodic limb movements during sleep and prevalent hypertension in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Brian B; Sillau, Stefan; Dean, Dennis A; Lutsey, Pamela L; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) are associated with immediate increases in blood pressure. Both PLMS and hypertension have different distributions across racial/ethnic groups. We sought to determine whether PLMS is associated with hypertension among various racial/ethnic groups. A total of 1740 men and women underwent measurement of blood pressure and polysomnography with quantification of PLMS. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140, diastolic BP ≥90, or taking antihypertensive medication. For those taking antihypertensives, an estimated pretreatment SBP value was derived based on observed SBP and medication type/dose. Measures of PLMS, PLMS index, and PLMS arousal index were the main explanatory variables. Hypertension and SBP were modeled with logistic and multivariable regression adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle/habitual factors, apnea-hypopnea index, and race/ethnicity. In the overall cohort, prevalent hypertension was modestly associated with PLMS index (10 U; odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.10) and PLMS arousal index (1 U; 1.05; 1.01-1.09) after adjusting for confounders. Association in the overall cohort was influenced by large effect sizes in blacks, in whom the odds of prevalent hypertension increased by 21% (1%-45%) for 10 U PLMS index increase and 20% (2%-42%) for 1-U PLMS arousal index increase. In blacks, every 1-U PLMS arousal index increase was associated with SBP 1.01 mm Hg higher (1.01; 0.04-1.98). Associations between PLMS and blood pressure outcomes were also suggested among Chinese-Americans but not in whites or Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of community-dwelling men and women, prevalent hypertension and SBP are associated with PLMS frequency in blacks.

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chronic Otitis Media: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mina; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Park, Moo Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The performance of nationwide studies of chronic otitis media (COM) in adults has been insufficient in Korea. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of COM in Korea. Methods This study was conducted using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 23,621). After excluding the subjects under 20 year old and suffered from cancers, 16,063 patients were evaluated for COM. Participants underwent a medical interview, physical examination, endoscopic examination, and blood and urine test. COM was diagnosed by trained residents in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology using an ear, nose, and throat questionnaire and otoendoscopy findings. Data on the presence and absence of COM were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results Of the 16,063 participants aged above 20 year old, the weighted prevalence of COM was 3.8%. In the multivariate analyses, the following factors showed high odds ratios (ORs) for COM: pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted OR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.01), chronic rhinosinusitis (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-2.98), mild hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.34-2.85), moderate hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 2.21-7.22), tinnitus (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34-2.49), increased hearing thresholds in pure tone audiometry in the right ear (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), and left ear (adjusted OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04). The following factors showed low odds ratios for COM: hepatitis B (adjusted OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.94) and rhinitis (adjusted OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88). In addition, high levels of vitamin D, lead, and cadmium, EQ-5D index; and low red blood cell counts were associated with development of COM (Student’s t-test, P < 0.01). Conclusions Our population-based study showed that COM is not rare in Korea, and its development may be associated with various host and

  17. Prevalence and treatment patterns of psoriatic arthritis in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Ogdie, Alexis; Langan, Sinéad; Love, Thorvardur; Haynes, Kevin; Shin, Daniel; Seminara, Nicole; Mehta, Nehal N.; Troxel, Andrea; Choi, Hyon; Gelfand, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PsA in The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a large population-based medical records database in the UK, to examine factors associated with prevalent PsA among patients with psoriasis and to describe the use of DMARDs in patients with PsA. Methods. Two cohorts were derived from THIN to examine the prevalence of PsA in a cross-sectional study among all patients aged 18–90 years and among a subcohort of 4900 psoriasis patients aged 45–65 years. Prescription codes were used to describe therapies after the diagnosis of PsA. Associations for prevalent PsA among psoriasis patients were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results. Among 4.8 million patients in THIN between the ages of 18 and 90 years, 9045 patients had at least one medical code for PsA, giving an overall prevalence of 0.19% (95% CI 0.19%, 0.19%). Of those patients, 45.9% with PsA have been prescribed DMARDs. Among the 4064 confirmed psoriasis patients, the prevalence of PsA was 8.6% (95% CI 7.7%, 9.5%). PsA was more prevalent among patients with severe psoriasis [odds ratio (OR) 3.34; 95% CI 2.40, 4.65], obesity (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.30, 2.41) and duration of psoriasis for ≥10 years (OR 7.42; 95% CI 3.86, 14.25) in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion. The prevalence of PsA in THIN is consistent with previous population-based estimates. Limitations include a definition of PsA based on a diagnostic code rather than Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) criteria. Given the large population of PsA patients, THIN is an important resource for the study of PsA. PMID:23221331

  18. Delayed sleep phase syndrome in adolescents: prevalence and correlates in a large population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) in adolescence, and to examine the association to insomnia and school non-attendance. Methods Data stem from a large population based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012, the ung@hordaland study. In all, 10,220 adolescents aged 16–18 years (54% girls) provided self-reported data on a range of sleep parameters: DSPS was defined according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Revised (ICSD-R) criteria, while insomnia was defined according to the Quantitative Criteria for Insomnia. Other sleep parameters included time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, oversleeping, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, subjective sleep need, sleep deficiency, sleepiness and tiredness. Sleep data were calculated separately for weekdays and weekends. Data on school non-attendance were provided by official registers. Results The prevalence of DSPS was 3.3%, and significantly higher among girls (3.7%) than boys (2.7%). There was a strong overlap between DSPS and insomnia, with more than half of the adolescents with DSPS also meeting the criteria for insomnia (53.8% for boys and 57.1% for girls). Adolescents with DSPS had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of non-attendance at school. After adjusting for sociodeographical factors, insomnia and depression, the adjusted ORs for days of non-attendance were OR = 3.22 (95% CI: 1.94-5.34) for boys and OR = 1.87 (95% CI: 1.25-2.80) for girls. A similar effect was found for hours of non-attendance for boys, with an adjusted OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 1.89-4.92). The effect for girls was no longer significant after full adjustment (OR =1.48 [95% CI: 0.94-2.32]). Conclusions This is one of the first studies to estimate the prevalence of DSPS in adolescents. The high prevalence of DSPS, and overlap with insomnia, in combination with the odds of school non-attendance, suggest that a broad

  19. Global variations and time trends in the prevalence of childhood myopia, a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis: implications for aetiology and early prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicka, Alicja R; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Wathern, Andrea K; Gilmartin, Bernard; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Owen, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to quantify the global variation in childhood myopia prevalence over time taking account of demographic and study design factors. A systematic review identified population-based surveys with estimates of childhood myopia prevalence published by February 2015. Multilevel binomial logistic regression of log odds of myopia was used to examine the association with age, gender, urban versus rural setting and survey year, among populations of different ethnic origins, adjusting for study design factors. 143 published articles (42 countries, 374 349 subjects aged 1–18 years, 74 847 myopia cases) were included. Increase in myopia prevalence with age varied by ethnicity. East Asians showed the highest prevalence, reaching 69% (95% credible intervals (CrI) 61% to 77%) at 15 years of age (86% among Singaporean-Chinese). Blacks in Africa had the lowest prevalence; 5.5% at 15 years (95% CrI 3% to 9%). Time trends in myopia prevalence over the last decade were small in whites, increased by 23% in East Asians, with a weaker increase among South Asians. Children from urban environments have 2.6 times the odds of myopia compared with those from rural environments. In whites and East Asians sex differences emerge at about 9 years of age; by late adolescence girls are twice as likely as boys to be myopic. Marked ethnic differences in age-specific prevalence of myopia exist. Rapid increases in myopia prevalence over time, particularly in East Asians, combined with a universally higher risk of myopia in urban settings, suggest that environmental factors play an important role in myopia development, which may offer scope for prevention. PMID:26802174

  20. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and possible risk factors among men of South-Western Nigeria: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Oyelade, Bolaji Oyetunde; Jemilohun, Abiodun Christopher; Aderibigbe, Sunday Adedeji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is currently one of the most common sexual dysfunctions worldwide but it is usually underestimated because it is not a life threatening condition. The associated stigma makes men who have it to suffer in silence. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction and the possible associated risk factors among Nigerian men. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional population based survey among men aged 30-80 years in Ogbomoso, South-west, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling method was used. The instrument used was the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire-5 (IIEF-5). Unadjusted odds ratios of possible risk factors were calculated by univariate analyses. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to eliminate the effect of possible confounders on the risk factors to get the adjusted odds ratios. Results The general prevalence of ED in this study was 58.9%. Sixty-seven (47.2%), 16 (11.3%) and 59(41.5%) respondents had mild, moderate and severe ED respectively. Age, hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive drugs, diabetes mellitus and heart disease all had significant unadjusted associations with ED, but their adjusted associations were not statistically significant. Diabetes mellitus maintained a positive statistically significant relationship with ED after adjustment for potential confounders [OR= 8.31(95% CI 1.02 - 67.65), P= 0.048]. Conclusion The prevalence of ED is high among south-western Nigeria male adults. Physicians, especially primary care ones, need to pay more attention to the sexual history of their patients in order to diagnose and manage ED more frequently. PMID:27642462

  1. Prevalence of postpartum depression among immigrant women: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Falah-Hassani, Kobra; Shiri, Rahman; Vigod, Simone; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were threefold: to estimate the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women, compare this prevalence to non-immigrant women, and determine risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, ResearchGate and Google Scholar databases from 1950 until October 2014. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria of which 22 (12 cross-sectional and 10 prospective cohort) contributed data for meta-analyses. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17-23%, 18 studies, N = 13,749 women). Immigrant women were twice more likely to experience depressive symptoms in the postpartum period than non-immigrant women (pooled unadjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.10 [95% CI 1.62-2.73, 15 studies, N = 50,519 women] and adjusted OR = 2.18 [95% CI 1.60-2.96, 7 studies, N = 35,557 women]). There was, however, evidence of publication bias with the pooled adjusted OR reduced to 1.63 (95% CI 1.22-2.17) after adjustment for bias. Risk factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms among immigrant women included shorter length of residence in the destination country, lower levels of social support, poorer marital adjustment, and perceived insufficient household income. This study suggests that postpartum depression is a common condition among immigrant women. Moreover, immigrant women are at higher risk of postpartum depression than non-immigrant women. Further prospective studies on the risk factors of postpartum depression among immigrant women verified by a clinical diagnosis are needed.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Lower-Extremity Amputation in Patients With Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong D; Jamjoom, Reda A; Alzahrani, Anas H; Hu, Frank B; Alzahrani, Hasan A

    2016-03-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence and correlates of lower-extremity amputation (LEA) in a Saudi population with diabetic foot ulcer. The study population consisted of 91 participants, with a median age of 55.0 years. Biomarkers were measured following standard protocols. Local symptoms of foot ulcer, including peripheral neuropathy (PN), peripheral artery disease (PAD), and foot infection were diagnosed by standard objective diagnostic tools or diagnosed clinically by a specialized surgeon. The severity of foot ulcer was classified according to the Wagner wound classification system. The prevalence of LEA was 29.7% in this population. The odds ratio for LEA comparing extreme tertiles was 2.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-8.45; P for trend = .03) for ulcer size and 0.22 (95% CI = 0.06-0.87; P for trend = .03) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. C-reactive protein and homocysteine levels were each positively associated with odds of LEA, but the associations became nonsignificant in multivariable models. Participants with foot infection showed a significantly higher adjusted prevalence of LEA (40.7%, 95% CI = 27.1%-54.3%) compared with those without foot infections (19.3%, 95% CI = 6.0%-32.4%, P = .03). Participants with Wagner grade ≥3 presented a significantly higher prevalence (40.5%, 95% CI = 27.8%-53.2%) than those with Wagner grade of 1 or 2 (16.4%, 95% CI = 2.4%-30.5%, P = .02). Participants with PN and PAD showed nonsignificantly higher prevalence of LEA. We found a relatively high prevalence of LEA as well as several clinical markers and local symptoms associated with LEA in this Saudi population with diabetic foot ulcer.

  3. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds. PMID:21707977

  4. Prevalence of sexual violence and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban African-American population.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan C; Aiello, Allison E; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro

    2014-12-01

    Sexual violence is prevalent nationally and contributes to psychopathology in the general population. Despite elevated traumatic event exposure among economically disadvantaged urban-dwelling African-Americans, there is insufficient information on lifetime sexual violence exposure and associated psychopathology in this population. In 2008-2009, 1,306 African-Americans from a Detroit household probability sample reported on lifetime rape and sexual assault and past-month and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Lifetime sexual violence prevalence was 26.3 % for women and 5.1 % for men. Relative to non-victims, sexual violence victims: reported more other traumatic events; had 4 times greater unadjusted odds of past-month and lifetime PTSD; had 1.6 times greater adjusted odds of lifetime PTSD only after controlling for other traumatic events. Sexual violence was associated with increased risk for lifetime PTSD and exposure to other traumas. Findings highlight a need to screen for sexual violence and PTSD among urban African-Americans.

  5. General Population Job Exposure Matrix Applied to a Pooled Study of Prevalent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ann Marie; Zeringue, Angelique; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Rempel, David; Bao, Stephen; Thiese, Matthew S.; Merlino, Linda; Burt, Susan; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Gerr, Fred; Hegmann, Kurt T.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Evanoff, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    A job exposure matrix may be useful for the study of biomechanical workplace risk factors when individual-level exposure data are unavailable. We used job title–based exposure data from a public data source to construct a job exposure matrix and test exposure-response relationships with prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Exposures of repetitive motion and force from the Occupational Information Network were assigned to 3,452 active workers from several industries, enrolled between 2001 and 2008 from 6 studies. Repetitive motion and force exposures were combined into high/high, high/low, and low/low exposure groupings in each of 4 multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for personal factors. Although force measures alone were not independent predictors of CTS in these data, strong associations between combined physical exposures of force and repetition and CTS were observed in all models. Consistent with previous literature, this report shows that workers with high force/high repetition jobs had the highest prevalence of CTS (odds ratio = 2.14–2.95) followed by intermediate values (odds ratio = 1.09–2.27) in mixed exposed jobs relative to the lowest exposed workers. This study supports the use of a general population job exposure matrix to estimate workplace physical exposures in epidemiologic studies of musculoskeletal disorders when measures of individual exposures are unavailable. PMID:25700886

  6. Predictors of dyspnea prevalence: Results from the BOLD study

    PubMed Central

    Grønseth, Rune; Vollmer, William M.; Hardie, Jon A.; Ólafsdóttir, Inga Sif; Lamprecht, Bernd; Buist, A. Sonia; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Gulsvik, Amund; Johannessen, Ane; Enright, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dyspnea is a cardinal symptom for cardiorespiratory diseases. No study has assessed worldwide variation in dyspnea prevalence or predictors of dyspnea. We used cross-sectional data from population-based samples in 15 countries of the BOLD study to estimate prevalence of dyspnea in the full sample as well as in an a priori defined low-risk group (few risk factors or dyspnea-associated diseases). Dyspnea was defined by the modified Medical Research Council questions. We used ordered logistic regression analysis to study the association of dyspnea with site, sex, age, education, smoking habits, low/high BMI, self-reported disease, and spirometry results. Of the 9,484 participants, 27% reported any dyspnea. In the low-risk subsample (N=4,329), 16% reported some dyspnea. In multivariate analyses, all covariates were correlated to dyspnea, but only 13% of dyspnea variation was explained. Women reported more dyspnea than men (odds ratio ≈ 2.1). When forced vital capacity (FVC) fell below 60% of predicted, dyspnea was much more likely. There was considerable geographical variation in dyspnea, even when we adjusted for known risk factors and spirometry results. We were only able to explain 13% of dyspnea variation. PMID:24176991

  7. Prevalence of Thrombocytopenia and Its Association with Serum Magnesium.

    PubMed

    Lu, Leihong; Zhan, Yiqiang; Yu, Jinming; Sui, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of thrombocytopenia and its association with serum magnesium in a nationally representative cohort. A total of 8478 participants aged 18 years and over were recruited in a cross-sectional survey. Thrombocytopenia was defined as platelet count less than 150 × 10(9)/L. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to examine the association between serum magnesium and thrombocytopenia. The prevalence of thrombocytopenia in total was 16.5% with 18.8% for men and 14.4% for women (P < 0.0001), respectively. Compared with men in the first quartile of serum magnesium, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for those in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of serum magnesium were 0.96 (0.75, 1.21), 0.78 (0.62, 0.98), and 0.82 (0.65, 1.04), respectively, after adjusting for multiple confounders. Likewise, the corresponding ORs (95% CIs) were 0.80 (0.63, 1.01), 0.79 (0.62, 0.99), and 0.65 (0.51, 0.84) in women. When serum magnesium was treated as a continuous variable, each one standard deviation increase of magnesium was associated with 12 and 8% lower risk of thrombocytopenia in men and women, respectively. Serum magnesium was inversely associated with thrombocytopenia, and the association was slightly different in men compared with that in women.

  8. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis. PMID:26461837

  9. Estimating Regression Parameters in an Extended Proportional Odds Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying Qing; Hu, Nan; Cheng, Su-Chun; Musoke, Philippa; Zhao, Lue Ping

    2012-01-01

    The proportional odds model may serve as a useful alternative to the Cox proportional hazards model to study association between covariates and their survival functions in medical studies. In this article, we study an extended proportional odds model that incorporates the so-called “external” time-varying covariates. In the extended model, regression parameters have a direct interpretation of comparing survival functions, without specifying the baseline survival odds function. Semiparametric and maximum likelihood estimation procedures are proposed to estimate the extended model. Our methods are demonstrated by Monte-Carlo simulations, and applied to a landmark randomized clinical trial of a short course Nevirapine (NVP) for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Additional application includes analysis of the well-known Veterans Administration (VA) Lung Cancer Trial. PMID:22904583

  10. Effective field theory for vibrations in odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coello Pérez, E. A.; Papenbrock, T.

    2016-11-01

    Heavy even-even nuclei exhibit low-energy collective excitations that are separated in scale from the microscopic (fermion) degrees of freedom. This separation of scale allows us to approach nuclear vibrations within an effective field theory (EFT). In odd-mass nuclei collective and single-particle properties compete at low energies, and this makes their description more challenging. In this article we describe spherical odd-mass nuclei with ground-state spin I =1/2 by means of an EFT that couples a fermion to the collective degrees of freedom of an even-even core. The EFT relates observables such as energy levels, electric quadrupole transition strengths, and magnetic dipole moments of the odd-mass nucleus to those of its even-even neighbor and allows us to quantify theoretical uncertainties. For isotopes of rhodium and silver the theoretical description is consistent with data within experimental and theoretical uncertainties. Several testable predictions are made.

  11. Even and odd Wigner negative binomial states: Nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A.

    2015-10-01

    By using Wigner-Heisenberg algebra (WHA) and its Fock representation, even and odd Wigner negative binomial states (WNBSs) |M,ξ,ν>±W (ν = 0 corresponds to the ordinary even and odd negative binomial states (NBSs)) are introduced. These states can be reduced to the Wigner cat states in special limit. We establish the resolution of identity property for them through a positive definite measure on the unit disc. Some of their nonclassical properties, such as Mandel’s parameter and quadrature squeezing have been investigated numerically. We show that in contrast with the even NBSs, even WNBSs may exhibit sub-Poissonian statistics. Also squeezing in the field quadratures appears for both even and odd WNBSs. It is found that the deformation parameter ν plays an essential role in displaying highly nonclassical behaviors.

  12. Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, T; Strathdee, S A; Shoveller, J; Montaner, J S; Tyndall, M W

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. Participants Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Main outcome measure Self reported gender based violence. Results Of 267 female sex workers invited to participate, 251 women returned to the study office and consented to participate (response rate of 94%). Analyses were based on 237 female sex workers who completed a baseline visit and at least one follow-up visit. Of these 237 female sex workers, 57% experienced gender based violence over an 18 month follow-up period. In multivariate models adjusted for individual and interpersonal risk practices, the following structural factors were independently correlated with violence against female sex workers: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio for physical violence (aORphysicalviolence) 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.43; adjusted odds ratio for rape (aORrape) 1.73, 1.09 to 3.12); inability to access drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio for client violence (aORclientviolence) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62; aORphysicalviolence 1.96, 1.03 to 3.43); servicing clients in cars or public spaces (aORclientviolence 1.50, 1.08 to 2.57); prior assault by police (aORclientviolence 3.45, 1.98 to 6.02; aORrape 2.61, 1.32 to 5.16); confiscation of drug use paraphernalia by police without arrest (aORphysicalviolence 1.50, 1.02 to 2.41); and moving working areas away from main streets owing to policing (aORclientviolence 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62). Conclusions Our results demonstrate an alarming prevalence of gender based violence against female sex workers. The structural factors of criminalisation, homelessness, and poor availability of drug treatment independently correlated with gender

  13. Altitude and regional gradients in chronic kidney disease prevalence in Costa Rica: Data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Harhay, Meera N.; Harhay, Michael O.; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando; Bixby, Luis Rosero

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Recent studies in Central America indicate that mortality attributable to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising rapidly. We sought to determine the prevalence and regional variation of CKD and the relationship of biologic and socioeconomic factors to CKD risk in the older-adult population of Costa Rica. Methods We used data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Health Aging Study (CRELES). The cohort was comprised of 2657 adults born before 1946 in Costa Rica, chosen through a sampling algorithm to represent the national population of Costa Ricans >60 years of age. Participants answered questionnaire data and completed laboratory testing. The primary outcome of this study was CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results The estimated prevalence of CKD for older Costa Ricans was 20% (95% CI 18.5 – 21.9%). In multivariable logistic regression, older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.08 per year, 95%CI 1.07–1.10, p<0.001) was independently associated with CKD. For every 200 meters above sea level of residence, subjects’ odds of CKD increased 26% (aOR 1.26 95% CI 1.15–1.38, p<0.001). There was large regional variation in adjusted CKD prevalence, highest in Limon (40%, 95% CI 30%–50%) and Guanacaste (36%, 95% CI 26–46%) provinces. Regional and altitude effects remained robust after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Conclusions We observed large regional and altitude-related variations in CKD prevalence in Costa Rica, not explained by the distribution of traditional CKD risk factors. More studies are needed to explore the potential association of geographic and environmental exposures with the risk of CKD. PMID:26466575

  14. Extremal charged rotating dilaton black holes in odd dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lerida, Francisco

    2010-09-15

    Employing higher-order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.

  15. The association between regular use of aspirin and the prevalence of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wan-Ting; Erickson, Steven R.; Hansen, Richard A.; Wu, Chung-Hsuen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is prevalent with significant morbidity in the United States. Aspirin previously has been found to be associated with reduced carcinogenesis of prostate cells. However, it remains unclear whether regularly taking aspirin could lower the risk of prostate cancer. Therefore, our aim was to examine the association between self-reported regular use of aspirin and the prevalence of prostate cancer in a national sample of the US adult population. The National Health Interview Survey is an annual survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics to investigate health and healthcare use of the US population. The current study is a population-based cross-sectional study using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey data. Adult male respondents who self-reported regularly taking aspirin at least 3 times per week were grouped as regular users. The prostate cancer prevalence was measured by respondents’ self-report of prostate cancer. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between these 2 factors by adjusting for covariates selected based on Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Use. An estimated 23 million (23.7%) males in the United States reported that they took aspirin regularly. Of them, 5.0% had prostate cancer. Regular aspirin use was significantly associated with a lower self-reported prevalence of prostate cancer after adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.38–0.94). Regular aspirin use was found to be significantly associated with a lower self-reported prevalence of prostate cancer in the United States in 2010. Further clinical trials and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the causality between regular aspirin use and prostate cancer. PMID:27336878

  16. [Using log-binomial model for estimating the prevalence ratio].

    PubMed

    Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.

  17. Relationship Between Coffee Consumption and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Japanese Civil Servants

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Hideo; Mure, Kanae; Nishio, Nobuhiro; Kitano, Naomi; Nagai, Naoko; Takeshita, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome has become a major worldwide public health problem. We examined the relationship between coffee consumption and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese civil servants. Methods The study participants were 3284 employees (2335 men and 948 women) aged 20 to 65 years. Using data from their 2008 health checkup records, we analyzed the relationship between coffee consumption and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Japanese criteria. Results Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 374 of the 2335 men (16.0%) and 32 of the 948 women (3.4%). In univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses, the odds ratios (ORs) among men for the presence of metabolic syndrome were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.56–1.03) and 0.61 (0.39–0.95), respectively, among moderate (≥4 cups of coffee per day) coffee drinkers as compared with non-coffee drinkers. Among all components of metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and high triglyceride level were inversely associated with moderate coffee consumption in men, after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, drinking status, and exercise. However, in women, moderate coffee consumption was not significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome or its components. Conclusions Moderate coffee consumption was significantly associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Japanese male civil servants. PMID:22343325

  18. The generational gap: Mental disorder prevalence and disability amongst first and second generation immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Liddell, Belinda J; Nickerson, Angela; Sartor, Lauren; Ivancic, Lorraine; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Despite unprecedented numbers of migrants internationally, little is known about the mental health needs of immigrant groups residing in common countries of resettlement. The majority of studies support the 'healthy migrant hypothesis', but few studies have examined: 1) shifts in prevalence patterns across generations; 2) how prevalence relates to disability in immigrant groups. Our study examined the prevalence of common mental disorders and disability in first and second generation migrants to Australia. Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and substance use disorders were obtained from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (N = 8841). First generation immigrants (born overseas) and second generation immigrants (both parents overseas) from non-English and English speaking backgrounds were compared to an Australian-born cohort. Disability was indexed by days out of role and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS12). First generation immigrants with non-English speaking (1G-NE) backgrounds evidenced reduced prevalence of common mental disorders relative to the Australian-born population (adjusted odds ratio 0.5 [95% CI 0.38-0.66]). This lower prevalence was not observed in second generation immigrant cohorts. While overall levels of disability were equal between all groups (p > 0.05), mental health-related disability was elevated in the 1G-NE group relative to the Australian-born group (p = 0.012). The findings challenge the overarching notion of the "healthy migrant" and suggest a dissociation between reduced prevalence and elevated mental health-related disability amongst first generation immigrants with non-English speaking backgrounds. These findings highlight the heterogeneous psychiatric needs of first and second generation immigrants.

  19. Pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in chronic pain: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Michele; Müller, Monika; Ashraf, Aroosiah; Neziri, Alban Y; Streitberger, Konrad; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-11-01

    Hypersensitivity of pain pathways is considered a relevant determinant of symptoms in chronic pain patients, but data on its prevalence are very limited. To our knowledge, no data on the prevalence of spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity are available. We studied the prevalence of pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in 961 consecutive patients with various chronic pain conditions. Pain threshold and nociceptive withdrawal reflex threshold to electrical stimulation were used to assess pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity, respectively. Using 10th percentile cutoff of previously determined reference values, the prevalence of pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity (95% confidence interval) was 71.2 (68.3-74.0) and 80.0 (77.0-82.6), respectively. As a secondary aim, we analyzed demographic, psychosocial, and clinical characteristics as factors potentially associated with pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity using logistic regression models. Both hypersensitivity parameters were unaffected by most factors analyzed. Depression, catastrophizing, pain-related sleep interference, and average pain intensity were significantly associated with hypersensitivity. However, none of them was significant for both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Furthermore, the odds ratios were very low, indicating modest quantitative impact. To our knowledge, this is the largest prevalence study on central hypersensitivity and the first one on the prevalence of spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in chronic pain patients. The results revealed an impressively high prevalence, supporting a high clinical relevance of this phenomenon. Electrical pain thresholds and nociceptive withdrawal reflex explore aspects of pain processing that are mostly independent of sociodemographic, psychological, and clinical pain-related characteristics.

  20. Chocolate consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the NHLBI Family Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi A.; Ellison, Curtis R.; Pankow, James S.; North, Kari E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Arnett, Donna K.; Djoussé, Luc

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background & aims Previous studies have suggested that cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, may lower blood pressure, serum cholesterol, fasting blood glucose and improve endothelial function. However, it is unclear whether consumption of cocoa products including chocolate influences the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a cross-sectional design, we sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and the prevalence of MetS. Methods We studied 4098 participants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study aged 25–93 years. Chocolate consumption was assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the NCEP III criteria. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios of MetS according to frequency of chocolate intake. Results Of the 4098 participants (mean age 51.7 y) included in the analyses, 2206 (53.8%) were female. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our population was 30.2%. Compared with those who did not consume any chocolate, multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for MetS were 1.26 (0.94, 1.69), 1.15 (0.85, 1.55), and 0.99 (0.66, 1.51) among women who reported chocolate consumption of 1–3 times/ month, 1–4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively. Corresponding values for men were: 1.13 (0.82, 1.57), 1.02 (0.74, 1.39), and 1.21 (0.79, 1.85). Conclusion These data do not support an association between chocolate intake and the prevalence of MetS in US adult men and women. PMID:25126517

  1. Adjusted P values for genome-wide scans.

    PubMed Central

    Lystig, Theodore C

    2003-01-01

    Genome-wide scans for quantitative trait loci (QTL) have traditionally been summarized with plots of logarithm of odds (LOD) scores. A valuable modification is to supplement such plots with an additional vertical axis displaying quantiles of adjusted P values and labeling local maxima of the LOD scores with location-specific adjusted P values. This provides a visible gradation of genome-wide significance for the LOD score curve, instead of the stark dichotomy that a single threshold yields. Adjusted P values give genome-wide significance of individual LOD scores and are obtained through a straightforward modification of the familiar algorithm for generating permutation-based thresholds. PMID:12930772

  2. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  3. Structure evolution and phase transition in odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of level structures due to the unique parity orbitals g9 /2, h11 /2, and i13 /2 in odd-mass nuclei from Zn to Am is studied within a unified framework, by correlations between ratios of excitation energies in both odd-mass nuclei and their even-even core nuclei. These plots reveal regularities that can be understood in terms of the particle-plus-rotor model, as evolutions along its three limiting coupling schemes: weak coupling, decoupling, and strong coupling, and transitions between them. Peculiar transitions between the decoupling and strong coupling schemes are found in both i13 /2 structures of neutron-odd nuclei and h11 /2 structures of proton-odd nuclei, at neutron numbers around 90 and 70, respectively. These are correlated with the critical shape phase transitions from vibrator to rotor from the even-even nuclei in the same regions and are characterized as critical phase transitions too. This behavior is corroborated with a nonmonotonic behavior of the differential variation of the two-neutron separation energies in the same nuclear regions.

  4. High-spin level scheme of doubly odd 128I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, B.; Wang, H. X.; Jiang, H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhou, X. H.; Zhao, Y. M.; Wang, S. T.; Liu, M. L.; Li, G. S.; Zheng, Y.; Zhang, N. T.; Zhou, H. B.; Ma, Y. J.; Sasakiz, Y.; Yamada, K.; Ohshima, H.; Yokose, S.; Ishizuka, M.; Komatsubara, T.; Furuno, K.

    2012-09-01

    High-spin states in the odd-odd 128I have been studied experimentally using the 124Sn(7Li, 3nγ)128I reaction at beam energies of 28 and 32 MeV. A level scheme built on the known T1/2=175 ns, (6-) isomer has been established. The low-lying states in the level scheme have been proposed to be associated with the πd5/2⊗νh11/2 and πg7/2⊗νh11/2 two-quasiparticle excitations. The strongly populated negative-parity states, forming a bandlike structure, have been assigned to be based on the πg7/2⊗νh11/2 configuration. The πh11/2⊗νh11/2 multiplet 9+, 10+, and 11+ members have been identified according to the systematics of the corresponding level structures observed in the lighter odd-odd iodine isotopes. The two-quasiparticle configuration assignments are supported by the nucleon pair approximation and empirical shell-model calculations.

  5. Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2011-05-06

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.

  6. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the…

  7. Stacking the Odds: A National Directory of Exemplary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jon D.; Spindel, Ann

    A recent study found that many students have dreams for the future, but many of them are on paths that do not lead to that future. Many institutions are already taking steps to close the gap between aspirations and reality, and some of the programs that are working to stack the odds in children's favor are profiled in this directory. Educational…

  8. Odd Laplacians: geometrical meaning of potential and modular class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudaverdian, Hovhannes M.; Peddie, Matthew T.

    2017-01-01

    A second-order self-adjoint operator Δ =Spartial ^2+U is uniquely defined by its principal symbol S and potential U if it acts on half-densities. We analyse the potential U as a compensating field (gauge field) in the sense that it compensates the action of coordinate transformations on the second derivatives in the same way as an affine connection compensates the action of coordinate transformations on first derivatives in the first-order operator, a covariant derivative, nabla =partial +Γ . Usually a potential U is derived from other geometrical constructions such as a volume form, an affine connection, or a Riemannian structure, etc. The story is different if Δ is an odd operator on a supermanifold. In this case, the second-order potential becomes a primary object. For example, in the case of an odd symplectic supermanifold, the compensating field of the canonical odd Laplacian depends only on this symplectic structure and can be expressed by the formula obtained by K. Bering. We also study modular classes of odd Poisson manifolds via Δ -operators, and consider an example of a non-trivial modular class which is related with the Nijenhuis bracket.

  9. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  10. Current cat ownership may be associated with the lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and Japanese cedar pollinosis in schoolchildren in Himeji, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kurosaka, Fumitake; Nakatani, Yuji; Terada, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Ikeuchi, Haruki; Hayakawa, Akira; Konohana, Atsuo; Oota, Kenji; Nishio, Hisahide

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between current pet ownership, passive smoking, and allergic diseases among the Japanese children. From 1995 to 2001, we distributed the Japanese edition of the questionnaire of the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD) to survey allergic diseases among 35,552 6-yr-old children at primary school in the city of Himeji, Japan. We analyzed the data by multiple logistic regression and calculated adjusted odds ratios for environmental factors, including passive smoking and pet (dog and/or cat) ownership. There were no significant relationships between the prevalence of asthma and current pet ownership and passive smoking. However, current cat ownership was related to a significantly lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.93], allergic rhinitis (aOR: 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.75). Strikingly, passive smoking was also related to a significantly lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis (aOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.88). Current cat ownership was associated with a lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and Japanese cedar pollinosis. In addition, passive smoking was also associated with a lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis and Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  11. A prevalence study on outdoor air pollution and respiratory diseases in children in Zasavje, Slovenia, as a lever to trigger evidence-based environmental health activities.

    PubMed

    Kukec, Andreja; Farkas, Jerneja; Erzen, Ivan; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the population burden of respiratory diseases in the Zasavje region of Slovenia that can be attributed to outdoor air pollution in order to gain relevant grounds for evidence based public health activities. In 2008, 981 schoolchildren (age 6 to 12 years) were observed in a prevalence study. The prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) and frequent acute respiratory symptoms (FARS) was related to the level of outdoor air pollution in the local environment (low, moderate and high pollution areas). Logistic regression was used as a method for statistical analysis. The prevalence of CRD was 3.0 % in low pollution areas, 7.5 % in moderate pollution areas, and 9.7 % in high pollution areas (p=0.005). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.91-times higher odds for CRD were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.017). The prevalence of FARS was: 7.8 % in low pollution areas, 13.3 % in moderate pollution areas and 15.9 % in high pollution areas (p=0.010). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.02-times higher odds for FARS were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.023). The study confirmed a significantly higher prevalence of CRD and FARS in children living in high pollution areas of Zasavje. These results at least partially prompted mutual understanding and cross-sectoral cooperation - prerequisites for solving complex problems involving the impact of air pollution on health.

  12. Enteric coating of mycophenolate reduces dosage adjustments.

    PubMed

    Brister, K; Yau, C L; Slakey, D

    2009-06-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) are bioequivalent. However, the effectiveness of MMF may be limited by gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. This study assessed the relationship between the number of medication dosage adjustments and posttransplantation side effects. In a review of 109 kidney transplant patients, 65 initially received MMF and 44 initially received EC-MPS. The incidences of patient-reported GI complications were significantly different: MMF 45.5% vs EC-MPS 35.3% (P = .0194). The proportions of patients requiring dosage adjustment due to GI complications were MMF 5.9% and EC-MPS 2.3% (P < .0001). Patients receiving MMF were more likely to experience GI complications resulting in dosage adjustment (odds ratio = 9.9; P = .0306). The incidences of acute rejection, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and leukopenia resulting in dosage adjustment were not significantly different. Patients receiving MMF required more immunosuppressive medication adjustments, which may complicate care and decrease overall compliance.

  13. Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes.

  14. Antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with odd-numbered coupled spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.; Nsofini, J.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, studies on cyclic molecular nanomagnets have captivated the attention of researchers. These magnets are finite in size and contain very large spins. They are interesting because they possess macroscopic quantum tunneling of Néel vectors. For antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with finite number of even-numbered coupled spins, tunneling involves two classical localized Néel ground states separated by a magnetic energy barrier. The question is: can such phenomena be observed in nanomagnets with odd number of magnetic ions? The answer is not directly obvious because cyclic chains with odd-numbered coupled spins are frustrated as one cannot obtain a perfect Néel order. These frustrated spins can indeed be observed experimentally, so they are of interest. In this letter, we theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling in this odd spin system with arbitrary spins s, in the presence of a magnetic field applied along the plane of the magnet. In contrast to systems with an even-numbered coupled spins, the ground state of the cyclic odd-spin system contains a topological soliton due to spin frustration. Thus, the classical ground state is 2N-fold degenerate as the soliton can be placed anywhere along the ring with total S_z=+/- s . Small quantum fluctuations delocalize the soliton with a formation of an energy band. We obtain this energy band using degenerate perturbation theory at order 2s. We show that the soliton ground state is chiral for half-odd integer spins and non-chiral for integer spins. From the structure of the energy band we infer that as the value of the spin increases the inelastic polarized neutron-scattering intensity may increase or decrease depending on the strengths of the parameters of the Hamiltonian.

  15. Occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma in Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Neil; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S.V.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Occupational asthma remains relatively under-recognized in India with little or no information regarding preventable causes. We studied occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India. Methods Analysis is based on 64 725 men aged 15–54 years and 52 994 women aged 15–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006, and reported their current occupation. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for specific occupations and asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, separately for men and women, adjusting for age, education, household wealth index, current tobacco smoking, cooking fuel use, rural/urban residence and access to healthcare. Results The prevalence of asthma among the working population was 1.9%. The highest odds ratios for asthma were found among men in the plant and machine operators and assemblers major occupation category (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.14–2.45; p = 0.009). Men working in occupation subcategories of machine operators and assemblers (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.24–2.76; p = 0.002) and mining, construction, manufacturing and transport (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00–1.77; p = 0.051) were at the highest risk of asthma. Reduced odds of asthma prevalence in men was observed among extraction and building trades workers (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53–0.97; p = 0.029). Among women none of the occupation categories or subcategories was found significant for asthma risk. Men and women employed in high-risk occupations were not at a higher risk of asthma when compared with those in low-risk occupations. Conclusions This large population-based, nationally representative cross-sectional study has confirmed findings from high income countries showing high prevalence of asthma in men in a number of occupational categories and subcategories; however, with no evidence of increased risks for women in the same occupations. PMID:24712498

  16. Prevalence and Prognostic Implications of Bundle Branch Block in Comatose Survivors of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Grand, Johannes; Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Nielsen, Niklas; Erlinge, David; Wiberg, Sebastian; Wanscher, Michael; Bro-Jeppesen, John; Hassager, Christian

    2016-10-15

    This study reports the prevalence and prognostic impact of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left bundle branch block (LBBB) in the admission electrocardiogram (ECG) of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The present study is part of the predefined electrocardiographic substudy of the prospective randomized target temperature management trial, which found no benefit of targeting 33°C over 36°C in terms of outcome. Six-hundred eighty-two patients were included in the substudy. An admission ECG, which defined the present study population, was available in 602 patients (88%). These ECGs were stratified by the presence of LBBB, RBBB, or no-BBB (reference) on admission. End points were mortality and neurologic outcome 6 months after OHCA. RBBB was present in 79 patients (13%) and LBBB in 65 patients (11%), and the majority of BBBs (92%) had resolved 4 hours after admission. RBBB was associated with significantly higher 6 months mortality (RBBB: hazard ratio [HR]unadjusted 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30 to 2.43; LBBB: HRunadjusted 1.26, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.81), but this did not reach a level of significance in the adjusted model (HRadjusted 1.33, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.87). Similar findings were seen for neurologic outcome in the unadjusted and adjusted analyses. RBBB was further independently associated with higher odds of unfavorable neurologic outcome (RBBB: adjusted odds ratio 1.97, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.71). In conclusion, BBBs after OHCA were transient in most patients, and RBBB was directly associated with higher mortality and independently associated with higher odds of unfavorable neurologic outcome. RBBB is seemingly an early indicator of an unfavorable prognosis after OHCA.

  17. The prevalence of and risk factors for healthcare-associated infections in Slovenia: results of the second national survey

    PubMed Central

    Kolman, Jana; Lejko Zupanc, Tatjana; Kotnik Kevorkijan, Božena; Korošec, Aleš; Serdt, Mojca

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction In the second Slovenian national healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) prevalence survey, conducted within the European point prevalence survey of HAIs and antimicrobial use in acute-care hospitals, we estimated the prevalence of all types of HAIs and identified risk factors. Methods Patients from acute-care hospitals were enrolled into a one-day cross-sectional study in October 2011. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe the characteristics of patients, their exposure to invasive procedures and the prevalence of different types of HAIs. Univariate and multivariate analyses of association of having at least one HAI with possible risk factors were performed to identify risk factors. Results Among 5628 patients, 3.8% had at least one HAI and additional 2.6% were still being treated for HAIs on the day of the survey; the prevalence of HAIs was 6.4%. The prevalence of urinary tract infections was the highest (1.4%), followed by pneumoniae (1.3%) and surgical site infections (1.2%). In intensive care units (ICUs), the prevalence of patients with at least one HAI was 35.7%. Risk factors for HAIs included central vascular catheter (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.0; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.9-5.7), peripheral vascular catheter (aOR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.5-2.6), intubation (aOR 2.3; 95% CI: 1.4-3.5) and rapidly fatal underlying condition (aOR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.4-3.3). Conclusions The prevalence of HAIs in Slovenian acute-care hospitals in 2011 was substantial, especially in ICUs. HAIs prevention and control is an important public health priority. National surveillance of HAIs in ICUs should be developed to support evidence-based prevention and control. PMID:27703546

  18. Food Insecurity Increases the Odds of Obesity Among Young Hispanic Children.

    PubMed

    Papas, Mia A; Trabulsi, Jillian C; Dahl, Alicia; Dominick, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a growing public health concern and is more prevalent among low-income and minority populations. Food insecurity may increase the odds of obesity in children. We investigated the association between food insecurity and obesity among low-income, Hispanic, mother-child dyads (n = 74). The United States Department of Agriculture 18-item Household Food Security Survey was used to determine food security status. The majority of households were food insecure (74 %) and one-third (30 %) of children were obese. Food insecurity increased the odds of childhood obesity (OR 10.2; 95 % CI 1.2, 85.5) with stronger associations found within households where mothers were also overweight/obese compared to normal weight (p-for interaction < 0.05). Rates of household food insecurity and childhood obesity were high among this low-income Hispanic sample. Future studies should elucidate the mechanisms through which food insecurity impacts childhood obesity.

