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Sample records for adjusted r2 values

  1. Two Ingredients for My Dinner with R2D2: Integration and Adjustable Autonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    robotics and multi-modal interface research; namely, how crucial integration of multiple modes of communication are for adjustable autonomy, which in...turn is crucial for having dinner with R2D2. Furthermore, we discuss how our multi- modal interface to autonomous robots addresses these issues by...tracking goals, allowing for both natural and mechanical modes of input, and how our robotic system adjusts itself to ensure that goals are achieved

  2. Adjusted P values for genome-wide scans.

    PubMed Central

    Lystig, Theodore C

    2003-01-01

    Genome-wide scans for quantitative trait loci (QTL) have traditionally been summarized with plots of logarithm of odds (LOD) scores. A valuable modification is to supplement such plots with an additional vertical axis displaying quantiles of adjusted P values and labeling local maxima of the LOD scores with location-specific adjusted P values. This provides a visible gradation of genome-wide significance for the LOD score curve, instead of the stark dichotomy that a single threshold yields. Adjusted P values give genome-wide significance of individual LOD scores and are obtained through a straightforward modification of the familiar algorithm for generating permutation-based thresholds. PMID:12930772

  3. Sonde Adjust Value-Added Product Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2012-01-09

    The Sonde Adjust (SONDEADJUST) value-added product (VAP) creates a file that includes all fields from original Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM Facility) radiosonde files and contains several value-added fields that provide adjustments related to well-known humidity issues. SONDEADJUST produces data that correct documented biases in radiosonde humidity measurements. Previous efforts towards applying some of these corrections are available via the discontinued PI product sgpsondecorr1miloC1. Unique fields contained within this datastream include smoothed original relative humidity, dry bias corrected relative humidity, and final corrected relative humidity. The smoothed RH field refines the relative humidity from integers-the resolution of the instrument-to fractions of a percent. This profile is then used to calculate the dry bias corrected field. The final correction fixes the time-lag problem and uses the dry-bias field as input into the algorithm. In addition to dry bias, solar heating is another correction that is encompassed in the final corrected RH field. Output from SONDEADJUST differs from the previous RH-corrected datastreams in important ways. First, all three types of ARM radiosondes-Vaisala RS-80, RS-90, and RS-92-are corrected using dedicated procedures and/or parameters. Second, the output variables include all of those found in the original radiosonde file: dry bulb temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind speed, wind direction, eastward wind component, northward wind component, wind status (a Vaisala-produced field used in conjunction with the Loran system), ascent rate, and original relative humidity. Additional humidity fields are smoothed relative humidity, dry biased corrected relative humidity, final ambient relative humidity, and scaled adjusted relative humidity. Third, quality control (QC) flags of the fields from the original radiosonde datastream are brought into the SONDEADJUST output file. Additional QC

  4. New sintering process adjusts magnetic value of ferrite cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinal, A. W.

    1964-01-01

    A two-phase sintering technique based on time and temperature permits reversible control of the coercive threshold of sintered ferrite cores. Threshold coercivity may be controlled over a substantial range of values by selective control of the cooling rate.

  5. The relationship of values to adjustment in illness: a model for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R M

    1992-04-01

    This paper proposes a model of the relationship between values, in particular health value, and adjustment to illness. The importance of values as well as the need for value change are described in the literature related to adjustment to physical disability and chronic illness. An empirical model, however, that explains the relationship of values to adjustment or adaptation has not been found by this researcher. Balance theory and its application to the abstract and perceived cognitions of health value and health perception are described here to explain the relationship of values like health value to outcomes associated with adjustment or adaptation to illness. The proposed model is based on the balance theories of Heider, Festinger and Feather. Hypotheses based on the model were tested and supported in a study of 100 adults with visible and invisible chronic illness. Nursing interventions based on the model are described and suggestions for further research discussed.

  6. Existence, Uniqueness and Lipschitz Dependence for Patlak-Keller-Segel and Navier-Stokes in {{R}^2} with Measure-Valued Initial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrossian, Jacob; Masmoudi, Nader

    2014-09-01

    We establish a new local well-posedness result in the space of finite Borel measures for mild solutions of the parabolic-elliptic Patlak-Keller-Segel (PKS) model of chemotactic aggregation in two dimensions. Our result only requires that the initial measure satisfy the necessary assumption {max_{x in mathbb{R}^2} μ ({x}) < 8 π} . This work improves the small-data results of Biler (Stud Math 114(2):181-192, 1995) and the existence results of Senba and Suzuki (J Funct Anal 191:17-51, 2002). Our work is based on that of Gallagher and Gallay (Math Ann 332:287-327, 2005), who prove the uniqueness and log-Lipschitz continuity of the solution map for the 2D Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) with measure-valued initial vorticity. We refine their techniques and present an alternative version of their proof which yields existence, uniqueness and Lipschitz continuity of the solution maps of both PKS and NSE. Many steps are more difficult for PKS than for NSE, particularly on the level of the linear estimates related to the self-similar spreading solutions.

  7. Incremental value of hormonal therapy for deep vein thrombosis prediction: an adjusted Wells score for women.

    PubMed

    Barros, Márcio Vinícius Lins de; Arancibia, Ana Elisa Loyola; Costa, Ana Paula; Bueno, Fernando Brito; Martins, Marcela Aparecida Corrêa; Magalhães, Maria Cláudia; Silva, José Luiz Padilha; Bastos, Marcos de

    2016-04-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) management includes prediction rule evaluation to define standard pretest DVT probabilities in symptomatic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incremental usefulness of hormonal therapy to the Wells prediction rules for DVT in women. We studied women undertaking compressive ultrasound scanning for suspected DVT. We adjusted the Wells score for DVT, taking into account the β-coefficients of the logistic regression model. Data discrimination was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The adjusted score calibration was assessed graphically and by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Reclassification tables and the net reclassification index were used for the adjusted score comparison with the Wells score for DVT. We observed 461 women including 103 DVT events. The mean age was 56 years (±21 years). The adjusted logistic regression model included hormonal therapy and six Wells prediction rules for DVT. The adjusted score weights ranged from -4 to 4. Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed a nonsignificant P value (0.69) and the calibration graph showed no differences between the expected and the observed values. The area under the ROC curve was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-0.95] for the adjusted model and 0.87 (95% CI 0.84-0.91) for the Wells score for DVT (Delong test, P value < 0.01). Net reclassification index for the adjusted score was 0.22 (95% CI 0.11-0.33, P value < 0.01). Our results suggest an incremental usefulness of hormonal therapy as an independent DVT prediction rule in women compared with the Wells score for DVT. The adjusted score must be evaluated in different populations before clinical use.

  8. 78 FR 52679 - Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters; Adjusted Customs Value for Cigarette Lighters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... 1210 Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters; Adjusted Customs Value for Cigarette Lighters AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has a safety standard... standard defines ``disposable lighters,'' in part, as refillable lighters that use butane or similar...

  9. Investigating the Prospective Teachers' Level of Adjustment in Terms of Perceived Identity, Values, and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogdu, M. Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the prospective teachers' level of adjustment in terms of perceived identity, values, and needs. The searching group includes a total of 273 prospective teachers, 178 of whom are females, and 95 of whom are males. They are either working as paid teachers in the state schools within the boundaries of…

  10. Sibling Relationship Quality and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' and Young Adults' Familism Values and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoren, Sarah E.; De Jesús, Sue A. Rodríguez; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Wheeler, Lorey A.

    2017-01-01

    We examined profiles of sibling relationship qualities in 246 Mexican-origin families living in the United States using latent profile analyses. Three profiles were identified: "Positive," "Negative," and "Affect-Intense." Links between profiles and youths' familism values and adjustment were assessed using…

  11. Do Adjusting-Amount and Adjusting-Delay Procedures Produce Equivalent Estimates of Subjective Value in Pigeons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Shah, Anuj K.; Estle, Sara J.; Holt, Daniel D.

    2007-01-01

    The current experiment examined whether adjusting-amount and adjusting-delay procedures provide equivalent measures of discounting. Pigeons' discounting on the two procedures was compared using a within-subject yoking technique in which the indifference point (number of pellets or time until reinforcement) obtained with one procedure determined…

  12. Sibling relationship quality and Mexican-origin adolescents' and young adults' familism values and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Killoren, Sarah E; De Jesús, Sue A Rodríguez; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Wheeler, Lorey A

    2017-03-01

    We examined profiles of sibling relationship qualities in 246 Mexican-origin families living in the United States using latent profile analyses. Three profiles were identified: Positive, Negative and Affect-Intense. Links between profiles and youths' familism values and adjustment were assessed using longitudinal data. Siblings in the Positive profile reported the highest familism values, followed by siblings in the Affect-Intense profile and, finally, siblings in the Negative profile. Older siblings in the Positive and Affect-Intense profiles reported fewer depressive symptoms than siblings in the Negative profile. Further, in the Positive and Negative profiles, older siblings reported less involvement in risky behaviors than younger siblings. In the Negative profile, younger siblings reported greater sexual risk behaviors in late adolescence than older siblings; siblings in opposite-sex dyads, as compared to same-sex dyads, engaged in riskier sexual behaviors. Our findings highlight sibling relationship quality as promotive and risky, depending on sibling characteristics and adjustment outcomes.

  13. Many places called home: the adaptive value of seasonal adjustments in range fidelity.

    PubMed

    Lafontaine, Alexandre; Drapeau, Pierre; Fortin, Daniel; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2017-02-01

    The vast majority of animal species display range fidelity, a space-use behaviour enhancing familiarity with local habitat features. While the fitness benefits of this behaviour have been demonstrated in a variety of taxa, some species or populations rather display infidelity, displacing their home range over time. Others, such as many ungulate species, show seasonal adjustments in their range fidelity to accommodate changes in the dominance of limiting factors or in the distribution of resources. Few empirical studies have explored the adaptive value of seasonal adjustments in range fidelity. Using boreal populations of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) as a biological model, we evaluated how range fidelity impacted individual performance during two seasons where juvenile and adult survival are limited by different predation pressures. Between 2004 and 2013, we monitored the survival, reproductive success, habitat selection and range fidelity of female caribou in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. Using resource selection functions, we assessed how seasonal range fidelity was linked to two fitness correlates: calf survival in summer and adult female survival in winter. Females displayed season-specific space use tactics: they selected previously used areas during calving and summer, but tended to shift their winter range from 1 year to the next. During calving and summer, range fidelity yielded relatively high fitness benefits, as females that did not lose their calf displayed stronger fidelity than females that did. In winter, however, adult survival was negatively linked to range fidelity, as females that survived selected areas further away from their seasonal range of the previous year than females that died. We provide one of the first evidences that making seasonal adjustments in range fidelity can be an adaptive behaviour influencing the spatial distribution of a threatened species. Assessing the seasonal nature of range fidelity tactics may

  14. Accuracy of optimized chemical-exchange parameters derived by fitting CPMG R2 dispersion profiles when R2(0a) not = R2(0b).

    PubMed

    Ishima, Rieko; Torchia, Dennis A

    2006-04-01

    The transverse relaxation rate, R2, measured as a function of the effective field (R2 dispersion) using a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse train, is well suited to detect conformational exchange in proteins. The dispersion data are commonly fitted by a two-site (sites a and b) exchange model with four parameters: the relative population, pa, the difference in chemical shifts of the two sites, deltaomega, the correlation time for exchange, tau(ex), and the intrinsic relaxation rate (i.e., transverse relaxation rate in the absence of chemical exchange), R2(0). Although the intrinsic relaxation rates of the two sites, R2(0a) and R2(0b), can differ, they are normally assumed to be the same (i.e., R2(0a) = R2(0b) = R2(0)) when fitting dispersion data. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the magnitudes of the errors in the optimized exchange parameters that are introduced by the assumption that R2(0a) = R2(0b). In order to accomplish this goal, we first generated synthetic constant-time CPMG R2 dispersion data assuming two-site exchange with R2(0a) not equal R2(0b), and then fitted the synthetic data assuming two-site exchange with R2(0) = R2(0a) = R2(0b). Although all the synthetic data generated assuming R2(0a) not equal R2(0b) were well fitted (assuming R2(0a) = R2(0b)), the optimized values of pa and tau(ex) differed from their true values, whereas the optimized values of deltaomega values did not. A theoretical analysis using the Carver-Richards equation explains these results, and yields simple, general equations for estimating the magnitudes of the errors in the optimized parameters, as a function of (R2(0a) - R2(0b)).

  15. Diminishing willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year: valuing acute foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Haninger, Kevin; Hammitt, James K

    2011-09-01

    We design and conduct a stated-preference survey to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce foodborne risk of acute illness and to test whether WTP is proportional to the corresponding gain in expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). If QALYs measure utility for health, then economic theory requires WTP to be nearly proportional to changes in both health quality and duration of illness and WTP could be estimated by multiplying the expected change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. WTP is elicited using double-bounded, dichotomous-choice questions in which respondents (randomly selected from the U.S. general adult population, n = 2,858) decide whether to purchase a more expensive food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Health risks vary by baseline probability of illness, reduction in probability, duration and severity of illness, and conditional probability of mortality. The expected gain in QALYs is calculated using respondent-assessed decrements in health-related quality of life if ill combined with the duration of illness and reduction in probability specified in the survey. We find sharply diminishing marginal WTP for severity and duration of illness prevented. Our results suggest that individuals do not have a constant rate of WTP per QALY, which implies that WTP cannot be accurately estimated by multiplying the change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value.

  16. 30 CFR 206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (b) of this section, also adjust the NYMEX price or ANS spot price for quality based on premiums or... apply when I value oil production from my lease using NYMEX prices or ANS spot prices? 206.112 Section... I value oil production from my lease using NYMEX prices or ANS spot prices? This section...

  17. 26 CFR 1.312-9 - Adjustments to earnings and profits reflecting increase in value accrued before March 1, 1913.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... increase in value accrued before March 1, 1913. 1.312-9 Section 1.312-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... § 1.312-9 Adjustments to earnings and profits reflecting increase in value accrued before March 1... before, but realized on or after, March 1, 1913, section 312(g) prescribes certain rules. (b)(1)...

  18. Discrimination and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Adolescents', Mothers', and Fathers' Cultural Orientations and Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Melissa Y.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Roosa, Mark W.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Garcia Coll et al.'s integrative framework and the risk and resilience model, this study examined the relationships between adolescents' perceived discrimination and psychosocial adjustment and the moderating roles of adolescents', mothers', and fathers' cultural orientations and values, and adolescent gender in a sample of 246…

  19. Facilitation of heartbeat self-perception in a discrimination task with individual adjustment of the S+ delay values.

    PubMed

    Mesas, Alberto Acosta; Chica, Joaquín Pegalajar

    2003-12-01

    Thirty-two subjects (16 women, 16 men) performed two tasks that were the result of adapting the heartbeat perception tasks produced by Whitehead et al. [Biofeedback Self-Regul. 2 (1977) 371] and Katkin et al. [Psychophysiology 19 (1982) 568], respectively. In the Whitehead task, the delay values were the standard 128 ms for the S+ stimulus and 384 ms for the S- stimulus after the R-wave in one case; in the other case, the delay values were individually adjusted according to the median of the distribution of interval choices in an adaptation of the Brener and Kluvitse [Psychophysiology 25 (1988a) 554; Psychophysiology 25 (1988b) 436] task carried out previously. In the Katkin procedure, in one case S+ always occurred at a fixed interval (100 ms), whereas S- occurred at uniformly increasing intervals in relation to the R-wave. In the other case, the S+ and S- intervals were also individually modified according to the performance in the Brener and Kluvitse task. The results indicate that when the S+ values are individually adjusted, the sensitivity of subjects, as reflected in the 2(arcsin(p(A)(1/2))) values, significantly improves in the Whitehead task. Additionally, it was seen that the performance deteriorated from the first to the last 50 trials, especially when the S+ values were adjusted.

  20. Discrimination and Mexican-origin adolescents' adjustment: the moderating roles of adolescents', mothers', and fathers' cultural orientations and values.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Melissa Y; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Roosa, Mark W; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2011-02-01

    Drawing on García Coll et al.'s integrative framework and the risk and resilience model, this study examined the relationships between adolescents' perceived discrimination and psychosocial adjustment and the moderating roles of adolescents', mothers', and fathers' cultural orientations and values, and adolescent gender in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Using multilevel modeling with data from mothers, fathers, seventh graders (M (age) = 12.8 years; SD = .57 year) and older siblings (M (age) = 15.7 years; SD = 1.5 years), findings revealed that perceived discrimination was positively related to depression, risky behaviors, and deviant peer affiliations. In addition, parents' cultural orientations and values and adolescent gender moderated the relationships between perceived discrimination and some indicators of adjustment. These findings suggest that parents' cultural orientations and values can serve as protective and vulnerability factors in the associations between Mexican-origin adolescents' perceived discrimination and their psychosocial adjustment.

  1. Meteorological adjustment of yearly mean values for air pollutant concentration comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidik, S. M.; Neustadter, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Using multiple linear regression analysis, models which estimate mean concentrations of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide as a function of several meteorologic variables, two rough economic indicators, and a simple trend in time are studied. Meteorologic data were obtained and do not include inversion heights. The goodness of fit of the estimated models is partially reflected by the squared coefficient of multiple correlation which indicates that, at the various sampling stations, the models accounted for about 23 to 47 percent of the total variance of the observed TSP concentrations. If the resulting model equations are used in place of simple overall means of the observed concentrations, there is about a 20 percent improvement in either: (1) predicting mean concentrations for specified meteorological conditions; or (2) adjusting successive yearly averages to allow for comparisons devoid of meteorological effects. An application to source identification is presented using regression coefficients of wind velocity predictor variables.

  2. Superionic adjustment leading to weakly temperature-dependent ZT values in bulk thermoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Lin, Hua; Lin, Zi-Xiong; Shen, Jin-Ni; Chen, Ling; Wu, Li-Ming

    2015-02-02

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials are of worldwide interest for energy sustainability through direct waste-heat-to-electricity conversion. Practically, a TE power generator requires a large working temperature gradient; to achieve high efficiency, key TE materials with high ZT values are necessary and, furthermore, their ZT values should decline as little as possible over the imposed temperature range. Unfortunately, sharp ZT declines in all of the known materials are inevitable. Here we found the bulk superionic α-Ag(1-x)CuSe material exhibits unusual weakly temperature-dependent ZT values in the range of 480-693 K with the smallest ZT-T slope known to date. These result from the Seebeck coefficient balance of the countercontributions of holes and electrons and the weakly temperature-dependent thermal conductivity.

  3. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), (b) and (c)(1) of this section, you may make further gravity adjustments using posted price gravity.... Assume that adjustment to be $.72, including the sulfur and gravity bank adjustments, and that...

  4. Submicron R2Fe14B particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koylu-Alkan, O.; Barandiaran, J. M.; Salazar, D.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2016-05-01

    Mechanochemical synthesis of submicron R2Fe14B particles with R = Dy, Nd, Pr has been performed successfully via high energy ball milling of rare-earth oxides, iron oxide and boron oxide in the presence of a reducing agent (Ca) and a dispersant material (CaO), followed by annealing at 800 - 900 °C. In the R = Nd system, we were able to fabricate particles embedded in a CaO matrix with coercivity (Hc) of 10.3 kOe after annealing at 900 °C for 5 min. After washing off the dispersant, the Hc was decreased to below 1 kOe because of hydrogen absorption that leads to the formation of the hydrated R2Fe14BHx phase that has a lower anisotropy. Upon removal of the hydrogen the coercivity was increased to 3.3 kOe. The average size of the Nd2Fe14B particles increases from 100 nm in a sample synthesized at 800 °C to 158 nm at 900 °C. The isotropic Dy2Fe14B particles showed a higher coercivity of 21 kOe in washed samples after annealing at 900 °C for 5 min. An average size of 71 nm is measured in samples synthesized at 800 °C and 107 nm at 900 °C. Fitting the high field M(H) measurements in Nd2Fe14B to the law of approach to saturation gave values for the magnetocrystalline anisotropy for the washed sample 2.23 × 107 erg/cm3 and for the vacuum annealed sample 4.15 × 107 erg/cm3, both of which are lower than the bulk values. This would explain the lower values of Hc observed in the particles.

  5. Optimizing FGS2R2 Performance with the AMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelan, Edmund

    2009-07-01

    Ths proposal satisfies SMOV4 AD OTA/FGSS-054. S-curves with PUPIL and F583W will be obtained at selected locations within the FGS2R2 FOV during SMOV4. These data will be will be used to adjust the AMA so as to align the HST pupil onto the interferometer's Koesters prisms. The final AMA position will be set to produce an acceptable set of S-curves across the FGS2R2 FOV. The AMA will be adjusted using CCL/instructions from the ground. It is intended that this proposal executes during the SMOV4 BEA and will require several {on the order of 4} iterations to achieve optimal interferometric performance.

  6. When Mothers and Fathers Are Seen as Disproportionately Valuing Achievements: Implications for Adjustment Among Upper Middle Class Youth.

    PubMed

    Ciciolla, Lucia; Curlee, Alexandria S; Karageorge, Jason; Luthar, Suniya S

    2016-11-09

    High achievement expectations and academic pressure from parents have been implicated in rising levels of stress and reduced well-being among adolescents. In this study of affluent, middle school youth, we examined how perceptions of parents' emphases on achievement (relative to prosocial behavior) influenced youth's psychological adjustment and school performance, and examined perceived parental criticism as a possible moderator of this association. The data were collected from 506 (50 % female) middle school students from a predominately white, upper middle class community. Students reported their perceptions of parents' values by rank ordering a list of achievement- and prosocial-oriented goals based on what they believed was most valued by their mothers and fathers for them (the child) to achieve. The data also included students' reports of perceived parental criticism, internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and self-esteem, as well as school-based data on grade point average and teacher-reported classroom behavior. Person-based analyses revealed six distinct latent classes based on perceptions of both mother and father emphases on achievement. Class comparisons showed a consistent pattern of healthier child functioning, including higher school performance, higher self-esteem, and lower psychological symptoms, in association with low to neutral parental achievement emphasis, whereas poorer child functioning was associated with high parental achievement emphasis. In variable-based analyses, interaction effects showed elevated maladjustment when high maternal achievement emphasis coexisted with high (but not low) perceived parental criticism. Results of the study suggest that to foster early adolescents' well-being in affluent school settings, parents focus on prioritizing intrinsic, prosocial values that promote affiliation and community, at least as much as, or more than, they prioritize academic performance and external achievement; and strive to

  7. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1206.112 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What adjustments and transportation...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1206.112 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What adjustments and transportation...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1206.112 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What adjustments and transportation...

  10. R2 Indicator-Based Multiobjective Search.

    PubMed

    Brockhoff, Dimo; Wagner, Tobias; Trautmann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    In multiobjective optimization, set-based performance indicators are commonly used to assess the quality of a Pareto front approximation. Based on the scalarization obtained by these indicators, a performance comparison of multiobjective optimization algorithms becomes possible. The R2 and the hypervolume (HV) indicator represent two recommended approaches which have shown a correlated behavior in recent empirical studies. Whereas the HV indicator has been comprehensively analyzed in the last years, almost no studies on the R2 indicator exist. In this extended version of our previous conference paper, we thus perform a comprehensive investigation of the properties of the R2 indicator in a theoretical and empirical way. The influence of the number and distribution of the weight vectors on the optimal distribution of μ solutions is analyzed. Based on a comparative analysis, specific characteristics and differences of the R2 and HV indicator are presented. Furthermore, the R2 indicator is integrated into an indicator-based steady-state evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithm (EMOA). It is shown that the so-called R2-EMOA can accurately approximate the optimal distribution of μ solutions regarding R2.

  11. Chi-Squared Test of Fit and Sample Size-A Comparison between a Random Sample Approach and a Chi-Square Value Adjustment Method.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chi-square statistics are commonly used for tests of fit of measurement models. Chi-square is also sensitive to sample size, which is why several approaches to handle large samples in test of fit analysis have been developed. One strategy to handle the sample size problem may be to adjust the sample size in the analysis of fit. An alternative is to adopt a random sample approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare these two strategies using simulated data. Given an original sample size of 21,000, for reductions of sample sizes down to the order of 5,000 the adjusted sample size function works as good as the random sample approach. In contrast, when applying adjustments to sample sizes of lower order the adjustment function is less effective at approximating the chi-square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, the fit is exaggerated and misfit under-estimated using the adjusted sample size function. Although there are big differences in chi-square values between the two approaches at lower sample sizes, the inferences based on the p-values may be the same.

  12. Quality-adjusted cost of care: a meaningful way to measure growth in innovation cost versus the value of health gains.

    PubMed

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Shafrin, Jason; Lucarelli, Claudio; Nicholson, Sean; Khan, Zeba M; Philipson, Tomas J

    2015-04-01

    Technology drives both health care spending and health improvement. Yet policy makers rarely see measures of cost growth that account for both effects. To fill this gap, we present the quality-adjusted cost of care, which illustrates cost growth net of growth in the value of health improvements, measured as survival gains multiplied by the value of survival. We applied the quality-adjusted cost of care to two cases. For colorectal cancer, drug cost per patient increased by $34,493 between 1998 and 2005 as a result of new drug launches, but value from offsetting health improvements netted a modest $1,377 increase in quality-adjusted cost of care. For multiple myeloma, new therapies increased treatment cost by $72,937 between 2004 and 2009, but offsetting health benefits lowered overall quality-adjusted cost of care by $67,863. However, patients with multiple myeloma on established first-line therapies saw costs rise without corresponding benefits. All three examples document rapid cost growth, but they provide starkly different answers to the question of whether society got what it paid for.

  13. The role of perceived control in physiological reactivity: self-efficacy and incentive value as regulators of cardiovascular adjustment.

    PubMed

    Sanz, A; Villamarín, F

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of self-efficacy and incentive value on cardiovascular reactivity. Ninety-six subjects were randomly assigned to four experimental groups in each of which the self-efficacy (high or low) and incentive value (high or low) were modified in relation to a mental arithmetic task. Subjects were led to believe that failure in this behaviour would result in the appearance of an aversive stimulus. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and skin temperature were all recorded throughout task performance, and at two given moments prior to the task, in order to establish baseline values. Subjects with high self-efficacy experienced a smaller increase in heart rate and systolic pressure, a greater increase in diastolic pressure, greater reduction in skin temperature and a reduction in pulse pressure during task performance. The effects were moderated by the incentive value in such a way that the effects of self-efficacy on cardiovascular reactivity were stronger when the consequences of task failure were perceived as highly relevant (high incentive value).

  14. Discrimination and adjustment for Mexican American adolescents: A prospective examination of the benefits of culturally-related values

    PubMed Central

    Berkel, Cady; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia

    2009-01-01

    Mexican American adolescents face disparities in mental health and academic achievement, perhaps in part because of discrimination experiences. However, culturally-related values, fostered by ethnic pride and socialization, may serve to mitigate the negative impact of discrimination. Guided by the Stress Process Model, the current study examined risk and protective processes using a 2-wave multi-informant study with 750 Mexican American families. Specifically, we examined two possible mechanisms by which Mexican American values may support positive outcomes in the context of discrimination; as a protective factor (moderator) or risk reducer (mediator). Analyses supported the role of Mexican American values as a risk reducer. This study underscores the importance of examining multiple mechanisms of protective processes in understanding Mexican American adolescent resilience. PMID:21359093

  15. Discrimination and Adjustment for Mexican American Adolescents: A Prospective Examination of the Benefits of Culturally Related Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkel, Cady; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia

    2010-01-01

    Mexican American adolescents face disparities in mental health and academic achievement, perhaps in part because of discrimination experiences. However, culturally related values, fostered by ethnic pride and socialization, may serve to mitigate the negative impact of discrimination. Guided by the Stress Process Model, the current study examined…

  16. Exact solutions in R2 SUGRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Hassaïne, Mokhtar; Oliva, Julio

    2015-11-01

    This paper is devoted to showing that the bosonic sector of R2 supergravity in four dimensions, constructed with the F term, admits a variety of exact and analytic solutions which include pp and anti-de Sitter (AdS) waves, asymptotically flat and AdS black holes and wormholes, as well as product spacetimes. The existence of static black holes and wormholes implies that a combination involving the Ricci scalar plus the norm of the field strength of the auxiliary two-form Bμ ν must be a constant. We focus on this sector of the theory, which has two subsectors depending on whether such a combination vanishes.

  17. An R2 statistic for fixed effects in the linear mixed model.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lloyd J; Muller, Keith E; Wolfinger, Russell D; Qaqish, Bahjat F; Schabenberger, Oliver

    2008-12-20

    Statisticians most often use the linear mixed model to analyze Gaussian longitudinal data. The value and familiarity of the R(2) statistic in the linear univariate model naturally creates great interest in extending it to the linear mixed model. We define and describe how to compute a model R(2) statistic for the linear mixed model by using only a single model. The proposed R(2) statistic measures multivariate association between the repeated outcomes and the fixed effects in the linear mixed model. The R(2) statistic arises as a 1-1 function of an appropriate F statistic for testing all fixed effects (except typically the intercept) in a full model. The statistic compares the full model with a null model with all fixed effects deleted (except typically the intercept) while retaining exactly the same covariance structure. Furthermore, the R(2) statistic leads immediately to a natural definition of a partial R(2) statistic. A mixed model in which ethnicity gives a very small p-value as a longitudinal predictor of blood pressure (BP) compellingly illustrates the value of the statistic. In sharp contrast to the extreme p-value, a very small R(2) , a measure of statistical and scientific importance, indicates that ethnicity has an almost negligible association with the repeated BP outcomes for the study.

  18. Deuteration around the ultracompact HII region Monoceros R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviño-Morales, S. P.; Pilleri, P.; Fuente, A.; Kramer, C.; Roueff, E.; González-García, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Pety, J.; Berné, O.; Ossenkopf, V.; Ginard, D.; García-Burillo, S.; Rizzo, J. R.; Viti, S.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The massive star-forming region Monoceros R2 (Mon R2) hosts the closest ultra-compact Hii region, where the photon-dominated region (PDR) between the ionized and molecular gas can be spatially resolved with current single-dish telescopes. Aims: We aim at studying the chemistry of deuterated molecules toward Mon R2 to determine the deuterium fractions around a high-UV irradiated PDR and investigate the chemistry of these species. Methods: We used the IRAM-30 m telescope to carry out an unbiased spectral survey toward two important positions (namely IF and MP2) in Mon R2 at 1, 2, and 3 mm. This spectral survey is the observational basis of our study of the deuteration in this massive star-forming region. Our high spectral resolution observations (~0.25-0.65 km s-1) allowed us to resolve the line profiles of the different species detected. Results: We found a rich chemistry of deuterated species at both positions of Mon R2, with detections of C2D, DCN, DNC, DCO+, D2CO, HDCO, NH2D, and N2D+ and their corresponding hydrogenated species and rarer isotopologs. The high spectral resolution of our observations allowed us to resolve three velocity components: the component at 10 km s-1 is detected at both positions and seems associated with the layer most exposed to the UV radiation from IRS 1; the component at 12 km s-1 is found toward the IF position and seems related to the foreground molecular gas; finally, a component at 8.5 km s-1 is only detected toward the MP2 position, most likely related to a low-UV irradiated PDR. We derived the column density of the deuterated species (together with their hydrogenated counterparts), and determined the deuterium fractions as Dfrac = [XD]/[XH]. The values of Dfrac are around 0.01 for all the observed species, except for HCO+ and N2H+, which have values 10 times lower. The values found in Mon R2 are similar to those measured in the Orion Bar, and are well explained with a pseudo-time-dependent gas-phase model in which

  19. Historical Channel Adjustment and Estimates of Selected Hydraulic Values in the Lower Sabine River and Lower Brazos River Basins, Texas and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Greene, Lauren E.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, evaluated historical channel adjustment and estimated selected hydraulic values at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in the lower Sabine River Basin in Texas and Louisiana and lower Brazos River Basin in Texas to support geomorphic assessments of the Texas Instream Flow Program. Channel attributes including cross-section geometry, slope, and planform change were evaluated to learn how each river's morphology changed over the years in response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Historical and contemporary cross-sectional channel geometries at several gaging stations on each river were compared, planform changes were assessed, and hydraulic values were estimated including mean flow velocity, bed shear stress, Froude numbers, and hydraulic depth. The primary sources of historical channel morphology information were U.S. Geological Survey hard-copy discharge-measurement field notes. Additional analyses were done using computations of selected flow hydraulics, comparisons of historical and contemporary aerial photographs, comparisons of historical and contemporary ground photographs, evaluations of how frequently stage-discharge rating curves were updated, reviews of stage-discharge relations for field measurements, and considerations of bridge and reservoir construction activities. Based on historical cross sections at three gaging stations downstream from Toledo Bend Reservoir, the lower Sabine River is relatively stable, but is subject to substantial temporary scour-and-fill processes during floods. Exceptions to this characterization of relative stability include an episode of channel aggradation at the Sabine River near Bon Wier, Texas, during the 1930s, and about 2 to 3 feet of channel incision at the Sabine River near Burkeville, Texas, since the late 1950s. The Brazos River, at gaging stations downstream from Waco, Texas, has adjusted to a combination of

  20. Quantum Codes From Cyclic Codes Over The Ring R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinel, Alev; Güzeltepe, Murat

    2016-10-01

    Let R 2 denotes the ring F 2 + μF 2 + υ2 + μυF 2 + wF 2 + μwF 2 + υwF 2 + μυwF2. In this study, we construct quantum codes from cyclic codes over the ring R2, for arbitrary length n, with the restrictions μ2 = 0, υ2 = 0, w 2 = 0, μυ = υμ, μw = wμ, υw = wυ and μ (υw) = (μυ) w. Also, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over R2 that contains its dual. As a final point, we obtain the parameters of quantum error-correcting codes from cyclic codes over R2 and we give an example of quantum error-correcting codes form cyclic codes over R 2.

  1. Biped 4R2C six-bar mechanism with inner and outer feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Hao; Yao, Yan-an

    2016-01-01

    Most current biped robots are equipped with two feet arranged in the right and left which inspired by the human body system. Different from the existing configurations, a novel biped robot with inner and outer feet based on a spatial six-bar 4R2C(R and C denote revolute and cylindric joints, respectively) mechanism is proposed. It can move along a line or a curve by three walking modes that are dwell adjustment mode, limit position adjustment mode and any position adjustment mode. Kinematic, gait planning and stability analyses are performed respectively, and a prototype is developed. Lastly, a potential application is considered and two manipulating modes(sphere and cylinder manipulating modes) are carried out. This interesting mechanism feathering its single closed-chain structure and unique work performance is expected to motivate the configuration creation of biped robots.

  2. Chiropractic Adjustment

    MedlinePlus

    ... structural alignment and improve your body's physical function. Low back pain, neck pain and headache are the most common ... treated. Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only ...

  3. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from other people Skipped heartbeats and other physical complaints Trembling or twitching To have adjustment disorder, you ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  4. NASA to launch R2 to join Space Station Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA will launch the first human-like robot to space this year to become a permanent resident of the International Space Station. Robonaut 2, or R2, was developed jointly by NASA and General Motors...

  5. Radial Fourier multipliers of Lp(R2)

    PubMed Central

    Carbery, Anthony; Gasper, George; Trebels, Walter

    1984-01-01

    We give sufficient conditions (in terms of differentiability and growth properties) for a radial function to be an Lp(R2) Fourier multiplier. These conditions are in the nature of best possible. PMID:16593468

  6. Occurrence of exact R 2 inflation in non-local UV-complete gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshelev, Alexey S.; Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwal, Leslaw; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2016-11-01

    The R + R 2, shortly named " R 2" ("Starobinsky") inflationary model, represents a fully consistent example of a one-parameter inflationary scenario. This model has a "graceful exit" from inflation and provides a mechanism for subsequent creation and final thermalization of the standard matter. Moreover, it produces a very good fit of the observed spectrum of primordial perturbations. In the present paper we show explicitly that the R 2 inflationary spacetime is an exact solution of a range of weakly non-local (quasi-polynomial) gravitational theories, which provide an ultraviolet completion of the R 2 theory. These theories are ghost-free, super-renormalizable or finite at quantum level, and perturbatively unitary. Their spectrum consists of the graviton and the scalaron that is responsible for driving the inflation. Notably, any further extension of the spectrum leads to propagating ghost degrees of freedom. We are aimed at presenting a detailed construction of such theories in the so called Weyl basis. Further, we give a special account to the cosmological implications of this theory by considering perturbations during inflation. The highlight of the non-local model is the prediction of a modified, in comparison to a local R 2 model, value for the ratio of tensor and scalar power spectra r, depending on the parameters of the theory. The relevant parameters are under control to be successfully confronted with existing observational data. Furthermore, the modified r can surely meet future observational constraints.

  7. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  8. The Internalization of Jewish Values by Children Attending Orthodox Jewish Schools, and Its Relationship to Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lori R.; Milyavskaya, Marina; Koestner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the way in which children attending Orthodox Jewish schools internalize the value of both their Jewish studies and secular studies, as well as the value of Jewish cultural practices. A distinction was made between identified internalization, where children perceive Jewish studies and Jewish culture to be an important…

  9. 322-R2U2 Engineering Assessment - August 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Abri, M.; Griffin, D.

    2015-08-13

    This Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of retention tank system 322-R2 has been prepared for tank systems that store and neutralizes hazardous waste and have secondary containment. The regulations require that this assessment be completed periodically and certified by an independent, qualified, California-registered professional engineer. Abri Environmental Engineering performed an inspection of the 322-R2 Tank system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA. Mr. William W. Moore, P.E., conducted this inspection on March 16, 2015. Mr. Moore is a California Registered Civil Engineer, with extensive experience in civil engineering, and hazardous waste management.

  10. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  11. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  12. Robotic Range Clearance Competition (R2C2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    was only done for the “subsurface real ” test range. After mapping the surface contour, the Rover was used to mark the locations of notable...8 Figure 6. Map of Wyoming Showing General Location of R2C2 Ranges...Figure 48. Team Sky Research Geophysical Coverage Map ........................................................49 Figure 49. Anomaly Location Accuracy

  13. An overview of historical channel adjustment and selected hydraulic values in the Lower Sabine and Lower Brazos River Basins, Texas and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Greene, Lauren E.; John D. Gordon, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sabine and Brazos are alluvial rivers; alluvial rivers are dynamic systems that adjust their geometry in response to changes in streamflow (discharge) and sediment load. In fluvial geomorphology, the term 'channel adjustment' refers to river channel changes in three geometric dimensions: (1) channel slope (profile); (2) the outline or shape, such as meandering or braided, projected on a horizontal plane (planform); and (3) cross-sectional form (shape). The primary objective of the study was to investigate how the channel morphology of these rivers has changed in response to reservoirs and other anthropogenic disturbances that have altered streamflow and sediment load. The results of this study are expected to aid ecological assessments in the lower Sabine River and lower Brazos River Basins for the Texas Instream Flow Program. Starting in the 1920s, several dams have been constructed on the Sabine and Brazos Rivers and their tributaries, and numerous bridges have been built and sometimes replaced multiple times, which have changed the natural flow regime and reduced or altered sediment loads downstream. Changes in channel geometry over time can reduce channel conveyance and thus streamflow, which can have adverse ecological effects. Channel attributes including cross-section form, channel slope, and planform change were evaluated to learn how each river's morphology changed over many years in response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Climate has large influence on the hydrologic regimes of the lower Sabine and lower Brazos River Basins. Equally important as climate in controlling the hydrologic regime of the two river systems are numerous reservoirs that regulate downstream flow releases. The hydrologic regimes of the two rivers and their tributaries reflect the combined influences of climate, flow regulation, and drainage area. Historical and contemporary cross-sectional channel geometries at 15 streamflow-gaging stations in the lower Sabine and

  14. The value of impulsivity to define subgroups of addicted individuals differing in personality dysfunction, craving, psychosocial adjustment, and wellbeing: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Pilatti, Angelina; Lozano, Oscar; Martínez-González, José M; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    High impulsivity is common to substance and gambling addictions. Despite these commonalities, there is still substantial heterogeneity on impulsivity levels within these diagnostic groups, and variations in impulsive levels predict higher severity of symptoms and poorer outcomes. We addressed the question of whether impulsivity scores can yield empirically driven subgroups of addicted individuals that will exhibit different clinical presentations and outcomes. We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to trait (UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale) and cognitive impulsivity (Stroop and d2 tests) scores in three predominantly male addiction diagnostic groups: Cocaine with Personality Disorders, Cocaine Non-comorbid, and Gambling and analyzed the usefulness of the resulting subgroups to differentiate personality beliefs and relevant outcomes: Craving, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life. In accordance with impulsivity scores, the three addiction diagnostic groups are best represented as two separate classes: Class 1 characterized by greater trait impulsivity and poorer cognitive impulsivity performance and Class 2 characterized by lower trait impulsivity and better cognitive impulsivity performance. The two empirically derived classes showed significant differences on personality features and outcome variables (Class 1 exhibited greater personality dysfunction and worse clinical outcomes), whereas conventional diagnostic groups showed non-significant differences on most of these measures. Trait and cognitive impulsivity scores differentiate subgroups of addicted individuals with more versus less severe personality features and clinical outcomes.

  15. Optimizing isothiocyanate formation during enzymatic glucosinolate breakdown by adjusting pH value, temperature and dilution in Brassica vegetables and Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Hanschen, Franziska S.; Klopsch, Rebecca; Oliviero, Teresa; Schreiner, Monika; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of glucosinolate-rich Brassicales vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cancer with enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates playing a key role. However, formation of health-promoting isothiocyanates is inhibited by the epithiospecifier protein in favour of nitriles and epithionitriles. Domestic processing conditions, such as changes in pH value, temperature or dilution, might also affect isothiocyanate formation. Therefore, the influences of these three factors were evaluated in accessions of Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Mathematical modelling was performed to determine optimal isothiocyanate formation conditions and to obtain knowledge on the kinetics of the reactions. At 22 °C and endogenous plant pH, nearly all investigated plants formed nitriles and epithionitriles instead of health-promoting isothiocyanates. Response surface models, however, clearly demonstrated that upon change in pH to domestic acidic (pH 4) or basic pH values (pH 8), isothiocyanate formation considerably increases. While temperature also affects this process, the pH value has the greatest impact. Further, a kinetic model showed that isothiocyanate formation strongly increases due to dilution. Finally, the results show that isothiocyanate intake can be strongly increased by optimizing the conditions of preparation of Brassicales vegetables. PMID:28094342

  16. Optimizing isothiocyanate formation during enzymatic glucosinolate breakdown by adjusting pH value, temperature and dilution in Brassica vegetables and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanschen, Franziska S.; Klopsch, Rebecca; Oliviero, Teresa; Schreiner, Monika; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of glucosinolate-rich Brassicales vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cancer with enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates playing a key role. However, formation of health-promoting isothiocyanates is inhibited by the epithiospecifier protein in favour of nitriles and epithionitriles. Domestic processing conditions, such as changes in pH value, temperature or dilution, might also affect isothiocyanate formation. Therefore, the influences of these three factors were evaluated in accessions of Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Mathematical modelling was performed to determine optimal isothiocyanate formation conditions and to obtain knowledge on the kinetics of the reactions. At 22 °C and endogenous plant pH, nearly all investigated plants formed nitriles and epithionitriles instead of health-promoting isothiocyanates. Response surface models, however, clearly demonstrated that upon change in pH to domestic acidic (pH 4) or basic pH values (pH 8), isothiocyanate formation considerably increases. While temperature also affects this process, the pH value has the greatest impact. Further, a kinetic model showed that isothiocyanate formation strongly increases due to dilution. Finally, the results show that isothiocyanate intake can be strongly increased by optimizing the conditions of preparation of Brassicales vegetables.

  17. R2-Based Multi/Many-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Gregorio; Barron-Zambrano, Jose Hugo; Tello-Leal, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    We propose to couple the R2 performance measure and Particle Swarm Optimization in order to handle multi/many-objective problems. Our proposal shows that through a well-designed interaction process we could maintain the metaheuristic almost inalterable and through the R2 performance measure we did not use neither an external archive nor Pareto dominance to guide the search. The proposed approach is validated using several test problems and performance measures commonly adopted in the specialized literature. Results indicate that the proposed algorithm produces results that are competitive with respect to those obtained by four well-known MOEAs. Additionally, we validate our proposal in many-objective optimization problems. In these problems, our approach showed its main strength, since it could outperform another well-known indicator-based MOEA. PMID:27656200

  18. PICK1 and phosphorylation of the glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) AMPA receptor subunit regulates GluR2 recycling after NMDA receptor-induced internalization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Da-Ting; Huganir, Richard L

    2007-12-12

    Changes in surface trafficking of AMPA receptors play an important role in synaptic plasticity. Phosphorylation of the C terminus of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) and the binding of GluR2 to the PDZ [postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1]-domain containing protein, protein interacting with protein kinase C (PICK1), have been proposed to play an important role in NMDA receptor dependent internalization of GluR2. However, the fate of internalized GluR2 after NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation is still unclear. Both recycling and degradation of GluR2 after the activation of NMDAR have been reported. Here, we used a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein variant, pHluorin, tagged to the N terminus of GluR2 (pH-GluR2) to study the dynamic internalization and recycling of GluR2 after NMDAR activation. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleach (FRAP), we directly demonstrate that internalized pH-GluR2 subunits recycle back to the cell surface after NMDAR activation. We further demonstrate that changing the phosphorylation state of the S880 residue at the C terminus of GluR2 does not affect NMDAR-dependent GluR2 internalization, but alters the recycling of GluR2 after NMDAR activation. In addition, mutation of the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) binding site in the pH-GluR2 slows receptor recycling. Finally, neurons lacking PICK1 display normal NMDAR dependent GluR2 internalization compared with wild-type neurons, but demonstrate accelerated GluR2 recycling after NMDAR activation. These results indicate that phosphorylation of GluR2 S880 and NSF and PICK1 binding to GluR2 dynamically regulate GluR2 recycling.

  19. Effect of hepatocyte-specific gadolinium-based contrast agents on hepatic fat-fraction and R2(⁎).

    PubMed

    Hernando, Diego; Wells, Shane A; Vigen, Karl K; Reeder, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of a hepatocyte-specific gadolinium based contrast agent (GBCA) on quantitative hepatic fat-fraction (FF) and R2* measurements. Fifty patients were imaged at 1.5T, using chemical-shift encoded water-fat MRI with low (5°) and high (15°) flip angles (FA), both before and after administration of a hepatocyte-specific GBCA (gadoxetic acid). Low and high FA, pre- and post-contrast FF and R2* values were measured for each subject. Available serum laboratory studies related to liver disease were also recorded. Linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to compare measurements. Hepatic FF was unaffected by GBCA at low FA (slope=1.02±0.02, p=0.32). FF was overestimated at high FA pre-contrast (slope=1.33±0.03, p<10(-10)), but underestimated post-contrast (slope=0.81±0.02, p<10(-10)). Hepatic R2* was unaffected by FA (mean difference±95% CI pre-contrast:2.2±4.9s(-1), post-contrast:2.8±3.6s(-1)), but increased post-contrast in patients with total bilirubin <2.5mg/dL (ΔR2*=13.4±12.7s(-1)). Regression analysis of serum values demonstrated a correlation of post-contrast change in R2* with total bilirubin (p<0.01) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (p≈0.01). In conclusion, GBCA has no effect on hepatic FF at low FA due to a lack of T1-weighting, potentially allowing flexibility for FF imaging with hepatobiliary imaging protocols. Hepatic R2* increased significantly after GBCA administration, particularly in the biliary tree. Therefore, R2* maps should be obtained prior to contrast administration.

  20. Global ionospheric current patterns associated with the development of the R1 and R2 FACs deduced by the GEMSIS-POT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamizo, A.; Hiraki, Y.; Hori, T.; Seki, K.; Ieda, A.; Tsuji, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Kikuchi, T.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the GEMSIS project (Geospace Environment Modeling System for Integrated Studies), we have developed a two-dimensional ionospheric global potential solver. There has been considerable research on the mid-and low-latitude ionospheric system driven by neutral wind [e.g., Richmond, 1973]. However, there are few researches on the relationship between the high-latitude system and middle and low latitude system, which is important for the integrated studies of the magnetosphere-inner magnetosphere system coupled through the ionosphere. Our model basically follows a methodology provided by Tsunomura [1999]; it solves the Ohm's law under the thin-shell approximated 2-D ionosphere, with FACs in the polar region and height-integrated ionospheric conductivities. The most important extension from previous studies is that our model covers both hemispheres without a boundary at the equator. The values of Pedersen and Hall conductivities are calculated as exactly as possible with the MSIS-2000, IRI-2007, and IGRF-2005 reference models. In addition, we consider the effect of auroral particle precipitation on conductivities with reference to the empirical models [e.g., Hardy et al., 1987]. Although the FACs and ionospheric conductivity are intrinsically related to each other, we set them a priori at present because there is still no theory describing the development of the FACs-conductivity coupled system self-consistently. By using the solver, we investigate (1) the relationship between the conductivity and electric field in the middle and low latitude ionosphere and (2) how the current density ratio and latitudinal/longitudinal distribution of R1-FAC and R2-FAC affect the electric field distribution and current pattern in the middle and low latitude ionosphere. Here, FACs are distributed with reference to the empirical model by Hori et al. [in preparation] and the location of the conductivity enhancement associated with auroral activities given by empirical models is

  1. Regional placental blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes with gestational age in normally developing pregnancies using long duration R2* mapping in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yun Jung; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Ania I.; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of R2* mapping in maternal and fetal sub-regions of the placenta with the aim of providing a reference for blood oxygenation levels during normative development. There have been a number of MR relaxation studies of placental tissues in-utero, but none have reported R2* value changes with age, or examined differences in sub-regions of the placenta. Here specialized long-duration Multi-frame R2* imaging was used to create a stable estimate for R2* values in different placental regions in healthy pregnant volunteers not imaged for clinical reasons. 27 subjects were recruited and scanned up to 3 times during their pregnancy. A multi-slice dual echo EPI based BOLD acquisition was employed and repeated between 90 and 150 times over 3 to 5 minutes to provide a high accuracy estimate of the R2* signal level. Acquisitions were also repeated in 13 cases within a visit to evaluate reproducibility of the method in a given subject. Experimental results showed R2* measurements were highly repeatable within a visit with standard deviation of (0.76). Plots of all visits against gestational age indicated clear correlations showing decreases in R2* with age. This increase was consistent was also consistent over time in multiple visits of the same volunteer during their pregnancy. Maternal and fetal regional changes with gestational age followed the same trend with increase in R2* over the gestational age.

  2. 19 CFR 351.413 - Disregarding insignificant adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351..., constructed export price, or normal value, as the case may be. Groups of adjustments are adjustments...

  3. 19 CFR 351.413 - Disregarding insignificant adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351..., constructed export price, or normal value, as the case may be. Groups of adjustments are adjustments...

  4. 19 CFR 351.413 - Disregarding insignificant adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351..., constructed export price, or normal value, as the case may be. Groups of adjustments are adjustments...

  5. Spectroscopic Studies of the Iron and Manganese Reconstituted Tyrosyl Radical in Bacillus Cereus Ribonucleotide Reductase R2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tomter, Ane B.; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Bell, Caleb B.; Barra, Anne-Laure; Andersen, Niels H.; Solomon, Edward I.; Andersson, K. Kristoffer

    2012-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the rate limiting step in DNA synthesis where ribonucleotides are reduced to the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides. Class Ib RNRs consist of two homodimeric subunits: R1E, which houses the active site; and R2F, which contains a metallo cofactor and a tyrosyl radical that initiates the ribonucleotide reduction reaction. We studied the R2F subunit of B. cereus reconstituted with iron or alternatively with manganese ions, then subsequently reacted with molecular oxygen to generate two tyrosyl-radicals. The two similar X-band EPR spectra did not change significantly over 4 to 50 K. From the 285 GHz EPR spectrum of the iron form, a g1-value of 2.0090 for the tyrosyl radical was extracted. This g1-value is similar to that observed in class Ia E. coli R2 and class Ib R2Fs with iron-oxygen cluster, suggesting the absence of hydrogen bond to the phenoxyl group. This was confirmed by resonance Raman spectroscopy, where the stretching vibration associated to the radical (C-O, ν7a = 1500 cm−1) was found to be insensitive to deuterium-oxide exchange. Additionally, the 18O-sensitive Fe-O-Fe symmetric stretching (483 cm−1) of the metallo-cofactor was also insensitive to deuterium-oxide exchange indicating no hydrogen bonding to the di-iron-oxygen cluster, and thus, different from mouse R2 with a hydrogen bonded cluster. The HF-EPR spectrum of the manganese reconstituted RNR R2F gave a g1-value of ∼2.0094. The tyrosyl radical microwave power saturation behavior of the iron-oxygen cluster form was as observed in class Ia R2, with diamagnetic di-ferric cluster ground state, while the properties of the manganese reconstituted form indicated a magnetic ground state of the manganese-cluster. The recent activity measurements (Crona et al., (2011) J Biol Chem 286: 33053–33060) indicates that both the manganese and iron reconstituted RNR R2F could be functional. The manganese form might be very important, as it has 8 times higher

  6. Use of the SAMe-TT2R2 Score to Predict Good Anticoagulation Control with Warfarin in Chinese Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Relationship to Ischemic Stroke Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pak Hei; Hai, Jo Jo; Chan, Esther W.; Li, Wen Hua; Tse, Hung Fat; Wong, Ian C. K.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Siu, Chung Wah

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy and safety of warfarin therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) depends on the time in therapeutic range (TTR). We aimed to assess the predictive ability of SAMe-TT2R2 score in Chinese AF patients on warfarin, whose TTR is notoriously poor. Methods and Results This is a single-centre retrospective study. Patients with non-valvular AF on warfarin diagnosed between 1997 and 2011 were stratified according to SAMe-TT2R2 score, and TTR was calculated using Rosendaal method. The predictive power of SAMe-TT2R2 scores for good TTR i.e. >70% was assessed. We included 1,428 Chinese patients (mean age 76.2±8.7 years, 47.5% male) with non-valvular AF on warfarin. The mean and median TTR were 38.2±24.4% and 38.8% (interquartile range: 17.9% and 56.2%) respectively. TTR decreased progressively with increasing SAMe-TT2R2 score (p = 0.016). When the cut-off value of SAMe-TT2R2 score was set to 2, the sensitivity and specificity to predict TTR<70% were 85.7% and 17.8%, respectively. The corresponding positive and negative predictive values were 10.1% and 92.0%. After a mean follow-up of 4.7±3.6 years, 338 patients developed an ischemic stroke (4.96%/year). Patients with TTR≥70% had a lower annual risk of ischemic stroke of 3.67%/year compared with than those with TTR<70% (5.13%/year)(p = 0.08). Patients with SAMe-TT2R2 score ≤2 had the lowest risk of annual risk of ischemic stroke (3.49%/year) compared with those with SAMe-TT2R2 score = 3 (4.56%/year), and those with SAMe-TT2R2 score ≥4 (6.41%/year)(p<0.001). There was also a non-significant trend towards more intracranial hemorrhage with increasing SAMe-TT2R2 score. Conclusions The SAMe-TT2R2 score correlates well with TTR in Chinese AF patients, with a score >2 having high sensitivity and negative predictive values for poor TTR. Ischemic stroke risk increased progressively with increasing SAMe-TT2R2 score, consistent with poorer TTRs at high SAMe-TT2R2 scores. PMID:27010633

  7. Stability of R2* and quantitative susceptibility mapping of the brain tissue in a large scale multi-center study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongpin; Xie, Guangyou; Zhai, Maoxiong; Zhang, Zhongping; Wu, Bing; Zheng, Dandan; Hong, Nan; Jiang, Tao; Wen, Baohong; Cheng, Jingliang

    2017-01-01

    Multi-center studies are advantageous for enrolling participants of varying pathological and demographical conditions, and especially in neurological studies. Hence stability of the obtained quantitative R2* and susceptibility in multicenter studies is a key issue for their widespread applications. In this work, the stabilities of simultaneously obtained R2* and susceptibility are investigated and compared across 10 sites that are equipped with the same scanner and receiver coil, the same post-processing process was used to achieve consistent experiment setup. Two healthy adult volunteers (one male and female) participated in this study. High intraclass correlation coefficient was obtained for both susceptibility (0.94) and R2* (0.96). The coefficients of variance for all measurements obtained were smaller than 0.1, the largest variations of measurements in all the chosen ROIs fall within ±20% from the median value. Higher level of stability was obtained in R2* as compared to susceptibility at 1 mm resolution (P < 0.05) and at 1.5 mm (P < 0.01). PMID:28349957

  8. Stability of R2* and quantitative susceptibility mapping of the brain tissue in a large scale multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongpin; Xie, Guangyou; Zhai, Maoxiong; Zhang, Zhongping; Wu, Bing; Zheng, Dandan; Hong, Nan; Jiang, Tao; Wen, Baohong; Cheng, Jingliang

    2017-03-28

    Multi-center studies are advantageous for enrolling participants of varying pathological and demographical conditions, and especially in neurological studies. Hence stability of the obtained quantitative R2* and susceptibility in multicenter studies is a key issue for their widespread applications. In this work, the stabilities of simultaneously obtained R2* and susceptibility are investigated and compared across 10 sites that are equipped with the same scanner and receiver coil, the same post-processing process was used to achieve consistent experiment setup. Two healthy adult volunteers (one male and female) participated in this study. High intraclass correlation coefficient was obtained for both susceptibility (0.94) and R2* (0.96). The coefficients of variance for all measurements obtained were smaller than 0.1, the largest variations of measurements in all the chosen ROIs fall within ±20% from the median value. Higher level of stability was obtained in R2* as compared to susceptibility at 1 mm resolution (P < 0.05) and at 1.5 mm (P < 0.01).

