Science.gov

Sample records for adjusted r2 values

  1. Adjusting benefits transfer values for inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiswerth, Mark E.; Douglass Shaw, W.

    This paper analyzes assumptions that are implicitly made in updating estimates of nominal values for environmental goods produced by previous valuation studies, especially adjustments made through use of the consumer price index (CPI). The paper illustrates that the underlying form of preferences for the selected values from a past study may have a significant influence on the updated environmental values. We show why care is necessary in updating past welfare or value estimates in the face of changes in the demand and supply for environmental amenities when using the CPI.

  2. Marital Adjustments and Values Systems in Student Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Janet A.; Sharpley, Chris F.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation of married student couples found significant relationships between marital adjustment and people-oriented and success-oriented values systems for individual spouses. Congruency of values systems and marital adjustment for couple units was not found. (Author)

  3. Genetic value of herd life adjusted for milk production.

    PubMed

    Allaire, F R; Gibson, J P

    1992-05-01

    Cow herd life adjusted for lactational milk production was investigated as a genetic trait in the breeding objective. Under a simple model, the relative economic weight of milk to adjusted herd life on a per genetic standard deviation basis was equal to CVY/dCVL where CVY and CVL are the genetic coefficients of variation of milk production and adjusted herd life, respectively, and d is the depreciation per year per cow divided by the total fixed costs per year per cow. The relative economic value of milk to adjusted herd life at the prices and parameters for North America was about 3.2. An increase of 100-kg milk was equivalent to 2.2 mo of adjusted herd life. Three to 7% lower economic gain is expected when only improved milk production is sought compared with a breeding objective that included both production and adjusted herd life for relative value changed +/- 20%. A favorable economic gain to cost ratio probably exists for herd life used as a genetic trait to supplement milk in the breeding objective. Cow survival records are inexpensive, and herd life evaluations from such records may not extend the generation interval when such an evaluation is used in bull sire selection.

  4. Sonde Adjust Value-Added Product Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2012-01-09

    The Sonde Adjust (SONDEADJUST) value-added product (VAP) creates a file that includes all fields from original Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM Facility) radiosonde files and contains several value-added fields that provide adjustments related to well-known humidity issues. SONDEADJUST produces data that correct documented biases in radiosonde humidity measurements. Previous efforts towards applying some of these corrections are available via the discontinued PI product sgpsondecorr1miloC1. Unique fields contained within this datastream include smoothed original relative humidity, dry bias corrected relative humidity, and final corrected relative humidity. The smoothed RH field refines the relative humidity from integers-the resolution of the instrument-to fractions of a percent. This profile is then used to calculate the dry bias corrected field. The final correction fixes the time-lag problem and uses the dry-bias field as input into the algorithm. In addition to dry bias, solar heating is another correction that is encompassed in the final corrected RH field. Output from SONDEADJUST differs from the previous RH-corrected datastreams in important ways. First, all three types of ARM radiosondes-Vaisala RS-80, RS-90, and RS-92-are corrected using dedicated procedures and/or parameters. Second, the output variables include all of those found in the original radiosonde file: dry bulb temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind speed, wind direction, eastward wind component, northward wind component, wind status (a Vaisala-produced field used in conjunction with the Loran system), ascent rate, and original relative humidity. Additional humidity fields are smoothed relative humidity, dry biased corrected relative humidity, final ambient relative humidity, and scaled adjusted relative humidity. Third, quality control (QC) flags of the fields from the original radiosonde datastream are brought into the SONDEADJUST output file. Additional QC

  5. Value-Added Adjustment in Undergraduate Business School Ranking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreutzer, David W.; Wood, William C.

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, "Business Week" issued a highly publicized ranking of undergraduate business schools (Lavelle, 2006). Although the ranking provided useful measures of quality, the high rank of some schools was partly due to the quality of incoming students and educational resources rather than the ability of the school to add value. In this article, the…

  6. Existence, Uniqueness and Lipschitz Dependence for Patlak-Keller-Segel and Navier-Stokes in {{R}^2} with Measure-Valued Initial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrossian, Jacob; Masmoudi, Nader

    2014-09-01

    We establish a new local well-posedness result in the space of finite Borel measures for mild solutions of the parabolic-elliptic Patlak-Keller-Segel (PKS) model of chemotactic aggregation in two dimensions. Our result only requires that the initial measure satisfy the necessary assumption {max_{x in mathbb{R}^2} μ ({x}) < 8 π} . This work improves the small-data results of Biler (Stud Math 114(2):181-192, 1995) and the existence results of Senba and Suzuki (J Funct Anal 191:17-51, 2002). Our work is based on that of Gallagher and Gallay (Math Ann 332:287-327, 2005), who prove the uniqueness and log-Lipschitz continuity of the solution map for the 2D Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) with measure-valued initial vorticity. We refine their techniques and present an alternative version of their proof which yields existence, uniqueness and Lipschitz continuity of the solution maps of both PKS and NSE. Many steps are more difficult for PKS than for NSE, particularly on the level of the linear estimates related to the self-similar spreading solutions.

  7. Investigating the Prospective Teachers' Level of Adjustment in Terms of Perceived Identity, Values, and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogdu, M. Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the prospective teachers' level of adjustment in terms of perceived identity, values, and needs. The searching group includes a total of 273 prospective teachers, 178 of whom are females, and 95 of whom are males. They are either working as paid teachers in the state schools within the boundaries of…

  8. 25 CFR 39.807 - How will the Student Unit Value be adjusted annually?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will the Student Unit Value be adjusted annually? 39.807 Section 39.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Determining the Amount Necessary To Sustain an Academic or...

  9. 25 CFR 39.807 - How will the Student Unit Value be adjusted annually?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will the Student Unit Value be adjusted annually? 39.807 Section 39.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Determining the Amount Necessary To Sustain an Academic or...

  10. From adaptive management to adjustive management: a pragmatic account of biodiversity values.

    PubMed

    Maris, Virginie; Béchet, Arnaud

    2010-08-01

    The conservation of biodiversity poses an exceptionally difficult problem in that it needs to be effective in a context of double uncertainty: scientific (i.e., how to conserve biodiversity) and normative (i.e., which biodiversity to conserve and why). Although adaptive management offers a promising approach to overcome scientific uncertainty, normative uncertainty is seldom tackled by conservation science. We expanded on the approach proposed by adaptive-management theorists by devising an integrative and iterative approach to conservation that encompasses both types of uncertainty. Inspired by environmental pragmatism, we suggest that moral values at stake in biodiversity conservation are plastic and that a plurality of individual normative positions can coexist and evolve. Moral values should thus be explored through an experimental process as additional parameters to be incorporated in the traditional adaptive-management approach. As such, moral values should also be monitored by environmental ethicists working side by side with scientists and managers on conservation projects. Acknowledging the diversity of moral values and integrating them in a process of collective deliberation will help overcome the normative uncertainty. We used Dewey's distinction between adaptation and adjustment to offer a new paradigm built around what we call adjustive management, which reflects both the uncertainty and the likely evolution of the moral values humans attribute to biodiversity. We illustrate how this paradigm relates to practical conservation decisions by exploring the case of the Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus), an alien species in France that is the target of an eradication plan undertaken with little regard for moral issues. We propose that a more satisfying result of efforts to control Sacred Ibis could have been reached by rerouting the traditional feedback loop of adaptive management to include a normative inquiry. This adjustive management approach now

  11. Experiments with Metadata-Derived Initial Values and Linesearch Bundle Adjustment in Architectural Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börlin, N.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2013-07-01

    According to the Waldhäusl and Ogleby (1994) "3 x 3 rules", a well-designed close-range architectural photogrammetric project should include a sketch of the project site with the approximate position and viewing direction of each image. This orientation metadata is important to determine which part of the object each image covers. In principle, the metadata could be used as initial values for the camera external orientation (EO) parameters. However, this has rarely been used, partly due to convergence problem for the bundle adjustment procedure. In this paper we present a photogrammetric reconstruction pipeline based on classical methods and investigate if and how the linesearch bundle algorithm of Börlin et al. (2004) and/or metadata can be used to aid the reconstruction process in architectural photogrammetry when the classical methods fail. The primary initial values for the bundle are calculated by the five-point algorithm by Nistér (Stewénius et al., 2006). Should the bundle fail, initial values derived from metadata are calculated and used for a second bundle attempt. The pipeline was evaluated on an image set of the INSA building in Strasbourg. The data set includes mixed convex and non-convex subnetworks and a combination of manual and automatic measurements. The results show that, in general, the classical bundle algorithm with five-point initial values worked well. However, in cases where it did fail, linesearch bundle and/or metadata initial values did help. The presented approach is interesting for solving EO problems when the automatic orientation processes fail as well as to simplify keeping a link between the metadata containing the plan of how the project should have become and the actual reconstructed network as it turned out to be.

  12. Diminishing willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year: valuing acute foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Haninger, Kevin; Hammitt, James K

    2011-09-01

    We design and conduct a stated-preference survey to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce foodborne risk of acute illness and to test whether WTP is proportional to the corresponding gain in expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). If QALYs measure utility for health, then economic theory requires WTP to be nearly proportional to changes in both health quality and duration of illness and WTP could be estimated by multiplying the expected change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. WTP is elicited using double-bounded, dichotomous-choice questions in which respondents (randomly selected from the U.S. general adult population, n = 2,858) decide whether to purchase a more expensive food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Health risks vary by baseline probability of illness, reduction in probability, duration and severity of illness, and conditional probability of mortality. The expected gain in QALYs is calculated using respondent-assessed decrements in health-related quality of life if ill combined with the duration of illness and reduction in probability specified in the survey. We find sharply diminishing marginal WTP for severity and duration of illness prevented. Our results suggest that individuals do not have a constant rate of WTP per QALY, which implies that WTP cannot be accurately estimated by multiplying the change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. PMID:21488924

  13. Adjusted monthly temperature and precipitation values for Guinea Conakry (1941-2010) using HOMER.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Enric; Aziz Barry, Abdoul; Mestre, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Africa is a data sparse region and there are very few studies presenting homogenized monthly records. In this work, we introduce a dataset consisting of 12 stations spread over Guinea Conakry containing daily values of maximum and minimum temperature and accumulated rainfall for the period 1941-2010. The daily values have been quality controlled using R-Climdex routines, plus other interactive quality control applications, coded by the authors. After applying the different tests, more than 200 daily values were flagged as doubtful and carefully checked against the statistical distribution of the series and the rest of the dataset. Finally, 40 values were modified or set to missing and the rest were validated. The quality controlled daily dataset was used to produce monthly means and homogenized with HOMER, a new R-pacakge which includes the relative methods that performed better in the experiments conducted in the framework of the COST-HOME action. A total number of 38 inhomogeneities were found for temperature. As a total of 788 years of data were analyzed, the average ratio was one break every 20.7 years. The station with a larger number of inhomogeneities was Conakry (5 breaks) and one station, Kissidougou, was identified as homogeneous. The average number of breaks/station was 3.2. The mean value of the monthly factors applied to maximum (minimum) temperature was 0.17 °C (-1.08 °C) . For precipitation, due to the demand of a denser network to correctly homogenize this variable, only two major inhomogeneities in Conakry (1941-1961, -12%) and Kindia (1941-1976, -10%) were corrected. The adjusted dataset was used to compute regional series for the three variables and trends for the 1941-2010 period. The regional mean has been computed by simply averaging anomalies to 1971-2000 of the 12 time series. Two different versions have been obtained: a first one (A) makes use of the missing values interpolation made by HOMER (so all annual values in the regional series

  14. Family Relations and the Adjustment of Young Children of Mexican Descent: Do Family Cultural Values Moderate These Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Modry-Mandell, Kerri

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of family cultural values as moderators of the association between family relations and the adjustment of young children. Fifty-five families of Mexican descent with young children enrolled in Head Start programs in the Southwest participated. Mothers provided information about closeness of the mother-child…

  15. Discrimination and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Adolescents', Mothers', and Fathers' Cultural Orientations and Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Melissa Y.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Roosa, Mark W.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Garcia Coll et al.'s integrative framework and the risk and resilience model, this study examined the relationships between adolescents' perceived discrimination and psychosocial adjustment and the moderating roles of adolescents', mothers', and fathers' cultural orientations and values, and adolescent gender in a sample of 246…

  16. 78 FR 52679 - Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters; Adjusted Customs Value for Cigarette Lighters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... accordance with the percentage changes in the monthly Wholesale Price Index from June 1993.'' 58 FR 37584....25). Accordingly, the Commission revised the cigarette standard to state the adjusted amount. 69 FR... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in...

  17. Using the Nudge and Shove Methods to Adjust Item Difficulty Values.

    PubMed

    Royal, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    In any examination, it is important that a sufficient mix of items with varying degrees of difficulty be present to produce desirable psychometric properties and increase instructors' ability to make appropriate and accurate inferences about what a student knows and/or can do. The purpose of this "teaching tip" is to demonstrate how examination items can be affected by the quality of distractors, and to present a simple method for adjusting items to meet difficulty specifications.

  18. Meteorological adjustment of yearly mean values for air pollutant concentration comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidik, S. M.; Neustadter, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Using multiple linear regression analysis, models which estimate mean concentrations of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide as a function of several meteorologic variables, two rough economic indicators, and a simple trend in time are studied. Meteorologic data were obtained and do not include inversion heights. The goodness of fit of the estimated models is partially reflected by the squared coefficient of multiple correlation which indicates that, at the various sampling stations, the models accounted for about 23 to 47 percent of the total variance of the observed TSP concentrations. If the resulting model equations are used in place of simple overall means of the observed concentrations, there is about a 20 percent improvement in either: (1) predicting mean concentrations for specified meteorological conditions; or (2) adjusting successive yearly averages to allow for comparisons devoid of meteorological effects. An application to source identification is presented using regression coefficients of wind velocity predictor variables.

  19. Superionic adjustment leading to weakly temperature-dependent ZT values in bulk thermoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Lin, Hua; Lin, Zi-Xiong; Shen, Jin-Ni; Chen, Ling; Wu, Li-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials are of worldwide interest for energy sustainability through direct waste-heat-to-electricity conversion. Practically, a TE power generator requires a large working temperature gradient; to achieve high efficiency, key TE materials with high ZT values are necessary and, furthermore, their ZT values should decline as little as possible over the imposed temperature range. Unfortunately, sharp ZT declines in all of the known materials are inevitable. Here we found the bulk superionic α-Ag(1-x)CuSe material exhibits unusual weakly temperature-dependent ZT values in the range of 480-693 K with the smallest ZT-T slope known to date. These result from the Seebeck coefficient balance of the countercontributions of holes and electrons and the weakly temperature-dependent thermal conductivity. PMID:25418200

  20. Electrocrystallization of uranium oxides from molten salt media with adjustable oxygen coefficient value

    SciTech Connect

    Smolenski, V.V.; Bovet, A.L.; Komarov, V.E.

    1993-12-31

    In order to determine the conditions necessary to produce uranium oxides with the preset oxygen coefficient value by electrolyzing salt electrolytes, we have investigated the chemical and electrochemical behavior of the oxychloride uranium compounds with various valancies in molten alkali chlorides. The electrochemical production conditions for uranium dioxide of the pre-stoichiometric composition were determined.

  1. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Kaeberich, Anja; Seeber, Valerie; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dellas, Claudia; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) helps in identifying pulmonary embolism patients at low risk of an adverse outcome. In 682 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients we investigate whether an optimised hsTnT cut-off value and adjustment for age improve the identification of patients at elevated risk. Overall, 25 (3.7%) patients had an adverse 30-day outcome. The established hsTnT cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) retained its high prognostic value (OR (95% CI) 16.64 (2.24-123.74); p=0.006) compared with the cut-off value of 33 pg·mL(-1) calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis (7.14 (2.64-19.26); p<0.001). In elderly (aged ≥75 years) patients, an age-optimised hsTnT cut-off value of 45 pg·mL(-1) but not the established cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) predicted an adverse outcome. An age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value (≥14 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged <75 years and ≥45 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged ≥75 years) provided additive and independent prognostic information on top of the simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) and echocardiography (OR 4.56 (1.30-16.01); p=0.018, C-index=0.77). A three-step approach based on the sPESI, hsTnT and echocardiography identified 16.6% of all patients as being at higher risk (12.4% adverse outcome). Risk assessment of normotensive pulmonary embolism patients was improved by the introduction of an age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value. A three-step approach helped identify patients at higher risk of an adverse outcome who might benefit from advanced therapy.

  2. Studies on the exchange interactions in R 2Fe 14B, R 2Fe 14C and R 2Co 14B by molecular field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. W.; Feng, Y. P.; Ong, C. K.

    1997-08-01

    The intra- and inter-sublattice exchange interactions in three series of permanent magnetic materials (R 2Fe 14B, R 2Fe 14C and R 2Co 14B, R = rare earth elements) have been studied on the basis of molecular field theory. The effective exchange coupling constant ( JCoCo) of Co sublattices in R 2Co 14B is about 16.61 × 10 -22J, which is nearly three times the values ( JFeFe) of Fe sublattices in both R 2Fe 14B and R 2Fe 14C. The effective exchange coupling constants ( JRT) between rare earth (R) and transition metal (T) are not constant across the series but dependent on the nature of R atoms, which is different from the usual assumption that the JRT are constant across the series due to the similarities of band structures for all R atoms. The molecular fields acting on the rare earth ions are also calculated. The maximum molecular fields are found for R = Sm in each series.

  3. Submicron R2Fe14B particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koylu-Alkan, O.; Barandiaran, J. M.; Salazar, D.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2016-05-01

    Mechanochemical synthesis of submicron R2Fe14B particles with R = Dy, Nd, Pr has been performed successfully via high energy ball milling of rare-earth oxides, iron oxide and boron oxide in the presence of a reducing agent (Ca) and a dispersant material (CaO), followed by annealing at 800 - 900 °C. In the R = Nd system, we were able to fabricate particles embedded in a CaO matrix with coercivity (Hc) of 10.3 kOe after annealing at 900 °C for 5 min. After washing off the dispersant, the Hc was decreased to below 1 kOe because of hydrogen absorption that leads to the formation of the hydrated R2Fe14BHx phase that has a lower anisotropy. Upon removal of the hydrogen the coercivity was increased to 3.3 kOe. The average size of the Nd2Fe14B particles increases from 100 nm in a sample synthesized at 800 °C to 158 nm at 900 °C. The isotropic Dy2Fe14B particles showed a higher coercivity of 21 kOe in washed samples after annealing at 900 °C for 5 min. An average size of 71 nm is measured in samples synthesized at 800 °C and 107 nm at 900 °C. Fitting the high field M(H) measurements in Nd2Fe14B to the law of approach to saturation gave values for the magnetocrystalline anisotropy for the washed sample 2.23 × 107 erg/cm3 and for the vacuum annealed sample 4.15 × 107 erg/cm3, both of which are lower than the bulk values. This would explain the lower values of Hc observed in the particles.