  19. Sarcopenia is more prevalent in men than in women after hip fracture: a cross-sectional study of 591 inpatients.

    PubMed

    Di Monaco, Marco; Castiglioni, Carlotta; Vallero, Fulvia; Di Monaco, Roberto; Tappero, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in men and women with hip fracture. We studied 591 of 630 hip fracture inpatients consecutively admitted to our Rehabilitation ward. All the patients underwent a Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan 18.4 ± 8.7 (mean ± SD) days after hip fracture occurrence. Sarcopenia was defined when appendicular lean mass divided by height squared was less than two standard deviations below the mean of the young reference group obtained from population based studies. Using normative data from the New Mexico Elder Health Study, 340 of the 531 women (64.0%), and 57 of the 60 men (95.0%) had sarcopenia. Using normative data from the survey performed in Rochester, Minnesota, 116 of the 531 women (21.8%), and 52 of the 60 men (86.7%) had sarcopenia. After adjustment for age, time between fracture occurrence and DXA scan, number of medications in use, and number of concomitant diseases, men had a significantly higher prevalence of sarcopenia than women (p < 0.001). The adjusted odds ratio was either 10.54 (95% CI from 3.25 to 34.16) or 23.64 (from 10.8 to 51.6) depending on the reference population adopted. Our data shows a high proportion of sarcopenic subjects after hip-fracture. Sarcopenia was significantly more prevalent in men than in women. Relevancy of prevention and treatment of muscle loss is emphasized, particularly in men.

  20. Does self-reported physical activity associate with high blood pressure in adolescents when adiposity is adjusted for?

    PubMed

    Barros, Mauro V G; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Honda Barros, Simone Storino; Mota, Jorge; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that both low physical activity (PA) and adiposity are associated with a higher risk of hypertension. However, the relationship between PA and blood pressure in adolescents is controversial and other studies have reported that no association was observed. Of particular interest is the evaluation of whether the association between PA and high blood pressure is independent of adiposity. A sample of 3764 Brazilian adolescents who attend high schools was selected using random cluster sampling. Data were collected using the Global School-based Student Health Survey, anthropometry, and blood pressure readings. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 14.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 13.5-15.7), higher amongst males (20.0%; 95%CI 18.0-22.1) compared with females (10.9%; 95%CI 9.7-12.3). Sixty-six per cent of the adolescents were reported to be insufficiently active. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 12.8% (95%CI 11.0-14.7) amongst active compared with 15.4% (95%CI 14.0-16.9) amongst insufficiently active adolescents. The association between PA and high blood pressure was observed only amongst females after adjusting for waist circumference (odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95%CI 1.21-2.31) and body mass index (OR 1.71; 95%CI 1.23-2.37). Notwithstanding levels of adiposity, higher PA levels are associated with a lower prevalence of high blood pressure amongst females, although not amongst males.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of obstructive sleep apnea among patients with and without HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    KUNISAKI, Ken M.; AKGÜN, Kathleen M.; FIELLIN, David A.; GIBERT, Cynthia L.; KIM, Joon W.; RIMLAND, David; RODRIGUEZ-BARRADAS, Maria C.; YAGGI, H. Klar; CROTHERS, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In HIV-uninfected populations, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commonly associated with cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and cognitive impairment. These comorbidities are common in HIV-infected patients, but there are scarce data regarding OSA in HIV-infected patients. Therefore, we examined the prevalence and correlates of OSA in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected patients. Design Observational cohort study. Methods Electronic medical record and self-report data were examined in patients enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) between 2002-2008 and followed through 2010. The primary outcome was OSA diagnosis, determined using ICD-9 codes, in HIV-infected compared with uninfected. We used regression analyses to determine the association between OSA diagnosis, symptoms and comorbidities in adjusted models. Results Of 3,683 HIV-infected and 3,641 uninfected patients, 143 (3.9%) and 453 (12.4%) had a diagnosis of OSA (p<0.0001), respectively. HIV-infected patients were more likely to report symptoms associated with sleep and OSA such as tiredness and fatigue. Compared with uninfected patients with OSA, HIV-infected patients with OSA were younger, had lower BMIs, and were less likely to have hypertension. In models adjusting for these traditional OSA risk factors, HIV infection was associated with markedly reduced odds of OSA diagnosis (odds ratio=0.48; 95% confidence interval 0.39—0.60). Conclusions HIV-infected patients are less likely to receive a diagnosis of OSA. Future studies are needed to determine whether the lower prevalence of OSA diagnoses in HIV-infected patients is due to decreased screening and detection or due to a truly decreased likelihood of OSA in the setting of HIV. PMID:25230851

  2. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Tian, Danping; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-02-04

    Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28). Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth.

  3. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Tian, Danping; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28). Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth. PMID:28165407

  4. Mesospheric Odd Nitrogen Enhancements During Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Smith, H. J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The behavior of mesospheric odd nitrogen species during and following relativistic and diffuse auroral precipitation events is simulated, Below 75 km nitric oxide is enhanced in proportion to the ion pair production function associated with the electron precipitation and the length of the event. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid are also enhanced. At 65 km the percentage of odd nitrogen for N is 0.1%, HNO3 is 1.6%, NO2 is 15%, and NO is 83.3%. Between 75 and 85 km NO is depleted during particle events due to the faster destruction of NO by N relative to the production of NO by N reacting with O2. Recovery of NO depends on transport from the lower thermosphere, where NO is produced in abundant amounts during particle events.

  5. Extremal charged rotating black holes in odd dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lerida, Francisco

    2010-07-15

    Employing higher order perturbation theory, we obtain charged rotating black holes in odd dimensions, where the Einstein-Maxwell Lagrangian may be supplemented with a Chern-Simons term. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta. For Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with arbitrary Chern-Simons coupling constant, we perform the perturbations up to 3rd order for any odd dimension. We discuss the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge. In particular, we show that the gyromagnetic ratio g of Einstein-Maxwell black holes differs from the lowest order perturbative value D-2, and that the first correction term to g/(D-2) is universal.

  6. Flexible Viologen Cyclophanes: Odd/Even Effects on Intramolecular Interactions.

    PubMed

    Berville, Mathilde; Choua, Sylvie; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Boudon, Corinne; Ruhlmann, Laurent; Bailly, Corinne; Cobo, Saioa; Saint-Aman, Eric; Wytko, Jennifer; Weiss, Jean

    2017-01-04

    The ability of three bis-viologen cyclophanes to act as redox-triggered contractile switches is investigated. Odd/even effects in the formation of cyclic bis-viologens are circumvented by the use of a Zincke salt intermediate and a tetrathiafulvalene template to prepare a flexible cyclophane with hexyl linkers. Comparative spectro-electrochemical studies of this macrocycle with two other pentyl- or heptyl-linked cyclic bis-viologens show that the development of intramolecular interactions in aqueous solution depends on the length of the bridges. This dependence is confirmed by EPR and DFT studies of the magnetic coupling in the diradical dication species. The anti-ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic nature of the coupling depend, respectively, on the odd or even number of methylene groups in the spacer.

  7. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yaqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  8. Odd-frequency triplet pairing in mixed-parity superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuoco, Mario; Gentile, Paola; Noce, Canio; Romano, Alfonso; Annunziata, Gaetano; Linder, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    We show that mixed-parity superconductors may exhibit equal-spin pair correlations that are odd-in-time and can be tuned by means of an applied field. The direction and the amplitude of the pair correlator in the spin space turn out to be strongly dependent on the symmetry of the order parameter, and thus provide a tool to identify different types of singlet-triplet mixed configurations. We suggest that odd-in-time spin-polarized pair correlations can be generated without magnetic inhomogeneities in superconducting/ferromagnetic hybrids with non-centrosymmetric superconductor or when parity mixing is induced at the interface. Paola Gentile, Canio Noce, Alfonso Romano, Gaetano Annunziata, Jacob Linder, Mario Cuoco, arXiv:1109.4885

  9. Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2008-11-11

    We investigate shape phase transitions in odd nuclei within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. Special attention is given to the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation. The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2 with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that leads to the occurrence of the SU{sup BF}(3) boson-fermion symmetry when the boson part approaches the SU(3) condition. Both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions show characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The role of the additional particle in characterizing the properties of the critical points in finite quantal systems is investigated by resorting to the formalism based on the intrinsic frame.

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Ayesha S.; Mohamad, Maysm N.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; Ohuma, Eric O.; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Al Meqbaali, Fatima T.; Souka, Usama; Shah, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17–25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity. Methods In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013–2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%), as compared with normal-weight (1.7%) and overweight (10.1%) participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15–12.52) and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1–40.9), as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10–8.44) was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37–79.42) compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%–6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4–23.5). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction. PMID:27414402

  11. Odd Harmonics in Exoplanet Photometry: Weather or Artifact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Chayes, Victoria; Bouffard, Élie; Meynig, Max; Haggard, Hal M.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to the transits of a planet in front of its star and the eclipses of the planet by its star, researchers have reported flux variations at the orbital frequency and its harmonics: planetary reflection and/or emission and Doppler beaming of starlight produce one peak per orbit, while ellipsoidal variations of a tidally distorted star and/or planet produce two maxima per orbit. Researchers have also reported significant photometric variability at three times the orbital frequency, as yet unexplained. Reflected phase variations of homogeneous planets only contain power at the orbital frequency and its even harmonics. We show that odd harmonics can, however, be produced by an edge-on planet with a time-variable map, or an inclined planet with a North-South (N-S) asymmetric map. For tidally-locked planets with thick atmospheres, either of these scenarios entail weather: planets with zero obliquity experience N-S symmetric stellar forcing. North-South asymmetry would therefore suggest stochastic localized features, i.e., weather. However, we find that previous claims of large-amplitude odd modes in Kepler photometry are artifacts of removing planetary transits rather than modeling them. The only reliable claims of odd harmonics remain HAT-P-7b and Kepler-13Ab, for which the third mode amplitude is 6-8% of the planetary flux. Although time-variable albedo maps could in principle explain these odd harmonics, upper-limits on the infrared variability of other hot Jupiters make this scenario unlikely. We recommend further studying the tidal effects of close-in planets on their host stars, as this remains the only plausible hypothesis.

  12. OPE of Green functions in the odd sector of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadavý, T.; Kampf, K.; Novotný, J.

    2017-03-01

    A review of familiar results of the three-point Green functions of currents in the odd-intrinsic parity sector of QCD is presented. Such Green functions include very well-known examples of VVP, VAS or AAP correlators. We also present new results for VVA and AAA Green functions that have not yet been studied extensively in the literature before, more importantly with a phenomenological study and a discussion of the highenergy behaviour and its relation to the QCD condensates.

  13. Decoupling and anomalous bandcrossings in odd-proton nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.S. , Center of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100080 )

    1995-04-01

    The anomalous bandcrossing observed in the [541] [down arrow] bands of odd-[ital Z] nuclei from the rare-earth region was investigated in the framework of the particle-rotor model. The participation of the decoupling term in the [ital K]=1/2 band will give rise to a significant shift of the bandcrossing frequency, with an amplitude comparable to the observed values.

  14. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  15. (abstract) Odd Hydrogen in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, Hari; Allen, Mark; Yung, Yuk L.

    1994-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere has many features in common with the terrestrial mesosphere. Both share similar pressure and temperature ranges, and much of the same chemistry operates in each. For example, the radical species H, OH, and H(sub 2)O, which comprise the odd hydrogen family, are of central importance in the catalytic destruction of CO and O(sub 3) in both atmospheres. The inclusion of recent chemical kinetics data, specifically temperature dependent CO(sub 2) absorption cross-sections, into our one dimensional photochemical model of the Martial atmosphere shows that oxidation of CO by odd hydrogen is too efficient. The incorporation of smaller cross sections for CO(sub 2) leads to an enhanced photolysis rate of water vapor, increasing odd hydrogen to the point where the predicted mixing ratio of CO in our model is substantially less than the observed value of 6.5 x 10(sup -4). Interestingly, most photochemical models of the terrestrial mesosphere underestimate the CO and O(sub 3) densities using currently accepted photodissociation and kinetic rate coefficients. This has also been attributed to an overabundance of odd hydrogen in the models. We shall show that agreement between models and observations of CO in the Martian atmosphere as well as of CO and O(sub 3) in the terrestrial mesosphere can be achieved by revising the rate constants for the reactions OH + HO(sub 2) and CO + OH within their published uncertainties. The fact that similar revisions alleviate discrepancies in both the terrestrial and Martian atmospheres warrants a re-evaluation of these key rate constants at the appropriate temperatures and pressures.

  16. Observations of Chiral Odd GPDs and Their Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Gary R.; Liuti, Simonetta; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    Our original suggestion to investigate exclusive π0 electroproduction as a method for extracting the tensor charge, transversity, and other quantities related to chiral odd generalized parton distributions from cross section and asymmetry data is reviewed. We explain some of the details of the process: i) the connection between the helicity description and the cartesian basis; ii) the dependence on the momentum transfer squared, Q2, and iii) the angular momentum, parity, and charge conjugation constraints (JPC quantum numbers).

  17. High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, P< 0.001) and final (19.2% vs. 10.2%, P=0.001) years of athletic participation. In adjusted analyses, the odds of hypertension was higher among football athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

  18. Chocolate Consumption is Inversely Associated with Prevalent Coronary Heart Disease: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N.; North, Kari E.; Pankow, James S.; Arnett, Donna K.; Ellison, R. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Epidemiologic studies have suggested beneficial effects of flavonoids on cardiovascular disease. Cocoa and particularly dark chocolate are rich in flavonoids and recent studies have demonstrated blood pressure lowering effects of dark chocolate. However, limited data are available on the association of chocolate consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and prevalent CHD. Methods We studied in a cross-sectional design 4,970 participants aged 25 to 93 years who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study. Chocolate intake was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Results Compared to subjects who did not report any chocolate intake, odds ratios (95% CI) for CHD were 1.01 (0.76-1.37), 0.74 (0.56-0.98), and 0.43 (0.28-0.67) for subjects consuming 1-3 times/month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively (p for trend <0.0001) adjusting for age, sex, family CHD risk group, energy intake, education, non-chocolate candy intake, linolenic acid intake, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and fruit and vegetables. Consumption of non-chocolate candy was associated with a 49% higher prevalence of CHD comparing 5+/week vs. 0/week [OR=1.49 (0.96-2.32)]. Conclusions These data suggest that consumption of chocolate is inversely related with prevalent CHD in a general population. PMID:20858571

  19. Fluctuation theorems and entropy production with odd-parity variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunggyu; Lee, Hyun Keun; Kwon, Chulan

    2013-03-01

    We show that the total entropy production in stochastic processes with odd-parity variables (under time reversal) is separated into three parts, only two of which satisfy the integral fluctuation theorems in general. One is the usual excess contribution, which can appear only transiently and is called non-adiabatic. Another one is attributed solely to the breakage of detailed balance. The last part not satisfying the fluctuation theorem comes from the steady-state distribution asymmetry for odd-parity variables, which is activated in a non-transient manner. The latter two parts combine together as the house-keeping (adiabatic) contribution, whose positivity is not guaranteed except when the excess contribution completely vanishes. Our finding reveals that the equilibrium requires the steady-state distribution symmetry for odd-parity variables independently, in addition to the usual detailed balance. This work was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant (No. 2010-0026627) funded by the MEST.

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Overweight and Obesity Among a Multiethnic Population of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Survivors: A Cross-Sectional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Austin L; Lupo, Philip J; Danysh, Heather E; Okcu, Mehmet F; Scheurer, Michael E; Kamdar, Kala Y

    2016-08-01

    As previous studies of obesity in survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have primarily been conducted among non-Hispanic white survivors or children treated on older protocols, our objective was to describe the prevalence and correlates of overweight status among an ethnically diverse population of pediatric ALL survivors, largely treated with more contemporary therapies. We evaluated the overweight/obesity status of pediatric ALL survivors (n=406) followed in the Texas Children's Cancer Center between 2004 and 2014. Survivors were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese on the basis of their body mass index at their most current follow-up visit. Our results showed that Hispanic ethnicity (39% of the subjects) was associated with being overweight (adjusted odds ratio=1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.14) or obese (adjusted odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-5.06) at follow-up, even after adjusting for cranial radiotherapy (CRT) exposure. Body mass index z-score at diagnosis was also associated with overweight/obesity at follow-up. In addition, there was a statistically significant interaction between younger age at diagnosis and CRT, indicating that younger age at diagnosis was associated with obesity among patients who received CRT. These findings may help identify pediatric ALL patients that are at increased risk of being overweight or obese after treatment.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence in HIV-positive women engaged in transactional sex in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kate S; Deya, Ruth; Masese, Linnet; Simoni, Jane M; Stoep, Ann Vander; Shafi, Juma; Jaoko, Walter; Hughes, James P; McClelland, R Scott

    2016-11-01

    SummaryWe evaluated the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past year by a regular male partner in HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs) in Mombasa, Kenya. This cross-sectional study included HIV-positive women ≥18 years old who reported engagement in transactional sex at the time of enrolment in the parent cohort. We asked 13 questions adapted from the World Health Organization survey on violence against women about physical, sexual, or emotional violence in the past year by the current or most recent emotional partner (index partner). We used standardised instruments to assess socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics as possible correlates of IPV. Associations between IPV and these correlates were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 286/357 women (80.4%) had an index partner, and 52/357 (14.6%, 95% confidence interval 10.9%-18.2%) reported IPV by that partner in the past year. In multivariate analysis, women with severe alcohol problems (adjusted odds ratio 4.39, 1.16-16.61) and those experiencing controlling behaviours by the index partner (adjusted odds ratio 4.98, 2.31-10.74) were significantly more likely to report recent IPV. Recent IPV was common in HIV-positive FSWs. Interventions targeting risk factors for IPV, including alcohol problems and partner controlling behaviours, could help to reduce recurrent violence and negative health outcomes in this key population.

  2. Height and prevalence of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lulu; Shen, Lijun; Li, Hui; Liu, Bingqing; Zheng, Xiaoxuan; Liang, Yuan; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Youjie

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies reported that height was inversely associated with cardiovascular diseases, but the association between height and hypertension was unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between height and blood pressure or prevalence of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population. A total of 33,197 participants aged 37 to 94 years were recruited from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study in Hubei province, China. All participants completed baseline questionnaires, medical examinations and provided blood samples. Hypertension was define as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 140 mmHg or/and a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over 90 mmHg, or current use of antihypertensive medication, or participants with self-reported physician diagnosis of hypertension. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used. The prevalence of hypertension was 69.1% for men and 58.0% for women. Pulse pressure (PP) and SBP, but not DBP decreased linearly with increasing height among men and women. Comparing the highest with the shortest quartile of height, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.71, 0.91) for men and 0.83 (0.74, 0.92) for women. In conclusion, height was associated with reduced SBP, PP and prevalence of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population. PMID:28000763

  3. A Citizen-Science Study Documents Environmental Exposures and Asthma Prevalence in Two Communities

    PubMed Central

    Eiffert, Samantha; Noibi, Yomi; Downs, Jonathan; Fulk, Florence; Wallace, Juanita; Pearson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    A citizen-science study was conducted in two low-income, flood-prone communities in Atlanta, Georgia, in order to document environmental exposures and the prevalence of occupant asthma. Teams consisting of a public-health graduate student and a resident from one of the two communities administered a questionnaire, inspected residences for mold growth, and collected a dust sample for quantifying mold contamination. The dust samples were analyzed for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most residents (76%) were renters. The median duration of residence was 2.5 years. Although only 12% of occupants reported a history of flooding, 46% reported at least one water leak. Homes with visible mold (35%) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean ERMI values compared to homes without (14.0 versus 9.6). The prevalence of self-reported, current asthma among participants was 14%. In logistic regression models controlling for indoor smoking, among participants residing at their current residence for two years or less, a positive association was observed between asthma and the homes' ERMI values (adjusted odds ratio per unit increase in ERMI = 1.12, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.01–1.25; two-tailed P = 0.04). Documentation of the exposures and asthma prevalence has been presented to the communities and public officials. Community-based organizations have taken responsibility for planning and implementing activities in response to the study findings. PMID:28003835

  4. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among tuberculosis laboratory workers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The risk of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients to health care workers (HCWs) is a neglected problem in many countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) among TB laboratory staff in Iran, and to elucidate the risk factors associated with LTBI. METHODS All TB laboratory staff (689 individuals) employed in the TB laboratories of 50 Iranian universities of medical sciences and a random sample consisting of 317 low-risk HCWs were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants with tuberculin skin test indurations of 10 mm or more were considered to have an LTBI. RESULTS The prevalence of LTBI among TB laboratory staff and low-risk HCWs was 24.83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.31 to 27.74%) and 14.82% (95% CI, 11.31 to 19.20%), respectively. No active TB cases were found in either group. After adjusting for potential confounders, TB laboratory staff were more likely to have an LTBI than low-risk HCWs (prevalence odds ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.35 to 3.17). CONCLUSIONS This study showed that LTBI are an occupational health problem among TB laboratory staff in Iran. This study reinforces the need to design and implement simple, effective, and affordable TB infection control programs in TB laboratories in Iran. PMID:28092930

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among bus drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Bus provides a main mode of public transport in Vietnam, but the risk of road traffic crash for bus drivers is unknown. This retrospective study estimated the crash prevalence among bus drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam, and identified driver characteristics affecting their crashes. Information on bus crashes for the period 2006-2009 was collected by interviewing drivers from five bus companies in Hanoi using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine pertinent risk factors affecting the crash prevalence for bus drivers. Of the total 365 participants recruited, 73 drivers reported 76 crashes, giving an overall crash prevalence of 20%. Among the crashed group, three drivers (4%) were involved in two crashes during the past 3 years. Crashes mainly occurred on streets or local roads (81%). Migrant worker (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.20-8.25) and insufficient income perceived (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.37-4.93) were identified to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are needed to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of bus drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent traffic injury of these drivers.

  6. A Citizen-Science Study Documents Environmental Exposures and Asthma Prevalence in Two Communities.

    PubMed

    Eiffert, Samantha; Noibi, Yomi; Vesper, Stephen; Downs, Jonathan; Fulk, Florence; Wallace, Juanita; Pearson, Melanie; Winquist, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A citizen-science study was conducted in two low-income, flood-prone communities in Atlanta, Georgia, in order to document environmental exposures and the prevalence of occupant asthma. Teams consisting of a public-health graduate student and a resident from one of the two communities administered a questionnaire, inspected residences for mold growth, and collected a dust sample for quantifying mold contamination. The dust samples were analyzed for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most residents (76%) were renters. The median duration of residence was 2.5 years. Although only 12% of occupants reported a history of flooding, 46% reported at least one water leak. Homes with visible mold (35%) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean ERMI values compared to homes without (14.0 versus 9.6). The prevalence of self-reported, current asthma among participants was 14%. In logistic regression models controlling for indoor smoking, among participants residing at their current residence for two years or less, a positive association was observed between asthma and the homes' ERMI values (adjusted odds ratio per unit increase in ERMI = 1.12, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.01-1.25; two-tailed P = 0.04). Documentation of the exposures and asthma prevalence has been presented to the communities and public officials. Community-based organizations have taken responsibility for planning and implementing activities in response to the study findings.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Chagas Disease in Pregnant Women in Casanare, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Flórez, Astrid C.; Cárdenas, Ángela; Pavía, Paula; Montilla, Marleny; Aldana, Rodrigo; Villamizar, Katherine; Ríos, Lyda C.; Nicholls, Rubén S.; Puerta, Concepción J.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors associated with maternal infection is the first step to develop a surveillance system for congenital transmission of Chagas disease. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Casanare, a disease-endemic area in Colombia. A total of 982 patients were enrolled in the study. A global prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection of 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8–5.3%) was found. Multivariate analysis showed that the most important risk-associated factors were age > 29 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.4, 95% CI = 0.9–12.4), rural residency (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–4.6), low education level (aOR = 10.2, 95% CI = 1.6–82.7), and previous knowledge of the vector (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–4.9). Relatives and siblings of infected mothers showed a prevalence of 9.3%. These findings may help physicians to investigate congenital cases, screen Chagas disease in siblings and relatives, and provide early treatment to prevent the chronic complications of Chagas disease. PMID:23033397

  8. Emotional Abilities in Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): Impairments in Perspective-Taking and Understanding Mixed Emotions are Associated with High Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    PubMed

    O'Kearney, Richard; Salmon, Karen; Liwag, Maria; Fortune, Clare-Ann; Dawel, Amy

    2017-04-01

    Most studies of emotion abilities in disruptive children focus on emotion expression recognition. This study compared 74 children aged 4-8 years with ODD to 45 comparison children (33 healthy; 12 with an anxiety disorder) on behaviourally assessed measures of emotion perception, emotion perspective-taking, knowledge of emotions causes and understanding ambivalent emotions and on parent-reported cognitive and affective empathy. Adjusting for child's sex, age and expressive language ODD children showed a paucity in attributing causes to emotions but no other deficits relative to the comparison groups. ODD boys with high levels of callous-unemotional traits (CU) (n = 22) showed deficits relative to low CU ODD boys (n = 25) in emotion perspective-taking and in understanding ambivalent emotions. Low CU ODD boys did not differ from the healthy typically developing boys (n = 12). Impairments in emotion perceptive-taking and understanding mixed emotions in ODD boys are associated with the presence of a high level of CU.

  9. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  10. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  11. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported asthma in an adult Indian population: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N.; Ebrahim, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of self-reported asthma in adult Indians and examined several risk factors influencing disease prevalence. Analysis is based on 99 574 women and 56 742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratios for asthma, adjusting for various risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported asthma was 1.8% (95%CI 1.6–2.0) among men and 1.9% (95%CI 1.8–2.0) among women, with higher rates in rural than in urban areas and marked geographic differences. After adjustment for known asthma risk factors, women were 1.2 times more likely to have asthma than men. Daily/weekly consumption of milk/milk products, green leafy vegetables and fruits were associated with a lower asthma risk, whereas consumption of chicken/meat, a lower body mass index (BMI; <16 kg/m2, OR 2.08, 95%CI 1.73–2.50) as well as a higher BMI (>30 kg/m2, OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.36–2.06), current tobacco smoking (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.12–1.50) and ever use of alcohol (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.05–1.39) were associated with an increased asthma risk. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide regional variations in the prevalence of asthma in India. With the exception of the findings for BMI, however, most of the associations of asthma with the risk factors are relatively weak and account for only a small proportion of cases. PMID:23317966

  13. The association between regular use of aspirin and the prevalence of prostate cancer: Results from the National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wan-Ting; Erickson, Steven R; Hansen, Richard A; Wu, Chung-Hsuen

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer is prevalent with significant morbidity in the United States. Aspirin previously has been found to be associated with reduced carcinogenesis of prostate cells. However, it remains unclear whether regularly taking aspirin could lower the risk of prostate cancer. Therefore, our aim was to examine the association between self-reported regular use of aspirin and the prevalence of prostate cancer in a national sample of the US adult population.The National Health Interview Survey is an annual survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics to investigate health and healthcare use of the US population. The current study is a population-based cross-sectional study using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey data. Adult male respondents who self-reported regularly taking aspirin at least 3 times per week were grouped as regular users. The prostate cancer prevalence was measured by respondents' self-report of prostate cancer. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between these 2 factors by adjusting for covariates selected based on Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Use.An estimated 23 million (23.7%) males in the United States reported that they took aspirin regularly. Of them, 5.0% had prostate cancer. Regular aspirin use was significantly associated with a lower self-reported prevalence of prostate cancer after adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.94).Regular aspirin use was found to be significantly associated with a lower self-reported prevalence of prostate cancer in the United States in 2010. Further clinical trials and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the causality between regular aspirin use and prostate cancer.

  14. Prevalence of roll-over protective structure (ROPS)-equipped tractors on Hispanic-operated farms in the United States.

    PubMed

    Myers, John R

    2010-04-01

    Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are known to prevent tractor overturn deaths, but not enough tractors are equipped with them in the United States to reduce the rate of these deaths to levels seen in several European countries. Recent literature has defined the use of ROPS on US farms in general, but little is known about ROPS use on Hispanic farm operations. Data from a national survey for the calendar year 2003 were used to assess the prevalence of ROPS use on Hispanic-operated farms. Farm characteristics previously identified to be associated with low ROPS prevalence rates on other farming operations were examined for these Hispanic farming operations. The overall ROPS prevalence rate on Hispanic farms was 52.2%. Adjusted odds ratios of potential risk factors found that the region where the farm was located and the acreage of the farm appeared to be the most significant indicators of the prevalence of ROPS on Hispanic farms. In addition, the age of the farm operator, the farm status as a full- or part-time operation, and the type of farm operation were also important factors. These findings were similar to those seen for racial minority farms and the general farming population. These results can be used to target ROPS promotion programs for Hispanic farmers across the United States.

  15. Prevalence of Anemia among Older Adults Residing in the Coastal and Andes Mountains in Ecuador: Results of the SABE Survey

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of anemia and its determinants among older adults in Ecuador. Methods. The present study was based on data from the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. Hemoglobin concentrations were adjusted by participants' smoking status and altitude of residence, and anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria (<12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men). Gender-specific logistic regression models were used to examine the association between demographic and health characteristics and anemia. Results. A total of 2,372 subjects with a mean age of 71.8 (SD 8.2) years had their hemoglobin measured, representing an estimated 1.1 million older adults. The crude prevalence of anemia was 20.0% in women and 25.2% in men. However, higher anemia prevalence rates were seen with advancing age among black women and subjects residing in the urban coast. Likewise, certain health conditions such as hypoalbuminemia, cancer in men, chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, and low grade inflammation were associated with increased odds of having anemia. Conclusions. Anemia is a prevalent condition among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, further research is needed to examine the association between anemia and adverse health-related outcomes among older Ecuadorians. PMID:28321252

  16. High Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Associated Oral Mucosal Lesion Among Interstate Male Migrant Workers in Urban Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Aslesh, Ottapura Prabhakaran; Paul, Sam; Paul, Lipsy; Jayasree, Anandabhavan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kerala is a highly urbanized state in India and interstate migrant laborers working there forms a marginalized community. It was generally perceived that use of tobacco and alcohol was high among the workers, but there are no epidemiological studies assessing the actual burden. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of use of tobacco and also the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions associated with such use consumption among the adult male interstate migrant workers in North Kerala. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among male migrant workers above 18 years working in different factories in urban parts of Kannur district. Total of 244 participants attending routine health check-up camp were assessed for the use of tobacco/alcohol, type, frequency and duration of their use by a questionnaire. The trained dental interns conducted oral cavity examination for detecting oral mucosal lesions associated with tobacco use. Results: The prevalence of current use of smoked tobacco, smokeless tobacco and alcohol use were 41.8%, 71.7% and 56.6%, respectively among migrants. Oral mucosal lesions (OML) were seen in 36.3% of participants. Among smokeless tobacco users, 44.6% had lesions. Adjusted odds ratio for OML was 4.5 (CI: 1.9 - 19.84) among smokeless tobacco users. Conclusions: The current use of smokeless tobacco and oral mucosal lesions are highly prevalent among migrant workers. PMID:26855720

  17. Prevalence of Anemia among Older Adults Residing in the Coastal and Andes Mountains in Ecuador: Results of the SABE Survey.

    PubMed

    Orces, Carlos H

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of anemia and its determinants among older adults in Ecuador. Methods. The present study was based on data from the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. Hemoglobin concentrations were adjusted by participants' smoking status and altitude of residence, and anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria (<12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men). Gender-specific logistic regression models were used to examine the association between demographic and health characteristics and anemia. Results. A total of 2,372 subjects with a mean age of 71.8 (SD 8.2) years had their hemoglobin measured, representing an estimated 1.1 million older adults. The crude prevalence of anemia was 20.0% in women and 25.2% in men. However, higher anemia prevalence rates were seen with advancing age among black women and subjects residing in the urban coast. Likewise, certain health conditions such as hypoalbuminemia, cancer in men, chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, and low grade inflammation were associated with increased odds of having anemia. Conclusions. Anemia is a prevalent condition among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, further research is needed to examine the association between anemia and adverse health-related outcomes among older Ecuadorians.

  18. Isospin odd @pK scattering length [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2005-10-01

    We make use of the chiral two-loop representation of the πK scattering amplitude [J. Bijnens, P. Dhonte, P. Talavera, JHEP 0405 (2004) 036] to investigate the isospin odd scattering length at next-to-next-to-leading order in the SU (3) expansion. This scattering length is protected against contributions of ms in the chiral expansion, in the sense that the corrections to the current algebra result are of order Mπ2. In view of the planned lifetime measurement on πK atoms at CERN it is important to understand the size of these corrections.

  19. Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-03-30

    An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.

  20. Impact of Community-Based Larviciding on the Prevalence of Malaria Infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Castro, Marcia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of larval source management is not prioritized by contemporary malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa despite historical success. Larviciding, in particular, could be effective in urban areas where transmission is focal and accessibility to Anopheles breeding habitats is generally easier than in rural settings. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a community-based microbial larviciding intervention to reduce the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania. Methods and Findings Larviciding was implemented in 3 out of 15 targeted wards of Dar es Salaam in 2006 after two years of baseline data collection. This intervention was subsequently scaled up to 9 wards a year later, and to all 15 targeted wards in 2008. Continuous randomized cluster sampling of malaria prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics was carried out during 6 survey rounds (2004–2008), which included both cross-sectional and longitudinal data (N = 64,537). Bayesian random effects logistic regression models were used to quantify the effect of the intervention on malaria prevalence at the individual level. Effect size estimates suggest a significant protective effect of the larviciding intervention. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of individuals living in areas treated with larviciding being infected with malaria were 21% lower (Odds Ratio = 0.79; 95% Credible Intervals: 0.66–0.93) than those who lived in areas not treated. The larviciding intervention was most effective during dry seasons and had synergistic effects with other protective measures such as use of insecticide-treated bed nets and house proofing (i.e., complete ceiling or window screens). Conclusion A large-scale community-based larviciding intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in urban Dar es Salaam. PMID:23977099

  1. Low Prevalence of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Active Trachoma in the Western Division of Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Pavluck, Alexandre L.; Willis, Rebecca; Alexander, Neal; Mabey, David C. W.; Cikamatana, Luisa; Kama, Mike; Rafai, Eric; Roberts, Chrissy H.; Solomon, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experience of local healthcare workers who do not consider trachoma to be highly prevalent. We aimed to determine whether conjunctival infection with Ct could be detected in one administrative division of Fiji. Methods A population-based survey of 2306 individuals was conducted using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. Population prevalence of active trachoma in children and trichiasis in adults was estimated using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 1009 children aged 1–9 years. DNA from swabs was tested for the presence of the Ct plasmid and human endogenous control. Results The prevalence of active trachoma in 1–9 year olds was 3.4%. The age-adjusted prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI: 1.4–4.3%). The unadjusted prevalence of ocular Ct infection in 1–9 year-olds was 1.9% (19/1009), and the age-adjusted infection prevalence was 2.3% (95% CI: 0.4–2.5%). The median DNA load was 41 Ct plasmid copies per swab (min 20, first quartile 32, mean 6665, third quartile 161, max 86354). There was no association between current infection and follicular trachoma. No cases of trachomatous trichiasis were identified. Discussion The Western Division of Fiji has a low prevalence of clinical trachoma. Ocular Ct infections were observed, but they were predominantly low load infections and were not correlated with clinical signs. Our study data suggest that trachoma does not meet the WHO definition of a public health problem in

  2. Early sex work initiation independently elevates odds of HIV infection and police arrest among adult sex workers in a Canadian setting

    PubMed Central

    GOLDENBERG, Shira M.; CHETTIAR, Jill; SIMO, Annick; SILVERMAN, Jay G.; STRATHDEE, Steffanie A.; MONTANER, Julio; SHANNON, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore factors associated with early sex work initiation, and model the independent effect of early initiation on HIV infection and prostitution arrests among adult sex workers (SWs). Design Baseline data (2010–2011) were drawn from a cohort of SWs who exchanged sex for money within the last month and were recruited through time-location sampling in Vancouver, Canada. Analyses were restricted to adults ≥18 years old. Methods SWs completed a questionnaire and HIV/STI testing. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified associations with early sex work initiation (<18 years old) and constructed confounder models examining the independent effect of early initiation on HIV and prostitution arrests among adult SWs. Results Of 508 SWs, 193 (38.0%) reported early sex work initiation, with 78.53% primarily street-involved SWs and 21.46% off-street SWs. HIV prevalence was 11.22%, which was 19.69% among early initiates. Early initiates were more likely to be Canadian-born (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 6.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.42–19.02), inject drugs (AOR: 1.6, 95%CI: 1.0–2.5), and to have worked for a manager (AOR: 2.22, 95%CI: 1.3–3.6) or been coerced into sex work (AOR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.14–4.44). Early initiation retained an independent effect on increased risk of HIV infection (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3–3.2) and prostitution arrests (AOR: 2.0, 95%CI: 1.3–3.2). Conclusions Adolescent sex work initiation is concentrated among marginalized, drug and street-involved SWs. Early initiation holds an independent increased effect on HIV infection and criminalization of adult SWs. Findings suggest the need for evidence-based approaches to reduce harm among adult and youth SWs. PMID:23982660

  3. Prevalence and correlates of internet cigarette purchasing among adult smokers in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C; Staniewska, D

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence and correlates of internet cigarette purchasing among adult smokers. Design: Analysis of internet purchasing in data from a population based telephone survey of New Jersey households. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with internet cigarette purchasing, adjusting for year, demographic, and smoking behaviour variables. Participants: 3447 current cigarette smokers pooled from three cross sectional surveys conducted in 2000, 2001, and 2002. Main outcome measures: Ever purchasing tobacco and usually buying cigarettes via the internet. Results: Among all current cigarette smokers, ever having purchased tobacco via the internet increased from 1.1% in 2000 to 6.7% in 2002 and usually buying cigarettes via the internet increased from 0.8% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2002. Among current cigarette smokers with internet access, ever having purchased tobacco via the internet was higher among those who reported smoking 31 or more cigarettes per day (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 10.2) and those without a past year quit attempt (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.0). Usually purchasing cigarettes via the internet was higher among those aged 45–64 years (adjusted OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 17.1) and who reported having their first cigarette ⩽ 30 minutes after waking (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2). Conclusions: Although higher prices are known to reduce the demand for cigarettes, internet cigarette purchasing is likely to weaken this effect, particularly among heavy, more dependent smokers who are less interested in quitting. PMID:15333887

  4. Odds ratios for mediation analysis for a dichotomous outcome.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, Tyler J; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2010-12-15

    For dichotomous outcomes, the authors discuss when the standard approaches to mediation analysis used in epidemiology and the social sciences are valid, and they provide alternative mediation analysis techniques when the standard approaches will not work. They extend definitions of controlled direct effects and natural direct and indirect effects from the risk difference scale to the odds ratio scale. A simple technique to estimate direct and indirect effect odds ratios by combining logistic and linear regressions is described that applies when the outcome is rare and the mediator continuous. Further discussion is given as to how this mediation analysis technique can be extended to settings in which data come from a case-control study design. For the standard mediation analysis techniques used in the epidemiologic and social science literatures to be valid, an assumption of no interaction between the effects of the exposure and the mediator on the outcome is needed. The approach presented here, however, will apply even when there are interactions between the effect of the exposure and the mediator on the outcome.

  5. Structure of dipole bands in doubly odd 102Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V.; Sihotra, S.; Malik, S. S.; Bhat, G. H.; Palit, R.; Sheikh, J. A.; Kumar, S.; Singh, N.; Singh, K.; Goswamy, J.; Sethi, J.; Saha, S.; Trivedi, T.; Mehta, D.

    2016-10-01

    Excited states in the transitional doubly odd 102Ag nucleus were populated in the 75As(31P,p 3 n ) fusion-evaporation reaction using the 125 MeV incident 31P beam. The subsequent deexcitations were investigated through in-beam γ -ray spectroscopic techniques using the Indian National Gamma Array spectrometer equipped with 21 clover Ge detectors. The level scheme in 102Ag has been established up to excitation energy ˜6.5 MeV and angular momentum 19 ℏ . The earlier reported level scheme is considerably extended and modified to result in a pair of nearly degenerate negative-parity dipole bands. Lifetime measurements for the states of these two dipole bands have been performed by using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The two nearly degenerate bands exhibit different features with regard to kinetic moment of inertia, and the reduced transition probabilities B (M 1 ) and B (E 2 ) , which do not favor these to be chiral partners. These bands are discussed in the framework of the hybrid version of tilted-axis cranking (tac) model calculations and assigned the π g9 /2⊗ν h11 /2 and π g9 /2⊗ν h11 /2(d5/2/g7 /2) 2 configurations. The tac model calculations are extended to the nearly degenerate bands observed in the heavier doubly odd Ag-108104 isotopes.