  9. Adaption of pregnancy anxiety questionnaire-revised for all pregnant women regardless of parity: PRAQ-R2.

    PubMed

    Huizink, A C; Delforterie, M J; Scheinin, N M; Tolvanen, M; Karlsson, L; Karlsson, H

    2016-02-01

    The 10-item Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-Revised (PRAQ-R) is a widely used instrument to assess and identify pregnancy-specific anxiety in nulliparous women. It has good psychometric values and predictive validity for birth and childhood outcomes. Nonetheless, the PRAQ-R is not designed for use in parous women, as particularly one item of the questionnaire is not relevant for women who gave birth before. We tested the factorial and scalar invariance of a modified PRAQ-R2 across nulliparous and parous women with an adapted item to fit both groups of pregnant women. A longitudinal study among 1144 pregnant women (n = 608 nulliparous and n = 536 parous) with two repeated measures of the PRAQ-R2 was used to test for measurement invariance of the instrument. Results show metric and scalar invariance, indicating that the PRAQ-R2 measures similar constructs on the same scale for all pregnant women at two different times during pregnancy. We conclude that the PRAQ-R2 can be used, compared, or combined in a sample of nulliparous and parous women.

  10. Adjusting Spectral Indices for Spectral Response Function Differences of Very High Spatial Resolution Sensors Simulated from Field Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Cundill, Sharon L.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; van der Meijde, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The use of data from multiple sensors is often required to ensure data coverage and continuity, but differences in the spectral characteristics of sensors result in spectral index values being different. This study investigates spectral response function effects on 48 spectral indices for cultivated grasslands using simulated data of 10 very high spatial resolution sensors, convolved from field reflectance spectra of a grass covered dike (with varying vegetation condition). Index values for 48 indices were calculated for original narrow-band spectra and convolved data sets, and then compared. The indices Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI2) and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), which include the difference between the near-infrared and red bands, have values most similar to those of the original spectra across all 10 sensors (1:1 line mean 1:1R2 > 0.960 and linear trend mean ccR2 > 0.997). Additionally, relationships between the indices’ values and two quality indicators for grass covered dikes were compared to those of the original spectra. For the soil moisture indicator, indices that ratio bands performed better across sensors than those that difference bands, while for the dike cover quality indicator, both the choice of bands and their formulation are important. PMID:25781511

  11. Influence of CO2 exposure on pH value, electrochemical properties, and the formation of calcium-phosphate on Ti-6Al-4V under adjusted in vitro conditions in DMEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, Sarah; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2015-06-01

    Immersion tests for studying biomaterials surface reactions should be carried out at a pH value of 7.4 and an adjusted blood physiological electrolyte to simulate as far as possible in vivo conditions. The present work deals with surface reactivity of the biocompatible Ti-6Al-4V alloy in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and the influence of different immersion conditions on the pH value of solution and thus on the surface charge and calcium-phosphate formation on the oxide covered alloy surface. More specifically, the influence of the temperature (room temperature vs. 37 °C) and atmospheric exposure (solution open-to-air vs. solution exposed to 5% CO2 in air) was investigated. Electrochemical measurements, XPS and ATR-IR studies were carried out for interface characterization. Precipitations of calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) on Ti-6Al-4V in DMEM are formed depending on the atmospheric conditions (presence or absence of CO2). In the absence of CO2 strong coverage of the surface by a Ca-P layer takes place; in solution exposed to 5% CO2, however, only minor amounts of Ca-P are found on the surface. This drastically different behavior can be explained by different surface terminations of OH and TiO2, induced by atmosphere-dependent pH change in solution. In consequence, different surface charges on Ti-6Al-4V can be formed at the interface depending on the type of hydroxides after contact with the electrolyte. Hence, the surface charge influences the interaction with adsorption of charged species and further modifies the oxide properties. The adsorption of the charged cations (Ca2 +) and anions (PO43 -, HPO42 -, H2PO4 -) leads to the formation of additional calcium phosphate layers. The pH of the solution is also important. At higher pH the titanium surface is more negatively charged leading to an increased electrostatic interaction with Ca2 + and reduced solubility of the calcium phosphates. Additional experiments indicate that the CO2 content in the atmosphere is

  12. Phosphorylation of RyR2 and shortening of RyR2 cluster spacing in spontaneously hypertensive rat with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Chen-Izu, Ye; Ward, Christopher W; Stark, Wayne; Banyasz, Tamas; Sumandea, Marius P; Balke, C William; Izu, Leighton T; Wehrens, Xander H T

    2007-10-01

    As a critical step toward understanding the role of abnormal intracellular Ca(2+) release via the ryanodine receptor (RyR(2)) during the development of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, this study examines two questions: 1) At what stage, if ever, in the development of hypertrophy and heart failure is RyR(2) hyperphosphorylated at Ser(2808)? 2) Does the spatial distribution of RyR(2) clusters change in failing hearts? Using a newly developed semiquantitative immunohistochemistry method and Western blotting, we measured phosphorylation of RyR(2) at Ser(2808) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) at four distinct disease stages. A major finding is that hyperphosphorylation of RyR(2) at Ser(2808) occurred only at late-stage heart failure in SHR, but not in age-matched controls. Furthermore, the spacing between RyR(2) clusters was shortened in failing hearts, as predicted by quantitative model simulation to increase spontaneous Ca(2+) wave generation and arrhythmias.

  13. Structure and Mechanism of Receptoe Sharing by the IL-10R2 Common Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-il; Jones, Brandi C.; Logsdon, Naomi J.; Harris, Bethany D.; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Radaeva, Svetlana; Halloran, Brian A.; Gao, Bin; Walter, Mark R.

    2010-06-14

    IL-10R2 is a shared cell surface receptor required for the activation of five class 2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29) that play critical roles in host defense. To define the molecular mechanisms that regulate its promiscuous binding, we have determined the crystal structure of the IL-10R2 ectodomain at 2.14 {angstrom} resolution. IL-10R2 residues required for binding were identified by alanine scanning and used to derive computational models of IL-10/IL-10R1/IL-10R2 and IL-22/IL-22R1/IL-10R2 ternary complexes. The models reveal a conserved binding epitope that is surrounded by two clefts that accommodate the structural and chemical diversity of the cytokines. These results provide a structural framework for interpreting IL-10R2 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human disease.

  14. Structure and Mechanism of Receptor Sharing by the IL-10R2 Common Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-il; Jones, Brandi C.; Logsdon, Naomi J.; Harris, Bethany D.; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Radaeva, Svetlana; Halloran, Brian A.; Gao, Bin; Walter, Mark R.

    2010-07-19

    IL-10R2 is a shared cell surface receptor required for the activation of five class 2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29) that play critical roles in host defense. To define the molecular mechanisms that regulate its promiscuous binding, we have determined the crystal structure of the IL-10R2 ectodomain at 2.14 {angstrom} resolution. IL-10R2 residues required for binding were identified by alanine scanning and used to derive computational models of IL-10/IL-10R1/IL-10R2 and IL-22/IL-22R1/IL-10R2 ternary complexes. The models reveal a conserved binding epitope that is surrounded by two clefts that accommodate the structural and chemical diversity of the cytokines. These results provide a structural framework for interpreting IL-10R2 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human disease.

  15. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles.

    PubMed

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco Javier; Boersma, Maaike; Schuurink, Robert C; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Caballero, José Luis; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and functionally characterized an R2R3 MYB transcription factor (emission of benzenoid II [FaEOBII]) that seems to be the orthologous gene of PhEOBII from Petunia hybrida, which contributes to the regulation of eugenol biosynthesis in petals. The expression of FaEOBII was ripening related and fruit receptacle specific, although high expression values were also found in petals. This expression pattern of FaEOBII correlated with eugenol content in both fruit receptacle and petals. The expression of FaEOBII was repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid, in parallel to the ripening process. In ripe strawberry receptacles, where the expression of FaEOBII was silenced, the expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase1 and FaEGS2, two structural genes involved in eugenol production, was down-regulated. A subsequent decrease in eugenol content in ripe receptacles was also observed, confirming the involvement of FaEOBII in eugenol metabolism. Additionally, the expression of FaEOBII was under the control of FaMYB10, another R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates the early and late biosynthetic genes from the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway. In parallel, the amount of eugenol in FaMYB10-silenced receptacles was also diminished. Taken together, these data indicate that FaEOBII plays a regulating role in the volatile phenylpropanoid pathway gene expression that gives rise to eugenol production in ripe strawberry receptacles.

  16. The Implementation of C-ID, R2D2 Model on Learning Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayanto, Yudi Hari; Rusmawan, Putu Ngurah

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to find out, (1) whether C-ID, R2D2 model is effective to be implemented on learning Reading comprehension, (2) college students' activity during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on learning Reading comprehension, and 3) college students' learning achievement during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on…

  17. Preferential Occupancy of R2 Retroelements on the B Chromosomes of the Grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Eugenia E.; Cabrero, Josefa; Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Burke, William D.; Eickbush, Thomas H.; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; López-León, María Dolores

    2014-01-01

    R2 non-LTR retrotransposons exclusively insert into the 28S rRNA genes of their host, and are expressed by co-transcription with the rDNA unit. The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans contains transcribed rDNA clusters on most of its A chromosomes, as well as non-transcribed rDNA clusters on the parasitic B chromosomes found in many populations. Here the structure of the E. plorans R2 element, its abundance relative to the number of rDNA units and its retrotransposition activity were determined. Animals screened from five populations contained on average over 12,000 rDNA units on their A chromosomes, but surprisingly only about 100 R2 elements. Monitoring the patterns of R2 insertions in individuals from these populations revealed only low levels of retrotransposition. The low rates of R2 insertion observed in E. plorans differ from the high levels of R2 insertion previously observed in insect species that have many fewer rDNA units. It is proposed that high levels of R2 are strongly selected against in E. plorans, because the rDNA transcription machinery in this species is unable to differentiate between R2-inserted and uninserted units. The B chromosomes of E. plorans contain an additional 7,000 to 15,000 rDNA units, but in contrast to the A chromosomes, from 150 to over 1,500 R2 elements. The higher concentration of R2 in the inactive B chromosomes rDNA clusters suggests these chromosomes can act as a sink for R2 insertions thus further reducing the level of insertions on the A chromosomes. These studies suggest an interesting evolutionary relationship between the parasitic B chromosomes and R2 elements. PMID:24632855

  18. TRAIL-R2: a novel apoptosis-mediating receptor for TRAIL.

    PubMed Central

    Walczak, H; Degli-Esposti, M A; Johnson, R S; Smolak, P J; Waugh, J Y; Boiani, N; Timour, M S; Gerhart, M J; Schooley, K A; Smith, C A; Goodwin, R G; Rauch, C T

    1997-01-01

    TRAIL is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of cytokines and induces apoptosis in a wide variety of cells. Based on homology searching of a private database, a receptor for TRAIL (DR4 or TRAIL-R1) was recently identified. Here we report the identification of a distinct receptor for TRAIL, TRAIL-R2, by ligand-based affinity purification and subsequent molecular cloning. TRAIL-R2 was purified independently as the only receptor for TRAIL detectable on the surface of two different human cell lines that undergo apoptosis upon stimulation with TRAIL. TRAIL-R2 contains two extracellular cysteine-rich repeats, typical for TNF receptor (TNFR) family members, and a cytoplasmic death domain. TRAIL binds to recombinant cell-surface-expressed TRAIL-R2, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis is inhibited by a TRAIL-R2-Fc fusion protein. TRAIL-R2 mRNA is widely expressed and the gene encoding TRAIL-R2 is located on human chromosome 8p22-21. Like TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2 engages a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway but, in contrast to TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2 mediates apoptosis via the intracellular adaptor molecule FADD/MORT1. The existence of two distinct receptors for the same ligand suggests an unexpected complexity to TRAIL biology, reminiscent of dual receptors for TNF, the canonical member of this family. PMID:9311998

  19. Evolution of the R2 Retrotransposon Ribozyme and Its Self-Cleavage Site

    PubMed Central

    Eickbush, Danna G.; Burke, William D.; Eickbush, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    R2 is a non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon that inserts site-specifically in the tandem 28S rRNA genes of many animals. Previously, R2 RNA from various species of Drosophila was shown to self-cleave from the 28S rRNA/R2 co-transcript by a hepatitis D virus (HDV)-like ribozyme encoded at its 5' end. RNA cleavage was at the precise 5' junction of the element with the 28S gene. Here we report that RNAs encompassing the 5' ends of R2 elements from throughout its species range fold into HDV-like ribozymes. In vitro assays of RNA self-cleavage conducted in many R2 lineages confirmed activity. For many R2s, RNA self-cleavage was not at the 5' end of the element but at 28S rRNA sequences up to 36 nucleotides upstream of the junction. The location of cleavage correlated well with the types of endogenous R2 5' junctions from different species. R2 5' junctions were uniform for most R2s in which RNA cleavage was upstream in the rRNA sequences. The 28S sequences remaining on the first DNA strand synthesized during retrotransposition are postulated to anneal to the target site and uniformly prime second strand DNA synthesis. In species where RNA cleavage occurred at the R2 5' end, the 5' junctions were variable. This junction variation is postulated to result from the priming of second strand DNA synthesis by chance microhomologies between the target site and the first DNA strand. Finally, features of R2 ribozyme evolution, especially changes in cleavage site and convergence on the same active site sequences, are discussed. PMID:24066021

  20. Calcium release channel RyR2 regulates insulin release and glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Santulli, Gaetano; Pagano, Gennaro; Sardu, Celestino; Xie, Wenjun; Reiken, Steven; D’Ascia, Salvatore Luca; Cannone, Michele; Marziliano, Nicola; Trimarco, Bruno; Guise, Theresa A.; Lacampagne, Alain; Marks, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a Ca2+ release channel on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of several types of cells, including cardiomyocytes and pancreatic β cells. In cardiomyocytes, RyR2-dependent Ca2+ release is critical for excitation-contraction coupling; however, a functional role for RyR2 in β cell insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus remains controversial. Here, we took advantage of rare RyR2 mutations that were identified in patients with a genetic form of exercise-induced sudden death (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia [CPVT]). As these mutations result in a “leaky” RyR2 channel, we exploited them to assess RyR2 channel function in β cell dynamics. We discovered that CPVT patients with mutant leaky RyR2 present with glucose intolerance, which was heretofore unappreciated. In mice, transgenic expression of CPVT-associated RyR2 resulted in impaired glucose homeostasis, and an in-depth evaluation of pancreatic islets and β cells from these animals revealed intracellular Ca2+ leak via oxidized and nitrosylated RyR2 channels, activated ER stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, and decreased fuel-stimulated insulin release. Additionally, we verified the effects of the pharmacological inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ leak in CPVT-associated RyR2-expressing mice, in human islets from diabetic patients, and in an established murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Taken together, our data indicate that RyR2 channels play a crucial role in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25844899

  1. Calcium release channel RyR2 regulates insulin release and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Santulli, Gaetano; Pagano, Gennaro; Sardu, Celestino; Xie, Wenjun; Reiken, Steven; D'Ascia, Salvatore Luca; Cannone, Michele; Marziliano, Nicola; Trimarco, Bruno; Guise, Theresa A; Lacampagne, Alain; Marks, Andrew R

    2015-05-01

    The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a Ca2+ release channel on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of several types of cells, including cardiomyocytes and pancreatic β cells. In cardiomyocytes, RyR2-dependent Ca2+ release is critical for excitation-contraction coupling; however, a functional role for RyR2 in β cell insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus remains controversial. Here, we took advantage of rare RyR2 mutations that were identified in patients with a genetic form of exercise-induced sudden death (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia [CPVT]). As these mutations result in a "leaky" RyR2 channel, we exploited them to assess RyR2 channel function in β cell dynamics. We discovered that CPVT patients with mutant leaky RyR2 present with glucose intolerance, which was heretofore unappreciated. In mice, transgenic expression of CPVT-associated RyR2 resulted in impaired glucose homeostasis, and an in-depth evaluation of pancreatic islets and β cells from these animals revealed intracellular Ca2+ leak via oxidized and nitrosylated RyR2 channels, activated ER stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, and decreased fuel-stimulated insulin release. Additionally, we verified the effects of the pharmacological inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ leak in CPVT-associated RyR2-expressing mice, in human islets from diabetic patients, and in an established murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Taken together, our data indicate that RyR2 channels play a crucial role in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.

  2. Epithelial IL-1R2 acts as a homeostatic regulator during remission of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Buch, R; Dotti, I; Planell, N; Calderón-Gómez, E; Jung, P; Masamunt, M C; Llach, J; Ricart, E; Batlle, E; Panés, J; Salas, A

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease that may undergo periods of activity followed by remission. We aimed to identify the endogenous regulatory mechanisms that may promote disease remission. Transcriptional and protein analysis of the intestinal mucosa revealed that the IL-1 decoy receptor, interleukin-1 receptor type 2 (IL1R2), was upregulated in remission compared with active UC and controls. We identified epithelial cells as being responsible for increased IL-1R2 production during remission. Expression of IL1R2 was negatively regulated by Wnt/beta-catenin signals in colonic crypts or epithelial stem cell cultures; accordingly, epithelial stem cells upregulated IL-1R2 upon differentiation. Blocking IL-1R2 in isolated colonic crypt cultures of UC patients in remission and T-cell cultures stimulated with biopsy supernatant from UC patients in remission boosted IL-1β-dependent production of inflammation-related cytokines. Finally, IL1R2 transcription was significantly lower in patients that relapsed during a 1-year follow-up period compared with those in endoscopic remission. Collectively, our results reveal that the IL-1/IL-1R2 axis is differentially regulated in the remitting intestinal mucosa of UC patients. We hypothesize that IL-1R2 in the presence of low concentrations of IL-1β may act locally as a regulator of intestinal homeostasis. PMID:26530134

  3. Using R^2 to compare least-squares fit models: When it must fail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R^2 can be used correctly to select from among competing least-squares fit models when the data are fitted in common form and with common weighting. However, then R^2 comparisons become equivalent to comparisons of the estimated fit variance s^2 in unweighted fitting, or of the reduced chi-square in...

  4. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Thirteen R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors from Epimedium sagittatum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenjun; Sun, Wei; Lv, Haiyan; Xiao, Gong; Zeng, Shaohua; Wang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim, a popular traditional Chinese medicinal plant, has been widely used for treating sexual dysfunction and osteoporosis in China. The main bioactive components in herba epimedii are prenylated flavonol glycosides, which are end products of a branch of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. The MYB transcription factors (TF) act as activators or repressors to regulate the flavonoid pathway. In this study, 13 full-length cDNA clones of R2R3-MYB TFs from E. sagittatum (designated as EsMYB1 to EsMYB13) were isolated and characterized. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis placed nine R2R3-MYB members of E. sagittatum into five subgroups of the Arabidopsis R2R3-MYB family, while four members were not clustered into a defined subgroup. The number and length of introns from Epimedium R2R3-MYB genes varied significantly, but intron positions and phases were well conserved. Expression patterns of Epimedium R2R3-MYB genes in various tissues showed diverse. Finally, it is suggested that five Epimedium R2R3-MYB genes may be involved in regulating the flavonoid pathway and could be used as valuable candidate genes for metabolic engineering studies in future. Sequence information of 13 R2R3-MYB genes discovered here will also provide an entry point into the overview of whole R2R3-MYB family in Epimedium. PMID:23271373

  5. Isolation and molecular characterization of thirteen R2R3-MYB transcription factors from Epimedium sagittatum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenjun; Sun, Wei; Lv, Haiyan; Xiao, Gong; Zeng, Shaohua; Wang, Ying

    2012-12-27

    Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim, a popular traditional Chinese medicinal plant, has been widely used for treating sexual dysfunction and osteoporosis in China. The main bioactive components in herba epimedii are prenylated flavonol glycosides, which are end products of a branch of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. The MYB transcription factors (TF) act as activators or repressors to regulate the flavonoid pathway. In this study, 13 full-length cDNA clones of R2R3-MYB TFs from E. sagittatum (designated as EsMYB1 to EsMYB13) were isolated and characterized. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis placed nine R2R3-MYB members of epimedii into five subgroups of the Arabidopsis R2R3-MYB family, while four members were not clustered into a defined subgroup. The number and length of introns from epimedii R2R3-MYB genes varied significantly, but intron positions and phases were well conserved. Expression patterns of epimedii R2R3-MYB genes in various tissues showed diverse. Finally, it is suggested that five epimedii R2R3-MYB genes may be involved in regulating the flavonoid pathway and could be used as valuable candidate genes for metabolic engineering studies in future. Sequence information of 13 R2R3-MYB genes discovered here will also provide an entry point into the overview of whole R2R3-MYB family in epimedii.

  6. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Supporting Global Data Access Through the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Stocks, K.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.; Miller, S. P.; Maffei, A. R.; Glaves, H. M.; Carbotte, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. National Science Foundation supports a fleet of academic research vessels operating throughout the world's oceans. In addition to supporting the mission-specific goals of each expedition, these vessels routinely deploy a suite of underway environmental sensors, operating like mobile observatories. Recognizing that the data from these instruments have value beyond each cruise, NSF funded R2R in 2009 to ensure that these data are routinely captured, cataloged and described, and submitted to the appropriate national repository for long-term public access. In 2013, R2R joined the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP; http://odip.org/). The goal of ODIP is to remove barriers to the effective sharing of data across scientific domains and international boundaries, by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional systems. To advance this goal, ODIP organizes international workshops to foster the development of common standards and develop prototypes to evaluate and test potential standards and interoperability solutions. ODIP includes major organizations engaged in ocean data stewardship in the EU, US, and Australia, supported by the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE). Within the broad scope of ODIP, R2R focuses on contributions in 4 key areas: ● Implement a 'Linked Open Data' approach to disseminate data and documentation, using existing World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications and machine-readable formats. Exposing content as Linked Open Data will provide a simple mechanism for ODIP collaborators to browse and compare data sets among repositories. ● Map key vocabularies used by R2R to their European and Australian counterparts. The existing heterogeneity among terms inhibits data discoverability, as a user searching on the term with which s/he is familiar may not find all data of interest. Mapping key terms across the different ODIP partners, relying on the backbone thesaurus provided by the NERC Vocabulary Server

  7. (abstract) A Comparison Between Measurements of the F-layer Critical Frequency and Values Derived from the PRISM Adjustment Algorithm Applied to Total Electron Content Data in the Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Anderson, D. N.; Abdu, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Parametrized Real-Time Ionosphere Specification Model (PRISM) is a global ionospheric specification model that can incorporate real-time data to compute accurate electron density profiles. Time series of computed and measured data are compared in this paper. This comparison can be used to suggest methods of optimizing the PRISM adjustment algorithm for TEC data obtained at low altitudes.

  8. Investigation on positive correlation of increased brain iron deposition with cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease by using quantitative MR R2' mapping.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Wenzhen; Zhan, Chuanjia; Zhao, Lingyun; Wang, Jianzhi; Tian, Qing; Wang, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Brain iron deposition has been proposed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of brain iron accumulation with the severity of cognitive impairment in patients with AD by using quantitative MR relaxation rate R2' measurements. Fifteen patients with AD, 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and 30 healthy volunteers underwent 1.5T MR multi-echo T2 mapping and T2* mapping for the measurement of transverse relaxation rate R2' (R2'=R2*-R2). We statistically analyzed the R2' and iron concentrations of bilateral hippocampus (HP), parietal cortex (PC), frontal white matter (FWM), putamen (PU), caudate nucleus (CN), thalamus (TH), red nucleus (RN), substantia nigra (SN), and dentate nucleus (DN) of the cerebellum for the correlation with the severity of dementia. Two-tailed t-test, Student-Newman-Keuls test (ANOVA) and linear correlation test were used for statistical analysis. In 30 healthy volunteers, the R2' values of bilateral SN, RN, PU, CN, globus pallidus (GP), TH, and FWM were measured. The correlation with the postmortem iron concentration in normal adults was analyzed in order to establish a formula on the relationship between regional R2' and brain iron concentration. The iron concentration of regions of interest (ROI) in AD patients and controls was calculated by this formula and its correlation with the severity of AD was analyzed. Regional R2' was positively correlated with regional brain iron concentration in normal adults (r=0.977, P<0.01). Iron concentrations in bilateral HP, PC, PU, CN, and DN of patients with AD were significantly higher than those of the controls (P<0.05); Moreover, the brain iron concentrations, especially in parietal cortex and hippocampus at the early stage of AD, were positively correlated with the severity of patients' cognitive impairment (P<0.05). The higher the R2' and iron concentrations were, the more severe the cognitive

  9. R2U2: Monitoring and Diagnosis of Security Threats for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Moosbruger, Patrick; Rozier, Kristin Y.

    2015-01-01

    We present R2U2, a novel framework for runtime monitoring of security properties and diagnosing of security threats on-board Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). R2U2, implemented in FPGA hardware, is a real-time, REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, UNOBTRUSIVE Unit for security threat detection. R2U2 is designed to continuously monitor inputs from the GPS and the ground control station, sensor readings, actuator outputs, and flight software status. By simultaneously monitoring and performing statistical reasoning, attack patterns and post-attack discrepancies in the UAS behavior can be detected. R2U2 uses runtime observer pairs for linear and metric temporal logics for property monitoring and Bayesian networks for diagnosis of security threats. We discuss the design and implementation that now enables R2U2 to handle security threats and present simulation results of several attack scenarios on the NASA DragonEye UAS.

  10. Diversification of R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors in the Tomato Family Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Gates, Daniel J; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Olson, Bradley J S C; Smith, Stacey D

    2016-08-01

    MYB transcription factors play an important role in regulating key plant developmental processes involving defense, cell shape, pigmentation, and root formation. Within this gene family, sequences containing an R2R3 MYB domain are the most abundant type and exhibit a wide diversity of functions. In this study, we identify 559 R2R3 MYB genes using whole genome data from four species of Solanaceae and reconstruct their evolutionary relationships. We compare the Solanaceae R2R3 MYBs to the well-characterized Arabidopsis thaliana sequences to estimate functional diversity and to identify gains and losses of MYB clades in the Solanaceae. We identify numerous R2R3 MYBs that do not appear closely related to Arabidopsis MYBs, and thus may represent clades of genes that have been lost along the Arabidopsis lineage or gained after the divergence of Rosid and Asterid lineages. Despite differences in the distribution of R2R3 MYBs across functional subgroups and species, the overall size of the R2R3 subfamily has changed relatively little over the roughly 50 million-year history of Solanaceae. We added our information regarding R2R3 MYBs in Solanaceae to other data and performed a meta-analysis to trace the evolution of subfamily size across land plants. The results reveal many shifts in the number of R2R3 genes, including a 54 % increase along the angiosperm stem lineage. The variation in R2R3 subfamily size across land plants is weakly positively correlated with genome size and strongly positively correlated with total number of genes. The retention of such a large number of R2R3 copies over long evolutionary time periods suggests that they have acquired new functions and been maintained by selection. Discovering the nature of this functional diversity will require integrating forward and reverse genetic approaches on an -omics scale.

  11. Structurally dependent redox property of ribonucleotide reductase subunit p53R2.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lijun; Zhou, Bingsen; Liu, Xiyong; Wang, Tieli; Shih, Jennifer; Qi, Christina; Heung, Yvonne; Yen, Yun

    2006-02-15

    p53R2 is a newly identified small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RR) and plays a key role in supplying precursors for DNA repair in a p53-dependent manner. Currently, we are studying the redox property, structure, and function of p53R2. In cell-free systems, p53R2 did not oxidize a reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicator carboxy-H2DCFDA, but another class I RR small subunit, hRRM2, did. Further studies showed that purified recombinant p53R2 protein has catalase activity, which breaks down H2O2. Overexpression of p53R2 reduced intracellular ROS and protected the mitochondrial membrane potential against oxidative stress, whereas overexpression of hRRM2 did not and resulted in a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. In a site-directed mutagenesis study, antioxidant activity was abrogated in p53R2 mutants Y331F, Y285F, Y49F, and Y241H, but not Y164F or Y164C. The fluorescence intensity in mutants oxidizing carboxy-H2DCFDA, in order from highest to lowest, was Y331F > Y285F > Y49F > Y241H > wild-type p53R2. This indicates that Y331, Y285, Y49, and Y241 in p53R2 are critical residues involved in scavenging ROS. Of interest, the ability to oxidize carboxy-H2DCFDA indicated by fluorescence intensity was negatively correlated with RR activity from wild-type p53R2, mutants Y331F, Y285F, and Y49F. Our findings suggest that p53R2 may play a key role in defending oxidative stress by scavenging ROS, and this antioxidant property is also important for its fundamental enzymatic activity.

  12. How do uncertainties in NCEP R2 and CFSR surface fluxes impact tropical ocean simulations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Caihong; Xue, Yan; Kumar, Arun; Behringer, David; Yu, Lisan

    2017-01-01

    NCEP/DOE reanalysis (R2) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) surface fluxes are widely used by the research community to understand surface flux climate variability, and to drive ocean models as surface forcings. However, large discrepancies exist between these two products, including (1) stronger trade winds in CFSR than in R2 over the tropical Pacific prior 2000; (2) excessive net surface heat fluxes into ocean in CFSR than in R2 with an increase in difference after 2000. The goals of this study are to examine the sensitivity of ocean simulations to discrepancies between CFSR and R2 surface fluxes, and to assess the fidelity of the two products. A set of experiments, where an ocean model was driven by a combination of surface flux components from R2 and CFSR, were carried out. The model simulations were contrasted to identify sensitivity to different component of the surface fluxes in R2 and CFSR. The accuracy of the model simulations was validated against the tropical moorings data, altimetry SSH and SST reanalysis products. Sensitivity of ocean simulations showed that temperature bias difference in the upper 100 m is mostly sensitive to the differences in surface heat fluxes, while depth of 20 °C (D20) bias difference is mainly determined by the discrepancies in momentum fluxes. D20 simulations with CFSR winds agree with observation well in the western equatorial Pacific prior 2000, but have large negative bias similar to those with R2 winds after 2000, partly because easterly winds over the central Pacific were underestimated in both CFSR and R2. On the other hand, the observed temperature variability is well reproduced in the tropical Pacific by simulations with both R2 and CFSR fluxes. Relative to the R2 fluxes, the CFSR fluxes improve simulation of interannual variability in all three tropical oceans to a varying degree. The improvement in the tropical Atlantic is most significant and is largely attributed to differences in surface winds.

  13. Impaired HCV Clearance in HIV/HCV Coinfected Subjects Treated with PegIFN and RBV Due to Interference of IFN Signaling by IFNαR2a

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Jin; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Vazquez, Estefania; Shivasabesan, Gayathri; Young, Howard A.; Murphy, Alison; Wang, Honghui; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Siebenlist, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced endogenous interferon (IFN) stimulated gene (ISG) signature has been associated with nonresponsiveness to hepatitis C treatment using pegylated-IFNα (pegIFNα) and ribavirin (RBV) in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus (HIV/HCV) coinfected patients. Using a proteomic approach, we identified high levels of IFNα receptor 2a (IFNαR2a) in the serum of null responders to pegIFNα/RBV. IFNαR2a inhibited antiviral activity of all formulations of IFNα in JFH/Huh7.5 cells. Furthermore, serum from null responders, but not from those who achieved sustained virologic response, suppressed IFN-signaling and ISG expression in IFNα-stimulated PBMCs of healthy donors in an IFNαR2a specific fashion. An IFNαR2a transgenic mice model (C57BL/6) was generated that had significantly higher levels of IFNαR2a in the serum than the controls (P=0.001). Total ISG expression in the lymph nodes was significantly higher compared to wild-type mice (P value=0.0016). In addition, IFITM1 and SP110 had significantly increased expression in the liver, IFITM1 and ISG15 in the lymph node, and ISG15 and PLSCR1 in the spleen (P value<0.05). The underlying mechanism of resistance to hepatitis C treatment may involve transsignaling of the JAK/STAT pathway by the sIFNαR2a-IFNα/β complex and result in the enhanced ISG signature observed in null responders. In this regard, the transgenic mice model simulated nonresponders to IFNα therapy and provides valuable insights into the role of sIFNαR2a-IFNα interactions in vivo. PMID:24171456

  14. Impaired HCV clearance in HIV/HCV coinfected subjects treated with PegIFN and RBV due to interference of IFN signaling by IFNαR2a.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Jin; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Vazquez, Estefania; Shivasabesan, Gayathri; Young, Howard A; Murphy, Alison; Wang, Honghui; Suffredini, Anthony F; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Kottilil, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced endogenous interferon (IFN) stimulated gene (ISG) signature has been associated with nonresponsiveness to hepatitis C treatment using pegylated-IFNα (pegIFNα) and ribavirin (RBV) in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus (HIV/HCV) coinfected patients. Using a proteomic approach, we identified high levels of IFNα receptor 2a (IFNαR2a) in the serum of null responders to pegIFNα/RBV. IFNαR2a inhibited antiviral activity of all formulations of IFNα in JFH/Huh7.5 cells. Furthermore, serum from null responders, but not from those who achieved sustained virologic response, suppressed IFN-signaling and ISG expression in IFNα-stimulated PBMCs of healthy donors in an IFNαR2a specific fashion. An IFNαR2a transgenic mice model (C57BL/6) was generated that had significantly higher levels of IFNαR2a in the serum than the controls (P=0.001). Total ISG expression in the lymph nodes was significantly higher compared to wild-type mice (P value=0.0016). In addition, IFITM1 and SP110 had significantly increased expression in the liver, IFITM1 and ISG15 in the lymph node, and ISG15 and PLSCR1 in the spleen (P value<0.05). The underlying mechanism of resistance to hepatitis C treatment may involve transsignaling of the JAK/STAT pathway by the sIFNαR2a-IFNα/β complex and result in the enhanced ISG signature observed in null responders. In this regard, the transgenic mice model simulated nonresponders to IFNα therapy and provides valuable insights into the role of sIFNαR2a-IFNα interactions in vivo.

  15. Adjustment to Divorce Through Transactional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James D.; Prescott, Mary R.

    1976-01-01

    Transactional Analysis in a group facilitates adjustment to divorce. Two case histories highlight the value of TA in conceptualizing the problem areas of each individual and the changes during group therapy. (Author)

  16. An ODIP Effort to Map R2R Ocean Data Terms to International Vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, R.; Stocks, K. I.; Arko, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The diverseness of terminology used in describing ocean data creates a barrier to efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a U.S. program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S. academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed within R2R or are specific to the U.S. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international ones, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO), and R2R chief scientist names to well known professional identifiers such as ORCID, Research Gate, Linkedin, etc. Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. All ports are successfully mapped. Both organizations and device models have initial mappings and R2R has added new terms to EDMO and SeaVoX Device Catalog vocabularies allowing for nearly complete coverage of

  17. 26 CFR 31.3306(r)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Section 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL..., Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans. (a) In general. Section 3306(r)(2) provides a special timing rule for the...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3306(r)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Section 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL..., Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans. (a) In general. Section 3306(r)(2) provides a special timing rule for the...

  19. Maize R2R3 Myb genes: Sequence analysis reveals amplification in the higher plants.

    PubMed

    Rabinowicz, P D; Braun, E L; Wolfe, A D; Bowen, B; Grotewold, E

    1999-09-01

    Transcription factors containing the Myb-homologous DNA-binding domain are widely found in eukaryotes. In plants, R2R3 Myb-domain proteins are involved in the control of form and metabolism. The Arabidopsis genome harbors >100 R2R3 Myb genes, but few have been found in monocots, animals, and fungi. Using RT-PCR from different maize organs, we cloned 480 fragments corresponding to a 42-44 residue-long sequence spanning the region between the conserved DNA-recognition helices (Myb(BRH)) of R2R3 Myb domains. We determined that maize expresses >80 different R2R3 Myb genes, and evolutionary distances among maize Myb(BRH) sequences indicate that most of the amplification of the R2R3 Myb gene family occurred after the origin of land plants but prior to the separation of monocots and dicots. In addition, evidence is provided for the very recent duplication of particular classes of R2R3 Myb genes in the grasses. Together, these findings render a novel line of evidence for the amplification of the R2R3 Myb gene family in the early history of land plants and suggest that maize provides a possible model system to examine the hypothesis that the expansion of Myb genes is associated with the regulation of novel plant cellular functions.

  20. Near-infrared Circular and Linear Polarimetry of Monoceros R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hough, James H.; Nagata, Tetsuya; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2016-09-01

    We have conducted simultaneous JHK s -band imaging circular and linear polarimetry of the Monoceros R2 (Mon R2) cluster. We present results from deep and wide near-infrared linear polarimetry of the Mon R2 region. Prominent and extended polarized nebulosities over the Mon R2 field are revisited, and an infrared reflection nebula associated with the Mon R2 cluster and two local reflection nebulae, vdB 67 and vdB 69, is detected. We also present results from deep imaging circular polarimetry in the same region. For the first time, the observations show relatively high degrees of circular polarization (CP) in Mon R2, with as much as approximately 10% in the K s band. The maximum CP extent of a ring-like nebula around the Mon R2 cluster is approximately 0.60 pc, while that of a western nebula, around vdB 67, is approximately 0.24 pc. The extended size of the CP is larger than those seen in the Orion region around IRc2, while the maximum degree of CP of ∼10% is smaller than those of ∼17% seen in the Orion region. Nonetheless, both the CP size and degree of this region are among the largest in our infrared CP survey of star-forming regions. We have also investigated the time variability of the degree of the polarization of several infrared sources and found possible variations in three sources.

  1. TRAIL-R2 promotes skeletal metastasis in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Charlotte; von Au, Anja; El-Sheikh, Doaa; Campbell, Graeme M.; Alp, Göhkan; Schewe, Denis; Hübner, Sebastian; Tiwari, Sanjay; Kownatzki, Daniel; Boretius, Susann; Adam, Dieter; Jonat, Walter; Becker, Thomas; Glüer, Claus C.; Zöller, Margot; Kalthoff, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements in detection, surgical approaches and systemic therapies, breast cancer remains typically incurable once distant metastases occur. High expression of TRAIL-R2 was found to be associated with poor prognostic parameters in breast cancer patients, suggesting an oncogenic function of this receptor. In the present study, we aimed to determine the impact of TRAIL-R2 on breast cancer metastasis. Using an osteotropic variant of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, we examine the effects of TRAIL-R2 knockdown in vitro and in vivo. Strikingly, in addition to the reduced levels of the proliferation-promoting factor HMGA2 and corresponding inhibition of cell proliferation, knockdown of TRAIL-R2 increased the levels of E-Cadherin and decreased migration. In vivo, these cells were strongly impaired in their ability to form bone metastases after intracardiac injection. Evaluating possible underlying mechanisms revealed a strong downregulation of CXCR4, the receptor for the chemokine SDF-1 important for homing of cancers cells to the bone. In accordance, cell migration towards SDF-1 was significantly impaired by TRAIL-R2 knockdown. Conversely, overexpression of TRAIL-R2 upregulated CXCR4 levels and enhanced SDF-1-directed migration. We therefore postulate that inhibition of TRAIL-R2 expression could represent a promising therapeutic strategy leading to an effective impairment of breast cancer cell capability to form skeletal metastases. PMID:25909161

  2. ChR2 transgenic animals in peripheral sensory system: Sensing light as various sensations.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Since the introduction of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to neuroscience, optogenetics technology was developed, making it possible to activate specific neurons or circuits with spatial and temporal precision. Various ChR2 transgenic animal models have been generated and are playing important roles in revealing the mechanisms of neural activities, mapping neural circuits, controlling the behaviors of animals as well as exploring new strategy for treating the neurological diseases in both central and peripheral nervous system. An animal including humans senses environments through Aristotle's five senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch). Usually, each sense is associated with a kind of sensory organ (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin). Is it possible that one could hear light, smell light, taste light and touch light? When ChR2 is targeted to different peripheral sensory neurons by viral vectors or generating ChR2 transgenic animals, the animals can sense the light as various sensations such as hearing, touch, pain, smell and taste. In this review, we focus on ChR2 transgenic animals in the peripheral nervous system. Firstly the working principle of ChR2 as an optogenetic actuator is simply described. Then the current transgenic animal lines where ChR2 was expressed in peripheral sensory neurons are presented and the findings obtained by these animal models are reviewed.

  3. Microstructural Analysis of Peripheral Lung Tissue through CPMG Inter-Echo Time R2 Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Felix T; Kampf, Thomas; Buschle, Lukas R; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Ziener, Christian H

    2015-01-01

    Since changes in lung microstructure are important indicators for (early stage) lung pathology, there is a need for quantifiable information of diagnostically challenging cases in a clinical setting, e.g. to evaluate early emphysematous changes in peripheral lung tissue. Considering alveoli as spherical air-spaces surrounded by a thin film of lung tissue allows deriving an expression for Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill transverse relaxation rates R2 with a dependence on inter-echo time, local air-tissue volume fraction, diffusion coefficient and alveolar diameter, within a weak field approximation. The model relaxation rate exhibits the same hyperbolic tangent dependency as seen in the Luz-Meiboom model and limiting cases agree with Brooks et al. and Jensen et al. In addition, the model is tested against experimental data for passively deflated rat lungs: the resulting mean alveolar radius of RA = 31.46 ± 13.15 μm is very close to the literature value (∼34 μm). Also, modeled radii obtained from relaxometer measurements of ageing hydrogel foam (that mimics peripheral lung tissue) are in good agreement with those obtained from μCT images of the same foam (mean relative error: 0.06 ± 0.01). The model's ability to determine the alveolar radius and/or air volume fraction will be useful in quantifying peripheral lung microstructure.

  4. Microstructural Analysis of Peripheral Lung Tissue through CPMG Inter-Echo Time R2 Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Felix T.; Kampf, Thomas; Buschle, Lukas R.; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Ziener, Christian H.

    2015-01-01

    Since changes in lung microstructure are important indicators for (early stage) lung pathology, there is a need for quantifiable information of diagnostically challenging cases in a clinical setting, e.g. to evaluate early emphysematous changes in peripheral lung tissue. Considering alveoli as spherical air-spaces surrounded by a thin film of lung tissue allows deriving an expression for Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill transverse relaxation rates R2 with a dependence on inter-echo time, local air-tissue volume fraction, diffusion coefficient and alveolar diameter, within a weak field approximation. The model relaxation rate exhibits the same hyperbolic tangent dependency as seen in the Luz-Meiboom model and limiting cases agree with Brooks et al. and Jensen et al. In addition, the model is tested against experimental data for passively deflated rat lungs: the resulting mean alveolar radius of RA = 31.46 ± 13.15 μm is very close to the literature value (∼34 μm). Also, modeled radii obtained from relaxometer measurements of ageing hydrogel foam (that mimics peripheral lung tissue) are in good agreement with those obtained from μCT images of the same foam (mean relative error: 0.06 ± 0.01). The model’s ability to determine the alveolar radius and/or air volume fraction will be useful in quantifying peripheral lung microstructure. PMID:26544068

  5. Catalytic Metallodrugs Based on the LaR2C Peptide Target HCV SLIV IRES RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Martin James; Bradford, Seth S.; Cowan, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work has demonstrated the potential effectiveness of a new class of metallopeptides as catalytic metallodrugs that target HCV IRES SLIIb RNA (Cu-GGHYrFK, 1). Herein new catalytic metallodrugs (GGHKYKETDLLILFKDDYFAKKNEERK, 2; and GGHKYKETDL, 3) are described based on the LaR2C peptide that has been shown to bind to the SLIV HCV IRES domain. In vitro fluorescence assays yielded KD values ~10 μM for both peptides and reaction of the copper derivatives with SLIV RNA demonstrated initial rates comparable across different assays as well as displaying pseudo-Michaelis-Menten behavior. The sites of reaction and cleavage mechanisms were determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The primary site of copper-promoted SLIV cleavage is shown to occur in the vicinity of the 5’-G17C18A19C20-3’ sequence that corresponds to a known binding site of the RM2 motif of the human La protein and has previously been reported to be important for viral translation. This domain also flanks the internal start codon (AUG). Both copper complexes also showed efficacy in an HCV replicon assay (IC50 = 0.75 μM for 2-Cu, and 2.17 μM for 3-Cu) and show potential for treatment of hepatitis C, complementing other marketed drugs by acting on a distinct therapeutic target by a novel mechanism of action. PMID:26583601

  6. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering.

  7. Submicron sized R2 Fe14 B particles fabricated by mechanochemical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koylu-Alkan, Ozlem; Barandiaran, Jose Manuel; Salazar, Daniel; Hadjipanayis, George C.; Univ. of Delaware Team; Univ. Basque Country Team

    In this work, we have synthesized submicron R2Fe14B particles by the mechanochemical process. Mechanical activation of oxides of rare earth, iron and boron was done by high energy ball milling in a CaO with a reduction agent (Ca). After a heat treatment at 900 °C the powder was washed with water and glycerol solution to remove the dispersant and other non-magnetic phases. Magnetic measurements showed that the as-synthesized unwashed powders had coercivity values of 10.3 kOe, 12.8 kOe, and 24.6 kOe for R =Nd, Pr, and Dy, respectively. During washing, H2 is released and absorbed by the 2:14:1 structure. After removing the H2, the submicron particles have coercivities of 3.3 kOe (Nd), 4.4 kOe (Pr) and 21.0 kOe (Dy) with average sizes 160 nm, 242 nm, and 107 nm, respectively. Fitting of high field M(H) measurements to the law of approach to saturation showed that the anisotropy constant of the Nd2Fe14B particles are 3.73x107 erg/cm3 which is comparable to bulk. Work supported by DOE DE-FG02-04ERU4612 and Bizkaia Talent AYD-000-195. DOE DE-FG02-04ERU4612.

  8. An ODIP effort to map R2R ocean data terms to international vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Renata; Stocks, Karen; Arko, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The heterogeneity of terminology used in describing data creates a barrier to the efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a US program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving the interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access international ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed locally or are specific to the US. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international vocabularies, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: R2R science party names to ORCID person identifiers, UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, and R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO). Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships only, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. The majority of ports were successfully mapped. Differences in the character sets (i.e. whether diacritic marks were used) caused automated matching to fail occasionally, but the number of ports was small enough that these could be manually

  9. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A "Linked Data" Approach for the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R.; Chandler, C.; Clark, P.; Milan, A.; Mize, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; http://rvdata.us/) program is developing infrastructure to routinely document, assess, and preserve the underway sensor data from U.S. academic research vessels. The R2R master catalog of vessels, instrument systems, operating institutions, cruises, personnel, data sets, event logs, and field reports has grown to over 2,200 cruises in less than two years, and is now accessible via Web services. This catalog is of great value to peer data systems, ranging from large inter/national data centers to small disciplinary data offices, as an aid in quality controlling their own collections and finding related data from authoritative sources. R2R breaks with the tradition of stovepipe portals built around complex search interfaces tightly bound to backend databases. Instead, we have adopted a Linked Data approach to publish our catalog content, based on the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). Our data model is published as a collection of W3C Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concepts, mapped to partner vocabularies such as those developed by the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and the pan-European SeaDataNet partnership, and our catalog content is published as collections of RDF resources with globally unique and persistent identifiers. The combination of exposing our data model, mapping local terms to community-wide vocabularies, and using reliable identifiers improves interoperability and reduces ambiguity. R2R's metric of success is the degree to which peer data systems harvest and reuse our content. R2R is working collaboratively with the NOAA National Data Centers and the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) on a range of Linked Data pilot applications, including production of ISO-compliant metadata and deployment of a RDF Query Language (SPARQL) interface. Our objective is to support a distributed, loosely federated network of

  10. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A "Linked Data" Approach for the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Milan, A.; Mize, J.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. academic research fleet is an essential mobile observing platform for ocean science. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working with the fleet community to routinely document, assess, and preserve data from the underway sensor systems on each vessel.
    The R2R facility maintains a master catalog of vessels, instrument systems, operating institutions, cruises, personnel, and data sets. In less than two years, the catalog has grown to over 2,000 cruises including unique identifiers for vessel deployments, project titles, chief scientists, dates, ports, survey targets, and navigation tracks. This master catalog is of great value to peer data systems, ranging from large national data centers to small disciplinary data offices, as an aid in organizing, extending, and quality controlling their own collections and finding related data from authoritative sources.
    R2R breaks with the tradition of stovepipe portals built around complex search interfaces tightly bound to backend databases. Instead, we have adopted a Linked Data approach to publish our catalog content, based on the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). Our data model is published as a collection of W3C Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concepts, mapped to partner vocabularies such as those developed by the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and the pan-European SeaDataNet partnership, and our catalog content is published as collections of RDF resources with globally unique and persistent identifiers. The combination of exposing our data model, mapping local terms to community-wide vocabularies, and using reliable identifiers improves interoperability and reduces ambiguity. R2R's metric of success is the degree to which peer data systems routinely harvest and reuse our content.
    R2R is working collaboratively with the NOAA National Data Centers and the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data

  11. Diabetes impairs mobilization of mouse bone marrow-derived Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Barthelmes, D; Irhimeh, M R; Gillies, M C; Karimipour, M; Zhou, M; Zhu, L; Shen, W Y

    2013-10-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells circulating in the peripheral blood (PB) contribute to vascular repair. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of a 'cocktail' consisting of erythropoietin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and tetrahydrobiopterin to mobilize hematopoietic lineage negative/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 positive (Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+)) cells from the bone marrow (BM) to PB in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice were studied after 16weeks of hyperglycemia. Half the mice in each group (non-diabetic and diabetic) received daily intraperitoneal injections of the cocktail for 6 consecutive days while the other half received vehicle buffer. Mobilization of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells, which were expanded in MCP301 medium, was evaluated after isolating them from BM and PB and their phenotypic and morphological properties were studied. We found that 16weeks of diabetes affected neither the total number of BM mononucleated cells nor the number of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells in BM compared with non-diabetic controls. In non-diabetic mice, cocktail treatment resulted in a significant decrease in BM Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells, paralleled by a significant increase of these cells in PB. Such changes in the number of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells in BM and PB after the cocktail treatment were less marked in diabetic mice. In vitro studies of BM Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells from diabetic and non-diabetic mice did not reveal any differences in either phenotypes or colony forming potential. These findings indicate that diabetes impairs the mobilization of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells from BM to PB. Impaired mobilization of BM Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells soon after the onset of diabetes may contribute to complications such as diabetic retinopathy.

  12. Performance and fuel cycle cost study of the R2 reactor with HEU and LEU fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, R.B.; Freese, K.E.; Matos, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A systematic study of the experiment performance and fuel cycle costs of the 50 MW R2 reactor operated by Studsvik Energiteknik AB has been performed using the current R2 HEU fuel, a variety of LEU fuel element designs, and two core-box/reflector configurations. The results include the relative performance of both in-core and ex-core experiments, control rod worths, and relative annual fuel cycle costs.

  13. isomiR2Function: An Integrated Workflow for Identifying MicroRNA Variants in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Sablok, Gaurav; Qiao, Guang; Nie, Qiong; Wen, Xiaopeng

    2017-01-01

    In plants, post transcriptional regulation by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), in particular miRNAs (19–24 nt) has been involved in modulating the transcriptional landscape in developmental, biotic and abiotic interactions. In past few years, considerable focus has been leveraged on delineating and deciphering the role of miRNAs and their canonical isomiRs in plants. However, proper classification and accurate prediction of plant isomiRs taking into account the relative features by which we define isomiRs, such as templated or non-templated is still lacking. In the present research, we present isomiR2Function, a standalone easily deployable tool that allows for the robust and high-throughput discovery of templated and non-templated isomiRs. Additionally, isomiR2Function allows for identification of differentially expressed isomiRs and in parallel target prediction based on both transcripts or PARE-Seq either using Targetfinder or Cleaveland. isomiR2Function allows for the functional enrichment of the detected targets using TopGO package. Benchmarking of isomiR2Function revealed highly accurate prediction and classification of isomiRs as compared to the previously developed isomiR prediction tools. Additionally, the downstream implementation of additional features allows isomiR2Function to be classified as a single standalone tool for isomiR profiling from discovery to functional roles. All in all, isomiR2Function allows the streamline processing of the miRNA-seq for the identification and characterization of isomiRs with minimal efforts. isomiR2Function can be accessed through: https://github.com/347033139/isomiR2Function. PMID:28377776

  14. Beware of R2: simple, unambiguous assessment of the prediction accuracy of QSAR and QSPR models

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, D. L. J.; Tropsha, A.; Winkler, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical metrics used to characterize the external predictivity of a model, i.e., how well it predicts the properties of an independent test set, have proliferated over the past decade. This paper clarifies some apparent confusion over the use of the coefficient of determination, R2, as a measure of model fit and predictive power in QSAR and QSPR modelling. R2 (or R2) has been used in various contexts in the literature in conjunction with training and test data, for both ordinary linear regression and regression through the origin as well as with linear and nonlinear regression models. We analyze the widely adopted model fit criteria suggested by Golbraikh and Tropsha1 in a strict statistical manner. Shortcomings in these criteria are identified and a clearer and simpler alternative method to characterize model predictivity is provided. The intent is not to repeat the well-documented arguments for model validation using test data, but to guide the application of R2 as a model fit statistic. Examples are used to illustrate both correct and incorrect use of R2. Reporting the root mean squared error or equivalent measures of dispersion, typically of more practical importance than R2, is also encouraged and important challenges in addressing the needs of different categories of users such as computational chemists, experimental scientists, and regulatory decision support specialists are outlined. PMID:26099013

  15. On the Adjacency Matrix of RyR2 Cluster Structures.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark A; Kohl, Tobias; Lehnart, Stephan E; Greenstein, Joseph L; Lederer, W J; Winslow, Raimond L

    2015-11-01

    In the heart, electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes increases the open probability of sarcolemmal voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels and flux of Ca2+ into the cells. This increases Ca2+ binding to ligand-gated channels known as ryanodine receptors (RyR2). Their openings cause cell-wide release of Ca2+, which in turn causes muscle contraction and the generation of the mechanical force required to pump blood. In resting myocytes, RyR2s can also open spontaneously giving rise to spatially-confined Ca2+ release events known as "sparks." RyR2s are organized in a lattice to form clusters in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our recent work has shown that the spatial arrangement of RyR2s within clusters strongly influences the frequency of Ca2+ sparks. We showed that the probability of a Ca2+ spark occurring when a single RyR2 in the cluster opens spontaneously can be predicted from the precise spatial arrangements of the RyR2s. Thus, "function" follows from "structure." This probability is related to the maximum eigenvalue (λ1) of the adjacency matrix of the RyR2 cluster lattice. In this work, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding this relationship. We present a stochastic contact network model of the Ca2+ spark initiation process. We show that λ1 determines a stability threshold for the formation of Ca2+ sparks in terms of the RyR2 gating transition rates. We recapitulate these results by applying the model to realistic RyR2 cluster structures informed by super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. Eigendecomposition of the linearized mean-field contact network model reveals functional subdomains within RyR2 clusters with distinct sensitivities to Ca2+. This work provides novel perspectives on the cardiac Ca2+ release process and a general method for inferring the functional properties of transmembrane receptor clusters from their structure.