  4. NORMATIVE VALUES OF ECCENTRIC HIP ABDUCTION STRENGTH IN NOVICE RUNNERS: AN EQUATION ADJUSTING FOR AGE AND GENDER

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, M.B.; Kastrup, K.; Lønbro, S.; Jacobsen, J.S.; Thorborg, K.; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. Methods: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand–held dynamometer. The demographic variables associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. Results: A significant difference in maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was found between males and females: 1.62 ± 0.38 Nm/kg (SD) for males versus 1.41 ± 0.33 Nm/kg (SD) for females (p < 0.001). Age was associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength: per one year increase in age a ‐0.0045 ± 0.0013 Nm/kg (SD) decrease in strength was found, p < 0.001. Normative values were identified using a regression equation adjusting for age and gender. Based on this, the equation to calculate normative values for relative eccentric hip abduction strength became: (1.600 + (age * ‐0.005) + (gender (1 = male / 0 = female) * 0.215) ± 1 or 2 * 0.354) Nm/kg. Conclusion: Normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners can be calculated by taking into account the differences in strength across genders and the decline in strength that occurs with increasing age. Age and gender were associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners, and these variables should be taken into account when evaluating eccentric hip abduction strength in this group of athletes. Level of

  5. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1206.112 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What adjustments and transportation...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1206.112 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What adjustments and transportation...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1206.112 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What adjustments and transportation...

  8. 30 CFR 206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 206.112 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 206.112 What adjustments and transportation allowances apply...

  9. Quality-adjusted cost of care: a meaningful way to measure growth in innovation cost versus the value of health gains.

    PubMed

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Shafrin, Jason; Lucarelli, Claudio; Nicholson, Sean; Khan, Zeba M; Philipson, Tomas J

    2015-04-01

    Technology drives both health care spending and health improvement. Yet policy makers rarely see measures of cost growth that account for both effects. To fill this gap, we present the quality-adjusted cost of care, which illustrates cost growth net of growth in the value of health improvements, measured as survival gains multiplied by the value of survival. We applied the quality-adjusted cost of care to two cases. For colorectal cancer, drug cost per patient increased by $34,493 between 1998 and 2005 as a result of new drug launches, but value from offsetting health improvements netted a modest $1,377 increase in quality-adjusted cost of care. For multiple myeloma, new therapies increased treatment cost by $72,937 between 2004 and 2009, but offsetting health benefits lowered overall quality-adjusted cost of care by $67,863. However, patients with multiple myeloma on established first-line therapies saw costs rise without corresponding benefits. All three examples document rapid cost growth, but they provide starkly different answers to the question of whether society got what it paid for.

  10. 30 CFR 1206.112 - What adjustments and transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... apply when I value oil production from my lease using NYMEX prices or ANS spot prices? 1206.112 Section... transportation allowances apply when I value oil production from my lease using NYMEX prices or ANS spot prices? This section applies when you use NYMEX prices or ANS spot prices to calculate the value of...

  11. The role of perceived control in physiological reactivity: self-efficacy and incentive value as regulators of cardiovascular adjustment.

    PubMed

    Sanz, A; Villamarín, F

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of self-efficacy and incentive value on cardiovascular reactivity. Ninety-six subjects were randomly assigned to four experimental groups in each of which the self-efficacy (high or low) and incentive value (high or low) were modified in relation to a mental arithmetic task. Subjects were led to believe that failure in this behaviour would result in the appearance of an aversive stimulus. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and skin temperature were all recorded throughout task performance, and at two given moments prior to the task, in order to establish baseline values. Subjects with high self-efficacy experienced a smaller increase in heart rate and systolic pressure, a greater increase in diastolic pressure, greater reduction in skin temperature and a reduction in pulse pressure during task performance. The effects were moderated by the incentive value in such a way that the effects of self-efficacy on cardiovascular reactivity were stronger when the consequences of task failure were perceived as highly relevant (high incentive value). PMID:11399352

  12. Discrimination and adjustment for Mexican American adolescents: A prospective examination of the benefits of culturally-related values

    PubMed Central

    Berkel, Cady; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia

    2009-01-01

    Mexican American adolescents face disparities in mental health and academic achievement, perhaps in part because of discrimination experiences. However, culturally-related values, fostered by ethnic pride and socialization, may serve to mitigate the negative impact of discrimination. Guided by the Stress Process Model, the current study examined risk and protective processes using a 2-wave multi-informant study with 750 Mexican American families. Specifically, we examined two possible mechanisms by which Mexican American values may support positive outcomes in the context of discrimination; as a protective factor (moderator) or risk reducer (mediator). Analyses supported the role of Mexican American values as a risk reducer. This study underscores the importance of examining multiple mechanisms of protective processes in understanding Mexican American adolescent resilience. PMID:21359093

  13. Prediction of individual differences in adjustment to loss: Acceptance and valued-living as critical appraisal and coping strengths.

    PubMed

    Davis, Esther L; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey C B

    2016-01-01

    Our strengths-based model of coping with death and dying proposes acceptance and valued-living as key coping and appraisal strengths for the bereaved. These are core components of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The aim of this study was to provide an initial exploration of the theorized relationships via a survey of 97 bereaved university students. Using hierarchical regression analysis it was found that acceptance and valued-living were significant predictors of grief, while controlling for other model variables and loss characteristics. Results have implications for ACT-based approaches in supporting those bereaved who are struggling with their grief. PMID:26681151

  14. The value of auto-adjustable CPAP devices in pressure titration and treatment of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hertegonne, Katrien; Bauters, Fré

    2010-04-01

    In moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), the use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard therapy. In the last decade, new technologies such as auto-adjustable CPAP (APAP) have been promoted as having an added advantage over CPAP, because of their ability to adapt the pressure level to the patient's need at all times. This could logically result in the deliverance of lower pressures, which was hypothesized to improve patient acceptance and compliance for therapy. Several clinical trials have been performed with APAP in different modalities, as a titration tool in attended or unattended conditions, or as a treatment device for chronic use. Comparison of these trials is challenging, since APAP technology is evolving promptly and devices differ not only in how sleep-disordered breathing is detected, but also in how the operational algorithm responds accordingly. Although the question remains whether proof has yet been delivered of the superiority of this technology over CPAP, there is a tendency to accept it as common standard practice in OSAS titration and treatment. This review will bring available evidence on this subject into perspective. PMID:19716321

  15. Discrimination and Adjustment for Mexican American Adolescents: A Prospective Examination of the Benefits of Culturally Related Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkel, Cady; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Saenz, Delia

    2010-01-01

    Mexican American adolescents face disparities in mental health and academic achievement, perhaps in part because of discrimination experiences. However, culturally related values, fostered by ethnic pride and socialization, may serve to mitigate the negative impact of discrimination. Guided by the Stress Process Model, the current study examined…

  16. Historical Channel Adjustment and Estimates of Selected Hydraulic Values in the Lower Sabine River and Lower Brazos River Basins, Texas and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Greene, Lauren E.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, evaluated historical channel adjustment and estimated selected hydraulic values at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in the lower Sabine River Basin in Texas and Louisiana and lower Brazos River Basin in Texas to support geomorphic assessments of the Texas Instream Flow Program. Channel attributes including cross-section geometry, slope, and planform change were evaluated to learn how each river's morphology changed over the years in response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Historical and contemporary cross-sectional channel geometries at several gaging stations on each river were compared, planform changes were assessed, and hydraulic values were estimated including mean flow velocity, bed shear stress, Froude numbers, and hydraulic depth. The primary sources of historical channel morphology information were U.S. Geological Survey hard-copy discharge-measurement field notes. Additional analyses were done using computations of selected flow hydraulics, comparisons of historical and contemporary aerial photographs, comparisons of historical and contemporary ground photographs, evaluations of how frequently stage-discharge rating curves were updated, reviews of stage-discharge relations for field measurements, and considerations of bridge and reservoir construction activities. Based on historical cross sections at three gaging stations downstream from Toledo Bend Reservoir, the lower Sabine River is relatively stable, but is subject to substantial temporary scour-and-fill processes during floods. Exceptions to this characterization of relative stability include an episode of channel aggradation at the Sabine River near Bon Wier, Texas, during the 1930s, and about 2 to 3 feet of channel incision at the Sabine River near Burkeville, Texas, since the late 1950s. The Brazos River, at gaging stations downstream from Waco, Texas, has adjusted to a combination of

  17. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    PubMed

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  18. Identification and characterization of the chicken galanin receptor GalR2 and a novel GalR2-like receptor (GalR2-L).

    PubMed

    Ho, John Chi Wang; Jacobs, Tim; Wang, Yajun; Leung, Frederick C

    2012-11-01

    In mammals, the neuropeptide galanin exerts a variety of physiological roles in the neuroendocrine system through its interactions with three galanin receptor subtypes (GalR1, GalR2 and GalR3). However, little is known about the characteristics of galanin receptors in birds, and it is only recently that avian GalR1 and a novel GalR1-like receptor were first identified in chickens. In this study, we report the cDNA cloning and characterization of the other two chicken galanin receptors, the galanin type II receptor (cGalR2) and a novel GalR2-like receptor (GalR2-L), which share high degrees of similarity in sequence identity, gene structure and signaling properties. cGalR2 and cGalR2-L cDNAs encode two putative receptors of 371 and 370 amino acids, in which they show considerable amino acid sequence identities (65-67%, and 53-55%, respectively) with the mammalian GalR2. RT-PCR assays revealed that cGalR2 and cGalR2-L mRNA were widely expressed in the adult chicken tissues including the whole brain, intestine, lung, ovary, pituitary and different regions of the oviduct. As assayed with different luciferase reporter systems, chicken galanin (cGal 1-29) and human galanin-like peptide (hGALP 1-60) were demonstrated to stimulate the luciferase activities in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing cGalR2 and cGalR2-L through the activations of cAMP/PKA, Ca(2+)/calcineurin and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, hence suggesting that both receptors are functionally coupled to the G(s) and G(q) proteins. Furthermore, the previously identified cGalR1 and cGalR1-L were found to be solely coupled to the G(i/o) proteins, and the hGALP (1-60) exhibited only a low potency to cGalR1, cGalR1-L, cGalR2 and cGalR2-L activations. PMID:22982974

  19. CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 promotes targetable pathological RyR2 conformational shift.

    PubMed

    Uchinoumi, Hitoshi; Yang, Yi; Oda, Tetsuro; Li, Na; Alsina, Katherina M; Puglisi, Jose L; Chen-Izu, Ye; Cornea, Razvan L; Wehrens, Xander H T; Bers, Donald M

    2016-09-01

    Diastolic calcium (Ca) leak via cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) can cause arrhythmias and heart failure (HF). Ca/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is upregulated and more active in HF, promoting RyR2-mediated Ca leak by RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation. Here, we tested a mechanistic hypothesis that RyR2 phosphorylation by CaMKII increases Ca leak by promoting a pathological RyR2 conformation with reduced CaM affinity. Acute CaMKII activation in wild-type RyR2, and phosphomimetic RyR2-S2814D (vs. non-phosphorylatable RyR2-S2814A) knock-in mouse myocytes increased SR Ca leak, reduced CaM-RyR2 affinity, and caused a pathological shift in RyR2 conformation (detected via increased access of the RyR2 structural peptide DPc10). This same trio of effects was seen in myocytes from rabbits with pressure/volume-overload induced HF. Excess CaM quieted leak and restored control conformation, consistent with negative allosteric coupling between CaM affinity and DPc10 accessible conformation. Dantrolene (DAN) also restored CaM affinity, reduced DPc10 access, and suppressed RyR2-mediated Ca leak and ventricular tachycardia in RyR2-S2814D mice. We propose that a common pathological RyR2 conformational state (low CaM affinity, high DPc10 access, and elevated leak) may be caused by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation, oxidation, and HF. Moreover, DAN (or excess CaM) can shift this pathological gating state back to the normal physiological conformation, a potentially important therapeutic approach. PMID:27318036

  20. A comparison of the forces required to produce tooth movement ex vivo through three types of pre-adjusted brackets when subjected to determined tip or torque values.

    PubMed

    Sims, A P; Waters, N E; Birnie, D J

    1994-11-01

    Friction in fixed appliance systems has received considerable attention in recent literature, although that attributable to varying second order (tip) and third order (torque) adjustments in either the bracket or the archwire has not been fully investigated. The ex vivo study of 0.022 x 0.028-inch slot Minitwin, Activa, and Standard Straight Wire brackets investigates friction when known values of tip or torque were applied to 0.018 x 0.025-inch stainless steel wires. The resistance to sliding of the wire through the ligated brackets was measured on a vertically-mounted Instron testing machine. The results showed that the self-ligating Activa brackets consistently produced less friction than the other conventionally tied brackets. Minitwin brackets were slightly more resistant to movement than the Standard brackets during torquing, but the converse was found when tip was applied. Increasing tip and torque (ranges tested 0-6 degrees and 0-25 degrees, respectively) produced almost linear increases in friction for all brackets, although increasing tip had the more profound effect on friction, particularly in Activa brackets. PMID:7857896

  1. R+R2 gravity as R+ back reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, J. H.

    1995-12-01

    The quadratic theory of gravity is a complicated constraint system. We investigate some consequences of treating quadratic terms perturbatively (higher derivative version of back reaction effects), which is consistent with the way the existence of quadratic terms was originally established (radiative loop effects and renormalization procedures which induced quadratic terms). We show that this approach overcomes some well-known problems associated with higher derivative theories, i.e., the physical gravitational degree of freedom remains unchanged from those of Einstein gravity. Using such an approach we first study the classical cosmology of R+βR2 theory coupled to matter with a characteristic ρ~a(t)-n dependence on the scale factor. We show that for n>4 (i.e., p>1/3ρ) and for a particular sign of β, corresponding to the nontachyon case, there is no big bang in the traditional sense. And, therefore, a contracting FRW universe (k>0, k=0, k<0) will rebounce to an expansion phase without a total gravitational collapse. We then quantize the corresponding minisuperspace model that resulted from treating the βR2 as a perturbation. We conclude that the potential W(a), in the Wheeler-De Witt equation [-∂2/∂a2+2W(a)]ψ(a)=0, develops a repulsive barrier near a~=0 again for n>4 (i.e., p>1/3ρ) and for the sign of β that corresponds to the nontachyon case. Since a~=0 is a classically forbidden region, the probability of finding a universe with a singularity (a=0) is exponentially suppressed. Unlike the quantum cosmology of Einstein's gravity, the formalism has dictated an appropriate boundary (initial) condition. Classical and quantum analyses demonstrate that a minimum radius of collapse increases for a larger value of ||β||. It is also shown that, to first order in β, the βR2 term has no effect during the radiation (p=1/3ρ) and inflationary (p=-ρ) era. Therefore, a de Sitter phase can be readily generated by incorporating a scalar field.

  2. R2R-printed inverted OPV modules - towards arbitrary patterned designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Välimäki, M.; Apilo, P.; Po, R.; Jansson, E.; Bernardi, A.; Ylikunnari, M.; Vilkman, M.; Corso, G.; Puustinen, J.; Tuominen, J.; Hast, J.

    2015-05-01

    We describe the fabrication of roll-to-roll (R2R) printed organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules using gravure printing and rotary screen-printing processes. These two-dimensional printing techniques are differentiating factors from coated OPVs enabling the direct patterning of arbitrarily shaped and sized features into visual shapes and, increasing the freedom to connect the cells in modules. The inverted OPV structures comprise five layers that are either printed or patterned in an R2R printing process. We examined the rheological properties of the inks used and their relationship with the printability, the compatibility between the processed inks, and the morphology of the R2R-printed layers. We also evaluate the dimensional accuracy of the printed pattern, which is an important consideration in designing arbitrarily-shaped OPV structures. The photoactive layer and top electrode exhibited excellent cross-dimensional accuracy corresponding to the designed width. The transparent electron transport layer extended 300 µm beyond the designed values, whereas the hole transport layer shrank 100 µm. We also examined the repeatability of the R2R fabrication process when the active area of the module varied from 32.2 cm2 to 96.5 cm2. A thorough layer-by-layer optimization of the R2R printing processes resulted in realization of R2R-printed 96.5 cm2 sized modules with a maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.1% (mean 1.8%) processed with high functionality.

  3. Electronic structural flexibility of heterobimetallic Mn/Fe cofactors: R2lox and R2c proteins.

    PubMed

    Shafaat, Hannah S; Griese, Julia J; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Roos, Katarina; Andersson, Charlotta S; Popović-Bijelić, Ana; Gräslund, Astrid; Siegbahn, Per E M; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Högbom, Martin; Cox, Nicholas

    2014-09-24

    The electronic structure of the Mn/Fe cofactor identified in a new class of oxidases (R2lox) described by Andersson and Högbom [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009, 106, 5633] is reported. The R2lox protein is homologous to the small subunit of class Ic ribonucleotide reductase (R2c) but has a completely different in vivo function. Using multifrequency EPR and related pulse techniques, it is shown that the cofactor of R2lox represents an antiferromagnetically coupled Mn(III)/Fe(III) dimer linked by a μ-hydroxo/bis-μ-carboxylato bridging network. The Mn(III) ion is coordinated by a single water ligand. The R2lox cofactor is photoactive, converting into a second form (R2loxPhoto) upon visible illumination at cryogenic temperatures (77 K) that completely decays upon warming. This second, unstable form of the cofactor more closely resembles the Mn(III)/Fe(III) cofactor seen in R2c. It is shown that the two forms of the R2lox cofactor differ primarily in terms of the local site geometry and electronic state of the Mn(III) ion, as best evidenced by a reorientation of its unique (55)Mn hyperfine axis. Analysis of the metal hyperfine tensors in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggests that this change is triggered by deprotonation of the μ-hydroxo bridge. These results have important consequences for the mixed-metal R2c cofactor and the divergent chemistry R2lox and R2c perform. PMID:25153930

  4. Urinary trace element concentrations in environmental settings: is there a value for systematic creatinine adjustment or do we introduce a bias?