  6. Racial Disparities in the Prevalence of Arthritis among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, Whites, and Asians

    PubMed Central

    Obana, Kyle K

    2016-01-01

    The health disparities of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are well established for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but less is known about disparities in arthritis. This study examined possible disparities in the prevalence of arthritis by age, sex, and severity comparing NHPI, Whites, and Asians. The study population included adult Hawai‘i participants in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. NHPI males had a significantly higher prevalence of arthritis, which peaked twenty years earlier, than White and Asian males (P<.001). The prevalence of arthritis peaked at 65–79 years in males and females in all racial groups, except in NHPI males where it peaked at 45–54 years. The mean ages (years) for males with arthritis were 46.2 for NHPI, 59.1 for Whites, and 60.5 for Asians; the respective ages for females were 54.2, 60.5, and 58.8. NHPI males body mass index averaged 2.4 kg/m2 greater than White males (P<.001), and obese NHPI males had twice the age-adjusted odds of arthritis than obese White males. Although NHPI females had a greater body mass index than White females (P=.05), the prevalence of arthritis was only slightly and not significantly higher. NHPI males and females reported high pain scores more frequently than Whites did, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Diabetes was a comorbidity more than twice as often in NHPI and Asians of both sexes than among Whites. This study demonstrated racial disparities in the prevalence of arthritis among NHPI, Whites, and Asians. PMID:27413625

  7. Recirculating valve lash adjuster

    SciTech Connect

    Stoody, R.R.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine with a valve assembly of the type including overhead valves supported by a cylinder head for opening and closing movements in a substantially vertical direction and a rotatable overhead camshaft thereabove lubricated by engine oil pumped by an engine oil pump. A hydraulic lash adjuster with an internal reservoir therein is solely supplied with run-off lubricating oil from the camshaft which oil is pumped into the internal reservoir of the lash adjuster by self-pumping operation of the lash adjuster produced by lateral forces thereon by the rotative operation of the camshaft comprising: a housing of the lash adjuster including an axially extending bore therethrough with a lower wall means of the housing closing the lower end thereof; a first plunger member being closely slidably received in the bore of the housing and having wall means defining a fluid filled power chamber with the lower wall means of the housing; and a second plunger member of the lash adjuster having a portion being loosely slidably received and extending into the bore of the housing for reciprocation therein. Another portion extends upwardly from the housing to operatively receive alternating side-to-side force inputs from operation of the camshaft.

  8. Prevalence of acute respiratory infections in women and children in Western Sierra Leone due to smoke from wood and charcoal stoves.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eldred Tunde; Nakai, Satoshi

    2012-06-01

    Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal) for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI). This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused by smoke from wood and charcoal stoves in Western Sierra Leone, as these two fuels are the predominant fuel types used for cooking. A cross sectional study was conducted for 520 women age 15-45 years; and 520 children under 5 years of age in homes that burn wood and charcoal. A questionnaire assessing demographic, household and exposure characteristics and ARI was administered to every woman who further gave information for the child. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was continuously monitored in fifteen homes. ARI prevalence revealed 32% and 24% for women, 64% and 44% for children in homes with wood and charcoal stoves, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders for each group, the odds ratio of having suffered from ARI was similar for women, but remained large for children in homes with wood stoves relative to charcoal stoves (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.71-1.82) and (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.31-3.13), respectively. ARI prevalence was higher for children in homes with wood stoves compared with homes with charcoal stoves, but ARI prevalence for both types of fuels is higher compared with reported prevalence elsewhere. To achieve a reduction in ARI would require switching from wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels.

  9. Discriminants of prevalent fractures in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Nickolas, Thomas L; Cremers, Serge; Zhang, Amy; Thomas, Valeri; Stein, Emily; Cohen, Adi; Chauncey, Ryan; Nikkel, Lucas; Yin, Michael T; Liu, Xiaowei S; Boutroy, Stephanie; Staron, Ronald B; Leonard, Mary B; McMahon, Donald J; Dworakowski, Elzbieta; Shane, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have higher rates of fracture than the general population. Increased bone remodeling, leading to microarchitectural deterioration and increased fragility, may accompany declining kidney function, but there are no reliable methods to identify patients at increased risk for fracture. In this cross-sectional study of 82 patients with predialysis CKD, high-resolution imaging revealed that the 23 patients with current fractures had significantly lower areal density at the femoral neck; total, cortical, and trabecular volumetric bone density; cortical area and thickness; and trabecular thickness. Compared with levels in the lowest tertile, higher levels of osteocalcin, procollagen type-1 N-terminal propeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b were associated with higher odds of fracture, even after adjustment for femoral neck T-score. Discrimination of fracture prevalence was best with a femoral neck T-score of -2.0 or less and a value in the upper two tertiles for osteocalcin, procollagen type-1 N-terminal propeptide, or tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b; these values corresponded to the upper half of the normal premenopausal reference range. In summary, these cross-sectional data suggest that measurement of bone turnover markers may increase the diagnostic accuracy of densitometry to identify patients with CKD at high risk for fracture.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity.

  11. [Razón de posibilidades: a proposed translation of the term odds ratio].

    PubMed

    Tapia, J A; Nieto, F J

    1993-01-01

    In English, odds ratio is a basic epidemiological measure approximating the relative risk. Odds ratio has been translated into Spanish in several ways, which has produced great terminological confusion. On the other hand, the English word odds is often used in epidemiology or statistics English textbooks, alone or as part of other expressions, but always keeping a definite mathematical meaning, which calls for a similarly definite term in Spanish. We discuss several translations of odds ratio found in the literature and propose the Spanish word "posibilidades" as a translation of odds and "razón de posibilidades" as a translation of odds ratio.

  12. Association of Leisure-Time Physical Activity to Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in Relation to Smoking among Adult Nevadans.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Masaru; Moonie, Sheniz; Cross, Chad L; Chino, Michelle; Alpert, Patricia T

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cigarette smoking and physical activity have significant impacts on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity. Meanwhile, it is of interest to understand whether physical activity protects against CVD for smokers in a similar manner as it does for non-smokers. The present study examined how leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with the prevalence of CVD in relation to smoking status among adult Nevadans, using data from the 2010 Nevada Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Of the 3,913 survey respondents, 8.5% self-reported that they had ever been diagnosed with CVD. People with a history of CVD were significantly less likely to engage in LTPA than those with no history of CVD (p < 0.05). After adjusting for common sociodemographic variables, it was revealed that people with CVD were twice more likely to not engage in LTPA than their counterparts independent of smoking status. Without taking LTPA into account, the odds of having CVD for current and former smokers was 1.87-2.25 times higher than the odds for non-smokers. Interestingly, however, if LTPA was accounted for, there was no significant difference in the odds of having CVD between current and non-smokers. These results indicate that LTPA is inversely associated with the prevalence of CVD independent of smoking status, and that regular physical activity may protect against CVD for smokers as well as for non-smokers. Physical activity, along with smoking cessation, should be promoted to better prevent and control CVD among smokers.

  13. Capping risk adjustment?

    PubMed

    Eugster, Patrick; Sennhauser, Michèle; Zweifel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    When premiums are community-rated, risk adjustment (RA) serves to mitigate competitive insurers' incentive to select favorable risks. However, unless fully prospective, it also undermines their incentives for efficiency. By capping its volume, one may try to counteract this tendency, exposing insurers to some financial risk. This in term runs counter the quest to refine the RA formula, which would increase RA volume. Specifically, the adjuster, "Hospitalization or living in a nursing home during the previous year" will be added in Switzerland starting 2012. This paper investigates how to minimize the opportunity cost of capping RA in terms of increased incentives for risk selection.

  14. A fast degrading odd-odd aliphatic polyester-5,7 made by condensation polymerization for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Nölle, Jan Martin; Wietzke, Steffen; Reuter, Marco; Chatterjee, Sangam; Koch, Martin; Agarwal, Seema

    2012-01-01

    A fast enzymatic degradable aliphatic all-odd-polyester-5,7, based on 1,7-heptanedioic acid (pimelic acid) and 1,5-pentanediol, was synthesized by polycondensation. The structural characterization of the polyester was done using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The properties of the resulting polyester-like crystallization behavior, enzymatic degradation, thermal stability, etc., were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and gel-permeation chromatography. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy was employed to determine the glass transition temperature, which could not be revealed reliably by conventional thermal analysis. The properties of all-odd-polyester-5,7 were compared with a well-known enzymatic degradable polyester (polycaprolactone). The results indicated that polyester-5,7 has a crystal structure similar to PCL, but a much faster degradation rate. The morphology of polyester-5,7 film during enzymatic degradation showed a fibrillar structure and degradation began by surface erosion.

  15. The Prevalence and Symptoms Characteristic of Functional Constipation Using Rome III Diagnostic Criteria among Tertiary Education Students

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Functional constipation is very common with heterogeneous symptoms that have substantial impact on patient quality of life as well as medical resources which are rarely reported as life-threatening. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and symptoms characteristic of functional constipation (FC) by using Rome III diagnostic criteria among tertiary education students with an intention to introduce treatment in the future. Methods Demographic, socio-economics characteristics and symptoms of FC using the Rome III criteria were sought using a questionnaire administered to Malaysian students in a tertiary education setting. Other data obtained were the general health status, lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements. Using a simple random sampling method, a total of 1662 students were recruited in the study with a response rate of 95.0%. Sampled data are presented as frequency and percentage and stratified accordingly into categories for Chi-square analysis. Results The prevalence of functional constipation among the students was 16.2%, with a significantly higher prevalence among women (17.4%) than men (12.5%). Hard or lumpy stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction and straining were reported as the commonest symptoms experienced. Type 3 was the most frequent stool consistency experienced among the constipated individuals (35.2%). Only 4.4% of individuals reported having less than three defecations per week. Using univariable analysis, FC was significantly associated with sex (odds ratio: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.06–2.06) and age group (odds ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01–1.79) with P value < 0.05 significance level. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only sex was found significantly associated with FC (adjusted odds ratio: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.08–2.17, P < 0.05). Conclusions Based on the prevalence rate, constipation is a common problem among tertiary education students (16.2%), with significantly more prevalence among

  16. Relation of physical activity to prevalence of nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease independent of cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Oni, Ebenezer T; Kalathiya, Rohan; Aneni, Ehimen C; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Feldman, Theodore; Agatston, Arthur S; Blumenthal, Roger S; Conceiçao, Raquel D; Carvalho, Jose A M; Santos, Raul D; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity and insulin resistance and has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk. Although physical activity (PA) and lifestyle modification are often recommended in patients at cardiovascular risk, the benefit across the cardiometabolic risk spectrum is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the relation of PA and NAFLD independent of metabolic syndrome (MS) or obesity. We evaluated 5,743 healthy Brazilian subjects (43 ± 10 years, 79% men) without clinical coronary heart disease from December 2008 to December 2010. NAFLD was diagnosed using ultrasounds, and self-reported PA was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire scale. In a multivariate logistic regression adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors, we evaluated for an independent association of NAFLD and PA. In the total study population, NAFLD prevalence was 36% (n = 2,075), obesity 23% (1,300), and MS 20% (1,152). NAFLD was more prevalent in subjects with MS (74%) than those without (26%) and in those obese (73%) than in those nonobese (25%). Overall, 1,305 (23%) subjects reported low activity, 1,990 (35%) moderate activity, and 2,448 (42%) high activity. NAFLD prevalence was lower at higher levels of reported PA (low 45%, moderate 38%, and high 30%, p <0.001). After adjusting for risk factors, subjects with high activity had lower odds of having NAFLD. The favorable association was independent of obesity or MS. In conclusion, PA presents a dose-response association with NAFLD independent of the MS or obesity. Our results are compatible with the idea that benefits of PA are relevant to everyone regardless of cardiometabolic risk.

  17. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Elderly of Namwon County, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Guk; Yang, Seung Won; Jang, An Soo; Seo, Jeong Pyeong; Han, Sang Woo; Yeom, Chung Ho; Kim, Yong Chul; Oh, Sung Hee; Kim, Jung Seok; Nam, Hae Sung; Chung, Dong Jin; Chung, Min Young

    2002-01-01

    Background: Ethnic and geographic differences exist in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus which has increased dramatically in South Korea. A few community-based epidemiologic studies with oral glucose tolerance test were performed in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Diabetic Association (ADA) diagnostic criteria and to investigate their associated risk factors. Also, we compared and analyzed the characteristics of Koreans by WHO and ADA diagnostic criteria. Methods : Between March 22, 1999 and July 14, 1999, a random sampling of 1,445 residents over 40 years of age in five villages (3 myons and 2 dongs) in Namwon City, Chollabuk-do Province, South Korea was carried out. WHO and ADA diagnostic criteria were used for the prevalence of DM, IGT and IPG. The associated factors of subjects were analyzed. Results : After age adjustment for the population projection of Korea (1999), the prevalence of DM and IGT was 13.7% and 13.8%, respectively, by WHO criteria, while the prevalence of DM, IGT and IFG was 15.8%, 12.8% and 5.7%, respectively, by ADA criteria, and the previous diagnosed diabetics were 5.8% in 665 adults over 40 years of age in the Namwon area. The age-adjusted prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetics was 5.8%. When the subjects classified by both criteria were compared, the level of agreement between WHO and ADA diagnostic criteria, except IFG, was very high (κ=0.94; p<0.001). The ROC curve analysis determined FSG of 114.5 mg/dL (6.4 mmol/L) to yield optimal sensitivity and specificity corresponding to a PP2SG 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L). The prevalence of DM and IGT with ADA diagnostic criteria rose with increasing age (p<0.05). The body mass index was mean 23.8±3.4 in all the subjects, 23.75±3.46 in NGT group and 23.67±3.16 in DM group, but the differences in the prevalence of DM, IGT and IFG by BMI were not significant. The prevalence of

  18. Phase transition in odd-N Pd-isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hou-Bing; Dong, Guo-Xiang; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Fu-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Phase transition in odd-N isotopes 99,101,103Pd are investigated via the E-GOS (E-Gamma Over Spin) curves, which strongly suggest a structure evolution from vibration to rotation along the yrast lines with increasing spin. Theoretical calculations have been performed for the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd in the framework of the cranked shell model (CSM) and the alignment properties observed experimentally are analyzed employing this model. The results show that the phase transition in the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd can be interpreted as the valence nucleons start to occupy the g9/2 proton orbitals with increasing spin which would polarize the core to a small, but rigid quadrupole deformation. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi (2014jjBA10016, 2014jjDA10012) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11465005)

  19. Near yrast states in doubly odd [sup 214]Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Ozafran, M.; Romo, A.; Somacal, H.; Vazquez, M.E. ); Davidson, J.; Davidson, M. ); Ahn, K.; Fossan, D.B.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Piel, W.F. Jr.; Xu, N. )

    1993-11-01

    High spin states of doubly odd [sup 214]Fr[sub 127] have been investigated using in-beam [gamma]-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy techniques through the [sup 206]Pb([sup 11]B, 3[ital n]) and [sup 208]Pb([sup 11]B, 5[ital n]) fusion-evaporation reactions. Completely new spectrocopic information has been obtained. The yrast level structure is established up to spin (19[sup +]) and some information on [gamma] transitions from higher-lying levels is also obtained. Two new isomers [ital T][sub 1/2]=174(20) ns and [ital T][sub 1/2]=11(2) ns were found. Configuration assignments for the low-lying levels are discussed. Information on residual proton-neutron interactions is extracted.

  20. Torsion, parity-odd response, and anomalies in topological states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrikar, Onkar; Hughes, Taylor L.; Leigh, Robert G.

    2014-11-01

    We study the response of a class of topological systems to electromagnetic and gravitational sources, including torsion and curvature. By using the technology of anomaly polynomials, we derive the parity-odd response of a massive Dirac fermion in d =2 +1 and d =4 +1 , which provides a simple model for a topological insulator. We discuss the covariant anomalies of the corresponding edge states, from a Callan-Harvey anomaly inflow, as well as a Hamiltonian spectral flow point of view. We also discuss the applicability of our results to other systems such as Weyl semimetals. Finally, using dimensional reduction from d =4 +1 , we derive the effective action for a d =3 +1 time-reversal invariant topological insulator in the presence of torsion and curvature, and discuss its various physical consequences.

  1. Dimension-5 CP -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; ...

    2015-12-23

    Here, we study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T- and P-odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. Furthermore, we present the renormalization matrix to one loop in themore » $$\\bar{MS}$$ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the $$\\bar{MS}$$ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and ’t Hooft–Veltman prescriptions for γ5.« less

  2. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Ewa; Pięta, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. Aim of the study The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. Material and methods The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. Results The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. Conclusions A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated. PMID:27095953

  3. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  4. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  5. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  6. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  7. Noise frequency components and the prevalence of hypertension in workers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Young, Li-Hao; Wang, Ven-Shing; Jian, Shen-En; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a relationship between noise exposure and hypertension, but the association between hypertension and noise frequency components remains unclear. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between noise exposure at different frequencies and the prevalence of hypertension in 188 screw-manufacturing workers. Participants were divided into one high-noise-exposure group (≥80 A-weighted decibel, [dBA]; n=68) and two reference groups, including 68 low-noise-exposure workers (75.8±3.2 dBA) and 52 office workers (61.5±0.5dBA). Personal noise exposure and environmental octave-band analyses were performed at work. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension between different noise-exposure categories after adjustment for potential confounders. Male workers exposed to noise levels at high frequencies of 2000, 4000 or 8000Hz had a higher but non-significant risk of hypertension. Those exposed to ≥80dBA for 2-4years, 4-6years and more than 6years had a 4.43-fold (95% CI=1.21-16.15), 1.21-fold (95% CI=0.35-4.21) and 0.95-fold (95% CI=0.16-5.60) risk of hypertension, respectively, compared with reference workers. A significant association was only observed in male workers exposed to ≥70dBA at 4000Hz for 2-4years (adjusted OR=4.22; 95% CI=1.15-15.49) and was not found at other frequencies for any periods. These findings suggest that occupational noise exposure above 80dBA for specific periods may be associated with hypertension, and noise frequency at 4000Hz may have the greatest effect on hypertension.

  8. Determinants and prevalence of late HIV testing in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carrizosa, Claudia M; Blumberg, Elaine J; Hovell, Melbourne F; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Garcia-Gonzalez, Gregorio; Lozada, Remedios; Kelley, Norma J; Hofstetter, C Richard; Sipan, Carol L

    2010-05-01

    Timely diagnosis of HIV is essential to improve survival rates and reduce transmission of the virus. Insufficient progress has been made in effecting earlier HIV diagnoses. The Mexican border city of Tijuana has one of the highest AIDS incidence and mortality rates in all of Mexico. This study examined the prevalence and potential correlates of late HIV testing in Tijuana, Mexico. Late testers were defined as participants who had at least one of: (1) an AIDS-defining illness within 1 year of first positive HIV test; (2) a date of AIDS diagnosis within 1 year of first positive HIV test; or (3) an initial CD4 cell count below 200 cells per microliter within 1 year of first positive HIV test. Medical charts of 670 HIV-positive patients from two HIV/AIDS public clinics in Tijuana were reviewed and abstracted; 362 of these patients were interviewed using a cross-sectional survey. Using multivariate logistic regression, we explored potential correlates of late HIV testing based on the Behavioral Ecological Model. From 342 participants for whom late testing could be determined, the prevalence of late testing was 43.2%. Multivariate logistic regression results (n = 275) revealed five significant correlates of late testing: "I preferred not to know I had HIV" (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.78, 1.46-5.31); clinic (AOR = 1.90, 1.06-3.41); exposure to peers engaging in high-risk sexual behavior (AOR = 1.14, 1.02-1.27); stigma regarding HIV-infected individuals (AOR = 0.65, 0.47-0.92); and stigma regarding HIV testing (AOR = 0.66, 0.45-0.97). These findings may inform the design of interventions to increase timely HIV testing and help reduce HIV transmission in the community at large.

  9. Obesity increases the odds of acquiring and incarcerating noninguinal abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Lau, Briana; Kim, Hanjoo; Haigh, Philip I; Tejirian, Talar

    2012-10-01

    The current data available describing the relationship of obesity and abdominal wall hernias is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate the current prevalence of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias and their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and other demographic risk factors. Patients with umbilical, incisional, ventral, epigastric, or Spigelian hernias with or without incarceration were identified using the regional database for 14 hospitals over a 3-year period. Patients were stratified based on their BMI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish other significant risk factors associated with the hernias. Of 2,807,414 patients, 26,268 (0.9%) had one of the specified diagnoses. Average age of the patients was 52 years and 61 per cent were male. The majority of patients had nonincarcerated umbilical hernias (74%). Average BMI was 32 kg/m2. Compared with patients with a normal BMI, the odds of having a hernia increased with BMI: BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 odds ratio (OR) 1.63, BMI of 30 to 39.9 kg/m2 OR 2.62, BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m2 OR 3.91, BMI 50 to 59.9 kg/m2 OR 4.85, and BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 OR 5.17 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years was associated with a higher risk for having a hernia (OR, 2.12; 95% [CI], 2.07 to 2.17), whereas female gender was associated with a lower risk (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.55). Those with incarcerated hernias had a higher average BMI (32 kg/m2 vs 35 kg/m2; P<0.0001). Overall, BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 showed an increased chance of incarceration, and a BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 had the highest chance of incarceration, OR 12.7 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years and female gender were also associated with a higher risk of incarceration (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59 and OR, 1.80; CI, 1.45 to 2.24). Increasing BMI and increasing age are associated with a higher prevalence and an increased risk of incarceration of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias.

  10. Prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and relation to glycemic control therapies at baseline in the BARI 2D cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Busui, Rodica; Lu, Jiang; Lopes, Neuza; Jones, Teresa L. Z.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the associations between glycemic therapies and prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) at baseline among participants in the Bypass-Angioplasty-Revascularization-Investigation-2-Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial on medical and revascularization therapies for coronary artery disease (CAD) and on insulin-sensitizing versus insulin-providing treatments for diabetes. 2368 patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD were evaluated. DPN was defined as clinical examination score >2 using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). DPN odds ratios across different groups of glycemic therapy were evaluated by multiple logistic regression, adjusted for multiple covariates including age, sex, HbA1c, diabetes duration. 51% BARI 2D subjects with valid baseline characteristics and MNSI scores had DPN. After adjusting for all variables, use of insulin was significantly associated with DPN (OR1.57, 1.15, 2.13). Patients on sulfonylurea or combination of sulfonylurea/metformin/TZD had marginally higher rates of DPN than the metformin/TZD group. This cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD showed association of insulin use with higher DPN prevalence, independent of disease duration, glycemic control and other characteristics. The causality between a glycemic control strategy and DPN cannot be evaluated in this cross-sectional study, but continued assessment of DPN and randomized therapies in BARI 2D trial may provide further explanations on the development of DPN. PMID:19335534

  11. Prevalent and Incident Bacterial Vaginosis Are Associated with Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviours in Young Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, Christopher K.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M.; McNamee, Kathryn; Urban, Eve; Walker, Sandra; Currie, Marian; Birden, Hudson; Bowden, Francis; Garland, Suzanne; Pirotta, Marie; Gurrin, Lyle; Hocking, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine prevalence and incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and risk factors in young sexually-active Australian women. Methods 1093 women aged 16–25 years were recruited from primary-care clinics. Participants completed 3-monthly questionnaires and self-collected vaginal smears 6-monthly for 12-months. The primary endpoint was a Nugent Score = 7–10 (BV) and the secondary endpoint was a NS = 4–10 (abnormal flora [AF]). BV and AF prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were derived, and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) calculated to explore epidemiological associations with prevalent BV and AF. Proportional-hazards regression models were used to examine factors associated with incident BV and AF. Results At baseline 129 women had BV [11.8% (95%CI: 9.4–14.2)] and 188 AF (17.2%; 15.1–19.5). Prevalent BV was associated with having a recent female partner [AOR = 2.1; 1.0–4.4] and lack of tertiary-education [AOR = 1.9; 1.2–3.0]; use of an oestrogen-containing contraceptive (OCC) was associated with reduced risk [AOR = 0.6; 0.4–0.9]. Prevalent AF was associated with the same factors, and additionally with >5 male partners (MSP) in 12-months [AOR = 1.8; 1.2–2.5)], and detection of C.trachomatis or M.genitalium [AOR = 2.1; 1.0–4.5]. There were 82 cases of incident BV (9.4%;7.7–11.7/100 person-years) and 129 with incident AF (14.8%; 12.5–17.6/100 person-years). Incident BV and AF were associated with a new MSP [adjusted rate ratio (ARR) = 1.5; 1.1–2.2 and ARR = 1.5; 1.1–2.0], respectively. OCC-use was associated with reduced risk of incident AF [ARR = 0.7; 0.5–1.0]. Conclusion This paper presents BV and AF prevalence and incidence estimates from a large prospective cohort of young Australian women predominantly recruited from primary-care clinics. These data support the concept that sexual activity is strongly associated with the development of BV and AF and that use of an OCC

  12. Hearing Impairment Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, Karen J; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Dinces, Elizabeth; Fifer, Robert C.; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Heiss, Gerardo; Hoffman, Howard J.; Lee, David J.; Newhoff, Marilyn; Tocci, Laura; Torre, Peter; Tweed, Ted S.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Hearing impairment (HI) is a common problem in adults but there have been few studies of hearing in the U.S. Hispanic/Latino population. Little is known about factors associated with HI among Hispanics/Latinos. Objective To determine the prevalence of HI among U.S. Hispanic/Latino adults of diverse backgrounds and determine associations with sociodemographic factors, noise exposure, diabetes, smoking, cardiovascular disease, and other potential risk factors. Design and Setting The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) is a population-based sample of Hispanics/Latinos in four U.S. communities (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA). Examinations were conducted in 2008–2011. Participants The HCHS/SOL examined 16,415 self-identified Hispanic/Latino persons aged 18 to 74 years recruited from randomly selected households using a stratified 2-stage area probability sample design based on census block groups and households within block groups. Intervention(s) None Main Outcome(s) and Measures Hearing thresholds were measured by pure-tone audiometry. HI was defined as a pure-tone average (PTA) of thresholds at 0.5,1,2,4 kHz >25 dB HL. Bilateral hearing impairment (BHI) required a PTA>25 dB HL in both ears. Multivariable analyses included adjustments for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, body mass index, and medical conditions. Results The prevalence of HI was 15.1% overall and 8.2% had BHI. The prevalence of HI was higher among people aged 45 and older, ranging by Hispanic/Latino background from 29–41% among men and 18–31% among women. The multivariable-adjusted odds of HI was greater for participants of Puerto Rican background compared to Mexican background (OR =1.57, 95%CI=1.10, 2.25). The odds of HI were lower with more education and higher income. People with noise exposure were about 30% more likely to have HI. Diabetes (OR=1.57, 95%CI= 1.27, 1.94) and pre-diabetes (OR=1.37, 95%CI= 1.12, 1.67) were

  13. Favorable cardiovascular risk factor profile is associated with reduced prevalence of coronary artery calcification and inflammation in asymptomatic nondiabetic white men.

    PubMed

    Michos, Erin D; Santos, Raul D; Narla, Venkata; Pandey, Shivda; Meneghelo, Romeu; Carvalho, Jose A; Budoff, Matthew J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2008-01-01

    Middle-aged individuals with favorable levels of all major cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) have much lower age-specific risks for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship of the absence of CVRFs with subclinical CVD and inflammation is not well described. We classified 440 asymptomatic Brazilian men (aged 46+/-7 years) based on the number of CVRFs (smoking, systolic blood pressure > or =130 mm Hg, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol > or =130 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40 mg/dL, triglycerides > or =150 mg/dL, fasting glucose > or =100 mg/dL, and waist circumference >102 cm). Only 7% had no CVRFs, whereas 1, 2, 3, and > or =4 CVRFs were observed in 18%, 24%, 21%, and 29%, respectively. In age-adjusted analysis, each lower CVRF profile was associated with lower odds of prevalent coronary artery calcium (odds ratio, 0.75; P=.002) and elevated white blood cell count (odds ratio, 0.70; P<.001). Our study supports the notion that a favorable CVD profile is associated with less underlying atherosclerosis and inflammation and further highlights the importance of primary prevention of CVRFs.

  14. Alarming epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus among injection drug users in the northwestern bordering state of Punjab, India: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Panda, Samiran; Roy, Tarun; Pahari, Sobha; Mehraa, Jyotiee; Sharma, Neeraj; Singh, Gagandeep; Singh, Jasbir; Joseph, Francis; Singh, Sukhvinder; Sharma, Narinder M

    2014-07-01

    In this study 1155 injection drug users (IDUs) receiving targeted intervention in five cities of Punjab were surveyed; three cities (Amritsar, Taran-Taran, Batala) were in districts sharing an international border with Pakistan and the other two were Jalandhar and Ludhiana. Information on socio-demography, substance use and sexual practices were collected; blood samples were tested for biologic markers. HIV and HCV antibody (HCVAb) prevalences in injection drug users were 29 and 49%, respectively. Of the HCVAb-seroreactive IDUs, 33% had HIV as well. HIV prevalence in young IDUs (≤19 years), estimated as surrogate for HIV incidence, was high at 12% and HCVAb in this subgroup was 27%. Herpes simplex virus 2 antibody (IgG) was detected in 10% of IDUs; 2% had syphilis. Alcohol use prevalence was high and frequency of use concerning. In multivariate analyses, 'city of residence closer to international border' and '>1 year duration of injecting drugs were associated with HIV and HCVAb. Furthermore, 'irregular supply of syringes and needles' was associated with HCVAb seroreactive status of IDUs (adjusted odds ratio 1.7; 95% CI 1.3-2.3;P < 0.001), and 'any genital disease symptom within the last year' (adjusted odds ratio 2; 95% CI 1.4-2.9;P < 0.001) was associated with HIV infection. Alcohol and sexual risk reduction, strengthening of needle-syringe exchange, reducing injecting duration and clinical management of HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV co-infection appear as four core programme needs.

  15. Unique first-forbidden β-decay transitions in odd-odd and even-even heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Çakmak, Necla; Majid, Muhammad; Selam, Cevad

    2017-01-01

    The allowed Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions are the most common weak nuclear processes of spin-isospin (στ) type. These transitions play a key role in numerous processes in the domain of nuclear physics. Equally important is their contribution in astrophysics, particularly in nuclear synthesis and supernova-explosions. In situations where allowed GT transitions are not favored, first-forbidden transitions become significant, specifically in medium heavy and heavy nuclei. For neutron-rich nuclei, first-forbidden transitions are favored mainly due to the phase-space amplification for these transitions. In this work we calculate the allowed GT as well as unique first-forbidden (U1F) | ΔJ | = 2 transitions strength in odd-odd and even-even nuclei in mass range 70 ≤ A ≤ 214. Two different pn-QRPA models were used with a schematic separable interaction to calculate GT and U1F transitions. The inclusion of U1F strength improved the overall comparison of calculated terrestrial β-decay half-lives in both models. The ft values and reduced transition probabilities for the 2- ⟷0+ transitions were also calculated. We compared our calculations with the previously reported correlated RPA calculation and experimental results. Our calculations are in better agreement with measured data. For stellar applications we further calculated the allowed GT and U1F weak rates. These include β±-decay rates and electron/positron capture rates of heavy nuclei in stellar matter. Our study shows that positron and electron capture rates command the total weak rates of these heavy nuclei at high stellar temperatures.

  16. Prevalence of Depression in a Large Urban South Indian Population — The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (Cures – 70)

    PubMed Central

    Poongothai, Subramani; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Ganesan, Anbhazhagan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    Background In India there are very few population based data on prevalence of depression. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression in an urban south Indian population. Methods and Findings Subjects were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES), involving 26,001 subjects randomly recruited from 46 of the 155 corporation wards of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in South India. 25,455 subjects participated in this study (response rate 97.9%). Depression was assessed using a self-reported and previously validated instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) – 12. Age adjustment was made according to the 2001 census of India. The overall prevalence of depression was 15.1% (age-adjusted, 15.9%) and was higher in females (females 16.3% vs. males 13.9%, p<0.0001). The odds ratio (OR) for depression in female subjects was 1.20 [Confidence Intervals (CI): 1.12–1.28, p<0.001] compared to male subjects. Depressed mood was the most common symptom (30.8%), followed by tiredness (30.0%) while more severe symptoms such as suicidal thoughts (12.4%) and speech and motor retardation (12.4%) were less common. There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of depression with age among both female (p<0.001) and male subjects (p<0.001). The prevalence of depression was higher in the low income group (19.3%) compared to the higher income group (5.9%, p<0.001). Prevalence of depression was also higher among divorced (26.5%) and widowed (20%) compared to currently married subjects (15.4%, p<0.001). Conclusions This is the largest population-based study from India to report on prevalence of depression and shows that among urban south Indians, the prevalence of depression was 15.1%. Age, female gender and lower socio-economic status are some of the factors associated with depression in this population. PMID:19784380

  17. Race/ethnic differences in HIV prevalence and risks among adolescent and young adult men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Celentano, David D; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Hylton, John; Torian, Lucia V; Guillin, Vincent; Koblin, Beryl A

    2005-12-01

    The prevalence of HIV infection is disproportionately higher in both racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and in men under the age of 25, where the leading exposure category is homosexual contact. Less is known, however, about patterns of HIV prevalence in young racial/ethnic minority MSM. We analyzed data from the Young Men's Survey (YMS), an anonymous, cross-sectional survey of 351 MSM in Baltimore and 529 MSM in New York City, aged 15-22, to determine whether race/ethnicity differences exist in the prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk factors. Potential participants were selected systematically at MSM-identified public venues. Venues and associated time periods for subject selection were selected randomly on a monthly basis. Eligible and willing subjects provided informed consent and underwent an interview, HIV pretest counseling, and a blood draw for HIV antibody testing. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for city of recruitment and age, HIV seroprevalence was highest for African Americans [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 12.5], intermediate for those of "other/mixed" race/ethnicity (AOR = 8.6), and moderately elevated for Hispanics (AOR = 4.6) as compared to whites. Stratified analysis showed different risk factors for HIV prevalence in each ethnic group: for African Americans, these were history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and not being in school; for Hispanics, risk factors were being aged 20-22, greater number of male partners and use of recreational drugs; and for those of "other/mixed" race/ethnicity, risk factors included injection drug use and (marginally) STDs. These findings suggest the need for HIV prevention and testing programs which target young racial/ethnic minority MSM and highlight identified risk factors and behaviors.

  18. Atrial fibrillation in New Zealand primary care: Prevalence, risk factors for stroke and the management of thromboembolic risk.

    PubMed

    Tomlin, Andrew M; Lloyd, Hywel S; Tilyard, Murray W

    2017-02-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for stroke and heart disease but there is limited information on its prevalence in New Zealand primary care or the treatment provided to manage thromboembolic risk. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of atrial fibrillation, assess patient risk for thromboembolism and evaluate the appropriateness of risk reduction using antiplatelet and oral anticoagulation therapy. Design A retrospective cohort study utilising electronic medical records for 739,000 patients registered with 170 general practices in 2014. Methods Patient diagnoses and prescriptions from 2010-2014 were analysed to identify patients with atrial fibrillation in 2014 and co-morbidities included in the CHA2DS2-VASc algorithm. Adjusted prevalence of atrial fibrillation by patient demographic group and the proportion of patients following recommended antithrombotic therapy were calculated. Results 12,712 patients were identified with AF (1.72%, 95% confidence interval 1.69%-1.75%). Prevalence was significantly higher for Maori (odds ratio 1.91, 95% confidence interval 1.80-2.03) than Europeans after adjusting for age, sex, deprivation and clinical risk factors. Stroke risk for Maori and Pacific Island patients was higher than for Europeans across all age groups. Of the 10,406 patients (81.9%) at high risk for thromboembolism, 60.5% were using anticoagulants, 24.1% aspirin monotherapy and 15.4% neither anticoagulants nor aspirin. Oral anticoagulants were used by 31.5% of patients at low risk (CHA2DS2-VASc <2). Conclusions Oral anticoagulants are under-utilised in the management of thromboembolic risk in high risk patients with atrial fibrillation. Better promotion of guideline recommendations for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation may be required to improve clinician and patient decision-making.

  19. Systematic Differences in Risk Behaviours and Syphilis Prevalence across Types of Female Sex Workers: a Preliminary Study in Liuzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Merli, M. Giovanna; Weir, Sharon S.; Henderson, Gail E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) have become one of the key populations for HIV/STI control in China. Categorization of FSWs can help prioritize HIV/STI intervention efforts. We examined two possible categorizations of FSWs and the relationship with syphilis infection risk in Liuzhou City, China. Methods From October 2009 to February 2010, a total of 583 FSWs recruited by respondent-driven sampling in a cross-sectional survey were tested for syphilis and interviewed to collect socio-demographic and behavioural information. Respondents were categorized based on transaction price for vaginal sex and type of sex work location. The relationship between the two categorizations and syphilis infection risk was assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence rates of lifetime and active syphilis infection were 8.6% and 4.1% respectively. Lifetime and active syphilis prevalence were higher among FSWs in the lowest price category (52.7% and 25.4% respectively) and those working in streets (69.7% and 39.8% respectively) or through telephone (46.3% and 17.0% respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that lifetime syphilis prevalence was significantly higher among street-(Adjusted odds ratio AOR 38.7, 95% CI 10.7-139.9) and telephone-based FSWs (AOR 10.8, 95% CI 3.3-35.1), and that active syphilis prevalence was significantly higher among street-based FSWs (AOR 15.2, 95% CI 3.7-62.1) after adjusting for demographic and behavioural factors. Conclusions Categorization based on sex work location was more closely related to the risk of syphilis infection than the price classification. Street- and telephone-based FSWs had significantly higher risk of syphilis infection. Focused interventions among these particular high-risk FSWs subgroups are warranted. PMID:22337106

  20. The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Sokana, Oliver; Solomon, Anthony W.; Mabey, David C.; Romani, Lucia; Kaldor, John; Steer, Andrew C.; Engelman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data. Methodology Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. All residents were eligible to participate, and 1908 people were enrolled. Participants were interviewed and examined by a paediatric registrar, who recorded relevant demographic information, and made a clinical diagnosis of scabies and/or impetigo, severity and distribution. Principal Findings The total unweighted prevalence of scabies was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5–21.0), and age and gender weighted prevalence 19.2% (95%CI 16.7–21.9). The adult prevalence of scabies was 10.4% (95%CI 8.2–13.2), and the highest prevalence was found in infants < 1 year of age (34.1%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] compared with adults: 3.6, 95%CI 2.2–6.0) and children aged 1–4 years (25.7%, AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.7–3.9). Scabies affected two or more body regions in 80.9% of participants, and 4.4% of scabies cases were classified as severe. The total unweighted prevalence of active impetigo was 32.7% (95%CI 30.6–34.8), and age and gender weighted prevalence 26.7% (95%CI 24.2–29.5). The highest prevalence was found in children aged 1–4 years (42.6%, AOR compared with adults: 4.1, 95%CI 2.9–5.8). Scabies infestation was associated with active impetigo infection (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6–2.6); with 41.1% of active impetigo cases also having scabies. Conclusions and Significance Scabies and impetigo are very common in the rural Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Scabies infestation is strongly associated with impetigo. Community control strategies

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for atherosclerotic carotid stenosis and plaque

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Shin Young; Joh, Jin Hyun; Han, Sang-Ah; Park, Ho-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerotic carotid stenosis (ACS) is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Screening for asymptomatic ACS is important to identify the patients who require longitudinal surveillance, medication, or endovascular surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for ACS and carotid plaque (CP) in Korea using a population-based screening study. We recruited participants during visits to several community welfare centers in Korea. The baseline characteristics of the study population were collected. All patients underwent duplex ultrasonography to examine their bilateral carotid arteries. ACS was defined as the presence of plaque with ≥50% vessel diameter reduction and peak systolic velocity (PSV) ≥125 cm/s or PSV ratio ≥2.0. CP was defined as the presence of plaque with <50% vessel diameter reduction. The Mann–Whitney test, χ2 test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. A total of 3030 participants were enrolled in this study (male 43.7% and female 56.3%). The prevalence of ACS and CP was 1.1% and 5.7%, respectively. Significant risk factors for CP included age ≥80 years (odds ratio [OR], 8.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.45–18.93), male sex (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.29–3.61), hypertension (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21–2.45), and hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.30–2.62). The presence of ACS was significantly associated with age (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03–1.12), hypertension (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.34–7.46), and being an ex-smoker (OR, 6.81; 95% CI, 1.66–27.93) or current smoker (OR, 6.97; 95% CI, 1.78–27.31) after adjusting for confounding factors. This population-based screening study revealed that ACS was uncommon and had a prevalence of 1.1% in the study population. Age, hypertension, and smoking were risk factors for ACS. Further investigations into the prevalence and risk factors of ACS are required, as are studies on the cost-effectiveness of a national screening

  2. Prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorders in active union carpenters

    PubMed Central

    Lemasters, G. K.; Atterbury, M. R.; Booth-Jones, A. D.; Bhattacharya, A.; Ollila-Glenn, N.; Forrester, C.; Forst, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for work related musculoskeletal disorders among union carpenters. METHODS: A detailed questionnaire on musculoskeletal symptoms and work history was administered to 522 carpenters. The symptom questions assessed if carpenters experienced pain, numbness, or tingling in a particular body region. A subset of this group then received a physical examination of the upper extremities and knees. RESULTS: The study group was primarily white (94.9%) and male (97.8%) with a mean age of 42.3 years. The highest prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorders cases by carpentry specialty ranged from 20%-24% for those doing drywall or ceiling, finishing or framing, and the building of concrete forms. Generally, as duration of employment increased, the prevalence of symptoms increased. An adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that the group with the longest (> or = 20 years) duration of employment in carpentry was significantly associated with work related musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulders (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1 to 8.9), hands or wrists (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 8.4), and knees (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 9.2). Also, analyses showed that carpenters who reported that they had little or no influence over their work schedule had significant increases of work related musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulders, hips, and knees with ORs of 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2), 2.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 7.2), and 2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.1), respectively. Feeling exhausted at the end of day was also a significant risk factor for work related musculoskeletal disorders of the knee (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.1). Upper extremity disorders were the most prevalent work related musculoskeletal disorders reported among all carpenters. Drywall or ceiling activities involve a considerable amount of repetitive motion and awkward postures often with arms raised holding heavy dry walls in place, whereas form work is

  3. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  4. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  5. Massive and massless higher spinning particles in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Bonezzi, Roberto; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    We study actions for massive bosonic particles of higher spins by dimensionally reducing an action for massless particles. For the latter we take a model with a SO( N) extended local supersymmetry on the worldline, that is known to describe massless (conformal) particles of higher spins in flat spacetimes of even dimensions. Dimensional reduction produces an action for massive spinning particles in odd dimensions. The field equations that emerge in a quantization à la Dirac are shown to be equivalent to the Fierz-Pauli ones. The massless limit generates a multiplet of massless states with higher spins, whose first quantized field equations have a geometric form with fields belonging to various types of Young tableaux. These geometric equations can be partially integrated to show their equivalence with the standard Fronsdal-Labastida equations. We covariantize our model to check whether an extension to curved spacetimes can be achieved. Restricting to (A)dS spaces, we find that the worldline gauge algebra becomes nonlinear, but remains first class. This guarantees consistency on such backgrounds. A light cone analysis confirms the presence of the expected propagating degrees of freedom. A covariant analysis is worked out explicitly for the massive case, which is seen to give rise to the Fierz-Pauli equations extended to (A)dS spaces. It is worth noting that in D = 3 the massless limit of our model with N → ∞ has the same field content of the Vasiliev's theory that accommodates each spin exactly once.