  16. On the Adjacency Matrix of RyR2 Cluster Structures

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Mark A.; Kohl, Tobias; Lehnart, Stephan E.; Greenstein, Joseph L.; Lederer, W. J.; Winslow, Raimond L.

    2015-01-01

    In the heart, electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes increases the open probability of sarcolemmal voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels and flux of Ca2+ into the cells. This increases Ca2+ binding to ligand-gated channels known as ryanodine receptors (RyR2). Their openings cause cell-wide release of Ca2+, which in turn causes muscle contraction and the generation of the mechanical force required to pump blood. In resting myocytes, RyR2s can also open spontaneously giving rise to spatially-confined Ca2+ release events known as “sparks.” RyR2s are organized in a lattice to form clusters in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our recent work has shown that the spatial arrangement of RyR2s within clusters strongly influences the frequency of Ca2+ sparks. We showed that the probability of a Ca2+ spark occurring when a single RyR2 in the cluster opens spontaneously can be predicted from the precise spatial arrangements of the RyR2s. Thus, “function” follows from “structure.” This probability is related to the maximum eigenvalue (λ 1) of the adjacency matrix of the RyR2 cluster lattice. In this work, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding this relationship. We present a stochastic contact network model of the Ca2+ spark initiation process. We show that λ 1 determines a stability threshold for the formation of Ca2+ sparks in terms of the RyR2 gating transition rates. We recapitulate these results by applying the model to realistic RyR2 cluster structures informed by super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. Eigendecomposition of the linearized mean-field contact network model reveals functional subdomains within RyR2 clusters with distinct sensitivities to Ca2+. This work provides novel perspectives on the cardiac Ca2+ release process and a general method for inferring the functional properties of transmembrane receptor clusters from their structure. PMID:26545234

  17. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  18. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  19. Evolution of the Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Tas1r2 in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huabin; Zhou, Yingying; Pinto, C. Miguel; Charles-Dominique, Pierre; Galindo-González, Jorge; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-01-01

    Taste perception is an important component of an animal's fitness. The identification of vertebrate taste receptor genes in the last decade has enabled molecular genetic studies of the evolution of taste perception in the context of the ecology and dietary preferences of organisms. Although such analyses have been conducted in a number of species for bitter taste receptors, a similar analysis of sweet taste receptors is lacking. Here, we survey the sole sweet taste–specific receptor gene Tas1r2 in 42 bat species that represent all major lineages of the order Chiroptera, one of the most diverse groups of mammals in terms of diet. We found that Tas1r2 is under strong purifying selection in the majority of the bats studied, with no significant difference in the strength of the selection between insect eaters and fruit eaters. However, Tas1r2 is a pseudogene in all three vampire bat species and the functional relaxation likely started in their common ancestor, probably due to the exclusive feeding of vampire bats on blood and their reliance on infrared sensors rather than taste perception to locate blood sources. Our survey of available genome sequences, together with previous reports, revealed additional losses of Tas1r2 in horse, cat, chicken, zebra finch, and western clawed frog, indicating that sweet perception is not as conserved as previously thought. Nonetheless, we found no common dietary pattern among the Tas1r2-lacking vertebrates, suggesting different causes for the losses of Tas1r2 in different species. The complexity of the ecological factors that impact the evolution of Tas1r2 calls for a better understanding of the physiological roles of sweet perception in different species. PMID:20558596

  20. IL10R2 Overexpression Promotes IL22/STAT3 Signaling in Colorectal Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Khare, Vineeta; Paul, Gregor; Movadat, Oliver; Frick, Adrian; Jambrich, Manuela; Krnjic, Anita; Marian, Brigitte; Wrba, Friedrich; Gasche, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    The mucosal immune response in the setting of intestinal inflammation contributes to colorectal cancer. IL10 signaling has a central role in gut homeostasis and is impaired in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Out of two IL10 receptor subunits, IL10R1 and IL10R2, the latter is shared among the IL10 family of cytokines and activates STAT signaling. STAT3 is oncogenic in colorectal cancer; however, knowledge about IL10 signaling upstream of STAT3 in colorectal cancer is lacking. Here, expression of IL10 signaling genes was examined in matched pairs from normal and tumor tissue from colorectal cancer patients showing overexpression (mRNA, protein) of IL10R2 and STAT3 but not IL10R1. IL10R2 overexpression was related to microsatellite stability. Transient overexpression of IL10R2 in HT29 cells increased proliferation upon ligand activation (IL10 and IL22). IL22, and not IL10, phosphorylated STAT3 along with increased phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. A significantly higher expression of IL22R1 and IL10R2 was also confirmed in a separate cohort of colorectal cancer samples. IL22 expression was elevated in gut mucosa from patients with IBD and colitis-associated cancer, which also exhibited increased expression of IL22R1 but not its coreceptor IL10R2. Overall, these data indicate that overexpression of IL10R2 and STAT3 contributes to colorectal carcinogenesis in microsatellite-stable tumors through IL22/STAT3 signaling.

  1. Structure-function studies of the staphylococcal methicillin resistance antirepressor MecR2.

    PubMed

    Arêde, Pedro; Botelho, Tiago; Guevara, Tibisay; Usón, Isabel; Oliveira, Duarte C; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier

    2013-07-19

    Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is elicited by the MecI-MecR1-MecA axis encoded by the mec locus. Recently, MecR2 was also identified as a regulator of mec through binding of the methicillin repressor, MecI. Here we show that plasmid-encoded full-length MecR2 restores resistance in a sensitive S. aureus mecR2 deletion mutant of the resistant strain N315. The crystal structure of MecR2 reveals an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, an intermediate scaffold domain, and a C-terminal dimerization domain that contributes to oligomerization. The protein shows structural similarity to ROK (repressors, open reading frames, and kinases) family proteins, which bind DNA and/or sugar molecules. We found that functional cell-based assays of three point mutants affecting residues participating in sugar binding in ROK proteins had no effect on the resistance phenotype. By contrast, MecR2 bound short double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides nonspecifically, and a deletion mutant affecting the N-terminal DNA-binding domain showed a certain effect on activity, thus contributing to resistance less than the wild-type protein. Similarly, a deletion mutant, in which a flexible segment of intermediate scaffold domain had been replaced by four glycines, significantly reduced MecR2 function, thus indicating that this domain may likewise be required for activity. Taken together, these results provide the structural basis for the activity of a methicillin antirepressor, MecR2, which would sequester MecI away from its cognate promoter region and facilitate its degradation.

  2. Evolution of the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 in bats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huabin; Zhou, Yingying; Pinto, C Miguel; Charles-Dominique, Pierre; Galindo-González, Jorge; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-11-01

    Taste perception is an important component of an animal's fitness. The identification of vertebrate taste receptor genes in the last decade has enabled molecular genetic studies of the evolution of taste perception in the context of the ecology and dietary preferences of organisms. Although such analyses have been conducted in a number of species for bitter taste receptors, a similar analysis of sweet taste receptors is lacking. Here, we survey the sole sweet taste-specific receptor gene Tas1r2 in 42 bat species that represent all major lineages of the order Chiroptera, one of the most diverse groups of mammals in terms of diet. We found that Tas1r2 is under strong purifying selection in the majority of the bats studied, with no significant difference in the strength of the selection between insect eaters and fruit eaters. However, Tas1r2 is a pseudogene in all three vampire bat species and the functional relaxation likely started in their common ancestor, probably due to the exclusive feeding of vampire bats on blood and their reliance on infrared sensors rather than taste perception to locate blood sources. Our survey of available genome sequences, together with previous reports, revealed additional losses of Tas1r2 in horse, cat, chicken, zebra finch, and western clawed frog, indicating that sweet perception is not as conserved as previously thought. Nonetheless, we found no common dietary pattern among the Tas1r2-lacking vertebrates, suggesting different causes for the losses of Tas1r2 in different species. The complexity of the ecological factors that impact the evolution of Tas1r2 calls for a better understanding of the physiological roles of sweet perception in different species.

  3. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  4. Functional Characterization of Cotton GaMYB62L, a Novel R2R3 TF in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Hamama Islam; Yang, Zhaoen; Chen, Eryong; Zhao, Ge; Gong, Qian; Yang, Zuoren; Zhang, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress can trigger the production of ABA in plants, in response to adverse conditions, which induces the transcript of stress-related marker genes. The R2R3 MYB TFs are implicated in regulation of various plants developmental, metabolic and multiple environmental stress responses. Here, a R2R3-MYB cloned gene, GaMYB62L, was transformed in Arabidopsis and was functionally characterized. The GaMYB62L protein contains two SANT domains with a conserved R2R3 imperfect repeats. The GaMYB62L cDNA is 1,017 bp with a CDS of 879, encodes a 292-residue polypeptide with MW of 38.78 kD and a pI value of 8.91. Overexpressed GaMYB62L transgenic Arabidopsis have increased proline and chlorophyll content, superior seed germination rate under salt and osmotic stress, less water loss rate with reduced stomatal apertures, high drought avoidance as compared to WT on water deprivation and also significant plant survival rates at low temperature. In addition, overexpressed GaMYB62L lines were more sensitive to ABA mediated germination and root elongation assay. Moreover, ABA induced GaMYB62L overexpression, enhanced the expression of ABA stress related marker genes like RD22, COR15A, ADH1, and RD29A. Together, overexpression of GaMYB62L suggested having developed better drought, salt and cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis and thus presented it as a prospective candidate gene to achieve better abiotic stress tolerance in cotton crop. PMID:28125637

  5. A new method for adjusting the lateral transfer hollow retroreflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, Alexandr G.

    2013-05-01

    A new method for adjusting the lateral transfer hollow retroreflector is presented. It allows in a simple way to adjust the hollow retroreflectors with a lateral shifting. It enables to make the manufacturing process of adjustable lateral hollow retroreflectors easier and cheaper. The testing optical bed of this method is displayed. The evaluation of uncertainties and a limit value for this method are given.

  6. Design and implementation of adaptive PI control schemes for web tension control in roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Raul, Pramod R; Pagilla, Prabhakar R

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, two adaptive Proportional-Integral (PI) control schemes are designed and discussed for control of web tension in Roll-to-Roll (R2R) manufacturing systems. R2R systems are used to transport continuous materials (called webs) on rollers from the unwind roll to the rewind roll. Maintaining web tension at the desired value is critical to many R2R processes such as printing, coating, lamination, etc. Existing fixed gain PI tension control schemes currently used in industrial practice require extensive tuning and do not provide the desired performance for changing operating conditions and material properties. The first adaptive PI scheme utilizes the model reference approach where the controller gains are estimated based on matching of the actual closed-loop tension control systems with an appropriately chosen reference model. The second adaptive PI scheme utilizes the indirect adaptive control approach together with relay feedback technique to automatically initialize the adaptive PI gains. These adaptive tension control schemes can be implemented on any R2R manufacturing system. The key features of the two adaptive schemes is that their designs are simple for practicing engineers, easy to implement in real-time, and automate the tuning process. Extensive experiments are conducted on a large experimental R2R machine which mimics many features of an industrial R2R machine. These experiments include trials with two different polymer webs and a variety of operating conditions. Implementation guidelines are provided for both adaptive schemes. Experimental results comparing the two adaptive schemes and a fixed gain PI tension control scheme used in industrial practice are provided and discussed.

  7. Recirculating valve lash adjuster

    SciTech Connect

    Stoody, R.R.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine with a valve assembly of the type including overhead valves supported by a cylinder head for opening and closing movements in a substantially vertical direction and a rotatable overhead camshaft thereabove lubricated by engine oil pumped by an engine oil pump. A hydraulic lash adjuster with an internal reservoir therein is solely supplied with run-off lubricating oil from the camshaft which oil is pumped into the internal reservoir of the lash adjuster by self-pumping operation of the lash adjuster produced by lateral forces thereon by the rotative operation of the camshaft comprising: a housing of the lash adjuster including an axially extending bore therethrough with a lower wall means of the housing closing the lower end thereof; a first plunger member being closely slidably received in the bore of the housing and having wall means defining a fluid filled power chamber with the lower wall means of the housing; and a second plunger member of the lash adjuster having a portion being loosely slidably received and extending into the bore of the housing for reciprocation therein. Another portion extends upwardly from the housing to operatively receive alternating side-to-side force inputs from operation of the camshaft.

  8. The non-LTR retrotransposon R2 in termites (Insecta, Isoptera): characterization and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ghesini, Silvia; Luchetti, Andrea; Marini, Mario; Mantovani, Barbara

    2011-03-01

    The full-length element of the non-LTR retrotransposon R2 is here characterized in three European isopteran species: the more primitive Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae), including two highly divergent mitochondrial lineages, and the more derived Reticulitermes lucifugus and R. urbis (Rhinotermitidae). Partial 3' sequences for R. grassei and R. balkanensis were also analyzed. The essential structural features of R2 elements are conserved in termites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that termite elements belong to the same clade and that their phylogeny is fully compatible with the phylogeny of their host species. The study of the number and the frequency of R2 insertion variants in four R. urbis colonies suggests a greatly reduced, or completely absent, recent element activity.

  9. Optical control of neuronal excitation and inhibition using a single opsin protein, ChR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liske, Holly; Qian, Xiang; Anikeeva, Polina; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott

    2013-10-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on neuronal membrane potential is frequency dependent. Low frequency electrical stimulation can evoke action potentials, whereas high frequency stimulation can inhibit action potential transmission. Optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) expressed in neuronal membranes can also excite action potentials. However, it is unknown whether optical stimulation of ChR2-expressing neurons produces a transition from excitation to inhibition with increasing light pulse frequencies. Here we report optical inhibition of motor neuron and muscle activity in vivo in the cooled sciatic nerves of Thy1-ChR2-EYFP mice. We also demonstrate all-optical single-wavelength control of neuronal excitation and inhibition without co-expression of inhibitory and excitatory opsins. This all-optical system is free from stimulation-induced electrical artifacts and thus provides a new approach to investigate mechanisms of high frequency inhibition in neuronal circuits in vivo and in vitro.

  10. Data Retrieved by ARCADE-R2 Experiment On Board the BEXUS-17 Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbetta, M.; Branz, F.; Carron, A.; Olivieri, L.; Prendin, J.; Sansone, F.; Savioli, L.; Spinello, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Autonomous Rendezvous, Control And Docking Experiment — Reflight 2 (ARCADE-R2) is a technology demonstrator aiming to prove automatic attitude determination and control, rendezvous and docking capabilities for small scale spacecraft and aircraft. The development of such capabilities could be fundamental to create, in the near future, fleets of cooperative, autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles for mapping, surveillance, inspection and remote observation of hazardous environments; small-class satellites could also benefit from the employment of docking systems to extend and reconfigure their mission profiles. ARCADE-R2 is designed to test these technologies on a stratospheric flight on board the BEXUS-17 balloon, allowing to demonstrate them in a harsh environment subjected to gusty winds and high pressure and temperature variations. In this paper, ARCADE-R2 architecture is introduced and the main results obtained from a stratospheric balloon flight are presented.

  11. Direct interaction between GluR2 and GAPDH regulates AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over-activation of AMPARs (α−amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype glutamate receptors) is implicated in excitotoxic neuronal death associated with acute brain insults, such as ischemic stroke. However, the specific molecular mechanism by which AMPARs, especially the calcium-impermeable AMPARs, induce neuronal death remains poorly understood. Here we report the identification of a previously unrecognized molecular pathway involving a direct protein-protein interaction that underlies GluR2-containing AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity. Agonist stimulation of AMPARs promotes GluR2/GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) complex formation and subsequent internalization. Disruption of GluR2/GAPDH interaction by administration of an interfering peptide prevents AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity and protects against damage induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of brain ischemia. PMID:22537872

  12. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Transforming the Academic Fleet Into an Integrated Global Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.; Smith, S. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    NSF-supported oceanographic research expeditions support diverse scientific investigations across all disciplines of ocean sciences, targeting important questions ranging from the impacts of global change on ocean chemistry and ecosystems, to the structure and dynamics of ocean circulation and the nature of volcanic and earthquake processes at the global plate boundaries. Research vessels coordinated by the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) are the primary oceanographic research platforms, and operate as essential mobile observing platforms for ocean science. Ships ranging from “global” to “local” class are capable of operating throughout the deep oceans and within coastal and inland waterways. Each vessel is equipped with a suite of sensors, including geophysical, water column, and meteorological sensors, that are available for continuous operation during each expedition. The “underway” datasets obtained from these sensors provide characterization of basic environmental conditions for the oceans and are of high value for later reuse for building global syntheses, climatologies, and historical time series of ocean properties. The recently funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) Project aims to develop a comprehensive plan for fleet-wide data management to ensure preservation and accessibility of our national oceanographic research data resources. The R2R Portal (www.rvdata.us) is being developed as a central shore-side data gateway through which underway data from oceanographic expeditions can be routinely cataloged and securely transmitted to the national long-term digital data archives including the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). R2R will provide essential data documentation services for every expedition along with new tools to improve documentation of the wide array of shipboard data collection activities typical of modern expeditions. Protocols will be developed

  13. MiR-2 family regulates insect metamorphosis by controlling the juvenile hormone signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Jesus; Montañez, Raúl; Belles, Xavier

    2015-03-24

    In 2009 we reported that depletion of Dicer-1, the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of miRNA biosynthesis, prevents metamorphosis in Blattella germanica. However, the precise regulatory roles of miRNAs in the process have remained elusive. In the present work, we have observed that Dicer-1 depletion results in an increase of mRNA levels of Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a juvenile hormone-dependent transcription factor that represses metamorphosis, and that depletion of Kr-h1 expression in Dicer-1 knockdown individuals rescues metamorphosis. We have also found that the 3'UTR of Kr-h1 mRNA contains a functional binding site for miR-2 family miRNAs (for miR-2, miR-13a, and miR-13b). These data suggest that metamorphosis impairment caused by Dicer-1 and miRNA depletion is due to a deregulation of Kr-h1 expression and that this deregulation is derived from a deficiency of miR-2 miRNAs. We corroborated this by treating the last nymphal instar of B. germanica with an miR-2 inhibitor, which impaired metamorphosis, and by treating Dicer-1-depleted individuals with an miR-2 mimic to allow nymphal-to-adult metamorphosis to proceed. Taken together, the data indicate that miR-2 miRNAs scavenge Kr-h1 transcripts when the transition from nymph to adult should be taking place, thus crucially contributing to the correct culmination of metamorphosis.

  14. MiR-2 family regulates insect metamorphosis by controlling the juvenile hormone signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Belles, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 we reported that depletion of Dicer-1, the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of miRNA biosynthesis, prevents metamorphosis in Blattella germanica. However, the precise regulatory roles of miRNAs in the process have remained elusive. In the present work, we have observed that Dicer-1 depletion results in an increase of mRNA levels of Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a juvenile hormone-dependent transcription factor that represses metamorphosis, and that depletion of Kr-h1 expression in Dicer-1 knockdown individuals rescues metamorphosis. We have also found that the 3′UTR of Kr-h1 mRNA contains a functional binding site for miR-2 family miRNAs (for miR-2, miR-13a, and miR-13b). These data suggest that metamorphosis impairment caused by Dicer-1 and miRNA depletion is due to a deregulation of Kr-h1 expression and that this deregulation is derived from a deficiency of miR-2 miRNAs. We corroborated this by treating the last nymphal instar of B. germanica with an miR-2 inhibitor, which impaired metamorphosis, and by treating Dicer-1-depleted individuals with an miR-2 mimic to allow nymphal-to-adult metamorphosis to proceed. Taken together, the data indicate that miR-2 miRNAs scavenge Kr-h1 transcripts when the transition from nymph to adult should be taking place, thus crucially contributing to the correct culmination of metamorphosis. PMID:25775510

  15. R2d2 Drives Selfish Sweeps in the House Mouse.

    PubMed

    Didion, John P; Morgan, Andrew P; Yadgary, Liran; Bell, Timothy A; McMullan, Rachel C; Ortiz de Solorzano, Lydia; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Bult, Carol J; Campbell, Karl J; Castiglia, Riccardo; Ching, Yung-Hao; Chunco, Amanda J; Crowley, James J; Chesler, Elissa J; Förster, Daniel W; French, John E; Gabriel, Sofia I; Gatti, Daniel M; Garland, Theodore; Giagia-Athanasopoulou, Eva B; Giménez, Mabel D; Grize, Sofia A; Gündüz, İslam; Holmes, Andrew; Hauffe, Heidi C; Herman, Jeremy S; Holt, James M; Hua, Kunjie; Jolley, Wesley J; Lindholm, Anna K; López-Fuster, María J; Mitsainas, George; da Luz Mathias, Maria; McMillan, Leonard; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça Morgado; Rehermann, Barbara; Rosshart, Stephan P; Searle, Jeremy B; Shiao, Meng-Shin; Solano, Emanuela; Svenson, Karen L; Thomas-Laemont, Patricia; Threadgill, David W; Ventura, Jacint; Weinstock, George M; Pomp, Daniel; Churchill, Gary A; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    A selective sweep is the result of strong positive selection driving newly occurring or standing genetic variants to fixation, and can dramatically alter the pattern and distribution of allelic diversity in a population. Population-level sequencing data have enabled discoveries of selective sweeps associated with genes involved in recent adaptations in many species. In contrast, much debate but little evidence addresses whether "selfish" genes are capable of fixation-thereby leaving signatures identical to classical selective sweeps-despite being neutral or deleterious to organismal fitness. We previously described R2d2, a large copy-number variant that causes nonrandom segregation of mouse Chromosome 2 in females due to meiotic drive. Here we show population-genetic data consistent with a selfish sweep driven by alleles of R2d2 with high copy number (R2d2(HC)) in natural populations. We replicate this finding in multiple closed breeding populations from six outbred backgrounds segregating for R2d2 alleles. We find that R2d2(HC) rapidly increases in frequency, and in most cases becomes fixed in significantly fewer generations than can be explained by genetic drift. R2d2(HC) is also associated with significantly reduced litter sizes in heterozygous mothers, making it a true selfish allele. Our data provide direct evidence of populations actively undergoing selfish sweeps, and demonstrate that meiotic drive can rapidly alter the genomic landscape in favor of mutations with neutral or even negative effects on overall Darwinian fitness. Further study will reveal the incidence of selfish sweeps, and will elucidate the relative contributions of selfish genes, adaptation and genetic drift to evolution.

  16. R2d2 Drives Selfish Sweeps in the House Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Didion, John P.; Morgan, Andrew P.; Yadgary, Liran; Bell, Timothy A.; McMullan, Rachel C.; Ortiz de Solorzano, Lydia; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Bult, Carol J.; Campbell, Karl J.; Castiglia, Riccardo; Ching, Yung-Hao; Chunco, Amanda J.; Crowley, James J.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Förster, Daniel W.; French, John E.; Gabriel, Sofia I.; Gatti, Daniel M.; Garland, Theodore; Giagia-Athanasopoulou, Eva B.; Giménez, Mabel D.; Grize, Sofia A.; Gündüz, İslam; Holmes, Andrew; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Herman, Jeremy S.; Holt, James M.; Hua, Kunjie; Jolley, Wesley J.; Lindholm, Anna K.; López-Fuster, María J.; Mitsainas, George; da Luz Mathias, Maria; McMillan, Leonard; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça Morgado; Rehermann, Barbara; Rosshart, Stephan P.; Searle, Jeremy B.; Shiao, Meng-Shin; Solano, Emanuela; Svenson, Karen L.; Thomas-Laemont, Patricia; Threadgill, David W.; Ventura, Jacint; Weinstock, George M.; Pomp, Daniel; Churchill, Gary A.; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A selective sweep is the result of strong positive selection driving newly occurring or standing genetic variants to fixation, and can dramatically alter the pattern and distribution of allelic diversity in a population. Population-level sequencing data have enabled discoveries of selective sweeps associated with genes involved in recent adaptations in many species. In contrast, much debate but little evidence addresses whether “selfish” genes are capable of fixation—thereby leaving signatures identical to classical selective sweeps—despite being neutral or deleterious to organismal fitness. We previously described R2d2, a large copy-number variant that causes nonrandom segregation of mouse Chromosome 2 in females due to meiotic drive. Here we show population-genetic data consistent with a selfish sweep driven by alleles of R2d2 with high copy number (R2d2HC) in natural populations. We replicate this finding in multiple closed breeding populations from six outbred backgrounds segregating for R2d2 alleles. We find that R2d2HC rapidly increases in frequency, and in most cases becomes fixed in significantly fewer generations than can be explained by genetic drift. R2d2HC is also associated with significantly reduced litter sizes in heterozygous mothers, making it a true selfish allele. Our data provide direct evidence of populations actively undergoing selfish sweeps, and demonstrate that meiotic drive can rapidly alter the genomic landscape in favor of mutations with neutral or even negative effects on overall Darwinian fitness. Further study will reveal the incidence of selfish sweeps, and will elucidate the relative contributions of selfish genes, adaptation and genetic drift to evolution. PMID:26882987

  17. Thermal conductivity of pyrochlore R2Ti2O7 (R=rare earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Makoto

    2013-11-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements have been performed from 2 to 330 K on single crystals of pyrochlore R2Ti2O7 (R=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Lu, and Y). The spin-liquid system Tb2Ti2O7 shows heavily suppressed thermal conductivity below 100 K, which can be attributed to the presence of unusually strong coupling between the phonons and crystal electric field excitations in this compound. For the other R2Ti2O7 compounds, the magnetic moment of the R ion does not appear to play important roles in thermal conductivity for the present temperature region.

  18. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Fleetwide Standard Underway Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, A. D.; Clark, P. D.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.

    2009-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project was recently launched with the ambitious goal of documenting “routine underway data” from the US academic research fleet and delivering those data to established national archives. Data distributions will be submitted by 18 operating institutions for 30 vessels, from hundreds of cruises per year. R2R will be responsible for digital data collected with instruments that are part of the ship’s permanent equipment and are routinely operated and recorded by the ship’s technicians. Examples include navigation, multibeam, subbottom, gravimeter, magnetics, ADCP, CTD, meteorology, etc. It is anticipated that most underway data will be promptly and publicly released. However R2R will have the ability to securely embargo any specific datasets identified in advance by the chief scientist, for a proprietary hold period of up to two years as mandated by the NSF 04-004 Division of Ocean Sciences Data and Sample Policy. It is important to note that there are data types that R2R will not address. For example, the chief scientist will continue to be responsible for the documentation and archiving of data from specific instruments brought on board by the scientific party, not part of the ship’s standard equipment. Similarly, data collected with National Facility assets including the National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF), Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) and the National Marine Seismic Facility (NMSF) will continue to be submitted to the appropriate archiving facility directly by those facilities, rather than through R2R. Soon after the shipboard data is received by R2R, the entire original distribution will be safely stored in a deep archive for long-term preservation, and a cataloging process will be undertaken to assemble data sets for delivery to National Data Centers, as described more fully in the invited presentation by Robert Arko, “Rolling Deck to Repository: Technical Design - Experiences and

  19. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Standards and Semantics for Open Access to Research Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, a growing number of funding agencies and professional societies have issued policies calling for open access to research data. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working to ensure open access to the environmental sensor data routinely acquired by the U.S. academic research fleet. Currently 25 vessels deliver 7 terabytes of data to R2R each year, acquired from a suite of geophysical, oceanographic, meteorological, and navigational sensors on over 400 cruises worldwide. R2R is working to ensure these data are preserved in trusted repositories, discoverable via standard protocols, and adequately documented for reuse. R2R maintains a master catalog of cruises for the U.S. academic research fleet, currently holding essential documentation for over 3,800 expeditions including vessel and cruise identifiers, start/end dates and ports, project titles and funding awards, science parties, dataset inventories with instrument types and file formats, data quality assessments, and links to related content at other repositories. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is published for 1) each cruise, 2) each original field sensor dataset, 3) each post-field data product such as quality-controlled shiptrack navigation produced by the R2R program, and 4) each document such as a cruise report submitted by the science party. Scientists are linked to personal identifiers, such as the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID), where known. Using standard global identifiers such as DOIs and ORCIDs facilitates linking with journal publications and generation of citation metrics. Since its inception, the R2R program has worked in close collaboration with other data repositories in the development of shared semantics for oceanographic research. The R2R cruise catalog uses community-standard terms and definitions hosted by the NERC Vocabulary Server, and publishes ISO metadata records for each cruise that use community-standard profiles developed with the NOAA Data

  20. Capping risk adjustment?

    PubMed

    Eugster, Patrick; Sennhauser, Michèle; Zweifel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    When premiums are community-rated, risk adjustment (RA) serves to mitigate competitive insurers' incentive to select favorable risks. However, unless fully prospective, it also undermines their incentives for efficiency. By capping its volume, one may try to counteract this tendency, exposing insurers to some financial risk. This in term runs counter the quest to refine the RA formula, which would increase RA volume. Specifically, the adjuster, "Hospitalization or living in a nursing home during the previous year" will be added in Switzerland starting 2012. This paper investigates how to minimize the opportunity cost of capping RA in terms of increased incentives for risk selection.

  1. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  2. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  3. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  4. 75 FR 48362 - Hearing Procedures Relating to Federal Firearms Licenses (2010R-2T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Hearing Procedures Relating to Federal Firearms Licenses (2010R- 2T) AGENCY: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), Department of Justice. ACTION: General notice. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and...

  5. Hsp90 picks PIKKs via R2TP and Tel2.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Cara K

    2014-06-10

    Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-like kinases (PIKKs) are dependent on Hsp90 for their activation via the R2TP complex and Tel2. In this issue of Structure, Pal and colleagues present the molecular mechanism by which PIKKs are recruited to Hsp90.

  6. Genome-wide identification and characterization of R2R3MYB family in Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    González, Máximo; Carrasco, Basilio; Salazar, Erika

    2016-09-01

    Transcription factors R2R3MYB family have been associated with the control of secondary metabolites, development of structures, cold tolerance and response to biotic and abiotic stress, among others. In recent years, genomes of Rosaceae botanical family are available. Although this information has been used to study the karyotype evolution of these species from an ancestral genome, there are no studies that treat the evolution and diversity of gene families present in these species or in the botanical family. Here we present the first comparative study of the R2R3MYB subfamily of transcription factors in three species of Rosaceae family (Malus domestica, Prunus persica and Fragaria vesca). We described 186, 98 and 86 non-redundant gene models for apple, peach and strawberry, respectively. In this research, we analyzed the intron-exon structure and genomic distribution of R2R3MYB families mentioned above. The phylogenetic comparisons revealed putative functions of some R2R3MYB transcription factors. This analysis found 44 functional subgroups, seven of which were unique for Rosaceae. In addition, our results showed a highly collinearity among some genes revealing the existence of conserved gene models between the three species studied. Although some gene models in these species have been validated under several approaches, more research in the Rosaceae family is necessary to determine gene expression patterns in specific tissues and development stages to facilitate understanding of the regulatory and biochemical mechanism in this botanical family.

  7. Retrotransposable elements R1 and R2 interrupt the rRNA genes of most insects.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczak, J L; Burke, W D; Eickbush, T H

    1991-01-01

    A large number of insect species have been screened for the presence of the retrotransposable elements R1 and R2. These elements integrate independently at specific sites in the 28S rRNA genes. Genomic blots indicated that 43 of 47 insect species from nine orders contained insertions, ranging in frequency from a few percent to greater than 50% of the 28S genes. Sequence analysis of these insertions from 8 species revealed 22 elements, 21 of which corresponded to R1 or R2 elements. Surprisingly, many species appeared to contain highly divergent copies of R1 and R2 elements. For example, a parasitic wasp contained at least four families of R1 elements; the Japanese beetle contained at least five families of R2 elements. The presence of these retrotransposable elements throughout Insecta and the observation that single species can harbor divergent families within its rRNA-encoding DNA loci present interesting questions concerning the age of these elements and the possibility of cross-species transfer. Images PMID:1849649

  8. 47. S.A.R. #2 PRELIMINARY ARRANGEMENT OF HOUSING FOR 800 HORSEPOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. S.A.R. #2 PRELIMINARY ARRANGEMENT OF HOUSING FOR 800 HORSEPOWER WATER WHEEL UNIT, JUNE 7, 1904. TRACED ON SEPT. 6, 1911 BY E.P., FROM ABNER DOBLE CO'S. BLUE PRINT NO. 1663. SCE drawing no. 4611. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. Abolished InsP3R2 function inhibits sweat secretion in both humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Klar, Joakim; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Baig, Shahid M; Tariq, Muhammad; Johansson, Anna C V; Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Naveed Altaf; Ameur, Adam; Sugiura, Kotomi; Feuk, Lars; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Dahl, Niklas

    2014-11-01

    There are 3 major sweat-producing glands present in skin; eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands. Due to the high rate of secretion, eccrine sweating is a vital regulator of body temperature in response to thermal stress in humans; therefore, an inability to sweat (anhidrosis) results in heat intolerance that may cause impaired consciousness and death. Here, we have reported 5 members of a consanguineous family with generalized, isolated anhidrosis, but morphologically normal eccrine sweat glands. Whole-genome analysis identified the presence of a homozygous missense mutation in ITPR2, which encodes the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2), that was present in all affected family members. We determined that the mutation is localized within the pore forming region of InsP3R2 and abrogates Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ release by InsP3R2 in clear cells of the sweat glands is important for eccrine sweat production. Itpr2-/- mice exhibited a marked reduction in sweat secretion, and evaluation of sweat glands from Itpr2-/- animals revealed a decrease in Ca2+ response compared with controls. Together, our data indicate that loss of InsP3R2-mediated Ca2+ release causes isolated anhidrosis in humans and suggest that specific InsP3R inhibitors have the potential to reduce sweat production in hyperhidrosis.

  10. Subspecialization of R2R3-MYB Repressors for Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Regulation in Forage Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Nick W.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of anthocyanin pigments and proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) is regulated by MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complexes in all angiosperms studied to date. Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 were isolated from Trifolium repens and encode R2R3-MYBs that antagonize the activity of MBW activation complexes. These two genes are conserved in other legume species, and form two sub-clades within the larger anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin clade of MYB repressors. However, unlike petunia and Arabidopsis, these R2R3-MYB repressors do not prevent ectopic accumulation of anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins. Instead, they are expressed when anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins are being synthesized, and provide feedback regulation to MBW complexes. This feedback occurs because Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 are themselves regulated by MBW complexes. Tr-MYB133 is regulated by MBW complexes containing anthocyanin-related R2R3-MYB proteins (Tr-RED LEAF), while Tr-MYB134 is regulated by complexes containing the proanthocyanidin R2R3-MYBs (Tr-MYB14). Other features of the MBW gene regulation networks are also conserved within legumes, including the ability for the anthocyanin MBW complexes to activate the expression of the AN1/TT8 clade bHLH factor. The regulation of Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 by distinct, pathway-specific MBW complexes has resulted in subspecialization for controlling anthocyanin or proanthocyanidin synthesis. PMID:26779194

  11. Subspecialization of R2R3-MYB Repressors for Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Regulation in Forage Legumes.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nick W

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of anthocyanin pigments and proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) is regulated by MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complexes in all angiosperms studied to date. Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 were isolated from Trifolium repens and encode R2R3-MYBs that antagonize the activity of MBW activation complexes. These two genes are conserved in other legume species, and form two sub-clades within the larger anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin clade of MYB repressors. However, unlike petunia and Arabidopsis, these R2R3-MYB repressors do not prevent ectopic accumulation of anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins. Instead, they are expressed when anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins are being synthesized, and provide feedback regulation to MBW complexes. This feedback occurs because Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 are themselves regulated by MBW complexes. Tr-MYB133 is regulated by MBW complexes containing anthocyanin-related R2R3-MYB proteins (Tr-RED LEAF), while Tr-MYB134 is regulated by complexes containing the proanthocyanidin R2R3-MYBs (Tr-MYB14). Other features of the MBW gene regulation networks are also conserved within legumes, including the ability for the anthocyanin MBW complexes to activate the expression of the AN1/TT8 clade bHLH factor. The regulation of Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 by distinct, pathway-specific MBW complexes has resulted in subspecialization for controlling anthocyanin or proanthocyanidin synthesis.

  12. R4496C RyR2 mutation impairs atrial and ventricular contractility

    PubMed Central

    Coppini, Raffaele; Scellini, Beatrice; Ferrara, Claudia; Pioner, Josè Manuel; Mazzoni, Luca; Priori, Silvia; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Tesi, Chiara; Poggesi, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    Ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is the major Ca2+ channel of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and plays a crucial role in the generation of myocardial force. Changes in RyR2 gating properties and resulting increases in its open probability (Po) are associated with Ca2+ leakage from the SR and arrhythmias; however, the effects of RyR2 dysfunction on myocardial contractility are unknown. Here, we investigated the possibility that a RyR2 mutation associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, R4496C, affects the contractile function of atrial and ventricular myocardium. We measured isometric twitch tension in left ventricular and atrial trabeculae from wild-type mice and heterozygous transgenic mice carrying the R4496C RyR2 mutation and found that twitch force was comparable under baseline conditions (30°C, 2 mM [Ca2+]o, 1 Hz). However, the positive inotropic responses to high stimulation frequency, 0.1 µM isoproterenol, and 5 mM [Ca2+]o were decreased in R4496C trabeculae, as was post-rest potentiation. We investigated the mechanisms underlying inotropic insufficiency in R4496C muscles in single ventricular myocytes. Under baseline conditions, the amplitude of the Ca2+ transient was normal, despite the reduced SR Ca2+ content. Under inotropic challenge, however, R4496C myocytes were unable to boost the amplitude of Ca2+ transients because they are incapable of properly increasing the amount of Ca2+ stored in the SR because of a larger SR Ca2+ leakage. Recovery of force in response to premature stimuli was faster in R4496C myocardium, despite the unchanged rates of recovery of L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa-L) and SR Ca2+ content in single myocytes. A faster recovery from inactivation of the mutant R4496C channels could explain this behavior. In conclusion, changes in RyR2 channel gating associated with the R4496C mutation could be directly responsible for the alterations in both ventricular and atrial contractility. The increased RyR2 Po

  13. R2R Eventlogger: Community-wide Recording of Oceanographic Cruise Science Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Stolp, L.; Lerner, S.; Avery, J.; Thiel, T.

    2012-12-01

    Methods used by researchers to track science events during a science research cruise - and to note when and where these occur - varies widely. Handwritten notebooks, printed forms, watch-keeper logbooks, data-logging software, and customized software have all been employed. The quality of scientific results is affected by the consistency and care with which such events are recorded and integration of multi-cruise results is hampered because recording methods vary widely from cruise to cruise. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has developed an Eventlogger system that will eventually be deployed on most vessels in the academic research fleet. It is based on the open software package called ELOG (http://midas.psi.ch/elog/) originally authored by Stefan Ritt and enhanced by our team. Lessons have been learned in its development and use on several research cruises. We have worked hard to find approaches that encourage cruise participants to use tools like the eventlogger. We examine these lessons and several eventlogger datasets from past cruises. We further describe how the R2R Science Eventlogger works in concert with the other R2R program elements to help coordinate research vessels into a coordinated mobile observing fleet. Making use of data collected on different research cruises is enabled by adopting common ways of describing science events, the science instruments employed, the data collected, etc. The use of controlled vocabularies and the practice of mapping these local vocabularies to accepted oceanographic community vocabularies helps to bind shipboard research events from different cruises into a more cohesive set of fleet-wide events that can be queried and examined in a cross-cruise manner. Examples of the use of the eventlogger during multi-cruise oceanographic research programs along with examples of resultant eventlogger data will be presented. Additionally we will highlight the importance of vocabulary use strategies to the success of the

  14. Dual purpose recovered coagulant from drinking water treatment residuals for adjustment of initial pH and coagulation aid in electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the application of recovered coagulant (RC) by acidification from drinking water treatment residuals for both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in electrocoagulation. To do this, real cotton textile wastewater was used as a target pollutant, and decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were monitored. A preliminary test indicated that a stainless steel electrode combined with RC significantly accelerated decolorization and COD removal efficiencies, by about 52% and 56%, respectively, even at an operating time of 5 min. A single electrocoagulation system meanwhile requires at least 40 min to attain the similar removal performances. Subsequently, the interactive effect of three independent variables (applied voltage, initial pH, and reaction time) on the response variables (decolorization and COD removal) was evaluated, and these parameters were statistically optimized using the response surface methodology. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination values (decolorization, R(2) = 0.9925 and COD removal, R(2) = 0.9973) and satisfactory prediction second-order polynomial quadratic regression models. Average decolorization and COD removal of 89.52% and 94.14%, respectively, were achieved, corresponding to 97.8% and 98.1% of the predicted values under statistically optimized conditions. The results suggest that the RC effectively played a dual role of both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in the electrocoagulation process.

  15. Inhibition of acetate accumulation leads to enhanced production of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol from glycerol in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaolin; Lin, Yuheng; Jain, Rachit; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

    2012-11-01

    This work describes the production of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol in Escherichia coli using glycerol by metabolic engineering approaches. The introduction of a synthetic pathway converting pyruvate to (R,R)-2,3-butanediol into wild-type E. coli strain BW25113 led to the production of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol at a titer of 3.54 g/l and a yield of 0.131 g product/g glycerol (26.7 % of theoretical maximum) with acetate (around 3.00 g/l) as the dominant by-product. We therefore evaluated the impacts of deleting the genes ackA or/and poxB that are responsible for the major by-product, acetate. This increased production of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol to 9.54 g/l with a yield of 0.333 g product/g glycerol (68.0 % of theoretical maximum) in shake flask studies. The utilization of low-priced crude glycerol to produce value-added chemicals is of great significance to the economic viability of the biodiesel industry.

  16. Experiment on performance of adjustable jet pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. M.; Long, X. P.; Zhang, S. B.; Lu, X.

    2012-11-01

    When the water level of upper or lower reaches of hydraulic power station changes, the adjustable jet pump which is different from traditional fixed jet pump can maintain stable pressure and flow rate for the system of technical water supply of hydraulic power plant. The model test indicates that the efficiency of the adjustable jet pump is slightly lower than fixed jet pump near rating operation point. With the decrease of opening degree, both efficiencies are more and more close to each other. The fundamental performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is better than II-type and the cavitation performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is worse than II-type. Test data also indicate that the performance of adjustable jet pump is very different from fixed jet pump, so the theory of fixed jet pump is not able to be copied to adjustable jet pump. It is necessary to farther study on the performance of the adjustable jet pump. This paper has reference value for analogous design of system of circulation water supply to turbine units in hydraulic power station.

  17. Reactivity-worth estimates of the OSMOSE samples in the MINERVE reactor R1-MOX, R2-UO2 and MORGANE/R configurations.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Z.; Klann, R. T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-03

    An initial series of calculations of the reactivity-worth of the OSMOSE samples in the MINERVE reactor with the R2-UO2 and MORGANE/R core configuration were completed. The calculation model was generated using the lattice physics code DRAGON. In addition, an initial comparison of calculated values to experimental measurements was performed based on preliminary results for the R1-MOX configuration.

  18. A NEW RADIO RECOMBINATION LINE MASER OBJECT TOWARD THE MonR2 H II REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Serra, I.; Zhang, Q.; Dierickx, M.; Patel, N.; Baez-Rubio, A.; Rivilla, V. M.; Martin-Pintado, J. E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: npatel@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jmartin@cab.inta-csic.es

    2013-02-10

    We report the detection of a new radio recombination line (RRL) maser object toward the IRS2 source in the MonR2 ultracompact H II region. The continuum emission at 1.3 mm and 0.85 mm and the H30{alpha} and H26{alpha} lines were observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at angular resolutions of {approx}0.''5-3''. The SMA observations show that the MonR2-IRS2 source is very compact and remains unresolved at spatial scales {<=}400 AU. Its continuum power spectrum at millimeter wavelengths is almost flat ({alpha} = -0.16, with S{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}}), indicating that this source is dominated by optically thin free-free emission. The H30{alpha} and H26{alpha} RRL emission is also compact and peaks toward the position of the MonR2-IRS2 source. The measured RRL profiles are double peaked with the H26{alpha} line showing a clear asymmetry in its spectrum. Since the derived line-to-continuum flux ratios ({approx}80 and 180 km s{sup -1} for H30{alpha} and H26{alpha}, respectively) exceed the LTE predictions, the RRLs toward MonR2-IRS2 are affected by maser amplification. The amplification factors are, however, smaller than those found toward the emission-line star MWC349A, indicating that MonR2-IRS2 is a weakly amplified maser. Radiative transfer modeling of the RRL emission toward this source shows that the RRL masers arise from a dense and collimated jet embedded in a cylindrical ionized wind, oriented nearly along the direction of the line of sight. High-angular resolution observations at submillimeter wavelengths are needed to unveil weakly amplified RRL masers in very young massive stars.

  19. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  20. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  1. SIM_ADJUST -- A computer code that adjusts simulated equivalents for observations or predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poeter, Eileen P.; Hill, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the SIM_ADJUST computer code. SIM_ADJUST surmounts an obstacle that is sometimes encountered when using universal model analysis computer codes such as UCODE_2005 (Poeter and others, 2005), PEST (Doherty, 2004), and OSTRICH (Matott, 2005; Fredrick and others (2007). These codes often read simulated equivalents from a list in a file produced by a process model such as MODFLOW that represents a system of interest. At times values needed by the universal code are missing or assigned default values because the process model could not produce a useful solution. SIM_ADJUST can be used to (1) read a file that lists expected observation or prediction names and possible alternatives for the simulated values; (2) read a file produced by a process model that contains space or tab delimited columns, including a column of simulated values and a column of related observation or prediction names; (3) identify observations or predictions that have been omitted or assigned a default value by the process model; and (4) produce an adjusted file that contains a column of simulated values and a column of associated observation or prediction names. The user may provide alternatives that are constant values or that are alternative simulated values. The user may also provide a sequence of alternatives. For example, the heads from a series of cells may be specified to ensure that a meaningful value is available to compare with an observation located in a cell that may become dry. SIM_ADJUST is constructed using modules from the JUPITER API, and is intended for use on any computer operating system. SIM_ADJUST consists of algorithms programmed in Fortran90, which efficiently performs numerical calculations.

  2. A hydrometeorological and geospatial analysis of precipitation within the Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge using the R2AIn-GIS tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokry, William John, Jr.

    Weather radar (radio detection and ranging) is a specialized meteorological tool used to sample and track meteorological objects. This tool is critical for meteorologists and public decision-makers to inform and provide for their constituents in a timely manner, often with the protection of lives and property on the line. With the application of using meteorological and geospatial data in the realm of geographic information systems (G.I.S.), the task of blending the two sciences to inhibit further research and dissemination of information occurs. This study focuses on the creation and implementation of a new geospatial tool, the Radar and Rainfall Analyzed in GIS (R2AIn-GIS) tool. The R2AIn-GIS tool was built upon the initial concepts from Zhang and Srinivasan's (2010) NEXRAD validation and calibration (NEXRAD-VC) tool for G.I.S. R2AIn-GIS is updated to support the latest software features present in the geospatial world as well as analyze dual-polarization radar products. To test the R2AIn-GIS tool, a warm seasonal precipitation study along with statistical analysis was performed over the Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge in Minnesota, the largest prairie and wetland restoration site. Utilizing rain gauges operated by the United States Geological Survey, warm season precipitation events from 24 May 2012 to 31 August 2013 were analyzed using the R2AIn-GIS tool. The R2AIn-GIS tool calculates the values from various dual-polarization radar products in conjunction with the recorded precipitation gauges to provide a detailed depiction of the weather event. Statistical tests including several iterations of multiple-linear regression of various combinations of dual-polarization radar variables allowed determination of rainfall rate prediction equations over the study area. This contributes to the body of radar literature regarding the best prediction equations for other locations. Unlike treatments in prior literature, most of the various assumptions in multiple

  3. Valuing Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this paper we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women’s reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  4. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies and five-year review of and adjustments to the relative value units under the physician fee schedule for calendar year 2002. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2001-11-01

    This final rule with comment period makes several changes affecting Medicare Part B payment. The changes affect: refinement of resource-based practice expense relative value units (RVUs); services and supplies incident to a physician's professional service;anesthesia base unit variations;recognition of CPT tracking codes; and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and clinical nurse specialists performing screening sigmoidoscopies. It also addresses comments received on the June 8, 2001 proposed notice for the 5-year review of work RVUs and finalizes these work RVUs. In addition,we acknowledge comments received on our request for information on our policy for CPT modifier 62 that is used to report the work of co-surgeons. The rule also updates the list of certain services subject to the physician self-referral prohibitions to reflect changes to CPT codes and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes effective January 1, 2002. These refinements and changes will ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. The Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 modernizes the mammography screening benefit and authorizes payment under the physician fee schedule effective January 1, 2002; provides for biennial screening pelvic examinations for certain beneficiaries effective July 1, 2001; provides for annual glaucoma screenings for high-risk beneficiaries effective January 1,2002; expands coverage for screening colonoscopies to all beneficiaries effective July 1, 2001; establishes coverage for medical nutrition therapy services for certain beneficiaries effective January 1, 2002; expands payment for telehealth services effective October 1, 2001; requires certain Indian Health Service providers to be paid for some services under the physician fee schedule effective July 1, 2001; and revises the payment for certain physician pathology services effective January 1

  5. The Wide Distribution and Change of Target Specificity of R2 Non-LTR Retrotransposons in Animals.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kenji K; Seto, Yosuke; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    Transposons, or transposable elements, are the major components of genomes in most eukaryotes. Some groups of transposons have developed target specificity that limits the integration sites to a specific nonessential sequence or a genomic region to avoid gene disruption caused by insertion into an essential gene. R2 is one of the most intensively investigated groups of sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons and is inserted at a specific site inside of 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. R2 is known to be distributed among at least six animal phyla even though its occurrence is reported to be patchy. Here, in order to obtain a more detailed picture of the distribution of R2, we surveyed R2 using both in silico screening and degenerate PCR, particularly focusing on actinopterygian fish. We found two families of the R2C lineage from vertebrates, although it has previously only been found in platyhelminthes. We also revealed the apparent movement of insertion sites of a lineage of actinopterygian R2, which was likely concurrent with the acquisition of a 28S rRNA-derived sequence in their 3' UTR. Outside of actinopterygian fish, we revealed the maintenance of a single R2 lineage in birds; the co-existence of four lineages of R2 in the leafcutter bee Megachile rotundata; the first examples of R2 in Ctenophora, Mollusca, and Hemichordata; and two families of R2 showing no target specificity. These findings indicate that R2 is relatively stable and universal, while differences in the distribution and maintenance of R2 lineages probably reflect characteristics of some combination of both R2 lineages and host organisms.

  6. The Wide Distribution and Change of Target Specificity of R2 Non-LTR Retrotransposons in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Yosuke; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Transposons, or transposable elements, are the major components of genomes in most eukaryotes. Some groups of transposons have developed target specificity that limits the integration sites to a specific nonessential sequence or a genomic region to avoid gene disruption caused by insertion into an essential gene. R2 is one of the most intensively investigated groups of sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons and is inserted at a specific site inside of 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. R2 is known to be distributed among at least six animal phyla even though its occurrence is reported to be patchy. Here, in order to obtain a more detailed picture of the distribution of R2, we surveyed R2 using both in silico screening and degenerate PCR, particularly focusing on actinopterygian fish. We found two families of the R2C lineage from vertebrates, although it has previously only been found in platyhelminthes. We also revealed the apparent movement of insertion sites of a lineage of actinopterygian R2, which was likely concurrent with the acquisition of a 28S rRNA-derived sequence in their 3′ UTR. Outside of actinopterygian fish, we revealed the maintenance of a single R2 lineage in birds; the co-existence of four lineages of R2 in the leafcutter bee Megachile rotundata; the first examples of R2 in Ctenophora, Mollusca, and Hemichordata; and two families of R2 showing no target specificity. These findings indicate that R2 is relatively stable and universal, while differences in the distribution and maintenance of R2 lineages probably reflect characteristics of some combination of both R2 lineages and host organisms. PMID:27662593

  7. Magnetic ordering in Sc2CoSi2-type R2FeSi2 (R=Gd, Tb) and R2CoSi2 (R=Y, Gd-Er) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Knotko, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Pani, M.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Sc2CoSi2-type R2TSi2 (R=Gd-Er, T=Fe, Co) compounds have been studied using magnetization data. These indicate the presence of mixed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions in these compounds. One observes a ferromagnetic transition followed by an antiferromagnetic order and a further possible spin-reorientation transition at low temperatures. Compared to Gd2{Fe, Co}Si2, the Tb2FeSi2 and {Tb-Er}2CoSi2 compounds exhibit remarkable hysteresis (for e.g. Tb2FeSi2 shows residual magnetization Mres/Tb=2.45 μB, coercive field Hcoer=14.9 kOe, and critical field Hcrit 5 kOe at 5 K) possibly due to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the rare earth. The R2{Fe, Co}Si2 show relatively small magnetocaloric effect (i.e. isothermal magnetic entropy change, ΔSm) around the magnetic transition temperature: the maximal value of MCE is demonstrated by Ho2CoSi2 (ΔSm=-8.1 J/kg K at 72 K and ΔSm=-9.4 J/kg K at 23 K in field change of 50 kOe) and Er2CoSi2 (ΔSm=-13.6 J/kg K at 32 K and ΔSm=-8.4 J/kg K at 12 K in field change of 50 kOe).

  8. Mediation by indole analogues of electron transfer during oxygen activation in variants of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase R2 lacking the electron-shuttling tryptophan 48.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Lana; Kelch, Brian A; Pathickal, Betsy A; Baldwin, Jeffrey; Ley, Brenda A; Bollinger, J Martin

    2004-05-25

    Activation of dioxygen by the carboxylate-bridged diiron(II) cluster in the R2 subunit of class I ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli results in the one-electron oxidation of tyrosine 122 (Y122) to a stable radical (Y122*). A key step in this reaction is the rapid transfer of a single electron from a near-surface residue, tryptophan 48 (W48), to an adduct between O(2) and diiron(II) cluster to generate a readily reducible cation radical (W48(+)(*)) and the formally Fe(IV)Fe(III) intermediate known as cluster X. Previous work showed that this electron injection step is blocked in the R2 variant with W48 replaced by phenylalanine [Krebs, C., Chen, S., Baldwin, J., Ley, B. A., Patel, U., Edmondson, D. E., Huynh, B. H., and Bollinger, J. M., Jr. (2000) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12207-12219]. In this study, we show that substitution of W48 with alanine similarly disables the electron transfer (ET) but also permits its chemical mediation by indole compounds. In the presence of an indole mediator, O(2) activation in the R2-W48A variant produces approximately 1 equiv of stable Y122* and more than 1 equiv of the normal (micro-oxo)diiron(III) product. In the absence of a mediator, the variant protein generates primarily altered Fe(III) products and only one-fourth as much stable Y122* because, as previously reported for R2-W48F, most of the Y122* that is produced decays as a consequence of the inability of the protein to mediate reductive quenching of one of the two oxidizing equivalents of the initial diiron(II)-O(2) complex. Mediation of ET is effective in W48A variants containing additional substitutions that also impact the reaction mechanism or outcome. In the reaction of R2-W48A/F208Y, the presence of mediator suppresses formation of the Y208-derived diiron(III)-catecholate product (which is predominant in R2-F208Y in the absence of reductants) in favor of Y122*. In the reaction of R2-W48A/D84E, the presence of mediator affects the outcome of decay of the

  9. Perceived support in school adjustment.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jina S; Carcamo, Amy

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between support by parents and teachers and school attachment and involvement in the first year of middle school for 157 sixth graders in a predominantly African-American urban middle school. Results suggested the importance of parental support in school attachment and involvement during early adolescence. Teachers' support was a significant predictor of overall school attachment (R2= .03) beyond the variance explained by parental support (R2= .11).