    PubMed

    Hoet, Perrine; Deumer, Gladys; Bernard, Alfred; Lison, Dominique; Haufroid, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Systematic creatinine adjustment of urinary concentrations of biomarkers has been a challenge over the past years because the assumption of a constant creatinine excretion rate appears erroneous and the issue of overadjustment has recently emerged. This study aimed at determining whether systematic creatinine adjustment is to be recommended for urinary concentrations of trace elements (TEs) in environmental settings. Paired 24-h collection and random spot urine samples (spotU) were obtained from 39 volunteers not occupationally exposed to TEs. Four models to express TEs concentration in spotU were tested to predict the 24-h excretion rate of these TEs (TEμg/24h) considered as the gold standard reference: absolute concentration (TEμg/l); ratio to creatinine (TEμg/gcr); TEμg/gcr adjusted to creatinine (TEμg/gcr-adj); and concentration adjusted to specific gravity (TEμg/l-SG). As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sb, Se, Te, V and Zn were analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry. There was no single pattern of relationship between urinary TEs concentrations in spotU and TEμg/24h. TEμg/l predicted TEμg/24h with an explained variance ranging from 0 to 60%. Creatinine adjustment improved the explained variance by an additional 5 to ~60% for many TEs, but with a risk of overadjustment for the most of them. This issue could be addressed by adjusting TE concentrations on the basis of the regression coefficient of the relationship between TEμg/gcr and creatinine concentration. SG adjustment was as suitable as creatinine adjustment to predict TEμg/24h with no SG-overadjustment (except V). Regarding Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Te, none of the models were found to reflect TEμg/24h. In the context of environmental exposure, systematic creatinine adjustment is not recommended for urinary concentrations of TEs. SG adjustment appears to be a more reliable alternative. For some TEs, however, neither methods appear suitable.

  5. Biped 4R2C six-bar mechanism with inner and outer feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Hao; Yao, Yan-an

    2016-01-01

    Most current biped robots are equipped with two feet arranged in the right and left which inspired by the human body system. Different from the existing configurations, a novel biped robot with inner and outer feet based on a spatial six-bar 4R2C(R and C denote revolute and cylindric joints, respectively) mechanism is proposed. It can move along a line or a curve by three walking modes that are dwell adjustment mode, limit position adjustment mode and any position adjustment mode. Kinematic, gait planning and stability analyses are performed respectively, and a prototype is developed. Lastly, a potential application is considered and two manipulating modes(sphere and cylinder manipulating modes) are carried out. This interesting mechanism feathering its single closed-chain structure and unique work performance is expected to motivate the configuration creation of biped robots.

  6. The value of anti-Müllerian hormone measurement in the long GnRH agonist protocol: association with ovarian response and gonadotrophin-dose adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Anckaert, Ellen; Smitz, Johan; Schiettecatte, Johan; Klein, Bjarke M; Arce, Joan-Carles

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study evaluated the predictive value of serum and follicular fluid (FF) concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) with respect to treatment outcome variables in an IVF cycle. METHODS A retrospective analysis was performed with data from 731 normogonadotrophic women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation after stimulation with highly purified menotrophin (HP-hMG) or rFSH following a long GnRH agonist protocol. RESULTS In both treatment groups, the serum AMH concentration at the start of the stimulation was significantly (P < 0.001) positively correlated with the serum levels of estradiol (HP-hMG: r = 0.45; rFSH: r = 0.55), androstenedione (HP-hMG: r = 0.50; rFSH: 0.49) and total testosterone (HP-hMG: r = 0.40; rFSH: r = 0.36) at the end of the stimulation as well as the number of oocytes retrieved (HP-hMG: r = 0.48; rFSH: r = 0.62), the AMH concentration in FF (HP-hMG: r = 0.55; rFSH: 0.61) and the serum progesterone concentration (HP-hMG: r = 0.39; rFSH: r = 0.50) at oocyte retrieval. For both treatments, serum AMH at the start of the stimulation was a good predictor of the need to increase or decrease the gonadotrophin dose on stimulation day 6 and of ovarian response below (<7 oocytes) or above (>15 oocytes) the target. No significant relationships were observed between serum AMH and embryo quality or ongoing pregnancy. CONCLUSION The serum AMH concentration at the start of the stimulation in IVF patients down-regulated with GnRH agonist in the long protocol revealed a positive relationship with ovarian response to gonadotrophins in terms of oocytes retrieved and accompanying endocrine response. AMH is a good predictor of the need for gonadotrophin-dose adjustment on stimulation day 6 for patients with a fixed starting dose, but a poor predictor of embryo quality and pregnancy chances in individual patients. PMID:22473395

  7. Prognostic Significance of Transverse Relaxation Rate (R2*) in Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye Young; Ko, Eun Sook; Han, Boo-Kyung; Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Sun Mi; Lim, Yaeji; Kim, Rock Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between magnetic resonance transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and prognostic factors. Materials and Methods A total of 159 women with invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) sequence at 3 T. The distribution of the measured R2* values were analyzed, and the correlation between R2* and various prognostic factors (age, tumor size, histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, and axillary lymph node status, as well as expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, p53, and Ki-67) were retrospectively assessed using patient medical records. Results The baseline R2* values of the IDCs were very heterogeneous with wide range among the patients. The mean R2* value was (32.8 ± 14.0) Hz with a median of 29.3 Hz (range 13.5–109.4 Hz). In multivariate analysis, older age was associated with decreased R2* value (P = 0.011) and IDCs with p53-overexpression showed higher R2* values than those without p53-overexpression group (P = 0.031). Other prognostic factors were not significantly correlated with R2* value. Conclusion In this study, R2* values were significantly correlated with age and expression of p53. Further studies are necessary to determine the prognostic value of BOLD-MRI. PMID:27384310

  8. NASA to launch R2 to join Space Station Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA will launch the first human-like robot to space this year to become a permanent resident of the International Space Station. Robonaut 2, or R2, was developed jointly by NASA and General Motors...

  9. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  10. Spinor representation of Lorentzian surfaces in R 2, 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayard, Pierre; Patty, Victor

    2015-09-01

    We prove that an isometric immersion of a simply connected Lorentzian surface in R 2, 2 is equivalent to a normalised spinor field solution of a Dirac equation on the surface. Using the quaternions and the Lorentz numbers, we also obtain an explicit representation formula of the immersion in terms of the spinor field. We then apply the representation formula in R 2, 2 to give a new spinor representation formula for Lorentzian surfaces in 3-dimensional Minkowski space. Finally, we apply the representation formula to the local description of the flat Lorentzian surfaces with flat normal bundle and regular Gauss map in R 2, 2, and show that these surfaces locally depend on four real functions of one real variable, or on one holomorphic function together with two real functions of one real variable, depending on the sign of a natural invariant.

  11. 322-R2U2 Engineering Assessment - August 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Abri, M.; Griffin, D.

    2015-08-13

    This Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of retention tank system 322-R2 has been prepared for tank systems that store and neutralizes hazardous waste and have secondary containment. The regulations require that this assessment be completed periodically and certified by an independent, qualified, California-registered professional engineer. Abri Environmental Engineering performed an inspection of the 322-R2 Tank system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA. Mr. William W. Moore, P.E., conducted this inspection on March 16, 2015. Mr. Moore is a California Registered Civil Engineer, with extensive experience in civil engineering, and hazardous waste management.

  12. The Internalization of Jewish Values by Children Attending Orthodox Jewish Schools, and Its Relationship to Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lori R.; Milyavskaya, Marina; Koestner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the way in which children attending Orthodox Jewish schools internalize the value of both their Jewish studies and secular studies, as well as the value of Jewish cultural practices. A distinction was made between identified internalization, where children perceive Jewish studies and Jewish culture to be an important…

  13. Membrane cholesterol modulates galanin-GalR2 interaction.

    PubMed

    Pang, L; Graziano, M; Wang, S

    1999-09-14

    The neuropeptide galanin mediates a number of diverse physiological and pathophysiological actions via interaction with membrane-bound receptors. The role that membrane cholesterol plays in modulating the interaction between galanin and one of the three cloned galanin receptor subtypes (GalR2) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was examined. Reduction of membrane cholesterol by treatment with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD) or by culturing cells in lipoprotein-deficient serum markedly decreased galanin binding to the receptor. Addition of cholesterol back to CD-treated, cholesterol-depleted membranes restored galanin binding to control levels. Hill analysis suggests that the GalR2 binds multiple molecules of cholesterol (n >/= 3) in a positively cooperative manner. This interaction appears to be cholesterol-specific as only cholesterol and a limited number of cholesterol analogues were able to rescue galanin binding. The inability of some of these analogues to rescue the binding activity also suggests that binding of galanin to GalR2 is independent of membrane fluidity as, like cholesterol, cholesterol analogues generally rigidize membranes. In addition, treatment of the membranes with other modulators of membrane fluidity, e.g. ethanol, did not affect galanin binding to the GalR2. In contrast, treatment of membranes, with filipin, a molecule that clusters cholesterol within the membranes, or with cholesterol oxidase resulted in markedly reduced galanin binding. Incubation of membranes with 100 microM GTP-gamma-S did not alter the IC(50) for CD in the prebinding assay treatment suggesting that the effect of cholesterol was independent of G protein interaction. Preincubation of intact cells with CD also drastically impaired the ability of galanin to activate intracellular inositol phosphate accumulation in GalR2-transfected CHO cells. These data detail a new mechanism for the regulation of galanin receptor signaling which may link altered functions of Gal

  14. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  15. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  16. An overview of historical channel adjustment and selected hydraulic values in the Lower Sabine and Lower Brazos River Basins, Texas and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Greene, Lauren E.; John D. Gordon, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sabine and Brazos are alluvial rivers; alluvial rivers are dynamic systems that adjust their geometry in response to changes in streamflow (discharge) and sediment load. In fluvial geomorphology, the term 'channel adjustment' refers to river channel changes in three geometric dimensions: (1) channel slope (profile); (2) the outline or shape, such as meandering or braided, projected on a horizontal plane (planform); and (3) cross-sectional form (shape). The primary objective of the study was to investigate how the channel morphology of these rivers has changed in response to reservoirs and other anthropogenic disturbances that have altered streamflow and sediment load. The results of this study are expected to aid ecological assessments in the lower Sabine River and lower Brazos River Basins for the Texas Instream Flow Program. Starting in the 1920s, several dams have been constructed on the Sabine and Brazos Rivers and their tributaries, and numerous bridges have been built and sometimes replaced multiple times, which have changed the natural flow regime and reduced or altered sediment loads downstream. Changes in channel geometry over time can reduce channel conveyance and thus streamflow, which can have adverse ecological effects. Channel attributes including cross-section form, channel slope, and planform change were evaluated to learn how each river's morphology changed over many years in response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Climate has large influence on the hydrologic regimes of the lower Sabine and lower Brazos River Basins. Equally important as climate in controlling the hydrologic regime of the two river systems are numerous reservoirs that regulate downstream flow releases. The hydrologic regimes of the two rivers and their tributaries reflect the combined influences of climate, flow regulation, and drainage area. Historical and contemporary cross-sectional channel geometries at 15 streamflow-gaging stations in the lower Sabine and

  17. The value of impulsivity to define subgroups of addicted individuals differing in personality dysfunction, craving, psychosocial adjustment, and wellbeing: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Pilatti, Angelina; Lozano, Oscar; Martínez-González, José M; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    High impulsivity is common to substance and gambling addictions. Despite these commonalities, there is still substantial heterogeneity on impulsivity levels within these diagnostic groups, and variations in impulsive levels predict higher severity of symptoms and poorer outcomes. We addressed the question of whether impulsivity scores can yield empirically driven subgroups of addicted individuals that will exhibit different clinical presentations and outcomes. We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to trait (UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale) and cognitive impulsivity (Stroop and d2 tests) scores in three predominantly male addiction diagnostic groups: Cocaine with Personality Disorders, Cocaine Non-comorbid, and Gambling and analyzed the usefulness of the resulting subgroups to differentiate personality beliefs and relevant outcomes: Craving, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life. In accordance with impulsivity scores, the three addiction diagnostic groups are best represented as two separate classes: Class 1 characterized by greater trait impulsivity and poorer cognitive impulsivity performance and Class 2 characterized by lower trait impulsivity and better cognitive impulsivity performance. The two empirically derived classes showed significant differences on personality features and outcome variables (Class 1 exhibited greater personality dysfunction and worse clinical outcomes), whereas conventional diagnostic groups showed non-significant differences on most of these measures. Trait and cognitive impulsivity scores differentiate subgroups of addicted individuals with more versus less severe personality features and clinical outcomes.

  18. The value of impulsivity to define subgroups of addicted individuals differing in personality dysfunction, craving, psychosocial adjustment, and wellbeing: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Pilatti, Angelina; Lozano, Oscar; Martínez-González, José M; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    High impulsivity is common to substance and gambling addictions. Despite these commonalities, there is still substantial heterogeneity on impulsivity levels within these diagnostic groups, and variations in impulsive levels predict higher severity of symptoms and poorer outcomes. We addressed the question of whether impulsivity scores can yield empirically driven subgroups of addicted individuals that will exhibit different clinical presentations and outcomes. We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to trait (UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale) and cognitive impulsivity (Stroop and d2 tests) scores in three predominantly male addiction diagnostic groups: Cocaine with Personality Disorders, Cocaine Non-comorbid, and Gambling and analyzed the usefulness of the resulting subgroups to differentiate personality beliefs and relevant outcomes: Craving, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life. In accordance with impulsivity scores, the three addiction diagnostic groups are best represented as two separate classes: Class 1 characterized by greater trait impulsivity and poorer cognitive impulsivity performance and Class 2 characterized by lower trait impulsivity and better cognitive impulsivity performance. The two empirically derived classes showed significant differences on personality features and outcome variables (Class 1 exhibited greater personality dysfunction and worse clinical outcomes), whereas conventional diagnostic groups showed non-significant differences on most of these measures. Trait and cognitive impulsivity scores differentiate subgroups of addicted individuals with more versus less severe personality features and clinical outcomes. PMID:24014137

  19. R2-Based Multi/Many-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Gregorio; Barron-Zambrano, Jose Hugo; Tello-Leal, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    We propose to couple the R2 performance measure and Particle Swarm Optimization in order to handle multi/many-objective problems. Our proposal shows that through a well-designed interaction process we could maintain the metaheuristic almost inalterable and through the R2 performance measure we did not use neither an external archive nor Pareto dominance to guide the search. The proposed approach is validated using several test problems and performance measures commonly adopted in the specialized literature. Results indicate that the proposed algorithm produces results that are competitive with respect to those obtained by four well-known MOEAs. Additionally, we validate our proposal in many-objective optimization problems. In these problems, our approach showed its main strength, since it could outperform another well-known indicator-based MOEA.

  20. R2-Based Multi/Many-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Gregorio; Barron-Zambrano, Jose Hugo; Tello-Leal, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    We propose to couple the R2 performance measure and Particle Swarm Optimization in order to handle multi/many-objective problems. Our proposal shows that through a well-designed interaction process we could maintain the metaheuristic almost inalterable and through the R2 performance measure we did not use neither an external archive nor Pareto dominance to guide the search. The proposed approach is validated using several test problems and performance measures commonly adopted in the specialized literature. Results indicate that the proposed algorithm produces results that are competitive with respect to those obtained by four well-known MOEAs. Additionally, we validate our proposal in many-objective optimization problems. In these problems, our approach showed its main strength, since it could outperform another well-known indicator-based MOEA. PMID:27656200

  1. Survival benefit and additional value of preoperative chemoradiotherapy in resectable gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer: a direct and adjusted indirect comparison meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, K; Rouvelas, I; Tsai, J A; Mariosa, D; Lind, P A; Lindblad, M; Ye, W; Lundell, L; Schuhmacher, C; Mauer, M; Burmeister, B H; Thomas, J M; Stahl, M; Nilsson, M

    2015-03-01

    Several phase I/II studies of chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer have reported promising results, but the significance of preoperative radiotherapy in addition to chemotherapy has not been proven. In this study, a systematic literature search was performed to capture survival and postoperative morbidity and mortality data in randomised clinical studies comparing preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy or chemotherapy versus surgery alone, or preoperative chemoradiotherapy versus chemotherapy for gastric and/or gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) for overall mortality were extracted from the original studies, individual patient data provided from the principal investigators of eligible studies or the earlier published meta-analysis. The incidences of postoperative morbidities and mortalities were also analysed. In total 18 studies were eligible and data were available from 14 of these. The meta-analysis on overall survival yielded HRs of 0.75 (95% CI 0.65-0.86, P < 0.001) for preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and 0.83 (95% CI 0.67-1.01, P = 0.065) for preoperative chemotherapy when compared to surgery alone. Direct comparison between preoperative chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy resulted in an HR of 0.71 (95% CI 0.45-1.12, P = 0.146). Combination of direct and adjusted indirect comparisons yielded an HR of 0.86 (95% CI 0.69-1.07, P = 0.171). No statistically significant differences were seen in the risk for postoperative morbidity or mortality between preoperative treatments and surgery alone, or preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy for gastric and GOJ cancer showed significant survival benefit over surgery alone. In comparisons between preoperative chemotherapy and (chemo)radiotherapy, there is a trend towards improved survival when adding radiotherapy, without increased postoperative morbidity or mortality.

  2. Calibrating FGS2R2 Optical Field Angle Distortion {OFAD}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelan, Edmund

    2009-07-01

    This proposal gathers the data needed to calibrate the optical field angle distortions in FGS2r2 to the level of accuracy { 40 mas} required for guiding HST. In addition, careful selection of guide star pairs allows calibration of the FGS2r2-FGS alignment. Selected stars from the galactic cluster M35 are repeatedly observed in POSITION mode by FGS2r2 with PUPIL element at a variety of spacecraft pointings and telescope roll angles. These stars and guide stars have absolute positions known to an accuracy of about 30 mas based upon the UCAC-3 and McNamara proper motions. In each of the 5 orbits there is also a single Transfer mode observation of a bright star with the PUPIL element to obtain reference S-curves at five different FOV locations. These S-curves are needed by the OTA group to facilitate analysis of guide star acquisition issues {binary stars, K-factor settings, etc}.