  6. Ferroelectric behavior of the odd-numbered nylons

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinbeim, J.I.; Newman, B.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recent work in the Polymer Electroprocessing Laboratory. Rutgers University, has shown that the odd-numbered nylons (11, 9, 7, 5) constitute the second known family of ferroelectric polymers: poly(vinylidene fluoride) and its co-polymers are the only other known family of ferroelectric polymers. Using mel-quenched and cold-drawn samples of nylon 11 which exhibit double orientation (chain axes in the draw direction and hydrogen bonds in the plane of the films) the authors examined changes in orientation of the polar (hydrogen bonds) and non-polar (hydrocarbon) sections as a function of annealing temperature and applied electric field. Using FTIR and WAXD studies, the authors have found that the samples polarized by application of electric fields before high temperature annealing exhibit diffraction patterns rotated by 90{degrees} from those of samples exposed to only high temperature annealing. These studies also show that the polarized, annealed samples are triply oriented and that they hydrocarbon sections exhibit little crystal order unless samples are annealed at high temperature.

  7. Increasing the Odds: Applying Emergentist Theory in Language Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Poll, Gerard H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This review introduces a leading theory of language development, emergentism, the view that language ability is the product of interactions between the language environment and the learning capabilities of the child. It suggests ways in which emergentism provides a theoretical rationale for interventions designed to address developmental language delays in young children. Method A review of selected literature on emergentist theory and research is presented, with a focus on the acquisition of early morphology and syntax. A significant method for developing and testing emergentist theory, connectionist modeling, is described. Key themes from both connectionist and behavioral studies are summarized and applied with specific examples to language intervention techniques. A case study is presented to integrate elements of emergentism with language intervention. Conclusions Evaluating the theoretical foundation for language interventions is an important step in evidence-based practice. This article introduces three themes in the emergentist literature that have implications for language intervention: sufficiency of language input, active engagement of the child with the input, and the introduction of factors that increase the odds for correctly mapping language form to meaning. Evidence supporting the importance of these factors in effective language intervention is presented, along with limitations in that evidence. PMID:21616988

  8. Odds of Getting Adequate Physical Activity by Dog Walking

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jesus; Epping, Jacqueline N.; Owens, Chantelle J.; Brown, David R.; Lankford, Tina J.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Caspersen, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the likelihood that adult dog owners who walk their dogs will achieve a healthy level of moderate-intensity (MI) physical activity (PA), defined as at least 150 mins/wk. Methods We conducted a systematic search of 6 databases with data from 1990–2012 on dog owners’ PA, to identify those who achieved MIPA. To compare dog-walkers’ performance with non–dog walkers, we used a random effects model to estimate the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results We retrieved 9 studies that met our inclusion criterion and allowed OR calculations. These yielded data on 6980 dog owners aged 18 to 81 years (41% men). Among them, 4463 (63.9%) walked their dogs. Based on total weekly PA, 2710 (60.7%) dog walkers, and 950 (37.7%) non–dog walkers achieved at least MIPA. The estimated OR was 2.74 (95% CI 2.09–3.60). Conclusion Across 9 published studies, almost 2 in 3 dog owners reported walking their dogs, and the walkers are more than 2.5 times more likely to achieve at least MIPA. These findings suggest that dog walking may be a viable strategy for dog owners to help achieve levels of PA that may enhance their health. PMID:24733365

  9. Even-odd entanglement in boson and spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignoli, R.; Canosa, N.; Matera, J. M.

    2011-04-01

    We examine the entanglement entropy of the even half of a translationally invariant finite chain or lattice in its ground state. This entropy measures the entanglement between the even and odd halves (each forming a “comb” of n/2 sites) and can be expected to be extensive for short-range couplings away from criticality. We first consider bosonic systems with quadratic couplings, where analytic expressions for arbitrary dimensions can be provided. The bosonic treatment is then applied to finite spin chains and arrays by means of the random-phase approximation. Results for first-neighbor anisotropic XY couplings indicate that, while at strong magnetic fields this entropy is strictly extensive, at weak fields important deviations arise, stemming from parity-breaking effects and the presence of a factorizing field (in the vicinity of which it becomes size-independent and identical to the entropy of a contiguous half). Exact numerical results for small spin s chains are shown to be in agreement with the bosonic random-phase approximation prediction.

  10. Analysis of the Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Tinnitus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Jong; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; An, Soo-Youn; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Si Whan; Lee, Joong Seob; Hong, Sung Kwang; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is a common condition in adults; however, the pathophysiology of tinnitus remains unclear, and no large population-based study has assessed the associated risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and associated risk factors of tinnitus. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with 19,290 participants ranging in age from 20 to 98 years old, between 2009 and 2012. We investigated the prevalence of tinnitus using a questionnaire and analyzed various possible factors associated with tinnitus using simple and multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. Results The prevalence of tinnitus was 20.7%, and the rates of tinnitus associated with no discomfort, moderate annoyance, and severe annoyance were 69.2%, 27.9%, and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of tinnitus and the rates of annoying tinnitus increased with age. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of tinnitus was higher for females, those with a smoking history, those reporting less sleep (≤ 6 h), those with more stress, those in smaller households, those with a history of hyperlipidemia osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, thyroid disease, an abnormal tympanic membrane, unilateral hearing loss, bilateral hearing loss, noise exposure from earphones, noise exposure at the workplace, noise exposure outside the workplace, and brief noise exposure. Additionally, unemployed individuals and soldiers had higher AORs for tinnitus. The AOR of annoying tinnitus increased with age, stress, history of hyperlipidemia, unilateral hearing loss, and bilateral hearing loss. Conclusions Tinnitus is very common in the general population and is associated with gender, smoking, stress, sleep, hearing loss, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, and thyroid disease history. PMID:26020239

  11. Associations between ambient air pollution and prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases in 33 Chinese communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Wang, Jing; Chen, Weiqing; Ma, Wenjun; Trevathan, Edwin; Xaverius, Pamela K.; DeClue, Richard; Wiese, Andrew; Langston, Marvin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Inconsistent results have been reported that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the increased prevalence of stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In order to examine whether the exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with the prevalence of stroke and CVDs among people living in a heavy industrial province of northeast China, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 24,845 Chinese adults, ages 18-74 years old, from 33 communities in the 11 districts of the three Northeastern Chinese Cities during 2009. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and Ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. We used two-level logistic regressions models to examine the effects of yearly variations in exposure to each pollutant, controlling for important covariates. We found significant associations between PM10 and SO2 levels and stroke prevalence after accounting for important covariates: the adjusted odds ratio for stroke increased by 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.30) per 19 μg m-3 increase in PM10, and 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01-1.29) per 20 μg m-3 increase in SO2, respectively. When stratified analysis by gender, these associations were significant only in men, but not in women. In conclusion, this study shows the association between long-term exposure to PM10 and SO2 and increased stroke prevalence, and the associations were more apparent in men than in women.

  12. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in persons with undiagnosed or prehypertension in the United States.

    PubMed

    Crews, Deidra C; Plantinga, Laura C; Miller, Edgar R; Saran, Rajiv; Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Saydah, Sharon H; Williams, Desmond E; Powe, Neil R

    2010-05-01

    Hypertension is both a cause and a consequence of chronic kidney disease, but the prevalence of chronic kidney disease throughout the diagnostic spectrum of blood pressure has not been established. We determined the prevalence of chronic kidney disease within blood pressure categories in 17 794 adults surveyed by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1999-2006. Diagnosed hypertension was defined as self-reported provider diagnosis (n=5832); undiagnosed hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure > or = 90 mm Hg, without report of provider diagnosis (n=3046); prehypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure > or = 120 and <140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure > or = 80 and <90 mm Hg (n=3719); and normal was defined as systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure <80 mm Hg (n=5197). Chronic kidney disease was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) or urinary albumin:creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. Prevalences of chronic kidney disease among those with prehypertension and undiagnosed hypertension were 17.3% and 22.0%, respectively, compared with 27.5% with diagnosed hypertension and 13.4% with normal blood pressure, after adjustment for age, sex, and race in multivariable logistic regression. This pattern persisted with varying definitions of kidney disease; macroalbuminuria (urinary albumin:creatinine ratio >300 mg/g) had the strongest association with increasing blood pressure category (odds ratio: 2.37 [95% CI: 2.00 to 2.81]). Chronic kidney disease is prevalent in undiagnosed and prehypertension. Earlier identification and treatment of both these conditions may prevent or delay morbidity and mortality from chronic kidney disease.

  13. Odd-even staggering in the neutron-proton interaction and nuclear mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. Y.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we study odd-even staggering of the empirical neutron-proton interaction between the last neutron and the last proton, denoted as δ V1 n -1 p , and its consequence in the Garvey-Kelson mass relations (GKs) and nuclear mass models. The root-mean-squared deviations of predicted masses respectively for even-A and odd-A nuclei by using two combinatorial GKs suggest a large odd-even staggering of δ V1 n -1 p between even-odd and odd-even nuclei, while the odd-even difference of δ V1 n -1 p between even-even and odd-odd nuclei is much smaller. The contribution of the odd-even staggering of δ V1 n -1 p between even-A and odd-A nuclei in deviations of theoretical δ V1 n -1 p values of the Duflo-Zuker model and the improved Weizs a ̈cker -Skyrme model are well represented by an isospin-dependent term. The consideration of this odd-even staggering improves our description of binding energies and one-neutron separation energies in both the Duflo-Zuker model and the improved Weizs a ̈cker -Skyrme model.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among female sex workers in a city in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Reilly, Kathleen H; Xu, Jun-Jie; Wang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Guo-Wei; Wang, Ning; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2016-05-01

    Sexual transmission is the fastest growing route of HIV transmission in China, and Trichomonas vaginalis(TV) can facilitate HIV transmission and acquisition. Our goal was to determine the prevalence and correlates of TV infection among female sex workers (FSWs). This cross-sectional study was conducted in a city of Yunnan Province in southern China, with confidential face-to-face interviews and laboratory tests for TV (wet mount) and other sexually transmitted infections. A total of 734 FSWs participated in the study. The prevalence of TV was 9.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.02-11.30). In multivariate analyses, adjusted odds ratios of TV infection were 3.0 (95% CI 1.47-6.01) for herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositive, 2.4 (95% CI 1.37-4.14) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection, 2.6 (95% CI 1.30-5.31) for genital ulcer, 1.9 (95% CI 1.11-3.30) for starting age in commercial sex <20 years, and 0.5 (95% CI 0.27-0.87) for vaginal douching. We found a relatively high prevalence of TV infection among FSWs in Yunnan Province. A range of control strategies that include TV screening are recommended among FSWs, which could contribute significantly to the disruption of transmission by the provision of immediate treatment.

  15. The role of diabetes mellitus in the higher prevalence of tuberculosis among Hispanics.

    PubMed Central

    Pablos-Méndez, A; Blustein, J; Knirsch, C A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This research studied the relative contribution of diabetes mellitus to the increased prevalence of tuberculosis in Hispanics. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted involving all 5290 discharges from civilian hospitals in California during 1991 who had a diagnosis of tuberculosis, and 37,366 control subjects who had a primary discharge diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or acute appendicitis. Risk of tuberculosis was estimated as the odds ratio (OR) across race/ethnicity, with adjustment for other factors. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus was found to be an independent risk factor for tuberculosis. The association of diabetes and tuberculosis was higher among Hispanics (adjusted OR [ORadj] = 2.95: 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.61, 3.33) than among non-Hispanic Whites (ORadj = 1.31: 95% CI = 1.19. 1.45): among non-Hispanic Blacks, diabetes was not found to be associated with tuberculosis (ORadj = 0.93: 95% CI = 0.78, 1.09). Among Hispanics aged 25 to 54, the estimated risk of tuberculosis attributable to diabetes (25.2%) was equivalent to that attributable to HIV infection (25.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes mellitus remains a significant risk factor for tuberculosis in the United States. The association is especially notable in middle-aged Hispanics. PMID:9146434

  16. Prevalence of Low Bone Mineral Density and Associated Risk Factors in Korean Puerperal Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although pregnancy is a medical condition that contributes to bone loss, little information is available regarding bone mineral density (BMD) in puerperal women. This cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and to identify associated risk factors. We surveyed all puerperal women who had BMD measurements taken 4–6 weeks after delivery in a tertiary university hospital, and did not have any bone loss-related comorbidities. Among the 1,561 Korean puerperal women, 566 (36.3%) had low BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and/or trochanter. Multivariate analysis revealed that underweight women had a significantly higher risk of low BMD compared with obese women at pre-pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83–5.63). Also, women with inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) were 1.4 times more likely to have low BMD than women with excessive GWG (aOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.04–1.94). One-way ANOVA showed that BMDs at the lumbar spine and total hip were significantly different between the 4 BMI groups (both P < 0.001) and also between the 3 GWG groups (both P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study identifies a high prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and thus suggests the need for further evaluation about the change of BMD in pregnancy and postpartum period. PMID:27709858

  17. Prevalence, comorbidities, and cofactors associated with alcohol consumption among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Mala A; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B; Abdul Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Kamaruddin, Rozanim Bt; Sabtu, Mohd Yusoff B

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol is deleterious to physical and mental health as well as social well-being. This study aims to examine the prevalence of alcohol consumption and factors associated with its use among school-going Malaysian adolescents. The Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 employed 2-stage clustering design to Malaysian secondary school respondents aged 12 to 17 years. The prevalence of current alcohol usage was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-10.07) overall, 11.2% (95% CI: 9.80-12.80) among males, and 23.4 (95% CI: 21.40-25.50) among Chinese students. Multivariate logistic regression showed that adolescents who had used alcohol were more likely to have used substance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.39; 95% CI: 2.33-4.99), experienced injury (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.20-1.95), and engaged in sexual behaviors (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.12-1.79), and fights (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08-1.41). The current national policies on alcohol should be strengthened to curb alcohol consumption among adolescents.

  18. Prevalence of uterine myoma detected by ultrasound examination in the atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Sachiko |; Kodama, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Saeko

    1997-06-01

    Benign tumors of several organs have been demonstrated to occur as late effects of atomic bomb exposure, and a recent addition to the list of affected organs in the uterus. The increased incidence of uterine myoma noted in Radiation Effects Research Foundation (REFR) Adult Health Study Report 7, however, was based on self-reported information, optional gynecological examination and patient-requested ultrasound examination. Thus the possibility of dose-related bias in case detection was a serious concern. Therefore, the relationship between the prevalence of uterine myoma and dose to the uterus was examined after excluding as much bias as possible by asking all women who had undergone biennial examinations from December 1991 through December 1993 to undergo ultrasound examinations. Among 2506 female participants in Hiroshima, the uterus was visualized by ultrasound examination in 1190, and 238 were found to have uterine nodules. Multiple logistic analysis using Dosimetry System 1986 uterine doses revealed a significant dose response for the prevalence of uterine nodules. The odds ratio at 1 Gy was 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.12-2.31). It is unlikely that the observed relationship after adjusting for bladder filling, volume of the uterus, age and menopause status was the result of dose-related bias. These results support previous findings at RERF and provide further evidence that radiation exposure is one of the factors associated with uterine myoma. 28 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. The Impact of Different Case Ascertainment Definitions on the Prevalence of Major Congenital Malformations and their Association with Asthma During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Eltonsy, Sherif; Forget, Amelie; Blais, Lucie

    2017-03-01

    Objectives To compare the prevalence of major malformations using different case ascertainment definitions and to evaluate their impact on maternal asthma-major malformations association. Methods A cohort of pregnancies with and without asthma between 1990 and 2010 was formed. We used two classification methods: the Two step Congenital Malformation Classification (TCMC) and the Canadian Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System (CCASS). Within each method, three case definitions were compared: (1) ≥1 diagnosis in the hospital database; (2) ≥1 diagnosis in the hospital database or ≥2 in the medical claims; and (3) ≥1 diagnosis in the hospital database or ≥1 in the medical claims. We calculated the prevalence of major malformations and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for maternal asthma association. Results Of 467,946 pregnancies, 12.3 % were with active asthma. The prevalence estimates were: TCMC 5.10-7.08 % and CCASS 7.03-10.57 %. Asthma-major malformations association was weaker with the CCASS (aOR 1.14-1.20) versus TCMC (aOR 1.22-1.26). Discussion The case ascertainment definitions with ≥1 hospitalization are likely to be the most reliable in similar administrative databases. The case ascertainment definition had a considerable impact on the prevalence of major malformations, but hardly influenced the aORs. Future studies should formally assess the validity of the case ascertainment definitions and allow generalizability to other maternal exposures.

  20. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  1. Characterization of long-lived isomers in the odd-odd heavy actinide 254Md

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R.

    2017-02-01

    Bandhead energies of all the physically admissible low-lying two-quasiparticle configuration states in the doubly-odd heavy actinide Md 153 101 254 are evaluated using the well-tested two-quasiparticle rotor model with explicit inclusion of the residual proton-neutron interaction. A critical examination of these results, aimed at characterization of the long-lived (t1 /2=10 min and 28 min; %ɛ ≤100 ) isomer pair, conclusively rules out a high-spin (J ≥5 ) assignment for either of the isomers. Our analysis leads to JπK =1-0 {p :1 /2-[521 ] ⊗n :1 /2+) [620 ] } and 3-3 {p :7 /2-[514 ] ⊗n :1 /2+[620 ] } assignments, respectively, to these isomers and designates the 10-min isomer as its ground state. Our study reveals a "landmark" position for 254Md in the decay path of super heavy elements. The as-yet unobserved electron capture decay branches from each of the two 254Md isomers to 254Fm levels are specified.

  2. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.

  3. Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among women in Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania: a population based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is a simple and cost-effective intervention to improve child health and survival. Effective EBF has been estimated to avert 13% - 15% of under-five mortality and contribute to reduce mother to child transmission of HIV. The prevalence of EBF for infant less than six months is low in most developing countries, including Tanzania (50%). While the Tanzania Demographic Health Survey collects information on overall EBF prevalence, it does not evaluate factors influencing EBF. The aim of this paper was to determine the prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding in urban and rural areas in Kilimanjaro region. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2010 to March 2011 among women with infants aged 6–12 months in Kilimanjaro. Multi-stage proportionate to size sampling was used to select participants from all the seven districts of the region. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, reproductive, alcohol intake, breastfeeding patterns and nutritional data during the interviews. Estimation on EBF was based on recall since birth. Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain independent predictors of EBF. Results A total of 624 women participated, 77% (483) from rural areas. The prevalence of EBF up to six months in Kilimanjaro region was 20.7%, without significant differences in the prevalence of EBF up to six months between urban (22.7%) and rural areas (20.1%); (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5,1.4). In multivariable analysis, advice on breastfeeding after delivery (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.5, 4.6) was positively associated with EBF up to six months. Compared to married/cohabiting and those who do not take alcohol, single mothers (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.9) and mothers who drank alcohol (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.3, 0.7) had less odds to practice EBF up to six months. Conclusion Prevalence of EBF up to six months is still low in

  4. Association of obstructive sleep apnea plus hypertension and prevalent cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Cai, Anping; Zhang, Jiawei; Zhong, Qi; Wang, Rui; Chen, Jiyan; Zhou, Yingling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Current study sought to evaluate the associations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) plus hypertension (HTN) and prevalent cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This was a cross-sectional study and a total of 1889 subjects were enrolled. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was measured by polysomnography and OSA degree was classified as mild (AHI 5–14.9) and moderate-severe (AHI ≥ 15), and AHI < 5 was considered no-OSA. Mean and lowest oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was detected by pulse oximetry. Between-group differences were assessed and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the association of OSA plus HTN and prevalent CVD. Compared to normotensive subjects, hypertensive subjects were older and had higher body mass index (BMI), neck girth, waist–hip ratio, AHI, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level. Conversely, mean and lowest SaO2 levels were significantly lower. Logistic regression analysis showed that in an unadjusted model, compared to subjects with no-OSA and no-HTN (reference group), the association of HTN plus moderate-severe-OSA and prevalent CVD was the most prominent (odds ratio [OR]: 2.638 and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.942–3.583). In normotensive subjects, after adjusted for potential covariates, the associations of OSA (regardless of severity) and prevalent CVD were attenuated to nonsignificant. In hypertensive subjects, however, the associations remained significant but were reduced. Further adjusted for mean and lowest SaO2, the associations remained significant in HTN plus no-OSA (OR: 1.808, 95% CI: 1.207–2.707), HTN plus mild-OSA (OR: 2.003, 95% CI: 1.346–2.980), and HTN plus moderate-severe OSA (OR: 1.834, 95% CI: 1.214–2.770) groups. OSA plus HTN is associated with prevalent CVD, and OSA may potentiate the adverse cardiovascular effects on hypertensives patients but not normotensives. PMID:27684798

  5. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  6. Prevalence of pinguecula and pterygium in a general population in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Viso, E; Gude, F; Rodríguez-Ares, M T

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of pinguecula and pterygium and to investigate their associations in a general adult population in North-Western Spain. Methods An age-stratified random sample of 1155 subjects ≥40 years was selected in O Salnés (Spain). From 937 eligible subjects, 619 (66.1%) participated (mean age (SD): 63.4 (14.5) years, range: 40–96 years, 37.0% males). An interview to collect history of systemic diseases and lifestyle details and a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation in which pinguecula and pterygium were recorded was carried out. The prevalence of pinguecula and pterygium and their relationship with lifestyle factors and ocular and systemic diseases was investigated. Results The prevalence of pinguecula was 47.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 43.9–51.9). This prevalence increased significantly with aging (P=0.002) and was higher in men (56.4% 95% CI: 50.0–62.7) than in women (42.7% 95% CI: 37.8–47.8) (P=0.001). The prevalence of pterygium was 5.9% (95% CI: 4.3–7.9). This prevalence also increased significantly with aging (P=0.005) and was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6–8.4) in men and 6.5% (95% CI: 4.5–9.3) in women (P=0.346). After controlling for age and sex, pinguecula was associated with alcohol intake (adjusted odds ratio (ORa): 3.08; 95% CI: 1.60–5.95), pterygium with fluorescein staining (ORa: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.08–6.46) and both disorders with outer activity (ORa: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.36–3.15 and 2.28; 95% CI: 1.04–4.98, respectively). Conclusions Pinguecula is far more common than pterygium. Alcohol consumption is strongly associated with pinguecula. Fluorescein staining is highly prevalent in subjects with pterygium. Both disorders increase with age and are associated with outer activity. PMID:21183945

  7. Area-level socioeconomic characteristics, prevalence and trajectories of cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh D; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert J; Daniel, Mark

    2014-01-08

    This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000-2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR), prevalence risk ratio (SRR), ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI)). Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42). However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely) and unemployment rate (positively) were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI) = 0.76 (0.63-0.90), and 1.48 (1.26-1.74), respectively), and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI) = 0.96 (0.93-0.99), and 1.06 (1.04-1.09), respectively). The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI) = 0.58 (0.45-0.73), and SRR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.88-0.94)). Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education being

  8. Baseline HCV Antibody Prevalence and Risk Factors among Drug Users in China’s National Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Rou, Keming; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Xiaobin; Luo, Wei; Liu, Enwu; Wu, Zunyou

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common viral infection among injecting drug users worldwide. We aimed to assess HCV antibody prevalence and associated risk factors among clients in the Chinese national methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program. Methods Data from 296,209 clients who enrolled in the national MMT program between March 2004 and December 2012 were analyzed to assess HCV antibody prevalence, associated risk factors, and geographical distribution. Results Anti-HCV screening was positive for 54.6% of clients upon MMT entry between 2004 and 2012. HCV antibody prevalence at entry declined from 66.8% in 2005 to 45.9% in 2012. The most significant predictors of HCV seropositivity were injecting drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.17–8.52, p<0.0001) and a history of drug use ≥9 years (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.96–2.06, p<0.0001). Being female, of Uyghur or Zhuang ethnicity, and unmarried were identified as demographic risk factors (all p-values<0.0001). Of the 28 provincial-level divisions included in the study, we found that 5 divisions had HCV antibody prevalence above 70% and 20 divisions above 50%. The HCV screening rate within 6 months after MMT entry greatly increased from 30.4% in 2004 to 93.1% in 2012. Conclusions The current HCV antibody prevalence remains alarmingly high among MMT clients throughout most provincial-level divisions in China, particularly among injecting drug users and females. A comprehensive prevention strategy is needed to control the HCV epidemic among MMT clients in China. PMID:26906025

  9. Geographical Variation in Diabetes Prevalence and Detection in China: Multilevel Spatial Analysis of 98,058 Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Maigeng; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Bi, Yufang; Feng, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Yong; Li, Yichong; Page, Andrew; Wang, Limin; Xu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the geographic variation in diabetes prevalence and detection in China. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Self-report and biomedical data were collected from 98,058 adults aged ≥18 years (90.5% response) from 162 areas spanning mainland China. Diabetes status was assessed using American Diabetes Association criteria. Among those with diabetes, detection was defined by prior diagnosis. Choropleth maps were used to visually assess geographical variation in each outcome at the provincial level. The odds of each outcome were assessed using multilevel logistic regression, with adjustment for person- and area-level characteristics. RESULTS Geographic visualization at the provincial level indicated widespread variation in diabetes prevalence and detection across China. Regional prevalence adjusted for age, sex, and urban/rural socioeconomic circumstances (SECs) ranged from 8.3% (95% CI 7.2%, 9.7%) in the northeast to 12.7% (11.1%, 14.6%) in the north. A clear negative gradient in diabetes prevalence was observed from 13.1% (12.0%, 14.4%) in the urban high-SEC to 8.7% (7.8%, 9.6%) in rural low-SEC counties/districts. Adjusting for health literacy and other person-level characteristics only partially attenuated these geographic variations. Only one-third of participants living with diabetes had been previously diagnosed, but this also varied substantively by geography. Regional detection adjusted for age, sex, and urban/rural SEC, for example, spanned from 40.4% (34.9%, 46.3%) in the north to 15.6% (11.7%, 20.5%) in the southwest. Compared with detection of 40.8% (37.3%, 44.4%) in urban high-SEC counties, detection was poorest among rural low-SEC counties at just 20.5% (17.7%, 23.7%). Person-level characteristics did not fully account for these geographic variations in diabetes detection. CONCLUSIONS Strategies for addressing diabetes risk and improving detection require geographical targeting. PMID:25352654

  10. HTLV-1 in rural Guinea-Bissau: prevalence, incidence and a continued association with HIV between 1990 and 2007

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background HTLV-1 is endemic in Guinea-Bissau, and the highest prevalence in the adult population (5.2%) was observed in a rural area, Caió, in 1990. HIV-1 and HIV-2 are both prevalent in this area as well. Cross-sectional associations have been reported for HTLV-1 with HIV infection, but the trends in prevalence of HTLV-1 and HIV associations are largely unknown, especially in Sub Saharan Africa. In the current study, data from three cross-sectional community surveys performed in 1990, 1997 and 2007, were used to assess changes in HTLV-1 prevalence, incidence and its associations with HIV-1 and HIV-2 and potential risk factors. Results HTLV-1 prevalence was 5.2% in 1990, 5.9% in 1997 and 4.6% in 2007. Prevalence was higher among women than men in all 3 surveys and increased with age. The Odds Ratio (OR) of being infected with HTLV-1 was significantly higher for HIV positive subjects in all surveys after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The risk of HTLV-1 infection was higher in subjects with an HTLV-1 positive mother versus an uninfected mother (OR 4.6, CI 2.6-8.0). The HTLV-1 incidence was stable between 1990-1997 (Incidence Rate (IR) 1.8/1,000 pyo) and 1997-2007 (IR 1.6/1,000 pyo) (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 0.9, CI 0.4-1.7). The incidence of HTLV-1 among HIV-positive individuals was higher compared to HIV negative individuals (IRR 2.5, CI 1.0-6.2), while the HIV incidence did not differ by HTLV-1 status (IRR 1.2, CI 0.5-2.7). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest community based study that has reported on HTLV-1 prevalence and associations with HIV. HTLV-1 is endemic in this rural community in West Africa with a stable incidence and a high prevalence. The prevalence increases with age and is higher in women than men. HTLV-1 infection is associated with HIV infection, and longitudinal data indicate HIV infection may be a risk factor for acquiring HTLV-1, but not vice versa. Mother to child transmission is likely to contribute to the

  11. Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveticanin, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics

  12. The Prevalence of ADHD, ODD, Depression, and Anxiety in a Community Sample of 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, John V.; LeBailly, Susan A.; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Binns, Helen J.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the epidemiology of preschoolers' psychopathology. This study included 796 4-year-old children recruited from schools and pediatric practices in a diverse, urban area. Psychiatric disorder was assessed by a structured interview adapted for preschool children and by questionnaire. The most common disorders were…

  13. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  14. Joint associations of insomnia and sleep duration with prevalent diabetes: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

    PubMed Central

    CESPEDES, Elizabeth M.; DUDLEY, Katherine A.; SOTRES-ALVAREZ, Daniela; ZEE, Phyllis C.; DAVIGLUS, Martha L.; SHAH, Neomi A.; TALAVERA, Gregory A.; GALLO, Linda C.; MATTEI, Josiemer; QI, Qibin; RAMOS, Alberto R.; SCHNEIDERMAN, Neil; ESPINOZA-GIACINTO, Rebeca A.; PATEL, Sanjay R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate sleep quantity and quality are associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. This relationship is not well-examined in US Hispanics/Latinos, and prior analyses may be confounded by sleep apnea. This cross-sectional study examined joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia with diabetes among diverse US Hispanic/Latinos. Methods Baseline data on sleep quantity and quality were obtained from 15227 participants (mean age 41; range 18–74 years) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Complex survey multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associations between prevalent diabetes and six phenotypes defined by cross-classifying sleep duration (short ≤6 h, average >6–9 h, long >9 h) and insomnia, adjusting for sex, age, site and Hispanic/Latino background interaction, education, physical activity, diet quality, and sleep apnea. Results In the weighted population, 14% had diabetes, 28% had insomnia, 9% were short sleepers, and 19% were long sleepers. Compared with those with average sleep and no insomnia, those with short sleep and insomnia were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 2.11). Average sleepers with insomnia (1.28; 95% CI 1.02, 1.61) and long sleepers without insomnia (1.33; 95% CI 1.07, 1.65) also had elevated odds of diabetes. Further adjustment for body mass index attenuated associations, except with long sleep without insomnia. Conclusions Both decreased quantity and quality of sleep are associated with diabetes in Hispanic/Latinos, with the greatest odds among those with short sleep duration and insomnia. The association is largely explained by obesity. PMID:25952169

  15. Experimental identification of intruder bandheads in odd-mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Greenlees, P.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Helariutta, K.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Eskola, K.; Wyss, R.

    1999-11-16

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  16. Experimental Identification of Intruder Bandheads in Odd-Mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    A.N. Andreyev; J.F.C. Cocks; O. Dorvaux; K. Eskola; P. Greenlees; P. Jones; R. Julin; S. Juutinen; K. Helariutta; M. Huyse; H. Kettunen; P. Kuusiniemi; M. Leino; M. Muikku; W.H. Trzaska; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; R. Wyss

    1999-12-31

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  17. Relationship between long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content <50 μg/L. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), alcohol consumption and smoking, the odds ratios showed a 1.45-fold (95%CI: 0.63-3.35) increase in the group with >30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (p<0.0001), PP (p<0.0001) and MAP (p=0.0016) were found. The prevalence of hypertension and abnormal PP as well as MAP is marked among a low-level arsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure.

  18. Universal one-dimensional atomic gases near odd-wave resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaoling

    2016-10-01

    We show the renormalization of the contact interaction for odd-wave scattering in one-dimension (1D). Based on the renormalized interaction, we exactly solve the two-body problem in a harmonic trap and further explore the universal properties of spin-polarized fermions near odd-wave resonance by using the operator-product-expansion method. It is found that the high-momentum distribution behaves as C /k2 , with C being the odd-wave contact. Various universal relations are derived. Our work suggests a universal system emergent in 1D with large odd-wave scattering length.

  19. Influence of country-level differences on COPD prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Shawn D; Gershon, Andrea S; Gao, Yuan; Yang, Jenna; Whitmore, GA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Studies suggest that COPD prevalence may vary between countries. We conducted an ecological study of data from COPD prevalence articles to assess the influence of differences in country-level risk factors on COPD prevalence. Patients and methods Our study covered English language articles published during 2003–2014. Qualified articles used spirometry to assess COPD prevalence and used representative samples from national or subnational populations. Stepwise binomial regression was used to analyze associations between study- and country-level factors and COPD prevalence. Results Eighty articles provided 1,583 measures of COPD prevalence for subjects in different sex, age, and smoking categories for 112 districts in 41 countries. Adjusted prevalence rates for COPD were significantly lower for Australia/New Zealand and the Mediterranean and significantly higher for Latin America, compared to North America, Southeast Asia, and Northern Europe. Country-level socioeconomic development variables had an uneven and mixed association with COPD prevalence. High elevation above sea level was shown to be a protective factor for COPD. Study-level variables for the established risk factors of sex, age, and smoking explained 64% of variability in COPD prevalence. Country-level risk factors raised the explanatory power to 72%. Approximately 28% of worldwide variability in COPD prevalence remained unexplained. Conclusion Our study suggests that COPD prevalence varies across world regions, even after adjustment for established risk factors. Major country-level risk factors contributing to the worldwide epidemic of COPD remain to be investigated. PMID:27698561

  20. Prevalence of hypertension and noise-induced hearing loss in Chinese coal miners

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Xu, Ming; Ding, Lu; Zhang, Hengdong; Pan, Liping; Liu, Qingdong; Ding, Enming; Zhao, Qiuni; Wang, Boshen; Han, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Owing to inconsistent epidemiologic evidence and the presence of confounding factors, the relation between occupational noise exposure and hypertension still remained unclear. We aimed to assess whether Chinese coal miners were at risk of developing hypertension and noise induced hearing loss (NIHL), and whether occupational noise exposure was a risk factor of hypertension. Methods A questionnaire was designed to collect information from 738 study participants, all of whom were employees from the Datun Xuzhou Coal Company. The participants were divided into a noise-exposed group and a control group based on the noise level to which they were exposed in the workplace. The differences in the mean of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were compared between the noise-exposed and control groups. Also the prevalence and age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of audiometric deficit and hypertension was compared in the study. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the relation between occupational noise level and hypertension while controlling for potential confounding factors. Results Hypertension was more prevalent in noise-exposed group than the control group, 29.2% vs. 21.2% (P=0.012). The noise-exposed group faced an increased risk of hypertension (age-adjusted OR =1.52, 95% CI =1.07–2.15) when the control group was used as reference. The mean values of SBP and DBP of the noise-exposed groups were significantly higher than the control group (P=0.006 and P=0.002 respectively). Hearing loss at low frequencies was significantly more prevalent in the noise-exposed group than the control group, 12.8% vs. 7.4% (P=0.015), while the noise-exposed group faced the increased risk of hearing loss at low frequencies (age-adjusted OR =1.81, 95% CI =1.10–2.96). LEX, 8h (OR =1.036, 95% CI =1.012–1.060) was an independent risk of hypertension when controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusions We

  1. Delay Adjusted Incidence

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  2. Nonlinear Hydrostatic Adjustment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannon, Peter R.

    1996-12-01

    The final equilibrium state of Lamb's hydrostatic adjustment problem is found for finite amplitude heating. Lamb's problem consists of the response of a compressible atmosphere to an instantaneous, horizontally homogeneous heating. Results are presented for both isothermal and nonisothermal atmospheres.As in the linear problem, the fluid displacements are confined to the heated layer and to the region aloft with no displacement of the fluid below the heating. The region above the heating is displaced uniformly upward for heating and downward for cooling. The amplitudes of the displacements are larger for cooling than for warming.Examination of the energetics reveals that the fraction of the heat deposited into the acoustic modes increases linearly with the amplitude of the heating. This fraction is typically small (e.g., 0.06% for a uniform warming of 1 K) and is essentially independent of the lapse rate of the base-state atmosphere. In contrast a fixed fraction of the available energy generated by the heating goes into the acoustic modes. This fraction (e.g., 12% for a standard tropospheric lapse rate) agrees with the linear result and increases with increasing stability of the base-state atmosphere.The compressible results are compared to solutions using various forms of the soundproof equations. None of the soundproof equations predict the finite amplitude solutions accurately. However, in the small amplitude limit, only the equations for deep convection advanced by Dutton and Fichtl predict the thermodynamic state variables accurately for a nonisothermal base-state atmosphere.