  10. (R)-2-Phenylpyrrolidine Substituted Imidazopyridazines: A New Class of Potent and Selective Pan-TRK Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated kinase activities of tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) family members have been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis and poor prognosis in a variety of cancer types. In particular, several chromosomal rearrangements involving TRKA have been reported in colorectal, papillary thyroid, glioblastoma, melanoma, and lung tissue that are believed to be the key oncogenic driver in these tumors. By screening the Novartis compound collection, a novel imidazopyridazine TRK inhibitor was identified that served as a launching point for drug optimization. Structure guided drug design led to the identification of (R)-2-phenylpyrrolidine substituted imidazopyridazines as a series of potent, selective, orally bioavailable pan-TRK inhibitors achieving tumor regression in rats bearing KM12 xenografts. From this work the (R)-2-phenylpyrrolidine has emerged as an ideal moiety to incorporate in bicyclic TRK inhibitors by virtue of its shape complementarity to the hydrophobic pocket of TRKs. PMID:26005534

  11. Apoptosis Induction by Targeting Interferon Gamma Receptor 2 (IFNgammaR2) in Prostate Cancer: Ligand (IFNgamma)-Independent Novel Function of IFNgammaR2 as a Bax Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    inhibitor of Bax. Bax is a key mediator of apoptosis. We found that IFNγR2 is overexpressed in prostate cancer, and we hypothesize that abnormally high...We found that IFNγR2 levels are abnormally elevated in prostate cancer cell lines. Short hairpin (sh) RNA- mediated knockdown of IFNγR2 was able to... enhances Bax activation. (Months 1-24) Task 2: To identify the subtype of prostate cancer that can be effectively treated by IFNγR2-targeting

  12. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

  13. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Collaborative Development of Linked Data for Oceanographic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Stocks, Karen; Smith, Shawn; Clark, Paul; Shepherd, Adam; Moore, Carla; Beaulieu, Stace

    2013-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from U.S. academic oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. The entire R2R Catalog is published online as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage discovery and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by publishing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation; 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to journal articles and global syntheses, by publishing Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for datasets and encoding them directly into our Linked Data resources; and 3.) We facilitate federation with other repositories such as the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO), InterRidge Vents Database, and Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS), by reciprocal linking between RDF resources and supporting the RDF Query Language. R2R participates in the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), a joint European-U.S.-Australian partnership to facilitate the sharing of data and documentation across international borders. We publish our controlled vocabularies as a Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concept collection, and are working toward alignment with SeaDataNet and other community-standard terms using the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). http://rvdata.us/

  14. Radiation Pressure Effects On The R1 And R2 Rings Of Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfair, Rafael; Giuliatti Winter, S. M.

    2008-09-01

    Showalter & Lissauer (2006), through a careful analysis of several Hubble Space Telescope images, discovered two small satellites of Uranus, Mab and Cupid. These images also reveled the existence of two faint rings, R/2003 U1 (R1) and R/2003 U2 (R2). In this work we study the effects of the solar radiation pressure on small particles located in these two rings using numerical simulations, where each ring is represented by an ensemble of particles of several sizes, from 0.5 to 10 microns, under the influence of radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson drag, planetary oblateness and the perturbation of the closest satellites (Puck and Mab for R1 and Portia and Rosalind for R2). Our results show that Poynting-Roberson drag causes the orbit collapse in a time scale of 105 to 106 years, while planetary oblateness prevent the eccentricity increases due to radiation pressure. A combination of all perturbations shows that, although Mab's size, the satellite is hit by some particles with impact velocity several times larger than the scape velocity what can result in ejection of material. The inner ring R2 does not have any evident material source and particles initially in the ring region oscillates before colliding with one of surrounding moon. Particles can remain within the region for more than 105 orbital periods, what allows collision with macroscopic bodies that may inhabit the region, leading to the production of new ring material for R2. Acknowledgment: RS and SMGW thanks FAPESP for the financial support.

  15. Inviscid Limit for Damped and Driven Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in mathbb R^2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, P.; Ramos, F.

    2007-10-01

    We consider the zero viscosity limit of long time averages of solutions of damped and driven Navier-Stokes equations in mathbb R^2 . We prove that the rate of dissipation of enstrophy vanishes. Stationary statistical solutions of the damped and driven Navier-Stokes equations converge to renormalized stationary statistical solutions of the damped and driven Euler equations. These solutions obey the enstrophy balance.

  16. Kinematics of the ionized-to-neutral interfaces in Monoceros R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilleri, P.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Ossenkopf, V.; Joblin, C.; González-García, M.; Treviño-Morales, S. P.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Pety, J.; Berné, O.; Kramer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Monoceros R2 (Mon R2), at a distance of 830 pc, is the only ultra-compact H ii region (UC H ii) where its associated photon-dominated region (PDR) can be resolved with the Herschel Space Observatory. Aims: Our aim is to investigate observationally the kinematical patterns in the interface regions (i.e., the transition from atomic to molecular gas) associated with Mon R2. Methods: We used the HIFI instrument on board Herschel to observe the line profiles of the reactive ions CH+, OH+, and H2O+ toward different positions in Mon R2. We derive the column density of these molecules and compare them with gas-phase chemistry models. Results: The reactive ion CH+ is detected both in emission (at central and red-shifted velocities) and in absorption (at blue-shifted velocities). The OH+ ion is detected in absorption at both blue- and red-shifted velocities, with similar column densities; H2O+ is not detected at any of the positions, down to a rms of 40 mK toward the molecular peak. At this position, we find that the OH+ absorption originates in a mainly atomic medium, and therefore is associated with the most exposed layers of the PDR. These results are consistent with the predictions from photo-chemical models. The line profiles are consistent with the atomic gas being entrained in the ionized gas flow along the walls of the cavity of the H ii region. Based on this evidence, we are able to propose a new geometrical model for this region. Conclusions: The kinematical patterns of the OH+ and CH+ absorption indicate the existence of a layer of mainly atomic gas for which we have derived, for the first time, some physical parameters and its dynamics. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  17. Efficient preparation of (R)-2-chloromandelic acid via a recycle process of resolution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu; Wu, Chang; Wu, Xue-Ying; Li, Shao-Lei; Sun, Xiao-Xia; Tang, Ze-Biao

    2015-03-01

    Efficient preparation of (R)-2-chloromandelic acid based on a recycle process of resolution is described. In the process, the desired was obtained by coordination-mediated resolution with D-O,O'-di-(p-toluoyl)-tartaric acid in the presence of Ca(2+) . Meanwhile, the undesired could be racemized in the presence of sodium hydroxide and the product was suitable for further resolution. A carbanion mechanism for the racemization of is proposed.

  18. Domain Structure of R2Fe17 Intermetallic Compounds with Planar-Type Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastushenkov, Yu. G.; Skokov, K. P.; Lyakhova, M. B.; Antonova, E. S.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic domain structure is studied in single crystals of R2Fe17 (R = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) intermetallic compounds in a wide range of temperatures (10 - 300 K) and magnetic fields (μ0 H = 0 - 0.1 T). It is shown that single crystal specimens of hexagonal magnetics with planar-type anisotropy acquire domain structures containing not only 180-degree domain boundaries but also 60- and 120-degree ones.

  19. R2* mapping for brain iron: associations with cognition in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Ghadery, Christine; Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Langkammer, Christian; Petrovic, Katja; Loitfelder, Marisa; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Fazekas, Franz; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2015-02-01

    Brain iron accumulates during aging and has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance (MR)-based R2* mapping enables the in vivo detection of iron content in brain tissue. We investigated if during normal brain aging iron load relates to cognitive impairment in region-specific patterns in a community-dwelling cohort of 336 healthy, middle aged, and older adults from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. MR imaging and R2* mapping in the basal ganglia and neocortex were done at 3T. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing assessed memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. We found the highest iron concentration in the globus pallidus, and pallidal and putaminal iron was significantly and inversely associated with cognitive performance in all cognitive domains, except memory. These associations were iron load dependent. Vascular brain lesions and brain volume did not mediate the relationship between iron and cognitive performance. We conclude that higher R2*-determined iron in the basal ganglia correlates with cognitive impairment during brain aging independent of concomitant brain abnormalities. The prognostic significance of this finding needs to be determined.

  20. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue; Jin, Meng; Chen, Ying-Xiao; Wang, Jun; Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway.

  1. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway. PMID:27347718

  2. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles1

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco Javier; Boersma, Maaike; Schuurink, Robert C.; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Caballero, José Luis; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and functionally characterized an R2R3 MYB transcription factor (EMISSION OF BENZENOID II [FaEOBII]) that seems to be the orthologous gene of PhEOBII from Petunia hybrida, which contributes to the regulation of eugenol biosynthesis in petals. The expression of FaEOBII was ripening related and fruit receptacle specific, although high expression values were also found in petals. This expression pattern of FaEOBII correlated with eugenol content in both fruit receptacle and petals. The expression of FaEOBII was repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid, in parallel to the ripening process. In ripe strawberry receptacles, where the expression of FaEOBII was silenced, the expression of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE1 and FaEGS2, two structural genes involved in eugenol production, was down-regulated. A subsequent decrease in eugenol content in ripe receptacles was also observed, confirming the involvement of FaEOBII in eugenol metabolism. Additionally, the expression of FaEOBII was under the control of FaMYB10, another R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates the early and late biosynthetic genes from the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway. In parallel, the amount of eugenol in FaMYB10-silenced receptacles was also diminished. Taken together, these data indicate that FaEOBII plays a regulating role in the volatile phenylpropanoid pathway gene expression that gives rise to eugenol production in ripe strawberry receptacles. PMID:25931522

  3. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  4. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Technical Design - Experiences and Lessons (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Miller, S. P.; Chandler, C. L.; Ferrini, V.; Stocks, K.; Maffei, A. R.; Smith, S. R.; Bourassa, M. A.; McLean, S. J.; Alberts, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project envisions the academic research fleet as an integrated global observing system, with routine “underway” sensor data flowing directly from research vessels to a central shore-side repository. It is a complex endeavor involving many stakeholders - technicians at sea, data managers on shore, ship schedulers, clearance officers, funding agencies, National Data Centers, data synthesis projects, the science community, and the public - working toward a common goal of acquiring, documenting, archiving, evaluating, and disseminating high-quality scientific data. The technical design for R2R is guided by several key principles: 1) The data pipeline is modular, so that initial stages (e.g. inventory and review of data shipments, posting of catalog records and track maps) may proceed routinely for every cruise, while later stages (e.g. quality assessment and production of file-level metadata) may proceed at different rates for different data types; 2) Cruise documentation (e.g. sailing orders, review/release of data inventories, vessel profiles) is gathered primarily via an authenticated Web portal, linked with the UNOLS scheduling database to synchronize vocabularies and eliminate redundancies; and 3) Every data set will be documented and delivered to the appropriate National Data Center for long-term archiving and dissemination after proprietary holds are cleared, while R2R maintains a master cruise catalog that links all the data sets together. This design accommodates the diversity of instrument types, data volumes, and shipment schedules among fleet operators. During its pilot development period, R2R has solicited feedback at community workshops, UNOLS meetings, and conference presentations, including fleet-wide surveys of current practices and instrument inventories. Several vessel operators began submitting cruise data and documentation during the pilot, providing a test bed for database development and Web

  5. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  6. An S-phase specific release from a transcriptional block regulates the expression of mouse ribonucleotide reductase R2 subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, S; Skogman, E; Thelander, L

    1992-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) activity in mammalian cells is closely linked to DNA synthesis. The RR enzyme is composed of two non-identical subunits, proteins R1 and R2. Both proteins are required for holoenzyme activity, which is regulated by S-phase specific de novo synthesis and breakdown of the R2 subunit. In quiescent cells stimulated to proliferate and in elutriated cell populations enriched in the various cell cycle phases the R2 protein levels are correlated to R2 mRNA levels that are low in G0/G1-phase cells but increase dramatically at the G1/S border. Using an R2 promoter-luciferase reporter gene construct we demonstrate an unexpected early activation of the R2 promoter as cells pass from quiescence to proliferation. However, due to a transcriptional block, this promoter activation only results in very short R2 transcripts until cells enter the S-phase, when full-length R2 transcripts start to appear. The position for the transcriptional block was localized to a nucleotide sequence approximately 87 bp downstream from the first exon/intron boundary by S1 nuclease mapping of R2 transcripts from modified in vitro nuclear run-on experiments. These results identify blocking of transcription as a mechanism to control cell cycle regulated gene expression. Images PMID:1464320

  7. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  8. Self-Adjusting Liquid Injectors for Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu; Myers, William

    2010-01-01

    A class of self-adjusting injectors for spraying liquid oxidizers and/or fuels into combustion chambers has been proposed. The proposed injectors were originally intended for use in rocket-engine combustion chambers, but could also be used to improve control over flows of liquid propellants in other combustion chambers. The basic idea of the proposed injectors is to use simple mechanisms, inside the injectors themselves, to adjust inlet areas so as to keep injection pressure drops at or near optimum values through out wide throttling ranges. These mechanisms would be actuated by the very pressure drops that they are intended to regulate.

  9. Production of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus with prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems: higher activity of R2 produced by eukaryotic cells related to higher iron-binding capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Lamarche, N; Matton, G; Massie, B; Fontecave, M; Atta, M; Dumas, F; Gaudreau, P; Langelier, Y

    1996-01-01

    The R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus type 2 was overproduced with prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. The recombinant R2 purified by a two-step procedure exhibited a 3-fold higher activity when produced in eukaryotic cells. Precise quantification of the R2 concentration at each step of the purification indicated that the activity was not altered during the purification procedure. Moreover, we have observed that the level of R2 expression, in eukaryotic cells as well as in prokaryotic cells, did not influence R2 activity. Extensive characterization of the recombinant R2 purified from eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems has shown that both types of pure R2 preparations were similar in their 76 kDa dimer contents (more than 95%) and in their ability to bind the R1 subunit. However, we have found that the higher activity of R2 produced in eukaryotic cells is more probably related to a higher capability of binding the iron cofactor as well as a 3-fold greater ability to generate the tyrosyl free radical. PMID:8947477

  10. Investigation on quantitative structure activity relationships and pharmacophore modeling of a series of mGluR2 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Le; Li, Yan; Fan, Wen-Jia; Wang, Yong-Hua; Hao, Ming; Zhang, Shu-Wei; Ai, Chun-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    MGluR2 is G protein-coupled receptor that is targeted for diseases like anxiety, depression, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Herein, we report the three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of a series of 1,3-dihydrobenzo[ b][1,4]diazepin-2-one derivatives as mGluR2 antagonists. Two series of models using two different activities of the antagonists against rat mGluR2, which has been shown to be very similar to the human mGluR2, (activity I: inhibition of [(3)H]-LY354740; activity II: mGluR2 (1S,3R)-ACPD inhibition of forskolin stimulated cAMP.) were derived from datasets composed of 137 and 69 molecules respectively. For activity I study, the best predictive model obtained from CoMFA analysis yielded a Q(2) of 0.513, R(2) (ncv) of 0.868, R(2) (pred) = 0.876, while the CoMSIA model yielded a Q(2) of 0.450, R(2) (ncv) = 0.899, R(2) (pred) = 0.735. For activity II study, CoMFA model yielded statistics of Q(2) = 0.5, R(2) (ncv) = 0.715, R(2) (pred) = 0.723. These results prove the high predictability of the models. Furthermore, a combined analysis between the CoMFA, CoMSIA contour maps shows that: (1) Bulky substituents in R(7), R(3) and position A benefit activity I of the antagonists, but decrease it when projected in R(8) and position B; (2) Hydrophilic groups at position A and B increase both antagonistic activity I and II; (3) Electrostatic field plays an essential rule in the variance of activity II. In search for more potent mGluR2 antagonists, two pharmacophore models were developed separately for the two activities. The first model reveals six pharmacophoric features, namely an aromatic center, two hydrophobic centers, an H-donor atom, an H-acceptor atom and an H-donor site. The second model shares all features of the first one and has an additional acceptor site, a positive N and an aromatic center. These models can be used as guidance for the development of new mGluR2 antagonists of high activity and selectivity

  11. 1r2dinv: A finite-difference model for inverse analysis of two dimensional linear or radial groundwater flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohling, G.C.; Butler, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a program for inverse analysis of two-dimensional linear or radial groundwater flow problems. The program, 1r2dinv, uses standard finite difference techniques to solve the groundwater flow equation for a horizontal or vertical plane with heterogeneous properties. In radial mode, the program simulates flow to a well in a vertical plane, transforming the radial flow equation into an equivalent problem in Cartesian coordinates. The physical parameters in the model are horizontal or x-direction hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy ratio (vertical to horizontal conductivity in a vertical model, y-direction to x-direction in a horizontal model), and specific storage. The program allows the user to specify arbitrary and independent zonations of these three parameters and also to specify which zonal parameter values are known and which are unknown. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to estimate parameters from observed head values. Particularly powerful features of the program are the ability to perform simultaneous analysis of heads from different tests and the inclusion of the wellbore in the radial mode. These capabilities allow the program to be used for analysis of suites of well tests, such as multilevel slug tests or pumping tests in a tomographic format. The combination of information from tests stressing different vertical levels in an aquifer provides the means for accurately estimating vertical variations in conductivity, a factor profoundly influencing contaminant transport in the subsurface. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  13. A sugarcane R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene is alternatively spliced during drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Ma, Jingjing; Chen, Yun; Su, Yachun; Lin, Qingliang; Gao, Shiwu; Wang, Hengbo; Que, Youxiong; Xu, Liping

    2017-01-01

    MYB transcription factors of the R2R3-MYB family have been shown to play important roles in many plant processes. A sugarcane R2R3-MYB gene (ScMYB2) and its two alternative forms of transcript (ScMYB2S1 and ScMYB2S2) were identified in this study. The deduced protein of ScMYB2S1 is a typical plant R2R3-MYB protein, while ScMYB2S2 encodes a truncated protein. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed that ScMYB2S1 is suppressed under PEG-simulated drought stress in sugarcane, while ScMYB2S2 is induced at later treatment stage. A senescence symptom was observed when ScMYB2S1 was injected into tobacco leaves mediated by Agrobacterium, but no symptom for ScMYB2S2. Further investigation showed that the expression levels of 4 senescence-associated genes, NtPR-1a, NtNYC1, NtCAT3 and NtABRE, were markedly induced in tobacco leaves after ScMYB2S1-injection, while they were not sensitive to ScMYB2S2-injection. Moreover, MDA and proline were also investigated after injection. Similarly, MDA and proline levels were induced by ABA and ScMYB2S1, while inhibited by ScMYB2S2. We propose that ScMYB2, by alternatively splicing two transcripts (ScMYB2S1 and ScMYB2S2), is involved in an ABA-mediated leaf senescence signaling pathway and play positive role in respond to drought-induced senescence in sugarcane. The results of this study provide information for further research in sugarcane stress processes. PMID:28167824

  14. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Schwinn, Kathy E; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A; Albert, Nick W; McCallum, John A; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  15. Enhanced production of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol by metabolically engineered Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Myoung; Rathnasingh, Chelladurai; Song, Hyohak

    2015-10-01

    Microbial fermentation produces a racemic mixture of 2,3-butanediol ((R,R)-BD, (S,S)-BD, and meso-BD), and the compositions and physiochemical properties vary from microorganism to microorganism. Although the meso form is much more difficult to transport and store because of its higher freezing point than those of the optically active forms, most microorganisms capable of producing 2,3-BD mainly yield meso-2,3-BD. Thus, we developed a metabolically engineered (R,R)-2,3-BD overproducing strain using a Klebsiella oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB strain, which shows an outstanding 2,3-BD production performance with more than 90 % of the meso form. A budC gene encoding 2,3-BD dehydrogenase in the K. oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB strain was replaced with an exogenous gene encoding (R,R)-2,3-BD dehydrogenase from Paenibacillus polymyxa (K. oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB ΔbudC::PBDH strain), and then its expression level was further amplified with using a pBBR1MCS plasmid. The fed-batch fermentation of the K. oxytoca ΔldhA ΔpflB ΔbudC::PBDH (pBBR-PBDH) strain with intermittent glucose feeding allowed the production of 106.7 g/L of (R,R)-2,3-BD [meso-2,3-BD, 9.3 g/L], with a yield of 0.40 g/g and a productivity of 3.1 g/L/h, which should be useful for the industrial application of 2,3-BD.

  16. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schwinn, Kathy E.; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A.; Albert, Nick W.; McCallum, John A.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species. PMID:28018399

  17. HRS Threshold Adjustment Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skapik, Joe

    1991-07-01

    This test will determine the optimal, non-standard discriminator thresholds for the few anomalous channels on each HRS detector. A 15 second flat field observation followed by a 210 second dark count is performed at each of 10 discriminator threshold values for each detector. The result of the test will be the optimal threshold values to be entered into the PDB. Edited 4/30/91 to add comments to disable/re-enable cross-talk tables.

  18. Histone H3R2 symmetric dimethylation and histone H3K4 trimethylation are tightly correlated in eukaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chih-Chi; Matthews, Adam G.W.; Jin, Yi; Chen, Chang Feng; Chapman, Brad A.; Ohsumi, Toshiro K.; Glass, Karen C.; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.; Borowsky, Mark L.; Struhl, Kevin; Oettinger, Marjorie A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The preferential in vitro interaction of the PHD finger of RAG2, a subunit of the V(D)J recombinase, with histone H3 tails simultaneously trimethylated at lysine 4 and symmetrically dimethylated at arginine 2 (H3R2me2sK4me3) predicted the existence of the previously unknown histone modification, H3R2me2s. Here, we report the in vivo identification of H3R2me2s . Consistent with the binding specificity of the RAG2 PHD finger, high levels of H3R2me2sK4me3 are found at antigen receptor gene segments ready for rearrangement. However, this double modification is much more general; it is conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution. In mouse, H3R2me2s is tightly correlated with H3K4me3 at active promoters throughout the genome. Mutational analysis in S. cerevisiae reveals that deposition of H3R2me2s requires the same Set1 complex that deposits H3K4me3. Our work suggests that H3R2me2sK4me3, not simply H3K4me3 alone, is the mark of active promoters, and that factors that recognize H3K4me3 will have their binding modulated by their preference for H3R2me2s. PMID:22720264

  19. Regulation of development and cancer by the R2B subfamily of RPTPs and the implications of proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Sonya E.L.; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M.

    2014-01-01

    The initial cloning of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) was met with excitement because of their hypothesized function in counterbalancing receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. In recent years, members of a subfamily of RPTPs with homophilic cell-cell adhesion capabilities, known as the R2B subfamily, have been shown to have functions beyond that of counteracting tyrosine kinase activity, by independently influencing cell signaling in their own right and by regulating cell adhesion. The R2B subfamily is composed of four members: PTPmu (PTPRM), PTPrho (PTPRT), PTPkappa (PTPRK), and PCP-2 (PTPRU). The effects of this small subfamily of RPTPs is far reaching, influencing several developmental processes and cancer. In fact, R2B RPTPs are predicted to be tumor suppressors and are among the most frequently mutated protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in cancer. Confounding these conclusions are more recent studies suggesting that proteolysis of the full-length R2B RPTPs result in oncogenic extracellular and intracellular protein fragments. This review discusses the current knowledge of the role of R2B RPTPs in development and cancer, with special detail given to the mechanisms and implications that proteolysis has on R2B RPTP function. We also touch upon the concept of exploiting R2B proteolysis to develop cancer imaging tools, and consider the effects of R2B proteolysis on axon guidance, perineural invasion and collective cell migration. PMID:25223585

  20. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Big Data and Standard Services for the Fleet Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.; Stocks, K. I.

    2014-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; http://rvdata.us/) program curates underway environmental sensor data from the U.S. academic oceanographic research fleet, ensuring data sets are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. Currently 25 in-service vessels contribute 7 terabytes of data to R2R each year, acquired from a full suite of geophysical, oceanographic, meteorological, and navigational sensors on over 400 cruises worldwide. To accommodate this large volume and variety of data, R2R has developed highly efficient stewardship procedures. These include scripted "break out" of cruise data packages from each vessel based on standard filename and directory patterns; automated harvest of cruise metadata from the UNOLS Office via Web Services and from OpenXML-based forms submitted by vessel operators; scripted quality assessment routines that calculate statistical summaries and standard ratings for selected data types; adoption of community-standard controlled vocabularies for vessel codes, instrument types, etc, provided by the NERC Vocabulary Server, in lieu of maintaining custom local term lists; and a standard package structure based on the IETF BagIt format for delivering data to long-term archives. Documentation and standard post-field products, including quality-controlled shiptrack navigation data for every cruise, are published in multiple services and formats to satisfy a diverse range of clients. These include Catalog Service for Web (CSW), GeoRSS, and OAI-PMH discovery services via a GeoNetwork portal; OGC Web Map and Feature Services for GIS clients; a citable Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for each dataset; ISO 19115-2 standard geospatial metadata records suitable for submission to long-term archives as well as the POGO global catalog; and Linked Open Data resources with a SPARQL query endpoint for Semantic Web clients. R2R participates in initiatives such as the Ocean Data

  1. TRAIL-R2-specific antibodies and recombinant TRAIL can synergise to kill cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, M H; Montinaro, A; Zinngrebe, J; Prieske, K; Draber, P; Prieske, S; Newsom-Davis, T; von Karstedt, S; Graves, J; Walczak, H

    2015-04-16

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in cancer cells while sparing normal tissues. Despite promising preclinical results, few patients responded to treatment with recombinant TRAIL (Apo2L/Dulanermin) or TRAIL-R2-specific antibodies, such as conatumumab (AMG655). It is unknown whether this was due to intrinsic TRAIL resistance within primary human cancers or insufficient agonistic activity of the TRAIL-receptor (TRAIL-R)-targeting drugs. Fcγ receptors (FcγR)-mediated crosslinking increases the cancer-cell-killing activity of TRAIL-R2-specific antibodies in vivo. We tested this phenomenon using FcγR-expressing immune cells from patients with ovarian cancer. However, even in the presence of high numbers of FcγR-expressing immune cells, as found in ovarian cancer ascites, AMG655-induced apoptosis was not enabled to any significant degree, indicating that this concept may not translate into clinical use. On the basis of these results, we next set out to determine whether AMG655 possibly interferes with apoptosis induction by endogenous TRAIL, which could be expressed by immune cells. To do so, we tested how AMG655 affected apoptosis induction by recombinant TRAIL. This, however, resulted in the surprising discovery of a striking synergy between AMG655 and non-tagged TRAIL (Apo2L/TRAIL) in killing cancer cells. This combination was as effective in killing cancer cells as highly active recombinant isoleucine-zipper-tagged TRAIL (iz-TRAIL). The increased killing efficiency was due to enhanced formation of the TRAIL death-inducing signalling complex, enabled by concomitant binding of Apo2L/TRAIL and AMG655 to TRAIL-R2. The synergy of AMG655 with Apo2L/TRAIL extended to primary ovarian cancer cells and was further enhanced by combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib or a second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetic. Importantly, primary human hepatocytes were not killed by the AMG655-Apo2L

  2. (n+1)-dimensional spherically symmetric expanding structures in R2-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Esmaeil

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we consider higher-dimensional structures in R2-gravity in an expanding background. We assume a Ricci scalar constant background and use this assumption as the basic constraint to find solutions. Two classes of solutions are presented in which every one includes naked singularity and wormhole geometries. Both classes of solutions show inflationary phase of expansion favored by recent acceleration of the universe. Traversability of the wormhole solutions is discussed. The possibility of satisfying or violating the weak energy condition (WEC) for wormholes is explored. For one class of solutions, particular choices of constants result in wormholes which satisfy the WEC all over the spacetime.

  3. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Linking and Integrating Data for Oceanographic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Shepherd, A.; Moore, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. We have published the entire R2R Catalog as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage linking and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by providing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation. We are leveraging or adopting existing community-standard concepts and vocabularies, particularly concepts from the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) ontology and terms from the pan-European SeaDataNet vocabularies, and continually re-publish resources as new concepts and terms are mapped. 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire data lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to (ultimately) global syntheses and journal articles. We are implementing globally unique and persistent identifiers at the collection, dataset, and granule levels, and encoding these citable identifiers directly into the Linked Data resources. 3.) We facilitate linking and integration with other repositories that publish Linked Data collections for the U.S. academic fleet, such as BCO-DMO and the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS). We are initially mapping datasets at the resource level, and plan to eventually implement rule-based mapping at the concept level. We work collaboratively with partner repositories to develop best practices for URI patterns and consensus on shared vocabularies. The R2R Linked Data collection is implemented as a

  4. Accretion disks around neutron and strange stars in R+aR2 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staykov, Kalin V.; Doneva, Daniela D.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.

    2016-08-01

    We study the electromagnetic spectrum of accretion disks around neutron and strange stars in R+aR2 gravity. Both static and rapidly rotating models are investigated. The results are compared with the General Relativistic results. We found difference between the results in both theories of about 50% for the electromagnetic flux and about 20% in the luminosity for models with equal mass and angular velocity in both theories. The observed differences are much lower for models rotating with Keplerian velocity and with equal masses.

  5. A Herschel-SPIRE Survey of the MonR2 Giant Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Riwaj; Gutermuth, Robert; Ali, Babar; Megeath, Thomas; Pipher, Judith; Myers, Philip; Fischer, William; Henning, Thomas; Wolk, Scott; Allen, Lori; Tobin, John

    2015-08-01

    We present a new survey of the MonR2 giant molecular cloud with SPIRE on the Herschel Space Observatory. We cross-calibrated SPIRE data with Planck-HFI and accounted for its absolute offset and zero point correction. We fixed emissivity with the help of flux-error and flux ratio plots. As the best representation of cold dusty molecular clouds, we did greybody fits of the SEDs. We studied the nature of distribution of column densities above and below certain critical limit, followed by the mass and temperature distributions for different regions. We used dendrograms as a technique to study the hierarchical structures in the GMC.

  6. A Herschel-SPIRE Survey of the MonR2 Giant Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Riwaj; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Ali, Babar; Megeath, S. Thomas; Pipher, Judith; Myers, Philip C.; Fischer, William J.; Henning, Thomas; Wolk, Scott J.; Allen, Lori; Tobin, John J.

    2014-06-01

    We present a new survey of the MonR2 giant molecular cloud with SPIRE on the Herschel Space Observatory. We cross-calibrated SPIRE data with Planck-HFI and accounted for its absolute offset and zero point correction. We fixed emissivity with the help of flux-error and flux ratio plots. As the best representation of cold dusty molecular clouds, we did greybody fits of the SEDs. We studied the nature of distribution of column densities above and below certain critical limit, followed by the mass and temperature distributions for different regions. We isolated the filaments and studied radial column density profile in this cloud.

  7. Shells, outflows and star formation in the giant molecular cloud Monoceros R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Taoling

    1992-09-01

    To improve our understanding about giant molecular clouds (GMC) associated with R-associations, a CO-12 J = 1-0 map of 167,000 spectra with 45 inch resolution and 25 inch spacing, a CO-13 J = 1-0 map of approximately 40,000 spectra with 1.5 foot resolution and 1 foot spacing, IRAS BIGMAP images, and maps of high density molecular tracers for the dense cores are obtained for the GMC Monoceros R2 (D = 830 plus or minus 50 pc). These data reveal that the large-scale structure of Mon R2 is dominated by an expanding bubble shell (approximately 30 pc) with front side moving towards us at a radial velocity of approximately 4-5 km/s. Distortions of this shell are obvious, suggesting of the inhomogeneity of the cloud before the formation of the bubble. There is no evidence for red-shifted shell at the far side of the bubble. There are at least two generations of star formation in Mon R2. The older generation of stars with an age of 6-10 x 106 years are represented mostly by reflection nebulae. The younger generation of stars with an age of approximately 105 years are represented mostly by IRAS point sources. It is proposed that the large-scale expanding bubble shell is the result of combined effects of ionizing flux and stellar winds originating from the older generation of young stellar objects, but perhaps dominated by O type stars which either are obscured or left main sequence. It is suggested that the formation of the younger generation of stars has been triggered by the older generation of stars. The main and the GGD12-15 cores are located on the large-scale expanding shell, and their harboring both generations of stars can be explained were the cores preexisting clumps. Our CO data reveal an eggplant-shaped bipolar outflow shell, whose shape can be satisfactorily modeled with radially directed stellar winds sweeping up ambient material with momentum conservation. An inversion method is implemented for analyzing dust emission spectra at FIR wavelengths in terms of a

  8. Edited GluR2, a gatekeeper for motor neurone survival?

    PubMed

    Buckingham, S D; Kwak, S; Jones, A K; Blackshaw, S E; Sattelle, D B

    2008-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive degenerative disorder of motor neurones. Although the genetic basis of familial forms of ALS has been well explored, the molecular basis of sporadic ALS is less well understood. Recent evidence has linked sporadic ALS with the failure to edit key residues in ionotropic glutamate receptors, resulting in excessive influx of calcium ions into motor neurones which in turn triggers cell death. Here we suggest that edited AMPA glutamate (GluR2) receptor subunits serve as gatekeepers for motor neurone survival.

  9. Translational neurophysiological markers for activity of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) modulator JNJ-40411813: Sleep EEG correlates in rodents and healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ahnaou, A; de Boer, P; Lavreysen, H; Huysmans, H; Sinha, V; Raeymaekers, L; Van De Casteele, T; Cid, J M; Van Nueten, L; Macdonald, G J; Kemp, J A; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2016-04-01

    Alterations in rapid eye movement sleep (REM) have been suggested as valid translational efficacy markers: activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) was shown to increase REM latency and to decrease REM duration. The present paper addresses the effects on vigilance states of the mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) JNJ-40411813 at different circadian times in rats and after afternoon dosing in humans. Due to its dual mGluR2 PAM/serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor antagonism in rodents, mGlu2R specificity of effects was studied in wild-type (WT) and mGluR2 (-/-) mice. 5-HT2A receptor occupancy was determined in humans using positron emission tomography (PET). Tolerance development was examined in rats after chronic dosing. EEG oscillations and network connectivity were assessed using multi-channel EEG. In rats, JNJ-40411813 increased deep sleep time and latency of REM onset but reduced REM time when administered 2 h after 'lights on' (CT2): this was sustained after chronic dosing. At CT5 similar effects were elicited, at CT10 only deep sleep was enhanced. Withdrawal resulted in baseline values, while re-administration reinstated drug effects. Parieto-occipital cortical slow theta and gamma oscillations were correlated with low locomotion. The specificity of functional response was confirmed in WT but not mGluR2 (-/-) mice. A double-blind, placebo-controlled polysomnographic study in healthy, elderly subjects showed that 500 mg of JNJ-40411813 consistently increased deep sleep time, but had no effect on REM parameters. This deep sleep effect was not explained by 5-HT2A receptor binding, as in the PET study even 700 mg only marginally displaced the tracer. JNJ-40411813 elicited comparable functional responses in rodents and men if circadian time of dosing was taken into account. These findings underscore the translational potential of sleep mechanisms in evaluating mGluR2 therapeutics when administered at the appropriate circadian time.

  10. TrxR2 deficiencies promote chondrogenic differentiation and induce apoptosis of chondrocytes through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jidong; Xu, Jing; Fei, Yao; Jiang, Congshan; Zhu, Wenhua; Han, Yan; Lu, Shemin

    2016-05-15

    Thioredoxin reductase 2 (TrxR2) is a selenium (Se) containing protein. Se deficiency is associated with an endemic osteoarthropathy characterized by impaired cartilage formation. It is unclear whether TrxR2 have roles in cartilage function. We examined the effects of TrxR2 on chondrogenic ATDC5 cells through shRNA-mediated gene silencing of TrxR2. We demonstrated TrxR2 deficiencies could enhance chondrogenic differentiation and apoptosis of ATDC5 cells. TrxR2 deficiencies increased accumulation of cartilage glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and mineralization. TrxR2 deficiencies also stimulated expression of extracellular (ECM) gene including Collagen II and Aggrecan. The enhanced chondrogenic properties were further confirmed by activation of Akt signaling which are required for chondrogenesis. In addition, TrxR2 deficiencies promoted chondrocyte proliferation through acceleration of cell cycle progression by increase in both S and G2/M phase cell distribution accompanied with induction of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Moreover, TrxR2 deficiencies induced chondrocyte death via apoptosis and increased cell sensitivity to exogenous oxidative stress. Furthermore, TrxR2 deficiencies induced emission of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) without alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP content. Finally, treatment of TrxR2 deficiency cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibited mitochondrial ROS production and chondrocyte apoptosis. NAC also prevented chondrogenic differentiation of TrxR2 deficiency cells by suppression of ECM gene expression, GAGs accumulation and mineralization, as well as attenuation of Akt signaling. Thus, TrxR2-mediated mitochondrial integrity is indispensable for chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. TrxR2 deficiency-induced impaired proliferation and death of chondrocytes may be the pathological mechanism of the osteoarthropathy due to Se deficiency. Notably, this study also uncover the roles of

  11. Measuring co-authorship and networking-adjusted scientific impact.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2008-07-23

    Appraisal of the scientific impact of researchers, teams and institutions with productivity and citation metrics has major repercussions. Funding and promotion of individuals and survival of teams and institutions depend on publications and citations. In this competitive environment, the number of authors per paper is increasing and apparently some co-authors don't satisfy authorship criteria. Listing of individual contributions is still sporadic and also open to manipulation. Metrics are needed to measure the networking intensity for a single scientist or group of scientists accounting for patterns of co-authorship. Here, I define I(1) for a single scientist as the number of authors who appear in at least I(1) papers of the specific scientist. For a group of scientists or institution, I(n) is defined as the number of authors who appear in at least I(n) papers that bear the affiliation of the group or institution. I(1) depends on the number of papers authored N(p). The power exponent R of the relationship between I(1) and N(p) categorizes scientists as solitary (R>2.5), nuclear (R = 2.25-2.5), networked (R = 2-2.25), extensively networked (R = 1.75-2) or collaborators (R<1.75). R may be used to adjust for co-authorship networking the citation impact of a scientist. I(n) similarly provides a simple measure of the effective networking size to adjust the citation impact of groups or institutions. Empirical data are provided for single scientists and institutions for the proposed metrics. Cautious adoption of adjustments for co-authorship and networking in scientific appraisals may offer incentives for more accountable co-authorship behaviour in published articles.

  12. Single crystal growth and heat capacity measurements of triangular lattice R2Pt6Ga15 (R =rare earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Ueda, T.; Ohara, S.

    2016-02-01

    We have succeeded in synthesizing the single crystal of R2Pt6Ga15 (R=La-Nd, Sm- Lu) with hexagonal Sc0.67Fe2Si5-type structure using Ga self flux method. The crystal structure was confirmed by the powder X-ray method. The unit-cell volume V of R2Pt6Ga15 follows the lanthanide concentration except R = Ce, Eu and Yb, indicating that the valences of R = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, and Lu ion are trivalent, whereas those of R = Ce, Eu and Yb ion are deviate from trivalent. We have measured the specific heat C(T) of R2Pt6Ga15. It is found that the magnetic order takes place in R2Pt6Ga15 (R=Pr, Nd, Sm-Tm). Moreover, the multiple phase transitions were observed in R2Pt6Ga15 (R = Nd, Eu, Gd and Ho).

  13. Distinct human and mouse membrane trafficking systems for sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system.

  14. Expression of prokineticin-receptor2(PK-R2) is a new prognostic factor in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Goi, Takanori; Kurebayashi, Hidetaka; Ueda, Yuki; Naruse, Takayuki; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Koneri, Kenji; Hirono, Yasuo; Katayama, Kanji; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2015-10-13

    The increased invasiveness of colorectal cancer cells is important for progression and metastasis to the surrounding organs. According to recent molecular biological studies, signaling through transmembrane Prokineticin-Receptor2(PK-R2) is likely involved in the ability of tumor cell to invade. However, no studies have evaluated the relationship between PK-R2 expression, ability of cancer to invade/metastasize, and patient prognosis in cases of resected colorectal cancer. Accordingly, we have examined these factors in the present study.Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect PK-R2 in the primary lesion and adjacent normal large intestine mucosa of 324 colorectal cancer patients who underwent resection surgery at our department. Additionally, we conducted clinicopathologic examinations and analyzed patient prognoses with the Kaplan-Meier method. Further, multivariate analysis was conducted using a cox-proportional hazard model.PK-R2 expression was observed on the cellular membrane of the primary lesion in 147 of 324 cases (45.3%) of human colorectal cancer. PK-R2 expression was associated with a higher incidence of vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, hepatic metastasis, and hematogenous metastasis. Further, prevalence of PK-R2 expression increased as tumor stage increased. In stage III curative resection cases, where recurrence is the most serious problem, cases that expressed PK-R2 had a significantly lower 5-year survival rate (82.1% versus 66.8%) and higher recurrence compared to those cases with no PK-R2 expression. In the multivariate analysis for prognosis, PK-R2 expression was found to be an independent factor(ratio2.621).PK-R2 expression could be one of the new prognostic factors in human colorectal cancer.

  15. Distinct Human and Mouse Membrane Trafficking Systems for Sweet Taste Receptors T1r2 and T1r3

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system. PMID:25029362

  16. Stereological analysis of GluR2-immunoreactive hilar neurons in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yiqun; Nadler, J. Victor

    2007-01-01

    Mossy fiber sprouting and the genesis of ectopic granule cells contribute to reverberating excitation in the dentate gyrus of epileptic brain. This study determined whether the extent of sprouting after status epilepticus in rats correlates with the seizure-induced degeneration of GluR2-immunoreactive (GluR2+) hilar neurons (presumptive mossy cells) and also quantitated granule cell-like GluR2-immunoreactive hilar neurons. Stereological cell counting indicated that GluR2+ neurons account for 57% of the total hilar neuron population. Prolonged pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus killed 95% of these cells. A smaller percentage of GluR2+ neurons (74%) was killed when status epilepticus was interrupted after 1-3.5 h with a single injection of phenobarbital, and the number of residual GluR2+ neurons varied among animals by a factor of 6.2. GluR2+ neurons were not necessarily more vulnerable than other hilar neurons. In rats administered phenobarbital, the extent of recurrent mossy fiber growth varied inversely and linearly with the number of GluR2+ hilar neurons that remained intact (P = 0.0001). Thus the loss of each GluR2+ neuron was associated with roughly the same amount of sprouting. These findings support the hypothesis that mossy fiber sprouting is driven largely by the degeneration of and/or loss of innervation from mossy cells. Granule cell-like GluR2-immunoreactive neurons were rarely encountered in the hilus of control rats, but increased 6- to 140-fold after status epilepticus. Their number did not correlate with the extent of hilar cell death or mossy fiber sprouting in the same animal. The morphology, number, and distribution of these neurons suggested that they were hilar ectopic granule cells. PMID:17475251

  17. Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Wu, R. S.

    2002-09-01

    Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating how is examined in detail with a linear shallow water model. The Initial Unbalanced flow considered first falls under two classes. The first is similar to that adopted by Gill and is here referred to as it mass imbalance model, for the flow is initially motionless but with a sea surface displacement. The other is the same as that considered by Rossby and is referred to as I momentum imbalance model since there is only a velocity perturbation in the initial field. The significant feature of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment for the above two extreme models is that althongh the energy conversion ratio has a large case-to-case variability for different initial conditions, Its value is bounded below by 0 and above by 1 / 2. Based on the discussion of the above extreme models, the energetics of adjustment for an arbitrary initial condition is investigated. It is found that the characteristics of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment mentioned above are also applicable to adjustment of the general unbalanced flow under the condition that the energy conversion ratio is redefined as the conversion ratio between the change of kinetic energy and potential energy of the deviational fields.

  18. 42 CFR 412.316 - Geographic adjustment factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.316 Geographic adjustment factors. (a) Local cost variation. CMS adjusts for local cost variation based on the hospital wage index value that is applicable to the hospital under subpart D of...

  19. Dark matter and inflation in R + ζR2 supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addazi, Andrea; Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    2017-03-01

    As is well known, the gravitational degrees of freedom contained in R + ζR2 (super)gravity lead to Starobinsky's potential, in a one-field setting for inflationary Cosmology that appears favored by Planck data. In this letter we discuss another interesting aspect of this model, related to gravitino production, with emphasis on the corresponding mass spectrum. Assuming that supersymmetry is broken at a very high scale, Super Heavy Gravitino Dark Matter (SHGDM) and Starobinsky's inflation can be coherently unified in a R + ζR2 supergravity. Gravitinos are assumed to be the Lightest Supersymmetric Particles (LSP) and are non-thermally produced during inflation, in turn originated by a scalar with a Starobinsky's potential. Gravitino mass runs with the inflaton field, so that a continuous spectrum of superheavy gravitinos emerges. The theory is implemented with a U(1)R gauge symmetry. However, in a string UV completion, U(1)R-symmetry can be broken by non-perturbative string instantons, while for consistency of our scenario U(1)R gauge symmetry breaking must be broken in order to generate a soft mass terms for the gravitino and gauginos. R-parity violating operators can be generated at non-perturbative level. Gravitinos can decay into very energetic neutrinos and photons in cosmological time scale, with intriguing implications for high energy cosmic rays experiments.

  20. ARCADE-R2 experiment on board BEXUS 17 stratospheric balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbetta, Marco; Boesso, Alessandro; Branz, Francesco; Carron, Andrea; Olivieri, Lorenzo; Prendin, Jacopo; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Sansone, Francesco; Savioli, Livia; Spinello, Fabio; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ARCADE-R2 experiment, a technology demonstrator that aimed to prove the feasibility of small-scale satellite and/or aircraft systems with automatic (a) attitude determination, (b) control and (c) docking capabilities. The experiment embodies a simplified scenario in which an unmanned vehicle mock-up performs rendezvous and docking operations with a fixed complementary unit. The experiment is composed by a supporting structure, which holds a small vehicle with one translational and one rotational degree of freedom, and its fixed target. The dual system features three main custom subsystems: a relative infrared navigation sensor, an attitude control system based on a reaction wheel and a small-scale docking mechanism. The experiment bus is equipped with pressure and temperature sensors, and wind probes to monitor the external environmental conditions. The experiment flew on board the BEXUS 17 stratospheric balloon on October 10, 2013, where several navigation-control-docking sequences were executed and data on the external pressure, temperature, wind speed and direction were collected, characterizing the atmospheric loads applied to the vehicle. This paper describes the critical components of ARCADE-R2 as well as the main results obtained from the balloon flight.

  1. Leaky RyR2 channels unleash a brainstem spreading depolarization mechanism of sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Isamu; Wehrens, Xander H. T.; Noebels, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory failure is the most common cause of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Genetic autopsies have detected “leaky” gain-of-function mutations in the ryanodine receptor-2 (RyR2) gene in both SUDEP and sudden cardiac death cases linked to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that feature lethal cardiac arrhythmias without structural abnormality. Here we find that a human leaky RyR2 mutation, R176Q (RQ), alters neurotransmitter release probability in mice and significantly lowers the threshold for spreading depolarization (SD) in dorsal medulla, leading to cardiorespiratory collapse. Rare episodes of sinus bradycardia, spontaneous seizure, and sudden death were detected in RQ/+ mutant mice in vivo; however, when provoked, cortical seizures frequently led to apneas, brainstem SD, cardiorespiratory failure, and death. In vitro studies revealed that the RQ mutation selectively strengthened excitatory, but not inhibitory, synapses and facilitated SD in both the neocortex as well as brainstem dorsal medulla autonomic microcircuits. These data link defects in neuronal intracellular calcium homeostasis to the vulnerability of central autonomic brainstem pathways to hypoxic stress and implicate brainstem SD as a previously unrecognized site and mechanism contributing to premature death in individuals with leaky RYR2 mutations. PMID:27482086

  2. Renal R2 chemoreceptor activity is attenuated after back heating in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wu, M S; Chien, C T; Chen, C F

    1997-06-27

    Recent study in our laboratory has found that renal afferent nervous activity (RANA) was decreased during and after 42 degrees C back heating (BH). To investigate which renal sensory receptor is influenced during and after BH, a C-shaped glass heating pad (42 degrees C) was used on the skin of the back overlying the kidneys. A single-unit recording was used to identify four types of renal sensory receptors, the R2 chemoreceptor (CR2), arterial mechanoreceptor (MRa), ureteropelvic mechanoreceptor (MRu) and venous mechanoreceptor (MRv) in anesthetized female Wistar rats. Renal cortical microvascular blood flow (CMBF) and urinary water, potassium and sodium output were measured. It was found that CR2 activity was significantly decreased during and after BH, but three types of MRs were not altered. CMBF and urine output were significantly increased during and after BH. It is concluded that the increase in renal hemodynamics by BH may dilute some chemicals in the kidney and decrease the firing rate of R2 chemoreceptors.

  3. Crystallographic superstructure in R2PdSi3 compounds (R=heavy rare earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fei; Frontzek, Matthias; Dshemuchadse, Julia; Leisegang, Tilmann; Zschornak, Matthias; Mietrach, Robert; Hoffmann, Jens-Uwe; Löser, Wolfgang; Gemming, Sibylle; Meyer, Dirk C.; Loewenhaupt, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The R2PdSi3 intermetallic compounds have been reported to crystallize in a hexagonal AlB2-derived structure, with the rare earth atoms on the Al sites and Pd and Si atoms randomly distributed on the B sites. However, the intricate magnetic properties observed in the series of compounds have always suggested complications to the assumed structure. To clarify the situation, x-ray and neutron diffraction measurements were performed on the heavy rare earth compounds with R=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, which revealed the existence of a crystallographic superstructure. The superstructure features a doubled unit cell in the hexagonal basal plane and an octuplication along the perpendicular c direction with respect to the primitive cell. No structural transition was observed between 300 and 1.5 K. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations were utilized to investigate the local environments of the respective atoms. In this paper the various experimental results will be presented and it will be shown that the superstructure is mainly due to the Pd-Si order on the B sites. A structure model will be proposed to fully describe the superstructure of Pd-Si order in R2PdSi3. The connection between the crystallographic superstructure and the magnetic properties will be discussed in the framework of the presented model.

  4. A pseudo-R2 measure for selecting genomic markers with crossing hazards functions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In genomic medical studies, one of the major objectives is to identify genomic factors with a prognostic impact on time-to-event outcomes so as to provide new insights into the disease process. Selection usually relies on statistical univariate indices based on the Cox model. Such model assumes proportional hazards (PH) which is unlikely to hold for each genomic marker. Methods In this paper, we introduce a novel pseudo-R2 measure derived from a crossing hazards model and designed for the selection of markers with crossing effects. The proposed index is related to the score statistic and quantifies the extent of a genomic factor to separate patients according to their survival times and marker measurements. We also show the importance of considering genomic markers with crossing effects as they potentially reflect the complex interplay between markers belonging to the same pathway. Results Simulations show that our index is not affected by the censoring and the sample size of the study. It also performs better than classical indices under the crossing hazards assumption. The practical use of our index is illustrated in a lung cancer study. The use of the proposed pseudo-R2 allows the identification of cell-cycle dependent genes not identified when relying on the PH assumption. Conclusions The proposed index is a novel and promising tool for selecting markers with crossing hazards effects. PMID:21401964

  5. Structural synthesis of a class of 2R2T hybrid mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chunxu; Fang, Yuefa; Guo, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Conventional overconstrained parallel manipulators have been widely studied both in industry and academia, however the structural synthesis of hybrid mechanisms with additional constraints is seldom studied, especially for the four degrees of freedom(DOF) hybrid mechanisms. In order to develop a manipulator with additional constraints, a class of important spatial mechanisms with coupling chains(CCs) whose motion type is two rotations and two translations(2R2T) is presented. Based on screw theory, the combination of different types of limbs which are used to construct parallel mechanisms and coupling chains is proposed. The basic types of the general parallel mechanisms and geometric conditions of the kinematic chains are given using constraint synthesis method. Moreover, the 2R2T motion pattern hybrid mechanisms which are derived by adding coupling chains between different serial kinematic chains(SKCs) of the corresponding parallel mechanisms are presented. According to the constraint analysis of the mechanisms, the movement relationship of the moving platform and the kinematic chains is derived by disassembling the coupling chains. At last, fourteen novel hybrid mechanisms with two or three serial kinematic chains are presented. The proposed novel hybrid mechanisms and construction method enrich the family of the spatial mechanisms and provide an instruction to design more complex hybrid mechanisms.

  6. In-situ defect detection systems for R2R flexible PV barrier films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Muhamedsalih, H.; Tang, D.; Elrawemi, M.; Blunt, L.; Jiang, X.; Edge, S.; Bird, D.; Hollis, P.

    2015-08-01

    Film processing procedures by means of Roll-to-Roll (R2R) for barrier coatings can often result in PV barrier films being manufactured with significant quantities of defects, which results in lower efficiency and a short life span. In order to improve the process yield and product efficiency, it is desirable to develop an inspection system that can detect transparent barrier film defects in the production line during film processing. Off-line detection of defects in transparent PV barrier films is difficult and time consuming. Consequently, implementing an accurate in-situ defects inspection system in the production environment is even more challenging, since the requirements on positioning, fast measurement, long term stability and robustness against environmental disturbance are demanding. This paper reports on the development and deployment of two in-situ PV barrier films defect detection systems, one based on wavelength scanning interferometry (WSI) and the other on White Light Channeled Spectral Interferometry (WLCSI), and the integration into an R2R film processing line at the Centre for Process Innovation (CPI). The paper outlines the environmental vibration strategy for both systems, and the developed auto-focusing methodology for WSI. The systems have been tested and characterised and initial results compared to laboratory-based instrumentation are presented.

  7. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  8. Delay Adjusted Incidence

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  9. Nonlinear Hydrostatic Adjustment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannon, Peter R.

    1996-12-01

    The final equilibrium state of Lamb's hydrostatic adjustment problem is found for finite amplitude heating. Lamb's problem consists of the response of a compressible atmosphere to an instantaneous, horizontally homogeneous heating. Results are presented for both isothermal and nonisothermal atmospheres.As in the linear problem, the fluid displacements are confined to the heated layer and to the region aloft with no displacement of the fluid below the heating. The region above the heating is displaced uniformly upward for heating and downward for cooling. The amplitudes of the displacements are larger for cooling than for warming.Examination of the energetics reveals that the fraction of the heat deposited into the acoustic modes increases linearly with the amplitude of the heating. This fraction is typically small (e.g., 0.06% for a uniform warming of 1 K) and is essentially independent of the lapse rate of the base-state atmosphere. In contrast a fixed fraction of the available energy generated by the heating goes into the acoustic modes. This fraction (e.g., 12% for a standard tropospheric lapse rate) agrees with the linear result and increases with increasing stability of the base-state atmosphere.The compressible results are compared to solutions using various forms of the soundproof equations. None of the soundproof equations predict the finite amplitude solutions accurately. However, in the small amplitude limit, only the equations for deep convection advanced by Dutton and Fichtl predict the thermodynamic state variables accurately for a nonisothermal base-state atmosphere.

  10. Apoptosis Induction by Targeting Interferon Gamma Receptor 2 (IFNgammaR2) in Prostate Cancer: Ligand (IFNgamma)-Independent Novel Function of IFNgammaR2 as a Bax Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    level of IFNγR2 confers apoptosis resistance of prostate cancer. In this project, we will investigate the role of IFNγR2 in drug resistance of prostate...4979 Nothing listed 12 Table of Contents Page Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 5 Body ...enhances Bax activation. (Months 1-24) Task 2: To identify the subtype of prostate cancer that can be effectively treated by IFNγR2-targeting

  11. Expanding the Chemistry of Actinide Metallocene Bromides. Synthesis, Properties and Molecular Structures of the Tetravalent and Trivalent Uranium Bromide Complexes: (C5Me4R)2UBr2, (C5Me4R)2U(O-2,6-iPr2C6H3)(Br), and [K(THF)][(C5Me4R)2UBr2] (R = Me, Et)

    DOE PAGES

    Lichtscheidl, Alejandro Gaston; Pagano, Justin K.; Scott, Brian Lindley; ...