  3. Rescue of infralimbic mGluR2 deficit restores control over drug-seeking behavior in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Hansson, Anita C; Perreau-Lenz, Stephanie; Bauder, Christina; Stählin, Oliver; Heilig, Markus; Harper, Clive; Drescher, Karla U; Spanagel, Rainer; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2013-01-01

    A key deficit in alcohol dependence is disrupted prefrontal function leading to excessive alcohol seeking, but the molecular events underlying the emergence of addictive responses remain unknown. Here we show by convergent transcriptome analysis that the pyramidal neurons of the infralimbic cortex are particularly vulnerable for the long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol intoxication. These neurons exhibit a pronounced deficit in mGluR2. Also, alcohol dependent rats do not respond to mGluR2/3 agonist treatment with reducing extracellular glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens. Together these data imply a loss of autoreceptor feedback control. Alcohol dependent rats show escalation of ethanol seeking, which was abolished by restoring mGluR2 expression in the infralimbic cortex via viral-mediated gene transfer. Human anterior cingulate cortex from alcoholic patients shows a significant reduction in mGluR2 transcripts compared to control subjects suggesting that mGluR2 loss in the rodent and human cortico-accumbal neurocircuitry may be a major consequence of alcohol dependence and a key pathophysiological mechanism mediating increased propensity to relapse. Normalization of mGluR2 function within this brain circuit may be of therapeutic value. PMID:23407939

  4. Effect of hepatocyte-specific gadolinium-based contrast agents on hepatic fat-fraction and R2(⁎).

    PubMed

    Hernando, Diego; Wells, Shane A; Vigen, Karl K; Reeder, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of a hepatocyte-specific gadolinium based contrast agent (GBCA) on quantitative hepatic fat-fraction (FF) and R2* measurements. Fifty patients were imaged at 1.5T, using chemical-shift encoded water-fat MRI with low (5°) and high (15°) flip angles (FA), both before and after administration of a hepatocyte-specific GBCA (gadoxetic acid). Low and high FA, pre- and post-contrast FF and R2* values were measured for each subject. Available serum laboratory studies related to liver disease were also recorded. Linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to compare measurements. Hepatic FF was unaffected by GBCA at low FA (slope=1.02±0.02, p=0.32). FF was overestimated at high FA pre-contrast (slope=1.33±0.03, p<10(-10)), but underestimated post-contrast (slope=0.81±0.02, p<10(-10)). Hepatic R2* was unaffected by FA (mean difference±95% CI pre-contrast:2.2±4.9s(-1), post-contrast:2.8±3.6s(-1)), but increased post-contrast in patients with total bilirubin <2.5mg/dL (ΔR2*=13.4±12.7s(-1)). Regression analysis of serum values demonstrated a correlation of post-contrast change in R2* with total bilirubin (p<0.01) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (p≈0.01). In conclusion, GBCA has no effect on hepatic FF at low FA due to a lack of T1-weighting, potentially allowing flexibility for FF imaging with hepatobiliary imaging protocols. Hepatic R2* increased significantly after GBCA administration, particularly in the biliary tree. Therefore, R2* maps should be obtained prior to contrast administration.

  5. Statistical changes in lakes in urbanizing watersheds and lake return frequencies adjusted for trend and initial stage utilizing generalized extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paynter, Shayne

    Many water resources throughout the world are demonstrating changes in historic water levels. Potential reasons for these changes include climate shifts, anthropogenic alterations or basin urbanization. The focus of this research was threefold: (1) to determine the extent of spatio-temporal changes in regional precipitation patterns, (2) to determine the statistical changes that occur in lakes with urbanizing watersheds, and (3) to develop accurate prediction of trends and lake level return frequencies. To investigate rainfall patterns regionally, appropriate distributions, either gamma or generalized extreme value (GEV), were fitted to variables at a number of rainfall gages utilizing maximum likelihood estimation. The spatial distribution of rainfall variables was found to be quite homogenous within the region in terms of an average annual expectation. Furthermore, the temporal distribution of rainfall variables was found to be stationary with only one gage evidencing a significant trend. In order to study statistical changes of lake water surface levels in urbanizing watersheds, serial changes in time series parameters, autocorrelation and variance were evaluated and a regression model to estimate weekly lake level fluctuations was developed. The following general conclusions about lakes in urbanizing watersheds were reached: (1) The statistical structure of lake level time series is systematically altered and is related to the extent of urbanization, (2) in the absence of other forcing mechanisms, autocorrelation and baseflow appear to decrease, and (3) the presence of wetlands adjacent to lakes can offset the reduction in baseflow. In regards to the third objective, the direction and magnitude of trends in flood and drought stages were estimated and both long-term and short-term flood and drought stage return frequencies were predicted utilizing the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution with time and starting stage covariates. All of the lakes

  6. Winding Hopfions on R2×S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Michikazu; Nitta, Muneto

    2013-11-01

    We study Hopfions in the Faddeev-Skyrme model with potential terms on R2×S1. Apart from the conventional Hopfions, there exist winding Hopfions, that is, the lump (baby Skyrmion) strings with the lump charge Q with the U(1) modulus twisted P times along S1, having the Hopf charge PQ. We consider two kinds of potential terms, that is, the potential linear in the field and the ferromagnetic potential with two easy axes, and present stable solutions numerically. We also point out that a Q-lump carries the unit Hopf charge per the period in d=2+1.

  7. Therapy of acromegaly with sandostatin: the predictive value of an acute test, the value of serum somatomedin-C measurements in dose adjustment and the definition of a biochemical 'cure'.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, S W; Uitterlinden, P; Schuijff, P C; Klijn, J G

    1988-10-01

    Fifteen acromegalic patient were treated for a mean of 96 weeks with 200-300 micrograms Sandostatin per day. The mean 24 h GH concentration decreased by 86% from 34.3 +/- 6.6 to 4.8 +/- 0.7 micrograms/l (1 microgram/l = 46 pmol/l). There was a close correlation between the mean GH levels from 2 to 6 h after the acute administration of 50 micrograms Sandostatin and the mean 24 h GH levels after chronic therapy (P less than 0.01). Serum Sm-C levels decreased from 6.9 +/- 0.7 to 2.7 +/- 0.5 U/ml (-61%) and normalized in eight of these 15 patients. There was a close correlation between the Sm-C and mean 24 h GH levels after therapy (P less than 0.001). It is suggested that adjustment of the dose and the number of Sandostatin injections can be made in acromegaly on the basis of the measurement of Sm-C levels during the follow-up. This precludes the need of multiple GH determinations throughout the day and/or night. Biochemical 'cure' (as defined by normalized Sm-C levels) was reached in eight patients in whom mean 24 h GH levels were suppressed to 3.3 micrograms/l or less. The normalization of Sm-C levels was even observed in the presence of two or three GH secretory peaks (never exceeding 7.5-10 micrograms/l) during the 24 h period occurring towards the next Sandostatin injection. PMID:3251673

  8. Evaluating spectral indices and spectral mixture analysis for assessing fire severity and adjusting burning efficiency using Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veraverbeke, S.; Hook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Fire severity data are of paramount importance to (i) organize post-fire rehabilitation plans and (ii) reduce uncertainties in wildfire emission estimates by allowing spatio-temporal variability in burning efficiency values. We have used a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image to assess fire severity of the large 2011 Wallow fire in Arizona, USA. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), differenced NBR (dNBR), Relative dNBR (RdNBR) and the char fraction estimated by Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) were evaluated. Geo Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI) and vegetation mortality data were used as ground truth. Of all remotely sensed measures tested the dNBR had the highest performance (GeoCBI-dNBR R2 = 0.84 and % black trees-dNBR R2 = 0.91), which supports the operational use of the dNBR for post-fire management. Without initial calibration with field data, however, dNBR values lack biophysical meaning. The SMA-derived char fraction also had moderate-high correlations with the field data (GeoCBI-char fraction R2 = 0.66 and % black trees-char fraction R2 = 0.82). The char fractions provide a direct mechanistic link with the fire processes that occurred on the ground. Such data have big potential to adjust burning efficiency values. This is of great importance to reduce uncertainties in wildfire emission estimates.

  9. Regional placental blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes with gestational age in normally developing pregnancies using long duration R2* mapping in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yun Jung; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Ania I.; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of R2* mapping in maternal and fetal sub-regions of the placenta with the aim of providing a reference for blood oxygenation levels during normative development. There have been a number of MR relaxation studies of placental tissues in-utero, but none have reported R2* value changes with age, or examined differences in sub-regions of the placenta. Here specialized long-duration Multi-frame R2* imaging was used to create a stable estimate for R2* values in different placental regions in healthy pregnant volunteers not imaged for clinical reasons. 27 subjects were recruited and scanned up to 3 times during their pregnancy. A multi-slice dual echo EPI based BOLD acquisition was employed and repeated between 90 and 150 times over 3 to 5 minutes to provide a high accuracy estimate of the R2* signal level. Acquisitions were also repeated in 13 cases within a visit to evaluate reproducibility of the method in a given subject. Experimental results showed R2* measurements were highly repeatable within a visit with standard deviation of (0.76). Plots of all visits against gestational age indicated clear correlations showing decreases in R2* with age. This increase was consistent was also consistent over time in multiple visits of the same volunteer during their pregnancy. Maternal and fetal regional changes with gestational age followed the same trend with increase in R2* over the gestational age.

  10. Spectroscopic studies of the iron and manganese reconstituted tyrosyl radical in Bacillus cereus ribonucleotide reductase R2 protein.

    PubMed

    Tomter, Ane B; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Bell, Caleb B; Barra, Anne-Laure; Andersen, Niels H; Solomon, Edward I; Andersson, K Kristoffer

    2012-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the rate limiting step in DNA synthesis where ribonucleotides are reduced to the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides. Class Ib RNRs consist of two homodimeric subunits: R1E, which houses the active site; and R2F, which contains a metallo cofactor and a tyrosyl radical that initiates the ribonucleotide reduction reaction. We studied the R2F subunit of B. cereus reconstituted with iron or alternatively with manganese ions, then subsequently reacted with molecular oxygen to generate two tyrosyl-radicals. The two similar X-band EPR spectra did not change significantly over 4 to 50 K. From the 285 GHz EPR spectrum of the iron form, a g(1)-value of 2.0090 for the tyrosyl radical was extracted. This g(1)-value is similar to that observed in class Ia E. coli R2 and class Ib R2Fs with iron-oxygen cluster, suggesting the absence of hydrogen bond to the phenoxyl group. This was confirmed by resonance Raman spectroscopy, where the stretching vibration associated to the radical (C-O, ν(7a) = 1500 cm(-1)) was found to be insensitive to deuterium-oxide exchange. Additionally, the (18)O-sensitive Fe-O-Fe symmetric stretching (483 cm(-1)) of the metallo-cofactor was also insensitive to deuterium-oxide exchange indicating no hydrogen bonding to the di-iron-oxygen cluster, and thus, different from mouse R2 with a hydrogen bonded cluster. The HF-EPR spectrum of the manganese reconstituted RNR R2F gave a g(1)-value of ∼2.0094. The tyrosyl radical microwave power saturation behavior of the iron-oxygen cluster form was as observed in class Ia R2, with diamagnetic di-ferric cluster ground state, while the properties of the manganese reconstituted form indicated a magnetic ground state of the manganese-cluster. The recent activity measurements (Crona et al., (2011) J Biol Chem 286: 33053-33060) indicates that both the manganese and iron reconstituted RNR R2F could be functional. The manganese form might be very important, as it has 8 times

  11. Measurement of parenchymal extravascular R2* and tissue oxygen extraction fraction using multi-echo vascular space occupancy MRI at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; van Zijl, Peter C M; Hua, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Parenchymal extravascular R2* is an important parameter for quantitative blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) studies. Total and intravascular R2* values and changes in R2* values during functional stimulations have been reported in a number of studies. The purpose of this study was to measure absolute extravascular R2* values in human visual cortex and to estimate the intra- and extravascular contributions to the BOLD effect at 7 T. Vascular space occupancy (VASO) MRI was employed to separate out the extravascular tissue signal. Multi-echo VASO and BOLD functional MRI (fMRI) with visual stimulation were performed at 7 T for R2* measurement at a spatial resolution of 2.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 mm(3) in healthy volunteers (n = 6). The ratio of changes in extravascular and total R2* (ΔR2*) was used to estimate the extravascular fraction of the BOLD effect. Extravascular R2* values were found to be 44.66 ± 1.55 and 43.38 ± 1.51 s(-1) (mean ± standard error of the mean, n = 6) at rest and activation, respectively, in human visual cortex at 7 T. The extravascular BOLD fraction was estimated to be 91 ± 3%. The parenchymal oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) during activation was estimated to be 0.24 ± 0.01 based on the R2* measurements, indicating an approximately 37% decrease compared with OEF at rest.

  12. R1 and R2 retrotransposable elements of Drosophila evolve at rates similar to those of nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Eickbush, D G; Lathe, W C; Francino, M P; Eickbush, T H

    1995-02-01

    The non-long-terminal repeat retrotransposable elements, R1 and R2, insert at unique locations in the 28S ribosomal RNA genes of insects. Based on the nucleotide sequences of these elements in the eight members of the melanogaster species subgroup of the genus Drosophila, they have been maintained by vertical germline transmission for the 17-20 million year history of this subgroup. The stable inheritance of R1 and R2 within these species has enabled a determination of their nucleotide substitution rates. The sequence of the R1 and R2 elements from D. ambigua, a member of the obscura species group, has also been determined to enable an extrapolation of this rate over an estimated 45-60 million years. The mean rate of substitutions at synonymous sites (Ks) was 6.6 and 9.6 times the rate at replacement sites (Ka) in the R1 and R2 elements, respectively. Both elements appear to have been under selective pressure to maintain their open reading frames and thus their ability to retrotranspose for most of their evolution in these lineages. Using the rate of change at synonymous sites (Ks) as the best indicator of the nucleotide substitution rate, the mean Ks values for R1 and R2 were 2.3 and 2.2 times that of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes. However, this faster rate is a result of the lower codon usage bias of R1 and R2 compared with that of Adh. When the Ks rates of R1 and R2 were compared with that of a larger number of nuclear genes available from at least two of the nine species under investigation, R1 and R2 were found to evolve in most lineages at rates similar to that of nuclear genes with low codon bias. The ability of R1 and R2 to maintain their presence in this species subgroup by retrotransposition while exhibiting rates of nucleotide evolution similar to nuclear genes suggests these transposition events are rare or not as error prone as that of retroviruses.

  13. A general enantioselective approach to jasmonoid fragrances: synthesis of (+)-(1R,2S)-methyl dihydrojasmonate and (+)-(1R,2S)-magnolione.

    PubMed

    Porta, Alessio; Vidari, Giovanni; Zanoni, Giuseppe

    2005-06-10

    Methyl dihydrojasmonate 1 and magnolione 3 are of both academic and industrial interest. In this paper, we describe a flexible, high-yielding route to diastereomerically pure (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-methyl dihydrojasmonate 1 and the first synthesis of (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-magnolione 3, both with enantiomeric excesses up to 93%. The two syntheses diverged from the same advanced intermediate 5, readily available from the enantioenriched hydroxymethyl delta-lactone (-)-(3aS,4S,6aR)-6. The olfactory properties of (1R,2S)-1 and (1R,2S)-3 are reported.

  14. Lattice dynamics of crystals having R2MX6 structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, D. I.; Freire, J. D.; Katiyar, R. S.

    1997-10-01

    The theory of lattice dynamics in the harmonic approximation using a rigid-ion model due to Born and Huang [Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices (Oxford University Press, New York, 1954)], is applied to ionic crystals of the R2MX6 type with antifluorite structure namely, K2SnCl6, K2PtBr6, Cs2SnBr6, and Rb2SnBr6 in the cubic phase. The model expresses the potential energy as the sum of long-range Coulomb interactions and repulsive short-range interactions between ions in the primitive cell. A function of axially symmetric type is used to approximate the short-range part, and the number of force constant parameters were reduced utilizing stability conditions in the manner described by Katiyar [J. Phys. C 3, 1087 (1970)]. The remaining constants were determined by a nonlinear least-squares analysis of some experimental frequencies at the critical point Γ. The long-range contributions were calculated using the Ewald transformation as described by Cowley [Acta Crystallogr. 15, 687 (1962)]. Phonon frequencies and the normal modes of vibrations at the zone center were obtained; of particular interest is the resulting lowest librational frequency for each crystal. We obtained excellent agreement between the calculated and the observed frequencies. The resulting effective charge parameters indicated that these crystals are partially ionic. In general, the results offered a better vision of the structural phase transition mechanism involving the rotational mode T1g.

  15. Minimizing the 1/r(2) perturbation for ideal fluence detectors in small source γ-irradiation fields.

    PubMed

    Bielajew, Alex F

    2014-08-21

    A technique for analyzing the effect of the geometrical shape of a source or a detector, using a quadrupole expansion, is described herein. It is shown that this method may be exploited to predict, optimize the geometry of a source, or a measurement device, and nearly eliminate, the departure from the 1/r(2) fall-off characteristic due to irradiation from small sources. We have investigated several simple shapes that have a vanishing Q2 quadrupole moment: a right circular cylinder with a diameter to depth ratio of √[2], a cone with a radius to height ratio of unity, and an oblate ellipsoid with a diameter to depth ratio of √[3/2]. These ideal shapes produce optimally small departures in a 1/r(2) field, nearly mimicking a point-like detector. We have also found a rotationally symmetric shape, intermediate to the other three, that has additionally, a vanishing Q4, the hexadecapole moment. This geometry further improves the 1/r(2)-perturbation characteristics and has an additional free parameter that may be adjusted to model the ideal cylinder, cone or oblate spheroid. PMID:25054611

  16. Prognostic value of the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index in chemosensitive recurrent or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphomas treated with high-dose BEAM therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, E; Peslin, N; Arnaud, P; Ferme, C; Carde, P; Vantelon, J M; Bocaccio, C; Bourhis, J H; Koscielny, S; Ribrag, V

    2005-06-01

    High-dose therapy (HDT) is now recommended for patients under 60 years of age with chemosensitive relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, approximately half of these patients will be cured by HDT. Prognostic factors are needed to predict which patients with chemosensitive lymphoma to second-line therapy could benefit from HDT. We retrospectively investigated the prognostic value of the widely used age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (AA-IPI) calculated at the time of relapse (35 patients) or just before second-line salvage therapy for primary refractory disease (5 patients). The median age was 51 years (range 18-64 years). Thirty-six patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Salvage cytoreductive therapy before HDT was DHAP/ESHAP (cytarabine, cysplatin, etoposide, steroids) in 17 patients, VIM3-Ara-c/MAMI (high-dose cytarabine, ifosfamide, methyl-gag, amsacrine) in 17 patients, CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) or reinforced CHOP in 4 patients, high-dose cyclophosphamide and etoposide in 2 patients. The HDT regimen consisted of BEAM (carmusine, cytarabine, etoposide, melphalan) in all cases. Eleven patients were in partial remission and 29 in complete remission at the time of HDT. Ten patients had an IPI >1, 16 had relapsed early (<6 months after first-line therapy) or disease was refractory to first-line therapy (5 of the 16 patients). The median follow-up was 6.07 years (range 1.24-9.74 years). Overall survival was not statistically different in patients with refractory disease or in those who relapsed early compared with late failures (>6 months after first-line chemotherapy) (P=1), but the AA-IPI >1 was associated with a poor outcome (P=0.03). In conclusion, the AA-IPI could have a prognostic value in patients with chemosensitive recurrent lymphoma treated with BEAM HDT.

  17. Adjusting spectral indices for spectral response function differences of very high spatial resolution sensors simulated from field spectra.

    PubMed

    Cundill, Sharon L; van der Werff, Harald M A; van der Meijde, Mark

    2015-03-13

    The use of data from multiple sensors is often required to ensure data coverage and continuity, but differences in the spectral characteristics of sensors result in spectral index values being different. This study investigates spectral response function effects on 48 spectral indices for cultivated grasslands using simulated data of 10 very high spatial resolution sensors, convolved from field reflectance spectra of a grass covered dike (with varying vegetation condition). Index values for 48 indices were calculated for original narrow-band spectra and convolved data sets, and then compared. The indices Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI2) and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), which include the difference between the near-infrared and red bands, have values most similar to those of the original spectra across all 10 sensors (1:1 line mean 1:1R2 > 0.960 and linear trend mean ccR2 > 0.997). Additionally, relationships between the indices' values and two quality indicators for grass covered dikes were compared to those of the original spectra. For the soil moisture indicator, indices that ratio bands performed better across sensors than those that difference bands, while for the dike cover quality indicator, both the choice of bands and their formulation are important.