  3. Prevalence of risk factors associated with human papillomavirus infection in women living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, C; Coutlée, F; Lapointe, N; Simard, P; Tran, T; Samson, J; Hum, L

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concurrent infection with HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) in women is associated with increased rates of cervical dysplasia and shorter survival following the development of cervical cancer. The authors examined risk factors for HPV infection at study entry in HIV-positive women enrolled in the Canadian Women's HIV Study, a prospective open cohort study. METHODS: Subjects eligible for this analysis included the 375 HIV-positive women in the Canadian Women's HIV Study for whom HPV test results were available. Questionnaires on behavioural and clinical information, Pap smears, cervicovaginal lavage specimens and vaginal tampon specimens for HPV detection and typing by polymerase chain reaction were obtained at study entry. RESULTS: Overall, 67.2% (252/375) of the women were HPV-positive; the global prevalence of intermediate- and high-risk oncogenic HPV types was 49.1% (184/375). Women with squamous cell dysplasia (32/294) were more likely to have HPV infection than those without dysplasia (90.6% v. 62.6%; p = 0.002). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for number of lifetime partners and history of STD, revealed that the following risk factors were independently associated with HPV infection: CD4 count of less than 0.20 x 10(9)/L (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99 [95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.17-3.37 (p = 0.011)]), non-white race (adjusted OR 2.00 [95% Cl 1.17-3.42 (p = 0.011)]), inconsistent condom use in the 6 months before study entry (adjusted OR 2.02 [95% Cl 1.16-3.50 (p = 0.013)]), and lower age, with women age 30-39 years (adjusted OR 0.51 [95% Cl 0.30-0.87 (p = 0.013)]) and age 40 years or older (adjusted OR 0.52 [95% Cl 0.26-1.01 (p = 0.052)]) compared with women less than 30 years of age. INTERPRETATION: Close monitoring for HPV-related effects is warranted in all HIV-positive women, particularly younger, non-white women who do not always use condoms. Counselling for women living with HIV, particularly younger women

  4. Injecting and HIV prevalence among young heroin users in three Spanish cities and their association with the delayed implementation of harm reduction programmes

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Luis; Bravo, María José; Toro, Carlos; Brugal, M Teresa; Barrio, Gregorio; Soriano, Vicente; Vallejo, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate changes in the prevalence of HIV infection among young heroin users in three Spanish cities, and their association with harm reduction programmes (HRPs). Methods Two cross sectional studies. The 1995 study included 596 users; half were street recruited and half were recruited at drug treatment centres. The 2001–03 study included 981 street recruited users. Face to face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire. Samples for HIV testing (saliva in 1995 and dried blood spot in 2001–03) were collected. Results The proportion who had ever injected (IDUs) decreased in all three cities. HIV prevalence in IDUs decreased by half in Barcelona (44.1% to 20.8%) and Seville (44.2% to 22.2%), but remained constant in Madrid (36.8% and 34.9%). This difference was attributable to a decrease in HIV prevalence in long term IDUs in Barcelona and Seville, but not in Madrid. The crude odds ratio for HIV prevalence in Madrid compared with Barcelona in long term IDUs was 2.3 (95%CI 1.4 to 3.7), increasing to 3.1 (95%CI 1.5 to 6.2) after adjusting for sociodemographic and risk factors. HIV prevalence in short term IDUs was similar in all cities. In 1992 Barcelona already had 20 heroin users in methadone maintenance programmes (MMPs) per 10 000 population aged 15–49 years; Seville reached this rate in 1994, and Madrid, not until 1998. Conclusions The prevalence of HIV infection did not decrease in long term injectors in Madrid. The delayed implementation of HRPs, especially MMPs, may be the most plausible hypothesis. This finding should shed light on decision making in countries in a similar epidemiological and sociological situation. PMID:16698987

  5. Comparative study of Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the odd-odd nucleus V50 and its impact on electron capture rates in astrophysical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Sajjad, Muhammad

    2007-11-01

    Gamow-Teller (GT) strength transitions are an ideal probe for testing nuclear structure models. In addition to nuclear structure, GT transitions in nuclei directly affect the early phases of Type Ia and Type-II supernovae core collapse since the electron capture rates are partly determined by these GT transitions. In astrophysics, GT transitions provide an important input for model calculations and element formation during the explosive phase of a massive star at the end of its life-time. Recent nucleosynthesis calculations show that odd-odd and odd-A nuclei cause the largest contribution in the rate of change of lepton-to-baryon ratio. In the present manuscript, we have calculated the GT strength distributions and electron capture rates for odd-odd nucleus V50 by using the pn-QRPA theory. At present V50 is the first experimentally available odd-odd nucleus in fp-shell nuclei. We also compare our GT strength distribution with the recently measured results of a V50(d, He2)Ti50 experiment, with the earlier work of Fuller, Fowler, and Newman (referred to as FFN) and subsequently with the large-scale shell model calculations. One curious finding of the paper is that the Brink's hypothesis, usually employed in large-scale shell model calculations, is not a good approximation to use at least in the case of V50. SNe Ia model calculations performed using FFN rates result in overproduction of Ti50, and were brought to a much acceptable value by employing shell model results. It might be interesting to study how the composition of the ejecta using presently reported QRPA rates compare with the observed abundances.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in myanmar: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Naing, Cho; Aung, Kyan

    2014-11-01

    Hypertension (HPT) is the most common condition seen in primary care that can lead to health consequences and death if not detected early and treated appropriately.This study aimed to synthesize the prevalence, awareness, and control of HPT, and investigate the risk factors for HPT in Myanmar.We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies. Relevant studies were searched in electronic databases. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed in 3 domains: selection bias, measurement bias, and bias related to data analysis. The overall prevalence and proportions was calculated using random-effect model of DerSimonian-Laird method. To identify the risk factors for HPT in Myanmar, we entered the ratio measures of the (adjusted) effect as a log odds ratio (OR) and the standard error of the log OR using generic inverse-variance weighting method. For stability of results, we performed leave-one-study-out sensitivity analysis by omitting individual studies one at a time from the meta-analysis.Seven studies (n = 20,901) were included in this analysis. Overall prevalence of HPT in Myanmar was 22% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14%-31.7%, I: 99.6%), stratified as 21.5% (95% CI: 14.1%-29.9%, I: 98.7%) in men and 22.7% (95% CI: 10.8%-34.6%, I: 99.5%) in women. Overall, prevalence of HPT increased with an advancing age of the participants. The proportions of awareness and controlled HPT were 55% (95% CI: 43%-67%, I: 97.7%) and 11% (95% CI: 6%-15%, I: 93.8%), respectively. A weak but significant association was observed between HPT and alcohol drinking (summary OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.14%-1.65, I: 0%) and smoking (summary OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.0%-1.74, I: 50%). In sensitivity analysis, when a study that made confirmation of HPT by the former World Health Organization criteria was dropped, the prevalence increased to 26% (95% CI: 20.8%-32.1%, I: 98.1%).HPT was considerably prevalent in Myanmar, while the levels of awareness and controlled HPT were low. Health

  7. Changes in prevalence of tobacco use and the factors that may affect use among Uganda youth: the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2007-2011

    PubMed Central

    Kadobera, Daniel; Chaussard, Martine; Lee, Kyung Ah; Ayebazibwe, Nicholas; Ndyanabangi, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To assess changes from 2007 to 2011 in the prevalence of tobacco use and tobacco-related indicators in Uganda by examining results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods Both the 2007 (n=2,251) and 2011 (n=2,026) Uganda GYTS were conducted among students in primary seven, secondary one, two, and three. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to generate a representative sample of students for the surveys. Stata 12 software was used to provide weighted prevalence estimates and logistic regression models were developed to examine the relationship between factors that influence tobacco use and current tobacco use. Results The percentage of students who had ever smoked a cigarette, even just one or two puffs, declined from 15.6% in 2007 to 10.9% in 2011 (p=0.03). From 2007 to 2011, neither the percentage of current use of any tobacco (16.6% to 17.3%, p=0.75), nor the percentage of current (past 30 day) cigarette smoking (5.5% to 4.8%,p=0.59) changed significantly. Following adjustment, having parents [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR):1.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.3-2.8] and friends [AOR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5-4.0)] who smoke, and having seen tobacco advertisements in print media [AOR 1.8(1.3-2.4)], were associated with greater odds of current tobacco use among students in 2007.Having parents who smoke [AOR;1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0] was associated with greater odds of current tobacco use among students in 2011. Conclusion From 2007 to 2011, no significant change occurred in the prevalence of current tobacco use or cigarette smoking among youth in Uganda. These findings underscore the importance of implementing effective population-level public health interventions, as outlined in the articles of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, to prevent and reduce the use of tobacco among youth in Uganda. PMID:28292114

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ≥60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

  9. Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Information on potential cough triggers including environmental irritants is vital for successful management of chronic cough in patients. We investigated the relationship between ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) exposures with cough prevalence. Eighty-three adult patients, who had been physician diagnosed with at least asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough, were divided into asthma and non-asthma groups. They recorded daily cough symptoms during 4 January–30 June 2011 study period while daily samples of total suspended particles were simultaneously collected by use of glass fiber filters and the particulate PAH content determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector. Ambient concentrations of NO2 and SO2 were obtained from a local monitoring site. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to determine population-averaged estimates of association between cough prevalence and ambient pollutant exposures for the two groups. Fully adjusted odds ratios from single pollutant models were 1.083 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.029, 1.140) and 1.097 (95% CI: 1.016, 1.185) per 0.57 ng/m3 for lag2 PAH exposure, while only for asthma group had significant associations with NO2 and SO2 exposures for both lag2 and lag02. Similar associations were observed in multipollutant models. This finding suggests that ambient PAH, NO2, and SO2 exposure even at low levels is related to cough prevalence in adult chronic cough patients and may be considered as aggravating factor during clinical management of the condition. PMID:27517941

  10. Human papillomavirus prevalence and genotype distribution among HIV-infected women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Kyoung; Cho, Heerim; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Seung Geun; Lee, Sang Yeup; Kim, Ki Hyung; Lee, Chang Hun; Chung, Joo Seop; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in Korea is not well established. A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection among HIV-infected women in Korea. HPV DNA genotype and cervical cytology were examined in 60 HIV-positive women and 1,938 HIV-negative women. HPV genotypes were analyzed by using a HPV DNA chip. HIV-infected women had higher prevalence of high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) infection (30% vs 4.9%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.63-13.34, P<0.001) and abnormal cervical cytology (18.3% vs 1.8%, AOR, 10.94; 95% CI, 5.18-23.1, P<0.001) compared with controls. The most common hr-HPV genotype detected in HIV-infected women was HPV 16 (10%), followed by 18 (6.7%) and 52 (5%). Prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-preventable types (HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18) was 21.7% and 2.3% in HIV-positive women and HIV-negative women, respectively. Age was a significant risk factor for hr-HPV infection in HIV-infected women (P=0.039). The presence of hr-HPV was significantly associated with abnormal cervical cytology (P<0.001). These findings suggest that HPV testing for cervical cancer screening in HIV-infected women would be necessary, particularly among young age group.

  11. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Adolescent Girls Before Reported Sexual Debut

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Catherine F.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Baisley, Kathy; Changalucha, John; Ross, David A.; Kapiga, Saidi; Godinez, Jose M.; Bozicevic, Ivana; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are recommended for girls prior to sexual debut because they are most effective if administered before girls acquire HPV. Little research has been done on HPV prevalence in girls who report not having passed sexual debut in high HPV-prevalence countries. Methods. Using attendance registers of randomly selected primary schools in the Mwanza region of Tanzania, we enrolled girls aged 15–16 years who reported not having passed sexual debut. A face-to-face interview on sexual behavior and intravaginal practices, and a nurse-assisted self-administered vaginal swab were performed. Swabs were tested for 13 high-risk and 24 low-risk HPV genotypes. Results. HPV was detected in 40/474 (8.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9–11.0) girls. Ten different high-risk and 21 different low-risk genotypes were detected. High-risk genotypes were detected in 5.3% (95% CI, 3.5–7.8). In multivariable analysis, only intravaginal cleansing (practiced by 20.9%) was associated with HPV detection (adjusted odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.09–4.39). Conclusion. This cohort of adolescent Tanzanian girls had a high HPV prevalence prior to self-reported sexual debut, and this was associated with intravaginal cleansing. This most likely reflects underreporting of sexual activity, and it is possible that intravaginal cleansing is a marker for unreported sexual debut or nonpenetrative sexual behaviors. PMID:24740630

  12. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: The Fukushima health management survey.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-08-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer for all areas, with the lowest dose area as reference, were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex. Furthermore, the ORs of thyroid cancer for individual external doses of 1 mSv or more and 2 mSv or more, with the external dose less than 1 mSv as reference, were calculated. Prevalence of thyroid cancer for the location groups were 48/100,000 for the highest dose area, 36/100,000 for the middle dose area, and 41/100,000 for the lowest dose area. Compared with the lowest dose area, age-, and sex-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest-dose and middle-dose areas were 1.49 (0.36-6.23) and 1.00 (0.67-1.50), respectively. The duration between accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident.

  13. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer for all areas, with the lowest dose area as reference, were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex. Furthermore, the ORs of thyroid cancer for individual external doses of 1 mSv or more and 2 mSv or more, with the external dose less than 1 mSv as reference, were calculated. Prevalence of thyroid cancer for the location groups were 48/100,000 for the highest dose area, 36/100,000 for the middle dose area, and 41/100,000 for the lowest dose area. Compared with the lowest dose area, age-, and sex-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest-dose and middle-dose areas were 1.49 (0.36–6.23) and 1.00 (0.67–1.50), respectively. The duration between accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident. PMID:27583855

  14. Into the Cuckoo's Nest: "Silver Linings Playbook" and Movies about Odd People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Odd people have always been identified and often treated differently in human societies. In modern times, they have been described as being afflicted with a psychological condition to be treated by specialists and assigned to a "crazy" category by general society. Movies about such odd people have a long history. A recent movie,…

  15. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  16. ODD and ADHD Symptoms in Ukrainian Children: External Validators and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential external validators for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficient/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Ukrainian community-based sample of 600 children age 10 to 12 years old and evaluate the nature of co-occurring ODD and ADHD symptoms using mother- and teacher-defined groups. Method: In…

  17. Fitting Proportional Odds Models to Educational Data in Ordinal Logistic Regression Using Stata, SAS and SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xing

    2008-01-01

    The proportional odds (PO) model, which is also called cumulative odds model (Agresti, 1996, 2002 ; Armstrong & Sloan, 1989; Long, 1997, Long & Freese, 2006; McCullagh, 1980; McCullagh & Nelder, 1989; Powers & Xie, 2000; O'Connell, 2006), is one of the most commonly used models for the analysis of ordinal categorical data and comes from the class…

  18. The Correlation of Secondary Organic Aerosol with Odd Oxygen in Mexico City

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from a mountain location intercepting the Mexico City emission plume demonstrate a strong correlation between secondary organic aerosol and odd-oxygen (O3 + NO2). The measured oxygenated-organic aerosol correlates with odd-oxygen measurements with an a...

  19. Association of Anxiety and ODD/CD in Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Aguirre, Vincent P.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if…

  20. Why Some Schools with Latino Children Beat the Odds...and Others Don't

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Campbell, Heather E.; Gau, Rebecca; Jacobs, Ellen; Rex, Tom; Hess, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout Arizona and the Southwest, the odds are against high achievement in schools with a mostly Latino, mostly poor student enrollment. Some schools, however, "beat the odds" and achieve consistently high results or show steady gains. Why do these schools succeed where others fail? Using the methodology of business guru Jim Collins…

  1. The Interplay among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Participants were 258 three-year-old children (138 boys, 120…

  2. Clinically Referred ODD Children with or without CD and Healthy Controls: Comparisons across Contextual Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Bukstein, Oscar; Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 6-11-year-old, clinically referred boys and girls diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, either with (ODD + CD, n = 40) or without Conduct Disorder (ODD only; n = 136), to a matched sample of healthy control children (HC; n = 69). Multiple informants completed intake diagnostic interviews and self-reports to evaluate…

  3. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126 mg/dL). Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG

  4. The heart of Africa: succeeding against the odds.

    PubMed

    Sliwa, Karen

    2016-12-17

    South Africa and other areas of sub-Saharan Africa have in the past 20 years undergone rapid demographical changes, largely due to urbanisation and changes in lifestyle. This rapid change has led to a marked increase in specific cardiac conditions, such as hypertensive heart disease and coronary artery disease (with the highest prevalence in the middle-aged population), in conjunction with a range of other heart diseases, which are historically common in Africa-eg, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, and unoperated congenital heart disease. The short supply of well-equipped screening facilities, late diagnosis, and inadequate care at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels have led to a large burden of patients with poorly treated heart failure. Excellent progress has been made in the understanding of the epidemiology, sociodemographical factors, effect of urbanisation, and pathophysiology of cardiac conditions, such as peripartum cardiomyopathy, rheumatic heart disease, and tuberculous pericarditis, which are common in sub-Saharan Africa. This progress has been achieved largely through several studies, such as the Heart of Soweto, THESUS, REMEDY, BA-HEF, Abeokuta-HF, and the PAPUCO studies. Studies on the suitable therapeutic management of several heart conditions have also been done or are underway. In this Lecture, I provide a personal perspective on the evolving burden of cardiac disease, as witnessed since my appointment at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, in Soweto, South Africa, in 1992, which was also the year that the referendum to end apartheid in South Africa was held. Subsequently, a network of cardiologists was formed under the umbrella of the Heart of Africa Studies and the Pan African Cardiac Society. Furthermore, I summarise the major gaps in the health-care system dealing with the colliding epidemic of communicable and non-communicable heart diseases, including cardiac diseases common in peripartum women. I also touch on the fantastic

  5. Rural Elderly: Impact of Social, Psychological Health and Demographic Experiences on Adjustment in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, R.; And Others

    An amended form of the Older American's Status and Needs Assessment Questionnaire assessed the prevalence of adjustment, as measured by the Bradburn Affect Scale, in a random stratified sample of 301 female and 140 male elderly rural residents in Allegany County, New York. The relationship between adjustment and biosocial, demographic, social, and…

  6. Marijuana use and pregnancy: prevalence, associated characteristics, and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mark, Katrina; Desai, Andrea; Terplan, Mishka

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the prevalence, behaviors, and birth outcomes associated with marijuana use in pregnancy. This was a retrospective cohort from a university-based prenatal care clinic from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. The primary exposure was marijuana use, defined by self-report or urine toxicology. Demographic and outcome data were determined by chart review and analyzed by chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three hundred and ninety-six patients initiated prenatal care during this time frame; 116 (29.3 %) of whom screened positive for marijuana at initial visit. Patients who used marijuana were less likely to have graduated high school (p = 0.016) or be employed (p = 0.015); they were more likely to use tobacco (p < 0.001) or alcohol (p = 0.032) and report a history of abuse (p = 0.010) or depressed mood (p = 0.023). When analyzed via logistic regression, only tobacco use remained associated with marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.9-5.9). Birth outcomes were available for 170 (43.0 %) patients. Only 3 (1.9 %) tested positive for marijuana at the time of delivery. Marijuana use was not related to incidence of low birth weight (13.8 % vs 14.0 %, p = 1.00), preterm delivery (17.7 % vs 12.0 %, p = 0.325), or NICU admissions (25.5 % vs 15.8 %, p = 0.139). Prenatal care utilization was equal between marijuana users and non-users. Although marijuana is common among obstetric patients at prenatal care initiation, most cease use by delivery. Marijuana is strongly correlated with cigarette use. We found no differences in birth outcomes or utilization of prenatal care by marijuana exposure.

  7. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Human Papillomavirus in Healthy Skin Specimens Collected from Rural Anyang, China, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiuju; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Liu, Fangfang; He, Zhonghu; Liu, Mengfei; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chanyuan; Abliz, Amir; Shen, Na; Hang, Dong; Xu, Zhongyao; Wang, Qiyan; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Skin infections with cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) have been linked to the development of non-melanoma skin cancer, in which mucosal HPV may also play a crucial role. However, systematic investigations of the distribution and associated factors of HPV infection in healthy skin of the general population are scarce. HPV DNA from palmar exfoliated cells of 2,087 individuals was detected by FAP6085/64 and SPF1/GP6+ primers followed by sequencing. A total of 338 papillomavirus types were detected, with HPV-3, HPV-57, and HPV-49 being the most dominant types. The overall prevalence for HPV DNA on skin was 79.92% and for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-HPV were 27.07%, 38.76%, and 29.56%, respectively. Having multiple lifetime sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio 1.60), being a migrant worker (adjusted odds ratio 2.05, reference: farmers), and frequent bathing (Ptrend = 0.001) were associated with alpha-HPV DNA presence. Advancing age increased the detection risk of beta-HPV (Ptrend = 0.001). Higher education (Ptrend = 0.017) and frequent bathing (Ptrend = 0.001) were positively related to gamma-HPV positivity. This study demonstrates that alpha-HPV commonly exists on healthy skin of the general population in rural China, and alpha- and gamma-HPV infections are related to certain behaviors, different from beta-HPV infection. These findings are crucial to better understanding the biology of HPV infection and may be suggestive of the potential transmission of these viruses.

  8. Odd-even effect in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Su Jun; Zhang Fengshou; Bian Baoan

    2011-01-15

    Heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies are studied by the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in the company of the GEMINI model. The isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model is applied to describe the violent stage of the collisions, while the GEMINI model is applied to simulate the decays of the prefragments. The present study mainly focuses on the odd-even effect in the yields of the final fragments. We find that the odd-even effect appears in the deexcitation process of the excited prefragments, and is affected by the excitation energies and the isotope distributions of the prefragments. Both the projectile-isospin-dependent odd-even effect in the region of -4{<=}T{sub Z}{<=}1 and the role of the symmetry energy on the odd-even effect are studied. We find that the odd-even effect depends sensitively on the symmetry energy.

  9. Odd-skipped maintains prohemocyte potency and blocks blood cell development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongjuan; Wu, Xiaorong; Fossett, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Studies using Drosophila have contributed significantly to our understanding of regulatory mechanisms that control stem cell fate choice. The Drosophila blood cell progenitor or prohemocyte shares important characteristics with mammalian hematopoietic stem cells, including quiescence, niche dependence, and the capacity to form all three fly blood cell types. This report extends our understanding of prohemocyte fate choice by showing that the zinc-finger protein Odd-skipped promotes multipotency and blocks differentiation. Odd-skipped was expressed in prohemocytes and downregulated in terminally differentiated plasmatocytes. Furthermore, Odd-skipped maintained the prohemocyte population and blocked differentiation of plasmatocytes and lamellocytes but not crystal cells. A previous study showed that Odd-skipped expression is downregulated by Decapentaplegic signaling. This report provides a functional basis for this regulator/target pair by suggesting that Decapentaplegic signaling limits Odd-skipped expression to promote prohemocyte differentiation. Overall, these studies are the basis for a gene regulatory model of prohemocyte cell fate choice.

  10. Odd-Mode Surface Plasmon Polaritons Supported by Complementary Plasmonic Metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xi; Zhou, Liang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), either on metal-dielectric interfaces in optical frequencies or on structured metal surfaces in the lower frequencies, are dominantly even modes. Here we discover dominant odd-mode SPPs on a complementary plasmonic metamaterial, which is constructed by complementary symmetric grooves. We show that the fundamental SPP mode on such a plasmonic metamaterial is a tightly confined odd mode, whose dispersion curve can be tuned by the shape of groove. According to the electric field distributions of odd-mode SPPs, we propose a high-efficiency transducer using asymmetric coplanar waveguide and slot line to excite the odd-mode SPPs. Numerical simulations and experimental results validate the high-efficiency excitation and excellent propagation performance of odd-mode SPPs on the complementary plasmonic waveguides in the microwave frequencies. PMID:25783166

  11. Gender Differences in Dietary Patterns and Their Association with the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shu-Hong; Qiao, Nan; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Cui, Yan; Tian, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Cong; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Wang, Hui; Liang, Jie; Lu, Qing; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated gender differences in dietary intake. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine gender differences in dietary patterns and their association with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The food intakes of 3794 subjects enrolled by a two-stage cluster stratified sampling method were collected using a valid semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and its prevalence was 35.70% in the sample (37.67% in men and 24.67% in women). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis combined with cluster analysis and multiple group confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factorial invariance between gender groups. The dominating dietary pattern for men was the “balanced” dietary pattern (32.65%) and that for women was the “high-salt and energy” dietary pattern (34.42%). For men, the “animal and fried food” dietary pattern was related to higher risk of MetS (odds ratio: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.01–1.60), after adjustment for age, marital status, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. For women, the “high-salt and energy” dietary pattern was related to higher risk of MetS (odds ratio: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.24–4.14). We observed gender differences in dietary patterns and their association with the prevalence of MetS. For men, the “animal and fried food” dietary pattern was associated with enhancive likelihood of MetS. For women, it was the “high-salt and energy” dietary pattern. PMID:27023599

  12. Prevalence of and risk factors for Escherichia coli O157 in market-ready beef cattle from 12 U.S. feedlots.

    PubMed

    Dewell, G A; Ransom, J R; Dewell, R D; McCurdy, K; Gardner, I A; Hill, A E; Sofos, J N; Belk, K E; Smith, G C; Salman, M D

    2005-01-01

    Determination of Escherichia coli O157 prevalence immediately prior to shipment and harvest is an important facet of the ecology of this organism, which requires further elucidation. As part of a larger study to measure the effects of within-pen prevalence of E. coli O157 on subsequent carcass contamination, fecal samples from 15 pens of cattle in each of 12 different feedlots in three states (Colorado, Nebraska, and Montana) were collected from June through September 2002. Thirty fresh fecal samples were collected from each pen floor within 36 h of shipment to slaughter. Fecal samples underwent standard enrichment, immunomagnetic separation, and isolation procedures for E. coli O157. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine which factors best predicted pen-level positive culture results, and to estimate the magnitude of association between each factor and the outcome, while adjusting for other factors in the model. Thirteen (86.7%) of the 15 pens had at least one positive sample, and the within-pen prevalence of E. coli O157 in positive pens ranged from 3.3% to 77.8%. The odds of E. coli O157 positive fecal samples from cattle fed brewers grains were six times that for cattle not fed brewers grains. The odds of E. coli O157 positive fecal samples from pens of cattle from Central Nebraska was nine times that for pens of cattle from Eastern Colorado. These data demonstrate that the presence of E. coli O157 in fecal samples from finished feedlot cattle is associated with feeding of brewers grain and geographic location. Additional studies to further characterize geographic distribution of E. coli O157 and to investigate pen-level intervention strategies should be conducted.

  13. Analysis of the triaxial, strongly deformed bands in odd-odd nucleus 164Lu with the tops-on-top model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara-Tanabe, Kazuko; Tanabe, Kosai; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2014-06-01

    The top-on-top model with angular-momentum-dependent moments of inertia is extended to the tops-on-top model for an odd-odd nucleus, where one proton and one neutron in each single-j orbital are coupled to the triaxial rotor. For a pure rotor case, an explicit algebraic formula for the triaxial, strongly deformed (TSD) band levels is given, and its stability problem is discussed. Both positive and negative parity TSD bands are well reproduced by taking account of attenuation factors in the Coriolis interaction and the proton-neutron interaction in the recoil term. Difference in quantum numbers between the yrast and yrare TSD bands is confirmed by direct estimation of spin alignments. The electromagnetic transition rates of B(M1) are much reduced because of the different sign of g-factors in comparison with the odd-A case, while B(E2) are in the same order.

  14. Prevalence of Suspected Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hispanic/Latino Individuals Differs by Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Kallwitz, Eric R.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Allison, Matthew A.; Emory, Kristen T.; Zhao, Lihui; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Chen, Jinsong; Gouskova, Natalia; Pirzada, Amber; Talavera, Gregory A.; Youngblood, Marston E.; Cotler, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was shown to disproportionally affect Hispanic persons. We examined the prevalence of suspected NAFLD in Hispanic/Latino persons with diverse backgrounds. Methods We studied the prevalence of suspected NAFLD among 12,133 persons included in The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We collected data on levels of aminotransferase, metabolic syndrome (defined by National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines), demographics, and health behaviors. Suspected NAFLD was defined based on increased level of aminotransferase in the absence of serologic evidence for common causes of liver disease or excessive alcohol consumption. In multivariate analyses, data were adjusted for metabolic syndrome, age, acculturation, diet, physical activity, sleep, and levels of education and income. Results In multivariate analysis, compared to persons of Mexican heritage, persons of Cuban (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57–0.85), Puerto Rican (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52–0.87), and Dominican backgrounds (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54–0.93) had lower rates of suspected NAFLD. Persons of Central American and South American heritage had a similar prevalence of suspected NAFLD compared to persons of Mexican heritage. NAFLD was less common in women than men (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.40–0.60). Suspected NAFLD associated with the metabolic syndrome and all 5 of its components. Conclusion Based on an analysis of a large database of health in Latino populations, we found the prevalence of suspected NAFLD among Hispanic/Latino individuals to vary by region of heritage. PMID:25218670

  15. Factors associated with the prevalence of non-ROPS tractors on farms in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Myers, J R

    2010-10-01

    Rollover protective structures (ROPS) are an effective engineering control known to prevent tractor overturn deaths, the leading cause of occupational fatalities for farmers and farm workers in the U.S. However, the use of ROPS is known to vary greatly from farm to farm. A national sample of 11,458 farm operators from the 2004 Occupational Injury Surveillance of Production Agriculture (OISPA) survey was used to assess the association between the prevalence of ROPS and ten farm operator and farm demographic variables using logistic regression. The variable were: operator's age, operator's sex, operator's education, farm sales, full- or part-time farming, acreage, type of operation, number of hired workers, number of injuries, and region. All ten variables were found to have significant associations with the prevalence of non-ROPS tractors on farms in the univariate logistic regressions. For the multivariate model, all variables except for the sex of the farm operator remained significant. Farms with less than three adult injuries, no hired workers, less than 300 acres in size, a Midwest location, and a primary farm type of tobacco, fruit and nuts, dairy, or poultry and eggs all had adjusted odds ratios of 2 or greater. Increasing the prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors is essential for reducing the leading cause of death on farms, tractor overturns. Economic factors play a major role in the prevalence and distribution of non-ROPS tractors on farms. The identified associations can be used to effectively target areas of the U.S. for ROPS promotion activities.

  16. HIV prevalence and related risk behaviours among prisoners in Iran: results of the national biobehavioural survey, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Navadeh, Soodabeh; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Farnia, Marziyeh; Alasvand, Ramin; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of HIV and related risk behaviours among prisoners in Iran in 2009. Methods Using multistage random sampling, we recruited 5,530 prisoners from 27 prisons in Iran. Behavioural data were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire-based interview, and HIV status was determined by ELISA of dried blood spots. Weighted estimates were calculated based on the sampling probability and response rate. Results HIV prevalence was 2.1% (95% CI 1.2 to 3.6). One in eight prisoners (12.3%, 95% CI 8.0% to 16.6%) had been tested for HIV in the last year and received results, 20.5% (95% CI 15.1 to 27.4%) had comprehensive knowledge about HIV and 24.7% (95% CI 17.9% to 32.9%) reported condom use at last vaginal/anal sex in prison. Although 16.5% (95% CI 12.5% to 21.5%) acknowledged a lifetime history of drug injection, only 22 prisoners reported drug injection inside the prison in the month preceding the interview. Of note, 12.9% (95% CI 10.6% to 15.6%) had been tattooed in prison. There were significant associations between HIV prevalence and a history of drug injection (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 7.8, 95% CI 4.7 to 13.2), tattooing (AOR: 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.2) and age over 30 years (AOR: 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.9). Conclusions Considerable HIV prevalence among prisoners is found in Iran. Expanding harm reduction programmes inside prisons with inclusion of sexual risk reduction programmes and post-release programmes will help directly prevent acquisition and transmission of infection inside prisons and indirectly slow onward transmission in the outside communities. PMID:23986417

  17. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean patients with schizophrenia receiving a monotherapy with aripiprazole, olanzapine or risperidone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Jung, Dong Chung; Kim, Eun Young; Yu, Han Young; Sung, Ki Hye; Kang, Ung Gu; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2011-07-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) increase the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although ethnicity also contributes to MetS risk, the majority of the studies on the relationship of SGAs to this syndrome come from Western countries, whereas few reports have come from Asian countries, especially regarding patients taking a single SGA. We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients with schizophrenia who received aripiprazole, olanzapine or risperidone monotherapies for at least three months. We evaluated the prevalence of MetS in our sample as well as the indirect standardized prevalence ratio (ISPR) using data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES, 2007). The prevalence of MetS in our sample (n=145) was 31.7%, and the ISPR was 2.09. Male patients had a higher prevalence of MetS than female patients (odds ratio [OR]=4.18, 95% CI=1.93-9.03). The ISPR of male patients was 2.67 and statistically significant, whereas the ISPR of female patients was not significant. In our sample, the frequency of abnormal MetS subcomponents occurred in descending order: increased waist circumference, increased triglyceride levels, decreased HDL-cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressure and elevated fasting blood glucose levels. Patients who received aripiprazole were significantly less likely to have MetS. However, a logistic regression showed that age and sex, but not the type of antipsychotic, its dose or the use of antidepressants, were significantly related to the presence of MetS. There were no statistically significant differences among SGAs in terms of MetS subcomponent abnormalities of after adjusting for age and sex. In conclusion, only male Korean patients with schizophrenia who received a monotherapy of aripiprazole, olanzapine or risperidone for more than three months were more likely to have MetS than the general population.

  18. Depressive symptoms and prevalence of erectile dysfunction in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Dogo Study.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, S; Sakai, T; Niiya, T; Miyaoka, H; Miyake, T; Yamamoto, S; Maruyama, K; Ueda, T; Senba, H; Torisu, M; Minami, H; Onji, M; Tanigawa, T; Matsuura, B; Hiasa, Y; Miyake, Y

    2017-03-01

    In several studies of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a positive association between depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction (ED) has been reported. No evidence exists, however, regarding the association between depressive symptoms and ED among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, we examined this issue among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study subjects were 469 male Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged 19 years or over. ED, moderate to severe ED and severe ED were defined as present when a subject had a Sexual Health Inventory for Men score <22, <12 and <8, respectively. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when a subject had a Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) score >49. Adjustment was made for age, body mass index, waist, duration of type 2 diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, stroke, glycated hemoglobin and diabetic neuropathy. The prevalence values of depressive symptoms, moderate to severe ED and severe ED were 15.1%, 64.2% and 51.0%, respectively. Depressive symptoms were independently positively associated with moderate to severe ED and severe ED (adjusted odds ratios were 2.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-4.43) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.04-3.41), respectively). In Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, depressive symptoms may be associated with ED.

  19. The prevalence of domestic violence and its associated factors among married women in a rural area of Puducherry, South India

    PubMed Central

    George, Jismary; Nair, Divya; Premkumar, Nancy R.; Saravanan, Nirmala; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Roy, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Violence against women is an emerging problem worldwide and more so in India. Considering its adverse effects on women's health, assessing the burden of violence in the community will help in planning services for the victims. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and to identify factors associated with domestic violence among married women in reproductive age group in rural Puducherry. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural area of Puducherry, South India. Married women in reproductive age group were interviewed using structured pretested questionnaire. Domestic violence was assessed using 12 questions that were used in National Family Health Survey-3. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with violence. Results: Of 310 study participants, 56.7% of them reported some form of domestic violence, 51.3% reported psychological violence, 40% reported physical violence, and 13.5% reported sexual violence. A statistically significant association was found between illiteracy of women and domestic violence (AOR: 4.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–15.7 P: 0.03). The other factors such as love marriage and nonregistration of marriage were significantly associated with violence. Conclusion: The prevalence of domestic violence was found to be high in this rural setting. Multisectoral response such as improving literacy, creating awareness regarding legal aid and screening the victims of violence at primary health centers, should be initiated to mitigate this public health issue. PMID:28217603

  20. Late Presentation of HIV Infection: Prevalence, Trends, and the Role of HIV Testing Strategies in Guangzhou, China, 2008–2013

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Weibin; Tang, Weiming; Han, Zhigang; Tangthanasup, Thitikarn May; Zhong, Fei; Qin, Faju

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence, trends, and the role of different HIV testing strategies in late presentation of HIV infection in China were unknown. Methods. Data of newly reported HIV cases in Guangzhou between 2008 and 2013 was analyzed to examine the prevalence, trends, and characteristics of late presentation of HIV infection by three types of HIV testing strategies. Results. Overall, 53.2% (1412/2653) and 27.3% (724/2653) met the criteria of late presentation and presentation with advanced HIV disease. The overall trend of late presentation of HIV infection within the study period was declining. Late presentation was 62.9% in 2008 and dropped to 43.3% in 2013 (P < 0.001); presentation with advanced HIV disease was 40.3% in 2008 and dropped to 15.2% in 2013 (P < 0.001). Of the three testing strategies, PITC presented higher odds of both late presentation [AOR (95% CI): PITC versus VCT: 1.37 (1.09, 1.73); PITC versus MHT: 3.09 (2.16, 4.42)] and presentation with advanced HIV disease [AOR (95% CI): PITC versus VCT: 1.65 (1.29, 2.11); PITC versus MHT: 13.14 (8.47, 20.39)]. Conclusions. Although the late presentation of HIV infection was declining, it was still high in Guangzhou. The worse situation among PITC cases urges the policy adjustment in medical settings to increase early HIV diagnosis. PMID:27761466

  1. HIV prevalence and risk in long-distance truck drivers in South Africa: a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Bello, Braimoh; Kinross, Peter; Oliff, Monique; Chersich, Matthew; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rees, Helen

    2014-05-01

    We estimated the prevalence of HIV and assessed correlates of HIV infection in long-distance truck drivers in South Africa. Between October 2003 and July 2004, 1900 long-distance truck drivers aged ≥18 years consented to interview and for testing for HIV. Participants were selected from a 10% stratified random sample of registered truck depots. A proximate-determinants framework was used to assess the hierarchical relationship between risk factors and HIV infection using logistic regression. HIV prevalence was 26% (95% confidence interval 24% to 28%). In multivariate analyses, HIV infection was associated with spending 2-4 weeks on the road (adjusted odds ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.9). There was modest evidence of a dose-response relationship between time on the road and HIV risk. Mobility increased risk by creating conditions for unsafe sex and reducing access to health services. Targeted HIV interventions for long-distance truck drivers are needed.

  2. Late Presentation of HIV Infection: Prevalence, Trends, and the Role of HIV Testing Strategies in Guangzhou, China, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weibin; Tang, Weiming; Han, Zhigang; Tangthanasup, Thitikarn May; Zhong, Fei; Qin, Faju; Xu, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence, trends, and the role of different HIV testing strategies in late presentation of HIV infection in China were unknown. Methods. Data of newly reported HIV cases in Guangzhou between 2008 and 2013 was analyzed to examine the prevalence, trends, and characteristics of late presentation of HIV infection by three types of HIV testing strategies. Results. Overall, 53.2% (1412/2653) and 27.3% (724/2653) met the criteria of late presentation and presentation with advanced HIV disease. The overall trend of late presentation of HIV infection within the study period was declining. Late presentation was 62.9% in 2008 and dropped to 43.3% in 2013 (P < 0.001); presentation with advanced HIV disease was 40.3% in 2008 and dropped to 15.2% in 2013 (P < 0.001). Of the three testing strategies, PITC presented higher odds of both late presentation [AOR (95% CI): PITC versus VCT: 1.37 (1.09, 1.73); PITC versus MHT: 3.09 (2.16, 4.42)] and presentation with advanced HIV disease [AOR (95% CI): PITC versus VCT: 1.65 (1.29, 2.11); PITC versus MHT: 13.14 (8.47, 20.39)]. Conclusions. Although the late presentation of HIV infection was declining, it was still high in Guangzhou. The worse situation among PITC cases urges the policy adjustment in medical settings to increase early HIV diagnosis.

  3. Use of Folk Therapy in Taiwan: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey of Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Chuan; Huang, Lu-Hsiang; Lane, Hsin-Long; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Ta-Liang; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Liao, Chien-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with users of folk therapy in Taiwan. Methods. Using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and the National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 16,750 adults aged 20 years and older. Sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, medical utilization, and health behaviors were compared between people using and not using folk therapy. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of factors associated with folk therapy were analyzed. Results. The one-month prevalence of folk therapy use was 6.8%, which was significantly associated with ages of 30-59 years (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.49-2.63), women (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.40-1.90), nonindigenous population (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.14-3.17), having two or more unhealthy lifestyle habits (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.26-1.81), high density of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) physicians (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.20-1.62), and being ill without receiving medical care in past six months (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.76-2.53). Medical care utilization of TCM and Western medicine were also associated factors for folk therapy. Conclusions. The use of folk therapy is correlated with sociodemographics, lifestyle and health behaviors.

  4. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  5. Nonexistence of small, odd breathers for a class of nonlinear wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Michał; Martel, Yvan; Muñoz, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    In this note, we show that for a large class of nonlinear wave equations with odd nonlinearities, any globally defined odd solution which is small in the energy space decays to 0 in the local energy norm. In particular, this result shows nonexistence of small, odd breathers for some classical nonlinear Klein Gordon equations, such as the sine-Gordon equation and φ ^4 and φ ^6 models. It also partially answers a question of Soffer and Weinstein (Invent Math 136(1): 9-74, p 19 1999) about nonexistence of breathers for the cubic NLKG in dimension one.

  6. Even and odd coherent states of supersymmetric harmonic oscillators and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Davood; Motamedinasab, Amin; Anbaraki, Azam; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed even and odd superpositions of supercoherent states, similar to the standard even and odd coherent states of the harmonic oscillator. Then, their nonclassical properties, that is, squeezing and entanglement have been studied. We have observed that even supercoherent states show squeezing behavior for some values of parameters involved, while odd supercoherent states do not show squeezing at all. Also sub-Poissonian statistics have been observed for some ranges of the parameters in both states. We have also shown that these states may be considered as logical qubits which reduce to the Bell states at a limit, with concurrence equal to 1.

  7. Understanding relative risk, odds ratio, and related terms: as simple as it can get.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-07-01

    Risk, and related measures of effect size (for categorical outcomes) such as relative risks and odds ratios, are frequently presented in research articles. Not all readers know how these statistics are derived and interpreted, nor are all readers aware of their strengths and limitations. This article examines several measures, including absolute risk, attributable risk, attributable risk percent, population attributable risk percent, relative risk, odds, odds ratio, and others. The concept and method of calculation are explained for each of these in simple terms and with the help of examples. The interpretation of each is presented in plain English rather than in technical language. Clinically useful notes are provided, wherever necessary.

  8. Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yazar, Harun Resit

    2013-06-15

    The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  9. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems.

    PubMed

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E

    2016-06-24

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present.

  10. Sustainable Odds: Towards Quantitative Decision Support when Relevant Probabilities are not Available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    There is, at present, no attractive foundation for quantitative probabilistic decision support in the face of model inadequacy, or given ambiguity (deep uncertainty) regarding the relative likelihood of various outcomes, known or unknown. True model error arguably precludes the extraction of objective probabilities from an ensemble of model runs drawn from an available (inadequate) model class, while the acknowledgement of incomplete understanding precludes the justified use of (if not the very formation of) an individual's subjective probabilities. An alternative approach based on Sustainable Odds is proposed and investigated. Sustainable Odds differ from "fair odds" (and are easily distinguished any claim which implying well defined probabilities) as the probabilities implied by sustainable odds summed over all outcomes is expected to exceed one. Traditionally, a person's fair odds are found by identifying the probability level at which one would happily accept either side of a bet, thus the probabilities implied by fair odds always sum to one. Knowing that one has incomplete information and perhaps even erroneous beliefs, there is no compelling reason a rational agent should accept the constraint implied by "fair odds" in any bet. Rather, a rational agent might insist on longer odds both on the event and against the event in order to account for acknowledged ignorance. Let probabilistic odds imply any set of odds for which the implied probabilities sum to one; once model error is acknowledged can one rationally demand non-probabilistic odds? The danger of using fair odds (or probabilities) in decision making is illustrated by considering the risk of ruin a cooperative insurance scheme using probabilistic odds is exposed to. Cases where knowing merely that the insurer's model is imperfect, and nothing else, is sufficient to place bets which drive the insurer to an unexpectedly early ruin are presented. Methodologies which allow the insurer to avoid this early

  11. Construct Validity of ADHD/ODD Rating Scales: Recommendations for the Evaluation of Forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872…

  12. Identifying Predictors and Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption among University Students: Nine Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Piñeiro, María; Corral Varela, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol consumption among university students during late adolescence and young adulthood and to identify the associated factors. Material and Methods Cohort study among university students in Spain (n = 1382). Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) and Risky Consumption (RC) were measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) at ages 18, 20, 22, 24 and 27 years. Data on potential factors associated with alcohol use were obtained with an additional questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression for repeated measures was used to obtain adjusted OR (Odds Ratios). Results The rates of prevalence of RC were lower, but not statistically significant, in women. The age-related changes in these rates were similar in both genders, and the prevalence of RC peaked at 20 years. By contrast, the prevalence of HED was significantly lower in women and peaked at 18 years in women and at 22 years in men. Multivariate models showed that early age of onset of alcohol use (OR = 10.6 and OR = 6.9 for women; OR = 8.3 and OR = 8.2 for men) and positive expectations about alcohol (OR = 7.8 and OR = 4.5 for women; OR = 3.6 and OR = 3.3 for men) were the most important risk factors for RC and HED. Living away from the family home was also a risk factor for both consumption patterns among women (OR = 3.16 and OR = 2.34), while a high maternal education level was a risk factor for RC among both genders (OR = 1.62 for women; OR = 2.49 for men). Conclusions Alcohol consumption decreases significantly at the end of youth, with higher rates of prevalence and a later peak among men. Prevention strategies should focus on beliefs and expectations about alcohol and on delaying the age of onset. Women are at particular risk for these consumption patterns if they live away from their parents. Belonging to a high-income family is a strong risk factor for RC. PMID:27812131

  13. Prevalence of bovine genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis of bulls in northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis, and their concurrence with brucellosis, in cattle in three states of northern Nigeria. Methods A total of 602 preputial samples was collected from bulls in 250 herds and tested using culture and identification. Various indigenous and exotic breeds were studied and four major management systems were encountered. Age of the cattle was estimated using dentition, farm records or cornual rings. Results The estimated true animal-level prevalence of Campylobacter fetus infection was 16.4% (95% CI: 13.0-20.7), of which 18.5% was C. f. fetus and 81.5% was C. f. venerealis. Of the latter, 92% were C. f. venerealis biovar intermedius strains. Animal-level prevalences in Adamawa, Kano and Kaduna states were 31.8%, 11.6% and 8.3% respectively, and were highest in bulls >7 years old (33.4%) and in the Gudali breed (28.8%). Of the 250 herds, 78 (25.5%, 95% CI: 19.4-32.7) had at least one infected bull, and herd prevalence was highest in the pastoral management system (43.5%). After adjustment for confounding using multivariable analysis, the odds of C. fetus infection were highest in Adamawa state (P < 0.01), in the pastoral management system (P < 0.01), and in bulls >7 years old (P = 0.01), and tended to be higher in Bos taurus breeds (P = 0.06). There was a strong positive association between the presence of campylobacteriosis and brucellosis (P < 0.01), both within bulls (OR = 8.3) and within herds (OR = 16.0). Trichomonosis was not detected in any herds. Conclusion Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is prevalent particularly in the pastoral management system in northern Nigeria, with C. f. venerealis biovar intermedius as the major aetiology. There was a strong positive correlation between the occurrence of campylobacteriosis and brucellosis. No evidence of trichomonosis was found in herds in this study. PMID:23927676

  14. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Otovic, Natasa Eftimovska; Taneva, Borjanka

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) became a new epidemic of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal failure as a result of the diabetes epidemic worldwide. AIM: The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of CKD in the Republic of Macedonia and its association with diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a part of a study conducted in 2006 in terms of screening for early detection of kidney disease. It was a cross-sectional study based on a random sample of patients aged > 20, consecutively consulting their primary physician for any cause. Fifty physicians throughout the country were included in the study. A total of 2637 patients have been analyzed based on integrity data. GFR was estimated using corrected values of serum creatinine and calculating kidney function by the Cockroft & Gault formula, adjusted for body surface using the Gehan & George formula. Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min were considered as having CKD. Blood pressure, body weight, height, serum creatinine, glucose, hemoglobin, hematocrit, urinalysis and medical history for presence of cardiovascular diseases or diabetes were also assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 45.97 ± 16.55 SD and 17.97% were older than 60. Regarding gender, 44.14% were males. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 13.9%. Subjects with CKD (eGFR less than 60 ml/min) were 7.53% of the total. Subjects aged 60 or above, had 20 times higher risk of having CKD (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Out of the total group of subjects, 13.9% had diabetes mellitus and they had 3.13 times higher risk of having CKD stage 3-5 (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) when compared to non-diabetics. The results showed that diabetes was significantly more associated with lower eGFR (less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) in younger subjects (age less than 60) compared to older ones (odds ratio 3

  15. Determinants and Prevalence of Late HIV Testing in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Carrizosa, Claudia M.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Gregorio; Lozada, Remedios; Kelley, Norma J.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Sipan, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Timely diagnosis of HIV is essential to improve survival rates and reduce transmission of the virus. Insufficient progress has been made in effecting earlier HIV diagnoses. The Mexican border city of Tijuana has one of the highest AIDS incidence and mortality rates in all of Mexico. This study examined the prevalence and potential correlates of late HIV testing in Tijuana, Mexico. Late testers were defined as participants who had at least one of: (1) an AIDS-defining illness within 1 year of first positive HIV test; (2) a date of AIDS diagnosis within 1 year of first positive HIV test; or (3) an initial CD4 cell count below 200 cells per microliter within 1 year of first positive HIV test. Medical charts of 670 HIV-positive patients from two HIV/AIDS public clinics in Tijuana were reviewed and abstracted; 362 of these patients were interviewed using a cross-sectional survey. Using multivariate logistic regression, we explored potential correlates of late HIV testing based on the Behavioral Ecological Model. From 342 participants for whom late testing could be determined, the prevalence of late testing was 43.2%. Multivariate logistic regression results (n = 275) revealed five significant correlates of late testing: “I preferred not to know I had HIV” (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.78, 1.46–5.31); clinic (AOR = 1.90, 1.06–3.41); exposure to peers engaging in high-risk sexual behavior (AOR = 1.14, 1.02–1.27); stigma regarding HIV-infected individuals (AOR = 0.65, 0.47–0.92); and stigma regarding HIV testing (AOR = 0.66, 0.45–0.97). These findings may inform the design of interventions to increase timely HIV testing and help reduce HIV transmission in the community at large. PMID:20438374

  16. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  17. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the ‘rules’ of plating

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1–6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  18. Testing Lorentz invariance using an odd-parity asymmetric optical resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Baynes, Fred N.; Luiten, Andre N.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2011-10-15

    We present the first experimental test of Lorentz invariance using the frequency difference between counter-propagating modes in an asymmetric odd-parity optical resonator. This type of test is {approx}10{sup 4} more sensitive to odd-parity and isotropic (scalar) violations of Lorentz invariance than equivalent conventional even-parity experiments due to the asymmetry of the optical resonator. The disadvantages of odd-parity resonators have been negated by the use of counter-propagating modes, delivering a high level of immunity to environmental fluctuations. With a nonrotating experiment our result limits the isotropic Lorentz violating parameter {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} to 3.4{+-}6.2x10{sup -9}, the best reported constraint from direct measurements. Using this technique the bounds on odd-parity and scalar violations of Lorentz invariance can be improved by many orders of magnitude.