    2016-01-06

    The organometallic uranium species (C5Me4R)2UBr2 (R = Me, Et) were obtained by treating their chloride analogues (C5Me4R)2UCl2 (R = Me, Et) with Me3SiBr. Treatment of (C5Me4R)2UCl2 and (C5Me4R)2UBr2 (R = Me, Et) with K(O-2,6-iPr2C6H3) afforded the halide aryloxide mixed-ligand complexes (C5Me4R)2U(O-2,6-iPr2C6H3)(X) (R = Me, Et; X = Cl, Br). Complexes (C5Me4R)2U(O-2,6-iPr2C6H3)(Br) (R = Me, Et) can also be synthesized by treating (C5Me4R)2U(O-2,6-iPr2C6H3)(Cl) (R = Me, Et) with Me3SiBr, respectively. Reduction of (C5Me4R)2UCl2 and (C5Me4R)2UBr2 (R = Me, Et) with KC8 led to isolation of uranium(III) “ate” species [K(THF)][(C5Me5)2UX2] (X = Cl, Br) and [K(THF)0.5][(C5Me4Et)2UX2] (X = Cl, Br), which canmore » be converted to the neutral complexes (C5Me4R)2U[N(SiMe3)2] (R = Me, Et). Analyses by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and elemental analysis are also presented.« less

  12. Onco-miR-130 promotes cell proliferation and migration by targeting TGFβR2 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ting; Huang, Dingzhi; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Le; Bai, Ming; Zhou, Likun; Ying, Guoguang; Ba, Yi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proved to play crucial roles in tumorigenesis. TGFβ signal pathway abnormality is found in various cancers and correlates with tumor proliferation and metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying the dys-regulation of TGFβR2 expression in GC have not been investigated yet. In this study, we found that the TGFβR2 protein was clearly repressed in tumor tissues, while miR-130 expression level was dramatically increased in GC tissues. Firefly luciferase activity assay revealed that miR-130 could directly bind to 3′UTR of TGFβR2 mRNA. Meanwhile, miR-130 mimics lead to the decreased TGFβR2 protein levels, while miR-130 inhibitors enhanced TGFβR2 expression in SGC7901 cells. Subsequent functional experiments showed that overexpressed miR-130 could promote proliferation and migration of SGC7901 cells. And siRNA-mediated TGFβR2 down-regulation could simulate the effects of miR-130 mimics on phenotypes of SGC7901 cells. Furthermore, there existed intense relationship between the expression level of miR-130 and epithelial-mesenchymal markers. Our results demonstrated that miR-130 was an oncogene by directly targeting TGFβR2 in GC. PMID:27304191

  13. 75 FR 17462 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... ``correct the productivity calculation for the period 2003-2007,'' and requests that the Board recalculate earlier RCAF (Adjusted) and RCAF-5 values that were determined with the 2003-2007 productivity...

  14. Facilitating Semantic Interoperability Among Ocean Data Systems: ODIP-R2R Student Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, K. I.; Chen, Y.; Shepherd, A.; Chandler, C. L.; Dockery, N.; Elya, J. L.; Smith, S. R.; Ferreira, R.; Fu, L.; Arko, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    With informatics providing an increasingly important set of tools for geoscientists, it is critical to train the next generation of scientists in information and data techniques. The NSF-supported Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) Program works with the academic fleet community to routinely document, assess, and preserve the underway sensor data from U.S. research vessels. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) is an EU-US-Australian collaboration fostering interoperability among regional e-infrastructures through workshops and joint prototype development. The need to align terminology between systems is a common challenge across all of the ODIP prototypes. Five R2R students were supported to address aspects of semantic interoperability within ODIP. Developing a vocabulary matching service that links terms from different vocabularies with similar concept. The service implements Google Refine reconciliation service interface such that users can leverage Google Refine application as a friendly user interface while linking different vocabulary terms. Developing Resource Description Framework (RDF) resources that map Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies. Each SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described as an RDF resource page. These RDF resources allow for enhanced discoverability and retrieval of SAMOS data by enabling data searches based on parameter. Improving data retrieval and interoperability by exposing data and mapped vocabularies using Semantic Web technologies. We have collaborated with ODIP participating organizations in order to build a generalized data model that will be used to populate a SPARQL endpoint in order to provide expressive querying over our data files. Mapping local and regional vocabularies used by R2R to those used by ODIP partners. This work is described more fully in a companion poster. Making published Linked Data

  15. [R1 and R2 retrotransposons of German cockroach Blattella germanica: comparative analysis of 5' truncated copies integrated into genome].

    PubMed

    Kagramanova, A S; Kapelinskaia, T V; Korolev, A L; Mukha, D V

    2007-01-01

    This is the first report providing results on identification, cloning, and sequencing of extended fragments (5'-truncated copies) of R1 and R2 retrotransposons integrated into Blattella germanica genome. Comparative structural analysis of the received clones revealed two distinct subfamilies of R1 elements. However, all B. germanica R1 clones have two common features: poly(T) tails and similar target site duplications. Nucleotide structure and organization of five sequenced R2 fragments was similar. Analysis of R2 nucleotide sequences revealed typical deletions at the 3'end of target sites and lack of homopolynucleotides tails.

  16. Crystalline structure of N-(S)-2-heptyl (1R,2R)-2-(2,3-anthracenedicarboximido)cyclohexanecarboxamide that differs from its preferred conformation in the solvent used for crystallization.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Kazuaki; Ohtaki, Takashi; Kabuto, Chizuko; Kitahara, Takeshi; Ohrui, Hiroshi

    2005-10-01

    The crystalline structure of N-(S)-2-heptyl (1R,2R)-2-(2,3-anthracenedicarboximido)cyclohexamide (1), which was crystallized from methanol, was determined by an X-ray analysis and had a different conformation from its preferred one in CD3OD by a 1H-NMR analysis. Inter- and intra-molecular CH-pi interaction in a crystal plays a very important role in crystal packing. The preferred conformation of the amide derivative in a solution allows us to exploit (1R,2R)-2-(2,3-anthracenedicarboximido)cyclohexanecarbonyl chloride as a conversion reagent to determine the absolute configuration of chiral amines by 1H-NMR.

  17. Problems with change in R2 as applied to theory of reasoned action research.

    PubMed

    Trafimow, David

    2004-12-01

    The paradigm of choice for theory of reasoned action research seems to depend largely on the notion of change in variance accounted for (DeltaR2) as new independent variables are added to a multiple regression equation. If adding a particular independent variable of interest increases the variance in the dependent variable that can be accounted for by the list of independent variables, then the research is deemed to be 'successful', and the researcher is considered to have made a convincing argument about the importance of the new variable. In contrast to this trend, I present arguments that suggest serious problems with the paradigm, and conclude that studies on attitude-behaviour relations would advance the field of psychology to a far greater extent if researchers abandoned it.

  18. Controlled Vocabularies and Ontologies for Oceanographic Data: The R2R Eventlogger Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Raymond, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Research vessels coordinated by the United States University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (US-UNOLS) collect data which is considered an important oceanographic resource. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project aims to improve access to this data and diminish the barriers to use. One aspect of the R2R project has been to develop a shipboard scientific event logging system, Eventlogger, that incorporates best practice guidelines, controlled vocabularies, a cruise metadata schema, and a scientific event log. This will facilitate the eventual ingestion of datasets into oceanographic data repositories for subsequent integration and synthesis by investigators. One important aspect of this system is the careful use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies. Existing ontologies, where available, will be used and others will be developed. The use of internationally-informed, consensus-driven controlled vocabularies will make datasets more interoperable, and discoverable. The R2R Eventlogger project is led by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), and the management of the controlled vocabularies and mapping of these vocabularies to authoritative community vocabularies are led by the Data Librarian in the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library. The first target vocabulary is oceanographic instruments. Management of this vocabulary has thus far consisted of reconciling local community terms with the more widely used SeaDataNet Device Vocabulary terms. Rather than adopt existing terms, often the local terms are mapped by data managers in the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to the existing terms as they are given by investigators and often provide important information and meaning. New terms (often custom, or modified instruments) are submitted for review to the SeaDataNet community listserv for discussion and eventual incorporation into the Device

  19. Antiferromagnetic order in the pyrochlores R2Ge2O7 (R = Er, Yb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dun, Zhiling; Li, Xiang; Freitas, Rafael; Arrighi, Everton; Cruz, Clarina; Lee, Minseong; Choi, Eun Sang; Cao, Huibo; Silverstein, Harlyn; Wiebe, Chris; Chen, Jinguang; Zhou, Haidong

    Elastic neutron scattering, ac susceptibility, and specific heat experiments on the pyrochlores Er2Ge2O7 and Yb2Ge2O7 show that both systems are antiferromagnetically ordered in the Γ5 manifold. The ground state is a ψ3 phase for the Er sample and a ψ2 or ψ3 phase for the Yb sample, which suggests ``Order by Disorder''(ObD) physics. Furthermore, we unify the various magnetic ground states of all known R2X2O7 (R = Er, Yb, X = Sn, Ti, Ge) compounds through the enlarged XY type exchange interaction J+/- under chemical pressure. The mechanism for this evolution is discussed in terms of the phase diagram proposed in the theoretical study [Wong et al., Phys. Rev. B 88, 144402, (2013)].

  20. Antiferromagnetic order in the pyrochlores R2Ge2O7 (R =Er ,Yb )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dun, Z. L.; Li, X.; Freitas, R. S.; Arrighi, E.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Cao, H. B.; Silverstein, H. J.; Wiebe, C. R.; Cheng, J. G.; Zhou, H. D.

    2015-10-01

    Elastic neutron scattering, ac susceptibility, and specific heat experiments on the pyrochlores Er2Ge2O7 and Yb2Ge2O7 show that both systems are antiferromagnetically ordered in the Γ5 manifold. The ground state is a ψ3 phase for the Er sample and a ψ2 or ψ3 phase for the Yb sample, which suggests "Order by Disorder" physics. Furthermore, we unify the various magnetic ground states of all known R2X2O7 (R =Er , Yb; X =Sn , Ti, Ge) compounds through the enlarged X Y -type exchange interaction J± under chemical pressure. The mechanism for this evolution is discussed in terms of the phase diagram proposed in the theoretical study by Wong et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 144402 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.144402].

  1. A study of the dust distribution and extinction law in Mon R2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natta, A.; Beckwith, S.; Beck, S. C.; Evans, N. J., II; Moorwood, A. F. M.

    1986-01-01

    Observations were obtained at wavelengths from 1.5 to 7.5 microns with beams varying in diameter from 4 to 28 arcsec of infrared hydrogen recombination lines toward the Mon R2 IRS1 H II region. It is found that the data cannot be fitted with the extinction law which characterizes the interstellar medium unless the obscuring matter is clumped on a small scale of not greater than 0.3 arcsec; in which case considerable fluctuations in the amount of extinction on scales smaller than 1 arcsec are expected. The data of Simon et al. (1983) suggest a dip in the extinction about 5 arcsec from the 2-micron and radio continuum peak, and rule out models with uniform dust and clump distributions.

  2. Structural transition in the magnetoelectric ZnC r2S e4 spinel under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthimiopoulos, I.; Liu, Z. T. Y.; Khare, S. V.; Sarin, P.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.; Popov, D.; Wang, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Τhe magnetoelectric ZnC r2S e4 spinel, with space group F d 3 ¯m , undergoes a reversible first-order structural transition initiating at 17 GPa, as revealed by our high-pressure x-ray diffraction studies at room temperature. We tentatively assign the high-pressure modification to an A M o2S4 -type phase, a distorted variant of the monoclinic C r3S4 structure. Furthermore, our Raman investigation provides evidence for a pressure-induced insulator-metal transition. Our density functional theory calculations successfully reproduce the structural transition. They indicate significant band gap and magnetic moment reduction accompanying the pressure-induced structural modification. We discuss our findings in conjunction with the available high-pressure results on other Cr-based chalcogenide spinels.

  3. Spectral line survey of the ultracompact HII region Monoceros R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginard, D.; González-García, M.; Fuente, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Pilleri, P.; Gerin, M.; García-Burillo, S.; Ossenkopf, V.; Rizzo, J. R.; Kramer, C.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Pety, J.; Berné, O.; Joblin, C.

    2012-07-01

    Context. Ultracompact (UC) Hii regions constitute one of the earliest phases in the formation of a massive star and are characterized by extreme physical conditions (G0 > 105 Habing field and n > 106 cm-3). The UC Hii Mon R2 is the closest example and an excellent target to study the chemistry in these complex regions. Aims: Our goal is to investigate the chemistry of the molecular gas around UC Hii Mon R2 and the variations caused by the different local physical conditions. Methods: We carried out 3 mm and 1 mm spectral surveys using the IRAM 30-m telescope towards three positions that represent different physical environments in Mon R2: (i) the ionization front (IF) at (0″, 0″), and two peaks in the molecular cloud; (ii) molecular Peak 1 (hereafter MP1) at the offset (+15″, -15″); and (iii) molecular Peak 2 (hereafter MP2) at the farther offset (0″, 40″). In addition, we carried out extensive modeling to explain the chemical differences between the three observed regions. Results: We detected more than 30 different species (including isotopologues and deuterated compounds). In particular, we detected SO+ and C4H confirming that ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in the molecular chemistry of this region. In agreement with this interpretation, we detected the typical photo-dissociation region (PDR) molecules CN, HCN, HCO, C2H, and c-C3H2. There are chemical differences between the observed positions. While the IF and the MP1 have a chemistry similar to that found in high UV field and dense PDRs such as the Orion Bar, the MP2 is similar to lower UV/density PDRs such as the Horsehead nebula. Our chemical modeling supports this interpretation. In addition to the PDR-like species, we detected complex molecules such as CH3CN, H2CO, HC3N, CH3OH, and CH3C2H that are not usually found in PDRs. The sulfur compounds CS, HCS+, C2S, H2CS, SO, and SO2 and the deuterated species DCN and C2D were also identified. The origin of these complex species

  4. Oxaliplatin Alters Expression of T1R2 Receptor and Sensitivity to Sweet Taste in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Akihiro; Nishida, Kentaro; Yamanaka, Yuri; Miyata, Ai; Ikukawa, Akiko; Yabu, Miharu; Miyamoto, Karin; Bansho, Saho; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    As one of the adverse effects of oxaliplatin, a key agent in colon cancer chemotherapy, a taste disorder is a severe issue in a clinical situation because it decreases the quality of life of patients. However, there is little information on the mechanism underlying the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder. Here, we examined the molecular and behavioral characteristics of the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder in rats. Oxaliplatin (4-16 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats intraperitoneally for 2 d. Expression levels of mRNA and protein of taste receptors in circumvallate papillae (CP) were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Taste sensitivity was assessed by their behavioral change using a brief-access test. Morphological change of the taste buds in CP was evaluated by hematoxyline-eosin (HE) staining, and the number of taste cells in taste buds was counted by immunohistochemical analysis. Among taste receptors, the expression levels of mRNA and protein of T1R2, a sweet taste receptor subunit, were increased transiently in CP of oxaliplatin-administered rats on day 7. In a brief-access test, the lick ratio was decreased in oxaliplatin-administered rats on day 7 and the alteration was recovered to the control level on day 14. There was no detectable alteration in the morphology of taste buds, number of taste cells or plasma zinc level in oxaliplatin-administered rats. These results suggest that decreased sensitivity to sweet taste in oxaliplatin-administered rats is due, at least in part, to increased expression of T1R2, while these alterations are reversible.

  5. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  6. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  7. A non-pathogenic and optically high concentrated (R,R)-2,3-butanediol biosynthesizing Klebsiella strain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soojin; Kim, Borim; Yang, Jeongmo; Jeong, Daun; Park, Soohyun; Lee, Jinwon

    2015-09-10

    The objective of this work was to construct a non-pathogenic Klebsiella pneumonia strain that can produce optically high concentrated (R,R)-2,3-BDO. A K. pneumonia mutant lacking the pathogenic factor was used as the host strain. In order to construct a K. pneumonia strain that would biosynthesize high concentrated (R,R)-2,3-BDO, gene deletion and over-expression methods were combined; firstly, the 2,3-BDO dehydrogenase (budC) gene was deleted to re-direct utilization of the carbon source to (R,R)-2,3-BDO biosynthesis; secondly, the two glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes in K. pneumonia (DhaD and GldA) were over-expressed to maximize (R,R)-2,3-BDO biosynthesis; and thirdly, the lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA) gene was deleted to minimize the accumulation of lactate. SGSB112, a non-pathogenic strain of K. pneumonia that can produce optically high concentrated (R,R)-2,3-BDO, was constructed as above. Approximately 36% of the carbon source was converted to (R,R)-2,3-BDO by SGSB112, achieving a production of 61gL(-1) (R,R)-2,3-BDO in a fed-batch fermentation. On the other hand, meso-2,3-BDO was produced 1.4gL(-1) and (S,S)-2,3-BDO was not detected. This study provides an insight into 2,3-BDO biosynthesis in K. pneumonia and demonstrates the achievement of high-yield production of optically high concentrated (R,R)-2,3-BDO through constructing a strain by genetic modification and metabolic engineering.

  8. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  9. Mycobacterium simiae infection in two unrelated patients with different forms of inherited IFN-γR2 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Barricarte, Rubén; Megged, Orli; Stepensky, Polina; Casimir, Pierre; Moncada-Velez, Marcela; Averbuch, Diana; Assous, Marc Victor; Abuzaitoun, Omar; Kong, Xiao-Fei; Pedergnana, Vincent; Deswarte, Caroline; Migaud, Mélanie; Rose-John, Stefan; Itan, Yuval; Boisson, Bertrand; Belkadi, Aziz; Conti, Francesca; Abel, Laurent; Vogt, Guillaume; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Bustamante, Jacinta

    2014-01-01

    Interferon-γ receptor 2 (IFN-γR2) deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by predisposition to infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as environmental mycobacteria and BCG vaccines. We describe here two children with IFN-γR2 deficiency, from unrelated, consanguineous kindreds of Arab and Israeli descent. The first patient was a boy who died at the age of 4.5 years, from recurrent, disseminated disease caused by Mycobacterium simiae. His IFN-γR2 defect was autosomal recessive and complete. The second patient was a girl with multiple disseminated mycobacterial infections, including infection with M. simiae. She died at the age of five years, a short time after the transplantation of umbilical cord blood cells from an unrelated donor. Her IFN-γR2 defect was autosomal recessive and partial. Autosomal recessive IFN-γR2 deficiency is life-threatening, even in its partial form, and genetic diagnosis and familial counseling are therefore particularly important for this condition. These two cases are the first of IFN-γR2 deficiency associated with M simiae infection to be described. PMID:25135595

  10. Structural Analysis of the Lipopeptide Produced by the Bacillus subtilis Mutant R2-104 with Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yong; Zhao, Wei; You, Jia; Gang, Hong-Ze; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Ye, Ru-Qiang; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2016-07-01

    The lipopeptide and its homologues are a kind of the five major biosurfactants with prominent interfacial and biological activities. A suite of mutagenesis method was adopted to expose a wild lipopeptide-producing strain Bacillus subtilis HSO121 to improve lipopeptide yield, and a stable mutant named R2-104 with a 2.0-fold production of lipopeptide was obtained. Compared to that of the wild strain HSO121, the lipopeptide produced by R2-104 showed a similar surface activity, but the course profiles of lipopeptide production during cultivation were different, with the peak yield of 500 mg at about 9 h by R2-104, and 400 mg at about 5 h by HSO121. The constituent abundance of the lipopeptide homologues produced by R2-104 was also different from that by HSO121. Combined methods of ESI-MS, GC-MS and MS-MS were applied for structural characterization of lipopeptide homologues, and it showed that the lipopeptides produced by R2-104 and HSO121 were attributed to a surfactin family with different constituents. The dominant constituent of the surfactin family produced by R2-104 was anteiso C15-surfactin with a relative content of 43.8 %, while the dominant one produced by HSO121was iso C14-surfactin with a relative content of 33.1 %.

  11. Investigation on Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships and Pharmacophore Modeling of a Series of mGluR2 Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Le; Li, Yan; Fan, Wen-Jia; Wang, Yong-Hua; Hao, Ming; Zhang, Shu-Wei; Ai, Chun-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    MGluR2 is G protein-coupled receptor that is targeted for diseases like anxiety, depression, Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Herein, we report the three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of a series of 1,3-dihydrobenzo[ b][1,4]diazepin-2-one derivatives as mGluR2 antagonists. Two series of models using two different activities of the antagonists against rat mGluR2, which has been shown to be very similar to the human mGluR2, (activity I: inhibition of [3H]-LY354740; activity II: mGluR2 (1S,3R)-ACPD inhibition of forskolin stimulated cAMP.) were derived from datasets composed of 137 and 69 molecules respectively. For activity I study, the best predictive model obtained from CoMFA analysis yielded a Q2 of 0.513, R2 ncv of 0.868, R2 pred = 0.876, while the CoMSIA model yielded a Q2 of 0.450, R2 ncv = 0.899, R2 pred = 0.735. For activity II study, CoMFA model yielded statistics of Q2 = 0.5, R2 ncv = 0.715, R2 pred = 0.723. These results prove the high predictability of the models. Furthermore, a combined analysis between the CoMFA, CoMSIA contour maps shows that: (1) Bulky substituents in R7, R3 and position A benefit activity I of the antagonists, but decrease it when projected in R8 and position B; (2) Hydrophilic groups at position A and B increase both antagonistic activity I and II; (3) Electrostatic field plays an essential rule in the variance of activity II. In search for more potent mGluR2 antagonists, two pharmacophore models were developed separately for the two activities. The first model reveals six pharmacophoric features, namely an aromatic center, two hydrophobic centers, an H-donor atom, an H-acceptor atom and an H-donor site. The second model shares all features of the first one and has an additional acceptor site, a positive N and an aromatic center. These models can be used as guidance for the development of new mGluR2 antagonists of high activity and selectivity. This work is the first report on 3

  12. Development of a Rapid, Standardized Data Inventory for R2K Field Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Chayes, D. N.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ryan, W. B.; Lehnert, K. A.; Shank, T. M.

    2003-12-01

    Effective data management for Ridge2000 requires the production of a complete data inventory for every field program in a timely and standardized way. We are developing a set of forms to document 1.) basic field program information (dates and locations, platform, science party, etc); 2.) an inventory of sensor systems, data types (marine geophysical, physical and chemical oceanographic, rock and sediment samples, and biological), and file formats; 3.) supplemental attachments (written reports, instrument diagrams, etc); and 4.) a basic navigation track. We regard this as the minimal set of metadata which should be produced immediately at the end of a field program, in order to publicize it in an online database and satisfy agency requirements. We have developed a prototype set of Portable Document Format (PDF) forms which can be completed during a cruise through a combination of manual and automated input. PDF is a stable and widely-used format, with software available as both a commercial product (Adobe Acrobat) and an open-source library (http://www.pdflib.org). Completing a PDF form requires only the Acrobat Reader software, which is freely available for every major computing platform. Acrobat offers extensive functionality to aid in data inventory, including the ability to verify content on-the-fly, import data from other files and forms, show controlled vocabularies as pop-up menus, export to XML format, and print a high-quality readable report. Prototype forms have been tested on a recent transit of the CGC Healy, and we plan to continue testing on other ships and soliciting community feedback over the next several months. We envision a long-term plan in which a master set of forms is deployed with every R2K field program, along with a copy of Acrobat Reader, on lightweight storage media such as USB keys. The completed forms will then be transmitted to the data management center, where they are ingested automatically and the information made available in the

  13. The Expose-R2 mission: astrobiology and astrochemistry in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, René

    preparation. A follow-on mission, EXPOSE-R2, is planned for 2014-2016. The upload of the new sample trays to the ISS will have occurred just before COSPAR 2014. In this presentation the new EXPOSE-R2 experiments are introduced, with an overview of the test samples and the scientific goals. The main characteristics of the EXPOSE platform are addressed including the sensors used to monitor the space environment. The envisaged operational flow in flight and on ground are explained. Moreover, a brief overview of the key lessons learnt from the past EXPOSE missions is provided.

  14. Activation of mGluR2/3 following stress hormone exposure restores sensitivity to alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Anel A; Randall, Patrick A; Frisbee, Suzanne; Fisher, Kristen R; Besheer, Joyce

    2015-09-01

    Sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol is blunted following a period of exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), an effect that is suggested to be related, in part, to glutamatergic neuroadaptations. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (subtypes 2 and 3; mGluR2/3) modulate several drug- and alcohol-related behaviors, including the interoceptive (discriminative stimulus) effects of alcohol. Therefore, we sought to determine if manipulation of mGluR2/3 would restore sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following CORT exposure. Using a two-lever drug discrimination task, male Long-Evans rats were trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, intragastric [IG]) vs. water. First, the effect of mGluR2/3 antagonism on the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol was determined using LY341495 (0.3-3.0 mg/kg; intraperitoneal [IP]). Next, the effects of mGluR2/3 antagonism and activation were assessed in discrimination-trained animals exposed to CORT (300 μg/mL) in the home cage drinking water or water only, for 7 days. Following CORT exposure, decreased sensitivity to alcohol (1 g/kg) was observed. Pretreatment with the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (1.0-3.0 mg/kg; IP), but not the mGluR2/3 antagonist (0.3-1.0 mg/kg; IP), restored sensitivity to alcohol. Additionally, in water controls, mGluR2/3 antagonism and mGluR2/3 activation disrupted expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. Together, these findings suggest that blunted sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following an episode of heightened stress hormone levels may be due to adaptations in mGluR2/3-related systems. The ability of mGluR2/3 activation to restore sensitivity to alcohol under these conditions lends further support for the importance of these receptors under stress-related conditions.

  15. Activation of mGluR2/3 following stress hormone exposure restores sensitivity to alcohol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Anel A.; Randall, Patrick A.; Frisbee, Suzanne; Fisher, Kristen R.; Besheer, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol is blunted following a period of exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), an effect that is suggested to be related, in part, to glutamatergic neuroadaptations. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (subtypes 2 and 3; mGluR2/3) modulate several drug- and alcohol-related behaviors, including the interoceptive (discriminative stimulus) effects of alcohol. Therefore, we sought to determine if manipulation of mGluR2/3 would restore sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following CORT exposure. Using a two-lever drug discrimination task, male Long-Evans rats were trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, intragastric [IG]) vs. water. First, the effect of mGluR2/3 antagonism on the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol was determined using LY341495 (0.3–3.0 mg/kg; intraperitoneal [IP]). Next, the effects of mGluR2/3 antagonism and activation were assessed in discrimination-trained animals exposed to CORT (300 μg/mL) in the home cage drinking water or water only, for 7 days. Following CORT exposure, decreased sensitivity to alcohol (1 g/kg) was observed. Pretreatment with the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (1.0–3.0 mg/kg; IP), but not the mGluR2/3 antagonist (0.3–1.0 mg/kg; IP), restored sensitivity to alcohol. Additionally, in Water controls, mGluR2/3 antagonism and mGluR2/3 activation disrupted expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. Together, these findings suggest that blunted sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following an episode of heightened stress hormone levels may be due to adaptations in mGluR2/3-related systems. The ability of mGluR2/3 activation to restore sensitivity to alcohol under these conditions lends further support for the importance of these receptors under stress-related conditions. PMID:26142564

  16. The RyR2-P2328S mutation downregulates Nav1.5 producing arrhythmic substrate in murine ventricles.

    PubMed

    Ning, Feifei; Luo, Ling; Ahmad, Shiraz; Valli, Haseeb; Jeevaratnam, Kamalan; Wang, Tingzhong; Guzadhur, Laila; Yang, Dandan; Fraser, James A; Huang, Christopher L-H; Ma, Aiqun; Salvage, Samantha C

    2016-04-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) predisposes to ventricular arrhythmia due to altered Ca(2+) homeostasis and can arise from ryanodine receptor (RyR2) mutations including RyR2-P2328S. Previous reports established that homozygotic murine RyR2-P2328S (RyR2 (S/S)) hearts show an atrial arrhythmic phenotype associated with reduced action potential (AP) conduction velocity and sodium channel (Nav1.5) expression. We now relate ventricular arrhythmogenicity and slowed AP conduction in RyR2 (S/S) hearts to connexin-43 (Cx43) and Nav1.5 expression and Na(+) current (I Na). Stimulation protocols applying extrasystolic S2 stimulation following 8 Hz S1 pacing at progressively decremented S1S2 intervals confirmed an arrhythmic tendency despite unchanged ventricular effective refractory periods (VERPs) in Langendorff-perfused RyR2 (S/S) hearts. Dynamic pacing imposing S1 stimuli then demonstrated that progressive reductions of basic cycle lengths (BCLs) produced greater reductions in conduction velocity at equivalent BCLs and diastolic intervals in RyR2 (S/S) than WT, but comparable changes in AP durations (APD90) and their alternans. Western blot analyses demonstrated that Cx43 protein expression in whole ventricles was similar, but Nav1.5 expression in both whole tissue and membrane fractions were significantly reduced in RyR2 (S/S) compared to wild-type (WT). Loose patch-clamp studies similarly demonstrated reduced I Na in RyR2 (S/S) ventricles. We thus attribute arrhythmogenesis in RyR2 (S/S) ventricles resulting from arrhythmic substrate produced by reduced conduction velocity to downregulated Nav1.5 reducing I Na, despite normal determinants of repolarization and passive conduction. The measured changes were quantitatively compatible with earlier predictions of linear relationships between conduction velocity and the peak I Na of the AP but nonlinear relationships between peak I Na and maximum Na(+) permeability.

  17. Practical aspects of adjusting digital cameras.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, Joshua J; Sluder, Greenfield

    2013-01-01

    This chapter introduces the adjustment of digital camera settings using the tools found within image acquisition software and discusses measuring gray-level information such as (1) the histogram, (2) line scan, and (3) other strategies. The pixel values in an image can be measured within many image capture software programs in two ways. The first is a histogram of pixel gray values and the second is a line-scan plot across a selectable axis of the image. Understanding how to evaluate the information presented by these tools is critical to properly adjusting the camera to maximize the image contrast without losing grayscale information. This chapter discusses the 0-255 grayscale resolution of an 8-bit camera; however, the concepts are the same for cameras of any bit depth. This chapter also describes camera settings, such as exposure time, offset, and gain, and the steps for contrast stretching such as setting the exposure time, adjusting offset and gain, and camera versus image display controls.

  18. Reference values for the incremental shuttle walk test in healthy subjects: from the walk distance to physiological responses *,**

    PubMed Central

    Dourado, Victor Zuniga; Guerra, Ricardo Luís Fernandes; Tanni, Suzana Erico; Antunes, Letícia Cláudia de Oliveira; Godoy, Irma

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine reference values for incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD) and peak physiological responses during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), as well as to develop a series of predictive equations for those variables in healthy adults. METHODS: We evaluated 103 healthy participants ≥ 40 years of age (54 women and 49 men). We fitted each participant with a gas analysis system for use during the ISWT. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, heart rate (HR), ISWD, and maximal walking velocity (MWV) were obtained as primary outcomes. We also assessed hand grip strength (HGS) and lean body mass (LBM). RESULTS: The regression analysis models, including physiological variables, ISWD, and MWV (adjusted for age, body mass, height, and sex), produced R2 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.65 (for HR and peak VO2, respectively). Using the models including LBM or HGS, we obtained no significant increase in the R2 values for predicting peak VO2, although the use of those models did result in slight increases in the R2 values for ISWD and MWV (of 8% and 12%, respectively). The variables ISWD, MWV, and ISWD × body mass, respectively, explained 76.7%, 73.3%, and 81.2% of peak VO2 variability. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide reference values for ISWD and physiological responses to the ISWT, which can be properly estimated by determining simple demographic and anthropometric characteristics in healthy adults ≥ 40 years of age. The ISWT could be used in assessing physical fitness in the general adult population and in designing individualized walking programs. PMID:23670504

  19. TGFβR2 is a major target of miR-93 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MiR-17-92 cluster and its paralogues have emerged as crucial regulators of many oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Transforming growth factor-β receptor II (TGFβR2), as an important tumor suppressor, is involved in various cancer types. However, it is in cancer that only two miRNAs of this cluster and its paralogues have been reported so far to regulate TGFβR2. MiR-93 is oncogenic, but its targetome in cancer has not been fully defined. The role of miR-93 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) still remains largely unknown. Methods We firstly evaluated the clinical signature of TGFβR2 down-regulation in clinical samples, and next used a miRNA expression profiling analysis followed by multi-validations, including Luciferase reporter assay, to identify miRNAs targeting TGFβR2 in NPC. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed to further investigate the effects of miRNA-mediated TGFβR2 down-regulation on NPC aggressiveness. Finally, mechanism studies were conducted to explore the associated pathway and genes influenced by this miRNA-mediated TGFβR2 down-regulation. Results TGFβR2 was down-regulated in more than 50% of NPC patients. It is an unfavorable prognosis factor contributing to clinical NPC aggressiveness. A cluster set of 4 TGFβR2-associated miRNAs was identified; they are all from miR-17-92 cluster and its paralogues, of which miR-93 was one of the most significant miRNAs, directly targeting TGFβR2, promoting cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, miR-93 resulted in the attenuation of Smad-dependent TGF-β signaling and the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway by suppressing TGFβR2, further promoting NPC cell uncontrolled growth, invasion, metastasis and EMT-like process. Impressively, the knockdown of TGFβR2 by siRNA displayed a consentaneous phenocopy with the effect of miR-93 in NPC cells, supporting TGFβR2 is a major target of miR-93. Our findings were also substantiated by investigation of the clinical

  20. The oil palm VIRESCENS gene controls fruit colour and encodes a R2R3-MYB.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Marjuni, Marhalil; Chan, Pek-Lan; Ithnin, Maizura; Manaf, Mohd Arif Abdul; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Rosli, Rozana; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lakey, Nathan; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Hogan, Michael; He, Dong; MacDonald, Jill D; Smith, Steven W; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2014-06-30

    Oil palm, a plantation crop of major economic importance in Southeast Asia, is the predominant source of edible oil worldwide. We report the identification of the virescens (VIR) gene, which controls fruit exocarp colour and is an indicator of ripeness. VIR is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor with homology to Lilium LhMYB12 and similarity to Arabidopsis production of anthocyanin pigment1 (PAP1). We identify five independent mutant alleles of VIR in over 400 accessions from sub-Saharan Africa that account for the dominant-negative virescens phenotype. Each mutation results in premature termination of the carboxy-terminal domain of VIR, resembling McClintock's C1-I allele in maize. The abundance of alleles likely reflects cultural practices, by which fruits were venerated for magical and medicinal properties. The identification of VIR will allow selection of the trait at the seed or early-nursery stage, 3-6 years before fruits are produced, greatly advancing introgression into elite breeding material.

  1. Electric hyperscaling violating solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with R2 corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Daniel K.; Peet, Amanda W.

    2014-07-01

    In the context of holography applied to condensed matter physics, we study Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with curvature squared corrections. This theory has three couplings ηi for the three R2 invariants and two theory functions: a dilaton potential V(ϕ) and a dilaton-dependent gauge coupling f(ϕ). We find hyperscaling violating (HSV) solutions of this theory, parametrized by dynamical critical exponent z and HSV parameter θ. We obtain restrictions on the form of the theory functions required to support HSV-type solutions using three physical inputs: the null energy condition, causality z≥1, and deff≡d-θ lying in the range 0

  2. VLBA Determination of the Distance to Nearby Star-forming Regions. VII. Monoceros R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Loinard, Laurent; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Torres, Rosa M.; Deller, Adam

    2016-08-01

    We present a series of 16 Very Long Baseline Array high angular resolution observations of a cluster of suspected low-mass young stars in the Monoceros R2 region. Four compact and highly variable radio sources are detected; three of them in only one epoch, the fourth one a total of seven times. This latter source is seen in the direction of the previously known UC H ii region VLA 1, and has radio properties that resemble those of magnetically active stars; we shall call it VLA 1⋆. We model its displacement on the celestial sphere as a combination of proper motion and trigonometric parallax. The fit obtained using a uniform proper motion yields a parallax ϖ = 1.10 ± 0.18 mas, but with a fairly high post-fit dispersion. If acceleration terms (probably due to an undetected companion) are included, the quality of the fit improves dramatically, and the best estimate of the parallax becomes ϖ = 1.12 ± 0.05 mas. The magnitude of the fitted acceleration suggests an orbital period of the order of a decade. The measured parallax corresponds to a distance d = {893}-40+44 {pc} , in very good agreement with previous, indirect determinations.

  3. Spherical vacuum and scalar collapse for the Starobinsky R2 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun-Qi; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2016-08-01

    Spherical vacuum and scalar collapse for the Starobinsky R2 model is simulated. Obtained by considering the quantum-gravitational effects, this model would admit some cases of singularity-free cosmological spacetimes. It is found, however, that in vacuum and scalar collapse, when f' or the physical scalar field is strong enough, a black hole including a central singularity can be formed. In addition, near the central singularity, gravity dominates the repulsion from the potential, so that in some circumstances the Ricci scalar is pushed to infinity by gravity. Therefore, the semiclassical effects as included here do not avoid the singularity problem in general relativity. A strong physical scalar field can prevent the Ricci scalar from growing to infinity. Vacuum collapse for the R ln R model is explored, and it is observed that for this model the Ricci scalar can also go to infinity as the central singularity is approached. Therefore, this feature seems universal in vacuum and scalar collapse in f (R ) gravity.

  4. Regulation of daunorubicin production in Streptomyces peucetius by the dnrR2 locus.

    PubMed Central

    Otten, S L; Ferguson, J; Hutchinson, C R

    1995-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the dnrR2 locus from the cluster of daunorubicin biosynthesis genes in Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 29050 has revealed the presence of two divergently transcribed open reading frames, dnrN and dnrO. The dnrN gene appears to encode a response regulator protein on the basis of conservation of the deduced amino acid sequence relative to those of known response regulators and the properties of the dnrN::aphII mutant. Surprisingly, amino acid substitutions (glutamate and asparagine) at the putative site of phosphorylation (aspartate 55) resulted in a reduction rather than a complete loss of DnrN activity. The deduced DnrO protein was found to be similar to the Streptomyces glaucescens tetracenomycin C resistance gene repressor (TcmR) and to two Escherichia coli repressors, the biotin operon repressor (BirA) and the tetracycline resistance gene repressor (TetR). The dnrN::aphII mutation was suppressed by introduction of the dnrI gene on a plasmid. Since the introduction of dnrN failed to restore antibiotic production to a dnrI::aphII mutant, these data suggest the presence of a regulatory cascade in which dnrN activates the transcription of dnrI, which in turn activates transcription of the daunorubicin biosynthesis genes. PMID:7868594

  5. Cloning and characterisation of genes for tetrapyrrole biosynthesis from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2.

    PubMed

    Jones, M C; Jenkins, J M; Smith, A G; Howe, C J

    1994-02-01

    The genes for 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS), two enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway for tetrapyrroles, were independently isolated from a plasmid-based genomic library of Anacystis nidulans R2 (also called Synechococcus sp. PCC7942), by their ability to complement Escherichia coli strains carrying mutations in the equivalent genes (hemB and hemD respectively). The identity of the genes was confirmed by comparing the appropriate enzyme activities in complemented and mutant strains. Subclones of the original plasmids that were also capable of complementing the mutants were sequenced. The inferred amino acid sequence of the cyanobacterial HemB protein indicates a significant difference in the metal cofactor requirement from the higher-plant enzymes, which was confirmed by overexpression and biochemical analysis. The organisation of the cyanobacterial hemD locus differs markedly from other prokaryotes. Two open reading frames were found immediately upstream of hemD. The product of one shows considerable similarity to published sequences from other organisms for uroporphyrinogen III methylase (UROM), an enzyme involved in the production of sirohaem and cobalamins (including vitamin B-12). The product of the other shows motifs which are similar to those found in proteins responsible for metabolic regulation in yeast and indicates that this family of transcription control proteins, which has previously been reported only from eukaryotes, is also represented in prokaryotes.

  6. Floating zone crystal growth of selected R2PdSi3 ternary silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yiku; Frontzek, Matthias D; Mazilu, Irina; Loeser, W; Behr, G; Buechner, Bernd; Liu, L

    2011-01-01

    Substitution of various rare earths R within the class of R2PdSi3 single crystals with hexagonal AlB2-type crystallographic structure reveals the systematic dependence of anisotropic magnetic properties governed by the interplay of crystal-electric field effects and magnetic two-ion interactions. Here we compare the floating zone (FZ) crystal growth with radiation heating of compounds with R = Tb, Tm, Pr, and Gd. The congruent melting behavior enabled moderate growth velocities of 3 to 5 mmh-1. The preferred growth directions are close to the basal plane of the hexagonal unit cell. The composition of the crystals, except of Tb2PdSi3, is slightly Pd-depleted with respect to the nominal composition 16.7 at.% Pd. Thin precipitates of RSi secondary phases were detected in the crystal matrix. Their phase fraction can be diminished by growth from Pd-rich melt compositions and annealing treatments. The compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic order below the N el temperatures TN: 23.6 K (Tb2PdSi3), 1.8 K (Tm2PdSi3), 2.17 K (Pr2PdSi3) and 22 K (Gd2PdSi3) with different grades of magnetic anisotropy.

  7. Magnetocaloric properties of R2NiMnO6 (R=Pr, Nd, Tb, Ho and Y) double perovskite family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tirthankar; Nhalil, Hariharan; Yadav, Ruchika; Wagh, Aditya A.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2017-04-01

    Double perovskite R2NiMnO6 (R=Pr, Nd, Tb, Ho and Y) composites are prepared via solid state synthesis or nitrate route. Isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔSM (T , H)) and relative cooling power (RCP) for all systems are calculated and compared. All of them possess relatively high values of ΔSM (T , H) and RCP as compared to many perovskite and double perovskite systems reported previously. Ho2NiMnO6 has the highest value for | ΔSM (T , H) | and RCP as 8.4 JKg-1K-1 at 70 kOe and 59.18 J Kg-1 at 20 kOe respectively. This study highlights the potential of magnetocaloric refrigerant materials at low temperature.

  8. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  9. Jug r 2-reactive CD4+ T-cells have a dominant immune role in walnut allergy

    PubMed Central

    Archila, Luis Diego; Jeong, David; Pascal, Mariona; Bartra, Joan; Juan, Manel; Robinson, David; Farrington, Mary L.; Kwok, William.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergic reactions to walnut can be life threatening. While IgE epitopes of walnut have been studied, CD4+ T-cell specific epitopes for walnut remain uncharacterized. Particularly, the relationship of both phenotype and frequency of walnut specific T-cells to the disease have not been examined. Objectives We sought to provide a thorough phenotypic analysis for walnut reactive T-cells in allergic and non-allergic subjects. Particularly, the relationship of phenotypes and frequencies of walnut specific T-cells with the disease. Methods CD154 up-regulation assay was used to examine CD4+ T-cell reactivity towards walnut allergens.Jug r 1, Jug r 2 and Jug r 3. Tetramer-Guided epitope mapping approach was utilized to identify HLA-restricted CD4+ T-cells epitopes in Jug r 2. Direct ex vivo staining with peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHC-II) tetramers enabled the comparison of frequency and phenotype of Jug r 2-specific CD4+ T-cells between allergic and non-allergic subjects. Jug r 2-specific T-cell-clones were also generated and mRNA transcription factor levels were assessed by RT qPCR. Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays were performed for further phenotypical analyses. Results Jug r 2 was identified as the major allergen that elicited CD4+ T-cell responses. Multiple Jug r 2 T-cell epitopes were identified. The majority of these T-cells in allergic subjects have a CCR4+ TCM (central memory) phenotype. A subset of these T-cells express CCR4+CCR6+ irrespectively of the asthmatic status of the allergic subjects. ICS confirmed these TH2, TH2/TH17 and TH17-like heterogenic profiles. Jug r 2-specific T-cell-clones from allergic subjects mainly expressed GATA3; nonetheless, a portion of T-cell clones expressed either GATA3 and RORC, or RORC, confirming the presence of TH2, TH2/TH17 and TH17 cells. Conclusions Jug r 2 specific responses dominate walnut T-cell responses in subjects with walnut allergy. Jug r 2 central memory CD4+ cells

  10. mGluR2/3 in the Lateral Amygdala is Required for Fear Extinction: Cortical Input Synapses onto the Lateral Amygdala as a Target Site of the mGluR2/3 Action.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; An, Bobae; Kim, Jeongyeon; Park, Sewon; Park, Sungmo; Hong, Ingie; Lee, Sukwon; Park, Kyungjoon; Choi, Sukwoo

    2015-12-01

    Various subtypes of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been implicated in fear extinction, but mGluR2/3 subtype has not been tested. Here, we found that microinjection of an mGluR2/3 antagonist, LY341495, into the lateral amygdala (LA), but not into the adjacent central amygdala (CeA), impaired extinction retention without affecting within-session extinction. In contrast, we failed to detect any significant changes in motility and anxiety during a period when extinction training or retention was performed after LY341495 injection, suggesting that the effect of LY341495 is specific to conditioned responses. Subsequently, on the basis of a previous finding that a long-term potentiation of presynaptic efficacy at cortical input synapses onto the lateral amygdala (C-LA synapses) supports conditioned fear, we tested the hypothesis that activation of mGluR2/3 leads to fear extinction via a long-term weakening of presynaptic functions at C-LA synapses. Fear extinction produced a decrease in C-LA synaptic efficacy, whereas LY341495 infusion into the LA blocked this extinction-induced C-LA efficacy decrease without altering synaptic efficacy at other LA synapses. Furthermore, extinction enhanced paired pulse ratio (PPR) of EPSCs, which inversely correlates with presynaptic release probability, whereas LY341495 infusion into the LA attenuated the extinction-induced increase in PPR, suggesting the presence of mGluR2/3-dependent presynaptic changes after extinction. Consistently, extinction occluded a presynaptic form of depression at C-LA synapses, whereas the LY341495 infusion into the LA rescued this occlusion. Together, our findings suggest that mGluR2/3 is required for extinction retention and that the mGluR2/3 action is mediated by the long-term weakening of release probability at C-LA synapses.

  11. The involvement of Arg265 of mouse ribonucleotide reductase R2 protein in proton transfer and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Narváez, Ana J; Voevodskaya, Nina; Thelander, Lars; Gräslund, Astrid

    2006-09-08

    Ribonucleotide reductase class I enzymes consist of two non-identical subunits, R1 and R2, the latter containing a diiron carboxylate center and a stable tyrosyl radical (Tyr*), both essential for catalysis. Catalysis is known to involve highly conserved amino acid residues covering a range of approximately 35 A and a concerted mechanism involving long range electron transfer, probably coupled to proton transfer. A number of residues involved in electron transfer in both the R1 and R2 proteins have been identified, but no direct model has been presented regarding the proton transfer side of the process. Arg265 is conserved in all known sequences of class Ia R2. In this study we have used site-directed mutagenesis to gain insight into the role of this residue, which lies close to the catalytically essential Asp266 and Trp103. Mutants to Arg265 included replacement by Ala, Glu, Gln, and Tyr. All mutants of Arg265 were found to have no or low catalytic activity with the exception of Arg265 to Glu, which shows approximately 40% of the activity of native R2. We also found that the Arg mutants were capable of stable tyrosyl radical generation, with similar kinetics of radical formation and R1 binding as native R2. Our results, supported by molecular modeling, strongly suggest that Arg265 is involved in the proton-coupled electron transfer pathway and may act as a proton mediator during catalysis.

  12. DptR2, a DeoR-type auto-regulator, is required for daptomycin production in Streptomyces roseosporus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Ren, Ni-Ni; Luo, Shuai; Chen, Xiao-Xia; Mao, Xu-Ming; Li, Yong-Quan

    2014-07-10

    Daptomycin, a novel cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic against Gram-positive bacteria, is produced by Streptomyces roseosporus. Though its biosynthetic mechanism, structural shuffling and fermentation optimization have been extensively studied, little is understood about its production regulation at the transcriptional levels. Here we reported that dptR2, encoding a DeoR-type regulator located close to the daptomycin biosynthesis gene cluster in S. roseosporus SW0702, is required for daptomycin production, but not for the expression of daptomycin gene cluster, suggesting that DptR2 was not a pathway-specific regulator. Furthermore, EMSA and qRT-PCR analysis suggested that DptR2 was positively auto-regulated by binding to its own promoter. Meanwhile, the binding sites on the dptR2 promoter were determined by a DNase I footprinting assay, and the essentiality of the inverted complementary sequences in the protected region for DptR2 binding was assessed. Our results for the first time reported the regulation of daptomycin production at the transcriptional level in S. roseosporus.

  13. Rates of R1 and R2 retrotransposition and elimination from the rDNA locus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, César E; Eickbush, Thomas H

    2002-01-01

    R1 and R2 elements are non-LTR retrotransposons that insert specifically into the 28S rRNA genes of arthropods. The process of concerted evolution of the rDNA locus should give rise to rapid turnover of these mobile elements compared to elements that insert at sites throughout a genome. To estimate the rate of R1 and R2 turnover we have examined the insertion of new elements and elimination of old elements in the Harwich mutation accumulation lines of Drosophila melanogaster, a set of inbred lines maintained for >350 generations. Nearly 300 new insertion and elimination events were observed in the 19 Harwich lines. The retrotransposition rate for R1 was 18 times higher than the retrotransposition rate for R2. Both rates were within the range previously found for retrotransposons that insert outside the rDNA loci in D. melanogaster. The elimination rates of R1 and R2 from the rDNA locus were similar to each other but over two orders of magnitude higher than that found for other retrotransposons. The high rates of R1 and R2 elimination from the rDNA locus confirm that these elements must maintain relatively high rates of retrotransposition to ensure their continued presence in this locus. PMID:12399390

  14. Protein kinase A RII-like (R2D2) proteins exhibit differential localization and AKAP interaction.

    PubMed

    Newell, Amy E Hanlon; Fiedler, Sarah E; Ruan, Jenny M; Pan, Jieyan; Wang, P Jeremy; Deininger, Jutta; Corless, Christopher L; Carr, Daniel W

    2008-07-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) bind to protein kinase A (PKA) via an amphipathic helix domain that interacts with a dimerization/docking domain on the regulatory (R) subunit of PKA. Four other mammalian proteins (ROPN1, ASP, SP17, and CABYR) also contain a highly conserved RII dimerization/docking (R2D2) domain, suggesting all four proteins may interact with all AKAPs in a manner similar to RII. All four of these proteins were originally detected in the flagellum of mammalian sperm. In this report, we demonstrate that all four R2D2 proteins are expressed in a wide variety of tissues and three of the proteins SP17, CABYR, and ASP are located in motile cilia of human bronchus and fallopian tubes. In addition, we detect SP17 in primary cilia. We also provide evidence that ROPN1 and ASP bind to a variety of AKAPs and this interaction can be disrupted with anchoring inhibitor peptides. The interaction of SP17 and CABYR with AKAPs appears to be much more limited. None of the R2D2 proteins appears to bind cAMP, a fundamental characteristic of the regulatory subunits of PKA. These observations suggest that R2D2 proteins utilize docking interactions with AKAPs to accomplish their function of regulating cilia and flagella. Based on location, affinity for AKAPs and lack of affinity for cAMP, it appears that each R2D2 protein has a unique role in this process.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification of R2R3-MYB Genes and Expression Analyses During Abiotic Stress in Gossypium raimondii

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiuling; Jones, Don C.; Li, Wei; Xie, Fuliang; Ma, Jun; Sun, Runrun; Wang, Qinglian; Zhu, Shuijin; Zhang, Baohong

    2016-01-01

    The R2R3-MYB is one of the largest families of transcription factors, which have been implicated in multiple biological processes. There is great diversity in the number of R2R3-MYB genes in different plants. However, there is no report on genome-wide characterization of this gene family in cotton. In the present study, a total of 205 putative R2R3-MYB genes were identified in cotton D genome (Gossypium raimondii), that are much larger than that found in other cash crops with fully sequenced genomes. These GrMYBs were classified into 13 groups with the R2R3-MYB genes from Arabidopsis and rice. The amino acid motifs and phylogenetic tree were predicted and analyzed. The sequences of GrMYBs were distributed across 13 chromosomes at various densities. The results showed that the expansion of the G. Raimondii R2R3-MYB family was mainly attributable to whole genome duplication and segmental duplication. Moreover, the expression pattern of 52 selected GrMYBs and 46 GaMYBs were tested in roots and leaves under different abiotic stress conditions. The results revealed that the MYB genes in cotton were differentially expressed under salt and drought stress treatment. Our results will be useful for determining the precise role of the MYB genes during stress responses with crop improvement. PMID:27009386

  16. The role of miR-2∼13∼71 cluster in resistance to deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qin; Huang, Yun; Zou, Feifei; Liu, Bingqian; Tian, Mengmeng; Ye, Wenyun; Guo, Juxin; Sun, Xueli; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2017-03-22

    Excessive and continuous application of deltamethrin has resulted in the development of deltamethrin resistance among mosquitoes, which becomes a major obstacle for mosquito control. In a previous study, differentially expressed miRNAs between deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain and deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain using illumina sequencing in Culex pipiens pallens were identified. In this study, we applied RNAi and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay to investigate the relationship between miR-2∼13∼71 cluster (miR-2, miR-13 and miR-71) and deltamethrin resistance. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure expression levels of miR-2∼13∼71 clusters. MiR-2∼13∼71 cluster was down regulated in adult female mosquitoes from the DR strain and played important roles in deltamethrin resistance through regulating target genes, CYP9J35 and CYP325BG3. Knocking down CYP9J35 and CYP325BG3 resulted in decreased mortality of DR mosquitoes. This study provides the first evidence that miRNA clusters are associated with deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes. Moreover, we investigated the regulatory networks formed between miR-2∼13∼71 cluster and its target genes, which provide a better understanding of the mechanism involved in deltamethrin resistance.

  17. Characterization of Fe17R2 phases (R=Pr and Sm) oxidized at 200 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama, S.; Ribeiro, C. A.; Cabral, F. A. O.; Colucci, C. C.; de Morais, E.; Sanjurjo, N. L.; Campos, C.; Ardisson, J. D.; Persiano, A. I. C.

    1996-04-01

    The results of oxygen absorption in temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C are reported for the phases Fe17R2, R=Pr and Sm. It was observed that the oxygen saturation limit is temperature dependent, being of 3 at/fu at 200 °C, 12.8 at/fu at 300 °C, 20.3 at/fu at 400 °C, and 28.5 at/fu at 500 °C. This implies that above 200 °C the phase is deeply altered by oxygen absorption. Samples with absorption at 200 °C were studied as prepared and heat treated at 500 °C/40 h. The results show that the heat-treated samples consist of Fe17R2, Fe, and R2O3. Metallographic examination, susceptibility, and Mössbauer spectroscopy data support the hypothesis that the as-prepared samples consist of a mixture of Fe17R2 and ordered interstitial Fe17R2Ox.

  18. Apoptosis Induction by Targeting Interferon Gamma Receptor 2 (IFNgammaR2) in Prostate Cancer: Ligand (IFNgamma)-Independent Novel Function of IFNgammaR2 as a Bax Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    these prostate cancer cells. It has been known that C4-2B has constitutive active androgen receptor (AR). Therefore, elevated activity of AR may...and publically available gene expression data base. 2. We found that IFNγR2 expressing cells are basal cells, but not luminal cells. 3. We found...in Mitochondria and ER membranes! Cell Death ER# Bax! Bax! Bax! Mitochondria! IFNγR 2! IFNγR1! IFNγ" Jak! STA T! Gene Expression! (IFNγ Response

  19. Pressure-induced phase transitions in the CdC r2S e4 spinel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthimiopoulos, I.; Liu, Z. T. Y.; Kucway, M.; Khare, S. V.; Sarin, P.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.; Wang, Y.

    2016-11-01

    We have conducted high-pressure x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic studies on the CdC r2S e4 spinel at room temperature up to 42 GPa. We have resolved three structural transitions up to 42 GPa, i.e., the starting F d 3 ¯m phase transforms at ˜11 GPa into a tetragonal I 41/a m d structure, an orthorhombic distortion was observed at ˜15 GPa , whereas structural disorder initiates beyond 25 GPa. Our ab initio density functional theory studies successfully reproduced the observed crystalline-to-crystalline structural transitions. In addition, our calculations propose an antiferromagnetic ordering as a potential magnetic ground state for the high-pressure tetragonal and orthorhombic modifications, compared with the starting ferromagnetic phase. Furthermore, the computational results indicate that all phases remain insulating in their stability pressure range, with a direct-to-indirect band gap transition for the F d 3 ¯m phase taking place at 5 GPa. We attempted also to offer an explanation behind the peculiar first-order character of the F d 3 ¯m (cubic ) →I 41/a m d (tetragonal) transition observed for several relevant Cr spinels, i.e., the sizeable volume change at the transition point, which is not expected from space group symmetry considerations. We detected a clear correlation between the cubic-tetragonal transition pressures and the next-nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange interactions for the Cr-bearing sulfide and selenide members, a strong indication that the cubic-tetragonal transitions in these systems are principally governed by magnetic effects.