  18. Adjusting Spectral Indices for Spectral Response Function Differences of Very High Spatial Resolution Sensors Simulated from Field Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Cundill, Sharon L.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; van der Meijde, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The use of data from multiple sensors is often required to ensure data coverage and continuity, but differences in the spectral characteristics of sensors result in spectral index values being different. This study investigates spectral response function effects on 48 spectral indices for cultivated grasslands using simulated data of 10 very high spatial resolution sensors, convolved from field reflectance spectra of a grass covered dike (with varying vegetation condition). Index values for 48 indices were calculated for original narrow-band spectra and convolved data sets, and then compared. The indices Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI2) and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), which include the difference between the near-infrared and red bands, have values most similar to those of the original spectra across all 10 sensors (1:1 line mean 1:1R2 > 0.960 and linear trend mean ccR2 > 0.997). Additionally, relationships between the indices’ values and two quality indicators for grass covered dikes were compared to those of the original spectra. For the soil moisture indicator, indices that ratio bands performed better across sensors than those that difference bands, while for the dike cover quality indicator, both the choice of bands and their formulation are important. PMID:25781511

  19. Stable Synaptic Retention of Serine-880-Phosphorylated GluR2 in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    States, Bradley A.; Khatri, Latika; Ziff, Edward B.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorylation of S880 within the GluR2 C-terminus has been reported to promote endocytosis of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) by preventing GluR2 interaction with the putative synaptic anchoring proteins GRIP and ABP. It is not yet established however, whether S880 phosphorylation induces removal of AMPARs from synaptic sites, and the trafficking of phosphorylated GluR2 subunits with surface and endocytosed GluR2 has not been directly compared within the same intact neurons. Here we show that phosphorylation of GluR2 subunits by PKC activated with phorbol esters is compartmentally restricted to receptors located at the cell surface. Endogenous AMPARs containing S880-phosphorylated GluR2 remained highly synaptic and colocalized with post-synaptic markers to the same extent as AMPARs which did not contain S880-phosphorylated GluR2. Moreover, following S880 phosphorylation, exogenous GluR2 homomers were found specifically at the cell surface and did not cotraffic with the internalized endosomal GluR2 population. We also show that GluR2 is endogenously phosphorylated by a constitutively active kinase pharmacologically related to PKC, and this phosphorylation is opposed by the protein phosphatase PP1. Our results demonstrate a population of hippocampal AMPARs which do not require interaction with GRIP/ABP for synaptic anchorage. PMID:18417360

  20. FKBPs facilitate the termination of spontaneous Ca2+ release in wild-type RyR2 but not CPVT mutant RyR2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Joe Z; Waddell, Helen M M; Wu, Ella; Dholakia, Jhanvi; Okolo, Chidinma A; McLay, Janet C; Jones, Peter P

    2016-07-15

    FK506-binding proteins 12.6 (FKBP12.6) and 12 (FKBP12) tightly associate with the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2). Studies suggest that dissociation of FKBP12.6 from mutant forms of RyR2 contributes to store overload-induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR) and Ca(2+)-triggered arrhythmias. However, these findings are controversial. Previous studies focused on the effect of FKBP12.6 on the initiation of SOICR and did not explore changes in the termination of Ca(2+) release. Less is known about FKBP12. We aimed to determine the effect of FKBP12.6 and FKBP12 on the termination of SOICR. Using single-cell imaging, in cells expressing wild-type RyR2, we found that FKBP12.6 and FKBP12 significantly increase the termination threshold of SOICR without changing the activation threshold of SOICR. This effect, dependent on the association of each FKBP with RyR2, reduced the magnitude of Ca(2+) release but had no effect on the propensity for SOICR. In contrast, neither FKBP12.6 nor FKBP12 was able to regulate an arrhythmogenic variant of RyR2, despite a conserved protein interaction. Our results suggest that both FKBP12.6 and FKBP12 play critical roles in regulating RyR2 function by facilitating the termination of SOICR. The inability of FKBPs to mediate a similar effect on the mutant RyR2 represents a novel mechanism by which mutations within RyR2 lead to arrhythmia. PMID:27154203

  1. Structure and Mechanism of Receptor Sharing by the IL-10R2 Common Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-il; Jones, Brandi C.; Logsdon, Naomi J.; Harris, Bethany D.; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Radaeva, Svetlana; Halloran, Brian A.; Gao, Bin; Walter, Mark R.

    2010-07-19

    IL-10R2 is a shared cell surface receptor required for the activation of five class 2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29) that play critical roles in host defense. To define the molecular mechanisms that regulate its promiscuous binding, we have determined the crystal structure of the IL-10R2 ectodomain at 2.14 {angstrom} resolution. IL-10R2 residues required for binding were identified by alanine scanning and used to derive computational models of IL-10/IL-10R1/IL-10R2 and IL-22/IL-22R1/IL-10R2 ternary complexes. The models reveal a conserved binding epitope that is surrounded by two clefts that accommodate the structural and chemical diversity of the cytokines. These results provide a structural framework for interpreting IL-10R2 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human disease.

  2. Influence of CO2 exposure on pH value, electrochemical properties, and the formation of calcium-phosphate on Ti-6Al-4V under adjusted in vitro conditions in DMEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, Sarah; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2015-06-01

    Immersion tests for studying biomaterials surface reactions should be carried out at a pH value of 7.4 and an adjusted blood physiological electrolyte to simulate as far as possible in vivo conditions. The present work deals with surface reactivity of the biocompatible Ti-6Al-4V alloy in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and the influence of different immersion conditions on the pH value of solution and thus on the surface charge and calcium-phosphate formation on the oxide covered alloy surface. More specifically, the influence of the temperature (room temperature vs. 37 °C) and atmospheric exposure (solution open-to-air vs. solution exposed to 5% CO2 in air) was investigated. Electrochemical measurements, XPS and ATR-IR studies were carried out for interface characterization. Precipitations of calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) on Ti-6Al-4V in DMEM are formed depending on the atmospheric conditions (presence or absence of CO2). In the absence of CO2 strong coverage of the surface by a Ca-P layer takes place; in solution exposed to 5% CO2, however, only minor amounts of Ca-P are found on the surface. This drastically different behavior can be explained by different surface terminations of OH and TiO2, induced by atmosphere-dependent pH change in solution. In consequence, different surface charges on Ti-6Al-4V can be formed at the interface depending on the type of hydroxides after contact with the electrolyte. Hence, the surface charge influences the interaction with adsorption of charged species and further modifies the oxide properties. The adsorption of the charged cations (Ca2 +) and anions (PO43 -, HPO42 -, H2PO4 -) leads to the formation of additional calcium phosphate layers. The pH of the solution is also important. At higher pH the titanium surface is more negatively charged leading to an increased electrostatic interaction with Ca2 + and reduced solubility of the calcium phosphates. Additional experiments indicate that the CO2 content in the atmosphere is

  3. Identification and characterization of two distinct PPP1R2 isoforms in human spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein Ser/Thr Phosphatase PPP1CC2 is an alternatively spliced isoform of PPP1C that is highly enriched in testis and selectively expressed in sperm. Addition of the phosphatase inhibitor toxins okadaic acid or calyculin A to caput and caudal sperm triggers and stimulates motility, respectively. Thus, the endogenous mechanisms of phosphatase inhibition are fundamental for controlling sperm function and should be characterized. Preliminary results have shown a protein phosphatase inhibitor activity resembling PPP1R2 in bovine and primate spermatozoa. Results Here we show conclusively, for the first time, that PPP1R2 is present in sperm. In addition, we have also identified a novel protein, PPP1R2P3. The latter was previously thought to be an intron-less pseudogene. We show that the protein corresponding to the pseudogene is expressed. It has PPP1 inhibitory potency similar to PPP1R2. The potential phosphosites in PPP1R2 are substituted by non-phosphorylable residues, T73P and S87R, in PPP1R2P3. We also confirm that PPP1R2/PPP1R2P3 are phosphorylated at Ser121 and Ser122, and report a novel phosphorylation site, Ser127. Subfractionation of sperm structures show that PPP1CC2, PPP1R2/PPP1R2P3 are located in the head and tail structures. Conclusions The conclusive identification and localization of sperm PPP1R2 and PPP1R2P3 lays the basis for future studies on their roles in acrosome reaction, sperm motility and hyperactivation. An intriguing possibility is that a switch in PPP1CC2 inhibitory subunits could be the trigger for sperm motility in the epididymis and/or sperm hyperactivation in the female reproductive tract. PMID:23506001

  4. The Implementation of C-ID, R2D2 Model on Learning Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayanto, Yudi Hari; Rusmawan, Putu Ngurah

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to find out, (1) whether C-ID, R2D2 model is effective to be implemented on learning Reading comprehension, (2) college students' activity during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on learning Reading comprehension, and 3) college students' learning achievement during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on…

  5. Preferential Occupancy of R2 Retroelements on the B Chromosomes of the Grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Eugenia E.; Cabrero, Josefa; Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Burke, William D.; Eickbush, Thomas H.; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; López-León, María Dolores

    2014-01-01

    R2 non-LTR retrotransposons exclusively insert into the 28S rRNA genes of their host, and are expressed by co-transcription with the rDNA unit. The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans contains transcribed rDNA clusters on most of its A chromosomes, as well as non-transcribed rDNA clusters on the parasitic B chromosomes found in many populations. Here the structure of the E. plorans R2 element, its abundance relative to the number of rDNA units and its retrotransposition activity were determined. Animals screened from five populations contained on average over 12,000 rDNA units on their A chromosomes, but surprisingly only about 100 R2 elements. Monitoring the patterns of R2 insertions in individuals from these populations revealed only low levels of retrotransposition. The low rates of R2 insertion observed in E. plorans differ from the high levels of R2 insertion previously observed in insect species that have many fewer rDNA units. It is proposed that high levels of R2 are strongly selected against in E. plorans, because the rDNA transcription machinery in this species is unable to differentiate between R2-inserted and uninserted units. The B chromosomes of E. plorans contain an additional 7,000 to 15,000 rDNA units, but in contrast to the A chromosomes, from 150 to over 1,500 R2 elements. The higher concentration of R2 in the inactive B chromosomes rDNA clusters suggests these chromosomes can act as a sink for R2 insertions thus further reducing the level of insertions on the A chromosomes. These studies suggest an interesting evolutionary relationship between the parasitic B chromosomes and R2 elements. PMID:24632855

  6. Preferential occupancy of R2 retroelements on the B chromosomes of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Eugenia E; Cabrero, Josefa; Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Burke, William D; Eickbush, Thomas H; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; López-León, María Dolores

    2014-01-01

    R2 non-LTR retrotransposons exclusively insert into the 28S rRNA genes of their host, and are expressed by co-transcription with the rDNA unit. The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans contains transcribed rDNA clusters on most of its A chromosomes, as well as non-transcribed rDNA clusters on the parasitic B chromosomes found in many populations. Here the structure of the E. plorans R2 element, its abundance relative to the number of rDNA units and its retrotransposition activity were determined. Animals screened from five populations contained on average over 12,000 rDNA units on their A chromosomes, but surprisingly only about 100 R2 elements. Monitoring the patterns of R2 insertions in individuals from these populations revealed only low levels of retrotransposition. The low rates of R2 insertion observed in E. plorans differ from the high levels of R2 insertion previously observed in insect species that have many fewer rDNA units. It is proposed that high levels of R2 are strongly selected against in E. plorans, because the rDNA transcription machinery in this species is unable to differentiate between R2-inserted and uninserted units. The B chromosomes of E. plorans contain an additional 7,000 to 15,000 rDNA units, but in contrast to the A chromosomes, from 150 to over 1,500 R2 elements. The higher concentration of R2 in the inactive B chromosomes rDNA clusters suggests these chromosomes can act as a sink for R2 insertions thus further reducing the level of insertions on the A chromosomes. These studies suggest an interesting evolutionary relationship between the parasitic B chromosomes and R2 elements.

  7. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles.

    PubMed

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco Javier; Boersma, Maaike; Schuurink, Robert C; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Caballero, José Luis; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and functionally characterized an R2R3 MYB transcription factor (emission of benzenoid II [FaEOBII]) that seems to be the orthologous gene of PhEOBII from Petunia hybrida, which contributes to the regulation of eugenol biosynthesis in petals. The expression of FaEOBII was ripening related and fruit receptacle specific, although high expression values were also found in petals. This expression pattern of FaEOBII correlated with eugenol content in both fruit receptacle and petals. The expression of FaEOBII was repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid, in parallel to the ripening process. In ripe strawberry receptacles, where the expression of FaEOBII was silenced, the expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase1 and FaEGS2, two structural genes involved in eugenol production, was down-regulated. A subsequent decrease in eugenol content in ripe receptacles was also observed, confirming the involvement of FaEOBII in eugenol metabolism. Additionally, the expression of FaEOBII was under the control of FaMYB10, another R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates the early and late biosynthetic genes from the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway. In parallel, the amount of eugenol in FaMYB10-silenced receptacles was also diminished. Taken together, these data indicate that FaEOBII plays a regulating role in the volatile phenylpropanoid pathway gene expression that gives rise to eugenol production in ripe strawberry receptacles. PMID:25931522

  8. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles.

    PubMed

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco Javier; Boersma, Maaike; Schuurink, Robert C; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Caballero, José Luis; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and functionally characterized an R2R3 MYB transcription factor (emission of benzenoid II [FaEOBII]) that seems to be the orthologous gene of PhEOBII from Petunia hybrida, which contributes to the regulation of eugenol biosynthesis in petals. The expression of FaEOBII was ripening related and fruit receptacle specific, although high expression values were also found in petals. This expression pattern of FaEOBII correlated with eugenol content in both fruit receptacle and petals. The expression of FaEOBII was repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid, in parallel to the ripening process. In ripe strawberry receptacles, where the expression of FaEOBII was silenced, the expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase1 and FaEGS2, two structural genes involved in eugenol production, was down-regulated. A subsequent decrease in eugenol content in ripe receptacles was also observed, confirming the involvement of FaEOBII in eugenol metabolism. Additionally, the expression of FaEOBII was under the control of FaMYB10, another R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates the early and late biosynthetic genes from the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway. In parallel, the amount of eugenol in FaMYB10-silenced receptacles was also diminished. Taken together, these data indicate that FaEOBII plays a regulating role in the volatile phenylpropanoid pathway gene expression that gives rise to eugenol production in ripe strawberry receptacles.

  9. Simultaneous Field and R2* Mapping to Quantify Liver Iron Content Using Autoregressive Moving Average Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brian A.; Loeffler, Ralf B.; Song, Ruitian; McCarville, Mary E.; Hankins, Jane S.; Hillenbrand, Claudia M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the use of a complex multi-gradient echo (mGRE) acquisition and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model for simultaneous susceptibility and R2* measurements for the assessment of liver iron content (LIC) in patients with iron overload. Materials and Methods Fifty MR exams with magnitude and phase mGRE images are processed using the ARMA model which provides fat-separated field maps, R2* maps, and T1-W imaging. The LIC is calculated by measuring the susceptibility between the liver and the right transverse abdominal muscle from the field maps. The relationship between LIC derived from susceptibility measurements and LIC from R2* measurements is determined using linear least squares regression analysis. Results LIC measured from R2* is highly correlated to the LIC from the susceptibility method (mg/g dry = 8.99 ± 0.15 × (mg Fe/ml of wet liver) −2.38 ± 0.29, R2=0.94). The field inhomogeneity in the liver is correlated with R2* (R2=0.85). Conclusion By using the ARMA model on complex mGRE images, both susceptibility and R2*-based LIC measurements can be made simultaneously. The susceptibility measurement can be used to help verify R2* measurements in the assessment of iron overload. PMID:22180325

  10. Effect of Risk Adjustment Method on Comparisons of Health Care Utilization Between Complementary and Alternative Medicine Users and Nonusers

    PubMed Central

    Gerkovich, Mary M.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Deyo, Richard A.; Sherman, Karen J.; Lafferty, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers are becoming more integrated into the United States health care system. Because patients self-select CAM use, risk adjustment is needed to make the groups more comparable when analyzing utilization. This study examined how the choice of risk adjustment method affects assessment of CAM use on overall health care utilization. Design and subjects Insurance claims data for 2000–2003 from Washington State, which mandates coverage of CAM providers, were analyzed. Three (3) risk adjustment methods were compared in patients with musculoskeletal conditions: Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG), Diagnostic Cost Groups (DCG), and the Charlson Index. Relative Value Units (RVUs) were used as a proxy for expenditures. Two (2) sets of median regression models were created: prospective, which used risk adjustments from the previous year to predict RVU in the subsequent year, and concurrent, which used risk adjustment measures to predict RVU in the same year. Results The sample included 92,474 claimants. Prospective models showed little difference in the effect of CAM use on RVU among the three risk adjustment methods, and all models had low predictive power (R2 ≤0.05). In the concurrent models, coefficients were similar in direction and magnitude for all risk adjustment methods, but in some models the predicted effect of CAM use on RVU differed by as much as double between methods. Results of DCG and ACG models were similar and were stronger than Charlson models. Conclusions Choice of risk adjustment method may have a modest effect on the outcome of interest. PMID:23036140

  11. Calcium release channel RyR2 regulates insulin release and glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Santulli, Gaetano; Pagano, Gennaro; Sardu, Celestino; Xie, Wenjun; Reiken, Steven; D’Ascia, Salvatore Luca; Cannone, Michele; Marziliano, Nicola; Trimarco, Bruno; Guise, Theresa A.; Lacampagne, Alain; Marks, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a Ca2+ release channel on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of several types of cells, including cardiomyocytes and pancreatic β cells. In cardiomyocytes, RyR2-dependent Ca2+ release is critical for excitation-contraction coupling; however, a functional role for RyR2 in β cell insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus remains controversial. Here, we took advantage of rare RyR2 mutations that were identified in patients with a genetic form of exercise-induced sudden death (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia [CPVT]). As these mutations result in a “leaky” RyR2 channel, we exploited them to assess RyR2 channel function in β cell dynamics. We discovered that CPVT patients with mutant leaky RyR2 present with glucose intolerance, which was heretofore unappreciated. In mice, transgenic expression of CPVT-associated RyR2 resulted in impaired glucose homeostasis, and an in-depth evaluation of pancreatic islets and β cells from these animals revealed intracellular Ca2+ leak via oxidized and nitrosylated RyR2 channels, activated ER stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, and decreased fuel-stimulated insulin release. Additionally, we verified the effects of the pharmacological inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ leak in CPVT-associated RyR2-expressing mice, in human islets from diabetic patients, and in an established murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Taken together, our data indicate that RyR2 channels play a crucial role in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25844899