  19. Odd-even dependence of rectifying behavior in carbon chains modified diphenyl-dimethyl molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiu-Hua; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Hai-Ying; Liu, De-Sheng; Chen, Gang

    2014-06-01

    Using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of asymmetric nonequi-length carbon chains on the electron transport properties of diphenyl-dimethyl molecule. The results show significant odd-even dependence: the rectification appears only in the hybrid nanostructure with odd carbon chain on one side and even carbon chain on the other side, while it is negligible in those with odd/even carbon chain on both sides. The mechanism for the odd-even dependence of rectification is analyzed by the bias-dependent transmission spectra, evolution of molecular orbital levels, their spatial distributions, and projected density of states with the applied bias.

  20. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W A

    2015-10-27

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field.

  1. Obesity in Youth Tied to Higher Odds for Liver Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164210.html Obesity in Youth Tied to Higher Odds for Liver ... risk, a new study warns. Efforts to reduce obesity, "should be implemented from an early age to ...

  2. Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI Past Issues / ... with traumatic brain injury (TBI)—and changed his family's life forever. "Back then there were no roadmaps ...

  3. Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Teryaev, O.V.

    2015-04-10

    Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.

  4. Application of condoms on male clients by female sex workers in Yerevan, Armenia: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Darbinyan, Nelli; Lang, Delia L; Diclemente, Ralph J; Joseph, Jesse B; Markosyan, Karine

    2011-09-01

    This study sought to assess the prevalence of consistent condom application on male clients by female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia and its association with demographic, psychosocial and behavioural factors. In this cross-sectional study, 120 street-based FSWs aged 20-52 completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was consistent application of condoms by FSWs on their male clients. A total of 21.7% of participants reported consistently applying condoms on clients. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that higher condom use self-efficacy (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR=1.1; p=0.01), lower perceived condom use barriers (AOR=0.9; p=0.04) and not using douching as a method to prevent STI/HIV (AOR=4.8; p=0.04) significantly predicted consistent condom application. Higher HIV/AIDS knowledge was a marginally significant predictor of condom application (AOR=1.3; p=0.05). Future interventions should address these modifiable factors to encourage FSWs to apply condoms on clients themselves, which may reduce condom failure and exposure to HIV transmission.

  5. Efficient odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-11-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of biofuels or chemicals. Different composition of FFAs will be useful for further modification of the biofuel/biochemical quality. Microbial biosynthesis of even chain FFAs can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into E. coli. In this study, odd straight medium chain FFAs production was investigated by using metabolic engineered E. coli carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE, Ricinus communis), propionyl-CoA synthase (Salmonella enterica), and β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (four different sources) with supplement of extracellular propionate. By using these metabolically engineered E. coli, significant quantity of C13 and C15 odd straight-chain FFAs could be produced from glucose and propionate. The highest concentration of total odd straight chain FFAs attained was 1205 mg/L by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE2), and 85% of the odd straight chain FFAs was C15. However, the highest percentage of odd straight chain FFAs was achieved by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE3) of 83.2% at 48 h. This strategy was also applied successfully in strains carrying different TE, such as the medium length acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica. C11 and C13 became the major odd straight-chain FFAs.

  6. Swimming at low Reynolds number in fluids with odd, or Hall, viscosity.

    PubMed

    Lapa, Matthew F; Hughes, Taylor L

    2014-04-01

    We apply the geometric theory of swimming at low Reynolds number to the study of nearly circular swimmers in two-dimensional fluids with nonvanishing "odd," or Hall, viscosity. The odd viscosity gives an off-diagonal contribution to the fluid stress tensor, which results in a number of striking effects. In particular, we find that a swimmer whose area is changing will experience a torque proportional to the rate of change of the area, with the constant of proportionality given by the coefficient ηo of odd viscosity. After working out the general theory of swimming in fluids with odd viscosity for a class of simple swimmers, we give a number of example swimming strokes which clearly demonstrate the differences between swimming in a fluid with conventional viscosity and a fluid which also has an odd viscosity. We also include a discussion of the extension of the famous Scallop theorem of low Reynolds number swimming to the case where the fluid has a nonzero odd viscosity. A number of more technical results, including a proof of the torque-area relation for swimmers of more general shape, are explained in a set of Appendixes.

  7. Mother-teacher agreement on preschoolers' symptoms of ODD and CD: does context matter?

    PubMed

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female 3- to 5-year old preschool children, their mothers, and teachers. A structured interview, the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule was used for maternal report and teachers completed the Early Childhood Inventory. Results indicated that mothers reported more symptoms and diagnoses of ODD and CD than teachers, and mother-teacher agreement on both ODD and CD symptoms and diagnoses was low. Level of mother-teacher agreement increased when reporting on behavior in the same context; however, the rates remain modest. Referral status increased the likelihood of mother and teacher agreement on several ODD and CD symptoms, as well as ODD and CD diagnosis. These data suggest that context plays a role in mother-teacher agreement in the assessment of young children's ODD and CD symptoms.

  8. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  9. Prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and relation to glycemic control therapies at baseline in the BARI 2D cohort.

    PubMed

    Pop-Busui, Rodica; Lu, Jiang; Lopes, Neuza; Jones, Teresa L Z

    2009-03-01

    We evaluated the associations between glycemic therapies and prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) at baseline among participants in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial on medical and revascularization therapies for coronary artery disease (CAD) and on insulin-sensitizing vs. insulin-providing treatments for diabetes. A total of 2,368 patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD was evaluated. DPN was defined as clinical examination score >2 using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). DPN odds ratios across different groups of glycemic therapy were evaluated by multiple logistic regression adjusted for multiple covariates including age, sex, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and diabetes duration. Fifty-one percent of BARI 2D subjects with valid baseline characteristics and MNSI scores had DPN. After adjusting for all variables, use of insulin was significantly associated with DPN (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.15-2.13). Patients on sulfonylurea (SU) or combination of SU/metformin (Met)/thiazolidinediones (TZD) had marginally higher rates of DPN than the Met/TZD group. This cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD showed association of insulin use with higher DPN prevalence, independent of disease duration, glycemic control, and other characteristics. The causality between a glycemic control strategy and DPN cannot be evaluated in this cross-sectional study, but continued assessment of DPN and randomized therapies in BARI 2D trial may provide further explanations on the development of DPN.

  10. High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Soweto, South Africa: results from the Soweto Men's Study.

    PubMed

    Lane, Tim; Raymond, H Fisher; Dladla, Sibongile; Rasethe, Joseph; Struthers, Helen; McFarland, Willi; McIntyre, James

    2011-04-01

    The Soweto Men's Study assessed HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among MSM in Soweto, South Africa. Using respondent driven sampling (RDS) recruitment methods, we recruited 378 MSM (including 15 seeds) over 30 weeks in 2008. All results were adjusted for RDS sampling design. Overall HIV prevalence was estimated at 13.2% (95% confidence interval 12.4-13.9%), with 33.9% among gay-identified men, 6.4% among bisexual-identified men, and 10.1% among straight-identified MSM. In multivariable analysis, HIV infection was associated with being older than 25 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.8, 95% CI 3.2-4.6), gay self-identification (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-3.0), monthly income less than ZAR500 (AOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7), purchasing alcohol or drugs in exchange for sex with another man (AOR 3.9, 95% CI 3.2-4.7), reporting any URAI (AOR 4.4, 95% CI 3.5-5.7), reporting between six and nine partners in the prior 6 months (AOR 5.7, 95% CI 4.0-8.2), circumcision, (AOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.2), a regular female partner (AOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.2-0.3), smoking marijuana in the last 6 months (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8), unprotected vaginal intercourse in the last 6 months (AOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6), and STI symptoms in the last year (AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.8). The results of the Soweto Men's Study confirm that MSM are at high risk for HIV infection, with gay men at highest risk. HIV prevention and treatment for MSM are urgently needed.

  11. Prevalence, and associated risk factors, of self-reported diabetes mellitus in a sample of adult urban population in Greece: MEDICAL Exit Poll Research in Salamis (MEDICAL EXPRESS 2002)

    PubMed Central

    Gikas, Aristofanis; Sotiropoulos, Alexios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Peppas, Theodoros; Skliros, Eystathios; Pappas, Stavros

    2004-01-01

    Background The continuous monitoring and future prediction of the growing epidemic of diabetes mellitus worldwide presuppose consistent information about the extent of the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and to identify associated risk factors in a sample of adult urban Greek population. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in municipality of Salamis, Greece, during an election day (2002). The study sample consisted of 2805 participants, aged 20–94 years. Data were collected using a standardized short questionnaire that was completed by a face-to-face interview. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of diabetes with potential risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was 8.7% (95% CI 7.7–9.8%). After age adjustment for the current adult population (2001 census) of Greece, the projection prevalence was calculated to 8.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified as independent risk factors: increasing age (odds ratio, OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.06–1.08), male sex (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.04–1.95), overweight and obesity (OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.29–3.01 and OR = 3.76, 95% CI 2.41–5.86, respectively), family history of diabetes (OR = 6.91, 95% CI 5.11–9.34), hypertension (OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.60–2.99) and, among women, lower educational level (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.22–5.63). The prevalence of overweight and obesity, based on self-reported BMI, were 44.2% and 18.4%, respectively. Moreover, the odds for diabetes in obese subjects with family history were 25-fold higher than those with normal weight and without family history of diabetes, while the odds in overweight subjects with family history of diabetes were 15-fold higher. Conclusions Our findings indicated that the prevalence of diabetes is high in Greek population. It is suggested that the main modifiable contributing factor is obesity, whose effect is extremely

  12. Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD? (Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder)(Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinghua; Mo, Phoenix K H; Kahler, Christopher W; Lau, Joseph T F; Du, Mengran; Dai, Yingxue; Shen, Hanyang

    2016-01-01

    HIV-positive men who have sex with men (HIVMSM) face severe stigma and high levels of stressors, and have high prevalence of mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety). Very few studies explored the role of positive psychological factors on mental health problems among HIVMSM. The present study investigated the prevalence of two mental health problems (anxiety and depression), and their associated protective (gratitude) and risk (enacted HIV-related stigma, and perceived stress) factors among HIVMSM in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 321 HIVMSM in Chengdu, China, by using a structured questionnaire. Over half (55.8%) of the participants showed probable mild to severe depression (as assessed by the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale); 53.3% showed probable anxiety (as assessed by the General Anxiety Disorder scale). Adjusted logistic regression models revealed that gratitude (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 0.90, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) = 0.86-0.94) was found to be protective, whilst perceived stress (ORa = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.12-1.22) and enacted stigma (ORa = 7.72, 95% CI = 2.27-26.25) were risk factors of depression. Gratitude (ORa = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.91-0.99) was also found to be protective whilst perceived stress (ORa = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.14-1.24) was a risk factor of anxiety. Gratitude did not moderate the associations found between related factors and poor mental health. It is warranted to promote mental health among HIVMSM, as depression/anxiety was highly prevalent. Such interventions should consider enhancement of gratitude, reduction of stress, and removal of enacted stigma as potential strategies, as such factors were significantly associated with depression/anxiety among HIVMSM.

  14. Association between the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and the Level of Coffee Consumption among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keyhoon; Kim, Kyuwoong; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    Background As coffee consumption is increasing remarkably over the past decade, the health effects concerning the coffee drinking has gained a wide attention across the nation. However, there is not a true consensus regarding the effects of coffee on metabolic disease. Therefore, this study aims to examine the association between coffee intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean women Methods We used publicly accessible datasets collected through Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 20,435 individuals from five consecutive years’ worth of data from 2007 to 2011, only 15,691 subjects qualified for statistical analysis upon applying the exclusion criteria. We carried out the statistical analysis utilizing SPSS Statistics version 13.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY.) and STATA statistical software release 13.0 (STATA Corp., College Station, TX). Results We found that the frequency of coffee intake inversely correlates with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women. Upon adjusting for life-style factors, socioeconomic status, and nutritional profile, the subjects from the highest coffee consumption quartile exhibited 40% lower odds of suffering from metabolic syndrome compared to those in the control (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.67–0.84; P for trend < 0.001). Also, we observed that age- and BMI-adjusted HOMA-IR decreased as the coffee consumption increased (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusion The findings of our study suggest that coffee consumption might be associated with reduction of metabolic syndrome in Korean women. To elucidate this cross-sectional association between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome in women, cohort studies are warranted to confirm this relationship. PMID:27977716

  15. ADHD and Depression Symptoms in Parent Couples Predict Response to Child ADHD and ODD Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; Dawson, Anne E; Egan, Theresa E; Sacchetti, Gina M; Tams, Sean T; Wymbs, Frances A

    2017-04-01

    Parents of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) often have elevated ADHD and depressive symptoms, both of which increase the risk of ineffective parenting and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether child ADHD/ODD behavior and parent ADHD or depressive symptoms uniquely or synergistically predict the quality of parenting and interparental communication during triadic (mother-father-child) interactions. Ninety parent couples, including 51 who have children diagnosed with ADHD, were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child (84 % male) exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Parents reported their own ADHD and depressive symptoms, and parents and observers rated the quality of parenting and interparental communication during the interaction. Actor-partner interdependence modeling indicated that child ADHD/ODD behavior predicted less positive and more negative parenting and communication, independent of adult ADHD and depressive symptoms. Parent couples including two parents with elevated ADHD communicated more positively while managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior than couples managing children behaving typically or couples with only one parent with elevated ADHD symptoms. Couples including one parent with, and one parent without, elevated ADHD or depressive symptoms parented less positively and more negatively, and communicated more negatively, when managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior than when managing children behaving typically. Taken together, depending on the similarity of ADHD and depressive symptom levels in parent couples, adults managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior may parent or communicate positively or negatively. Findings highlight the need to consider the psychopathology of both parents when treating children with ADHD in two-parent homes.

  16. Effects of total bilirubin on the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women without potential liver disease.

    PubMed

    Bian, Lu-Qin; Li, Rong-Zhen; Zhang, Zheng-Yun; Jin, Yan-Ji; Kang, Hyung-Wook; Fang, Zhen-Zhu; Park, Youn-Soo; Choi, Yoon-Ho

    2013-11-01

    It is still uncertain whether total bilirubin per se is a risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and no study has so far examined this important issue. This study was designed to assess the sheer effects of total bilirubin on the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women without potential liver disease. In the present study, postmenopausal female subjects without potential liver disease (n = 918) who underwent measurement of bone mineral density were enrolled. Correlation and logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between total bilirubin and other variables. As a result, subjects with osteoporosis had a significantly lower total bilirubin level (P = 0.005). A 0.1 mg/dl increase in total bilirubin was associated with reduced odds ratio of the risk by 38 % for osteoporosis [OR 0.62 (95 % CI 0.52-0.88), P = 0.012] after adjustment for several variables. Total bilirubin was independently associated with BMD [coefficient = 0.41, 95 % CI (0.35-0.47), P < 0.001 for lumbar spine and coefficient = 0.44, 95 % CI (0.36-0.48), P < 0.001 for femur neck]. A positive correlation could be observed with significant difference between total bilirubin and z-score (r = 0.33, P < 0.001 for lumbar spine and r = 0.37, P < 0.001 for femur neck) and total bilirubin was positively correlated with serum calcium (r = 0.13, P < 0.001) as well. Therefore, this study demonstrates an independent inverse association between total bilirubin and the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women without potential liver disease. Total bilirubin would be useful as a provisional new risk factor of osteoporosis in such a population.

  17. Agent Orange Exposure and Prevalence of Self-reported Diseases in Korean Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Conclusions Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure. PMID:24137524

  18. Prevalence of Depression and Associated Factors among Diabetic Patients at Mekelle City, North Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mossie, Tilahun Belete; Berhe, Gebreselassie Hagos; Kahsay, Gebremedhin Haile; Tareke, Minale

    2017-01-01

    Background: Coexistence of mental health problems on diabetes mellitus can result in poor management of the illness, poor adherence to treatment, and low quality of life. Therefore, it is highly crucial to assess these problems; thus we carried out this study with the aim of determining the prevalence of depression and identifying related factors among diabetic patients at city of Mekelle, North Ethiopia. Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was employed among 264 diabetic patients, and participants were selected through systematic random sampling technique. We used local language versions of Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Morisky 8 Item Medication Adherence Scale to assess the levels of depression, anxiety, and medication adherence, respectively. Socio-demographic and clinical factors were also assessed. We accomplish data entry, cleaning, and analysis through Statistical Package for Social Sciences window 20; also the level of significance was determined using adjusted odds ratio (OR). Results: The prevalence of depression among diabetic patients is 17% (95% confidence interval [CI]: [12.9%, 21.6%]). In addition, 28% and 18.2% has low medication adherence and comorbid anxiety, respectively. We identify anxiety disorder (AOR = 10.52, 95% CI: [4.56, 24.28]), poor medication adherence (AOR = 4.38, 95%CI: [1.98, 9.64]), and coexistence of other physical illness (AOR = 3.04, 95% CI: [1.11, 8.34]) as risk factors for depression. Conclusions: Depression is a common mental health problem among diabetic patients which is related to poor treatment adherence coexistence of other physical illness and anxiety disorder. This emphasizes to formulate a mechanism for early detection and appropriate intervention. PMID:28250559

  19. Prevalence and correlates of HIV among men who have sex with men in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Goodman-Meza, David; Burgos, Jose Luis; Abramovitz, Daniela; Chavarin, Claudia V; Torres, Karla; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Men who have sex with men (MSM) in developing countries such as Mexico have received relatively little research attention. In Tijuana, Mexico, a border city experiencing a dynamic HIV epidemic, data on MSM are over a decade old. Our aims were to estimate the prevalence and examine correlates of HIV infection among MSM in this city. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 191 MSM recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in 2012. Biological males over the age of 18 who resided in Tijuana and reported sex with a male in the past year were included. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and rapid tests for HIV and syphilis with confirmation. Results A total of 33 MSM tested positive for HIV, yielding an RDS-adjusted estimated 20% prevalence. Of those who tested positive, 89% were previously unaware of their HIV status. An estimated 36% (95% CI: 26.4–46.5) had been tested for HIV in the past year, and 30% (95% CI: 19.0–40.0) were estimated to have ever used methamphetamine. Independent correlates of being infected with HIV were methamphetamine use (odds ratio [OR]=2.24, p=0.045, 95% CI: 1.02, 4.92) and active syphilis infection (OR=4.33, p=0.01, 95% CI: 1.42, 13.19). Conclusions Our data indicate that MSM are a key sub-population in Tijuana at higher risk for HIV. Tijuana would also appear to have the highest proportion among upper-middle-income countries of HIV-positive MSM who are unknowingly infected. More HIV prevention research on MSM is urgently needed in Tijuana. PMID:25669423

  20. High Levels of Heavy Metals Increase the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in the Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite increasing concern regarding health problems as a result of environmental pollutants, no association of toxic heavy metals with sarcopenia has been demonstrated in the general population. We investigated the association of heavy metals, including lead, mercury and cadmium, with sarcopenia in the Korean population. Methods Participants included 344 males and 360 females older than 65 years based on data from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys. Measurements of blood lead, mercury and cadmium levels were performed. To evaluate the cumulative effect of the three heavy metals, subjects were categorized into quartiles. Sarcopenia was defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) (SMI<5.4 kg/m2 in females and <7.0 kg/m2 in males). Results Of 704 elderly persons (344 in males and 360 in females), prevalences of sarcopenia were 26.7% (92/344) in male and 7.5% (27/360) in female. Mean serum levels of lead in sarcopenia group were significantly higher than non-sarcopenia males (P=0.03). After adjustment for confounding factors, odds ratio for sarcopenia were increased with concentration category of lead (P=0.005 and P<0.001), mercury (P=0.001 and P<0.001) and cadmium (P=0.010 and P<0.001) in males and females, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates that high levels of blood lead, mercury and cadmium increase the prevalence of sarcopenia in both genders of elderly populations. PMID:27294082

  1. Racial Differences in the Prevalence and Outcomes of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Subir; Qazi, Mohammad; Erande, Ashwini; Shah, Kunjan; Amin, Alpesh; Patel, Pranav; Malik, Shaista

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that roughly 15% to 30% of those with heart failure (HF) develop atrial fibrillation (AF). Although studies have shown variations in the incidence of AF in patients with HF, there has been no evidence of mortality differences by race. The purpose of this study was to assess AF prevalence and inhospital mortality in patients with HF among different racial groups in the United States. Using the National Inpatient Sample registry, the largest publicly available all-payer inpatient care database representing >95% of the US inpatient population, we analyzed subjects hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of HF from 2001 to 2011 (n = 11,485,673) using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD 9) codes 428.0-0.1, 428.20-0.23, 428.30-0.33, 428.40-0.43, and 428.9; patients with AF were identified using the ICD 9 code 427.31. We assessed prevalence and mortality among racial groups. Using logistic regression, we examined odds of mortality adjusted for demographics and co-morbidity using Elixhauser co-morbidity index. We also examined utilization of procedures by race. Of the 11,485,673 patients hospitalized with HF in our study, 3,939,129 (34%) had AF. Patients with HF and AF had greater inhospital mortality compared with those without AF (4.6% vs 3.3% respectively, p <0.0001). Additionally, black, Hispanic, Asian, and white patients with HF and AF had a 24%, 17%, 13%, and 6% higher mortality, respectively, than if they did not have AF. Among patients with HF and AF, minority racial groups had underutilization of catheter ablation and cardioversion compared with white patients. In conclusion, minority patients with HF and AF had a disproportionately higher risk of inpatient death compared with white patients with HF. We also found a significant underutilization of cardioversion and catheter ablation in minority racial groups compared with white patients. PMID:26970814

  2. Menstrual Needs and Associations with Sexual and Reproductive Risks in Rural Kenyan Females: A Cross-Sectional Behavioral Survey Linked with HIV Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, George; Burmen, Barbara; Otieno, Frederick; Odongo, Frederick; Odour, Clifford; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Amek, Nyanguara; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Odhiambo, Frank; Zeh, Clement; Kwaro, Daniel; Mills, Lisa A.; Laserson, Kayla F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Females in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have difficulty coping with menstrual needs, but few studies have examined the social or health implications of these needs. Methods: Responses from 3418 menstruating females aged 13–29 years were extracted from an HIV and behavioral risks cross-sectional survey conducted in rural western Kenya. We examined sanitary products used, provision of products from sexual partners or from transactional sex, and demographic and sexual exposures. Results: Overall, 75% of females reported using commercial pads and 25% used traditional materials such as cloth or items like paper or tissue, with 10% of girls <15 years old depending on makeshift items. Two-thirds of females with no education relied on traditional items. Having attended secondary school increased the odds of using commercial pads among married (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 4.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.25–7.12) and single females (AOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.04–4.55). Married females had lower odds of pad use if they reported early (<12 years of age) compared with later (≥18 years) sexual debut (64% vs. 78%, AOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21–0.97). Two-thirds of pad users received them from sexual partners. Receipt was lower among married females if partners were violent (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53–0.85). Receipt among single females was higher if they had two or more sexual partners in the past year (AOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.04–4.29). Prevalence of engaging in sex for money to buy pads was low (1.3%); however, 10% of 15-year-olds reported this, with girls ≤15 having significantly higher odds compared with females over 15 (AOR 2.84, 95% CI 0.89–9.11). The odds of having transactional sex for pads was higher among females having two or more partners in the past 12 months (AOR 4.86, 95% CI 2.06–11.43). Conclusions: Menstrual needs of impoverished females in rural LMICs settings likely leads to increased physical and sexual harms. Studies are required

  3. Studies of a Large Odd-Numbered Odd-Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8 Mn.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-26

    The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, María Luisa; Beletsky, Leo; Patiño, Efraín; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rocha, Teresita; Arredondo, Jaime; Bañuelos, Arnulfo; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI), which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Methods Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM) is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Results Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503). Respondents were predominantly male (86.5%) and ≤35 years old (42.6%). Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%), of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%); factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56–5.67) and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29–3.91), while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22–0.69), and wearing needle-stick resistant gloves (AOR: 0

  5. Atypical anticipatory postural adjustments during gait initiation among individuals with sub-acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Rajachandrakumar, Roshanth; Fraser, Julia E; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Inness, Elizabeth L; Biasin, Lou; Brunton, Karen; McIlroy, William E; Mansfield, Avril

    2017-02-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments, executed prior to gait initiation, help preserve lateral stability when stepping. Atypical patterns of anticipatory activity prior to gait initiation may occur in individuals with unilateral impairment (e.g., stroke). This study aimed to determine the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of atypical anticipatory postural adjustment patterns prior to gait initiation in a sub-acute stroke population. Forty independently-ambulatory individuals with sub-acute stroke stood on two force plates and initiated gait at a self-selected speed. Medio-lateral centre of pressure displacement was calculated and used to define anticipatory postural adjustments (shift in medio-lateral centre of pressure >10mm from baseline). Stroke severity, motor recovery, and functional balance and mobility status were also obtained. Three patterns were identified: single (typical), absent (atypical), and multiple (atypical) anticipatory postural adjustments. Thirty-five percent of trials had atypical anticipatory postural adjustments (absent and multiple). Frequency of absent anticipatory postural adjustments was negatively correlated with walking speed. Multiple anticipatory postural adjustments were more prevalent when leading with the non-paretic than the paretic limb. Trials with multiple anticipatory postural adjustments had longer duration of anticipatory postural adjustment and time to foot-off, and shorter unloading time than trials with single anticipatory postural adjustments. A high prevalence of atypical anticipatory control prior to gait initiation was found in individuals with stroke. Temporal differences were identified with multiple anticipatory postural adjustments, indicating altered gait initiation. These findings provide insight into postural control during gait initiation in individuals with sub-acute stroke, and may inform interventions to improve ambulation in this population.

  6. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa

    2017-01-03

    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  7. Metabolic syndrome in the Philippine general population: prevalence and risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Morales, Dante D; Punzalan, Felix Eduardo R; Paz-Pacheco, Elizabeth; Sy, Rody G; Duante, Charmaine A

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its component risk factors among Filipinos using three sets of criteria and to evaluate the association between MS and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The study utilised a multi-staged cluster sampling design. The prevalence of MS was found to be 11.9% by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP/ATP III) criteria, 14.5% by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and 18.6% by NCEP/ATP III criteria modified by the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NCEP/ATP III-AHA/NHLBI) criteria. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) occurred in 60.2% of men and 80.9% of women. Abdominal obesity was noted in 17.7% of men and 35.1% of women. Blood pressure (BP) > or = 130/85 mmHg was seen in 33.3%, hypertriglyceridaemia in 20.6% and fasting blood sugar > or = 100 mg/dL (5.55 mmol/L) in 7.1%. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that MS, by all three definitions, predisposed an individual to diabetes mellitus (DM) and stroke while MS by the IDF definition predisposed an individual to myocardial infarction (MI). Individuals with MS did not have a significant predisposition to angina and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Thus, the metabolic syndrome is common in Filipinos, with low HDL-C as the most prevalent component. The metabolic syndrome predisposes to diabetes mellitus and stroke, with a tendency to MI using the IDF criteria.

  8. Prevalence and Characteristics Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation Among Canadian Inuit from the 2007-2008 Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey.

    PubMed

    McIsaac, Kathryn E; Sellen, Daniel W; Lou, Wendy; Young, Kue

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, breastfeeding initiation in Canadian Inuit. We used data from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. Inuit children aged 3-5 years in 2007 or 2008 were randomly selected for the survey. Select household, maternal, infant and community characteristics were collected from the child's primary caregiver and entered into logistic regression models as potential predictors of breastfeeding initiation. Analyses were repeated in a subgroup of caregiver reports from biological mothers. The reported prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 67.6% (95% CI 62.4-72.8) overall and 85.1% (95% CI 80.2-90.1) in a subgroup of caregiver reports from biological mothers. Adjusted prevalence odds ratios (pOR) indicate the primary caregiver was an important determinant of breastfeeding (adopted parent vs. biological mother: pOR = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.07; other vs. biological mother: pOR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.74). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and having access to a community birthing facility were also potentially important, but not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, data from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey indicate breastfeeding is initiated for more than two-thirds of children, but rates are below the national average and this may be one of several pathways to poor health outcomes documented in many Inuit communities. Considered in the particular context of birthing facilities utilization and postnatal care arrangements in Inuit communities, these results suggest that increasing breastfeeding initiation will require health interventions that effectively engage all types of primary caregivers.

  9. Prevalence of anxiety and its correlates among older adults in Latin America, India and China: cross-cultural study

    PubMed Central

    Prina, A. Matthew; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Brayne, Carol; Prince, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Anxiety is a common mental disorder among older people who live in the Western world, yet little is known about its prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. Aims We investigated the prevalence of anxiety and its correlates among older adults in low- and middle-income countries with diverse cultures. Method Cross-sectional surveys of all residents aged 65 or over (n = 15 021) in 11 catchment sites in 7 countries (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru) were carried out as part of the 10/66 collaboration. Anxiety was measured by using the Geriatric Mental State Examination (GMS) and the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (AGECAT) diagnostic algorithm. Results The age- and gender-standardised prevalence of anxiety varied greatly across sites, ranging from 0.1% (95% CI 0.0–0.3) in rural China to 9.6% (95% CI 6.2–13.1) in urban Peru. Urban centres had higher estimates of anxiety than their rural counterparts with adjusted (age, gender and site) odds ratios of 2.9 (95% CI 1.7–5.3). Age, gender, socioeconomic status and comorbid physical illnesses were all associated with a GMS/AGECAT diagnosis of anxiety, and so was disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II). Conclusions Anxiety is common in Latin America. Estimates from this region are similar to the ones from high-income European countries found in the literature. As demographic change will occur more rapidly in these countries, further research exploring the mental health of older people in developing areas is vital, with the inclusion of other specific anxiety disorders, along with evidence for strategies for supporting those with these disorders. PMID:22016438

  10. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Factors Associated with Quality of Dialysis among Hemodialysis Patients in Southern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Shu-Fen; Chou, Yu-Ching; Sun, Chien-An; Hsueh, Shu-Chun; Yang, Tsan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among hemodialysis patients and factors associated with quality of dialysis. Methods: Data were collected from 377 long-term hemodialysis patients who received hemodialysis treatment from clinics in Tainan and Kaohsiung between November 2009 and February 2010. MetS was defined using criteria set by the adult treatment panel III (ATP-III). But, the cutpoint of waist circumference has been modified to adjust for Asian populations. The measurement of Kt/V was used as an indicator of the quality of dialysis. A below 1.4 Kt/V was considered poor dialysis quality. Results: Results showed that the prevalence of MetS among the chronic hemodialysis patients in this sample was 61.0%. Logistic regression results identified that the quality of dialysis in females was better than that in males (odds ratio (OR)=7.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.52-25.31). Better quality dialysis was associated with older age, longer treatment time, and increased blood flow rate (OR=1.49, 13.63, and 1.35, respectively). However, for every one kilogram increase in weight, the quality of dialysis decreased by 13 percents (OR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.83-0.92). Conclusions: MetS is common among hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycaemia were significantly higher among hemodialysis patients. Quality of dialysis related to gender, age, weight, and the dialysis prescription (treatment time and blood flow rate). PMID:22980378

  11. Patterns of amphibian infection prevalence across wetlands on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Love, Cara N; Winzeler, Megan E; Beasley, Rochelle; Scott, David E; Nunziata, Schyler O; Lance, Stacey L

    2016-08-31

    Amphibian diseases, such as chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranaviral disease caused by ranaviruses, are often linked to global amphibian population declines, yet the ecological dynamics of both pathogens are poorly understood. The goal of our study was to determine the baseline prevalence, pathogen loads, and co-infection rate of Bd and ranavirus across the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, a region with rich amphibian diversity and a history of amphibian-based research. We tested over 1000 individuals, encompassing 21 amphibian species from 11 wetlands for both Bd and ranavirus. The prevalence of Bd across individuals was 9.7%. Using wetland means, the mean (±SE) Bd prevalence was 7.9 ± 2.9%. Among toad species, Anaxyrus terrestris had 95 and 380% greater odds of being infected with Bd than Scaphiopus holbrookii and Gastrophryne carolinensis, respectively. Odds of Bd infection in adult A. terrestris and Lithobates sphenocephalus were 75 to 77% greater in metal-contaminated sites. The prevalence of ranavirus infections across all individuals was 37.4%. Mean wetland ranavirus prevalence was 29.8 ± 8.8% and was higher in post-metamorphic individuals than in aquatic larvae. Ambystoma tigrinum had 83 to 85% higher odds of ranavirus infection than A. opacum and A. talpoideum. We detected a 4.8% co-infection rate, with individuals positive for ranavirus having a 5% higher occurrence of Bd. In adult Anaxyrus terrestris, odds of Bd infection were 13% higher in ranavirus-positive animals and odds of co-infection were 23% higher in contaminated wetlands. Overall, we found the pathogen prevalence varied by wetland, species, and life stage.

  12. α -decay spectra of odd nuclei using the effective Skyrme interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. E.; Carlsson, B. G.; Åberg, S.

    2015-07-01

    Background: For nuclei heavier than 208Pb α decay is a dominating decay mode. α decay of odd nuclei can give spectroscopic information because different states in the daughter nucleus can be populated in the decay. Purpose: To explore and test microscopic descriptions of α decay of odd nuclei based on self-consistent models with effective nuclear interactions. To predict the hindrance of α decay of odd-A superheavy nuclei. Methods: We apply the method of our previous work [15e D. E. Ward, B. G. Carlsson, and S. Åberg, Phys. Rev. C 88, 064316 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevC.88.064316] to the case of odd-A near-spherical nuclei. The Skyrme effective interaction SLy4 is used. Starting from the obtained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov vacuum and quasiparticle excitations, the α -particle formation amplitude is calculated giving the decay rates and hindrance of different α -decay channels. Result: The calculated relative decay rates show good agreement with available data. The hindrance of decay channels where the odd nucleon changes orbital is reasonably described by the microscopic calculation. Several hindered ground-state decays of superheavy nuclei are predicted, implying possible α -γ coincidences. Conclusions: The approach offers a practical method of making quantitative predictions for the relative hindrance of different α -decay channels.

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yong; Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph TF; Li, Jinghua; Ma, Tiecheng; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, transgender women sex workers have a high prevalence of HIV and condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients (CRAIMC). We investigated the prevalence of CRAIMC and factors associated with CRAIMC among transgender women sex workers in China. Methods In 2014, we anonymously interviewed 220 transgender women sex workers face to face in Shenyang, China. Those who self-reported as HIV negative or as having unknown HIV serostatus were invited to take up free, anonymous HIV rapid testing (n=183); 90 did so. Using CRAIMC in the last month as the dependent variable, three types of associated factors were investigated, in addition to background factors: feminizing medical interventions, sex work and perceptions related to condom use. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Results Of the participants, 16.8% self-reported as HIV positive and 9.1% were detected to be HIV positive through free HIV testing; 26.8% had had CRAIMC in the last month, 45.5% had performed sex work in other Chinese cities (last year), and 23.2% had had condomless anal intercourse with men who were non-clients. In the adjusted analysis, significant factors associated with CRAIMC (last month) included the following: 1) any feminizing medical intervention performed (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 2.22); 2) sex-work-related factors, including recruitment of male clients most often at hotels (AOR: 5.02) and charge per episode of transactional sex (201 to 400 RMB, AOR: 0.27; reference group: ≤100 RMB); and 3) perceptions related to condom use, including perceived transgender identity's impact on condomless sex such as wearing feminine attire, concern about exposing their status as a transgender woman to male clients (AOR: 1.20) and perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients (AOR: 0.56). Perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients fully mediated the association between perceived transgender identity's impact

  14. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  15. Adjusting for bias due to incomplete case ascertainment in case-control studies of birth defects.

    PubMed

    Howards, Penelope P; Johnson, Candice Y; Honein, Margaret A; Flanders, W Dana

    2015-04-15

    Case-control studies of birth defects might be subject to selection bias when there is incomplete ascertainment of cases among pregnancies that are terminated after a prenatal diagnosis of the defect. We propose a simple method to estimate inverse probability of selection weights (IPSWs) for cases ascertained from both pregnancies that end in termination and those that do not end in termination using data directly available from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and other published information. The IPSWs can then be used to adjust for selection bias analytically. We can also allow for uncertainty in the selection probabilities through probabilistic bias analysis. We provide an illustrative example using data from National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2009) to examine the association between prepregnancy obesity (body mass index, measured as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared, of ≥30 vs. <30) and spina bifida. The unadjusted odds ratio for the association between prepregnancy obesity and spina bifida was 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.26, 1.73), and the simple selection bias-adjusted odds ratio was 1.26 (95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.53). The probabilistic bias analysis resulted in a median adjusted odds ratio of 1.22 (95% simulation interval: 0.97, 1.47). The proposed method provides a quantitative estimate of the IPSWs and the bias introduced by incomplete ascertainment of cases among terminated pregnancies conditional on a set of assumptions.