  20. The nucleus of main-belt Comet P/2010 R2 (La Sagra)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Henry H.

    2014-11-01

    We present recent observations of main-belt comet P/2010 R2 (La Sagra) obtained using the Gemini North telescope on five nights in late 2011 and early 2013 during portions of the object's orbit when dust emission was expected to be minimal or absent. We find that P/La Sagra continues to exhibit a faint dust trail aligned with its orbit plane as late as 2011 December 31, while no activity is observed by the time of our next observations on 2013 March 3, shortly before aphelion. Using only photometry measured when the comet was observed to be inactive, we find best-fit IAU phase function parameters of HR=18.4±0.2mag and G =0.17±0.10 , corresponding to an effective nucleus radius of rN=0.55±0.05km (assuming pR=0.05 ). We revisit photometry obtained when P/La Sagra was observed to be active in 2010 using our revised determination of the object's nucleus size, finding a peak dust-to-nucleus mass ratio of Md/MN=(5.8±1.6)×10-4 , corresponding to an estimated total peak dust mass of Md=(5.3±1.5)×108kg . We also compute the inferred peak total active surface area and active surface fraction for P/La Sagra, finding Aact∼5×104m2 and fact∼0.01 , respectively. Finally, we discuss P/La Sagra's upcoming perihelion passage, particularly focusing on the available opportunities to conduct follow-up observations in order to search for recurrent activity and, if recurrent activity is present, to search for changes in P/La Sagra's activity strength on successive orbit passages that should provide insights into the evolution of MBC activity over time.

  1. Three R2R3-MYB transcription factors regulate distinct floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chen, You-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2015-05-01

    Orchidaceae are well known for their fascinating floral morphologic features, specialized pollination, and distinctive ecological strategies. With their long-lasting flowers of various colors and pigmentation patterning, Phalaenopsis spp. have become important ornamental plants worldwide. In this study, we identified three R2R3-MYB transcription factors PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12. Their expression profiles were concomitant with red color formation in Phalaenopsis spp. flowers. Transient assay of overexpression of three PeMYBs verified that PeMYB2 resulted in anthocyanin accumulation, and these PeMYBs could activate the expression of three downstream structural genes Phalaenopsis spp. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase5, Phalaenopsis spp. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase1, and Phalaenopsis spp. Anthocyanidin synthase3. In addition, these three PeMYBs participated in the distinct pigmentation patterning in a single flower, which was revealed by virus-induced gene silencing. In the sepals/petals, silencing of PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12 resulted in the loss of the full-red pigmentation, red spots, and venation patterns, respectively. Moreover, different pigmentation patterning was regulated by PeMYBs in the sepals/petals and lip. PeMYB11 was responsive to the red spots in the callus of the lip, and PeMYB12 participated in the full pigmentation in the central lobe of the lip. The differential pigmentation patterning was validated by RNA in situ hybridization. Additional assessment was performed in six Phalaenopsis spp. cultivars with different color patterns. The combined expression of these three PeMYBs in different ratios leads to a wealth of complicated floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.

  2. Cultural Orientations, Daily Activities, and Adjustment in Mexican American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Cansler, Emily

    2009-01-01

    The links between youth's daily activities and adjustment and the role of cultural practices and values in these links were studied in 469 youth from 237 Mexican American families. In home interviews, data on mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-age siblings' cultural practices (language use, social contacts) and values (for familism, for…

  3. 19 CFR 351.412 - Levels of trade; adjustment for difference in level of trade; constructed export price offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.412 Levels of trade; adjustment for.... The Secretary is authorized to adjust normal value to account for such a difference. (See section 773... value for a difference in level of trade if: (1) The Secretary calculates normal value at a...

  4. 19 CFR 351.412 - Levels of trade; adjustment for difference in level of trade; constructed export price offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.412 Levels of trade; adjustment for.... The Secretary is authorized to adjust normal value to account for such a difference. (See section 773... value for a difference in level of trade if: (1) The Secretary calculates normal value at a...

  5. 19 CFR 351.412 - Levels of trade; adjustment for difference in level of trade; constructed export price offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.412 Levels of trade; adjustment for.... The Secretary is authorized to adjust normal value to account for such a difference. (See section 773... value for a difference in level of trade if: (1) The Secretary calculates normal value at a...

  6. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic ordering in the series R 2 BaNiO 5 (R = Rare Earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Matres, E.; Martínez, J. L.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J.

    2001-11-01

    A neutron diffraction study, as a function of temperature, of the title compounds is presented. The whole family (space group Immm, a 3.8Å, b 5.8Å, c 11.3Å) is structurally characterised by the presence of flattened NiO6 octahedra that form chains along the a-axis, giving rise to a strong Ni-O-Ni antiferromagnetic interaction. Whereas for Y-compound only strong 1D correlations exist above 1.5 K, presenting the Haldane gap characteristic of 1D AF chain with integer spin, 3D AF ordering is established simultaneously for both R and Ni sublattices at temperatures depending on the rare earth size and magnetic moment. The magnetic structures of R2BaNiO5 ( R=Nd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm) have been determined and refined as a function of temperature. The whole family orders with a magnetic structure characterised by the temperature-independent propagation vector = (1/2, 0, 1/2). At 1.5 K the directions of the magnetic moments differ because of the different anisotropy of the rare earth ions. Except for Tm and Yb (which does not order above 1.5 K), the magnetic moment of the R3+ cations are close to the free-ion value. The magnetic moment of Ni2+ is around 1.4 , the strong reduction with respect to the free-ion value is probably due to a combination of low-dimensional quantum effects and covalency. The thermal evolution of the magnetic structures from TN down to 1.5 K is studied in detail. A smooth re-orientation, governed by the magnetic anisotropy of R3+, seems to occur below and very close to TN in some of these compounds: the Ni moment rotates from nearly parallel to the a-axis toward the c-axis following the R moments. We demonstrate that for setting up the 3D magnetic ordering the R-R exchange interactions cannot be neglected.

  7. Probing Competitive Noncovalent Interactions: Resonance Enhanced Two-Photon Ionization (R2PI) Spectroscopy of Haloaromatic Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyambo, Silver; Muzangwa, Lloyd; Uhler, Brandon; Reid, Scott A.

    2013-06-01

    Non-covalent interactions in bromobenzene have been studied here using resonance two-photon ionization (R2PI) spectroscopy combined with a linear TOF-mass spectrometer. Bromobenzene clusters were created in a supersonic expansion with helium as a carrier gas. The molecules were excited and ionized from the ground state in a two stage process. The general trend observed in the R2PI spectra of all the clusters is the broadness and a red-shift relative to the monomer absorption. Optimized dimer and trimer structures were calculated at the M06-2x/aug-cc-pVDZ level, which show that π-stacked and C-H/π interactions are most important in these clusters. TD-DFT calculations of the different cluster conformers have been carried out to assess the geometry changes active upon electronic excitation. The theoretical studies are helpful in explaining trends observed in the R2PI spectra.

  8. An exact solution for R2,eff in CPMG experiments in the case of two site chemical exchange

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) experiment is widely used to quantitatively analyse the effects of chemical exchange on NMR spectra. In a CPMG experiment, the effective transverse relaxation rate, R2,eff, is typically measured as a function of the pulse frequency, νCPMG. Here, an exact expression for how R2,eff varies with νCPMG is derived for the commonly encountered scenario of two-site chemical exchange of in-phase magnetisation. This result, summarised in Appendix A, generalises a frequently used equation derived by Carver and Richards, published in 1972. The expression enables more rapid analysis of CPMG data by both speeding up calculation of R2,eff over numerical methods by a factor of ca. 130, and yields exact derivatives for use in data analysis. Moreover, the derivation provides insight into the physical principles behind the experiment. PMID:24852115

  9. Non-Fermi surface nesting driven commensurate magnetic ordering in Fe-doped S r2Ru O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M.; Shanavas, K. V.; Wang, Y.; Zou, T.; Sun, W. F.; Tian, W.; Garlea, V. O.; Podlesnyak, A.; Matsuda, M.; Stone, M. B.; Keavney, D.; Mao, Z. Q.; Singh, D. J.; Ke, X.

    2017-02-01

    S r2Ru O4 , an unconventional superconductor, is known to possess an incommensurate spin-density wave instability driven by Fermi surface nesting. Here we report a static spin-density wave ordering with a commensurate propagation vector qc=(0.25 0.25 0 ) in Fe-doped S r2Ru O4 , despite the magnetic fluctuations persisting at the incommensurate wave vectors qic=(0.3 0.3 L ) as in the parent compound. The latter feature is corroborated by the first-principles calculations, which show that Fe substitution barely changes the nesting vector of the Fermi surface. These results suggest that in addition to the known incommensurate magnetic instability, S r2Ru O4 is also in proximity to a commensurate magnetic tendency that can be stabilized via Fe doping.

  10. Structural insights into the human RyR2 N-terminal region involved in cardiac arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Borko, Ľubomír; Bauerová-Hlinková, Vladena Hostinová, Eva; Gašperík, Juraj; Beck, Konrad; Lai, F. Anthony; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Ševčík, Jozef

    2014-11-01

    X-ray and solution structures of the human RyR2 N-terminal region were obtained under near-physiological conditions. The structure exhibits a unique network of interactions between its three domains, revealing an important stabilizing role of the central helix. Human ryanodine receptor 2 (hRyR2) mediates calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, enabling cardiomyocyte contraction. The N-terminal region of hRyR2 (amino acids 1–606) is the target of >30 arrhythmogenic mutations and contains a binding site for phosphoprotein phosphatase 1. Here, the solution and crystal structures determined under near-physiological conditions, as well as a homology model of the hRyR2 N-terminal region, are presented. The N-terminus is held together by a unique network of interactions among its three domains, A, B and C, in which the central helix (amino acids 410–437) plays a prominent stabilizing role. Importantly, the anion-binding site reported for the mouse RyR2 N-terminal region is notably absent from the human RyR2. The structure concurs with the differential stability of arrhythmogenic mutations in the central helix (R420W, I419F and I419F/R420W) which are owing to disparities in the propensity of mutated residues to form energetically favourable or unfavourable contacts. In solution, the N-terminus adopts a globular shape with a prominent tail that is likely to involve residues 545–606, which are unresolved in the crystal structure. Docking the N-terminal domains into cryo-electron microscopy maps of the closed and open RyR1 conformations reveals C{sup α} atom movements of up to 8 Å upon channel gating, and predicts the location of the leucine–isoleucine zipper segment and the interaction site for spinophilin and phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 on the RyR surface.

  11. [Study on the infrared spectra of metallic clusters containing R2dtc ligand and V = O group].

    PubMed

    Zhu, H; Chen, C; Yang, Y; Deng, Y; Zhang, Y; Liu, Q

    2000-12-01

    This paper reports the features and regularities of the infrared spectra for two kinds of complexes containing R2dtc ligand. The cubane-like clusters containing R2dtc ligand possess weak and wide peaks at 400-500 cm-1 assigned to M-mu 3S vibration, while the peaks at 330-380 cm-1 and 1,470-1,510 cm-1 can be assigned to M-Sdtc and C-N vibrations, respectively. The nu(C-N) and nu(C = S) vibrations for Me2dtc-cubane cluster exhibit blue shift and red shift, respectively, when compared with those of other R2dtc ones. This would be attributed to the strong super-conjugation of the methyl group. The M-mu 3S vibrations for both types of complexes [V2Cu2S4(R2dtc)2(PhS)2]2- and [VCu4S4(R2dtc)n(PhS)4-n]3- (n = 0, 1, 2) occur at 480 and 465 cm-1, respectively. This small difference becomes a useful indication to distinguish the two types of clusters. Cluster complexes containing (R2dtc)2V2O2(mu-S)2 structural unit show the V = O vibration in the range of 844-970 cm-1. It is noted that (Et4N)[V3S2O3(Et2dtc)3] contains two sets of the V = O bonds corresponding to two sets of V = O vibrations at 970 and 844 cm-1. An additional coordination of the V = O bond to another metal atom obviously weakens the V = O bond to give rise to the red shift of the infrared frequency. Similar red shifts were also observed for other complexes and were discussed.

  12. Fully Printed and Encapsulated SWCNT-Based Thin Film Transistors via a Combination of R2R Gravure and Inkjet Printing.

    PubMed

    Homenick, Christa M; James, Robert; Lopinski, Gregory P; Dunford, Jeffrey; Sun, Junfeng; Park, Hyejin; Jung, Younsu; Cho, Gyoujin; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2016-10-04

    Fully printed thin film transistors (TFT) based on poly(9,9-di-n-dodecylfluorene) (PFDD) wrapped semiconducting single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) channels are fabricated by a practical route that combines roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure and ink jet printing. SWCNT network density is easily controlled via ink formulation (concentration and polymer:CNT ratio) and jetting conditions (droplet size, drop spacing, and number of printed layers). Optimum inkjet printing conditions are established on Si/SiO2 in which an ink consisting of 6:1 PFDD:SWCNT ratio with 50 mg L(-1) SWCNT concentration printed at a drop spacing of 20 μm results in TFTs with mobilities of ∼25 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and on-/off-current ratios > 10(5). These conditions yield excellent network uniformity and are used in a fully additive process to fabricate fully printed TFTs on PET substrates with mobility values > 5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (R2R printed gate electrode and dielectric; inkjet printed channel and source/drain electrodes). An inkjet printed encapsulation layer completes the TFT process (fabricated in bottom gate, top contact TFT configuration) and provides mobilities > 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with good operational stability, based on the performance of an inverter circuit. An array of 20 TFTs shows that most have less than 10% variability in terms of threshold voltage, transconductance, on-current, and subthreshold swing.

  13. Structural distortions, orbital ordering and physical properties of double perovskite R2CoMnO6 calculated by first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai Yang; Chen, Xiang Ming

    2017-04-01

    The structural distortions, orbital ordering, magnetic and electronic properties of double perovskite R2CoMnO6 (R  =  rare-earth element) have been systematically calculated by first-principles. Structural distortions, including Co–O and Mn–O bond length splitting, the antiferroelectric motions of R ions, the tilting of octahedral (the resulted Co–O–Mn bond angle) are obviously affected by the rare-earth ions’ radius. The bond length splitting behavior of Co–O and Mn–O are rather different because of the Jahn–Teller active ion Co2+ and the Jahn–Teller nonactive ion Mn4+. Taking Gd2CoMnO6 as an example, the t 2g orbitals of Co ions are predicted to be orbital ordered. That is, the spin down channel of d xz orbital for one Co ion and d yz orbital for another Co ion are basically vacant. Finally, the physical properties, including the magnetic Curie temperature and electronic band gap of R2CoMnO6 are almost linear dependent on the average value of cos2 θ (θ is the Co–O–Mn exchange-angle).

  14. A systems-oriented analysis of the grapevine R2R3-MYB transcription factor family uncovers new insights into the regulation of stilbene accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Darren Chern Jan; Schlechter, Rudolf; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Höll, Janine; Hmmam, Ibrahim; Bogs, Jochen; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Castellarin, Simone Diego; Matus, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) belong to a large and functionally diverse protein superfamily in plants. In this study, we explore the evolution and function of this family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), a high-value fruit crop. We identified and manually curated 134 genes using RNA-Seq data, and named them systematically according to the Super-Nomenclature Committee. We identified novel genes, splicing variants and grapevine/woody-specific duplicated subgroups, suggesting possible neo- and sub-functionalization events. Regulatory network analysis ascribed biological functions to uncharacterized genes and validated those of known genes (e.g. secondary cell wall biogenesis and flavonoid biosynthesis). A comprehensive analysis of different MYB binding motifs in the promoters of co-expressed genes predicted grape R2R3-MYB binding preferences and supported evidence for putative downstream targets. Enrichment of cis-regulatory motifs for diverse TFs reinforced the notion of transcriptional coordination and interaction between MYBs and other regulators. Analysis of the network of Subgroup 2 showed that the resveratrol-related VviMYB14 and VviMYB15 share common co-expressed STILBENE SYNTHASE genes with the uncharacterized VviMYB13. These regulators have distinct expression patterns within organs and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, suggesting a pivotal role of VviMYB13 in regulating stilbene accumulation in vegetative tissues and under biotic stress conditions. PMID:27407139

  15. Synthesis, characterization, in vitro antitumoral investigations and interaction with plasmid pBR322 DNA of R2eddp-platinum(IV) complexes (R = Et, n-Pr).

    PubMed

    Kaluderović, Goran N; Kommera, Harish; Schwieger, Sebastian; Paethanom, Anchan; Kunze, Michael; Schmidt, Harry; Paschke, Reinhard; Steinborn, Dirk

    2009-12-28

    The studies on synthetic, spectroscopic and biological properties of platinum(IV) complexes, [PtCl(4)(R(2)eddp)] (R = Et, 1; n-Pr, 2), containing kappa(2)N,N' bidentate ligands, esters of ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-3-propionic acid (HOOCCH(2)CH(2)NHCH(2)CH(2)NHCH(2)CH(2)COOH, H(2)eddp), are reported. Complexes have been characterized by infrared, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis and it was concluded that the coordination of the ligands occurs via nitrogen donor atoms of the ester ligands (R(2)eddp). Cytotoxicity studies were performed for ligand precursors and corresponding platinum(IV) complexes. Although the n-Pr(2)eddp.2HCl itself showed no activity (IC(50) values > 125 microM) in selected cell lines, the activity of complex 2, via apoptotic mode of cell death, has increased significantly for a broad range of cancer cell lines tested in vitro (IC(50) = 8.6-49 microM). As it was found that complexes 1 and 2 are able to interact with pBR322 plasmid DNA, platinum(IV) complexes of this type may act as drugs and pro-drugs.

  16. Structural distortions, orbital ordering and physical properties of double perovskite R2CoMnO6 calculated by first-principles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai Yang; Chen, Xiang Ming

    2017-04-12

    The structural distortions, orbital ordering, magnetic and electronic properties of double perovskite R2CoMnO6 (R  =  rare-earth element) have been systematically calculated by first-principles. Structural distortions, including Co-O and Mn-O bond length splitting, the antiferroelectric motions of R ions, the tilting of octahedral (the resulted Co-O-Mn bond angle) are obviously affected by the rare-earth ions' radius. The bond length splitting behavior of Co-O and Mn-O are rather different because of the Jahn-Teller active ion Co(2+) and the Jahn-Teller nonactive ion Mn(4+). Taking Gd2CoMnO6 as an example, the t 2g orbitals of Co ions are predicted to be orbital ordered. That is, the spin down channel of d xz orbital for one Co ion and d yz orbital for another Co ion are basically vacant. Finally, the physical properties, including the magnetic Curie temperature and electronic band gap of R2CoMnO6 are almost linear dependent on the average value of cos(2) θ (θ is the Co-O-Mn exchange-angle).

  17. Predicted pressure-induced spin and electronic transition in double perovskite R2CoMnO6 (R = rare-earth ion).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong Jian; Zhou, Haiyang; Chen, Xiang Ming; Bellaiche, L

    2015-06-10

    Specific first-principles calculations are performed to predict structural, magnetic and electronic properties of seven double perovskite R2CoMnO6 materials, with R being a rare-earth ion, under hydrostatic pressure. All these compounds are found to undergo a first-order transition from a high spin (HS) to low spin (LS) state at a critical pressure (whose value is dependent on the R ion). Such transition not only results in a significant volume collapse but also yields a dramatic change in electronic structure. More precisely, the HS-to-LS transition is accompanied by a transition from an insulator to a half-metallic state in the R2CoMnO6 compounds having the largest rare-earth ionic radius (i.e., Nd, Sm, Gd and Tb) while it induces a change from an insulator to a semiconductor having a narrow band gap for the smallest rare-earth ions (i.e., R = Dy, Ho and Er). Experiments are called for to confirm these predictions.

  18. Pressure dependence of thermal physical properties of A-type R2O3 (R=Y, La): A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. F.; Xiao, B.; Sun, L.; Gao, Y. M.; Ma, S. Q.; Yi, D. W.

    2017-04-01

    The mechanical, electronic and thermal physical properties of A-type R2O3 (R=Y, La) under hydrostatic pressure are studied by first-principles calculations. The calculated band gap is 6.3 eV (5.9 eV) for Y2O3 (La2O3). Under hydrostatic pressure, both phases show anisotropic elasticity in different crystallographic directions. The isothermal bulk modulus of R2O3 decreases monotonically with the increasing of temperature from 300 K to 1500 K. The intrinsic ductile nature of both phases is confirmed by the obtained B/G ratio. The temperature dependence of linear TECs of La2O3 is stronger than that of Y2O3, and the linear TECs in [001] direction show larger values in both phases than those in [010] direction. At room temperature, the average linear TECs for Y2O3 and La2O3 are 8.40×10-6 K-1 and 8.42×10-6 K-1, respectively. Other thermal physical properties such as specific heats (CV, and CP), entropy (S), sound velocity and Debye temperature are also obtained.

  19. Adjustment of adaptive sum comb filter for PPG signals.

    PubMed

    Pilt, Kristjan; Meigas, Kalju; Ferenets, Rain; Kaik, Juri

    2009-01-01

    AC component of photoplethysmography signal carries important information for diagnostics. Registered signal may be affected by noises, which are sharing the same bandwidth. Adaptive comb filter is used for the AC component extraction. Due to filter averaging behavior it decreases the signal shape difference between consecutive beats. Comb filter needs to be adjusted for PPG signal. Comb filter new weight values are determined through numerical computation. Experiments with generated photoplethysmographic signals were carried out to compare adjusted and non-adjusted adaptive sum comb filter.

  20. Synthesis, conformational preferences and antimicrobial evaluation of N-piperazinoacetyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akila, A.; Jeganathan, P.; Ponnuswamy, S.

    2016-09-01

    Five new N-piperazinoacetyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ones 11-15 have been synthesized and characterized using IR, 1H, 13C, DEPT & 2D NMR and mass spectral studies. The NMR spectral data indicate that the N-piperazinoacetyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ones 11-15 prefer to exist in an equilibrium between B1 and B2 conformations. Furthermore, the antibacterial and antifungal studies were carried out. The results show that the piperazinoacetyl piperidin-4-ones 11-15 exhibit good activity against the selected bacterial and fungal strains.

  1. Diastereo-specific conformational properties of neutral, protonated and radical cation forms of (1R,2S)-cis- and (1R,2R)-trans-amino-indanol by gas phase spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Aude; Klyne, Johanna; Piani, Giovanni; Dopfer, Otto; Zehnacker, Anne

    2015-10-21

    Chirality effects on the intramolecular interactions strongly depend on the charge and protonation states. Here, the influence of chirality on the structure of the neutral, protonated, and radical cation forms of (1R,2S)-cis- and (1R,2R)-trans-1-amino-2-indanol diastereomers, prototypical molecules with two chiral centers, is investigated in a molecular beam by laser spectroscopy coupled with quantum chemical calculations. The neutral systems are structurally characterised by double resonance IR-UV spectroscopy, while IR-induced dissociation spectroscopy is employed for the charged molecules. The sterical constraints due to the cyclic nature of the molecule emphasise the chirality effects, which manifest themselves by the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in neutral or protonated (1R,2S)-cis-amino-indanol. In contrast, this interaction is not possible in (1R,2R)-trans-amino-indanol. In the protonated species, chirality also influences the spectroscopic probes in the NH/OH stretch range by fine-tuning subtle effects such as the hyperconjugation between the σ(OH) orbital and σ* orbitals localised on the alicyclic ring. The radical cation undergoes opening of the alicyclic ring, which results in an ionisation-induced loss of the chirality effects.

  2. NMR studies of the R2 repeat and related peptide fragments of the DNA binding domain of c-Myb. New light on the structure and folding of R2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ségalas, I.; Desjardins, S.; Oulyadi, H.; Prigent, Y.; Tribouillard, S.; Bernardi, E.; Schoofs, A. R.; Davoust1, D.; Toma, F.

    1999-10-01

    The solution structure of the R2 repeat of the DNA binding domain of the protooncogene c-Myb contains a N-terminal structural motif comprising two antiparallel helices. The motif is stabilized by interactions involving conserved residues. The recognition region in C-terminal position is flexible. This structure differs from that of R2 of another c-Myb protein. La structure en solution de la répétition R2 du domaine de liaison à l'ADN du protooncogène c-Myb possède un motif à deux hélices antiparallèles dans la moitié N-terminale, stabilisé par des interactions entre résidus conservés. La région de reconnaissance à l'ADN en position C-terminale est flexible. Cette structure diffère de celle montrée pour la répétition R2 d'une autre protéine c-Myb.

  3. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa

    2017-01-03

    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  4. Value, Value, Where Is the Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Discusses measurement in performance improvement, including the Kirkpatrick four-level model of evaluation for training, and adding value. Highlights include adding value at all levels of organizational performance, for the clients and society; other models of performance improvement; the major focus of HPT (human performance technology); and…

  5. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  6. Comparable-Worth Adjustments: Yes--Comparable-Worth Adjustments: No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Sue; O'Neill, June

    1985-01-01

    Two essays address the issue of pay equity and present opinions favoring and opposing comparable-worth adjustments. Movement of women out of traditionally female jobs, the limits of "equal pay," fairness of comparable worth and market-based wages, implementation and efficiency of comparable worth system, and alternatives to comparable…

  7. R2 TRI facilities with 1999-2011 risk related estimates throughout the census blockgroup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset delineates the distribution of estimate risk from the TRI facilities for 1999 - 2011 throughout the census blockgroup of the region using Office of Pollution, Prevention & Toxics (OPPT)'s Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators model (RSEI). The model uses the reported quantities of TRI releases of chemicals to estimate the impacts associated with each type of air release or transfer by every TRI facility.The RSEI was run to generate the estimate risk for each TRI facility in the region. The result from the model is joined to the TRI spatial data. Estimate risk values for each census block group were calculated based on the inverse distance of all the facilities which are within a 50 km radius of the census block group centroid. The estimate risk value for each census block group thus is an aggregated value that takes into account the estimate potential risk of all the facilities within the searching radius (50km).

  8. Novel genetic variations of the p53R2 gene in patients with colorectal adenoma and controls

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zong-Lin; Xie, Da-Wen; Bostick, Roberd M; Miao, Xi-Jiang; Gong, You-Ling; Zhang, Jin-Hui; Wargovich, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    AIM: p53-Inducible ribonucleotide reductase small subunit 2 (p53R2) encodes a 351-amino-acid peptide, which catalyzes conversion of ribonucleoside diphosphates to the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides required for DNA replication and repair. A recent study reported that a point mutation (G/T) in the p53 binding sequence in a colon cancer cell line completely impaired p53R2 protein activity. METHODS: We screened the p53R2 gene coding regions and a regulatory region which contains a p53 binding sequence in 100 patients with colorectal adenoma and 100 control subjects using PCR, cold SSCP, and direct DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Although we did not identify genetic variation in all nine exons, four regulatory-region variants were found, of which three were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (nt 1 789 C/G, nt 1 928 A/G, 1 933 T/C), and one was 20 bp insertion which replaced a ATTTT between nt 1 831 and 1 835. Additionally, we determined the frequency of these p53R2 variants in a recently concluded case-control study of incident sporadic colorectal adenomas (163 cases and 210 controls). CONCLUSION: Although more detailed functional characterizations of these polymorphisms remain to be undertaken, these polymorphic sites may be useful for identifying alleles associated with mis-splicing, additional transcript factors and, more generally, in cancer-susceptibility association studies. PMID:16127747

  9. Growth and characterization of new organic nonlinear optical crystal (R)-2-cyano-N-(1-phenylethyl) acetamide

    SciTech Connect

    Hemaraju, B. C.; Gnana Prakash, A. P.; Madhukar, B. S.; Bhadregowda, D. G.

    2014-04-24

    (R)-2-Cyano-N-(1-phenylethyl) acetamide (RCNPA) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation of the aqueous solution at room temperature (300K) using ethanol. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR transmittance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and powder second harmonic generation (SHG)

  10. Analyses of Sweet Receptor Gene (Tas1r2) and Preference for Sweet Stimuli in Species of Carnivora

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Johnson, Warren E.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Brand, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species. The lion showed no preference for any of the 12 sweet compounds tested, and it possesses the pseudogenized Tas1r2. All other species preferred some of the natural sugars, and their Tas1r2 sequences, having complete open reading frames, predict functional sweet receptors. In addition to preferring natural sugars, the lesser panda also preferred 3 (neotame, sucralose, and aspartame) of the 6 artificial sweeteners. Heretofore, it had been reported that among vertebrates, only Old World simians could taste aspartame. The observation that the lesser panda highly preferred aspartame could be an example of evolutionary convergence in the identification of sweet stimuli. PMID:19366814

  11. R-1 (C-620-A) and R-2 (C-620-B) air compressor control logic, computer software description. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.E.

    1995-06-08

    This document provides an updated computer software description for the software used on the FFTF R-1 (C-620-A) and R-2 (C-620-B) air compressor programmable controllers. Logic software design changes were required to allow automatic starting of a compressor that had not been previously started.

  12. The 3.2-3.6 micron spectra of monoceros R2/IRS-3 and Elias 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, K.; Smith, R. G.; Brooke, T. Y.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained 3.2-3.6 micron spectra, with a resolution lambda/delta-lambda approximately 750, of the protostar Mon R2/IRS-3 and of Elias 16, a background K giant behind the Taurus molecular cloud. A feature at 3,482 microns (2872/cm), with a full width at half-maximum of 0.09 microns (76/cm), is clearly seen in Mon R2/IRS-3. This feature is not detected in Elias 16. The 3.482 micron feature in Mon R2/IRS-3 is similar to a feature at 3.466-3.478 microns (2875-2885/cm) detected by Allamandola et al. in four protostars and attributed by these authors to a CH stretch in hydrocarbons dominated by sp3-bonded carbon. Neither Mon R2/IRS-3 nor Elias 16 shows absorption at 3.540 microns (2825/cm), which has been detected in two of the four protostars observed by Allamandola et al. and attributed by them to CH3OH ice. Our limit on CH3OH ice toward Elias 16 is compared to models of gas-grain chemistry in dark clouds. Our results confirm those of Allamandola et al. that at this resolution the 3.4 micron absorption due to dust in molecular clouds has very different spectral structure than that due to dust in the diffuse interstellar medium.

  13. Dynamics of R1 and R2 elements in the rDNA locus of Drosophila simulans.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, C E; Eickbush, T H

    2001-01-01

    The mobile elements R1 and R2 insert specifically into the rRNA gene locus (rDNA locus) of arthropods, a locus known to undergo concerted evolution, the recombinational processes that preserve the sequence homogeneity of all repeats. To monitor how rapidly individual R1 and R2 insertions are turned over in the rDNA locus by these processes, we have taken advantage of the many 5' truncation variants that are generated during the target-primed reverse transcription mechanism used by these non-LTR retrotransposons for their integration. A simple PCR assay was designed to reveal the pattern of the 5' variants present in the rDNA loci of individual X chromosomes in a population of Drosophila simulans. Each rDNA locus in this population was found to have a large, unique collection of 5' variants. Each variant was present at low copy number, usually one copy per chromosome, and was seldom distributed to other chromosomes in the population. The failure of these variants to spread to other units in the same rDNA locus suggests a strong recombinational bias against R1 and R2 that results in the individual copies of these elements being rapidly lost from the rDNA locus. This bias suggests a significantly higher frequency of R1 and R2 retrotransposition than we have previously suggested. PMID:11514447

  14. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    E Rajakumara; Z Wang; H Ma; L Hu; H Chen; Y Lin; R Guo; F Wu; H Li; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  15. Hybridogenesis and a potential case of R2 non-LTR retrotransposon horizontal transmission in Bacillus stick insects (Insecta Phasmida)

    PubMed Central

    Scavariello, Claudia; Luchetti, Andrea; Martoni, Francesco; Bonandin, Livia; Mantovani, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) is an event in which the genetic material is transferred from one species to another, even if distantly related, and it has been demonstrated as a possible essential part of the lifecycle of transposable elements (TEs). However, previous studies on the non-LTR R2 retrotransposon, a metazoan-wide distributed element, indicated its vertical transmission since the Radiata-Bilateria split. Here we present the first possible instances of R2 HT in stick insects of the genus Bacillus (Phasmida). Six R2 elements were characterized in the strictly bisexual subspecies B. grandii grandii, B. grandii benazzii and B. grandii maretimi and in the obligatory parthenogenetic taxon B. atticus. These elements were compared with those previously retrieved in the facultative parthenogenetic species B. rossius. Phylogenetic inconsistencies between element and host taxa, and age versus divergence analyses agree and support at least two HT events. These HT events can be explained by taking into consideration the complex Bacillus reproductive biology, which includes also hybridogenesis, gynogenesis and androgenesis. Through these non-canonical reproductive modes, R2 elements may have been transferred between Bacillus genomes. Our data suggest, therefore, a possible role of hybridization for TEs survival and the consequent reshaping of involved genomes. PMID:28165062

  16. TNF-α Induced the Enhanced Apoptosis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Ankylosing Spondylitis by Overexpressing TRAIL-R2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenhua; Gao, Liangbin; Wang, Peng; Xie, Zhongyu; Cen, Shuizhong; Li, Yuxi; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Le; Su, Hongjun; Deng, Wen; Wang, Shan; Li, Deng; Li, Jinteng; Ouyang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune disease with unknown etiology. Dysregulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, apoptosis of MSCs from patients with AS (ASMSCs) has not been investigated yet. The present study aims to assess the apoptosis of bone marrow-derived ASMSCs and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of altered ASMSCs apoptosis. We successfully induced the apoptosis of ASMSCs and MSCs from healthy donors (HDMSCs) using the combination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and cycloheximide (CHX). We found that ASMSCs treated with TNF-α and CHX showed higher apoptosis levels compared to HDMSCs. During apoptosis, ASMSCs expressed significantly more TRAIL-R2, which activated both the death receptor pathway and mitochondria pathway by increasing the expression of FADD, cleaved caspase-8, cytosolic cytochrome C, and cleaved caspase-3. Inhibiting TRAIL-R2 expression using shRNA eliminated the apoptosis differences between HDMSCs and ASMSCs by partially reducing ASMSCs apoptosis but minimally affecting that of HDMSCs. Furthermore, the expression of FADD, cleaved caspase-8, cytosolic cytochrome C, and cleaved caspase-3 were comparable between HDMSCs and ASMSCs after TRAIL-R2 inhibition. These results indicated that increased TRAIL-R2 expression results in enhanced ASMSCs apoptosis and may contribute to AS pathogenesis. PMID:28182106

  17. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rajakumara, Eerappa; Wang, Zhentian; Ma, Honghui; Hu, Lulu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wu, Feizhen; Li, Haitao; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Xu, Yanhui; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Shi, Yang

    2011-08-29

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  18. A novel transferrin/TfR2-mediated mitochondrial iron transport system is disrupted in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mastroberardino, Pier Giorgio; Hoffman, Eric K.; Horowitz, Maxx P.; Betarbet, Ranjita; Taylor, Georgia; Cheng, Dongmei; Na, Hye Mee; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Gearing, Marla; Trojanowski, John Q.; Anderson, Marjorie; Chu, Charleen T.; Peng, Junmin; Greenamyre, J. Timothy

    2009-01-01

    More than 80 years after iron accumulation was initially described in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are still unknown. Similarly, how iron is delivered to its major recipients in the cell – mitochondria and the respiratory complexes – has yet to be elucidated. Here, we report a novel transferrin/transferrin receptor 2 (Tf/TfR2)-mediated iron transport pathway in mitochondria of SN dopamine neurons. We found that TfR2 has a previously uncharacterized mitochondrial targeting sequence that is sufficient to import the protein into these organelles. Importantly, the Tf/TfR2 pathway can deliver Tf bound iron to mitochondria and to the respiratory complex I as well. The pathway is redox-sensitive and oxidation of Tf thiols to disulfides induces release from Tf of highly reactive ferrous iron, which contributes to free radical production. In the rotenone model of PD, Tf accumulates in dopamine neurons, with much of it accumulating in the mitochondria. This is associated with iron deposition in SN, similar to what occurs in PD. In the human SN, TfR2 is also found in mitochondria of dopamine neurons, and in PD there is a dramatic increase of oxidized Tf in SN. Thus, we have discovered a novel mitochondrial iron transport system that goes awry in PD, and which may provide a new target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:19250966

  19. The Eucalyptus grandis R2R3-MYB transcription factor family: evidence for woody growth-related evolution and function.

    PubMed

    Soler, Marçal; Camargo, Eduardo Leal Oliveira; Carocha, Victor; Cassan-Wang, Hua; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Hefer, Charles A; Paiva, Jorge A Pinto; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    The R2R3-MYB family, one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants, controls a wide variety of plant-specific processes including, notably, phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall formation. We performed a genome-wide analysis of this superfamily in Eucalyptus, one of the most planted hardwood trees world-wide. A total of 141 predicted R2R3-MYB sequences identified in the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence were subjected to comparative phylogenetic analyses with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera. We analysed features such as gene structure, conserved motifs and genome location. Transcript abundance patterns were assessed by RNAseq and validated by high-throughput quantitative PCR. We found some R2R3-MYB subgroups with expanded membership in E. grandis, V. vinifera and P. trichocarpa, and others preferentially found in woody species, suggesting diversification of specific functions in woody plants. By contrast, subgroups containing key genes regulating lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation are more conserved across all of the species analysed. In Eucalyptus, R2R3-MYB tandem gene duplications seem to disproportionately affect woody-preferential and woody-expanded subgroups. Interestingly, some of the genes belonging to woody-preferential subgroups show higher expression in the cambial region, suggesting a putative role in the regulation of secondary growth.

  20. Improving the specificity of R2' to the deoxyhaemoglobin content of brain tissue: Prospective correction of macroscopic magnetic field gradients.

    PubMed

    Blockley, Nicholas P; Stone, Alan J

    2016-07-15

    The reversible transverse relaxation rate, R2', is sensitive to the deoxyhaemoglobin content of brain tissue, enabling information about the oxygen extraction fraction to be obtained. However, R2' is also sensitive to macroscopic magnetic field gradients, particularly at air-tissue interfaces where a large susceptibility difference is present. It is important that this latter effect is minimised in order to produce meaningful estimates of blood oxygenation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to implement a technique to prospectively correct for the effect of susceptibility induced magnetic field gradients on R2' weighted data. This was achieved by combining the Gradient-Echo Slice Excitation Profile Imaging (GESEPI) technique with an Asymmetric Spin Echo (ASE) pulse sequence. The main advantages of this approach are (i) shorter acquisition times, since a separately acquired magnetic field map is not required and (ii) simpler analysis, since retrospective correction for the effects of magnetic field gradients in postprocessing is not required. In these experiments we show that with this newly developed technique it is possible to correct the majority of grey matter voxels for the expected distribution of through-slice magnetic field gradients to produce maps of R2' in a short scan duration.

  1. Characterization of a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates the flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are important phenylpropanoid metabolites in plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsMYBF1, encoding a protein belonging to the flavonol-specific MYB subgroup. Ectopic expression of CsMYBF1 in tomato led to an ...

  2. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  3. Uniform and C^1-approximability of functions on compact subsets of \\mathbb R^2 by solutions of second-order elliptic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonov, P. V.; Fedorovskii, K. Yu

    1999-02-01

    Several necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of uniform or C^1-approximation of functions on compact subsets of \\mathbb R^2 by solutions of elliptic systems of the form c_{11}u_{x_1x_1}+2c_{12}u_{x_1x_2}+c_{22}u_{x_2x_2}=0 with constant complex coefficients c_{11}, c_{12} and c_{22} are obtained. The proofs are based on a refinement of Vitushkin's localization method, in which one constructs localized approximating functions by "gluing together" some special many-valued solutions of the above equations. The resulting conditions of approximation are of a topological and metric nature.

  4. Tomato R2R3-MYB Proteins SlANT1 and SlAN2: Same Protein Activity, Different Roles

    PubMed Central

    Bassolino, Laura; Povero, Giovanni; Spelt, Cornelis; Buti, Sara; Giuliano, Giovanni; Quattrocchio, Francesca; Koes, Ronald; Perata, Pierdomenico; Gonzali, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds with a high nutraceutical value. Despite the fact that cultivated tomato varieties do not accumulate anthocyanins in the fruit, the biosynthetic pathway can be activated in the vegetative organs by several environmental stimuli. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating anthocyanin synthesis in tomato. Here, we carried out a molecular and functional characterization of two genes, SlAN2 and SlANT1, encoding two R2R3-MYB transcription factors. We show that both can induce ectopic anthocyanin synthesis in transgenic tomato lines, including the fruit. However, only SlAN2 acts as a positive regulator of anthocyanin synthesis in vegetative tissues under high light or low temperature conditions. PMID:26308527

  5. Observations of the J=4-3 Transition of HCO+ in Orion Molecular CLOUD-1 GL961 MONOCEROS-R2 and NGC2071

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padman, R.; Scott, P. F.; Webster, A. S.

    1982-07-01

    We have observed the HCO+ J=4 → 3 transition in OMC 1 and three other galactic sources which have self-reversed CO profiles. None of the sources show self-absorption in this line and, in NGC 2071 and Mon R2, the line wings, seen in CO and HCO+ 1 → 0, have disappeared. Minimum masses between 200 and l200Msun. are derived for the high-density cores; these lower limits will only be reduced significantly if HCO+ is much more abundant than has previously been thought. A new compact, optically thin source is postulated in OMC1. We find a rest frequency at 356.7344 i 0.0005 GHz for HCO+ 4 → 3 transition and values of 44.594440 ± 0.000014 GHz and 82.0 ± 2.4 kHz for the molecular constants B0 and D0.

  6. Casein-Coated Fe5C2 Nanoparticles with Superior r2 Relaxivity for Liver-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cowger, Taku A; Tang, Wei; Zhen, Zipeng; Hu, Kai; Rink, David E; Todd, Trever J; Wang, Geoffrey D; Zhang, Weizhong; Chen, Hongmin; Xie, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been extensively used as T2 contrast agents for liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The applications, however, have been limited by their mediocre magnetism and r2 relaxivity. Recent studies show that Fe5C2 nanoparticles can be prepared by high temperature thermal decomposition. The resulting nanoparticles possess strong and air stable magnetism, suggesting their potential as a novel type of T2 contrast agent. To this end, we improve the synthetic and surface modification methods of Fe5C2 nanoparticles, and investigated the impact of size and coating on their performances for liver MRI. Specifically, we prepared 5, 14, and 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticles and engineered their surface by: 1) ligand addition with phospholipids, 2) ligand exchange with zwitterion-dopamine-sulfonate (ZDS), and 3) protein adsorption with casein. It was found that the size and surface coating have varied levels of impact on the particles' hydrodynamic size, viability, uptake by macrophages, and r2 relaxivity. Interestingly, while phospholipid- and ZDS-coated Fe5C2 nanoparticles showed comparable r2, the casein coating led to an r2 enhancement by more than 2 fold. In particular, casein coated 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticle show a striking r2 of 973 mM(-1)s(-1), which is one of the highest among all of the T2 contrast agents reported to date. Small animal studies confirmed the advantage of Fe5C2 nanoparticles over iron oxide nanoparticles in inducing hypointensities on T2-weighted MR images, and the particles caused little toxicity to the host. The improvements are important for transforming Fe5C2 nanoparticles into a new class of MRI contrast agents. The observations also shed light on protein-based surface modification as a means to modulate contrast ability of magnetic nanoparticles.

  7. Structure of human cytomegalovirus UL141 binding to TRAIL-R2 reveals novel, non-canonical death receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Nemčovičová, Ivana; Benedict, Chris A; Zajonc, Dirk M

    2013-03-01

    The TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) death receptors (DRs) of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) can promote apoptosis and regulate antiviral immunity by maintaining immune homeostasis during infection. In turn, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses immunomodulatory proteins that down-regulate cell surface expression of TNFRSF members as well as poliovirus receptor-related proteins in an effort to inhibit host immune effector pathways that would lead to viral clearance. The UL141 glycoprotein of human cytomegalovirus inhibits host defenses by blocking cell surface expression of TRAIL DRs (by retention in ER) and poliovirus receptor CD155, a nectin-like Ig-fold molecule. Here we show that the immunomodulatory function of HCMV UL141 is associated with its ability to bind diverse proteins, while utilizing at least two distinct binding sites to selectively engage TRAIL DRs or CD155. Binding studies revealed high affinity interaction of UL141 with both TRAIL-R2 and CD155 and low affinity binding to TRAIL-R1. We determined the crystal structure of UL141 bound to TRAIL-R2 at 2.1 Å resolution, which revealed that UL141 forms a homodimer that engages two TRAIL-R2 monomers 90° apart to form a heterotetrameric complex. Our structural and biochemical data reveal that UL141 utilizes its Ig-domain to facilitate non-canonical death receptor interactions while UL141 partially mimics the binding site of TRAIL on TRAIL-R2, which we found to be distinct from that of CD155. Moreover, UL141 also binds to an additional surface patch on TRAIL-R2 that is distinct from the TRAIL binding site. Therefore, the breadth of UL141-mediated effects indicates that HCMV has evolved sophisticated strategies to evade the immune system by modulating multiple effector pathways.

  8. Human monomeric antibody fragments to TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 that display potent in vitro agonism

    PubMed Central

    Main, Sarah; Newton, Philip; Chodorge, Matthieu; Cadwallader, Karen; Humphreys, Robin; Albert, Vivian; Vaughan, Tristan J; Minter, Ralph R; Edwards, Bryan M

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis through the TRAIL receptor pathway can be induced via agonistic IgG to either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2. Here we describe the use of phage display to isolate a substantive panel of fully human anti-TRAIL receptor single chain Fv fragments (scFvs); 234 and 269 different scFvs specific for TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 respectively. In addition, 134 different scFvs that were cross-reactive for both receptors were isolated. To facilitate screening of all 637 scFvs for potential agonistic activity in vitro, a novel high-throughput surrogate apoptosis assay was developed. Ten TRAIL-R1 specific scFv and 6 TRAIL-R2 specific scFv were shown to inhibit growth of tumor cells in vitro in the absence of any cross-linking agents. These scFv were all highly specific for either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2, potently inhibited tumor cell proliferation, and were antagonists of TRAIL binding. Moreover, further characterization of TRAIL-R1 agonistic scFv demonstrated significant anti-tumor activity when expressed and purified as a monomeric Fab fragment. Thus, scFv and Fab fragments, in addition to whole IgG, can be agonistic and induce tumor cell death through specific binding to either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2. These potent agonistic scFv were all isolated directly from the starting phage antibody library and demonstrated significant tumor cell killing properties without any requirement for affinity maturation. Some of these selected scFv have been converted to IgG format and are being studied extensively in clinical trials to investigate their potential utility as human monoclonal antibody therapeutics for the treatment of human cancer. PMID:20068388

  9. Experiments towards establishing of design rules for R2R-UV-NIL with polymer working shims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nees, Dieter; Ruttloff, Stephan; Palfinger, Ursula; Stadlober, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Roll-to-Roll-UV-nanoimprint lithography (R2R-UV-NIL) enables high resolution large area patterning of flexible substrates and is therefore of increasing industrial interest. We have set up a custom-made R2R-UV-NIL pilot machine which is able to convert 10 inch wide web with velocities of up to 30 m/min. In addition, we have developed self-replicable UV-curable resins with tunable surface energy and Young's modulus for UV-imprint material as well as for polymer working stamp/shim manufacturing. Now we have designed test patterns for the evaluation of the impact of structure shape, critical dimension, pitch, depth, side wall angle and orientation relative to the web movement onto the imprint fidelity and working shim life time. We have used female (recessed structures) silicon masters of that design with critical dimensions between CD = 200 nm and 1600 nm, and structure depths of d = 500 nm and 1000 nm - all with vertical as well as inclined side walls. These entire master patterns have been transferred onto single male (protruding structures) R2R polymer working shims. The polymer working shims have been used for R2R-UV-NIL runs of several hundred meters and the imprint fidelity and process stability of the various test patterns have been compared. This study is intended as a first step towards establishing of design rules and developing of nanoimprint proximity correction strategies for industrial R2R-UV-NIL processes using polymer working shims.

  10. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Charles H.; Sitton, Roy S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

  11. Observational and Dynamical Characterization of Main-belt Comet P/2010 R2 (La Sagra)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Yang, Bin; Haghighipour, Nader; Novaković, Bojan; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Denneau, Larry; Abe, Shinsuke; Chen, Wen-Ping; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Granvik, Mikael; Grav, Tommy; Ip, Wing; Kaluna, Heather M.; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Kleyna, Jan; Knight, Matthew M.; Lacerda, Pedro; Lisse, Carey M.; Maclennan, Eric; Meech, Karen J.; Micheli, Marco; Milani, Andrea; Pittichová, Jana; Schunova, Eva; Tholen, David J.; Wasserman, Lawrence H.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, K. C.; Heasley, Jim N.; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Price, Paul A.; Jørgensen, Uffe G.; Dominik, Martin; Hinse, Tobias; Sahu, Kailash; Snodgrass, Colin

    2012-05-01

    We present observations of the recently discovered comet-like main-belt object P/2010 R2 (La Sagra) obtained by Pan-STARRS1 and the Faulkes Telescope-North on Haleakala in Hawaii, the University of Hawaii 2.2 m, Gemini-North, and Keck I telescopes on Mauna Kea, the Danish 1.54 m telescope (operated by the MiNDSTEp consortium) at La Silla, and the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma. An antisolar dust tail is observed to be present from 2010 August through 2011 February, while a dust trail aligned with the object's orbit plane is also observed from 2010 December through 2011 August. Assuming typical phase darkening behavior, P/La Sagra is seen to increase in brightness by >1 mag between 2010 August and December, suggesting that dust production is ongoing over this period. These results strongly suggest that the observed activity is cometary in nature (i.e., driven by the sublimation of volatile material), and that P/La Sagra is therefore the most recent main-belt comet to be discovered. We find an approximate absolute magnitude for the nucleus of HR = 17.9 ± 0.2 mag, corresponding to a nucleus radius of ~0.7 km, assuming an albedo of p = 0.05. Comparing the observed scattering surface areas of the dust coma to that of the nucleus when P/La Sagra was active, we find dust-to-nucleus area ratios of Ad /AN = 30-60, comparable to those computed for fellow main-belt comets 238P/Read and P/2008 R1 (Garradd), and one to two orders of magnitude larger than for two other main-belt comets (133P/Elst-Pizarro and 176P/LINEAR). Using optical spectroscopy to search for CN emission, we do not detect any conclusive evidence of sublimation products (i.e., gas emission), finding an upper limit CN production rate of Q CN < 6 × 1023 mol s-1, from which we infer an H2O production rate of Q_H_2O\\,{<}\\,10^{26} mol s-1. Numerical simulations indicate that P/La Sagra is dynamically stable for >100 Myr, suggesting that it is likely native to its current location and that its composition is

  12. OBSERVATIONAL AND DYNAMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MAIN-BELT COMET P/2010 R2 (La Sagra)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Yang Bin; Haghighipour, Nader; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Denneau, Larry; Kaluna, Heather M.; Kleyna, Jan; Novakovic, Bojan; Abe, Shinsuke; Chen Wenping; Ip, Wing; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Lacerda, Pedro; Granvik, Mikael; Grav, Tommy; Knight, Matthew M.; Lisse, Carey M.; Maclennan, Eric; and others

    2012-05-15

    We present observations of the recently discovered comet-like main-belt object P/2010 R2 (La Sagra) obtained by Pan-STARRS1 and the Faulkes Telescope-North on Haleakala in Hawaii, the University of Hawaii 2.2 m, Gemini-North, and Keck I telescopes on Mauna Kea, the Danish 1.54 m telescope (operated by the MiNDSTEp consortium) at La Silla, and the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma. An antisolar dust tail is observed to be present from 2010 August through 2011 February, while a dust trail aligned with the object's orbit plane is also observed from 2010 December through 2011 August. Assuming typical phase darkening behavior, P/La Sagra is seen to increase in brightness by >1 mag between 2010 August and December, suggesting that dust production is ongoing over this period. These results strongly suggest that the observed activity is cometary in nature (i.e., driven by the sublimation of volatile material), and that P/La Sagra is therefore the most recent main-belt comet to be discovered. We find an approximate absolute magnitude for the nucleus of H{sub R} = 17.9 {+-} 0.2 mag, corresponding to a nucleus radius of {approx}0.7 km, assuming an albedo of p = 0.05. Comparing the observed scattering surface areas of the dust coma to that of the nucleus when P/La Sagra was active, we find dust-to-nucleus area ratios of A{sub d} /A{sub N} = 30-60, comparable to those computed for fellow main-belt comets 238P/Read and P/2008 R1 (Garradd), and one to two orders of magnitude larger than for two other main-belt comets (133P/Elst-Pizarro and 176P/LINEAR). Using optical spectroscopy to search for CN emission, we do not detect any conclusive evidence of sublimation products (i.e., gas emission), finding an upper limit CN production rate of Q{sub CN} < 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} mol s{sup -1}, from which we infer an H{sub 2}O production rate of Q{sub H{sub 2O}} < 10{sup 26} mol s{sup -1}. Numerical simulations indicate that P/La Sagra is dynamically stable for >100 Myr

  13. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  14. Dyadic Adjustment: An Ecosystemic Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; McCulloch, B. Jan; Stone, Katherine L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of background, individual, and family influences on dyadic adjustment, using an ecological perspective. Data from 102 married couples were used. Age at marriage for husbands, emotional health for wives, and number of marriage and family problems as well as family life satisfaction for both were related to dyadic…

  15. Problems of Adjustment to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolini, Leandro A.

    This paper, one of several written for a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education in Illinois, examines and summarizes the literature on the problems of young children in adjusting to starting school full-time and describes the nature and extent of their difficulties in relation to statewide educational policy. The review of studies…

  16. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  17. Comparative energetics of ERA-40, JRA-25 and NCEP-R2 reanalysis, in the wave number domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Rocha, A.; Corte-Real, J.

    2010-10-01

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 40-year Reanalysis (ERA-40), the Japan Meteorological Agency and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and Department of Energy AMIP-II Reanalysis (NCEP-R2) are intercompared through a global energetics analysis for all seasons. Overall, the Lorenz energy cycle is consistent among the three datasets. The flow of energy and the peaks and slopes in the spectra of the various components agree between the three reanalysis. Additionally, the temporal variability of the energy cycle terms shows consistency between the three reanalysis. Most differences between the three reanalysis are related to the magnitudes of energy forms and energy conversion/transfer rates at each wave number, generally following the relation ERA-40>JRA-25>NCEP-R2, and mainly located in the Southern Hemisphere. The best agreement between the three datasets is found for northern winter. Differences between the three datasets are greater for the other seasons, being greatest for northern summer. In general, these discrepancies are fairly modest, being likely due to the different model biases and resolutions, and the different data assimilation methods used by the respective reanalysis systems. The energetics of the three reanalysis become closer to each other in more recent years, which is likely due to the increase in the number of observations assimilated in the reanalysis. The NCEP-R2 reanalysis spectrum is smoother than those of ERA-40 and JRA-25, likely due to filtering and to its lower resolution model. The spectra show a rapid decrease for short waves in NCEP-R2 ( n=36) and ERA-40 ( n=63), as a consequence of filtering. The energy source in the nonlinear wave-wave interactions of kinetic energy, L(n), has a narrower spectral range in NCEP-R2 than in the other datasets. Energetics from the newer JRA-25 reanalysis is generally closer to that of

  18. Muscle-specific overexpression of AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 gives rise to common and discrete local effects whilst AdipoR2 promotes additional systemic effects

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari, Sahar; Henstridge, Darren C.; Ng, Choaping; Febbraio, Mark A.; Whitehead, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoadiponectinemia and adiponectin resistance are implicated in the aetiology of obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders, hence represent a potential therapeutic axis. Here we characterised the effects of in vivo electrotransfer-mediated overexpression of the adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 or AdipoR2, into tibialis anterior muscle (TAM) of lean or obese mice. In lean mice, TAM-specific overexpression of AdipoR1 (TAMR1) or AdipoR2 (TAMR2) increased phosphorylation of AMPK, AKT and ERK and expression of the insulin responsive glucose transporter glut4. In contrast, only TAMR2 increased pparα and a target gene acox1. These effects were decreased in obese mice despite no reduction in circulating adiponectin levels. TAMR2 also increased expression of adipoQ in TAM of lean and obese mice. Furthermore, in obese mice TAMR2 promoted systemic effects including; decreased weight gain; reduced epididymal fat mass and inflammation; increased epididymal adipoQ expression; increased circulating adiponectin. Collectively, these results demonstrate that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 exhibit overlapping and distinct effects in skeletal muscle consistent with enhanced adiponectin sensitivity but these appear insufficient to ameliorate established obesity-induced adiponectin resistance. We also identify systemic effects upon TAMR2 in obese mice and postulate these are mediated by altered myokine production. Further studies are warranted to investigate this possibility which may reveal novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:28145500

  19. Family expectation, social adjustment and gender differences in a sample of schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, I; Mari, J J; Chaves, A C; Hisatsugo, M

    1996-06-01

    A case series to study factors related to family expectation regarding schizophrenic patients was conducted in an out-patient setting in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. Patients diagnosed as presenting schizophrenia by the ICD 9th Edition and having had the disease for more than four years were included in the study. Family Expectation was measured by the difference between the Katz Adjustment Scale (R2 and R3) scores based on the relative's expectation and the socially expected activities of the patient (Discrepancy Score), and social adjustment was given by the DSM-III-R Global Assessment Scale (GAS). Outcome assessments were made independently, and 44 patients comprised the sample (25 males and 19 females). The Discrepancy mean score was twice as high for males as for females (p < 0.02), and there was an inverse relationship between the discrepancy score and social adjustment (r = -0.46, p < 0.001). Moreover, sex and social adjustment exerted independent effects on the discrepancy score when age, age at onset and number of psychiatric admissions were controlled by means of a multiple regression technique. There was an interaction between sex and social adjustment, the inverse relationship between social adjustment and discrepancy score being more pronounced for males. These findings are discussed in the light of the potential association between the family environment, gender and social adjustment of schizophrenic patients, and the need for further research, i.e. ethnographic accounts of interactions between patient and relatives sharing households particularly in less developed countries.