  12. Evolution of the R2 Retrotransposon Ribozyme and Its Self-Cleavage Site

    PubMed Central

    Eickbush, Danna G.; Burke, William D.; Eickbush, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    R2 is a non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon that inserts site-specifically in the tandem 28S rRNA genes of many animals. Previously, R2 RNA from various species of Drosophila was shown to self-cleave from the 28S rRNA/R2 co-transcript by a hepatitis D virus (HDV)-like ribozyme encoded at its 5' end. RNA cleavage was at the precise 5' junction of the element with the 28S gene. Here we report that RNAs encompassing the 5' ends of R2 elements from throughout its species range fold into HDV-like ribozymes. In vitro assays of RNA self-cleavage conducted in many R2 lineages confirmed activity. For many R2s, RNA self-cleavage was not at the 5' end of the element but at 28S rRNA sequences up to 36 nucleotides upstream of the junction. The location of cleavage correlated well with the types of endogenous R2 5' junctions from different species. R2 5' junctions were uniform for most R2s in which RNA cleavage was upstream in the rRNA sequences. The 28S sequences remaining on the first DNA strand synthesized during retrotransposition are postulated to anneal to the target site and uniformly prime second strand DNA synthesis. In species where RNA cleavage occurred at the R2 5' end, the 5' junctions were variable. This junction variation is postulated to result from the priming of second strand DNA synthesis by chance microhomologies between the target site and the first DNA strand. Finally, features of R2 ribozyme evolution, especially changes in cleavage site and convergence on the same active site sequences, are discussed. PMID:24066021

  13. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  14. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Supporting Global Data Access Through the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Stocks, K.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.; Miller, S. P.; Maffei, A. R.; Glaves, H. M.; Carbotte, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. National Science Foundation supports a fleet of academic research vessels operating throughout the world's oceans. In addition to supporting the mission-specific goals of each expedition, these vessels routinely deploy a suite of underway environmental sensors, operating like mobile observatories. Recognizing that the data from these instruments have value beyond each cruise, NSF funded R2R in 2009 to ensure that these data are routinely captured, cataloged and described, and submitted to the appropriate national repository for long-term public access. In 2013, R2R joined the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP; http://odip.org/). The goal of ODIP is to remove barriers to the effective sharing of data across scientific domains and international boundaries, by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional systems. To advance this goal, ODIP organizes international workshops to foster the development of common standards and develop prototypes to evaluate and test potential standards and interoperability solutions. ODIP includes major organizations engaged in ocean data stewardship in the EU, US, and Australia, supported by the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE). Within the broad scope of ODIP, R2R focuses on contributions in 4 key areas: ● Implement a 'Linked Open Data' approach to disseminate data and documentation, using existing World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications and machine-readable formats. Exposing content as Linked Open Data will provide a simple mechanism for ODIP collaborators to browse and compare data sets among repositories. ● Map key vocabularies used by R2R to their European and Australian counterparts. The existing heterogeneity among terms inhibits data discoverability, as a user searching on the term with which s/he is familiar may not find all data of interest. Mapping key terms across the different ODIP partners, relying on the backbone thesaurus provided by the NERC Vocabulary Server

  15. R2U2: Monitoring and Diagnosis of Security Threats for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Moosbruger, Patrick; Rozier, Kristin Y.

    2015-01-01

    We present R2U2, a novel framework for runtime monitoring of security properties and diagnosing of security threats on-board Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). R2U2, implemented in FPGA hardware, is a real-time, REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, UNOBTRUSIVE Unit for security threat detection. R2U2 is designed to continuously monitor inputs from the GPS and the ground control station, sensor readings, actuator outputs, and flight software status. By simultaneously monitoring and performing statistical reasoning, attack patterns and post-attack discrepancies in the UAS behavior can be detected. R2U2 uses runtime observer pairs for linear and metric temporal logics for property monitoring and Bayesian networks for diagnosis of security threats. We discuss the design and implementation that now enables R2U2 to handle security threats and present simulation results of several attack scenarios on the NASA DragonEye UAS.

  16. Expansion and diversification of the Populus R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Olivia; Nahal, Hardeep; Foong, Justin; Provart, Nicholas J; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2009-02-01

    The R2R3-MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. R2R3-MYB family members regulate plant-specific processes, such as the elaboration of specialized cell types, including xylem, guard cells, trichomes, and root hairs, and the biosynthesis of specialized branches of metabolism, including phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. As such, R2R3-MYB family members are hypothesized to contribute to the emergence of evolutionary innovations that have arisen in specific plant lineages. As a first step in determining the role played by R2R3-MYB family members in the emergence of lineage-specific innovations in the genus Populus, the entire Populus trichocarpa R2R3-MYB family was characterized. The Populus R2R3-MYB complement is much larger than that found in other angiosperms with fully sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses, together with chromosome placement, showed that the expansion of the Populus R2R3-MYB family was not only attributable to whole genome duplication but also involved selective expansion of specific R2R3-MYB clades. Expansion of the Populus R2R3-MYB family prominently involved members with expression patterns that suggested a role in specific components of Populus life history, including wood formation and reproductive development. An expandable compendium of microarray-based expression data (PopGenExpress) and associated Web-based tools were developed to better enable within- and between-species comparisons of Populus R2R3-MYB gene expression. This resource, which includes intuitive graphic visualization of gene expression data across multiple tissues, organs, and treatments, is freely available to, and expandable by, scientists wishing to better understand the genome biology of Populus, an ecologically dominant and economically important forest tree genus. PMID:19091872

  17. Diversification of R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors in the Tomato Family Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Gates, Daniel J; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Olson, Bradley J S C; Smith, Stacey D

    2016-08-01

    MYB transcription factors play an important role in regulating key plant developmental processes involving defense, cell shape, pigmentation, and root formation. Within this gene family, sequences containing an R2R3 MYB domain are the most abundant type and exhibit a wide diversity of functions. In this study, we identify 559 R2R3 MYB genes using whole genome data from four species of Solanaceae and reconstruct their evolutionary relationships. We compare the Solanaceae R2R3 MYBs to the well-characterized Arabidopsis thaliana sequences to estimate functional diversity and to identify gains and losses of MYB clades in the Solanaceae. We identify numerous R2R3 MYBs that do not appear closely related to Arabidopsis MYBs, and thus may represent clades of genes that have been lost along the Arabidopsis lineage or gained after the divergence of Rosid and Asterid lineages. Despite differences in the distribution of R2R3 MYBs across functional subgroups and species, the overall size of the R2R3 subfamily has changed relatively little over the roughly 50 million-year history of Solanaceae. We added our information regarding R2R3 MYBs in Solanaceae to other data and performed a meta-analysis to trace the evolution of subfamily size across land plants. The results reveal many shifts in the number of R2R3 genes, including a 54 % increase along the angiosperm stem lineage. The variation in R2R3 subfamily size across land plants is weakly positively correlated with genome size and strongly positively correlated with total number of genes. The retention of such a large number of R2R3 copies over long evolutionary time periods suggests that they have acquired new functions and been maintained by selection. Discovering the nature of this functional diversity will require integrating forward and reverse genetic approaches on an -omics scale.

  18. Expansion and diversification of the Populus R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Olivia; Nahal, Hardeep; Foong, Justin; Provart, Nicholas J; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2009-02-01

    The R2R3-MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. R2R3-MYB family members regulate plant-specific processes, such as the elaboration of specialized cell types, including xylem, guard cells, trichomes, and root hairs, and the biosynthesis of specialized branches of metabolism, including phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. As such, R2R3-MYB family members are hypothesized to contribute to the emergence of evolutionary innovations that have arisen in specific plant lineages. As a first step in determining the role played by R2R3-MYB family members in the emergence of lineage-specific innovations in the genus Populus, the entire Populus trichocarpa R2R3-MYB family was characterized. The Populus R2R3-MYB complement is much larger than that found in other angiosperms with fully sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses, together with chromosome placement, showed that the expansion of the Populus R2R3-MYB family was not only attributable to whole genome duplication but also involved selective expansion of specific R2R3-MYB clades. Expansion of the Populus R2R3-MYB family prominently involved members with expression patterns that suggested a role in specific components of Populus life history, including wood formation and reproductive development. An expandable compendium of microarray-based expression data (PopGenExpress) and associated Web-based tools were developed to better enable within- and between-species comparisons of Populus R2R3-MYB gene expression. This resource, which includes intuitive graphic visualization of gene expression data across multiple tissues, organs, and treatments, is freely available to, and expandable by, scientists wishing to better understand the genome biology of Populus, an ecologically dominant and economically important forest tree genus.

  19. 26 CFR 31.3306(r)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Section 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL..., Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans. (a) In general. Section 3306(r)(2) provides a special timing rule for the...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3306(r)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Section 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL..., Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans. (a) In general. Section 3306(r)(2) provides a special timing rule for the...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3306(r)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Section 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL..., Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans. (a) In general. Section 3306(r)(2) provides a special timing rule for the...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3306(r)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Section 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL..., Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans. (a) In general. Section 3306(r)(2) provides a special timing rule for the...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3306(r)(2)-1 - Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... nonqualified deferred compensation plans. 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Section 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL..., Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(r)(2)-1 Treatment of amounts deferred under certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans. (a) In general. Section 3306(r)(2) provides a special timing rule for the...

  4. An ODIP Effort to Map R2R Ocean Data Terms to International Vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, R.; Stocks, K. I.; Arko, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The diverseness of terminology used in describing ocean data creates a barrier to efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a U.S. program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S. academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed within R2R or are specific to the U.S. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international ones, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO), and R2R chief scientist names to well known professional identifiers such as ORCID, Research Gate, Linkedin, etc. Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. All ports are successfully mapped. Both organizations and device models have initial mappings and R2R has added new terms to EDMO and SeaVoX Device Catalog vocabularies allowing for nearly complete coverage of

  5. (abstract) A Comparison Between Measurements of the F-layer Critical Frequency and Values Derived from the PRISM Adjustment Algorithm Applied to Total Electron Content Data in the Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Anderson, D. N.; Abdu, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Parametrized Real-Time Ionosphere Specification Model (PRISM) is a global ionospheric specification model that can incorporate real-time data to compute accurate electron density profiles. Time series of computed and measured data are compared in this paper. This comparison can be used to suggest methods of optimizing the PRISM adjustment algorithm for TEC data obtained at low altitudes.

  6. MiR-2 family targets awd and fng to regulate wing morphogenesis in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ling, Lin; Ge, Xie; Li, Zhiqian; Zeng, Baosheng; Xu, Jun; Chen, Xu; Shang, Peng; James, Anthony A; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators that target specific mRNAs for repression and thus play key roles in many biological processes, including insect wing morphogenesis. miR-2 is an invertebrate-specific miRNA family that has been predicted in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to be involved in regulating the Notch signaling pathway. We show here that miR-2 plays a critical role in wing morphogenesis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran model insect. Transgenic over-expression of a miR-2 cluster using a Gal4/UAS system results in deformed adult wings, supporting the conclusion that miR-2 regulates functions essential for normal wing morphogenesis. Two genes, abnormal wing disc (awd) and fringe (fng), which are positive regulators in Notch signaling, are identified as miR-2 targets and validated by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The relative abundance of both awd and fng expression products was reduced significantly in transgenic animals, implicating them in the abnormal wing phenotype. Furthermore, somatic mutagenesis analysis of awd and fng using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and knock-out mutants also resulted in deformed wings similar to those observed in the miR-2 overexpression transgenic animals. The critical role of miR-2 in Bombyx wing morphogenesis may provide a potential target in future lepidopteran pest control. PMID:26037405

  7. Methoxychlor and fenvalerate induce neuronal death by reducing GluR2 expression.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Kanae; Kotake, Yaichiro; Miyara, Masatsugu; Ishida, Keishi; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    GluR2, an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit, plays important roles in neuronal survival. We previously showed that exposure of cultured rat cortical neurons to several chemicals decreases GluR2 protein expression, leading to neuronal toxicity. Methoxychlor, the bis-p-methoxy derivative of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and fenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid chemical, have been used commercially as agricultural pesticides in several countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term methoxychlor and fenvalerate exposure on neuronal glutamate receptors. Treatment of cultured rat cortical neurons with 1 or 10 µM methoxychlor and fenvalerate for 9 days selectively decreased GluR2 protein expression; the expression of other AMPA receptor subunits GluR1, GluR3, and GluR4 did not change under the same conditions. Importantly, the decreases in GluR2 protein expression were also observed on the cell surface membrane where AMPA receptors typically function. In addition, both chemicals decreased neuronal viability, which was blocked by pretreatment with 1-naphtylacetylspermine, an antagonist of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors, and MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. These results suggest that long-term exposure to methoxychlor and fenvalerate decreases GluR2 protein expression, leading to neuronal death via overactivation of GluR2-lacking AMPA and NMDA receptors.

  8. ChR2 transgenic animals in peripheral sensory system: Sensing light as various sensations.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Since the introduction of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to neuroscience, optogenetics technology was developed, making it possible to activate specific neurons or circuits with spatial and temporal precision. Various ChR2 transgenic animal models have been generated and are playing important roles in revealing the mechanisms of neural activities, mapping neural circuits, controlling the behaviors of animals as well as exploring new strategy for treating the neurological diseases in both central and peripheral nervous system. An animal including humans senses environments through Aristotle's five senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch). Usually, each sense is associated with a kind of sensory organ (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin). Is it possible that one could hear light, smell light, taste light and touch light? When ChR2 is targeted to different peripheral sensory neurons by viral vectors or generating ChR2 transgenic animals, the animals can sense the light as various sensations such as hearing, touch, pain, smell and taste. In this review, we focus on ChR2 transgenic animals in the peripheral nervous system. Firstly the working principle of ChR2 as an optogenetic actuator is simply described. Then the current transgenic animal lines where ChR2 was expressed in peripheral sensory neurons are presented and the findings obtained by these animal models are reviewed.

  9. MiR-2 family targets awd and fng to regulate wing morphogenesis in Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Lin; Ge, Xie; Li, Zhiqian; Zeng, Baosheng; Xu, Jun; Chen, Xu; Shang, Peng; James, Anthony A; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators that target specific mRNAs for repression and thus play key roles in many biological processes, including insect wing morphogenesis. miR-2 is an invertebrate-specific miRNA family that has been predicted in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to be involved in regulating the Notch signaling pathway. We show here that miR-2 plays a critical role in wing morphogenesis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran model insect. Transgenic over-expression of a miR-2 cluster using a Gal4/UAS system results in deformed adult wings, supporting the conclusion that miR-2 regulates functions essential for normal wing morphogenesis. Two genes, abnormal wing disc (awd) and fringe (fng), which are positive regulators in Notch signaling, are identified as miR-2 targets and validated by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The relative abundance of both awd and fng expression products was reduced significantly in transgenic animals, implicating them in the abnormal wing phenotype. Furthermore, somatic mutagenesis analysis of awd and fng using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and knock-out mutants also resulted in deformed wings similar to those observed in the miR-2 overexpression transgenic animals. The critical role of miR-2 in Bombyx wing morphogenesis may provide a potential target in future lepidopteran pest control. PMID:26037405

  10. ChR2 transgenic animals in peripheral sensory system: Sensing light as various sensations.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Since the introduction of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to neuroscience, optogenetics technology was developed, making it possible to activate specific neurons or circuits with spatial and temporal precision. Various ChR2 transgenic animal models have been generated and are playing important roles in revealing the mechanisms of neural activities, mapping neural circuits, controlling the behaviors of animals as well as exploring new strategy for treating the neurological diseases in both central and peripheral nervous system. An animal including humans senses environments through Aristotle's five senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch). Usually, each sense is associated with a kind of sensory organ (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin). Is it possible that one could hear light, smell light, taste light and touch light? When ChR2 is targeted to different peripheral sensory neurons by viral vectors or generating ChR2 transgenic animals, the animals can sense the light as various sensations such as hearing, touch, pain, smell and taste. In this review, we focus on ChR2 transgenic animals in the peripheral nervous system. Firstly the working principle of ChR2 as an optogenetic actuator is simply described. Then the current transgenic animal lines where ChR2 was expressed in peripheral sensory neurons are presented and the findings obtained by these animal models are reviewed. PMID:26903290

  11. Near-infrared Circular and Linear Polarimetry of Monoceros R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hough, James H.; Nagata, Tetsuya; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2016-09-01

    We have conducted simultaneous JHK s -band imaging circular and linear polarimetry of the Monoceros R2 (Mon R2) cluster. We present results from deep and wide near-infrared linear polarimetry of the Mon R2 region. Prominent and extended polarized nebulosities over the Mon R2 field are revisited, and an infrared reflection nebula associated with the Mon R2 cluster and two local reflection nebulae, vdB 67 and vdB 69, is detected. We also present results from deep imaging circular polarimetry in the same region. For the first time, the observations show relatively high degrees of circular polarization (CP) in Mon R2, with as much as approximately 10% in the K s band. The maximum CP extent of a ring-like nebula around the Mon R2 cluster is approximately 0.60 pc, while that of a western nebula, around vdB 67, is approximately 0.24 pc. The extended size of the CP is larger than those seen in the Orion region around IRc2, while the maximum degree of CP of ∼10% is smaller than those of ∼17% seen in the Orion region. Nonetheless, both the CP size and degree of this region are among the largest in our infrared CP survey of star-forming regions. We have also investigated the time variability of the degree of the polarization of several infrared sources and found possible variations in three sources.

  12. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. PMID:26377817

  13. Submicron sized R2 Fe14 B particles fabricated by mechanochemical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koylu-Alkan, Ozlem; Barandiaran, Jose Manuel; Salazar, Daniel; Hadjipanayis, George C.; Univ. of Delaware Team; Univ. Basque Country Team

    In this work, we have synthesized submicron R2Fe14B particles by the mechanochemical process. Mechanical activation of oxides of rare earth, iron and boron was done by high energy ball milling in a CaO with a reduction agent (Ca). After a heat treatment at 900 °C the powder was washed with water and glycerol solution to remove the dispersant and other non-magnetic phases. Magnetic measurements showed that the as-synthesized unwashed powders had coercivity values of 10.3 kOe, 12.8 kOe, and 24.6 kOe for R =Nd, Pr, and Dy, respectively. During washing, H2 is released and absorbed by the 2:14:1 structure. After removing the H2, the submicron particles have coercivities of 3.3 kOe (Nd), 4.4 kOe (Pr) and 21.0 kOe (Dy) with average sizes 160 nm, 242 nm, and 107 nm, respectively. Fitting of high field M(H) measurements to the law of approach to saturation showed that the anisotropy constant of the Nd2Fe14B particles are 3.73x107 erg/cm3 which is comparable to bulk. Work supported by DOE DE-FG02-04ERU4612 and Bizkaia Talent AYD-000-195. DOE DE-FG02-04ERU4612.