  16. Comparable-Worth Adjustments: Yes--Comparable-Worth Adjustments: No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Sue; O'Neill, June

    1985-01-01

    Two essays address the issue of pay equity and present opinions favoring and opposing comparable-worth adjustments. Movement of women out of traditionally female jobs, the limits of "equal pay," fairness of comparable worth and market-based wages, implementation and efficiency of comparable worth system, and alternatives to comparable…

  17. The prevalence and consequences of malnutrition risk in elderly Albanian intensive care unit patients

    PubMed Central

    Shpata, Vjollca; Ohri, Ilir; Nurka, Tatjana; Prendushi, Xhensila

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Many investigators have reported rising numbers of elderly patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition risk in the ICU by comparing the prevalence of malnutrition between older adults (aged 65 years and above) and adults (aged 18–64 years), and to examine the negative consequences associated with risk of malnutrition in older adults. Materials and methods A prospective cohort study in the ICU of the University Hospital Center of Tirana, Albania, was conducted. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of malnutrition risk on the length of ICU stay, the duration of being on the ventilator, the total complications, the infectious complications, and the mortality. Results In this study, 963 patients participated, of whom 459 patients (47.7%) were aged ≥65 years. The prevalence of malnutrition risk at the time of ICU admission of the patients aged ≥65 years old was 71.24%. Logistic regression adjusted for confounders showed that malnutrition risk was an independent risk factor of poor clinical outcome for elderly ICU patients, for 1) infections (odds ratio [OR] =4.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61–7.31); 2) complications (OR =6.73; 95% CI: 4.26–10.62); 3) mortality (OR =2.68; 95% CI: 1.72–4.18); and 4) ICU length of stay >14 days (OR =5.18, 95% CI: 2.43–11.06). Conclusion Malnutrition risk is highly prevalent among elderly ICU patients, especially among severely ill patients with malignancy admitted to the emergency ward. ICU elderly patients at malnutrition risk will have higher complication and infection rates, longer duration of ICU stay, and increased mortality. Efforts should be made to implement a variety of nutritional care strategies, to change the nutritional practices not only at ward level, but nationally, according to the best clinical practice and recent guidelines. PMID:25733824

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes in older Vietnam-born Australians.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duong Thuy; Jorm, Louisa R; Johnson, Maree; Bambrick, Hilary; Lujic, Sanja

    2014-02-01

    Vietnamese immigrants in Australia represent the second largest Vietnamese community in developed countries, following the United States. However, limited information is available about prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relative roles of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and Vietnamese ethnicity per se in this population. This study investigated the prevalence of T2D and its risk factors in older Vietnam-born Australians, in comparison to native-born Australians. The study used baseline questionnaire data from 787 Vietnam- and 196,866 Australia-born individuals (≥45 years), who participated in the 45 and Up Study, which is Australia's largest population-based cohort study. Country of birth specific prevalence of T2D and its risk factors were age-standardised to the 2006 Australian population (≥45 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were built for each group to assess the relationship between T2D and socio-demographic characteristics, family history of diabetes, lifestyle factors and health status. Compared to Australia-born counterparts, Vietnam-born individuals had significantly (p < 0.001) higher age-standardised prevalence of T2D (14.7 vs 7.4 %) and significantly (p < 0.001) lower levels of vegetable consumption (≥5 serves/day, 19.4 vs 33.5 %), physical activity (≥5 sessions/week, 68.7 vs 78.5 %) and overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2), 21.5 vs 62.7 %). The increased risk of T2D associated with a family history of diabetes for Vietnam-born people [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.14, 95 % CI 4.15-12.28] was almost double that for Australia-born people (OR 3.77, 95 % CI 3.63-3.90). The patterns of association between T2D and other factors were similar between the two groups. The findings suggest a genetic predisposition to T2D in people of Vietnamese ethnicity. Reducing lifestyle risk factors for diabetes and better management of diabetes are priorities for Vietnam-born populations.

  19. High Tuberculosis Prevalence in a South African Prison: The Need for Routine Tuberculosis Screening

    PubMed Central

    Telisinghe, Lilanganee; Fielding, Katherine L.; Malden, Justin L.; Hanifa, Yasmeen; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Grant, Alison D.; Charalambous, Salome

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is a major health concern in prisons, particularly where HIV prevalence is high. Our objective was to determine the undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (“undiagnosed tuberculosis”) prevalence in a representative sample of prisoners in a South African prison. In addition we investigated risk factors for undiagnosed tuberculosis, to explore if screening strategies could be targeted to high risk groups, and, the performance of screening tools for tuberculosis. Methods and Findings In this cross-sectional survey, male prisoners were screened for tuberculosis using symptoms, chest radiograph (CXR) and two spot sputum specimens for microscopy and culture. Anonymised HIV antibody testing was performed on urine specimens. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of symptoms and investigations were calculated, using Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated on sputum culture as the gold standard. From September 2009 to October 2010, 1046 male prisoners were offered enrolment to the study. A total of 981 (93.8%) consented (median age was 32 years; interquartile range [IQR] 27–37 years) and were screened for tuberculosis. Among 968 not taking tuberculosis treatment and with sputum culture results, 34 (3.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4–4.9%) were culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. HIV prevalence was 25.3% (242/957; 95% CI 22.6–28.2%). Positive HIV status (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.0; 95% CI 1.0–4.2) and being an ex-smoker (aOR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2–5.9) were independently associated with undiagnosed tuberculosis. Compared to the gold standard of positive sputum culture, cough of any duration had a sensitivity of 35.3% and specificity of 79.6%. CXR was the most sensitive single screening modality (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 92.2%). Adding CXR to cough of any duration gave a tool with sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 73.8%. Conclusions Undiagnosed tuberculosis and HIV prevalence was high in this prison

  20. Prevalence and Persistence of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Washburn, Jason J.; Dulcan, Mina K.

    2013-01-01

    Context Psychiatric disorders are prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. Most juveniles eventually return to their communities, where they become the responsibility of the community mental health system. Yet, no large-scale study has examined psychiatric disorders after youth leave detention. Objective To examine changes in prevalence and persistence of disorders during the 5 years after detention, focusing on sex and racial/ethnic differences. Design Prospective longitudinal study with up to 5 interviews (N = 1829). To ensure representation of key demographic subgroups, the randomly selected sample was stratified by sex, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic), age, and legal status (juvenile or adult court). Setting The Northwestern Juvenile Project, sampling youth from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, Chicago, Illinois. Participants Detained youth, 10 to 18 years at baseline interview. Main Outcome Measures At baseline, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3. At follow-ups, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (Child and Young Adult versions) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version IV (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). Results Five years after baseline, more than 45% of males and nearly 30% of females had one or more psychiatric disorders with associated impairment. Substance use disorders were the most common disorders; males, however, had higher rates over time (5 years after baseline, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.61; 95% CI, 1.96–3.47). Non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics also had higher rates of substance use disorders compared with African Americans (respectively, AOR, 1.96, 95% CI, 1.54–2.49; AOR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.24–2.03). Females had higher rates of major depression over time (AOR, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.22–2.08). Conclusions Although prevalence rates of most psychiatric disorders declined over time, a substantial proportion of

  1. Prevalence rates for diabetes mellitus in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Haddock, L; de Conty, I T

    1991-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze prevalence data for diabetes mellitus obtained from a household interview of a random sample of the general population by the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for the years 1975-1986. Details of the prevalence rate by sex and age were analyzed for the years 1981, 1984, 1985, and 1986 and for the urban and rural population in 1985. The mean prevalence rate of known cases of diabetes showed a tendency to increase from 3.1% in 1975 to 5.1% in 1986. Prevalence rates adjusted for age and sex showed an increase in the mean prevalence for 1986 compared with that of 1981. The prevalence rate was significantly higher for the rural population for the age-group 45-64 yr old and for the urban population for the age-group greater than or equal to 65 yr. The prevalence rate compares with that of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans in the New York City area. On the basis of the prevalence data, approximately 90% of the diabetic population is non-insulin dependent and 10% are insulin dependent. Major risk factors thought to explain the increased prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes are increasing longevity of the Puerto Rican population, genetic predisposition, obesity, and changes in life-styles. In conclusion, Puerto Ricans, as other Hispanic Americans, have a higher prevalence of diabetes than the white American population.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in people reporting chronic pain: results from a cross-sectional general population study.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Nicola J; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J; McGilchrist, Mark M; Dominiczak, Anna F; Morris, Andrew; Porteous, David J; Goebel, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    To explore whether chronic pain is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and identify whether increased distribution or intensity of pain is associated with cardiovascular risk, participants in Generation Scotland: The Scottish Family Health study completed pain questionnaires recording the following: presence of chronic pain, distribution of pain, and intensity of chronic pain. Blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, smoking history, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index were recorded; Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores were calculated and a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome derived. Associations between chronic pain and cardiovascular risk were explored. Of 13,328 participants, 1100 (8.3%) had high CHD risk. Chronic pain was reported by 5209 (39%), 1294 (9.7%) reported widespread chronic pain, and 707 (5.3%) reported high-intensity chronic pain. In age- and gender-adjusted analyses, chronic pain was associated with elevated CHD risk scores (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.23) and the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.24-1.62). Multivariate analyses identified dyslipidaemia, age, gender, smoking, obesity, and high waist-hip ratio as independently associated with chronic pain. Within the chronic pain subgroup, widespread pain did not confer any additional cardiovascular disease risk. However, cardiovascular disease risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome were more prevalent in those reporting high-intensity chronic pain. This large population-based study has demonstrated that chronic pain, and in particular high-intensity chronic pain, is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome. The 10-year CHD risk score and metabolic syndrome correlate well with increased pain intensity, but not with widespread pain.

  3. Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey; Carey, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Ten years of research that has provided data regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions is reviewed. A thorough review of the literature identified 52 studies that have been published in the 10 years since an earlier review by Spector and Carey (1990). Community samples indicate a current prevalence of 0 - 3% for male orgasmic disorder, 0 - 5% for erectile disorder, and 0 - 3% for male hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Pooling current and 1-year figures provides community prevalence estimates of 7 - 10% for female orgasmic disorder and 4 - 5% for premature ejaculation. Stable community estimates of the current prevalence for the other sexual dysfunctions remain unavailable. Prevalence estimates obtained from primary care and sexuality clinic samples are characteristically higher. Although a relatively large number of studies have been conducted since Spector and Carey’s (1990) review, the lack of methodological rigor of many studies limits the confidence that can be placed in these findings. PMID:11329727

  4. Ground-state properties of even and odd Magnesium isotopes in a symmetry-conserving approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrajo, Marta; Egido, J. Luis

    2017-01-01

    We present a self-consistent theory for odd nuclei with exact blocking and particle number and angular momentum projection. The demanding treatment of the pairing correlations in a variation-after-projection approach as well as the explicit consideration of the triaxial deformation parameters in a projection after variation method, together with the use of the finite-range density-dependent Gogny force, provides an excellent tool for the description of odd-even and even-even nuclei. We apply the theory to the Magnesium isotopic chain and obtain an outstanding description of the ground-state properties, in particular binding energies, odd-even mass differences, mass radii and electromagnetic moments among others.

  5. Global systematics of unique parity quasibands in odd-A collective nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Cǎta-Danil, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Stroe, L.; Ur, C. A.

    1994-04-01

    All known structures in the collective medium and heavy odd-A nuclei, based on the unique parity orbitals g9/2, h11/2, and i13/2, are collected and correlations between the energies within both the favored and unfavored quasibands are analyzed. A first startling result is that irrespective of the nature of the odd particle and the shell model orbital, for most of the nondeformed nuclei the energies within these quasibands, show a universal behavior of an anharmonic vibrator with a constant anharmonicity, identical with that found for the even-even nuclei. Second, the rapid transition between the anharmonic vibrator and the rotor regimes, which takes place in the even-even nuclei, is accompanied, in the adjacent odd-A nuclei, by an equally rapid transition from the anharmonic vibrator to the strong coupling regime.

  6. Positive parity low spin states of odd-mass tellurium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazar, Harun Reşit

    2006-11-01

    In this work, we analyse the positive parity of states of odd-mass nucleus within the framework of interacting boson fermion model. The result of an IBFM-1 multilevel calculation with the lg 9/2, 2d 5/2, 2d 3/2, 3s 1/2 and one level, 1h 11/2 with negative parity, single particle orbits is reported for the positive parity states of the odd mass nucleus 123-125Te. Also, an IBM-1 calculation is presented for the low-lying states in the even-even 124-126Te core nucleus. The energy levels and B (E2) transition probabilities were calculated and compared with the experimental data. It was found that the calculated positive parity low spin state energy spectra of the odd-mass 123-125Te isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  7. Odd-parity superconductivity by competing spin-orbit coupling and orbital effect in artificial heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Yanase, Youichi

    2015-11-01

    We show that odd-parity superconductivity occurs in multilayer Rashba systems without requiring spin-triplet Cooper pairs. A pairing interaction in the spin-singlet channel stabilizes the odd-parity pair-density-wave (PDW) state in the magnetic field parallel to the two-dimensional conducting plane. It is shown that the layer-dependent Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the orbital effect play essential roles for the PDW state in binary and tricolor heterostructures. We demonstrate that the odd-parity PDW state is a symmetry-protected topological superconducting state characterized by the one-dimensional winding number in the symmetry class BDI. The superconductivity in the artificial heavy-fermion superlattice CeCoIn5/YbCoIn5 and bilayer interface SrTiO3/LaAlO3 is discussed.

  8. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, “vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck” was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of “vehicle type” variable, further investigation of vehicle “stiffness” and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244

  9. Even- and odd-parity finite-element transport solutions in the thick diffusion limit

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.

    1991-01-07

    We analyze the behavior of odd-parity continuous finite-element methods (CFEMs) for problems that contain diffusive regions. We find that each of these method produces a solution that, to leading order inside diffusive regions, satisfies a discretization of the diffusion equation. We find further that these leading-order solutions satisfy boundary conditions that can lead to large errors in the interior solution. We recognize, however, that we can combine an odd-purity CFEM solution and an even-parity CFEM solution and obtain a solution that satisfies very accurate boundary conditions. Our analysis holds in three-dimensional Cartesian geometry, with an arbitrary spatial grid. We give numerical results from slab-geometry; these invariably agree with the predictions of the analysis. Finally, we introduce a rapidly-convergent diffusion-synthetic acceleration scheme for the odd-parity CFEMs, which we believe is new. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Atmospheric odd oxygen production due to the photodissociation of ordinary and isotopic molecular oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.; Frederick, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations are performed to determine the contributions of the Schumann-Runge bands of ordinary and isotopic oxygen to the photodissociation of these molecules at different altitudes. The contributions to the dissociation rates of the satellite lines and of the first and higher vibrational states of the initial molecular states are found to be insignificant. At 70 km, (O-16)(O-18) is found to produce 10 times as much odd oxygen as would be produced if the isotope did not have selective absorption, and 6 percent of the odd oxygen produced is due to this isotope. It is noted that the excess odd oxygen produced is not enough to explain the excess quantity of ozone observed in the atmosphere, which cannot be accounted for in photochemical models. Comparison with previous results is made.

  11. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students

    PubMed Central

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don

    2013-01-01

    Background An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents’ consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. Methods We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. Results About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or “other.” Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84–4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90–2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. Interpretation The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of

  12. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  13. Can financial insecurity and condescending treatment explain the higher prevalence of poor self-rated health in women than in men? A population-based cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Women have in general poorer self-rated health than men. Both material and psychosocial conditions have been found to be associated with self-rated health. We investigated whether two such factors, financial insecurity and condescending treatment, could explain the difference in self-rated health between women and men. Methods The association between the two factors and self-rated health was investigated in a population-based sample of 35,018 respondents. The data were obtained using a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18-75 years in 2008. The area covers 55 municipalities in central Sweden and the overall response rate was 59%. Multinomial odds ratios for poor self-rated health were calculated adjusting for age, educational level and longstanding illness and in the final model also for financial insecurity and condescending treatment. Results The prevalence of poor self-rated health was 7.4% among women and 6.0% among men. Women reported more often financial insecurity and condescending treatment than men did. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health in relation to good self-rated health was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.17-1.42) for women compared to men when adjusted for age, educational level and longstanding illness. The association became, however, statistically non-significant when adjusted for financial insecurity and condescending treatment. Conclusion The present findings suggest that women would have as good self-rated health as men if they had similar financial security as men and were not treated in a condescending manner to a larger extent than men. Longitudinal studies are, however, required to confirm this conclusion. PMID:22937777

  14. Odd sensation induced by moving-phantom which triggers subconscious motor program.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Takao; Kimura, Toshitaka; Kadota, Koji; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2009-06-03

    Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined short-term sensorimotor adaptations to treadmills and moving sleds, but the relationship between the odd sensation and behavioral properties in a real stopped-escalator situation has never been examined. Understanding this unique action-perception linkage would help us to assess the brain function connecting automatic motor controls and the conscious awareness of action. Here we directly pose a question: Does the odd sensation emerge because of the unfamiliar motor behavior itself toward the irregular step-height of a stopped escalator or as a consequence of an automatic habitual motor program cued by the escalator itself. We compared the properties of motor behavior toward a stopped escalator (SE) with those toward moving escalator and toward a wooden stairs (WS) that mimicked the stopped escalator, and analyzed the subjective feeling of the odd sensation in the SE and WS conditions. The results show that moving escalator-specific motor actions emerged after participants had stepped onto the stopped escalator despite their full awareness that it was stopped, as if the motor behavior was guided by a "phantom" of a moving escalator. Additionally, statistical analysis reveals that postural forward sway that occurred after the stepping action is directly linked with the odd sensation. The results suggest a dissociation between conscious awareness and subconscious motor control: the former makes us perfectly aware of the current environmental situation, but the latter automatically emerges as a result of highly habituated visual input no matter how unsuitable

  15. Combined prevalence of impaired glucose level or diabetes and its correlates in Lusaka urban district, Zambia: a population based survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition, from Communicable or Infectious to 'Non-Communicable' diseases (NCDs), such that cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes were responsible for 60% of all deaths globally in 2005, with more than 75% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. A survey was conducted to determine among other objectives the prevalence of diabetes and its association with physical fitness and biological factors. Methods A cross sectional study utilizing a modified World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance of NCDs was conducted in Lusaka district, Zambia. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants of age 25 years or older. All eligible members of a household that was selected were invited to participate in the study. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR), and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) together with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were obtained using Complex samples logistic regression Results A total of 1928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About half of the participants were of age 25-34 years (53.2%), and about a third of the respondents had attained secondary level of education (35.8%). The combined prevalence for impaired glucose level or diabetes was 4.0%. Age and mild hypertension were significantly associated with impaired levels of glucose or diabetes. Compared to participants in the age group 25-34 years, older participants were more likely to have impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.49 (95%CI [1.35, 2.92]) for 35-44 years age group, and AOR = 3.80 (95%CI [2.00, 7.23]) for 45 + years age group). Mild hypertension was associated with impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.57) (95%CI [1.44, 4.57])). Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes in Lusaka district has not reached an alarming level and it is now that interventions targeting the younger age group 25-34 years

  16. Nonparametric randomization-based covariate adjustment for stratified analysis of time-to-event or dichotomous outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Michael A; Koch, Gary G; Preisser, John S; Saville, Benjamin R

    2016-01-01

    Time-to-event or dichotomous outcomes in randomized clinical trials often have analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model or conditional logistic regression, respectively, to obtain covariate-adjusted log hazard (or odds) ratios. Nonparametric Randomization-Based Analysis of Covariance (NPANCOVA) can be applied to unadjusted log hazard (or odds) ratios estimated from a model containing treatment as the only explanatory variable. These adjusted estimates are stratified population-averaged treatment effects and only require a valid randomization to the two treatment groups and avoid key modeling assumptions (e.g., proportional hazards in the case of a Cox model) for the adjustment variables. The methodology has application in the regulatory environment where such assumptions cannot be verified a priori. Application of the methodology is illustrated through three examples on real data from two randomized trials.

  17. Adjustment Disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Adjustment Disorder is a condition strongly tied to acute and chronic stress. Despite clinical suggestion of a large prevalence in the general population and the high frequency of its diagnosis in the clinical settings, there has been relatively little research reported and, consequently, very few hints about its treatments. Methods the authors gathered old and current information on the epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidity, treatment and outcome of adjustment disorder by a systematic review of essays published on PUBMED. Results After a first glance at its historical definition and its definition in the DSM and ICD systems, the problem of distinguishing AD from other mood and anxiety disorders, the difficulty in the definition of stress and the implied concept of 'vulnerability' are considered. Comorbidity of AD with other conditions, and outcome of AD are then analyzed. This review also highlights recent data about trends in the use of antidepressant drugs, evidence on their efficacy and the use of psychotherapies. Conclusion AD is a very common diagnosis in clinical practice, but we still lack data about its rightful clinical entity. This may be caused by a difficulty in facing, with a purely descriptive methods, a "pathogenic label", based on a stressful event, for which a subjective impact has to be considered. We lack efficacy surveys concerning treatment. The use of psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants, in AD with anxious or depressed mood is not properly supported and should be avoided, while the usefulness of psychotherapies is more solidly supported by clinical evidence. To better determine the correct course of therapy, randomized-controlled trials, even for the combined use of drugs and psychotherapies, are needed vitally, especially for the resistant forms of AD. PMID:19558652

  18. Global correlations of unique parity structures in odd-A nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.; Cǎta-Danil, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Stroe, L.; Ur, C. A.; Casten, R. F.

    1996-02-01

    All known unique parity structures in precollective odd-A nuclei (having cores with {E(4 1+) }/{E(2 1+) } < 2.0 ) are shown to behave similarly to the yrast quasibands in the neighboring even-even nuclei. This is interpreted in terms of a pair addition mode. With previous results on collective nuclei, this gives a tripartite classification of the evolution of the unique parity quasibands in odd-A nuclei. A simple index for signature splitting is also developed which avoids the need for complex analysis of Routhian structures.

  19. Sensitivity of odd-harmonic amplitudes to open quotient and skewing quotient in glottal airflow.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo R

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a half-sinusoid has no odd harmonics other than the fundamental. If glottal flow in phonation were to approximate this exact waveshape, which is generally unlikely, some misperception of pitch and loss of vowel intelligibility would occur. The sensitivity of the glottal waveshape to this special shape is explored by systematically varying two parameters, open quotient and skewing quotient. Mild asymmetry (open quotient below 0.45 or above 0.55 and/or skewing quotient greater than 2.0) equalizes the odd-even harmonic series. Singers and speakers avoid the exact symmetry by skewing the flow pulse with source-filter interaction.

  20. High-purity Transmission of a Slow Light Odd Mode in a Photonic Crystal Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 3 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified...the disper- sion of ng;odd. We have calculated Δng ng;odd − ng;even from the mixed-mode spectrum and plotted it in Fig. 4( c ). The peak spacing and...mode MZCs; (b) direct transmission with- out MZC and transmission with mixed-mode MZCs; ( c )Δng ob- tained from the mixed-mode spectrum; the solid

  1. An odd-number limitation of extended time-delayed feedback control in autonomous systems.

    PubMed

    Amann, Andreas; Hooton, Edward W

    2013-09-28

    We propose a necessary condition for the successful stabilization of a periodic orbit, using the extended version of time-delayed feedback control. This condition depends on the number of real Floquet multipliers larger than unity and is therefore related to the well-known odd-number limitation in non-autonomous systems. We show that the period of the orbit that is induced by mismatching the delay time of the control scheme and the period of the uncontrolled orbit plays an important role in the formulation of the odd-number limitation in the autonomous case.

  2. Nonminimal derivative coupling scalar-tensor theories: Odd-parity perturbations and black hole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Cruz, Miguel; Delsate, Térence; Saavedra, Joel

    2015-11-01

    We derive the odd-parity perturbation equation for the nonminimal kinetic coupling sector of the general Horndeski theory, where the kinetic term is coupled to the metric and the Einstein tensor. We derive the potential of the perturbation, by identifying a master function and switching to tortoise coordinates. We then prove the mode stability under linear odd-parity perturbations of hairy black holes in this sector of Horndeski theory, when a cosmological constant term in the action is included. Finally, we comment on the existence of slowly rotating black hole solutions in this setup and discuss their implications on the physics of compact object configurations, such as neutron stars.

  3. Collective states of odd nuclei in a model with quadrupole-octupole degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Minkov, N. Drenska, S. B.; Yotov, P.; Bonatsos, D. Scheid, W.

    2007-08-15

    We apply the collective axial quadrupole-octupole Hamiltonian to describe the rotation-vibration motion of odd nuclei with Coriolis coupling between the even-even core and the unpaired nucleon.We consider that the core oscillates coherently with respect to the quadrupole and octupole axialdeformation variables. The coupling between the core and the unpaired nucleon provides a split paritydoublet structure of the spectrum. The formalism successfully reproduces the parity-doublet splitting in a wide range of odd-A nuclei. It provides model estimations for the third angular-momentum projection K on the intrinsic symmetry axis and the related intrinsic nuclear structure.

  4. Microscopic multiphonon method for odd nuclei and its application to 17O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gregorio, G.; Knapp, F.; Lo Iudice, N.; Vesely, P.

    2016-12-01

    An equations of motion phonon method is extended to odd nuclei. It generates an orthonormal basis out of an odd particle coupled to n -phonon core states (n =0 ,1 ,2 ,⋯ ), built of Tamm-Dancoff phonons, and formulates the eigenvalue problem in such a multiphonon particle-core space. 17O is chosen as testing ground. An intrinsic chiral Hamiltonian is adopted in a large configuration space to perform a calculation using a Hartree-Fock (HF) basis in a space encompassing up to two and, under simplifying assumptions, three phonons. The impact of the different phonon components on spectrum, moments, transitions, and dipole cross section is discussed.

  5. General conditions for proximity induced odd-frequency superconductivity in two-dimensional electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Enrico; Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity-coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling will exhibit odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Work supported by US DOE BES E304, KAW, ACS-PRF-53581-DNI5, and NSF-DMR-1455233.

  6. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia versus stimulus-dichotomy synaesthesia: Odd, even or something else?

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Plassart, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli-for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers)-elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent). This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been "rediscovered." Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth.

  7. Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of fragments emitted at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, I.; Lanzalone, G.; Agodi, C.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Han, J.; Maiolino, C.; Auditore, L.; Loria, D.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Cavallaro, S.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.

    2011-08-15

    Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of light fragments emitted at forward angles in nuclear collisions {sup 40}Ca + {sup 40}Ca, {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon and identified in charge and mass with the Chimera multidetector have been analyzed. The amplitude of even-odd staggering effects seems to be related to the neutron to proton ratio N/Z of the entrance channels. A qualitative explanation of this effect, taking into account the deexcitation phase of primary excited fragments, is discussed.

  8. Sexual Behavior, HIV Prevalence and Awareness Among Wives of Migrant Workers: Results from Cross-sectional Survey in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Alok; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Babu, Giridhara R.; Detels, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Background: Migration has been linked to the spread of HIV epidemic from the urban areas of western India to the rural areas of north India. Objectives: This is the first population-based study among the wives of migrant workers of Muzaffarpur district in Bihar with objectives to describe their sexual behavior within marriage, estimate the prevalence of HIV, and to know their awareness regarding HIV/AIDS. Methods: A two-stage cluster survey was conducted by randomly selecting 25 eligible wives from each of the 34 selected villages. A total of 850 wives were interviewed and the blood samples were collected for HIV testing. To determine the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-awareness, we calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 34 (3%) of 850 wives reported condom use with their husband. HIV prevalence was 0.59% (95% CI: 0.19-1.37%) among the wives of migrant workers. Out of 850 wives, 132 (15.5%) had heard about HIV. Condoms use (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.22-7.90) and premarital sex (OR=7.44, 95% CI: 1.6-33.67) were found significantly positively associated with HIV knowledge of wives. HIV awareness of the wives was significantly associated with age-group 15-24 years, literacy status, and possession of television and husbands’ literacy status. The knowledge about HIV among wives had significant positive impact on condoms use and premarital sex. HIV prevalence among the wives of migrant workers was higher than the prevalence among women in the general population. Education was found to be positively associated with awareness about HIV. Conclusions: Effective interventions are needed for increasing awareness of HIV among wives of migrant workers in Bihar. PMID:28331250

  9. Frequency of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis and pregnancy outcomes by maternal race-ethnicity, and the effect on the prevalence of trisomy 21, Metropolitan Atlanta, 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jodi M; Crider, Krista S; Cragan, Janet D; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Olney, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of trisomy 21 has been reported to differ by race-ethnicity, however, the results are inconsistent and the cause of the differences is unknown. Using data from 1996 to 2005 from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), we analyzed the use of prenatal cytogenetic testing and the subsequent use of elective termination among pregnancies affected with any MACDP-eligible birth defect and trisomy 21, by maternal race-ethnicity. We then examined whether these factors could explain the observed differences in the prevalence of trisomy 21 among race-ethnicity groups. Among all pregnancies with birth defects, prenatal cytogenetic testing as well as elective terminations after an abnormal prenatal cytogenetic test result were observed less frequently among Hispanic women than among non-Hispanic white women (odds ratio [OR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.78, respectively). In pregnancies affected by trisomy 21, both the Hispanic and the non-Hispanic black populations had more live births (89.5% and 77.8%, respectively) and fewer elective terminations (5.7% and 15.2%, respectively) compared to the non-Hispanic white population (63.0% live births, 32.3% elective terminations). After adjusting for elective terminations, non-Hispanic white mothers had a higher live birth prevalence of trisomy 21 compared to non-Hispanic black (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.54-0.76) or Hispanic mothers (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.86). Overall, our data suggest that factors associated with decisions made about the use of prenatal testing, and about pregnancy management after testing, might play a large role in the race-ethnicity differences observed in the live birth prevalence of trisomy 21.

  10. Prevalence Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis and malaria co-infection among pregnant women and risk factors in Gilgel Gibe dam Area, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria and Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis (STH) are co-endemic and major public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malaria and STHs co-infection and to determine the association risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional community based study was conducted on 388 pregnant women living in three districts around Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data, single stool sample and blood sample were collected from each participant. Results The prevalence of STH and malaria was 159 (41%) and 45 (11.6%), respectively and the prevalence of STHs/malaria co-infection was 30 (7.7%). Hookworm was the most prevalent 114 (29.4%) soil transmitted helminthiasis infection followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) 58 (15%) and Trichuris trichiura (T. trichiura) 13 (3.4%). Habit of eating soil (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 4.64, 95% CI: 1.50-14.36, P=0.008), presence of stagnant water near study participants’ house (AOR=2.99, 95% CI: 1.28-6.99, P=0.012) and habit of using human feces as a fertilizer (AOR= 5.34, 95% CI: 1.99-14.28, P<0.001) were found to be significantly associated with malaria and STH co-infection among the pregnant women. Hookworm parasitic load was positively correlated with malaria parasitic load (r = 0.299, P<0.001) while A. lumbricoides parasitic load was negatively correlated with malaria parasitic load (r = −0.095, P<0.001). Conclusion Intestinal parasite and/or malaria co-infection is a health problem among pregnant women living around Gilgel Gibe dam area. Therefore, intervention including improving sanitation, removing stagnant water, and health education to the pregnant women should be given. PMID:23837685

  11. Population-based study to estimate prevalence and determine risk factors of gallbladder diseases in the rural Gangetic basin of North India

    PubMed Central

    Unisa, Sayeed; Jagannath, Palepu; Dhir, Vinay; Khandelwal, Chiranjeeva; Sarangi, Lalatendu; Roy, Tarun Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Background A high prevalence of gallbladder diseases (GBD) in Northern India warranted a population survey into environmental risk factors. Methods In 60 villages of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar from 13 334 households, 22 861 persons aged >30 years were interviewed for symptoms of GBD, diet and environmental factors. Subsequently ultrasonography (US) was performed in 5100 and 1448 people with and without symptoms, respectively. Heavy metal and pesticide content in soil and water were estimated. Results US revealed a prevalence of GBD of 6.20%. GBD was more common in 5100 persons with symptoms (7.12%) compared with 1448 without (2.99%) (P < 0.05). Adjusted odds ratio (ORs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] revealed a significantly increased risk of GBD in females >50, 1.703 (CI 1.292–2.245); multiparity 1.862 (CI 1.306–2.655) and a genetic history 1.564 (CI 1.049–2.334). An increased risk noted in males with diabetes was 4.271 (CI 2.130–8.566), chickpea consumption 2.546 (CI 1.563–4.146) and drinking unsafe water 3.835 (CI 2.368–6.209). Prevalence of gallstones was 4.15%; more in females 5.59% than males 1.99% (P < 0.05). Cluster analysis identified a positive correlation of nickel, cadmium and chromium in water with a high prevalence of GBD in adjacent villages in Vaishali district, Bihar. Conclusion A high risk of GBD was observed in older, multiparous women and men with diabetes, intake of chickpeas, unsafe water and villages with heavy metal water pollution. PMID:21241429

  12. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  13. Dyadic Adjustment: An Ecosystemic Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; McCulloch, B. Jan; Stone, Katherine L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of background, individual, and family influences on dyadic adjustment, using an ecological perspective. Data from 102 married couples were used. Age at marriage for husbands, emotional health for wives, and number of marriage and family problems as well as family life satisfaction for both were related to dyadic…

  14. Problems of Adjustment to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolini, Leandro A.

    This paper, one of several written for a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education in Illinois, examines and summarizes the literature on the problems of young children in adjusting to starting school full-time and describes the nature and extent of their difficulties in relation to statewide educational policy. The review of studies…

  15. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  16. Association of Overweight with the Prevalence of Lifetime Psychiatric Disorders and Suicidality: General Population-based Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Soo; Chang, Sung Man; Seong, Su Jeong; Park, Jee Eun; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong Jin; Hahm, Bong Jin; Lee, Dong Woo; Park, Jong Ik; Lee, Jun Young; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-11-01

    Many epidemiological studies suggest that overweight is associated with an elevated risk of psychiatric disorders and suicidal tendency. However, findings vary across studies, and some have contradictory results. We investigated the relationship of overweight with a range of psychiatric disorders and suicidality in the Korean general population. A multistage cluster sampling design was adopted. A total of 6,022 participants aged 18-74 years completed face-to-face interviews (response rate: 78.7%) including assessment of psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and height and weight. Overweight (defined as body mass index of ≥ 25) was associated with an increase in the lifetime prevalence of depressive disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.77), suicidal ideation (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.20-1.68), and suicidal plans (AOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.02-2.03), controlling for sociodemographic variables. Subgroup analysis found that the association between overweight and depressive disorders exists only in women aged 18-44 years (AOR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.07-2.89) while the association of overweight with suicidal ideation (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.53-2.82) and suicide plans (AOR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.25-5.37) existed only in men aged 18-44 years. Overweight was associated with increased odds of nicotine use disorders in women aged 18-44 years (AOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.02-5.43), but the association was in the opposite direction in men aged 45-74 years (AOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.94). In conclusion, overweight is related to various psychiatric disorders and suicidality in Korea. Policy makers and clinicians should pay more attention to the mental health of overweight individuals.

  17. Association of Overweight with the Prevalence of Lifetime Psychiatric Disorders and Suicidality: General Population-based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies suggest that overweight is associated with an elevated risk of psychiatric disorders and suicidal tendency. However, findings vary across studies, and some have contradictory results. We investigated the relationship of overweight with a range of psychiatric disorders and suicidality in the Korean general population. A multistage cluster sampling design was adopted. A total of 6,022 participants aged 18–74 years completed face-to-face interviews (response rate: 78.7%) including assessment of psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and height and weight. Overweight (defined as body mass index of ≥ 25) was associated with an increase in the lifetime prevalence of depressive disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.77), suicidal ideation (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.20–1.68), and suicidal plans (AOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.02–2.03), controlling for sociodemographic variables. Subgroup analysis found that the association between overweight and depressive disorders exists only in women aged 18–44 years (AOR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.07–2.89) while the association of overweight with suicidal ideation (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.53–2.82) and suicide plans (AOR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.25–5.37) existed only in men aged 18–44 years. Overweight was associated with increased odds of nicotine use disorders in women aged 18–44 years (AOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.02–5.43), but the association was in the opposite direction in men aged 45–74 years (AOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43–0.94). In conclusion, overweight is related to various psychiatric disorders and suicidality in Korea. Policy makers and clinicians should pay more attention to the mental health of overweight individuals. PMID:27709862

  18. Fatalism and hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in US Hispanics/Latinos: results from HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Angela P; McCurley, Jessica L; Roesch, Scott C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Castañeda, Sheila F; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C

    2016-08-08

    Compared with non-Hispanic whites, US Hispanics/Latinos display similar hypertension prevalence, but lower awareness, treatment, and control. Sociocultural factors may affect these patterns. Fatalism, the belief that health is predetermined by fate, relates to poorer adoption of risk reducing health behaviors. We examined the association of fatalism with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among 5313 Hispanics/Latinos, ages 18-74, who were enrolled from four US communities in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. After accounting for socioeconomic status and acculturation in logistic regression analyses, higher fatalism was associated with increased odds of hypertension (OR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.02, 1.28). This association was non-significant when diabetes and other health-related covariates were statistically adjusted. Fatalism was not associated with hypertension awareness, treatment, or control. Findings suggest that the association of fatalism with hypertension may be due largely to its association with SES, acculturation, or related health conditions.

  19. Akathisia: prevalence and risk factors in a community-dwelling sample of patients with schizophrenia. Results from the FACE-SZ dataset.

    PubMed

    Berna, F; Misdrahi, D; Boyer, L; Aouizerate, B; Brunel, L; Capdevielle, D; Chereau, I; Danion, J M; Dorey, J M; Dubertret, C; Dubreucq, J; Faget, C; Gabayet, F; Lancon, C; Mallet, J; Rey, R; Passerieux, C; Schandrin, A; Schurhoff, F; Tronche, A M; Urbach, M; Vidailhet, P; Llorca, P M; Fond, G

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of akathisia in a community-dwelling sample of patients with schizophrenia, and to determine the effects of treatments and the clinical variables associated with akathisia. 372 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were systematically included in the network of FondaMental Expert Center for Schizophrenia and assessed with validated scales. Akathisia was measured with the Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS). Ongoing psychotropic treatment was recorded. The global prevalence of akathisia (as defined by a score of 2 or more on the global akathisia subscale of the BAS) in our sample was 18.5%. Patients who received antipsychotic polytherapy were at higher risk of akathisia and this result remained significant (adjusted odd ratio=2.04, p=.025) after controlling the influence of age, gender, level of education, level of psychotic symptoms, substance use comorbidities, current administration of antidepressant, anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, and daily-administered antipsychotic dose. The combination of second-generation antipsychotics was associated with a 3-fold risk of akathisia compared to second-generation antipsychotics used in monotherapy. Our results indicate that antipsychotic polytherapy should be at best avoided and suggest that monotherapy should be recommended in cases of akathisia. Long-term administration of benzodiazepines or anticholinergic drugs does not seem to be advisable in cases of akathisia, given the potential side effects of these medications.

  20. High HIV Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors Among Female Sexual Partners of Male Injection Drug Users (MWID) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nadol, Patrick; Tran, Hoang; Hammett, Theodore; Phan, Son; Nguyen, Duong; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Injection drug use is a major factor in acquiring and transmitting HIV in Vietnam. This analysis aims to present estimates of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV infection among female sex partners (FSP) of MWID in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 among males who inject drugs (MWID) who then referred their FSP for a behavioral and biologic survey. In total, 445 MWID and FSPs were enrolled. HIV prevalence among MWID was 50 and 35 % among FSPs. Among FSPs, 60.3 % reported ever using illegal drugs and among those, 72.7 % reported ever injecting illicit drugs. Among FSP, injection drug for >1 year [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR), 95 % CI 2.94, 1.19-7.26), p value = <0.001] and having a male partner infected with HIV [(aOR 3.35: 1.97-5.69), p value = <0.001] were associated with HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection is high among FSP of MWID in HCMC and is highly associated with the injection drug use behavior of the FSP. Harm-reduction intervention programs that focus on the MWID-FSP couple or directly on the FSPs are required.

  1. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Korean adults using the new International Diabetes Federation definition and the new abdominal obesity criteria for the Korean people.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Man; Kim, Dae Jung; Jung, In Hyun; Park, Chanwang; Park, Jong

    2007-07-01

    This study was performed to compare the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) definitions, and abdominal obesity criteria of WHO and the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO) in Korean adults. A total of 4452 adults aged > or =20 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 were analyzed. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome estimated by NCEP definition with WHO criteria, NCEP with KSSO, IDF with WHO, and IDF with KSSO were 26.7%, 23.7%, 23.8% and 17.5%, respectively. The agreement percent among the four definitions ranged from 88.7% to 100% in men, and from 85.6% to 94.9% in women. The NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome was more strongly associated with hypertension and diabetes than the IDF-defined metabolic syndrome (age-adjusted odds ratio: 5.1 versus 3.6 for hypertension and 6.4 versus 3.2 for diabetes in men, respectively; 5.4 versus 3.4-4.3 for hypertension and 11.1 versus 3.8-4.2 for diabetes in women, respectively). Both definitions of the metabolic syndrome were associated with coronary heart disease or stroke only in women. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the predictive ability of the new definition of the metabolic syndrome and the new criteria of abdominal obesity for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Korean adults.

  2. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity.

  3. Prevalence and degree of bother from pelvic floor disorders in obese women.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Emily L; Lukacz, Emily S; Lawrence, Jean M; Nager, Charles W; Luber, Karl M

    2009-03-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence and bother from pelvic floor disorders (PFD) by obesity severity, hypothesizing that both would increase with higher degrees of obesity. We performed a secondary analysis of 1,155 females enrolled in an epidemiologic study that used a validated questionnaire to identify PFD. Prevalence and degree of bother were compared across three obesity groups. Logistic regression assessed the contribution of degree of obesity to the odds of having PFD. Prevalence of any PFD was highest in morbidly (57%) and severely (53%) obese compared to obese women (44%). Regression models demonstrated higher prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse, overactive bladder, stress urinary incontinence, and any PFD in morbidly compared to obese women and higher prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in severely obese compared to obese women. Degree of bother did not vary by degree of obesity. Prevalence of PFD increases with higher degrees of obesity.

  4. Engineering Escherichia coli for odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-10-01

    Microbial biosynthesis of free fatty acids (FFAs) can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into Escherichia coli. The engineered E. coli usually produced even chain FFAs. In this study, propionyl-CoA synthetase (prpE) from Salmonella enterica was overexpressed in two efficient even chain FFAs producers, ML103 (pXZM12) carrying the acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica and ML103 (pXZ18) carrying the acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Ricinus communis combined with supplement of extracellular propionate. With these metabolically engineered E. coli, the odd straight chain FFAs, undecanoic acid (C11:0), tridecanoic acid (C13:0), and pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) were produced from glucose and propionate. The highest total odd straight chain FFAs produced by ML103 (pXZM12, pBAD-prpE) reached 276 mg/l with a ratio of 23.43 % of the total FFAs. In ML103 (pXZ18, pBAD-prpE), the highest total odd straight chain FFAs accumulated to 297 mg/l, and the ratio reached 17.68 % of the total FFAs. Due to the different substrate specificity of the acyl-ACP thioesterases, the major odd straight chain FFA components of ML103 (pXZM12, pBAD-prpE) were undecanoic acid and tridecanoic acid, while the ML103 (pXZ18, pBAD-prpE) preferred pentadecanoic acid.