  20. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within the OCC's jurisdiction is adjusted in accordance with the...

  1. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  2. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  3. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  4. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite.

  5. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Organizing Datasets from Heterogeneous Shipboard Data into an Integrated Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. D.; Arko, R. A.; Sweeney, A.; Fischman, D.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; rvdata.us) program is to develop and implement a fleet-wide information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S. academic research vessels. One of the program’s primary challenges is to develop a workflow for routinely gathering data from a fleet with heterogeneous instrumentation and file systems, breaking out the data into discrete data sets, and transferring the data to the appropriate National Data Center. Because R2R expects to receive 300-400 cruises per year from a wide range of vessel classes and at least two dozen major device types, this workflow must be highly automated. R2R has developed and implemented a workflow for processing underway data: - Collection: data are provided at the end of a cruise as a cruise distribution using the mechanism preferred by the vessel operator. - Inventory: a complete inventory of each cruise distribution is created, listing the filename, date, size, and checksum. This inventory is published online by R2R. - Raw Archive: the entire original cruise distribution is transmitted securely to the National Geophysical Data Center for deep archive. - Data Breakout: data from each device are extracted from the cruise distribution according to a vessel profile yielding a discrete data set. Once a data set is broken out and any proprietary holds are cleared, it is delivered to the appropriate National Data Center for archiving and dissemination. It may also be processed further for quality assessment/quality control and/or publication of standard products. Data sets sent to a National Data Center will have unique and persistent R2R identifiers, which link to parent cruise information on the R2R site. The site will include the URL link to each data set at the National Data Center, allowing a user browsing the R2R cruise catalog to download it. Because each vessel operator typically has a customized system for naming and organizing

  6. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION STUDIES FOR TANK 241-AN-107 CORE 309 SEGMENTS 21R1 & 21R2

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB

    2007-11-13

    Liquid waste in tank 241-AN-107 is below Technical Safety Requirements Administrative Control 5.16 (AC 5.16) limits. Electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on Core 309, Segments 21R1 and 21R2, to provide information on the conductivity and corrosive tendencies of the tank saltcake and interstitial liquid. This report describes data obtained under the execution of RPP-PLAN-29001, 'Electrochemical Corrosion Studies for Tank 241-AN-107 Core 309, Segments 21R1 and 21R2'. Analytical results are presented that show supernatant was within the limits while the interstitial liquid remained below the limits for the analytical cores. Applicable AC 5.16 chemistry control limits for AN-107 are presented.

  7. Comparing consistency of R2* and T2*-weighted BOLD analysis of resting state fetal fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Anna I.; Gatenby, Christopher; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Dighe, Manjiri; Studholme, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Understanding when and how resting state brain functional activity begins in the human brain is an increasing area of interest in both basic neuroscience and in the clinical evaluation of the brain during pregnancy and after premature birth. Although fMRI studies have been carried out on pregnant women since the 1990's, reliable mapping of brain function in utero is an extremely challenging problem due to the unconstrained fetal head motion. Recent studies have employed scrubbing to exclude parts of the time series and whole subjects from studies in order to control the confounds of motion. Fundamentally, even after correction of the location of signals due to motion, signal intensity variations are a fundamental limitation, due to coil sensitivity and spin history effects. An alternative technique is to use a more parametric MRI signal derived from multiple echoes that provides a level of independence from basic MRI signal variation. Here we examine the use of R2* mapping combined with slice based multi echo geometric distortion correction for in-utero studies. The challenges for R2* mapping arise from the relatively low signal strength of in-utero data. In this paper we focus on comparing activation detection in-utero using T2W and R2* approaches. We make use a subset of studies with relatively limited motion to compare the activation patterns without the additional confound of significant motion. Results at different gestational ages indicate comparable agreement in many activation patterns when limited motion is present, and the detection of some additional networks in the R2* data, not seen in the T2W results.

  8. [Analysis of the inheritance patterns of 5'-truncated copies of the German cockroach R2 retroposons in individual crosses].

    PubMed

    Kagramanova, A S; Korolev, A L; Mukha, D V

    2010-11-01

    The inheritance patterns of the 5'-truncated copies of R2 retroposons were analyzed in individual crosses of the German cockroach. The recombination level within the cluster of ribosomal RNA genes was determined. It was demonstrated that only the frequencies of individual variants of 5'-truncated retroposon copies are appropriate for population analysis rather than the patterns characterizing individual X chromosomes. The methodical approach used in the work is convenient for studying the genetic variation in ribosomal DNA multigene families.

  9. Structural investigation of R2Mo4O15 (R=La, Nd, Sm), and polymorphs of the R2Mo4O15 (R=rare earth) family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruke, H.; Yamase, T.

    2003-07-01

    Pyrolysis of rare earth (R) polyoxomolybdate, [R2(H2O)12Mo8O27].xH2O (R=La, Nd and Sm), at 750°C for 2-8h results in crystallization of R2Mo4O15 compounds. β-La2Mo4O15 crystallizes together with an α-form in monoclinic P21/a (No. 14), /a=13.8893(5), /b=13.0757(4), /c=20.0927(8)Å, /β=95.199(2)°, /V=3634.1(2)Å3, /Z=12, R1(I>2σ(I))=0.048, Rw (all data)=0.116. The structure is built up with {LaOn} (/n=9, 10) and {MoOn'} (/n'=4-6) polyhedral units. The {LaOn} units are polymerized into a linear {La6O39}∞ chain, while the {MoOn} are connected together to form {Mo4O15} and {Mo7O26} groups. The structure can be related to the /α-form by partial rearrangement of O atoms and small shifts of La and Mo atoms. The R2Mo4O15 (R=Nd and Sm) compounds are isomorphous with the previously reported R=Eu and Gd analogs, crystallizing in triclinic, /P1¯ (No. 2), /a=9.4989(5) and 9.4076(7), /b=11.0088(7) and 10.9583(8), /c=11.5665(6) and 11.5234(8)Å, /α=104.141(3) and 104.225(3), /β=109.838(3) and 109.603(3), /γ=108.912(3) and 108.999(3)°, /V=987.3(1) and 970.5(1)Å3, /Z=3, R1(I>2σ(I))=0.028 and 0.030, Rw (all data)= 0.079 and 0.094, respectively. The crystal structure is composed of {RO8} and {MoOn'} (/n'=4-6) polyhedral units. The molybdate units are condensed to give a corrugated {Mo4O17}∞ chain. The square-antiprismatic {RO8} units share their trigonal and square faces, forming {R2O13} and {R2O12} groups, respectively. A very short R⋯R distance (3.557(6)Å for R=Nd; 3.4956(6)Å for R=Sm) is achieved in the latter unusual {R2O12} group. A common cationic arrangement was found in all the structures in the R2Mo4O15 family: a R-R pair with the shortest separation and surrounding 12 Mo atoms. The symmetry of the cationic arrangement was reduced with an increase of atomic number of R, viz. La>Ce, Pr>Nd-Gd~Tb, Ho.

  10. MiR-572 prompted cell proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells by suppressing PPP2R2C expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ai-Hua; Huang, Yu-ling; Zhang, Lan-Zhen; Tian, Geng; Liao, Qiong-Zhi; Chen, Shi-Ling

    2016-02-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) remains one of the most common types of malignant cancer, and the molecular mechanism underlying its proliferation is still largely unclear. It is reported that microRNAs acted as important regulators of cell proliferation by regulating its targeted gene. In this study, our result showed that miR-572 was markedly upregulated in OC cell lines and clinical tissues. Results of both gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments revealed that upregulation of miR-572 expression dramatically promoted OC cell proliferation, whereas decreased miR-572 expression significantly reduced cell proliferation. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assays further revealed PPP2R2C, a putative tumor suppressor as a potential target of miR-572. Moreover, silencing of PPP2R2C using small interfering RNA (siRNA) counteracted the proliferation arrest by miR-572-in in OC cells. In sum, our data provide that miR-572 promoted cell proliferation in OC by targeting PPP2R2C and might serve as a therapeutic target of OC.

  11. Anthocyanin leaf markings are regulated by a family of R2R3-MYB genes in the genus Trifolium.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nick W; Griffiths, Andrew G; Cousins, Greig R; Verry, Isabelle M; Williams, Warren M

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments accumulate to form spatially restricted patterns in plants, particularly in flowers, but also occur in vegetative tissues. Spatially restricted anthocyanin leaf markings are poorly characterised in plants, but are common in forage legumes. We hypothesised that the molecular basis for anthocyanin leaf markings in Trifolium spp. is due to the activity of a family of R2R3-MYB genes. R2R3-MYB genes were identified that are associated with the two classic pigmentation loci in T. repens. The R locus patterns 'red leaf', 'red midrib' and 'red fleck' are conditioned by a single MYB gene, RED LEAF. The 'diffuse red leaf' trait is regulated by the RED LEAF DIFFUSE MYB gene. The V locus was identified through mapping two V-linked traits, 'V-broken yellow' (Vby) and 'red leaflet' (Vrl). Two highly similar R2R3-MYB genes, RED V-a and RED V-b, mapped to the V locus and co-segregated with the RED V pigmentation pattern. Functional characterisation of RED LEAF and RED V was performed, confirming their function as anthocyanin regulators and identifying a C-terminal region necessary for transactivation. The mechanisms responsible for generating anthocyanin leaf markings in T. repens provide a valuable system to compare with mechanisms that regulate complex floral pigmentation.

  12. A first-principles study of the tetragonal and hexagonal R 2Al (R = Cr, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta) phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiu; Shen, Jiang; Tian, Fuyang

    2016-10-01

    The crystal structures, elastic moduli, electronic structure, and phonon dispersion of the tetragonal R 2Al (R = Cr, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta) intermetallic compounds are investigated by using the first-principles method. The space group number is 139 for tetragonal Cr2Al, 136 for tetragonal Nb2Al and Ta2Al, and the space group numbers are 140 and 194 for tetragonal and hexagonal Zr2Al and Hf2Al, respectively. The results of elastic constants and phonon dispersion indicate that the present intermetallic compounds are thermodynamically stable. The stability of hexagonal Zr2Al and Hf2Al is analyzed via the electronic density of state, compared to the tetragonal Zr2Al and Hf2Al compounds. For the R2Al intermetallic compounds, the less ductility and strong anisotropy are predicted. The more negative formation enthalpy and thermodynamic stability of R2Al (R = Nb, Zr, Hf) shed light on the Nb2Al, Zr2Al, Hf2Al phases found experimentally in refractory high entropy alloys.

  13. AVAQ 594-597 deletion of the TfR2 gene in a Japanese family with hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Ai; Wakusawa, Shinnya; Hayashi, Hisao; Harashima, Ai; Sanae, Fujiko; Kawanaka, Miwa; Yamada, Gohtaro; Yano, Motoyashi; Yoshioka, Kenntaro

    2003-06-01

    The majority of Caucasian patients with hemochromatosis are homozygous for C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. In contrast to its high prevalence in Caucasians, hemochromatosis is a rare disorder in Japan. This may be due to the low prevalence of the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene in Japanese. Recent reports suggest that the mutations of transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) gene may be involved in non-HFE hemochromatosis. Therefore, we investigated the TfR2 gene of 6 sporadic and 5 familiar cases of Japanese hemochromatosis. Three siblings in one family were found to be homozygous for an AVAQ 594-597 deletion. All three had severe iron deposits in the hepatocytes and bile ducts, but none was affected by diabetes mellitus. This mutation was not detected in 100 control individuals. Further study was undertaken to investigate whether the large deletion of the TfR2 gene is the mutation responsible for some of the Japanese hemochromatosis cases.

  14. Reproducibility of R2 * and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) reconstruction methods in the basal ganglia of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Santin, M D; Didier, M; Valabrègue, R; Yahia Cherif, L; García-Lorenzo, D; Loureiro de Sousa, P; Bardinet, E; Lehéricy, S

    2017-04-01

    The basal ganglia are key structures for motor, cognitive and behavioral functions. They undergo several changes with aging and disease, such as Parkinson's or Huntington's disease, for example. Iron accumulation in basal ganglia is often related to these diseases, which is conventionally monitored by the transverse relaxation rate (R2 *). Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel contrast mechanism in MRI produced by adding information taken from the phase of the MR signal to its magnitude. It has been shown to be more sensitive to subtle changes in Parkinson's disease. In order to be applied widely to various pathologies, its reproducibility must be evaluated in order to assess intra-subject variability and to disseminate into clinical and pharmaceutical studies. In this work, we studied the reproducibility and sensitivity of several QSM techniques. Fourteen subjects were scanned four times, and QSM and R2 * images were reconstructed and registered. An atlas of the basal ganglia was used to automatically define regions of interest. We found that QSM measurements are indeed reproducible in the basal ganglia of healthy subjects and can be widely used as a replacement for R2 * mapping in iron-rich regions. This reproducibility study could lead to several lines of research in relaxometry and susceptibility measurements, in vivo iron load evaluation as well as pharmacological assessment and biomarker development. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A theoretical perspective on the accuracy of rotational resonance (R 2)-based distance measurements in solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2010-03-01

    The application of solid-state NMR methodology for bio-molecular structure determination requires the measurement of constraints in the form of 13C-13C and 13C-15N distances, torsion angles and, in some cases, correlation of the anisotropic interactions. Since the availability of structurally important constraints in the solid state is limited due to lack of sufficient spectral resolution, the accuracy of the measured constraints become vital in studies relating the three-dimensional structure of proteins to its biological functions. Consequently, the theoretical methods employed to quantify the experimental data become important. To accentuate this aspect, we re-examine analytical two-spin models currently employed in the estimation of 13C-13C distances based on the rotational resonance (R 2) phenomenon. Although the error bars for the estimated distances tend to be in the range 0.5-1.0 Å, R 2 experiments are routinely employed in a variety of systems ranging from simple peptides to more complex amyloidogenic proteins. In this article we address this aspect by highlighting the systematic errors introduced by analytical models employing phenomenological damping terms to describe multi-spin effects. Specifically, the spin dynamics in R 2 experiments is described using Floquet theory employing two different operator formalisms. The systematic errors introduced by the phenomenological damping terms and their limitations are elucidated in two analytical models and analysed by comparing the results with rigorous numerical simulations.

  16. Transcriptional Activity of Gene Encoding Subunits R1 and R2 of Interferon Gamma Receptor in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Slow Coronary Flow

    PubMed Central

    Faramarz-Gaznagh, Sanaz; Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad-Hasan; Seyed-Mohammadzad, Mir-Hossein; Bagheri, Morteza; Nemati, Mohadeseh; Shirpoor, Alireza; Saboori, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Slow coronary flow (SCF) is a coronary artery disorder characterized with delayed opacification of epicardial coronary arteries without obstructive coronary disease. The pathophysiological mechanisms of SCF remain unclear. One of the possible mechanisms that may participate in the pathology of SCF is endothelial dysfunction related to the inflammatory process. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an inflammatory cytokine that acts through its specific receptor composed of two subunits, IFN-γR1 and IFN-γR2. Transcriptional activity of the gene encoding these subunits influences IFN-γ activity. This study aimed to investigate the gene expression of IFN-γ receptor subunits in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with SCF. Methods The study was performed with 30 patients (22 male/8 female) aged 35–76 (52.8±11.7 years) with SCF and 15 sex- (11 male/4 female), Body Max Index (BMI)- and age-matched (54.73±9.42 years) healthy subjects. Total mRNA was extracted from PBMC and was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The relative expression values (2-ΔΔCt) between control and case groups were determined and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. Results There was a significant increase in the gene expression of IFN-γR1 in PBMC from SCF patients vs. controls (P< 0.0001); but the differences in IFN-γR2 gene expression were statistically insignificant between patient and control groups (P= 0.853). Conclusions It can be concluded that IFN-γ gene expression may influence the function of microvasculature and thereby contribute to the pathophysiology of SCF.

  17. Nucleotide sequence of the gene from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2 encoding the Mn-stabilizing protein involved in photosystem II water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabara, T.; Reddy, K.J.; Sherman, L.A.

    1987-12-01

    The gene for the Mn-stabilizing protein (MSP; the so-called extrinsic 33-kDa protein) that is involved in photosystem II water oxidation was cloned and sequenced from the genome of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2. The gene (here designated woxA) was shown to be present in a single copy. The deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the translation product consisted of 277 amino acid residues with a M/sub r/ of 29,306. The comparison of the sequence with that of mature MSP from spinach chloroplasts suggested that the translation product is a precursor whose amino-terminal 28 amino acid residues represent the signal peptide for the protein to cross the thylakoid membrane into the lumen. The length of the putative signal peptide was less than half that of the transit peptide for thylakoid-lumenal proteins of higher plants, whereas the structural profile of the putative signal peptide was similar to that of the carboxyl-terminal portion of the higher plant transit peptide. The amino acid sequence of the mature A. nidulans R2 MSP showed rather low homology (48-49%) to higher plant MSPs, but the conserved amino acid residues appeared to be clustered. Five clusters were tentatively assigned, in which the homology values were in a range of 66-70%. Domains essential for the functioning of MSP are expected to be situated in these clusters. It is of note that the two cysteine residues in MSP were conserved, and the disulfide linkage between them may play an important role in maintaining the tertiary structure of MSP.

  18. Dead element replicating: degenerate R2 element replication and rDNA genomic turnover in the Bacillus rossius stick insect (Insecta: Phasmida).

    PubMed

    Martoni, Francesco; Eickbush, Danna G; Scavariello, Claudia; Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    R2 is an extensively investigated non-LTR retrotransposon that specifically inserts into the 28S rRNA gene sequences of a wide range of metazoans, disrupting its functionality. During R2 integration, first strand synthesis can be incomplete so that 5' end deleted copies are occasionally inserted. While active R2 copies repopulate the locus by retrotransposing, the non-functional truncated elements should frequently be eliminated by molecular drive processes leading to the concerted evolution of the rDNA array(s). Although, multiple R2 lineages have been discovered in the genome of many animals, the rDNA of the stick insect Bacillus rossius exhibits a peculiar situation: it harbors both a canonical, functional R2 element (R2Brfun) as well as a full-length but degenerate element (R2Brdeg). An intensive sequencing survey in the present study reveals that all truncated variants in stick insects are present in multiple copies suggesting they were duplicated by unequal recombination. Sequencing results also demonstrate that all R2Brdeg copies are full-length, i. e. they have no associated 5' end deletions, and functional assays indicate they have lost the active ribozyme necessary for R2 RNA maturation. Although it cannot be completely ruled out, it seems unlikely that the degenerate elements replicate via reverse transcription, exploiting the R2Brfun element enzymatic machinery, but rather via genomic amplification of inserted 28S by unequal recombination. That inactive copies (both R2Brdeg or 5'-truncated elements) are not eliminated in a short term in stick insects contrasts with findings for the Drosophila R2, suggesting a widely different management of rDNA loci and a lower efficiency of the molecular drive while achieving the concerted evolution.

  19. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) total and extravascular signal changes and ΔR2* in human visual cortex at 1.5, 3.0 and 7.0 T.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Manus J; Hoogduin, Hans; van Zijl, Peter C M; Jezzard, Peter; Luijten, Peter R; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    The characterisation of the extravascular (EV) contribution to the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect is important for understanding the spatial specificity of BOLD contrast and for modelling approaches that aim to extract quantitative metabolic parameters from the BOLD signal. Using bipolar crusher gradients, total (b = 0 s/mm(2) ) and predominantly EV (b = 100 s/mm(2) ) gradient echo BOLD ΔR(2)* and signal changes (ΔS/S) in response to visual stimulation (flashing checkerboard; f = 8 Hz) were investigated sequentially (within < 3 h) at 1.5, 3.0 and 7.0 T in the same subgroup of healthy volunteers (n = 7) and at identical spatial resolutions (3.5 × 3.5 × 3.5 mm(3)). Total ΔR(2)* (z-score analysis) values were -0.61 ± 0.10 s(-1) (1.5 T), -0.74 ± 0.05 s(-1) (3.0 T) and -1.37 ± 0.12 s(-1) (7.0 T), whereas EV ΔR(2)* values were -0.28 ± 0.07 s(-1) (1.5 T), -0.52 ± 0.07 s(-1) (3.0 T) and -1.25 ± 0.11 s(-1) (7.0 T). Although EV ΔR(2)* increased linearly with field, as expected, it was found that EV ΔS/S increased less than linearly with field in a manner that varied with TE choice. Furthermore, unlike ΔR(2)*, total and EV ΔS/S did not converge at 7.0 T. These trends were similar whether a z-score analysis or occipital lobe-based region-of-interest approach was used for voxel selection. These findings suggest that calibrated BOLD approaches may benefit from an EV ΔR(2)* measurement as opposed to a ΔS/S measurement at a single TE.

  20. Guided random-walk calculation of energies and <r2> values of the 1Σg state of H2 in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encinosa, Mario

    1999-03-01

    Energies and spatial observables for the 1Σg state of the hydrogen molecule in magnetic fields parallel to the proton-proton axis are calculated with a guided random-walk Feynman-Kac algorithm. We demonstrate that the accuracy of the results and simplicity of the method may provide it a viable alternative to large basis-set expansions for small molecules in applied fields.

  1. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  2. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... earnings and profits or previously taxed income pursuant to an election made under section 1368(e)(3) and... AAA for redemptions and distributions in the year of a redemption. (c) Distribution of money and loss... the adjusted basis of which exceeds its fair market value on the date of the distribution and...

  3. Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Harmon Daniel B. Levine Stanley A. Horowitz, Project Leader INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES 4850 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1882 Approved...T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5112 Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition Bruce R. Harmon Daniel B. Levine...might do a better job? The focus of the study is on aircraft procurement. By way of terminology , “cost index,” “price index,” and “deflator” are used

  4. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  5. State-selective preparation of A r2 + and K r2 + by resonantly enhanced two-photon double ionization via intermediate Rydberg states using high-order harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kana; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Sato, Takahiro; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Yamanouchi, Kaoru

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous two-electron emission processes of Ar induced by high-order harmonics of near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses were investigated by coincidence photoelectron spectroscopy. Two-photon double ionization processes via the 3 s 3 p6n p (n ˜25 ) intermediate resonances of Ar were observed, which selectively created the 3 s 3 p51P state of A r2 + . The similar double ionization processes were also observed in Kr. The selective creation indicates that the core electron configuration of the doubly ionized state tends to be the same as that of the intermediate state and that the emitted two electrons tend to form the singlet state.

  6. Apoptosis Induction by Targeting Interferon Gamma Receptor 2 (IFNgammaR2) in Prostate Cancer: Ligand (IFNgamma)-Independent Novel Function of IFNgammaR2 as a Bax Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    1mg/kg) and cisplatin (5mg/kg) were treated every week to mice. In PC3 cell line experiments, more than a half of docetaxel-treated mice (2-3 out...using lower dose of docetaxel. In the case of cisplatin -treated A375 experiments, we were able to obtain preliminary results to determine the...Fig.3 panel A). Tumor growth after cisplatin -treatment was also suppressed by shRNA-mediated IFNγR2 knockdown (Fig.3 panel D) in comparison with

  7. Involvement of GluR2 up-regulation in neuroprotection by electroacupuncture pretreatment via cannabinoid CB1 receptor in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoyu; Chen, Xiyao; Gao, Yang; Sun, Sisi; Yang, Lei; Yang, Qianzi; Bai, Fuhai; Xiong, Lize; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) is involved in EA pretreatment-induced neuroprotection via cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) after global cerebral ischemia in mice. Two hours after electric acupuncture (EA) pretreatment, global cerebral ischemia (GCI) was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) for 20 min. The GluR2 expression was examined in the hippocampus after reperfusion. Cell survival, neuronal apoptosis, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and neurological scores were evaluated at 24 h after BCCAO in the presence or absence of the GluR2 inhibitor. Furthermore, the GluR2 was determined in the presence and absence of CB1R inhibitor. Our results showed EA pretreatment enhanced expression of GluR2 in the hippocampus 2 h after reperfusion. Moreover, EA pretreatment improved neurological outcome, promoted cell survival, inhibited neuronal apoptosis, and decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio after reperfusion. GluR2 knockdown by GluR2 siRNA effectively reversed the beneficial effects of EA pretreatment. Furthermore, CB1R siRNA and two CB1R antagonists blocked the elevation of GluR2 expression by EA pretreatment, whereas the two CB1R agonists up-regulated GluR2 expression as EA pretreatment. In conclusion, GluR2 up-regulation is involved in neuroprotection of EA pretreatment against GCI through CB1R, suggesting that GluR2 may be a novel target for stroke intervention. PMID:25830356

  8. 19 CFR 152.107 - Value if other values cannot be determined or used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methods set forth in §§ 152.103 through 152.106, reasonably adjusted to the extent necessary to arrive at... values of identical merchandise, or similar merchandise, already determined on the basis of deductive value or computed value may be used. (c) Deductive value. The “90 days” requirement for the sale...

  9. Decoupling of the antiferromagnetic and insulating states in Tb-doped S r2Ir O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. C.; Aswartham, S.; Ye, Feng; Terzic, J.; Zheng, H.; Haskel, Daniel; Chikara, Shalinee; Choi, Yong; Schlottmann, P.; Custelcean, Radu; Yuan, S. J.; Cao, G.

    2015-12-01

    S r2Ir O4 is a spin-orbit-coupled insulator with an antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition at TN=240 K . We report results of a comprehensive study of single-crystal S r2I r1 -xT bxO4(0 ≤x ≤0.03 ) . This study found that a mere 3% (x =0.03 ) of tetravalent T b4 +(4 f7 ) substituting for I r4 + (rather than S r2 + ) completely suppresses the long-range collinear AFM transition but retains the insulating state, leading to a phase diagram featuring a decoupling of the magnetic interactions and charge gap. The insulating state at x =0.03 is characterized by an unusually large specific heat at low temperatures and an incommensurate magnetic state having magnetic peaks at (0.95,0,0) and (0,0.95,0) in the neutron diffraction, suggesting a spiral or spin-density-wave order. It is apparent that Tb doping effectively changes the relative strength of the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and the tetragonal crystal electric field and enhances the Hund's rule coupling that competes with the SOI, and destabilizes the AFM state. However, the disappearance of the AFM is accompanied by no metallic state chiefly because an energy level mismatch for the Ir and Tb sites weakens charge carrier hopping and causes a persistent insulating state. This work highlights an unconventional correlation between the AFM and insulating states in which the magnetic transition plays no critical role in the formation of the charge gap in the iridate.

  10. Analysis of URI Nuclear Interaction with RPB5 and Components of the R2TP/Prefoldin-Like Complex

    PubMed Central

    Mita, Paolo; Savas, Jeffrey N.; Ha, Susan; Djouder, Nabil; Yates, John R.; Logan, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional prefoldin RPB5 Interactor (URI) was identified as a transcriptional repressor that binds RNA polymerase II (pol II) through interaction with the RPB5/POLR2E subunit. Despite the fact that many other proteins involved in transcription regulation have been shown to interact with URI, its nuclear function still remains elusive. Previous mass spectrometry analyses reported that URI is part of a novel protein complex called R2TP/prefoldin-like complex responsible for the cytoplasmic assembly of RNA polymerase II. We performed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis to identify nuclear proteins interacting with URI in prostate cells. We identified all the components of the R2TP/prefoldin-like complex as nuclear URI interactors and we showed that URI binds and regulates RPB5 protein stability and transcription. Moreover, we validated the interaction of URI to the P53 and DNA damage-Regulated Gene 1 (PDRG1) and show that PDRG1 protein is also stabilized by URI binding. We present data demonstrating that URI nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling is affected by compounds that stall pol II on the DNA (α-amanitin and actinomycin-D) and by leptomycin B, an inhibitor of the CRM1 exportin that mediates the nuclear export of pol II subunits. These data suggest that URI, and probably the entire R2TP/prefoldin-like complex is exported from the nucleus through CRM1. Finally we identified putative URI sites of phosphorylation and acetylation and confirmed URI sites of post-transcriptional modification identified in previous large-scale analyses the importance of which is largely unknown. However URI post-transcriptional modification was shown to be essential for URI function and therefore characterization of novel sites of URI modification will be important to the understanding of URI function. PMID:23667685

  11. SomamiR 2.0: a database of cancer somatic mutations altering microRNA-ceRNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; Cui, Yan

    2016-01-04

    SomamiR 2.0 (http://compbio.uthsc.edu/SomamiR) is a database of cancer somatic mutations in microRNAs (miRNA) and their target sites that potentially alter the interactions between miRNAs and competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) including mRNAs, circular RNAs (circRNA) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA). Here, we describe the recent major updates to the SomamiR database. We expanded the scope of the database by including somatic mutations that impact the interactions between miRNAs and two classes of non-coding RNAs, circRNAs and lncRNAs. Recently, a large number of miRNA target sites have been discovered by newly emerged high-throughput technologies for mapping the miRNA interactome. We have mapped 388 247 somatic mutations to the experimentally identified miRNA target sites. The updated database also includes a list of somatic mutations in the miRNA seed regions, which contain the most important guiding information for miRNA target recognition. A recently developed webserver, miR2GO, was integrated with the database to provide a seamless pipeline for assessing functional impacts of somatic mutations in miRNA seed regions. Data and functions from multiple sources including biological pathways and genome-wide association studies were updated and integrated with SomamiR 2.0 to make it a better platform for functional analysis of somatic mutations altering miRNA-ceRNA interactions.

  12. Multiple R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors Involved in the Regulation of Anthocyanin Accumulation in Peach Flower

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Peng, Qian; Zhao, Jianbo; Owiti, Albert; Ren, Fei; Liao, Liao; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Jiang, Quan; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin accumulation is responsible for flower coloration in peach. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of eight flavonoid-related R2R3-MYB transcription factors, designated PpMYB10.2, PpMYB9, PpMYBPA1, Peace, PpMYB17, PpMYB18, PpMYB19, and PpMYB20, respectively, in peach flower transcriptome. PpMYB10.2 and PpMYB9 are able to activate transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, whilst PpMYBPA1 and Peace have a strong activation on the promoters of proanthocyanin (PA) biosynthetic genes. PpMYB17-20 show a strong repressive effect on transcription of flavonoid pathway genes such as dihydroflavonol 4-reductase. These results indicate that anthocyanin accumulation in peach flower is coordinately regulated by a set of R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, PpMYB9 and PpMYB10.2 are closely related but separated into two groups, designated MYB9 and MYB10, respectively. PpMYB9 shows a strong activation on the PpUGT78A2 promoter, but with no effect on the promoter of PpUGT78B (commonly called PpUFGT in previous studies). In contrast, PpMYB10.2 is able to activate the PpUFGT promoter, but not for the PpUGT78A2 promoter. Unlike the MYB10 gene that is universally present in plants, the MYB9 gene is lost in most dicot species. Therefore, the PpMYB9 gene represents a novel group of anthocyanin-related MYB activators, which may have diverged in function from the MYB10 genes. Our study will aid in understanding the complex mechanism regulating floral pigmentation in peach and functional divergence of the R2R3-MYB gene family in plants. PMID:27818667

  13. Adjusting the Contour of Reflector Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Giebler, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Postfabrication adjustment of contour of panels for reflector, such as parabolic reflector for radio antennas, possible with simple mechanism consisting of threaded stud, two nuts, and flexure. Contours adjusted manually.

  14. 48 CFR 1450.103 - Contract adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract adjustments. 1450.103 Section 1450.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT... Contract adjustments....

  15. First Year Adjustment in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosemore, Jean Ann

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between adjustment to secondary school and 17 cognitive and noncognitive variables, including intelligence (verbal and nonverbal reasoning), academic achievement, extraversion-introversion, stable/unstable, social adjustment, endeavor, age, sex, and school form. (CP)

  16. Enhanced phagocytic activity of HIV-specific antibodies correlates with natural production of immunoglobulins with skewed affinity for FcγR2a and FcγR2b.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Margaret E; Dugast, Anne-Sophie; McAndrew, Elizabeth G; Tsoukas, Stephen; Licht, Anna F; Irvine, Darrell J; Alter, Galit

    2013-05-01

    While development of an HIV vaccine that can induce neutralizing antibodies remains a priority, decades of research have proven that this is a daunting task. However, accumulating evidence suggests that antibodies with the capacity to harness innate immunity may provide some protection. While significant research has focused on the cytolytic properties of antibodies in acquisition and control, less is known about the role of additional effector functions. In this study, we investigated antibody-dependent phagocytosis of HIV immune complexes, and we observed significant differences in the ability of antibodies from infected subjects to mediate this critical effector function. We observed both quantitative differences in the capacity of antibodies to drive phagocytosis and qualitative differences in their FcγR usage profile. We demonstrate that antibodies from controllers and untreated progressors exhibit increased phagocytic activity, altered Fc domain glycosylation, and skewed interactions with FcγR2a and FcγR2b in both bulk plasma and HIV-specific IgG. While increased phagocytic activity may directly influence immune activation via clearance of inflammatory immune complexes, it is also plausible that Fc receptor usage patterns may regulate the immune response by modulating downstream signals following phagocytosis--driving passive degradation of internalized virus, release of immune modulating cytokines and chemokines, or priming of a more effective adaptive immune response.

  17. Pulsed ELDOR spectroscopy measures the distance between the two tyrosyl dadicals in the R2 subunit of the E. coli ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Bennati, Marina; Weber, Axel; Antonic, Jelena; Perlstein, Deborah L; Robblee, John; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2003-12-10

    Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) to deoxynucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs). This RNR is composed of two homodimeric subunits: R1 and R2. R1 binds the NDPs in the active site, and R2 harbors the essential di-iron tyrosyl radical (Y*) cofactor. In this paper, we used PELDOR, a method that detects weak electron-electron dipolar coupling, to make the first direct measurement of the distance between the two Y*'s on each monomer of R2. In the crystal structure of R2, the Y*'s are reduced to tyrosines, and consequently R2 is inactive. In R2, where the Y*'s assume a well-defined geometry with respect to the protein backbone, the PELDOR method allows measurement of a distance of 33.1 +/- 0.2 A that compares favorably to the distance (32.4 A) between the center of mass of the spin density distribution of each Y* on each R2 monomer from the structure. The experiments provide the first direct experimental evidence for two Y*'s in a single R2 in solution.

  18. Genome-wide identification of cassava R2R3 MYB family genes related to abscission zone separation after environmental-stress-induced abscission

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wenbin; Yang, Yiling; Li, Yayun; Wang, Gan; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) resist environmental stresses by shedding leaves in leaf pulvinus abscission zones (AZs), thus leading to adaptation to new environmental conditions. Little is known about the roles of cassava R2R3 MYB factors in regulating AZ separation. Herein, 166 cassava R2R3 MYB genes were identified. Evolutionary analysis indicated that the 166 R2R3 MYB genes could be divided into 11 subfamilies. Transcriptome analysis indicated that 26 R2R3 MYB genes were expressed in AZs across six time points during both ethylene- and water-deficit stress-induced leaf abscission. Comparative expression profile analysis of similar SOTA (Self Organizing Tree Algorithm) clusters demonstrated that 10 R2R3 MYB genes had similar expression patterns at six time points in response to both treatments. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation confirmed that all 10 R2R3 MYB genes participated in the responses to stress and ethylene and auxin stimuli. Analysis of the putative 10 R2R3 MYB promoter regions showed that those genes primarily contained ethylene- and stress-related cis-elements. The expression profiles of the genes acting downstream of the selected MYBs were confirmed to be involved in cassava abscission zone separation. All these results indicated that R2R3 MYB plays an important regulatory role in AZ separation. PMID:27573926

  19. Proton-decoupled CPMG: A better experiment for measuring 15N R2 relaxation in disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuwen, Tairan; Skrynnikov, Nikolai R.

    2014-04-01

    15N R2 relaxation is one of the most informative experiments for characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Small changes in nitrogen R2 rates are often used to determine how IDPs respond to various biologically relevant perturbations such as point mutations, posttranslational modifications and weak ligand interactions. However collecting high-quality 15N relaxation data can be difficult. Of necessity, the samples of IDPs are often prepared with low protein concentration and the measurement time can be limited because of rapid sample degradation. Furthermore, due to hardware limitations standard experiments such as 15N spin-lock and CPMG can sample the relaxation decay only to ca. 150 ms. This is much shorter than 15N T2 times in disordered proteins at or near physiological temperature. As a result, the sampling of relaxation decay profiles in these experiments is suboptimal, which further lowers the precision of the measurements. Here we report a new implementation of the proton-decoupled (PD) CPMG experiment which allows one to sample 15N R2 relaxation decay up to ca. 0.5-1 s. The new experiment has been validated through comparison with the well-established spin-lock measurement. Using dilute samples of denatured ubiquitin, we have demonstrated that PD-CPMG produces up to 3-fold improvement in the precision of the data. It is expected that for intrinsically disordered proteins the gains may be even more substantial. We have also shown that this sequence has a number of favorable properties: (i) the spectra are recorded with narrow linewidth in nitrogen dimension; (ii) 15N offset correction is small and easy to calculate; (iii) the experiment is immune to various spurious effects arising from solvent exchange; (iv) the results are stable with respect to pulse miscalibration and rf field inhomogeneity; (v) with minimal change, the pulse sequence can also be used to measure R2 relaxation of 15Nε spins in arginine side chains. We anticipate that

  20. Proton-decoupled CPMG: a better experiment for measuring (15)N R2 relaxation in disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Yuwen, Tairan; Skrynnikov, Nikolai R

    2014-04-01

    (15)N R2 relaxation is one of the most informative experiments for characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Small changes in nitrogen R2 rates are often used to determine how IDPs respond to various biologically relevant perturbations such as point mutations, posttranslational modifications and weak ligand interactions. However collecting high-quality (15)N relaxation data can be difficult. Of necessity, the samples of IDPs are often prepared with low protein concentration and the measurement time can be limited because of rapid sample degradation. Furthermore, due to hardware limitations standard experiments such as (15)N spin-lock and CPMG can sample the relaxation decay only to ca. 150ms. This is much shorter than (15)N T2 times in disordered proteins at or near physiological temperature. As a result, the sampling of relaxation decay profiles in these experiments is suboptimal, which further lowers the precision of the measurements. Here we report a new implementation of the proton-decoupled (PD) CPMG experiment which allows one to sample (15)N R2 relaxation decay up to ca. 0.5-1s. The new experiment has been validated through comparison with the well-established spin-lock measurement. Using dilute samples of denatured ubiquitin, we have demonstrated that PD-CPMG produces up to 3-fold improvement in the precision of the data. It is expected that for intrinsically disordered proteins the gains may be even more substantial. We have also shown that this sequence has a number of favorable properties: (i) the spectra are recorded with narrow linewidth in nitrogen dimension; (ii) (15)N offset correction is small and easy to calculate; (iii) the experiment is immune to various spurious effects arising from solvent exchange; (iv) the results are stable with respect to pulse miscalibration and rf field inhomogeneity; (v) with minimal change, the pulse sequence can also be used to measure R2 relaxation of (15)N(ε) spins in arginine side chains. We

  1. Generalized adjustment by least squares ( GALS).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elassal, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The least-squares principle is universally accepted as the basis for adjustment procedures in the allied fields of geodesy, photogrammetry and surveying. A prototype software package for Generalized Adjustment by Least Squares (GALS) is described. The package is designed to perform all least-squares-related functions in a typical adjustment program. GALS is capable of supporting development of adjustment programs of any size or degree of complexity. -Author

  2. 49 CFR 393.53 - Automatic brake adjusters and brake adjustment indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... brake adjustment indicators. (a) Automatic brake adjusters (hydraulic brake systems). Each commercial motor vehicle manufactured on or after October 20, 1993, and equipped with a hydraulic brake...

  3. The feasibility and application of gray scale adjustment method in high temperature digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shen; Yao, Xue Feng; Su, Yun Quan; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the basic principle and application of linear gray scale adjustment method are investigated in high temperature digital image correlation (DIC) technology. First, the simple linear gray scale adjustment method is proposed, which can adjust the gray scale value of the saturated pixels and diminish the correlation error caused by the saturated pixels. Then, both the simulated high temperature images and DIC correlation results before and after the gray scale adjustment are provided and analyzed to verify its effectiveness, in which the displacement error decreased from 0.1 pixels to 0.04 pixels after the linear gray scale adjustment for high temperature images. Finally, the linear gray scale adjustment method is used to extract the displacement with high accuracy in high temperature experiment of SiC specimen, and the displacement error decreased from 0.5 pixels to 0.1 pixels after the linear gray scale adjustment.

  4. Reduction of the tyrosyl radical and the iron center in protein R2 of ribonucleotide reductase from mouse, herpes simplex virus and E. coli by p-alkoxyphenols.

    PubMed

    Pötsch, S; Sahlin, M; Langelier, Y; Gräslund, A; Lassmann, G

    1995-10-23

    The rate of reduction of the tyrosyl radical in the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (protein R2) from E. coli, mouse, and herpes simplex virus (HSV-2) by a series of p-alkoxyphenols with different alkyl chains, have been studied by stopped-flow UV-vis and stopped-flow EPR spectroscopy. The reduction and release of iron in R2 by the inhibitors was followed using bathophenanthroline as chelator of Fe2+. p-Alkoxyphenols reduce the mouse R2 tyrosyl radical 1-2 orders of magnitude faster than the HSV-2 and E. coli radical. In contrast to E. coli, the iron center in R2 from mouse and HSV-2 is reduced by the inhibitors. For mouse R2, the rate of reduction of the tyrosyl radical increases in parallel with increasing alkyl chain length of the inhibitor, an observation which may be important for the design of new antiproliferative drugs.

  5. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  6. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  7. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  8. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  9. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  10. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  11. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  12. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  13. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  14. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  15. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  16. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  17. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  18. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  19. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  20. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  1. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  2. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  3. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  4. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  5. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  6. Teachers and Their International Relocation: The Effect of Self-Efficacy and Flexibility on Adjustment and Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Kirchenheim, Clement; Richardson, Warnie

    2005-01-01

    In this study the adjustment process in a designated group of expatriates, (teachers), who have severed ties with their home country and employer is investigated. Based on existing literature, the value of self-efficacy and flexibility on the adjustment process was explored. It was hypothesised that adjustment would result in reduced turnover…

  7. ADJUSTING DEVELOPMENT TO SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability in any ecosystem is conditioned by properties established by nature. Intervention into ecosystems for the purposes of developing the built/socio-physical environment involves value judgments regarding human well-being. Therefore, if development is sustainable, it m...

  8. Effect of gender on psychosocial adjustment of colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background Stoma can pose extensive challenges for colorectal cancer survivors. Identifying the psychological and social adjustment among them and how it differs by gender will aid in identifying those particularly at risk of having poor adjustment and in planning programs to improve their adjustment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of gender on psychosocial adjustment of colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in the stoma clinic of B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal. A purposive sample of 122 patients with ostomy was taken from the above mentioned setting. Selection criteria included colorectal cancer survivors having ostomy for at least 6 months. Data on socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected. Psychosocial adjustment was measured using Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23 (OAI-23). Results A total of 122 patients were included in the study. Mean time since ostomy surgery was 2.53 and 1.98 years for men and women respectively. Both men and women had significant impairment in the psychosocial adjustment, however, men had significantly lower psychosocial adjustment score (37.68±12.96 vs. 43.45±12.81, t=−2.47, P=0.015) at 95% CI as compared to women and they reported more negative emotions. Furthermore, men significantly predicted low acceptance {β=−3.078, P=0.023, ΔR2=0.036, F [4,117] =7.90, P<0.001} and social engagement score {β=−2.501, P<0.001, ΔR2=0.098, F [4,117] =6.03, P<0.001}. Conclusions Colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy should be monitored for psychosocial concerns in regular basis and health care providers should tailor care based on their need. Approaches of survivorship care and psychosocial interventions in colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy should take into account gender specific concerns and requirements to aid adjustment. PMID:28078117

  9. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  10. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  11. Redeeming Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitwell, Stuart C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an essay on organizational transformation and the way successful marketing transformations redeem a sense of value. Focuses on challenges faced by not-for-profit institutions, current changes in the library profession, and implications of the American Library Association's Goal 2000. A sidebar summarizes an interview with the director of…

  12. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  13. Endonuclease domain of non-LTR retrotransposons: loss-of-function mutants and modeling of the R2Bm endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Aruna; Cortez, Jeremy D.; Reveal, Brad; Christensen, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-LTR retrotransposons are an important class of mobile elements that insert into host DNA by target-primed reverse transcription (TPRT). Non-LTR retrotransposons must bind to their mRNA, recognize and cleave their target DNA, and perform TPRT at the site of DNA cleavage. As DNA binding and cleavage are such central parts of the integration reaction, a better understanding of the endonuclease encoded by non-LTR retrotransposons is needed. This paper explores the R2 endonuclease domain from Bombyx mori using in vitro studies and in silico modeling. Mutations in conserved sequences located across the putative PD-(D/E)XK endonuclease domain reduced DNA cleavage, DNA binding and TPRT. A mutation at the beginning of the first α-helix of the modeled endonuclease obliterated DNA cleavage and greatly reduced DNA binding. It also reduced TPRT when tested on pre-cleaved DNA substrates. The catalytic K was located to a non-canonical position within the second α-helix. A mutation located after the fourth β-strand reduced DNA binding and cleavage. The motifs that showed impaired activity form an extensive basic region. The R2 biochemical and structural data are compared and contrasted with that of two other well characterized PD-(D/E)XK endonucleases, restriction endonucleases and archaeal Holliday junction resolvases. PMID:26961309

  14. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of small R2R‧2N+X--type quaternary ammonium halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busi, Sara; Lahtinen, Manu; Mansikkamäki, Heidi; Valkonen, Jussi; Rissanen, Kari

    2005-06-01

    Twenty-one R2R'2N +X- -type ( R=methyl or ethyl, R'=alkyl, X=Br or I) quaternary ammonium (QA) halides have been prepared by using a novel one-pot synthetic route in which a formamide (dimethyl-, diethylformamide, etc.) is treated with alkyl halide in the presence of sodium or potassium carbonate. The formation of QA halides was verified with 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The crystal structures of four QA halides (two bromide and two iodide) were determined using X-ray single crystal diffraction, and the powder diffraction method was used to study the structural similarities between the single crystal and microcrystalline bulk material. The thermal properties of all compounds were studied using TG/DTA and DSC methods. The smallest compounds decomposed during or before melting. The decreasing trend of melting points was observed when the alkyl chain length was increased. The liquid ranges of 120-180 °C were observed for compounds with 5-6 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain. The low melting points and wide liquid ranges suggest potential applicability of these compounds for example as ionic liquids precursors.

  15. Expression of the sweetpotato R2R3-type IbMYB1a gene induces anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hyosub; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Kim, Wook-Jin; Chung, Dong Min; Jeon, Hyo Kon; Ahn, Young Ock; Kim, Sun Ha; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Kim, Cha Young

    2013-06-01

    R2R3-type MYB transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in transcriptional regulation of anthocyanins. The R2R3-type IbMYB1 is known to be a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the storage roots of sweetpotato. We previously showed that transient expression of IbMYB1a led to anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves. In this article, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the IbMYB1a gene under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, and the sweetpotato SPO and SWPA2 promoters. Overexpression of IbMYBa in transgenic Arabidopsis produced strong anthocyanin pigmentation in seedlings and generated a deep purple color in leaves, stems and seeds. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that IbMYB1a expression induced upregulation of several structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, including 4CL, CHI, F3'H, DFR, AGT, AAT and GST. Furthermore, overexpression of IbMYB1a led to enhanced expression of the AtTT8 (bHLH) and PAP1/AtMYB75 genes. high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that IbMYB1a expression led to the production of cyanidin as a major core molecule of anthocyanidins in Arabidopsis, as occurs in the purple leaves of sweetpotato (cv. Sinzami). This result shows that the IbMYB1a TF is sufficient to induce anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings, leaves, stems and seeds of Arabidopsis plants.

  16. Targeting Death Receptor TRAIL-R2 by Chalcones for TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szliszka, Ewelina; Jaworska, Dagmara; Kłósek, Małgorzata; Czuba, Zenon P.; Król, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL binds to death receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5) expressed on cancer cell surface and activates apoptotic pathways. Endogenous TRAIL plays an important role in immune surveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL mediated death, it is important to search for and develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. Chalcones can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL in combination with four chalcones: chalcone, isobavachalcone, licochalcone A and xanthohumol on HeLa cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC staining by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Death receptor expression was analyzed using flow cytometry. The decreased expression of death receptors in cancer cells may be the cause of TRAIL-resistance. Chalcones enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through increased expression of TRAIL-R2. Our study has indicated that chalcones augment the antitumor activity of TRAIL and confirm their cancer chemopreventive properties. PMID:23203129

  17. Solid-solution stability and preferential site-occupancy in (R-R')2Fe14B compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, C. V.; Ito, M.; Yano, M.; Dempsey, N. M.; Suard, E.; Givord, D.

    2016-06-01

    The rare-earth (R) uniaxial anisotropy of R2Fe14B compounds with magnetic R atoms (e.g., Nd or Pr) is at the origin of the exceptional hard magnetic properties achieved in magnets based on these compounds. The uniaxial anisotropy found in Ce2Fe14B is attributed mainly to the magnetism of Fe. Ce is the most abundant R element and there has been much recent effort to fabricate magnets in which Ce is partially substituted for Nd. In the present neutron study of (R1-xCex)2Fe14B (R = La or Nd), Ce is found to enter the R2Fe14B phase over the entire composition range. The crystallographic parameters decrease with increasing Ce content and the Ce atoms preferentially occupy the smaller 4f sites. It is concluded that Ce in these (RR')2Fe14B compounds essentially maintains the intermediate valence character found in Ce2Fe14B. It is proposed that, in this intermediate valence state, Ce weakly contributes to uniaxial anisotropy, thus making a link with the fact that significant coercivity is preserved in Ce-substituted NdFeB magnets.

  18. Electrically tunable transport and high-frequency dynamics in antiferromagnetic S r3I r2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seinige, Heidi; Williamson, Morgan; Shen, Shida; Wang, Cheng; Cao, Gang; Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B.; Tsoi, Maxim

    2016-12-01

    We report dc and high-frequency transport properties of antiferromagnetic S r3I r2O7 . Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements show that the activation energy of this material can be tuned by an applied dc electrical bias. The latter allows for continuous variations in the sample resistivity of as much as 50% followed by a reversible resistive switching at higher biases. Such a switching is of high interest for antiferromagnetic applications in high-speed memory devices. Interestingly, we found the switching behavior to be strongly affected by a high-frequency (microwave) current applied to the sample. The microwaves at 3-7 GHz suppress the dc switching and produce resonancelike features that we tentatively associated with the dissipationless magnonics recently predicted to occur in antiferromagnetic insulators subject to ac electric fields. We have characterized the effects of microwave irradiation on electronic transport in S r3I r2O7 as a function of microwave frequency and power, strength and direction of external magnetic field, strength and polarity of applied dc bias, and temperature. Our observations support the potential of antiferromagnetic materials for high-speed/high-frequency spintronic applications.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations of the ligand-binding domain of the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR2.

    PubMed Central

    Arinaminpathy, Yalini; Sansom, Mark S P; Biggin, Philip C

    2002-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors are essential for fast synaptic nerve transmission. Recent x-ray structures for the ligand-binding (S1S2) region of the GluR2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-sensitive receptor have suggested how differences in protein/ligand interactions may determine whether a ligand will behave as a full agonist. We have used multiple molecular dynamics simulations of 2-5 ns duration to explore the structural dynamics of GluR2 S1S2 in the presence and absence of glutamate and in a complex with kainate. Our studies indicate that not only is the degree of domain closure dependent upon interactions with the ligand, but also that protein/ligand interactions influence the motion of the S2 domain with respect to S1. Differences in domain mobility between the three states (apo-S1S2, glutamate-bound, and kainate-bound) are surprisingly clear-cut. We discuss how these changes in dynamics may provide an explanation relating the mechanism of transmission of the agonist-binding event to channel opening. We also show here how the glutamate may adopt an alternative mode of binding not seen in the x-ray structure, which involves a key threonine (T480) side chain flipping into a new conformation. This new conformation results in an altered pattern of hydrogen bonding at the agonist-binding site. PMID:11806910

  20. Genome-wide analysis of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoyang; Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    MYB transcription factor represents one of the largest gene families in plant genomes. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, and recently the genome has been sequenced. This provides an opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary characteristics of sweet orange MYB genes from whole genome view. In the present study, we identified 100 R2R3-MYB genes in the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive analysis of this gene family was performed, including the phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization and expression pattern analyses. The 100 genes were divided into 29 subfamilies based on the sequence similarity and phylogeny, and the classification was also well supported by the highly conserved exon/intron structures and motif composition. The phylogenomic comparison of MYB gene family among sweet orange and related plant species, Arabidopsis, cacao and papaya suggested the existence of functional divergence during evolution. Expression profiling indicated that sweet orange R2R3-MYB genes exhibited distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns. Our analysis suggested that the sweet orange MYB genes may play important roles in different plant biological processes, some of which may be potentially involved in citrus fruit quality. These results will be useful for future functional analysis of the MYB gene family in sweet orange.

  1. ScbR- and ScbR2-mediated signal transduction networks coordinate complex physiological responses in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Juan; Li, Shanshan; Ji, Junjie; Wang, Weishan; Yang, Keqian

    2015-10-07

    In model organism Streptomyces coelicolor, γ-butyrolactones (GBLs) and antibiotics were recognized as signalling molecules playing fundamental roles in intra- and interspecies communications. To dissect the GBL and antibiotic signalling networks systematically, the in vivo targets of their respective receptors ScbR and ScbR2 were identified on a genome scale by ChIP-seq. These identified targets encompass many that are known to play important roles in diverse cellular processes (e.g. gap1, pyk2, afsK, nagE2, cdaR, cprA, cprB, absA1, actII-orf4, redZ, atrA, rpsL and sigR), and they formed regulatory cascades, sub-networks and feedforward loops to elaborately control key metabolite processes, including primary and secondary metabolism, morphological differentiation and stress response. Moreover, interplay among ScbR, ScbR2 and other regulators revealed intricate cross talks between signalling pathways triggered by GBLs, antibiotics, nutrient availability and stress. Our work provides a global view on the specific responses that could be triggered by GBL and antibiotic signals in S. coelicolor, among which the main echo was the change of production profile of endogenous antibiotics and antibiotic signals manifested a role to enhance bacterial stress tolerance as well, shedding new light on GBL and antibiotic signalling networks widespread among streptomycetes.