  14. Microstructural Analysis of Peripheral Lung Tissue through CPMG Inter-Echo Time R2 Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Felix T.; Kampf, Thomas; Buschle, Lukas R.; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Ziener, Christian H.

    2015-01-01

    Since changes in lung microstructure are important indicators for (early stage) lung pathology, there is a need for quantifiable information of diagnostically challenging cases in a clinical setting, e.g. to evaluate early emphysematous changes in peripheral lung tissue. Considering alveoli as spherical air-spaces surrounded by a thin film of lung tissue allows deriving an expression for Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill transverse relaxation rates R2 with a dependence on inter-echo time, local air-tissue volume fraction, diffusion coefficient and alveolar diameter, within a weak field approximation. The model relaxation rate exhibits the same hyperbolic tangent dependency as seen in the Luz-Meiboom model and limiting cases agree with Brooks et al. and Jensen et al. In addition, the model is tested against experimental data for passively deflated rat lungs: the resulting mean alveolar radius of RA = 31.46 ± 13.15 μm is very close to the literature value (∼34 μm). Also, modeled radii obtained from relaxometer measurements of ageing hydrogel foam (that mimics peripheral lung tissue) are in good agreement with those obtained from μCT images of the same foam (mean relative error: 0.06 ± 0.01). The model’s ability to determine the alveolar radius and/or air volume fraction will be useful in quantifying peripheral lung microstructure. PMID:26544068

  15. An ODIP effort to map R2R ocean data terms to international vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Renata; Stocks, Karen; Arko, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The heterogeneity of terminology used in describing data creates a barrier to the efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a US program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving the interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access international ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed locally or are specific to the US. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international vocabularies, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: R2R science party names to ORCID person identifiers, UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, and R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO). Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships only, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. The majority of ports were successfully mapped. Differences in the character sets (i.e. whether diacritic marks were used) caused automated matching to fail occasionally, but the number of ports was small enough that these could be manually

  16. Bundled Payments in Cardiac Surgery: Is Risk-Adjustment Sufficient To Make It Feasible?

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Kenan W; Isbell, James M; Lichtendahl, Casey; Dietch, Zachary; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kron, Irving L; Kern, John A; Lau, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Background Policymakers have proposed risk-adjusted bundled payment as the single-most promising method of linking reimbursement to value rather than to quantity of service. Our objective was to assess the relationship between risk and cost to develop a model for forecasting cardiac surgery costs under a bundled payment scheme. Methods All patients undergoing adult cardiac surgery operations for which there was a Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) risk score over a 5-year period (2008–2013) at a tertiary care, university hospital were reviewed. Patients were stratified into 5 groups based on preoperative risk as a basis for negotiating risk-adjusted bundles. A multivariable regression model was developed to analyze the relationship between risk and log-transformed costs. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to validate the model by comparing predicted to actual FY2013 costs. Results Among the 2514 patients analyzed, preoperative risk was strongly correlated with costs (p<0.001) but was only able to explain 28% (R2=0.28) of the variation in costs between individual patients. Using bundling to diffuse and adjust for risk improved prediction to only 33% (R2=0.33). Actual costs in 2013 were $21.6M compared to predicted costs of $19.3M (±$350K), which is well outside the forecast’s 95% confidence interval. Conclusion Even among the most routine cardiac surgery operations using the most widely validated surgical risk score available, much of the variation in costs cannot be explained by preoperative risk or surgeon. Consequently, policymakers should re-examine whether individual practices or insurers are best suited to manage the residual financial risk. PMID:26209483

  17. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A "Linked Data" Approach for the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R.; Chandler, C.; Clark, P.; Milan, A.; Mize, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; http://rvdata.us/) program is developing infrastructure to routinely document, assess, and preserve the underway sensor data from U.S. academic research vessels. The R2R master catalog of vessels, instrument systems, operating institutions, cruises, personnel, data sets, event logs, and field reports has grown to over 2,200 cruises in less than two years, and is now accessible via Web services. This catalog is of great value to peer data systems, ranging from large inter/national data centers to small disciplinary data offices, as an aid in quality controlling their own collections and finding related data from authoritative sources. R2R breaks with the tradition of stovepipe portals built around complex search interfaces tightly bound to backend databases. Instead, we have adopted a Linked Data approach to publish our catalog content, based on the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). Our data model is published as a collection of W3C Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concepts, mapped to partner vocabularies such as those developed by the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and the pan-European SeaDataNet partnership, and our catalog content is published as collections of RDF resources with globally unique and persistent identifiers. The combination of exposing our data model, mapping local terms to community-wide vocabularies, and using reliable identifiers improves interoperability and reduces ambiguity. R2R's metric of success is the degree to which peer data systems harvest and reuse our content. R2R is working collaboratively with the NOAA National Data Centers and the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) on a range of Linked Data pilot applications, including production of ISO-compliant metadata and deployment of a RDF Query Language (SPARQL) interface. Our objective is to support a distributed, loosely federated network of

  18. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A "Linked Data" Approach for the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Milan, A.; Mize, J.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. academic research fleet is an essential mobile observing platform for ocean science. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working with the fleet community to routinely document, assess, and preserve data from the underway sensor systems on each vessel.
    The R2R facility maintains a master catalog of vessels, instrument systems, operating institutions, cruises, personnel, and data sets. In less than two years, the catalog has grown to over 2,000 cruises including unique identifiers for vessel deployments, project titles, chief scientists, dates, ports, survey targets, and navigation tracks. This master catalog is of great value to peer data systems, ranging from large national data centers to small disciplinary data offices, as an aid in organizing, extending, and quality controlling their own collections and finding related data from authoritative sources.
    R2R breaks with the tradition of stovepipe portals built around complex search interfaces tightly bound to backend databases. Instead, we have adopted a Linked Data approach to publish our catalog content, based on the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). Our data model is published as a collection of W3C Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concepts, mapped to partner vocabularies such as those developed by the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and the pan-European SeaDataNet partnership, and our catalog content is published as collections of RDF resources with globally unique and persistent identifiers. The combination of exposing our data model, mapping local terms to community-wide vocabularies, and using reliable identifiers improves interoperability and reduces ambiguity. R2R's metric of success is the degree to which peer data systems routinely harvest and reuse our content.
    R2R is working collaboratively with the NOAA National Data Centers and the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data

  19. Secondary structure models of the 3′ untranslated regions of diverse R2 RNAs

    PubMed Central

    RUSCHAK, AMY M.; MATHEWS, DAVID H.; BIBILLO, ARKADIUSZ; SPINELLI, SHERRY L.; CHILDS, JESSICA L.; EICKBUSH, THOMAS H.; TURNER, DOUGLAS H.

    2004-01-01

    The RNA structure of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the R2 retrotransposable element is recognized by the R2-encoded reverse transcriptase in a reaction called target primed reverse transcription (TPRT). To provide insight into structure–function relationships important for TPRT, we have created alignments that reveal the secondary structure for 22 Drosophila and five silkmoth 3′ UTR R2 sequences. In addition, free energy minimization has been used to predict the secondary structure for the 3′ UTR R2 RNA of Forficula auricularia. The predicted structures for Bombyx mori and F. auricularia are consistent with chemical modification data obtained with β-ethoxy-α-ketobutyraldehyde (kethoxal), dimethyl sulfate, and 1-cyclohexyl-3-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide metho-p-toluene sulfonate. The structures appear to have common helices that are likely important for function. PMID:15146081

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of R2R3MYB Family in Cucumis sativus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Cunjia; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2012-01-01

    Background The R2R3MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been carried out in some species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Principal Findings This study has identified 55 R2R3MYB genes in the latest cucumber genome and the CsR2R3MYB family contained the smallest number of identified genes compared to other species that have been studied due to the absence of recent gene duplication events. These results were also supported by genome distribution and gene duplication analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they could be classified into 11 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intron - exon organizations that showed similarities with Arabidopsis, Vitis and Glycine R2R3MYB proteins were also analyzed and suggested strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the evolution of the plant species. In addition, we found that 8 out of 55 (∼14.54%) cucumber R2R3MYB genes underwent alternative splicing events, producing a variety of transcripts from a single gene, which illustrated the extremely high complexity of transcriptome regulation. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 50 cucumber R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues and the other 5 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, which suggested that cucumber R2R3MYB genes took part in many cellular processes. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, ABA and low temperature treatments) identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or more treatments. Conclusions This study has produced a comparative genomics analysis of the cucumber R2R3MYB gene family and has provided the first steps towards the selection of CsR2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection that can be used in further studies to uncover their roles in cucumber growth and

  1. R2R - software to speed the depiction of aesthetic consensus RNA secondary structures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With continuing identification of novel structured noncoding RNAs, there is an increasing need to create schematic diagrams showing the consensus features of these molecules. RNA structural diagrams are typically made either with general-purpose drawing programs like Adobe Illustrator, or with automated or interactive programs specific to RNA. Unfortunately, the use of applications like Illustrator is extremely time consuming, while existing RNA-specific programs produce figures that are useful, but usually not of the same aesthetic quality as those produced at great cost in Illustrator. Additionally, most existing RNA-specific applications are designed for drawing single RNA molecules, not consensus diagrams. Results We created R2R, a computer program that facilitates the generation of aesthetic and readable drawings of RNA consensus diagrams in a fraction of the time required with general-purpose drawing programs. Since the inference of a consensus RNA structure typically requires a multiple-sequence alignment, the R2R user annotates the alignment with commands directing the layout and annotation of the RNA. R2R creates SVG or PDF output that can be imported into Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape or CorelDRAW. R2R can be used to create consensus sequence and secondary structure models for novel RNA structures or to revise models when new representatives for known RNA classes become available. Although R2R does not currently have a graphical user interface, it has proven useful in our efforts to create 100 schematic models of distinct noncoding RNA classes. Conclusions R2R makes it possible to obtain high-quality drawings of the consensus sequence and structural models of many diverse RNA structures with a more practical amount of effort. R2R software is available at http://breaker.research.yale.edu/R2R and as an Additional file. PMID:21205310

  2. Diabetes impairs mobilization of mouse bone marrow-derived Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Barthelmes, D; Irhimeh, M R; Gillies, M C; Karimipour, M; Zhou, M; Zhu, L; Shen, W Y

    2013-10-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells circulating in the peripheral blood (PB) contribute to vascular repair. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of a 'cocktail' consisting of erythropoietin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and tetrahydrobiopterin to mobilize hematopoietic lineage negative/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 positive (Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+)) cells from the bone marrow (BM) to PB in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice were studied after 16weeks of hyperglycemia. Half the mice in each group (non-diabetic and diabetic) received daily intraperitoneal injections of the cocktail for 6 consecutive days while the other half received vehicle buffer. Mobilization of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells, which were expanded in MCP301 medium, was evaluated after isolating them from BM and PB and their phenotypic and morphological properties were studied. We found that 16weeks of diabetes affected neither the total number of BM mononucleated cells nor the number of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells in BM compared with non-diabetic controls. In non-diabetic mice, cocktail treatment resulted in a significant decrease in BM Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells, paralleled by a significant increase of these cells in PB. Such changes in the number of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells in BM and PB after the cocktail treatment were less marked in diabetic mice. In vitro studies of BM Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells from diabetic and non-diabetic mice did not reveal any differences in either phenotypes or colony forming potential. These findings indicate that diabetes impairs the mobilization of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells from BM to PB. Impaired mobilization of BM Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells soon after the onset of diabetes may contribute to complications such as diabetic retinopathy.

  3. Differences in iron and manganese concentration may confound the measurement of myelin from R1 and R2 relaxation rates in studies of dysmyelination.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Kimberly L; Al-Ebraheem, Alia; Janik, Rafal; Oakden, Wendy; Kwiecien, Jacek M; Dabrowski, Wojciech; Rola, Radoslaw; Geraki, Kalotina; Farquharson, Michael J; Stanisz, Greg J; Bock, Nicholas A

    2016-07-01

    A model of dysmyelination, the Long Evans Shaker (les) rat, was used to study the contribution of myelin to MR tissue properties in white matter. A large region of white matter was identified in the deep cerebellum and was used for measurements of the MR relaxation rate constants, R1  = 1/T1 and R2  = 1/T2 , at 7 T. In this study, R1 of the les deep cerebellar white matter was found to be 0.55 ± 0.08 s (-1) and R2 was found to be 15 ± 1 s(-1) , revealing significantly lower R1 and R2 in les white matter relative to wild-type (wt: R1  = 0.69 ± 0.05 s(-1) and R2  = 18 ± 1 s(-1) ). These deviated from the expected ΔR1 and ΔR2 values, given a complete lack of myelin in the les white matter, derived from the literature using values of myelin relaxivity, and we suspect that metals could play a significant role. The absolute concentrations of the paramagnetic transition metals iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) were measured by a micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μSRXRF) technique, with significantly greater Fe and Mn in les white matter than in wt (in units of μg [metal]/g [wet weight tissue]: les: Fe concentration,19 ± 1; Mn concentration, 0.71 ± 0.04; wt: Fe concentration,10 ± 1; Mn concentration, 0.47 ± 0.04). These changes in Fe and Mn could explain the deviations in R1 and R2 from the expected values in white matter. Although it was found that the influence of myelin still dominates R1 and R2 in wt rats, there were non-negligible changes in the contribution of the metals to relaxation. Although there are already problems with the estimation of myelin from R1 and R2 changes in disease models with pathology that also affects the relaxation rate constants, this study points to a specific pitfall in the estimation of changes in myelin in diseases or models with disrupted concentrations of paramagnetic transition metals. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27226282

  4. Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of the 177-R2 tank system

    SciTech Connect

    Graser, D.A.; Schwartz, W.W.

    1993-10-01

    This Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of retention tanks 177-R2U1, 177-R2Al, and 177-R2A2 has been prepared in response to 40 CFR 265.192(a) and 22 CCR 66265.192(a) for new tank systems that store hazardous waste and have secondary containment. The regulations require that this assessment be completed and certified by an independent, qualified, California-registered professional engineer before the tank system is placed in use as a hazardous waste storage tank system. The technical assessments for the 177-R2Ul, 177-R2A1, and 177-R2A2 tank systems have been reviewed by an independent, qualified, California-registered professional engineer, who has certified that the tank systems have sufficient structural integrity, are acceptable for transferring and storing hazardous waste, are compatible with the stored waste, and the tanks and containment system are suitably designed to achieve the requirements of the applicable regulations so they will not collapse, rupture, or fail. This document will be kept on file by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Environment Protection Department.

  5. Beware of R2: simple, unambiguous assessment of the prediction accuracy of QSAR and QSPR models

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, D. L. J.; Tropsha, A.; Winkler, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical metrics used to characterize the external predictivity of a model, i.e., how well it predicts the properties of an independent test set, have proliferated over the past decade. This paper clarifies some apparent confusion over the use of the coefficient of determination, R2, as a measure of model fit and predictive power in QSAR and QSPR modelling. R2 (or R2) has been used in various contexts in the literature in conjunction with training and test data, for both ordinary linear regression and regression through the origin as well as with linear and nonlinear regression models. We analyze the widely adopted model fit criteria suggested by Golbraikh and Tropsha1 in a strict statistical manner. Shortcomings in these criteria are identified and a clearer and simpler alternative method to characterize model predictivity is provided. The intent is not to repeat the well-documented arguments for model validation using test data, but to guide the application of R2 as a model fit statistic. Examples are used to illustrate both correct and incorrect use of R2. Reporting the root mean squared error or equivalent measures of dispersion, typically of more practical importance than R2, is also encouraged and important challenges in addressing the needs of different categories of users such as computational chemists, experimental scientists, and regulatory decision support specialists are outlined. PMID:26099013

  6. Substrate recognition and function of the R2TP complex in response to cellular stress

    PubMed Central

    von Morgen, Patrick; Hořejší, Zuzana; Macurek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    The R2TP complex is a HSP90 co-chaperone, which consists of four subunits: PIH1D1, RPAP3, RUVBL1, and RUVBL2. It is involved in the assembly of large protein or protein–RNA complexes such as RNA polymerase, small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (snoRNPs), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-related kinases (PIKKs), and their complexes. While RPAP3 has a HSP90 binding domain and the RUVBLs comprise ATPase activities important for R2TP functions, PIH1D1 contains a PIH-N domain that specifically recognizes phosphorylated substrates of the R2TP complex. In this review we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the R2TP complex with the focus on the recently identified structural and mechanistic features of the R2TP complex functions. We also discuss the way R2TP regulates cellular response to stress caused by low levels of nutrients or by DNA damage and its possible exploitation as a target for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:25767478

  7. R2SM: a package for the analytic computation of the R 2 Rational terms in the Standard Model of the Electroweak interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzelli, M. V.; Malamos, I.

    2011-03-01

    The analytical package written in FORM presented in this paper allows the computation of the complete set of Feynman Rules producing the Rational terms of kind R2 contributing to the virtual part of NLO corrections in the Standard Model of the Electroweak interactions. Building block topologies filled by means of generic scalars, vectors and fermions, allowing to build these Feynman Rules in terms of specific elementary particles, are explicitly given in the R ξ gauge class, together with the automatic dressing procedure to obtain the Feynman Rules from them. The results in more specific gauges, like the 't Hooft Feynman one, follow as particular cases, in both the HV and the FDH dimensional regularization schemes. As a check on our formulas, the gauge independence of the total Rational contribution (R1+R2) to renormalized S-matrix elements is verified by considering the specific example of the H→ γγ decay process at 1-loop. This package can be of interest for people aiming at a better understanding of the nature of the Rational terms. It is organized in a modular way, allowing a further use of some its files even in different contexts. Furthermore, it can be considered as a first seed in the effort towards a complete automation of the process of the analytical calculation of the R2 effective vertices, given the Lagrangian of a generic gauge theory of particle interactions.

  8. Evolution of the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 in bats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huabin; Zhou, Yingying; Pinto, C Miguel; Charles-Dominique, Pierre; Galindo-González, Jorge; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-11-01

    Taste perception is an important component of an animal's fitness. The identification of vertebrate taste receptor genes in the last decade has enabled molecular genetic studies of the evolution of taste perception in the context of the ecology and dietary preferences of organisms. Although such analyses have been conducted in a number of species for bitter taste receptors, a similar analysis of sweet taste receptors is lacking. Here, we survey the sole sweet taste-specific receptor gene Tas1r2 in 42 bat species that represent all major lineages of the order Chiroptera, one of the most diverse groups of mammals in terms of diet. We found that Tas1r2 is under strong purifying selection in the majority of the bats studied, with no significant difference in the strength of the selection between insect eaters and fruit eaters. However, Tas1r2 is a pseudogene in all three vampire bat species and the functional relaxation likely started in their common ancestor, probably due to the exclusive feeding of vampire bats on blood and their reliance on infrared sensors rather than taste perception to locate blood sources. Our survey of available genome sequences, together with previous reports, revealed additional losses of Tas1r2 in horse, cat, chicken, zebra finch, and western clawed frog, indicating that sweet perception is not as conserved as previously thought. Nonetheless, we found no common dietary pattern among the Tas1r2-lacking vertebrates, suggesting different causes for the losses of Tas1r2 in different species. The complexity of the ecological factors that impact the evolution of Tas1r2 calls for a better understanding of the physiological roles of sweet perception in different species.