  5. Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.

  6. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  7. Singular eigenstates in the even(odd) length Heisenberg spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Giri, Pulak; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-05-01

    We study the implications of the regularization for the singular solutions on the even(odd) length spin-1/2 XXX chains in some specific down-spin sectors. In particular, the analytic expressions of the Bethe eigenstates for three down-spin sector have been obtained along with their numerical forms in some fixed length chains. For an even-length chain if the singular solutions \\{{{λ }α }\\} are invariant under the sign changes of their rapidities \\{{{λ }α }\\}=\\{-{{λ }α }\\}, then the Bethe ansatz equations are reduced to a system of (M-2)/2((M-3)/2) equations in an even (odd) down-spin sector. For an odd N length chain in the three down-spin sector, it has been analytically shown that there exist singular solutions in any finite length of the spin chain of the form N=3(2k+1) with k=1,2,3,\\cdots . It is also shown that there exist no singular solutions in the four down-spin sector for some odd-length spin-1/2 XXX chains.

  8. Building and Solving Odd-One-Out Classification Problems: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Philippe E.

    2011-01-01

    Classification problems ("find the odd-one-out") are frequently used as tests of inductive reasoning to evaluate human or animal intelligence. This paper introduces a systematic method for building the set of all possible classification problems, followed by a simple algorithm for solving the problems of the R-ASCM, a psychometric test derived…

  9. Odd asymmetric factorization of Wiener-Hopf plus Hankel operators on variable exponent Lebesgue spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, L. P.; Silva, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to obtain an invertibility criterion for Wiener-Hopf plus Hankel operators acting between variable exponent Lebesgue spaces on the real line. This is obtained by a so-called odd asymmetric factorization which is applied to the Fourier symbols of the operators under study.

  10. Delaware Middle Schools Beating the Odds. Technical Report Number T2010.4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grusenmeyer, Linda; Fifield, Steve; Murphy, Aideen; Nian, Qinghua; Qian, Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    The investigation identified Delaware public and charter middle schools across the state which outperformed other Delaware middle schools with similar student demographic profiles. Teachers and administrators at six of these "Beating the Odds" schools and at six comparison middle schools were surveyed regarding their schools…

  11. Improving the Odds for Adolescents: State Policies That Support Adolescent Health and Well-Being. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Susan Wile; Aratani, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    For policymakers, adolescence presents an invaluable opportunity to ensure that all young people can access the high-quality services and supports they need to improve their odds of becoming successful, healthy, productive adults. At an historic moment when the provisions and breadth of health care reform are under vigorous debate, it is important…

  12. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  13. Anger and Irritability Symptoms among Youth with ODD: Cross-Informant versus Source-Exclusive Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2012-01-01

    We examined differences in co-occurring psychological symptoms and background characteristics among clinically referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with and without anger/irritability symptoms (AIS) according to either parent or teacher (source-exclusive) and both informants (cross-informant), youth with noncompliant symptoms…

  14. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839

  15. Changing the Odds: Informing Policy with Research on How Adult Learners Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condelli, Larry; Kirshstein, Rita; Silver-Pacuilla, Heidi; Reder, Stephen; Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    2010-01-01

    Research has identified the barriers adult learners face in attaining their education and English proficiency goals, entering and advancing in employment, succeeding in postsecondary education and training, and navigating service systems. Most adult learners face long odds in trying to meet these goals. What would it take to address these barriers…

  16. Partial proportional odds model-an alternate choice for analyzing pedestrian crash injury severities.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Menéndez, Mónica

    2014-11-01

    The conventional methods for crash injury severity analyses include either treating the severity data as ordered (e.g. ordered logit/probit models) or non-ordered (e.g. multinomial models). The ordered models require the data to meet proportional odds assumption, according to which the predictors can only have the same effect on different levels of the dependent variable, which is often not the case with crash injury severities. On the other hand, non-ordered analyses completely ignore the inherent hierarchical nature of crash injury severities. Therefore, treating the crash severity data as either ordered or non-ordered results in violating some of the key principles. To address these concerns, this paper explores the application of a partial proportional odds (PPO) model to bridge the gap between ordered and non-ordered severity modeling frameworks. The PPO model allows the covariates that meet the proportional odds assumption to affect different crash severity levels with the same magnitude; whereas the covariates that do not meet the proportional odds assumption can have different effects on different severity levels. This study is based on a five-year (2008-2012) national pedestrian safety dataset for Switzerland. A comparison between the application of PPO models, ordered logit models, and multinomial logit models for pedestrian injury severity evaluation is also included here. The study shows that PPO models outperform the other models considered based on different evaluation criteria. Hence, it is a viable method for analyzing pedestrian crash injury severities.

  17. Nodal lines and nodal loops in nonsymmorphic odd-parity superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklitz, T.; Norman, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the nodal structure of odd-parity superconductors in the presence of nonsymmorphic crystal symmetries, both with and without spin-orbit coupling, and with and without time-reversal symmetry. We comment on the relation of our work to previous work in the literature, and also the implications for unconventional superconductors such as UPt3.

  18. How Much More Likely? The Implications of Odds Ratios for Probabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Akiva M.

    2005-01-01

    Binary outcome data are common in research and evaluation. They are often analyzed using logistic regression, and results of these analyses are often reported in the form of odds ratios (ORs). However, ORs are not directly interpretable in the metric commonly used in policy-relevant discussions, which concerns probabilities. ORs are unfamiliar to…

  19. Even-odd spatial nonequivalence for atomic quantum gases with isotropic spin-orbit couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G. S.; Gupta, Reena

    2014-05-01

    A general expression for the density of states (DOS) of power-law trapped d-dimensional ideal quantum gases with isotropic spin-orbit couplings (SOCs) is derived and is found to bifurcate into even- dand odd- d classes. The expressions for the grand potential and hence for several thermodynamic quantities are then shown to be amenable to exact analytical forms provided d is an odd integer. Also, a condition γ < 2 d is obtained in case of odd- d for appearance of the Bose-Einstein condensation with γ as the power-law exponent. It is thus established that isotropic SOCs render even and odd dimensional spaces nonequivalent for uniform as well as trapped gases, and that the DOS of one-dimensional (1D) ideal gases, uniform or trapped, remains unaffected by the SOC. Furthermore, the analytical study of the transition temperature and the condensate fraction in a 3D Bose gas under combined presence of the harmonic trapping and the Weyl coupling shows that the condensation is favored by the former but disfavored by the latter. This countering behavior is discussed to be in conformity with the exchange-symmetry-induced statistical interactions resulting from these two entities as enunciated recently [Phys. Rev. A 88, 053607 (2013)].

  20. Empowerment Zone: Texas School Beats the Odds with a Shared Commitment to Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Timothy; Dow, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The odds were stacked against the new elementary school from the beginning. In its favor, the school was a beautiful building with an established principal. Beyond that, anyone would predict that the first year would be tough. The staff consisted of new teachers and transfers from across the district. The students were reassigned from two…

  1. Mother-Teacher Agreement on Preschoolers' Symptoms of ODD and CD: Does Context Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female…

  2. Learning in the Home and at School: How Working Class Children "Succeed against the Odds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents data collected in individual case studies that aimed to investigate children and their families who succeeded against the usual "odds" of disadvantage. Funded as an extension of EPPE 3-11 by the Cabinet Office for the Equalities Review, the study focused particularly closely upon the performance of disadvantaged…

  3. An Odds Ratio Approach for Detecting DDF under the Nested Logit Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Ragip; Suh, Youngsuk

    2015-01-01

    An odds ratio approach (ORA) under the framework of a nested logit model was proposed for evaluating differential distractor functioning (DDF) in multiple-choice items and was compared with an existing ORA developed under the nominal response model. The performances of the two ORAs for detecting DDF were investigated through an extensive…

  4. Systematic study of α decay for odd-A nuclei within a two-potential approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Chao; Deng, Jun-Gang; Guo, Ping; Li, Xiao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    α decay is usually associated with both ground and low-lying isomeric states of heavy and superheavy nuclei, and the unpaired nucleon plays a key role in α decay. In this work, we systematically studied the α decay half-lives of odd-A nuclei, including both favored and unfavored α decay within the two-potential approach based on the isospin dependent nuclear potential. The α preformation probabilities are estimated by using an analytic formula taking into account the shell structure and proton-neutron correlation, and the parameters are obtained through the α decay half-lives data. The results indicate that, in general, the α preformation probabilities of even-Z , odd-N nuclei are slightly smaller than the odd-Z , even-N ones. We found that the odd-even staggering effect may play a more important role on spontaneous fission than α decay. The calculated half-lives can well reproduce the experimental data.

  5. Spontaneous topological transitions of electromagnetic fields in spatially inhomogeneous C P -odd domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Metastable C P -odd domains of the hot QCD matter are coupled to QED via the chiral anomaly. The topology of electromagnetic field in these domains is characterized by magnetic helicity. It is argued, using the Maxwell-Chern-Simons model, that spatial inhomogeneity of the domains induces spontaneous transitions of electromagnetic field between the opposite magnetic helicity states.

  6. Sex Differences in Substance Use Among Adult Emergency Department Patients: Prevalence, Severity, and Need for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Francesca L.; Baird, Janette; Liu, Tao; Merchant, Roland C.

    2016-01-01

    between sexes for tobacco and drugs. After sociodemographic factors were adjusted for, women were less likely than men to need any intervention for alcohol (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4 to 0.8), but not other substances: tobacco (OR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.6 to 1.3), marijuana (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6 to 1.1), or other drugs (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7 to 1.7). Conclusions Although men have a higher overall prevalence of substance use, the frequency and severity of use were similar for men and women for most substances. After other characteristics were adjusted for, sex appears associated with the need for interventions for alcohol, but not tobacco, marijuana, or other drugs. PMID:26473942

  7. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within the OCC's jurisdiction is adjusted in accordance with the...

  8. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  9. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  10. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  11. Hindered Gamow-Teller decay to the odd-odd N=Z (62)Ga: absence of proton-neutron T=0 condensate in A=62.

    PubMed

    Grodner, E; Gadea, A; Sarriguren, P; Lenzi, S M; Grebosz, J; Valiente-Dobón, J J; Algora, A; Górska, M; Regan, P H; Rudolph, D; de Angelis, G; Agramunt, J; Alkhomashi, N; Amon Susam, L; Bazzacco, D; Benlliure, J; Benzoni, G; Boutachkov, P; Bracco, A; Caceres, L; Cakirli, R B; Crespi, F C L; Domingo-Pardo, C; Doncel, M; Dombrádi, Zs; Doornenbal, P; Farnea, E; Ganioğlu, E; Gelletly, W; Gerl, J; Gottardo, A; Hüyük, T; Kurz, N; Leoni, S; Mengoni, D; Molina, F; Morales, A I; Orlandi, R; Oktem, Y; Page, R D; Perez, D; Pietri, S; Podolyák, Zs; Poves, A; Quintana, B; Rinta-Antila, S; Rubio, B; Nara Singh, B S; Steer, A N; Verma, S; Wadsworth, R; Wieland, O; Wollersheim, H J

    2014-08-29

    Search for a new kind of superfluidity built on collective proton-neutron pairs with aligned spin is performed studying the Gamow-Teller decay of the T=1, J(π)=0+ ground state of (62)Ge into excited states of the odd-odd N=Z nucleus (62)Ga. The experiment is performed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Shwerionenforshung with the (62)Ge ions selected by the fragment separator and implanted in a stack of Si-strip detectors, surrounded by the RISING Ge array. A half-life of T1/2=82.9(14)  ms is measured for the (62)Ge ground state. Six excited states of (62)Ga, populated below 2.5 MeV through Gamow-Teller transitions, are identified. Individual Gamow-Teller transition strengths agree well with theoretical predictions of the interacting shell model and the quasiparticle random phase approximation. The absence of any sizable low-lying Gamow-Teller strength in the reported beta-decay experiment supports the hypothesis of a negligible role of coherent T=0 proton-neutron correlations in (62)Ga.

  12. Antiepileptic drugs prescribed in pregnancy and prevalence of major congenital malformations: comparative prevalence studies

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Irene; Collings, Shuk-Li; McCrea, Rachel L; Nazareth, Irwin; Osborn, David P; Cowen, Phil J; Sammon, Cormac J

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of major congenital malformations associated with antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment in pregnancy. Patients and methods Using data from The Health Improvement Network, we identified women who have given live birth and their offspring. Four subgroups were selected based on the AED treatment in early pregnancy, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and women not receiving AED treatment. We compared the prevalence of major congenital malformations within children of these four groups and estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) using Poisson regression adjusted for maternal age, sex of child, quintiles of Townsend deprivation score and indication for treatment. Results In total, 240,071 women were included in the study. A total of 229 women were prescribed valproate in pregnancy, 357 were prescribed lamotrigine and 334 were prescribed carbamazepine and 239,151 women were not prescribed AEDs. Fifteen out of 229 (6.6%) women prescribed valproate gave birth to a child with a major congenital malformation. The figures for lamotrigine, carbamazepine and women not prescribed AEDs were 2.7%, 3.3% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of major congenital malformation was similar for women prescribed lamotrigine or carbamazepine compared to women with no AED treatment in pregnancy. For women prescribed valproate in polytherapy, the prevalence was fourfold higher. After adjustments, the effect of estimates attenuated, but the prevalence remained two- to threefold higher in women prescribed valproate. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that lamotrigine and carbamazepine are safer treatment options than valproate in pregnancy and should be considered as alternative treatment options for women of childbearing potential and in pregnancy. PMID:28243149

  13. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-Yang; Xu, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Han, Bang-Min; Shao, Yi; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group) and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group). Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–2.66). In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2–2.88). The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS. PMID:24875824

  14. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Yang; Xu, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Han, Bang-Min; Shao, Yi; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group) and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group). Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.66). In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88). The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS.

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital, Ethiopia: Cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chisha, Yilma; Terefe, Wondwossen; Assefa, Huruy; Lakew, Serawit

    2017-01-01

    Background Currently 93 million people are estimated as living with diabetic retinopathy worldwide. The prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in developed countries have been well documented; but in Ethiopia, data on prevalence and associated factors of diabetic retinopathy is lacking. Objective To determine prevalence and factors associated with development of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital, Ethiopia. Method Cross-sectional study design with record review of 400 diabetic patients was conducted at Arbaminch General Hospital from November to January 2015. Among 400 diabetic patients, 270 patients with baseline information and without history of hypertension at baseline were included in this study. But patients with gestational diabetes and with retinopathy at baseline were excluded from the study. Consecutive sampling technique was applied to select study participants. Data of cohorts was extracted from medical record using pre tested structured extraction check list. Data cleaning, coding, categorizing, merging and analysis carried out by STATA version 12. Descriptive statistics was done and presented accordingly. Bivariate binary logistic regression analysis was done to select potential candidates for the full model at P-value cutoff point ≤ 0.25 and multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was made to estimate the independent effect of predictors on the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. Model diagnostic tests were done, final model fitness was checked using Hosmer and Lemeshow chi square test. Finally, statistical significance was tested at P-value <0.05. Result Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital was 13%. Adjusted analysis showed that the odds of diabetic retinopathy were statistically and significantly associated with baseline age (AOR = 6.06: 95%CI; 2.42, 15.21), baseline systolic blood pressure level (AOR = 4.38: 95%CI; 1.64, 11

  16. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms: the vulnerable groups identified from the National FINRISK 2007 Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näyhä, Simo; Rintamäki, Hannu; Donaldson, Gavin; Hassi, Juhani; Jousilahti, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Ikäheimo, Tiina M.

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among vulnerable groups is not well known. We therefore estimated the prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms among the Finnish population and their associations with social and individual vulnerability factors. The data came from the National FINRISK 2007 Study, in which 4007 men and women aged 25-74 answered questions on heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms in the Oulu Cold and Heat Questionnaire 2007. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), and model-predicted prevalence figures. The prevalence of heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms was 12 %. It increased with age, from 3 % at the age of 25 years to 28 % at the age of 75 years. The symptoms were associated with pre-existing lung (OR 3.93; CI 3.01-5.13) and cardiovascular diseases (OR 2.27; 1.78-2.89); being a pensioner (OR 2.91; 1.65-5.28), unemployed (OR 2.82; 1.47-5.48), or working in agriculture (OR 2.27; 1.14-4.46) compared with working in industry; having only basic vs academic education (OR 1.98; 1.31-3.05); being female (OR 1.94; 1.51-2.50); being heavy vs light alcohol consumer (OR 1.89; 1.02-3.32); undertaking hard vs light physical work (OR 1.48;1.06-2.07); and being inactive vs active in leisure time (OR 1.97; 1.39-2.81). The adjusted prevalence of symptoms showed a wide range of variation, from 3 to 61 % depending on sex, age, professional field, education, and pre-existing lung and cardiovascular diseases. In conclusion, heat-related cardiorespiratory symptoms are commonly perceived among people with pre-existing lung or cardiovascular disease, agricultural workers, unemployed, pensioners, and people having only basic education. This information is needed for any planning and targeting measures to reduce the burden of summer heat.

  17. The Prevalence and Incidence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Its Associated Factors among Village Doctors in China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Haiying; Gao, Fangfang; Gao, Fei; Han, Guoxin; Ren, Liping; Song, Yudan; Xiong, Yongchao; Geng, Mengjie; Hou, Yueyun; He, Guoming; Li, Jianbo; Guo, Shufang; Yang, Jun; Yan, Daiqin; Wang, Yali; Gao, Haiyan; An, Jing; Duan, Xiaoyan; Wu, Chunru; Duan, Fengming; Hu, Dongmei; Lu, Kai; Zhao, Yanlin; Rao, Carol Y.; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background China is a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country. More than half of acute TB cases first seek medical care in village doctors’ clinics or community health centers. Despite being responsible for patient referral and management, village doctors are not systematically evaluated for TB infection or disease. We assessed prevalence and incidence of latent TB infection (LTBI) among village doctors in China. Methods and Findings A longitudinal study was conducted in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. We administered a questionnaire on demographics and risk factors for TB exposure and disease; Tuberculin skin testing (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube assay (QFT-GIT) was conducted at baseline and repeated 12 months later. We used a logistic regression model to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for risk factors for TST and QFT-GIT prevalence and incidence. At the time of follow up, 19.5% of the 880 participating village doctors had a positive TST and 46.0% had a positive QFT-GIT result. Factors associated with TST prevalence included having a BCG scar (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.03–2.04) and smoking (OR = 1.69, 95%CI 1.17–2.44). Risk factors associated with QFT-GIT prevalence included being male (OR = 2.17, 95%CI 1.63–2.89), below college education (OR=1.42, 95%CI 1.01–1.97), and working for ≥25 years as a village doctor (OR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.12–2.39). The annual incidence of LTBI was 11.4% by TST and 19.1% by QFT-GIT. QFT-GIT conversion was associated with spending 15 minutes or more per patient on average (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.39–4.97) and having BCG scar (OR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.28–1.00). Conclusions Prevalence and incidence of LTBI among Chinese village doctors is high. TB infection control measures should be strengthened among village doctors and at village healthcare settings. PMID:25996960

  18. Prevalence of Diabetes among Migrant Women and Duration of Residence in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Syed M.; Ali, Raghib; Loney, Tom; Aziz, Faisal; ElBarazi, Iffat; Al Dhaheri, Salma; Farooqi, M. Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the highest in United Arab Emirates (UAE), however data for the expatriate population is limited. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of T2DM amongst migrant women and test the hypothesis that acculturation (measured by years of residency) is associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Methods This was a cross-sectional study and we recruited a representative sample (n = 599, 75% participation rate) of migrant women aged 18 years and over in Al Ain, UAE. The American Diabetes Association criteria were used to diagnose T2DM. An adapted WHO STEPS questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical data. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify correlates of T2DM including length of UAE residence. Results The mean age of participants was 34.1 (± 9.5) years. Of the study participants, based on HbA1C levels, 18.6% (95% CI: 13.9–24.4) had prediabetes and 10.7% (95% CI: 7.2–15.6) had T2DM. Prevalence of prediabetes was 8.5% for Filipinos, 16.7% for Arabs and 30.3% for South Asians. Similarly the prevalence of T2DM was 1.7% for Filipinos, 12.2% for Arabs and 16.7% for South Asians. Significant correlates of overall T2DM (measured and known diabetes) included length of UAE residence for more than 10 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.74, 95% CI: 1.21–6.20), age ≥40 years (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.53–7.87) and South Asian nationality (AOR 2.10, 95% CI: 0.94–4.70). Conclusion Diabetes is a significant public health problem among migrant women in the UAE, particularly for South Asians. Longer length of residence in the UAE is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes. PMID:28099445

  19. Prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy amongst high school students in rural KwaZulu-Natal: a bio-behavioral cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Quarraisha, ABDOOL KARIM; Ayesha, BM KHARSANY; Kerry, LEASK; Fanelisibonge, NTOMBELA; Hilton, HUMPHRIES; Janet, A FROHLICH; Natasha, SAMSUNDER; Anneke, GROBLER; Rachael, DELLAR; Salim, ABDOOL KARIM

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescents in southern African high schools are a key population for HIV prevention interventions. We report on the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, and pregnancy as indicators of high risk sexual behavior amongst high school students in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Design Bio-behavioral cross-sectional survey Methods Students completed a self-administered structured, standardized demographic and sexual behavioral questionnaire. Dried blood spot specimens were collected for HIV and HSV-2 testing. Urine specimens were used for pregnancy testing in female students. Results A total of 2675 (1423 females, 1252 males) consenting students were enrolled from 14 high schools between September and November 2010. The median age of students was 16 years [interquartile range (IQR) 15–18]. HIV prevalence was 1.4% (95% CI 0.9–1.9) in males and 6.4% (95% CI 4.6–8.3) in females (p < 0.001). HSV-2 prevalence was 2.6% (95% CI 1.6–3.7) in males and 10.7% (95% CI 8.8–12.6) in females (p < 0.001). Pregnancy prevalence was 3.6% (95% CI 2.6–4.5). Risk factors for prevalent HIV infection in female students included being over 18 years of age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.67, 95% CI 1.67–4.27; p<0.001], prevalent HSV-2 infection (aOR=4.35, 95% CI 2.61–7.24; p<0.001), previous pregnancy (aOR=1.66, 95%CI 1.10–2.51; p=0.016) and experience of two or more deaths in the household in the previous year (aOR=1.97, 95% CI 1.13–3.44; p=0.016). Conclusions The high prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy underscore the need for school-based sexual and reproductive health services, and provide further impetus for the inclusion of adolescents in behavioral and biomedical trials with HIV incidence endpoints. PMID:24873967

  20. Secular Trends in the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Sicilian Schoolchildren Aged 11–13 Years During the Last Decade

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Roberto; La Spina, Nadia; La Delfa, Lavinia; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Vigneri, Riccardo; Frittitta, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to gender and area of residence between two cohorts of students aged 11–13 years in Sicily. The analysis was performed on 1,839 schoolchildren, with 924 and 915 children being studied in 1999–2001 and 2009–2010, respectively. The children who were enrolled during 2009–2010 had significantly higher body mass indexes (BMI), BMI z-scores, and waist circumferences than the children who were studied during 1999–2001 (p<0.0001 for all); these differences was also observed when the cohort was subdivided according to gender or residence area The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 7.9% in 1999–2001 to 13.7% in 2009–2010 (p<0.0001), whereas thinness decreased significantly from 10.1% to 2.3% (p<0.0001) in the same periods. The increase of trends in the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in males (9.7% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.0006) than in females (6.3% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.04) and was slightly higher in urban areas (8.8% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.002) than in rural areas (7.8% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.012). The male gender was associated with a higher risk of being overweight or obese (odds ratio: 1.63; 95% confidence intervals: 1.24–2.15; p = 0.0005) in 2009–2010 than in 1999–2001, after adjusting for age and the residence area. In conclusion, this study showed an increasing trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren during the last decade and that this trend was related to gender, age and the area of residence. More specifically, our data indicated that the prevalence of obesity increased by 5.8%, the prevalence of thinness decreased by 7.8% and the prevalence of normal-weight children did not change over the course of a decade. These results suggest a shift in the body weights of Sicilian children toward the upper percentiles. PMID:22506027

  1. Secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren aged 11-13 years during the last decade.

    PubMed

    Parrino, Cristina; Rossetti, Paola; Baratta, Roberto; La Spina, Nadia; La Delfa, Lavinia; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Vigneri, Riccardo; Frittitta, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to gender and area of residence between two cohorts of students aged 11-13 years in Sicily. The analysis was performed on 1,839 schoolchildren, with 924 and 915 children being studied in 1999-2001 and 2009-2010, respectively. The children who were enrolled during 2009-2010 had significantly higher body mass indexes (BMI), BMI z-scores, and waist circumferences than the children who were studied during 1999-2001 (p<0.0001 for all); these differences was also observed when the cohort was subdivided according to gender or residence area The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 7.9% in 1999-2001 to 13.7% in 2009-2010 (p<0.0001), whereas thinness decreased significantly from 10.1% to 2.3% (p<0.0001) in the same periods. The increase of trends in the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in males (9.7% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.0006) than in females (6.3% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.04) and was slightly higher in urban areas (8.8% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.002) than in rural areas (7.8% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.012). The male gender was associated with a higher risk of being overweight or obese (odds ratio: 1.63; 95% confidence intervals: 1.24-2.15; p = 0.0005) in 2009-2010 than in 1999-2001, after adjusting for age and the residence area. In conclusion, this study showed an increasing trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren during the last decade and that this trend was related to gender, age and the area of residence. More specifically, our data indicated that the prevalence of obesity increased by 5.8%, the prevalence of thinness decreased by 7.8% and the prevalence of normal-weight children did not change over the course of a decade. These results suggest a shift in the body weights of Sicilian children toward the upper percentiles.

  2. Global variations and time trends in the prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG): a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Chan, Michelle P Y; Foster, Paul J; Cook, Derek G; Owen, Christopher G; Rudnicka, Alicja R

    2016-01-01

    Systematic review of published population based surveys to examine the relationship between primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) prevalence and demographic factors. A literature search identified population-based studies with quantitative estimates of POAG prevalence (to October 2014). Multilevel binomial logistic regression of log-odds of POAG was used to examine the effect of age and gender among populations of different geographical and ethnic origins, adjusting for study design factors. Eighty-one studies were included (37 countries, 216 214 participants, 5266 POAG cases). Black populations showed highest POAG prevalence, with 5.2% (95% credible interval (CrI) 3.7%, 7.2%) at 60 years, rising to 12.2% (95% CrI 8.9% to 16.6%) at 80 years. Increase in POAG prevalence per decade of age was greatest among Hispanics (2.31, 95% CrI 2.12, 2.52) and White populations (1.99, 95% CrI 1.86, 2.12), and lowest in East and South Asians (1.48, 95% CrI 1.39, 1.57; 1.56, 95% CrI 1.31, 1.88, respectively). Men were more likely to have POAG than women (1.30, 95% CrI 1.22, 1.41). Older studies had lower POAG prevalence, which was related to the inclusion of intraocular pressure in the glaucoma definition. Studies with visual field data on all participants had a higher POAG prevalence than those with visual field data on a subset. Globally 57.5 million people (95% CI 46.4 to 73.1 million) were affected by POAG in 2015, rising to 65.5 million (95% CrI 52.8, 83.2 million) by 2020. This systematic review provides the most precise estimates of POAG prevalence and shows omitting routine visual field assessment in population surveys may have affected case ascertainment. Our findings will be useful to future studies and healthcare planning. PMID:26286821

  3. Functional disability of adults in Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Galvão, Taís Freire; Pereira, Maurício Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with functional disability in adults in Brazil. METHODS We used information from the health supplement of the National Household Sample Survey in 2008. The dependent variable was the functional disability among adults of 18 to 65 years, measured by the difficulty of walking about 100 meters; independent variables were: health plan membership, region of residence, state of domicile, education level, household income, economic activity, self-perception of health, hospitalization, chronic diseases, age group, sex, and color. We calculated the gross odds ratios (OR), and their respective confidence intervals (95%), and adjusted them for variables of study by ordinal logistic regression, following hierarchical model. Sample weights were considered in all calculations. RESULTS We included 18,745 subjects, 74.0% of whom were women. More than a third of adults reported having functional disability. The disability was significantly higher among men (OR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.09;1.27), people from 35 to 49 years (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.17;1.45) and 50 to 65 years (OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.24;1.54); economically inactive individuals (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.65;2.96); adults who reported heart disease (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03;1.24), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.05;1.29), arterial systemic hypertension (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02;1.18), and arthritis/rheumatism (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.15;1.34); and participants who were admitted in the last 12 months (OR = 2.35; 95%CI 1.73;3.2). CONCLUSIONS Functional disability is common among Brazilian adults. Hospitalization is the most strongly associated factor, followed by economic activity, and chronic diseases. Sex, age, education, and income are also associated. Results indicate specific targets for actions that address the main factors associated with functional disabilities and contribute to the projection of interventions for the improvement of the well-being and promotion of adults

  4. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite.

  5. Sarcocystis spp. in llamas (Lama glama) in Southern Bolivia: a cross sectional study of the prevalence, risk factors and loss in income caused by carcass downgrades.

    PubMed

    Rooney, A L; Limon, G; Vides, H; Cortez, A; Guitian, J

    2014-10-01

    Llamas (Lama glama) are intermediate hosts of the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis spp. This parasite is described as causing economic losses in the production of llama meat in South America. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence, identify risk factors and explore spatial patterns of Sarcocystis in llamas in an area of the Bolivian High Plateau including estimating financial losses due to carcass downgrades as a result of the presence of Sarcocystis cysts. Information was collected from a local abattoir between 2006 and 2011 on 1196 llamas. Sarcocystis status was determined at meat inspection where any carcasses with one or more visible cysts were deemed Sarcocystis positive. A high prevalence was found, estimated to vary between 23.4% (95% CI 16.6-30.1) in 2007 and 50.3% (95% CI 44.4-56.3) in 2011. Period prevalence between 2006 and 2011 was estimated at 34.1% (95% CI 31.4-36.8). Age, sex and type (analogous to breed) were identified as risk factors for Sarcocystis using a mixed-effects logistic regression model adjusting for clustering by community and owner. Llamas over 4.5 years of age had an increased odds of being Sarcocystis positive (OR 19.31, 95% CI 9.10-40.98) as well as females (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13-2.68) and long haired type llamas (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.26-2.87). An interaction between age and sex was detected indicating that the increased odds of disease from the youngest age group to the 2.5-4.5 years group was much more pronounced in females than in males. Spatial patterns of Sarcocystis were explored at district level by means of Standardised Morbidity Ratios and some spatial heterogeneity was revealed. Estimates of financial loss due to the disease were calculated using the difference in price paid for Sarcocystis positive and negative meat. Loss due to Sarcocystis varied per year but could be up to 20% of the annual income generated through the abattoir by sale of meat. Overall this study shows a high prevalence of Sarcocystis in the study

  6. HIGHER PREVALENCE OF TDP-43 PROTEINOPATHY IN COGNITIVELY NORMAL ASIANS: A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY ON A MULTIETHNIC SAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Camila; Suemoto, Claudia K.; Rodriguez, Roberta D.; Di Lorenzo Alho, Ana Tereza; Leite, Renata P.; Farfel, Jose Marcelo; Pasqualucci, Carlos Alberto; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Grinberg, Lea T.

    2015-01-01

    Transactive response DNA binding-protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy is the major hallmark of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is also present in a subset of Alzheimer’s disease cases. Recently, few reports showed TDP-43 changes in cognitively normal elderly. In Caucasians, TDP-43 proteinopathy independently correlate with cognitive decline. However, it is challenging to establish direct links between cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms and protein inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases because individual cognitive reserves modify the threshold for clinical disease expression. Cognitive reserve is influenced by demographic, environmental and genetic factors. We investigated the relationships between demographic, clinical, and neuropathological variables and TDP-43 proteinopathy in a large multiethnic sample of cognitively normal elderly. TDP-43 proteinopathy were identified in 10.5%, independently associated with older age (p = 0.03) and Asian ethnicity (p = 0.002). Asians showed a higher prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy than Caucasians, even after adjustment for sex, age, Braak stage, and schooling (odds ratio = 3.50, confidence interval 1.41–8.69, p = 0.007). These findings suggested Asians older adults may be protected from the clinical manifestation of brain TDP-43 proteinopathy. Future studies are needed to identify possible race-related protective factors against clinical expression of TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:26260327

  7. Chlamydia prevalence and associated behaviours among female sex workers in Vanuatu: results from an integrated bio-behavioural survey, 2011.

    PubMed

    van Gemert, Caroline; Stoove, Mark; Kwarteng, Tamara; Bulu, Siula; Bergeri, Isabel; Wanyeki, Ian; Badman, Steve; Malverus, Jayline; Vella, Alyce; Tarivonda, Len; Johnston, Lisa Grazina

    2014-10-01

    There is insufficient data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) and related behaviours among key populations, including female sex workers (FSW), in the Pacific region. Using respondent driven sampling, we conducted an integrated bio-behavioural survey with FSW in Vanuatu (aged ≥18 years) to investigate risk behaviours associations with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). Weighted population estimates and correlates of CT infection were calculated. Among 149 FSW, prevalence of CT was 36 % (95 % CI 26-48 %). Few FSW reported consistent condom use with recent transactional sex partners (TSP) (8 %; 95 % CI 2-13 %). CT infection was positively associated with increasing number of TSP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.1; 95 % CI 1.0-1.2) and group sex (AOR 2.9; 95 % CI 1.1-8.2). CT was negatively associated with increasing age of first sex (AOR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.9) and previous STI treatment (AOR 0.1; 95 % CI 0.0-0.4). A comprehensive public health strategy for prevention and treatment of STI among FSW, incorporating community empowerment strategies, FSW-targeted health services and periodic presumptive treatment, is urgently needed in Vanuatu.

  8. α-Thalassaemia trait is associated with antibody prevalence against malaria antigens AMA-1 and MSP-1.

    PubMed

    Daou, Modibo; Kituma, Elimsaada; Kavishe, Reginald; Chilongola, Jaffu; Mosha, Frank; van der Ven, André; Kouriba, Bourema; Bousema, Teun; Sauerwein, Robert; Doumbo, Ogobaro

    2015-04-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted in a low endemic area in northern Tanzania to examine the influence of the α-thalassaemia trait on malaria incidence and antibody responses to malaria apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) and merozoite surface protein1-19 (MSP-119). Out of 394 children genotyped for α-thalassaemia trait, 4.1% (16 of 394) and 30.7% (121 of 394) were homozygous and heterozygous, respectively. During the 1 year follow-up, four incidents of malaria cases were detected without an evident association with α-thalassaemia. Being heterozygous or homozygous for α-thalassaemia was associated with an increased prevalence of antibodies to AMA-1 [odds ratio (OR): 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-3.12, p = 0.027] and MSP-1 (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.16-3.60, p = 0.013) after adjustment for age and reported bednet use. The observed association between α-thalassaemia and malaria antibody responses may reflect longer-term differences in antigen exposure or differences in antibody acquisition upon exposure in this low endemic setting.

  9. Prevalence and behavioural risk factors of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in community-based injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Leung, N S; Padgett, P; Robinson, D A; Brown, E L

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to identify Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization prevalence, behavioural risk factors, and to determine staphylococcal protein A (spa) types in community-based injection drug users (IDUs). Nasal swabs were collected and methicillin susceptibility testing and spa/SCCmec typing were performed on S. aureus isolates. Generalized estimating equations were used to report adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 440 participants, 24·1% were colonized and 5·7% had methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Colonization was associated with age, employment/marital status, and the presence of scabs but not with sexually transmitted disease co-infection, HIV status, antibiotic use, hospitalization, or drug treatment programme participation. The USA300 MRSA clone spa types were most common, but 15/49 spa types were new to one of the international databases. Community-based IDUs appear to have different risk factors compared to IDUs from clinical studies. In addition, the number of newly identified spa types indicates a diverse, understudied population.

  10. Microbial Prevalence, Diversity and Abundance in Amniotic Fluid During Preterm Labor: A Molecular and Culture-Based Investigation

    PubMed Central

    DiGiulio, Daniel B.; Romero, Roberto; Amogan, Harold P.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Gotsch, Francesca; Kim, Chong Jai; Erez, Offer; Edwin, Sam; Relman, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Preterm delivery causes substantial neonatal mortality and morbidity. Unrecognized intra-amniotic infections caused by cultivation-resistant microbes may play a role. Molecular methods can detect, characterize and quantify microbes independently of traditional culture techniques. However, molecular studies that define the diversity and abundance of microbes invading the amniotic cavity, and evaluate their clinical significance within a causal framework, are lacking. Methods and Findings In parallel with culture, we used broad-range end-point and real-time PCR assays to amplify, identify and quantify ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of bacteria, fungi and archaea from amniotic fluid of 166 women in preterm labor with intact membranes. We sequenced up to 24 rRNA clones per positive specimen and assigned taxonomic designations to approximately the species level. Microbial prevalence, diversity and abundance were correlated with host inflammation and with gestational and neonatal outcomes. Study subjects who delivered at term served as controls. The combined use of molecular and culture methods revealed a greater prevalence (15% of subjects) and diversity (18 taxa) of microbes in amniotic fluid than did culture alone (9.6% of subjects; 11 taxa). The taxa detected only by PCR included a related group of fastidious bacteria, comprised of Sneathia sanguinegens, Leptotrichia amnionii and an unassigned, uncultivated, and previously-uncharacterized bacterium; one or more members of this group were detected in 25% of positive specimens. A positive PCR was associated with histologic chorioamnionitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 20; 95% CI, 2.4 to 172), and funisitis (adjusted OR 18; 95% CI, 3.1 to 99). The positive predictive value of PCR for preterm delivery was 100 percent. A temporal association between a positive PCR and delivery was supported by a shortened amniocentesis-to-delivery interval (adjusted hazard ratio 4.6; 95% CI, 2.2 to 9.5). A dose-response association was

  11. Observation of the {pi}h{sub 11/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in odd-odd {sup 170}Re

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.L.; Zhang, Y.H.; Zhou, X.H.; Guo, Y.X.; Lei, X.G.; Liu, M.L.; Peng, L.; Xie, C.Y.; Song, L.T.; Yu, H.P.; Zheng, Y.; Guo, W.T.; Ndontchueng, M. Moyo; Wen, S.X.; Zhu, L.H.; Wu, X.G.; Xu, F.R.

    2004-12-01

    High-spin states in doubly odd {sup 170}Re have been populated via the {sup 142}Nd({sup 32}S,p3n{gamma}) reaction at beam energies of 155 and 166 MeV. K X-{gamma} and {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences have been measured using a detector array consisting of 12 high-purity germanium detectors with BGO suppressors. A rotational band is identified and assigned to {sup 170}Re for the first time. This band is proposed to be built on the {pi}h{sub 11/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} two-quasiparticle configuration by comparing the band properties with known bands in neighboring nuclei and the cranked-shell model calculations.

  12. Acute malnutrition among under-five children in Faryab, Afghanistan: prevalence and causes.

    PubMed

    Frozanfar, Muhammad Kamel; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Yamamoto, Eiko; Reyer, Joshua A; Dalil, Suraya; Rahimzad, Abdullah Darman; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Acute malnutrition affects more than 50 million under-five (U5) children, causing 8.0% of global child deaths annually. The prevalence of acute malnutrition (wasting) among U5 children in Afghanistan was 9.5% nationally and 3.7% in Faryab province in 2013. A cross-sectional study was conducted for 600 households in Faryab to find the prevalence and causes of acute malnutrition. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a logistic model. Demographic results of this study showed that 54.0% of the household heads and 92.3% of the mothers had no education. Three-fourths of households had a monthly income ≤ 250 USD. According to the measurement of weight for height Z-score (WHZ), 35.0% (210/600) of the children had acute malnutrition (wasting, WHZ < -2). In more than half of the households, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions were poor. When adjusted, a significant association of acute malnutrition among U5 children was found with the education level of household heads (OR=1.49; 95% CI, 1.02-2.17), age of household heads (OR=2.01; 95% CI, 1.21-3.35), income (OR=1.66; 95% CI, 1.04-2.27), education level of mothers (OR=2.21; 95% CI, 1.00-4.88), age of children (OR=1.99; 95% CI, 1.32-2.93), history of children with diarrhea in the last two weeks of data collection (OR=1.57; 95% CI, 1.10-2.27), feeding frequency (OR=3.01; 95% CI, 1.21-7.46), water sources (OR=1.89; 95% CI, 1.26-2.83), and iodized salt (OR=0.59; 95% CI, 0.39-0.88). The present study indicated that an increase in education level of parents, household income, and quality of WASH would result in a significant decrease in prevalence of wasting among U5 children.

  13. Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in employable patients after acute coronary event in cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Salzwedel, Annett; Heidler, Maria-Dorothea; Haubold, Kathrin; Schikora, Martin; Reibis, Rona; Wegscheider, Karl; Jöbges, Michael; Völler, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Adequate cognitive function in patients is a prerequisite for successful implementation of patient education and lifestyle coping in comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs. Although the association between cardiovascular diseases and cognitive impairments (CIs) is well known, the prevalence particularly of mild CI in CR and the characteristics of affected patients have been insufficiently investigated so far. Methods In this prospective observational study, 496 patients (54.5 ± 6.2 years, 79.8% men) with coronary artery disease following an acute coronary event (ACE) were analyzed. Patients were enrolled within 14 days of discharge from the hospital in a 3-week inpatient CR program. Patients were tested for CI using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) upon admission to and discharge from CR. Additionally, sociodemographic, clinical, and physiological variables were documented. The data were analyzed descriptively and in a multivariate stepwise backward elimination regression model with respect to CI. Results At admission to CR, the CI (MoCA score < 26) was determined in 182 patients (36.7%). Significant differences between CI and no CI groups were identified, and CI group was associated with high prevalence of smoking (65.9 vs 56.7%, P = 0.046), heavy (physically demanding) workloads (26.4 vs 17.8%, P < 0.001), sick leave longer than 1 month prior