  2. Exploring Mexican American adolescent romantic relationship profiles and adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Moosmann, Danyel A.V.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Although Mexican Americans are the largest ethnic minority group in the nation, knowledge is limited regarding this population's adolescent romantic relationships. This study explored whether 12th grade Mexican Americans’ (N = 218; 54% female) romantic relationship characteristics, cultural values, and gender created unique latent classes and if so, whether they were linked to adjustment. Latent class analyses suggested three profiles including, relatively speaking, higher, satisfactory, and lower quality romantic relationships. Regression analyses indicated these profiles had distinct associations with adjustment. Specifically, adolescents with higher and satisfactory quality romantic relationships reported greater future family expectations, higher self-esteem, and fewer externalizing symptoms than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Similarly, adolescents with higher quality romantic relationships reported greater academic self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Overall, results suggested higher quality romantic relationships were most optimal for adjustment. Future research directions and implications are discussed. PMID:26141198

  3. A Standard FODO Lattice with Adjustable Momentum Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trbojevic, D.; Courant, E. D.

    1997-05-01

    An exisisting lattice made of identical FODO cells can be modified to have adjustable momentum compaction. The modified lattice consists of repeating superperiods of four FODO cells where every two cells have different horizontal phase advance. In exisiting FODO cell rings an additional quad bus is required for every two consecutive cells. This allows tuning of the momentum compaction or γt (transition) to any desired value. A value of the γt could be an imaginary number. A drawback of this modification is relatively large values of the dispersion function (two or three times larger than in the regular FODO cell design).

  4. Rational Reprogramming of the R2 Subunit of Escherichia coli Ribonucleotide Reductase into a Self-Hydroxylating Monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.; Voegtli, W.C.; Khidekel, N.; Moënne-Loccoz, P.; Krebs, C.; Ley, B.A.; Huynh, B.H.; Loehr, T.M.; Rosenzweig, A.C.; Bollinger, Jr., J.M.

    2010-03-05

    The outcome of O{sub 2} activation at the diiron(II) cluster in the R2 subunit of Escherichia coli (class I) ribonucleotide reductase has been rationally altered from the normal tyrosyl radical (Y122) production to self-hydroxylation of a phenylalanine side-chain by two amino acid substitutions that leave intact the (histidine){sub 2}-(carboxylate){sub 4} ligand set characteristic of the diiron-carboxylate family. Iron ligand Asp (D) 84 was replaced with Glu (E), the amino acid found in the cognate position of the structurally similar diiron-carboxylate protein, methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH). We previously showed that this substitution allows accumulation of a {mu}-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) intermediate, which does not accumulate in the wild-type (wt) protein and is probably a structural homologue of intermediate P (H{sub peroxo}) in O{sub 2} activation by MMOH. In addition, the near-surface residue Trp (W) 48 was replaced with Phe (F), blocking transfer of the 'extra' electron that occurs in wt R2 during formation of the formally Fe(III)Fe(IV) cluster X. Decay of the {mu}-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) complex in R2-W48F/D84E gives an initial brown product, which contains very little Y122 and which converts very slowly (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 7 h) upon incubation at 0 C to an intensely purple final product. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the purple product indicates that F208 has undergone {epsilon}-hydroxylation and the resulting phenol has shifted significantly to become a ligand to Fe2 of the diiron cluster. Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the purple product generated with {sup 16}O{sub 2} or {sub 18}O{sub 2} show appropriate isotopic sensitivity in bands assigned to O-phenyl and Fe-O-phenyl vibrational modes, confirming that the oxygen of the Fe(III)-phenolate species is derived from O{sub 2}. Chemical analysis, experiments involving interception of the hydroxylating intermediate with exogenous reductant, and Moessbauer and EXAFS characterization of the brown

  5. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, NMR, NBO, NLO) investigation and molecular docking study of (R)-2-Methylamino-1-Phenylethanol (Halostachine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashini, K.; Govindarajan, R.; Surendran, R.; Mukund, K.; Periandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm-1) spectra of (R)-2-Methylamino-1-Phenylethanol have been recorded in solid phase, 1H and 13C NMR in deuterated chloroform (CDCl3) phase and UV spectrum (200-400 nm) in solid phase and in ethanol solution. The different conformers of the compound and their minimum energies were studied by potential energy surface scan, using semi-empirical method PM6. The computed wavenumbers obtained from B3LYP and B3PW91 functionals along with 6-311++G (d, p) basis sets were scaled so as to agree with the experimental values and the scaling factors have been reported. All the fundamental modes have been assigned based on the potential energy distribution (PED) values and the structure of the molecule was analyzed in parameters like bond length, bond angle and dihedral angles through B3LYP and B3PW91 functionals along with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The values of dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α) and hyper polarizability (β) of the molecule were calculated using which, the non-linear optical property of the molecule has been discussed. The observed HOMO-LUMO mappings reveals the different charge transfer possibilities within the molecule. Natural Bond Orbital analysis was computed and possible transitions were correlated with the electronic transitions. Mulliken charges, electrostatic potential charges and natural charges are also predicted. The theoretical 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were computed using B3LYP functionals using 6-311++G (2d, p) basis sets. The temperature dependence of the thermodynamic properties; heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy for the title compound were also determined by B3LYP functionals with 6-311++G (d, p) basis set. Molecular docking study shows that the title compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against Bacillus anthracis (3V5O).

  6. Structural adjustment: the wrong prescription for Africa?

    PubMed

    Logie, D E; Woodroffe, J

    1993-07-03

    The medical and social consequences and the wide effects of the African structural adjustment program (SAP), specifically for women and children, and examples of the impact in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Senegal, are discussed. Structural adjustment is defined and the history of its inception is provided. Significant economic and social welfare improvement occurred during the 1960s and 1970s, and considerable decline occurred during the 1980s. The present reality is that Africa,m contrary to popular myths about being a "bottomless pit of Western charity," transfers $10 billion/year to the rich North. Debtor countries are 61% more indebted in 1990 than they were in 1982. During the 1980s, oil prices and interest rates rose dramatically, African export prices dropped, and industrialized countries set up protectionist policies. In addition, there was civil war, drought, poor leadership which put military spending before poverty reduction, and the AIDS epidemic. The Western response was to restructure debt payments in return for implementation of SAPs. Structural adjustment involved a package of trade liberalization, devaluation, removal of government subsidies and price controls, privatization, credit shortages, higher interest rates, and "cost recovery" in health and education. The theory is that economic growth will "ultimately" lead to poverty reduction. A critical view is that SAP insures debt repayment, export of cheap raw materials to the North, and may not sustain longterm economic growth. The results for the poor have been high prices for food, transportation, school and medical fees, and a decline in wages and unemployment. Land is used for exports. A solution is to reduce the debt burden, to place the needs of the poor as a top priority in SAPs, and to put pressure on the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and governments to consider health outcomes. Other alternatives noted in the African Framework to SAPs are to place well being and self-reliance as

  7. Performance of an adjustable, threaded inertance tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W. J.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.; Nellis, G. F.; Liu, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of the Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler depends strongly on the design of the inertance tube. The phase angle produced by the inertance tube is very sensitive to its diameter and length. Recent developments are reported here regarding an adjustable inertance device that can be adjusted in real time. The inertance passage is formed by the root of a concentric cylindrical threaded device. The depth of the threads installed on the outer screw varies. In this device, the outer screw can be rotated four and half turns. At the zero turn position the length of the passage is 1.74 m and the hydraulic diameter is 7 mm. By rotating the outer screw, the inner threaded rod engages with additional, larger depth threads. Therefore, at its upper limit of rotation, the inertance passage includes both the original 1.74 m length with 7mm hydraulic diameter plus an additional 1.86 m length with a 10 mm hydraulic diameter. A phase shift change of 24° has been experimentally measured by changing the position of outer screw while operating the device at a frequency of 60 Hz. This phase angle shift is less than the theoretically predicted value due to the presence of a relatively large leak through the thread clearance. Therefore, the distributed component model of the inertance tube was modified to account for the leak path causing the data to agree with the model. Further, the application of vacuum grease to the threads causes the performance of the device to improve substantially.

  8. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine. PMID:25019265

  9. Affordable Care Act risk adjustment: overview, context, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C; Keenan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 2014, individuals and small businesses will be able to purchase private health insurance through competitive marketplaces. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides for a program of risk adjustment in the individual and small group markets in 2014 as Marketplaces are implemented and new market reforms take effect. The purpose of risk adjustment is to lessen or eliminate the influence of risk selection on the premiums that plans charge and the incentive for plans to avoid sicker enrollees. This article--the first of three in the Medicare & Medicaid Research Review--describes the key program goal and issues in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) developed risk adjustment methodology, and identifies key choices in how the methodology responds to these issues. The goal of the HHS risk adjustment methodology is to compensate health insurance plans for differences in enrollee health mix so that plan premiums reflect differences in scope of coverage and other plan factors, but not differences in health status. The methodology includes a risk adjustment model and a risk transfer formula that together address this program goal as well as three issues specific to ACA risk adjustment: 1) new population; 2) cost and rating factors; and 3) balanced transfers within state/market. The risk adjustment model, described in the second article, estimates differences in health risks taking into account the new population and scope of coverage (actuarial value level). The transfer formula, described in the third article, calculates balanced transfers that are intended to account for health risk differences while preserving permissible premium differences.

  10. 46 CFR 309.6 - Adjustments for condition, equipment, and other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments for condition, equipment, and other considerations. 309.6 Section 309.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS VALUES FOR WAR RISK INSURANCE § 309.6 Adjustments for condition, equipment, and...

  11. 46 CFR 309.6 - Adjustments for condition, equipment, and other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjustments for condition, equipment, and other... OPERATIONS VALUES FOR WAR RISK INSURANCE § 309.6 Adjustments for condition, equipment, and other... stated valuation. (b) Special equipment. If the depreciated reproduction cost less construction...

  12. Trend Damping: Under-Adjustment, Experimental Artifact, or Adaptation to Features of the Natural Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Nigel; Reimers, Stian

    2013-01-01

    People's forecasts from time series underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones. This trend damping may occur because (a) people anchor on the last data point and make insufficient adjustment to take the trend into account, (b) they adjust toward the average of the trends they have encountered within the…

  13. The mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator, SAR218645, improves memory and attention deficits in translational models of cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Griebel, Guy; Pichat, Philippe; Boulay, Denis; Naimoli, Vanessa; Potestio, Lisa; Featherstone, Robert; Sahni, Sukhveen; Defex, Henry; Desvignes, Christophe; Slowinski, Franck; Vigé, Xavier; Bergis, Olivier E.; Sher, Rosy; Kosley, Raymond; Kongsamut, Sathapana; Black, Mark D.; Varty, Geoffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Normalization of altered glutamate neurotransmission through activation of the mGluR2 has emerged as a new approach to treat schizophrenia. These studies describe a potent brain penetrant mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SAR218645. The compound behaves as a selective PAM of mGluR2 in recombinant and native receptor expression systems, increasing the affinity of glutamate at mGluR2 as inferred by competition and GTPγ35S binding assays. SAR218645 augmented the mGluR2-mediated response to glutamate in a rat recombinant mGluR2 forced-coupled Ca2+ mobilization assay. SAR218645 potentiated mGluR2 agonist-induced contralateral turning. When SAR218645 was tested in models of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, it reduced head twitch behavior induced by DOI, but it failed to inhibit conditioned avoidance and hyperactivity using pharmacological and transgenic models. Results from experiments in models of the cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia showed that SAR218645 improved MK-801-induced episodic memory deficits in rats and attenuated working memory impairment in NMDA Nr1neo−/− mice. The drug reversed disrupted latent inhibition and auditory-evoked potential in mice and rats, respectively, two endophenotypes of schizophrenia. This profile positions SAR218645 as a promising candidate for the treatment of cognitive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia, in particular those with abnormal attention and sensory gating abilities. PMID:27734956

  14. Analysis of the 5{prime} junctions of R2 insertions with the 28S gene: Implications for non-LTR retrotransposition

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.A.; Burke, W.D.; Eickbush, T.H.

    1996-03-01

    R2 elements are non-long terminal repeat retrotransposable elements that insert into 28S rRNA genes of most insect species. The single open reading frame of R2 encodes a protein with both endonuclease activity, which cleaves the target site, and reverse transcriptase activity, which uses this cleavage to prime reverse transcription. This target-primed reverse transcription mechanism is also used by group II introns. Little is known of the mechanism by which the 5{prime} end of R2 is integrated after reverse transcription. We have determined the 5{prime} junction sequence of 94 R2 elements from 14 different species of Drosophila. Only 37% of the full-length elements contained precise 5{prime} junctions; the remainder contained deletions of the 28S gene and/or insertions of additional sequences. Because the 5{prime} junctions of truncated copies were similar to full-length elements, no sequences at the 5{prime} end of R2 appear to be required for element integration. A model in which the R2 reverse transcriptase is capable of switching templates from the R2 RNA transcript to the upstream 28S gene can best explain the observed 5{prime} junction sequences. This template jumping is analogous to the template switching of retroviral reverse transcriptases during formation of the double-stranded integration products. 44 refs., 5 figs.

  15. PATZ1 induces PP4R2 to form a negative feedback loop on IKK/NF-κB signaling in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming-Yi; Liang, Chi-Ming; Liang, Shu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Activation of IKK enhances NF-κB signaling to facilitate cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Here, we uncover the existence of a negative feedback loop of IKK. The transcription factor PATZ1 induces protein phosphatase-4 (PP4) regulatory subunit 2 (PP4R2) in an IKK-dependent manner. PP4R2 enhances the binding of PP4 to phosphorylated IKK to inactivate IKK/NF-κB signaling during sustained stimulation by cellular stimuli such as growth factors and inflammatory mediators. Matched pair studies reveal that primary lung cancers express more PATZ1 and PP4R2 than lymph node metastases in patients. Ectopic PATZ1 decreases invasion/colonization of lung cancers and prolongs the survival of xenograft mice. These effects of PATZ1 are reversed by downregulating PP4R2. Our results suggest that PATZ1 and PP4R2 provide negative feedback on IKK/NF-κB signaling to prevent cancer cells from over-stimulation from cellular stimuli; a decline in PATZ1 and PP4R2 is functionally associated with cancer migration/invasion and agents enhancing PATZ1 and PP4R2 are worth exploring to prevent invasion/metastasis of lung cancers. PMID:27391343

  16. The mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator, SAR218645, improves memory and attention deficits in translational models of cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Griebel, Guy; Pichat, Philippe; Boulay, Denis; Naimoli, Vanessa; Potestio, Lisa; Featherstone, Robert; Sahni, Sukhveen; Defex, Henry; Desvignes, Christophe; Slowinski, Franck; Vigé, Xavier; Bergis, Olivier E; Sher, Rosy; Kosley, Raymond; Kongsamut, Sathapana; Black, Mark D; Varty, Geoffrey B

    2016-10-13

    Normalization of altered glutamate neurotransmission through activation of the mGluR2 has emerged as a new approach to treat schizophrenia. These studies describe a potent brain penetrant mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SAR218645. The compound behaves as a selective PAM of mGluR2 in recombinant and native receptor expression systems, increasing the affinity of glutamate at mGluR2 as inferred by competition and GTPγ(35)S binding assays. SAR218645 augmented the mGluR2-mediated response to glutamate in a rat recombinant mGluR2 forced-coupled Ca(2+) mobilization assay. SAR218645 potentiated mGluR2 agonist-induced contralateral turning. When SAR218645 was tested in models of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, it reduced head twitch behavior induced by DOI, but it failed to inhibit conditioned avoidance and hyperactivity using pharmacological and transgenic models. Results from experiments in models of the cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia showed that SAR218645 improved MK-801-induced episodic memory deficits in rats and attenuated working memory impairment in NMDA Nr1(neo-/-) mice. The drug reversed disrupted latent inhibition and auditory-evoked potential in mice and rats, respectively, two endophenotypes of schizophrenia. This profile positions SAR218645 as a promising candidate for the treatment of cognitive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia, in particular those with abnormal attention and sensory gating abilities.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of gingipain R2 from Porphyromonas gingivalis in complex with H-D-Phe-Phe-Arg-chloromethylketone.

    PubMed Central

    Banbula, A.; Potempa, J.; Travis, J.; Bode, W.; Medrano, F. J.

    1998-01-01

    Gingipain R2 is a 50 kDa proteinase from the oral pathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. This proteinase, which displays no significant sequence homology to any protein previously analyzed by X-ray crystallography, has been crystallized using the vapor diffusion method. Two different crystal forms were obtained from a solution containing polyethylene glycol (MW 8,000) (space group P2(1)2(1)2(1)) or magnesium sulfate (space group R3) as precipitating agent. Complete diffraction data sets have been collected up to 2.0 and 2.9 A resolution, respectively. Cell dimensions are a = 51.9 A, b = 79.9 A, and c = 99.6 A (P2(1)2(1)2(1)), and a = b = 176.6 A, and c = 143.4 A (R3). Considerations of the possible values of Vm accounts for the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit in the case of the orthorhombic crystal form, whereas the rhombohedral crystal form, together with the analysis of the self-rotation function, could accommodate a tetramer in the asymmetric unit. PMID:9605333

  18. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  19. FeC r2O4 spinel to near megabar pressures: Orbital moment collapse and site-inversion facilitated spin crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. M.; Hearne, G. R.; Layek, S.; Levy, D.; Itié, J.-P.; Pasternak, M. P.; Rozenberg, G. Kh.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between lattice, orbital, and spin degrees of freedom in iron chromite (spinel [Fe ] {C r2 } O4) has been investigated to near megabar pressures. The cubic-to-tetragonal transition, from static Jahn-Teller distortions at the Fe locality, rises from TJ -T˜135 K at ambient pressure to 300 K by ˜12 GPa . The tetragonal distortion progressively increases and orbital moment quenching is triggered beyond ˜24 GPa , as monitored by the magnetic hyperfine field Hh f at Fe sites. In the range 30-60 GPa, original F e2 + tetrahedral sites with an unquenched orbital moment (Hh f˜20 T ) coexist with newly evolved F e2 + at tetrahedral sites having the orbital moment quenched and a resultant large Hh f˜35 T . Additionally, new F e2 + sites having distinguishable orbital moment quenching signatures (Hh f˜42 T ) are discerned. Those sites also have other Fe nuclear hyperfine interaction parameter values typical of F e2 + in octahedral coordination. There is a concurrent change to a steeper decrease of unit-cell volume as pressure rises above ˜30 GPa . These electronic and lattice responses are interpreted as signatures of progressive partial spinel inversion from high-spin Fe ↔Cr tetrahedral/octahedral site exchange, triggered near ˜30 GPa . Beyond 60 GPa a new diamagnetic low-spin Mössbauer spectral component emerges. This is preceded by an inflection and discontinuity in the pressure dependence of the resistance and tetragonal unit-cell volume, respectively. By ˜93 GPa , half of the iron is low spin in octahedral sites from evolved tetragonal-spinel inversion processes. The remainder reside in tetrahedral high-spin sites with Hh f˜30 T . The charge gap from electron correlations does not close, despite an anticipated appreciable band broadening from a ˜30 % unit-cell volume reduction upon pressurization to ˜93 GPa . This is attributable to an increase in effective on-site repulsion (Hubbard Ueff) with increasing pressure or at spin crossover, specific

  20. Kinetic evidence that a radical transfer pathway in protein R2 of mouse ribonucleotide reductase is involved in generation of the tyrosyl free radical.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P P; Rova, U; Katterle, B; Thelander, L; Gräslund, A

    1998-08-21

    Class I ribonucleotide reductases consist of two subunits, R1 and R2. The active site is located in R1; active R2 contains a diferric center and a tyrosyl free radical (Tyr.), both essential for enzymatic activity. The proposed mechanism for the enzymatic reaction includes the transport of a reducing equivalent, i.e. electron or hydrogen radical, across a 35-A distance between Tyr. in R2 and the active site in R1, which are connected by a hydrogen-bonded chain of conserved, catalytically essential amino acid residues. Asp266 and Trp103 in mouse R2 are part of this radical transfer pathway. The diferric/Tyr. site in R2 is reconstituted spontaneously by mixing iron-free apoR2 with Fe(II) and O2. The reconstitution reaction requires the delivery of an external reducing equivalent to form the diferric/Tyr. site. Reconstitution kinetics were investigated in mouse apo-wild type R2 and the three mutants D266A, W103Y, and W103F by rapid freeze-quench electron paramagnetic resonance with >/=4 Fe(II)/R2 at various reaction temperatures. The kinetics of Tyr. formation in D266A and W103Y is on average 20 times slower than in wild type R2. More strikingly, Tyr. formation is completely suppressed in W103F. No change in the reconstitution kinetics was found starting from Fe(II)-preloaded proteins, which shows that the mutations do not affect the rate of iron binding. Our results are consistent with a reaction mechanism using Asp266 and Trp103 for delivery of the external reducing equivalent. Further, the results with W103F suggest that an intact hydrogen-bonded chain is crucial for the reaction, indicating that the external reducing equivalent is a H. Finally, the formation of Tyr. is not the slowest step of the reaction as it is in Escherichia coli R2, consistent with a stronger interaction between Tyr. and the iron center in mouse R2. A new electron paramagnetic resonance visible intermediate named mouse X, strikingly similar to species X found in E. coli R2, was detected only

  1. 3-Benzyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones as mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators: Hit-to lead and lead optimization.

    PubMed

    Duplantier, Allen J; Efremov, Ivan; Candler, John; Doran, Angela C; Ganong, Alan H; Haas, Jessica A; Hanks, Ashley N; Kraus, Kenneth G; Lazzaro, John T; Lu, Jiemin; Maklad, Noha; McCarthy, Sheryl A; O'Sullivan, Theresa J; Rogers, Bruce N; Siuciak, Judith A; Spracklin, Douglas K; Zhang, Lei

    2009-05-01

    The discovery, synthesis and SAR of a novel series of 3-benzyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of mGluR2 is described. Expedient hit-to-lead work on a single HTS hit led to the identification of a ligand-efficient and structurally attractive series of mGluR2 PAMs. Human microsomal clearance and suboptimal physicochemical properties of the initial lead were improved to give potent, metabolically stable and orally available mGluR2 PAMs.

  2. Thermoelectric Properties of Layered Pd Oxide R2PdO4 (R = La, Nd, Sm, and Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibasaki, Soichiro; Terasaki, Ichiro

    2006-02-01

    We prepared polycrystalline samples of R2PdO4 (R = La, Nd, Sm, and Gd) using a NaCl flux technique. The measured resistivity is of the order of 103-104 Ω cm at room temperature, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than those reported so far. We also studied the substitution effects of Ce for Nd in Nd1.9Ce0.1PdO4, where the substituted Ce decreases resistivity and the magnitude of thermopower. Activation energy gap of 70-80 meV and an effective mass of 15 evaluated from the measured data are suitable for thermoelectric materials, but a mobility of 10-6 cm2/(V\\cdots) is much lower than typical mobilities of 1-10 cm2/(V\\cdots) for other thermoelectric oxides.

  3. Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells; January 28, 2010 -- January 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Slafer, D.; Dalal, V.

    2012-03-01

    Final subcontract report for PV Incubator project 'Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells.' The goal of this program was to produce tandem Si cells using photonic bandgap enhancement technology developed at ISU and Lightwave Power that would have an NREL-verified efficiency of 7.5% on 0.25 cm{sup 2} area tandem junction cell on plastic substrates. This goal was met and exceeded within the timeframe and budget of the program. On smaller area cells, the efficiency was even higher, {approx}9.5% (not verified by NREL). Appropriate polymers were developed to fabricate photonic and plasmonic devices on stainless steel, Kapton and PEN substrates. A novel photonic-plasmon structure was developed which shows a promise of improving light absorption in thin film cells, a better light absorption than by any other scheme.

  4. Design of a reliable PUF circuit based on R-2R ladder digital-to-analog convertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pengjun, Wang; Xuelong, Zhang; Yuejun, Zhang; Jianrui, Li

    2015-07-01

    A novel physical unclonable functions (PUF) circuit is proposed, which relies on non-linear characteristic of analog voltage generated by R-2R ladder DAC. After amplifying the deviation signal, the robustness of the DAC-PUF circuit has increased significantly. The DAC-PUF circuit is designed in TSMC 65 nm CMOS technology and the layout occupies 86.06 × 63.56 μm2. Monte Carlo simulation results show that the reliability of the DAC-PUF circuit is above 98% over a comprehensive range of environmental variation, such as temperature and supply voltage. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474068, 61404076, 61274132), the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LQ14F040001), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  5. (abstract) A Test of the Theoretical Models of Bipolar Outflows: The Bipolar Outflow in Mon R2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul; Patel, Nimesh

    1993-01-01

    We report some results of a study of the massive bipolar outflow in the central region of the relatively nearby giant molecular cloud Monoceros R2. We make a quantative comparison of our results with the Shu et al. outflow model which incorporates a radially directed wind sweeping up the ambient material into a shell. We find that this simple model naturally explains the shape of this thin shell. Although Shu's model in its simplest form predicts with reasonable parameters too much mass at very small polar angles, as previously pointed out by Masson and Chernin, it provides a reasonable good fit to the mass distribution at larger polar angles. It is possible that this discrepancy is due to inhomogeneities of the ambient molecular gas which is not considered by the model. We also discuss the constraints imposed by these results on recent jet-driven outflow models.

  6. Production of ethyl (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutanoate via reduction of ethyl 2-oxo-4-phenylbutanoate in an interface bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Oda, S; Inada, Y; Kobayashi, A; Ohta, H

    1998-09-01

    Ethyl (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutanoate [(R)-EHPB], a useful intermediate for the synthesis of various anti-hypertension drugs, was produced via microbial reduction of ethyl 2-oxo-4-phenylbutanoate [EOPB] in an interface bioreactor. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 0920 and Candida holmii KPY 12402 were selected as the best type culture and isolated yeasts, respectively. The highest enantiomeric excess of (R)-EHPB produced by R. minuta and C. holmii were 95 and 94%, respectively. C. holmii was used for the reduction of EOPB in a pad-packed interface bioreactor (inner volume, 3 liter). After incubation for 4 days, 4.4 g of (R)-EHPB was obtained via extraction with methanol followed by column chromatography. The overall yield, chemical purity, and enantiomeric excess of (R)-EHPB were 58%, 99.1%, and 90%, respectively.

  7. Building cancer control capacity: a mixed-method evaluation of the Research to Reality (R2R) Mentorship Program.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Michael; Purcell, E Peyton; Michie, Joan S; Tsakraklides, Sophia P; La Porta, Madeline; Vinson, Cynthia

    2014-02-20

    In 2011, the National Cancer Institute launched the Research to Reality (R2R) Pilot Mentorship Program to enhance mentees' core evidence-based public health (EBPH) competencies. In this article, we describe the program and its evaluation results and the program's ability to improve participants' EBPH competencies and appropriateness of program components. Program evaluation consisted of a pre/post program competency questionnaire and interviews with mentees, mentors, mentees' supervisors, and program staff. Mentees reported the same or higher rating in every competency at end of the program, with average increase of 0.6 points on a 4-point scale; the greatest improvements were seen in policy development/program planning. Mentorship programs are a promising strategy to develop EBPH competencies, provide guidance, and disseminate and adapt evidence-based interventions within real-world context.

  8. Early increase in DcR2 expression and late activation of caspases in the platelet storage lesion.

    PubMed

    Plenchette, S; Moutet, M; Benguella, M; N'Gondara, J P; Guigner, F; Coffe, C; Corcos, L; Bettaieb, A; Solary, E

    2001-10-01

    Platelet transfusion is widely used to prevent bleeding in patients with severe thrombocytopenia. The maximal storage duration of platelet concentrates is usually 5 days, due to the platelet storage lesion that impairs their functions when stored for longer times. Some of the morphological and biochemical changes that characterize this storage lesion are reminiscent of cell death by apoptosis. The present study analyzed whether proteins involved in nucleated cell apoptosis could play a role in the platelet storage lesion. Storage of leukocyte-depleted platelets obtained by apheresis is associated with a late and limited activation of caspases, mainly caspase-3. This event correlates with an increased expression of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim in the particulate fraction and a slight and late release of the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein Diablo/Smac in the cytosol. Platelets do not express the death receptors Fas, DR4 and DR5 on their plasma membrane, while the expression of the decoy receptor DcR2 increases progressively during platelet storage. Addition of low concentrations of the cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide accelerates platelet caspase activation during storage, an effect that is partially prevented by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Altogether, DcR2 expression on the plasma membrane is an early event while caspase activation is a late event during platelet storage. These observations suggest that caspases are unlikely to account for the platelet storage lesion. As a consequence, addition of caspase inhibitors may not improve the quality of platelet concentrates stored in standard conditions.

  9. Origin of inflation in CFT driven cosmology: R^2-gravity and non-minimally coupled inflaton models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.; Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Nesterov, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    We present a detailed derivation of the recently suggested new type of hill-top inflation [arXiv:1509.07270] originating from the microcanonical density matrix initial conditions in cosmology driven by conformal field theory (CFT). The cosmological instantons of topology S^1× S^3, which set up these initial conditions, have the shape of a garland with multiple periodic oscillations of the scale factor of the spatial S^3-section. They describe underbarrier oscillations of the inflaton and scale factor in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum, which gives a sufficient amount of inflation required by the known CMB data. We build the approximation of two coupled harmonic oscillators for these garland instantons and show that they can generate inflation consistent with the parameters of the CMB primordial power spectrum in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and in R^2 gravity. In particular, the instanton solutions provide smallness of inflationary slow-roll parameters ɛ and η <0 and their relation ɛ ˜ η ^2 characteristic of these two models. We present the mechanism of formation of hill-like inflaton potentials, which is based on logarithmic loop corrections to the asymptotically shift-invariant tree-level potentials of these models in the Einstein frame. We also discuss the role of R^2-gravity as an indispensable finite renormalization tool in the CFT driven cosmology, which guarantees the non-dynamical (ghost free) nature of its scale factor and special properties of its cosmological garland-type instantons. Finally, as a solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale we discuss the concept of a hidden sector of conformal higher spin fields.

  10. Planning Value vs Earned Value

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    20 196 10 98 7 Postmortem 4 200 2 100 Les Dupaix - 17Earned Value Duration Charts Gantt (Bar) Chart Si lmp e Can show dependencies Tracking planned vs...7 7 4 2 Identify Requirements 78 86 39 43 4 6 96 103 43 3 Match Requirements 20 106 10 53 5 7 24 127 53 to Phases 4 Identify Risk Areas 20 126 10 63

  11. Coercively Adjusted Auto Regression Model for Forecasting in Epilepsy EEG

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Faloutsos, Christos; Yang, Hyung-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, data with complex characteristics such as epilepsy electroencephalography (EEG) time series has emerged. Epilepsy EEG data has special characteristics including nonlinearity, nonnormality, and nonperiodicity. Therefore, it is important to find a suitable forecasting method that covers these special characteristics. In this paper, we propose a coercively adjusted autoregression (CA-AR) method that forecasts future values from a multivariable epilepsy EEG time series. We use the technique of random coefficients, which forcefully adjusts the coefficients with −1 and 1. The fractal dimension is used to determine the order of the CA-AR model. We applied the CA-AR method reflecting special characteristics of data to forecast the future value of epilepsy EEG data. Experimental results show that when compared to previous methods, the proposed method can forecast faster and accurately. PMID:23710252

  12. A Herschel-SPIRE survey of the Mon R2 giant molecular cloud: analysis of the gas column density probability density function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, R.; Gutermuth, R.; Ali, B.; Megeath, T.; Pipher, J.; Myers, P.; Fischer, W. J.; Henning, T.; Wolk, S. J.; Allen, L.; Tobin, J. J.

    2016-09-01

    We present a far-IR survey of the entire Mon R2 giant molecular cloud (GMC) with Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver cross-calibrated with Planck-High Frequency Instrument data. We fit the spectral energy distributions of each pixel with a greybody function and an optimal beta value of 1.8. We find that mid-range column densities obtained from far-IR dust emission and near-IR extinction are consistent. For the entire GMC, we find that the column density histogram, or column density probability distribution function (N-PDF), is lognormal below ˜1021 cm-2. Above this value, the distribution takes a power law form with an index of -2.15. We analyse the gas geometry, N-PDF shape, and young stellar object (YSO) content of a selection of subregions in the cloud. We find no regions with pure lognormal N-PDFs. The regions with a combination of lognormal and one power-law N-PDF have a YSO cluster and a corresponding centrally concentrated gas clump. The regions with a combination of lognormal and two power-law N-PDF have significant numbers of typically younger YSOs but no prominent YSO cluster. These regions are composed of an aggregate of closely spaced gas filaments with no concentrated dense gas clump. We find that for our fixed scale regions, the YSO count roughly correlates with the N-PDF power-law index. The correlation appears steeper for single power-law regions relative to two power-law regions with a high column density cut-off, as a greater dense gas mass fraction is achieved in the former. A stronger correlation is found between embedded YSO count and the dense gas mass among our regions.

  13. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  14. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  15. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  16. 26 CFR 1.861-12T - Characterization rules and adjustments for certain assets (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the following examples. Example 1. X, an affiliated group that uses the tax book value method of... apportionment, the tax book value of the Y stock is, therefore, considered to be $1,020. Example 2. X, an... book value method. The adjusted basis of its assets that generate domestic income is $7,500,000....

  17. 26 CFR 1.861-12T - Characterization rules and adjustments for certain assets (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the following examples. Example 1. X, an affiliated group that uses the tax book value method of... apportionment, the tax book value of the Y stock is, therefore, considered to be $1,020. Example 2. X, an... book value method. The adjusted basis of its assets that generate domestic income is $7,500,000....

  18. 26 CFR 1.861-12T - Characterization rules and adjustments for certain assets (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the following examples. Example 1. X, an affiliated group that uses the tax book value method of... apportionment, the tax book value of the Y stock is, therefore, considered to be $1,020. Example 2. X, an... book value method. The adjusted basis of its assets that generate domestic income is $7,500,000....

  19. 26 CFR 1.861-12T - Characterization rules and adjustments for certain assets (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the following examples. Example 1. X, an affiliated group that uses the tax book value method of... apportionment, the tax book value of the Y stock is, therefore, considered to be $1,020. Example 2. X, an... book value method. The adjusted basis of its assets that generate domestic income is $7,500,000....

  20. Valuing hope.

    PubMed

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  1. (1R,2S,6R)-Papayanal: a new male-specific volatile compound released by the guava weevil Conotrachelus psidii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Romero-Frías, Alicia; Murata, Yasuhiro; Simões Bento, José Maurício; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-05-01

    The guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii is an aggressive pest of guava (Psidium guajava L.) that causes irreparable damages inside the fruit. The volatile compounds of male and female insects were separately collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction or with dynamic headspace collection on a polymer sorbent, and comparatively analyzed by GC-MS. (1R,2S,6R)-2-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane (papayanol), and (1R,2S,6R)-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane-2-carbaldehyde (papayanal) were identified (ratio of 9:1, respectively) as male-specific guava weevil volatiles. Papayanal structure was confirmed by comparison of spectroscopic (EIMS) and chromatographic (retention time) data with those of the synthetic pure compound. The behavioral response of the above-mentioned compounds was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, and their role as aggregation pheromone candidate components was suggested in this species.

  2. Multi-adjustable headband. [for headsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toole, Pierce C. (Inventor); Chalson, Howard E. (Inventor); Bussey, Walter S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to a headband for a headset having separate coarse and fine adjustment features. The adjustments may be to the axial distance between at least one earpiece element and a side support. Such adjustment to the axial distance varies the pressure exerted on the head of the user. The present fine adjustment feature may be used while the headset is being worn, thereby permitting a user to optimize the amount of pressure between the contending criteria of comfort and keeping the headset in place on the user's head.

  3. Standardization of age-adjusted mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-02-01

    Because age is a significant variable in the occurrence and frequency of human disease, any comparison of disease or mortality rates, to be useful, must be age-specific or age-adjusted. Age-specific comparisons are not always appropriate or possible, however. A common method of eliminating the influence of age in comparing mortality rates from one community to another is to employ statistical methods of age-adjustment. While a variety of methods will accomplish this task, most are weighted averages of the age-specific rates. Two widely used adjustment procedures are direct and indirect age-adjustment.

  4. Alternate Splicing of Interleukin-1 Receptor Type II (IL1R2) In Vitro Correlates with Clinical Glucocorticoid Responsiveness in Patients with AIED

    PubMed Central

    Vambutas, Andrea; DeVoti, James; Goldofsky, Elliot; Gordon, Michael; Lesser, Martin; Bonagura, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED) is poorly characterized clinically, with no definitive laboratory test. All patients suspected of having AIED are given glucocorticoids during periods of acute hearing loss, however, only half initially respond, and still fewer respond over time. We hypothesized that AIED is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by dysfunctional peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) responses to a unique cochlear antigen(s). To test this hypothesis, we examined end-stage AIED patients undergoing cochlear implant surgery and compared autologous perilymph stimulated PBMC from AIED patients to controls. We determined that autologous perilymph from AIED patients was unable to induce expression of a long membrane-bound Interleukin-1 Receptor Type II (mIL1R2) transcript in PBMC as compared with controls, despite similar expression of the short soluble IL1R2 (sIL1R2) transcript (p<0.05). IL1R2 is a molecular decoy that traps interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and does not initiate subsequent signaling events, thereby suppressing an inflammatory response. IL1R2 transcript length is regulated by alternate splicing, and the major inhibitory function is attributed to the full-length mIL1R2. In addition, IL1R2 expression is induced by dexamethasone. Separately, we prospectively examined patients with newer onset glucocorticoid-responsive AIED. Immediately prior to clinical treatment for acute deterioration of hearing thresholds, their PBMC demonstrated a robust induction of mIL1R2 in PBMC in response to dexamethasone in vitro that correlated with a clinical response to prednisone in vivo (p<0.0001) as measured by hearing restoration. In contrast, clinically steroid unresponsive patients demonstrated high basal levels of mIL1R2 in their PBMC and only minimally augmented expression in response to dexamethasone. Thus, induced expression of mIL1R2 appears to be a protective mechanism in hearing homeostasis and warrants further investigation in a large

  5. Adjustable fetal phantom for pulse oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubán, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2009-05-01

    As the measuring head of a fetal pulse oximeter must be attached to the head of the fetus inside the mother's uterus during labor, testing, and developing of fetal pulse oximeters in real environment have several difficulties. A fetal phantom could enable evaluation of pulse oximeters in a simulated environment without the restrictions and difficultness of medical experiments in the labor room. Based on anatomic data we developed an adjustable fetal head phantom with three different tissue layers and artificial arteries. The phantom consisted of two arteries with an inner diameter of 0.2 and 0.4 mm. An electronically controlled pump produced pulse waves in the arteries. With the phantom we investigated the sensitivity of a custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter at different pulsation intensity and artery diameters. The results showed that the oximeter was capable of identifying 4% and 2% changes in diameter between the diastolic and systolic point in arteries of over 0.2 and 0.4 mm inner diameter, respectively. As the structure of the phantom is based on reported anatomic values, the results predict that the investigated custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter has sufficient sensitivity to detect the pulse waves and to calculate the R rate on the fetal head.

  6. Seat adjustment--capacity and repeatability among occupants in a modern car.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Svensson, Mats Y; Björnstig, Ulf

    2008-02-01

    Families in the Western world have a car and several family members share the same car. In this study, 154 participants have adjusted a driver's seat three times. The primary objective was to study intrapersonal repeatability and intraclass correlation (ICC) on seat; length adjustment, backrest angle, seat front edge and seat rear edge adjustment, related to participant age, sex, stature and weight. Length adjustment has the best intrapersonal repeatability within two repetitions, 49 mm and ICC-value 0.87. Females and younger participants (age < 40 years) adjust seats generally more accurately. Females adjust the seat 41 mm more forward, 120 mm compared to men 79 mm counted from 0-starting position. Females sit with more upright seat backrests, 46 degree compared to 43 degrees for males counted from 0-starting position. Females sit higher than males in both the frontal and rear part of the seat cushion.

  7. 1-[(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-4-phenylpiperidines as mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators for the treatment of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Brodney, Michael A; Candler, John; Doran, Angela C; Duplantier, Allen J; Efremov, Ivan V; Evrard, Edel; Kraus, Kenneth; Ganong, Alan H; Haas, Jessica A; Hanks, Ashley N; Jenza, Keith; Lazzaro, John T; Maklad, Noha; McCarthy, Sheryl A; Qian, Weimin; Rogers, Bruce N; Rottas, Melinda D; Schmidt, Christopher J; Siuciak, Judith A; Tingley, F David; Zhang, Andy Q

    2011-03-24

    A novel series of mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), 1-[(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-4-phenylpiperidines, is herein disclosed. Structure-activity relationship studies led to potent, selective mGluR2 PAMs with excellent pharmacokinetic profiles. A representative lead compound (+)-17e demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and mescaline-induced scratching in mice, providing support for potential efficacy in treating psychosis.

  8. Host Protein BSL1 Associates with Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effector AVR2 and the Solanum demissum Immune Receptor R2 to Mediate Disease Resistance[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Diane G.O.; Breen, Susan; Win, Joe; Schornack, Sebastian; Hein, Ingo; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Champouret, Nicolas; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Birch, Paul R.J.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-01-01

    Plant pathogens secrete effector proteins to modulate plant immunity and promote host colonization. Plant nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immunoreceptors recognize specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly. Little is known about how NB-LRR proteins recognize effectors of filamentous plant pathogens, such as Phytophthora infestans. AVR2 belongs to a family of 13 sequence-divergent P. infestans RXLR effectors that are differentially recognized by members of the R2 NB-LRR family in Solanum demissum. We report that the putative plant phosphatase BSU-LIKE PROTEIN1 (BSL1) is required for R2-mediated perception of AVR2 and resistance to P. infestans. AVR2 associates with BSL1 and mediates the interaction of BSL1 with R2 in planta, possibly through the formation of a ternary complex. Strains of P. infestans that are virulent on R2 potatoes express an unrecognized form, Avr2-like (referred to as A2l). A2L can still interact with BSL1 but does not promote the association of BSL1 with R2. Our findings show that recognition of the P. infestans AVR2 effector by the NB-LRR protein R2 requires the putative phosphatase BSL1. This reveals that, similar to effectors of phytopathogenic bacteria, recognition of filamentous pathogen effectors can be mediated via a host protein that interacts with both the effector and the NB-LRR immunoreceptor. PMID:22885736

  9. Digitalis purpurea P5 beta R2, encoding steroid 5 beta-reductase, is a novel defense-related gene involved in cardenolide biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bermúdez, Pedro; García, Aurelio A Moya; Tuñón, Iñaki; Gavidia, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    The stereospecific 5 beta-reduction of progesterone is a required step for cardiac glycoside biosynthesis in foxglove plants. Recently, we have isolated the gene P5 beta R, and here we investigate the function and regulation of P5 beta R2, a new progesterone 5 beta-reductase gene from Digitalis purpurea. P5 beta R2 cDNA was isolated from a D. purpurea cDNA library and further characterized at the biochemical, structural and physiological levels. Like P5 beta R, P5 beta R2 catalyzes the 5 beta-reduction of the Delta(4) double bond of several steroids and is present in all plant organs. Under stress conditions or on treatment with chemical elicitors, P5 beta R expression does not vary, whereas P5 beta R2 is highly responsive. P5 beta R2 expression is regulated by ethylene and hydrogen peroxide. The correlation between P5 beta R2 expression and cardenolide formation demonstrates the key role of this gene in cardenolide biosynthesis, and therefore in the chemical defense of foxglove plants.

  10. Research on the Solid State Fermentation of Jerusalem Artichoke Pomace for Producing R,R-2,3-Butanediol by Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9.

    PubMed

    Cao, Can; Zhang, Li; Gao, Jian; Xu, Hong; Xue, Feng; Huang, Weiwei; Li, Yan

    2016-12-10

    R,R-2,3-butanediol (R,R-2,3-BD) was produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9, which was capable of utilizing inulin without previous hydrolysis. The Jerusalem artichoke pomace (JAP) derived from the conversion of Jerusalem artichoke powder into inulin extract, which was usually used for biorefinery by submerged fermentation (SMF), was utilized in solid state fermentation (SSF) to produce R,R-2,3-BD. In this study, the fermentation parameters of SSF were optimized and determined in flasks. A novel bioreactor was designed and assembled for the laboratory scale-up of SSF, with a maximum yield of R,R-2,3-BD (67.90 g/kg (JAP)). This result is a 36.3% improvement compared with the flasks. Based on the same bath of Jerusalem artichoke powder, the total output of R,R-2,3-BD increased by 38.8% for the SSF of JAP combined with the SMF of inulin extraction. Overall, the utilization of JAP for R,R-2,3-BD production was beneficial to the comprehensive utilization of Jerusalem artichoke tuber.

  11. 2.6 Å X-ray Crystal Structure of Human p53R2, a p53 Inducible Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Peter; Zhou, Bingsen; Ho, Nam; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Su, Leila; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Yen, Yun

    2009-01-01

    Human p53R2 (hp53R2) is a 351 residue p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) small subunit. It shares >80% sequence identity with hRRM2, the small RNR subunit responsible for normal maintenance of the deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) pool used for DNA replication, which is active during the S-phase in a cell-cycle dependent fashion. But rather than cyclic dNTP synthesis, hp53R2 has been shown to supply dNTPs for DNA repair to cells in G0-G1 in a p53-dependent fashion. The first x-ray crystal structure of hp53R2 is solved to 2.6 Å, in which monomers A and B exhibit mono- and bi-nuclear iron occupancy, respectively. The pronounced structural differences at three regions between hp53R2 and hRRM2 highlight the possible regulatory role in iron assimilation, and help explain previously observed physical and biochemical differences in the mobility and accessibility of the radical-iron center, as well as radical transfer pathways between the two enzymes. The sequence-structure-function correlations that differentiate hp53R2 and hRRM2 are revealed for the first time. Insight gained from this structural work will be used toward the identification of biological function, regulation mechanism and inhibitors selection in RNR small subunits. PMID:19728742

  12. Regulation of cel genes of C. cellulolyticum: identification of GlyR2, a transcriptional regulator regulating cel5D gene expression.

    PubMed

    Fendri, Imen; Abdou, Laetitia; Trotter, Valentine; Dedieu, Luc; Maamar, Hédia; Minton, Nigel P; Tardif, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Transcription and expression regulation of some individual cel genes (cel5A, cel5I, cel5D and cel44O) of Clostridium cellulolyticum were investigated. Unlike the cip-cel operon, these genes are transcribed as monocistronic units of transcription, except cel5D. The location of the transcription initiation sites was determined using RT-PCR and the mRNA 5'-end extremities were detected using primer extension experiments. Similarly to the cip-cel operon, cel5A and cel5I expressions are regulated by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism, whereas cel44O and cel5D expressions do not seem to be submitted to this regulation. The role of the putative transcriptional regulator GlyR2 in the regulation of cel5D expression was investigated. The recombinant protein GlyR2 was produced and was shown to bind in vitro to the cel5D and glyR2 promoter regions, suggesting that besides regulating its own expression, GlyR2 may regulate cel5D expression. To test this hypothesis in vivo, an insertional glyR2 mutant was generated and the effect of this disruption on cel5D expression was evaluated. Levels of cel5D mRNAs in the mutant were 16 fold lower than that of the wild-type strain suggesting that GlyR2 acts as an activator of cel5D expression.

  13. Host protein BSL1 associates with Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector AVR2 and the Solanum demissum Immune receptor R2 to mediate disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Diane G O; Breen, Susan; Win, Joe; Schornack, Sebastian; Hein, Ingo; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Champouret, Nicolas; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Birch, Paul R J; Gilroy, Eleanor M; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-08-01

    Plant pathogens secrete effector proteins to modulate plant immunity and promote host colonization. Plant nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immunoreceptors recognize specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly. Little is known about how NB-LRR proteins recognize effectors of filamentous plant pathogens, such as Phytophthora infestans. AVR2 belongs to a family of 13 sequence-divergent P. infestans RXLR effectors that are differentially recognized by members of the R2 NB-LRR family in Solanum demissum. We report that the putative plant phosphatase BSU-LIKE PROTEIN1 (BSL1) is required for R2-mediated perception of AVR2 and resistance to P. infestans. AVR2 associates with BSL1 and mediates the interaction of BSL1 with R2 in planta, possibly through the formation of a ternary complex. Strains of P. infestans that are virulent on R2 potatoes express an unrecognized form, Avr2-like (referred to as A2l). A2L can still interact with BSL1 but does not promote the association of BSL1 with R2. Our findings show that recognition of the P. infestans AVR2 effector by the NB-LRR protein R2 requires the putative phosphatase BSL1. This reveals that, similar to effectors of phytopathogenic bacteria, recognition of filamentous pathogen effectors can be mediated via a host protein that interacts with both the effector and the NB-LRR immunoreceptor.

  14. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  15. Automatic dynamic range adjustment for ultrasound B-mode imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonhwa; Kang, Jinbum; Yoo, Yangmo

    2015-02-01

    In medical ultrasound imaging, dynamic range (DR) is defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the displayed signal to display and it is one of the most essential parameters that determine its image quality. Typically, DR is given with a fixed value and adjusted manually by operators, which leads to low clinical productivity and high user dependency. Furthermore, in 3D ultrasound imaging, DR values are unable to be adjusted during 3D data acquisition. A histogram matching method, which equalizes the histogram of an input image based on that from a reference image, can be applied to determine the DR value. However, it could be lead to an over contrasted image. In this paper, a new Automatic Dynamic Range Adjustment (ADRA) method is presented that adaptively adjusts the DR value by manipulating input images similar to a reference image. The proposed ADRA method uses the distance ratio between the log average and each extreme value of a reference image. To evaluate the performance of the ADRA method, the similarity between the reference and input images was measured by computing a correlation coefficient (CC). In in vivo experiments, the CC values were increased by applying the ADRA method from 0.6872 to 0.9870 and from 0.9274 to 0.9939 for kidney and liver data, respectively, compared to the fixed DR case. In addition, the proposed ADRA method showed to outperform the histogram matching method with in vivo liver and kidney data. When using 3D abdominal data with 70 frames, while the CC value from the ADRA method is slightly increased (i.e., 0.6%), the proposed method showed improved image quality in the c-plane compared to its fixed counterpart, which suffered from a shadow artifact. These results indicate that the proposed method can enhance image quality in 2D and 3D ultrasound B-mode imaging by improving the similarity between the reference and input images while eliminating unnecessary manual interaction by the user.

  16. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  17. Adjusting annual maximum peak discharges at selected stations in northeastern Illinois for changes in land-use conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Over, Thomas M.; Saito, Riki J.; Soong, David T.

    2016-06-30

    The observed and adjusted values for each streamgage are tabulated. To illustrate the overall effect of the adjustments, differences in the mean, standard deviation, and skewness of the log-transformed observed and urbanization-adjusted peak discharge series by streamgage are computed. For almost every streamgage where an adjustment was applied (no increase in urbanization was reported for a few streamgages), the mean increased and the standard deviation decreased; the effect on skewness values was more variable but usually they increased. Significant positive peak discharge trends were common in the observed values, occurring at 27.3 percent of streamgages at a p-value of 0.05 according to a Kendall’s tau correlation test; in the adjusted values, the incidence of such trends was reduced to 7.0 percent.

  18. Adjustment of regional regression equations for urban storm-runoff quality using at-site data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barks, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Regional regression equations have been developed to estimate urban storm-runoff loads and mean concentrations using a national data base. Four statistical methods using at-site data to adjust the regional equation predictions were developed to provide better local estimates. The four adjustment procedures are a single-factor adjustment, a regression of the observed data against the predicted values, a regression of the observed values against the predicted values and additional local independent variables, and a weighted combination of a local regression with the regional prediction. Data collected at five representative storm-runoff sites during 22 storms in Little Rock, Arkansas, were used to verify, and, when appropriate, adjust the regional regression equation predictions. Comparison of observed values of stormrunoff loads and mean concentrations to the predicted values from the regional regression equations for nine constituents (chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, total nitrogen as N, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as N, total phosphorus as P, dissolved phosphorus as P, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, and total recoverable zinc) showed large prediction errors ranging from 63 percent to more than several thousand percent. Prediction errors for 6 of the 18 regional regression equations were less than 100 percent and could be considered reasonable for water-quality prediction equations. The regression adjustment procedure was used to adjust five of the regional equation predictions to improve the predictive accuracy. For seven of the regional equations the observed and the predicted values are not significantly correlated. Thus neither the unadjusted regional equations nor any of the adjustments were appropriate. The mean of the observed values was used as a simple estimator when the regional equation predictions and adjusted predictions were not appropriate.

  19. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Next Steps in Ocean Exploration for Data Dissemination and Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Stocks, K.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Smith, S. R.; Bourassa, M. A.; Clark, P. D.; Sweeney, A. D.; O'Hara, S. H.; Morton, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    A new era of ocean exploration brings with it a challenge to take the next step, making the discoveries available to a wider audience. Mapmakers, artists and collectors were on board the voyages of discovery of the eighteenth century, and the resulting atlases and exhibits captured the public’s imagination, laid the foundation for scientific inquiries and medical advances, and helped to fund future expeditions. While we can now rapidly disseminate data, gaps exist in the flow of data from research vessels. Many shipboard data practices are still oriented toward the era of single-investigator research in which data are brought back to the lab for individual publications. Data may be on proprietary hold for years, or worse, lost. Observatory systems and new platforms are bringing in a flood of new data, and it will be a challenge to make sense of data streams in time and space and across disciplines, organizations and nations. To encourage discussion of data management paradigms, we present initial lessons learned from the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program as it begins to routinely migrate US University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) and other academic shipboard data to national data centers. The UNOLS fleet consists of 21 vessels operated by 15 independent organizations, with up to 26 routine underway device types collecting data on more than 300 cruises a year. Semi-automated procedures are becoming operational to deliver shipboard data to NOAA’s National Geophysical Data Center and National Oceanographic Data Center for public distribution. Full implementation relies on establishing metadata standards based on community approved controlled vocabularies, and creating high quality standard navigational products across the fleet. The approaches, technology and procedures are intended to be coordinated with initiatives across NSF and NOAA, and with European programs such as SeaDataNet, Eurofleets and GeoSeas. Exploration is driven by

  20. Family Adjustment Measure: Scale Construction and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daire, Andrew P.; Dominguez, Vanessa N.; Carlson, Ryan G.; Case-Pease, Jenene

    2014-01-01

    We administered the Family Adjustment Measure to 368 parents of children with special needs to identify positive adjustment. We randomly split the sample to conduct exploratory factor analysis ("n" = 194) and confirmatory factor analysis ("n" = 174). Results indicated four possible subscales and that explain 51% of the variance.

  1. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  2. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  3. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  4. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  5. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  6. Parenting Styles and Adjustment in Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilarinos, Vassiliki; Solomon, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between parenting styles and the psychosocial adjustment of 48 children aged 7 to 11 years, each of whom had been identified as gifted on the basis of a score of 130 or above on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition. Parenting styles and child psychosocial adjustment were measured…

  7. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  8. Adjustable, Audible Continuity Tester For Delicate Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalister, William B.

    1988-01-01

    Unit adjustable to resistances up to 35 ohms. Adjustable, audible electrical-continuity tester gives audible indication. Used safely on circuit boards in which semiconductor components installed, and on complementary metal oxide/semiconductor integrated circuits. Tester compact and circuit simple. Built from inexpensive standard components.

  9. Adjustably Preloaded Quick-Release Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold W.

    1992-01-01

    Modified adjustable-grip-length quick-release pin holds two bodies together. Threaded shaft of pin threaded in floating nut to pretension fastener. Pin connects and disconnects rapidly and adjusted to accommodate small differences between thicknesses of nominally identical sets of parts to be attached to each other.

  10. 78 FR 70080 - Market Dominant Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Market Dominant Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... market dominant products. The adjustments are scheduled to take effect January 26, 2014. This notice.... Ordering Paragraphs I. Overview A. Index-Based Price Changes for Market Dominant Classes of Mail...

  11. College Student Adjustment and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lisa Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between student adjustment theory and college student health behaviors. Specifically, this research examined first-year freshmen college student physical activity and nutrition behaviors and impact on adjustment to college (N = 37,564). The design for this study was a non-experimental "ex post facto"…

  12. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Title IV of the HEA, which authorizes the Federal Family Education Loan Program $35,000. 20 U.S.C. 1094... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION §...

  13. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  14. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  15. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  16. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  17. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  18. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  19. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  20. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...