  9. Evolution of the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 in bats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huabin; Zhou, Yingying; Pinto, C Miguel; Charles-Dominique, Pierre; Galindo-González, Jorge; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-11-01

    Taste perception is an important component of an animal's fitness. The identification of vertebrate taste receptor genes in the last decade has enabled molecular genetic studies of the evolution of taste perception in the context of the ecology and dietary preferences of organisms. Although such analyses have been conducted in a number of species for bitter taste receptors, a similar analysis of sweet taste receptors is lacking. Here, we survey the sole sweet taste-specific receptor gene Tas1r2 in 42 bat species that represent all major lineages of the order Chiroptera, one of the most diverse groups of mammals in terms of diet. We found that Tas1r2 is under strong purifying selection in the majority of the bats studied, with no significant difference in the strength of the selection between insect eaters and fruit eaters. However, Tas1r2 is a pseudogene in all three vampire bat species and the functional relaxation likely started in their common ancestor, probably due to the exclusive feeding of vampire bats on blood and their reliance on infrared sensors rather than taste perception to locate blood sources. Our survey of available genome sequences, together with previous reports, revealed additional losses of Tas1r2 in horse, cat, chicken, zebra finch, and western clawed frog, indicating that sweet perception is not as conserved as previously thought. Nonetheless, we found no common dietary pattern among the Tas1r2-lacking vertebrates, suggesting different causes for the losses of Tas1r2 in different species. The complexity of the ecological factors that impact the evolution of Tas1r2 calls for a better understanding of the physiological roles of sweet perception in different species. PMID:20558596

  10. Structure-Function Studies of the Staphylococcal Methicillin Resistance Antirepressor MecR2*

    PubMed Central

    Arêde, Pedro; Botelho, Tiago; Guevara, Tibisay; Usón, Isabel; Oliveira, Duarte C.; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is elicited by the MecI-MecR1-MecA axis encoded by the mec locus. Recently, MecR2 was also identified as a regulator of mec through binding of the methicillin repressor, MecI. Here we show that plasmid-encoded full-length MecR2 restores resistance in a sensitive S. aureus mecR2 deletion mutant of the resistant strain N315. The crystal structure of MecR2 reveals an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, an intermediate scaffold domain, and a C-terminal dimerization domain that contributes to oligomerization. The protein shows structural similarity to ROK (repressors, open reading frames, and kinases) family proteins, which bind DNA and/or sugar molecules. We found that functional cell-based assays of three point mutants affecting residues participating in sugar binding in ROK proteins had no effect on the resistance phenotype. By contrast, MecR2 bound short double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides nonspecifically, and a deletion mutant affecting the N-terminal DNA-binding domain showed a certain effect on activity, thus contributing to resistance less than the wild-type protein. Similarly, a deletion mutant, in which a flexible segment of intermediate scaffold domain had been replaced by four glycines, significantly reduced MecR2 function, thus indicating that this domain may likewise be required for activity. Taken together, these results provide the structural basis for the activity of a methicillin antirepressor, MecR2, which would sequester MecI away from its cognate promoter region and facilitate its degradation. PMID:23733184

  11. Evolution of the Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Tas1r2 in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huabin; Zhou, Yingying; Pinto, C. Miguel; Charles-Dominique, Pierre; Galindo-González, Jorge; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-01-01

    Taste perception is an important component of an animal's fitness. The identification of vertebrate taste receptor genes in the last decade has enabled molecular genetic studies of the evolution of taste perception in the context of the ecology and dietary preferences of organisms. Although such analyses have been conducted in a number of species for bitter taste receptors, a similar analysis of sweet taste receptors is lacking. Here, we survey the sole sweet taste–specific receptor gene Tas1r2 in 42 bat species that represent all major lineages of the order Chiroptera, one of the most diverse groups of mammals in terms of diet. We found that Tas1r2 is under strong purifying selection in the majority of the bats studied, with no significant difference in the strength of the selection between insect eaters and fruit eaters. However, Tas1r2 is a pseudogene in all three vampire bat species and the functional relaxation likely started in their common ancestor, probably due to the exclusive feeding of vampire bats on blood and their reliance on infrared sensors rather than taste perception to locate blood sources. Our survey of available genome sequences, together with previous reports, revealed additional losses of Tas1r2 in horse, cat, chicken, zebra finch, and western clawed frog, indicating that sweet perception is not as conserved as previously thought. Nonetheless, we found no common dietary pattern among the Tas1r2-lacking vertebrates, suggesting different causes for the losses of Tas1r2 in different species. The complexity of the ecological factors that impact the evolution of Tas1r2 calls for a better understanding of the physiological roles of sweet perception in different species. PMID:20558596

  12. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  13. Design and implementation of adaptive PI control schemes for web tension control in roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Raul, Pramod R; Pagilla, Prabhakar R

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, two adaptive Proportional-Integral (PI) control schemes are designed and discussed for control of web tension in Roll-to-Roll (R2R) manufacturing systems. R2R systems are used to transport continuous materials (called webs) on rollers from the unwind roll to the rewind roll. Maintaining web tension at the desired value is critical to many R2R processes such as printing, coating, lamination, etc. Existing fixed gain PI tension control schemes currently used in industrial practice require extensive tuning and do not provide the desired performance for changing operating conditions and material properties. The first adaptive PI scheme utilizes the model reference approach where the controller gains are estimated based on matching of the actual closed-loop tension control systems with an appropriately chosen reference model. The second adaptive PI scheme utilizes the indirect adaptive control approach together with relay feedback technique to automatically initialize the adaptive PI gains. These adaptive tension control schemes can be implemented on any R2R manufacturing system. The key features of the two adaptive schemes is that their designs are simple for practicing engineers, easy to implement in real-time, and automate the tuning process. Extensive experiments are conducted on a large experimental R2R machine which mimics many features of an industrial R2R machine. These experiments include trials with two different polymer webs and a variety of operating conditions. Implementation guidelines are provided for both adaptive schemes. Experimental results comparing the two adaptive schemes and a fixed gain PI tension control scheme used in industrial practice are provided and discussed.

  14. Glutamate signals through mGluR2 to control Schwann cell differentiation and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Fuminori; Wakatsuki, Shuji; Tokunaga, Shinji; Fujieda, Hiroki; Araki, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Rapid saltatory nerve conduction is facilitated by myelin structure, which is produced by Schwann cells (SC) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Proper development and degeneration/regeneration after injury requires regulated phenotypic changes of SC. We have previously shown that glutamate can induce SC proliferation in culture. Here we show that glutamate signals through metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) to induce Erk phosphorylation in SC. mGluR2-elicited Erk phosphorylation requires ErbB2/3 receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation to limit the signaling cascade that promotes phosphorylation of Erk, but not Akt. We found that Gβγ and Src are involved in subcellular signaling downstream of mGluR2. We also found that glutamate can transform myelinating SC to proliferating SC, while inhibition of mGluR2 signaling can inhibit demyelination of injured nerves in vivo. These data suggest pathophysiological significance of mGluR2 signaling in PNS and its possible therapeutic importance to combat demyelinating disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. PMID:27432639

  15. Glutamate signals through mGluR2 to control Schwann cell differentiation and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Fuminori; Wakatsuki, Shuji; Tokunaga, Shinji; Fujieda, Hiroki; Araki, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Rapid saltatory nerve conduction is facilitated by myelin structure, which is produced by Schwann cells (SC) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Proper development and degeneration/regeneration after injury requires regulated phenotypic changes of SC. We have previously shown that glutamate can induce SC proliferation in culture. Here we show that glutamate signals through metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) to induce Erk phosphorylation in SC. mGluR2-elicited Erk phosphorylation requires ErbB2/3 receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation to limit the signaling cascade that promotes phosphorylation of Erk, but not Akt. We found that Gβγ and Src are involved in subcellular signaling downstream of mGluR2. We also found that glutamate can transform myelinating SC to proliferating SC, while inhibition of mGluR2 signaling can inhibit demyelination of injured nerves in vivo. These data suggest pathophysiological significance of mGluR2 signaling in PNS and its possible therapeutic importance to combat demyelinating disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. PMID:27432639

  16. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  17. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  18. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Transforming the Academic Fleet Into an Integrated Global Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.; Smith, S. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    NSF-supported oceanographic research expeditions support diverse scientific investigations across all disciplines of ocean sciences, targeting important questions ranging from the impacts of global change on ocean chemistry and ecosystems, to the structure and dynamics of ocean circulation and the nature of volcanic and earthquake processes at the global plate boundaries. Research vessels coordinated by the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) are the primary oceanographic research platforms, and operate as essential mobile observing platforms for ocean science. Ships ranging from “global” to “local” class are capable of operating throughout the deep oceans and within coastal and inland waterways. Each vessel is equipped with a suite of sensors, including geophysical, water column, and meteorological sensors, that are available for continuous operation during each expedition. The “underway” datasets obtained from these sensors provide characterization of basic environmental conditions for the oceans and are of high value for later reuse for building global syntheses, climatologies, and historical time series of ocean properties. The recently funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) Project aims to develop a comprehensive plan for fleet-wide data management to ensure preservation and accessibility of our national oceanographic research data resources. The R2R Portal (www.rvdata.us) is being developed as a central shore-side data gateway through which underway data from oceanographic expeditions can be routinely cataloged and securely transmitted to the national long-term digital data archives including the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). R2R will provide essential data documentation services for every expedition along with new tools to improve documentation of the wide array of shipboard data collection activities typical of modern expeditions. Protocols will be developed

  19. The non-LTR retrotransposon R2 in termites (Insecta, Isoptera): characterization and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ghesini, Silvia; Luchetti, Andrea; Marini, Mario; Mantovani, Barbara

    2011-03-01

    The full-length element of the non-LTR retrotransposon R2 is here characterized in three European isopteran species: the more primitive Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae), including two highly divergent mitochondrial lineages, and the more derived Reticulitermes lucifugus and R. urbis (Rhinotermitidae). Partial 3' sequences for R. grassei and R. balkanensis were also analyzed. The essential structural features of R2 elements are conserved in termites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that termite elements belong to the same clade and that their phylogeny is fully compatible with the phylogeny of their host species. The study of the number and the frequency of R2 insertion variants in four R. urbis colonies suggests a greatly reduced, or completely absent, recent element activity.

  20. Optical control of neuronal excitation and inhibition using a single opsin protein, ChR2

    PubMed Central

    Liske, Holly; Qian, Xiang; Anikeeva, Polina; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on neuronal membrane potential is frequency dependent. Low frequency electrical stimulation can evoke action potentials, whereas high frequency stimulation can inhibit action potential transmission. Optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) expressed in neuronal membranes can also excite action potentials. However, it is unknown whether optical stimulation of ChR2-expressing neurons produces a transition from excitation to inhibition with increasing light pulse frequencies. Here we report optical inhibition of motor neuron and muscle activity in vivo in the cooled sciatic nerves of Thy1-ChR2-EYFP mice. We also demonstrate all-optical single-wavelength control of neuronal excitation and inhibition without co-expression of inhibitory and excitatory opsins. This all-optical system is free from stimulation-induced electrical artifacts and thus provides a new approach to investigate mechanisms of high frequency inhibition in neuronal circuits in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24173561

  1. Data Retrieved by ARCADE-R2 Experiment On Board the BEXUS-17 Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbetta, M.; Branz, F.; Carron, A.; Olivieri, L.; Prendin, J.; Sansone, F.; Savioli, L.; Spinello, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Autonomous Rendezvous, Control And Docking Experiment — Reflight 2 (ARCADE-R2) is a technology demonstrator aiming to prove automatic attitude determination and control, rendezvous and docking capabilities for small scale spacecraft and aircraft. The development of such capabilities could be fundamental to create, in the near future, fleets of cooperative, autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles for mapping, surveillance, inspection and remote observation of hazardous environments; small-class satellites could also benefit from the employment of docking systems to extend and reconfigure their mission profiles. ARCADE-R2 is designed to test these technologies on a stratospheric flight on board the BEXUS-17 balloon, allowing to demonstrate them in a harsh environment subjected to gusty winds and high pressure and temperature variations. In this paper, ARCADE-R2 architecture is introduced and the main results obtained from a stratospheric balloon flight are presented.

  2. MiR-2 family regulates insect metamorphosis by controlling the juvenile hormone signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Jesus; Montañez, Raúl; Belles, Xavier

    2015-03-24

    In 2009 we reported that depletion of Dicer-1, the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of miRNA biosynthesis, prevents metamorphosis in Blattella germanica. However, the precise regulatory roles of miRNAs in the process have remained elusive. In the present work, we have observed that Dicer-1 depletion results in an increase of mRNA levels of Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a juvenile hormone-dependent transcription factor that represses metamorphosis, and that depletion of Kr-h1 expression in Dicer-1 knockdown individuals rescues metamorphosis. We have also found that the 3'UTR of Kr-h1 mRNA contains a functional binding site for miR-2 family miRNAs (for miR-2, miR-13a, and miR-13b). These data suggest that metamorphosis impairment caused by Dicer-1 and miRNA depletion is due to a deregulation of Kr-h1 expression and that this deregulation is derived from a deficiency of miR-2 miRNAs. We corroborated this by treating the last nymphal instar of B. germanica with an miR-2 inhibitor, which impaired metamorphosis, and by treating Dicer-1-depleted individuals with an miR-2 mimic to allow nymphal-to-adult metamorphosis to proceed. Taken together, the data indicate that miR-2 miRNAs scavenge Kr-h1 transcripts when the transition from nymph to adult should be taking place, thus crucially contributing to the correct culmination of metamorphosis.

  3. R2d2 Drives Selfish Sweeps in the House Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Didion, John P.; Morgan, Andrew P.; Yadgary, Liran; Bell, Timothy A.; McMullan, Rachel C.; Ortiz de Solorzano, Lydia; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Bult, Carol J.; Campbell, Karl J.; Castiglia, Riccardo; Ching, Yung-Hao; Chunco, Amanda J.; Crowley, James J.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Förster, Daniel W.; French, John E.; Gabriel, Sofia I.; Gatti, Daniel M.; Garland, Theodore; Giagia-Athanasopoulou, Eva B.; Giménez, Mabel D.; Grize, Sofia A.; Gündüz, İslam; Holmes, Andrew; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Herman, Jeremy S.; Holt, James M.; Hua, Kunjie; Jolley, Wesley J.; Lindholm, Anna K.; López-Fuster, María J.; Mitsainas, George; da Luz Mathias, Maria; McMillan, Leonard; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça Morgado; Rehermann, Barbara; Rosshart, Stephan P.; Searle, Jeremy B.; Shiao, Meng-Shin; Solano, Emanuela; Svenson, Karen L.; Thomas-Laemont, Patricia; Threadgill, David W.; Ventura, Jacint; Weinstock, George M.; Pomp, Daniel; Churchill, Gary A.; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A selective sweep is the result of strong positive selection driving newly occurring or standing genetic variants to fixation, and can dramatically alter the pattern and distribution of allelic diversity in a population. Population-level sequencing data have enabled discoveries of selective sweeps associated with genes involved in recent adaptations in many species. In contrast, much debate but little evidence addresses whether “selfish” genes are capable of fixation—thereby leaving signatures identical to classical selective sweeps—despite being neutral or deleterious to organismal fitness. We previously described R2d2, a large copy-number variant that causes nonrandom segregation of mouse Chromosome 2 in females due to meiotic drive. Here we show population-genetic data consistent with a selfish sweep driven by alleles of R2d2 with high copy number (R2d2HC) in natural populations. We replicate this finding in multiple closed breeding populations from six outbred backgrounds segregating for R2d2 alleles. We find that R2d2HC rapidly increases in frequency, and in most cases becomes fixed in significantly fewer generations than can be explained by genetic drift. R2d2HC is also associated with significantly reduced litter sizes in heterozygous mothers, making it a true selfish allele. Our data provide direct evidence of populations actively undergoing selfish sweeps, and demonstrate that meiotic drive can rapidly alter the genomic landscape in favor of mutations with neutral or even negative effects on overall Darwinian fitness. Further study will reveal the incidence of selfish sweeps, and will elucidate the relative contributions of selfish genes, adaptation and genetic drift to evolution. PMID:26882987

  4. R2d2 Drives Selfish Sweeps in the House Mouse.

    PubMed

    Didion, John P; Morgan, Andrew P; Yadgary, Liran; Bell, Timothy A; McMullan, Rachel C; Ortiz de Solorzano, Lydia; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Bult, Carol J; Campbell, Karl J; Castiglia, Riccardo; Ching, Yung-Hao; Chunco, Amanda J; Crowley, James J; Chesler, Elissa J; Förster, Daniel W; French, John E; Gabriel, Sofia I; Gatti, Daniel M; Garland, Theodore; Giagia-Athanasopoulou, Eva B; Giménez, Mabel D; Grize, Sofia A; Gündüz, İslam; Holmes, Andrew; Hauffe, Heidi C; Herman, Jeremy S; Holt, James M; Hua, Kunjie; Jolley, Wesley J; Lindholm, Anna K; López-Fuster, María J; Mitsainas, George; da Luz Mathias, Maria; McMillan, Leonard; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça Morgado; Rehermann, Barbara; Rosshart, Stephan P; Searle, Jeremy B; Shiao, Meng-Shin; Solano, Emanuela; Svenson, Karen L; Thomas-Laemont, Patricia; Threadgill, David W; Ventura, Jacint; Weinstock, George M; Pomp, Daniel; Churchill, Gary A; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    A selective sweep is the result of strong positive selection driving newly occurring or standing genetic variants to fixation, and can dramatically alter the pattern and distribution of allelic diversity in a population. Population-level sequencing data have enabled discoveries of selective sweeps associated with genes involved in recent adaptations in many species. In contrast, much debate but little evidence addresses whether "selfish" genes are capable of fixation-thereby leaving signatures identical to classical selective sweeps-despite being neutral or deleterious to organismal fitness. We previously described R2d2, a large copy-number variant that causes nonrandom segregation of mouse Chromosome 2 in females due to meiotic drive. Here we show population-genetic data consistent with a selfish sweep driven by alleles of R2d2 with high copy number (R2d2(HC)) in natural populations. We replicate this finding in multiple closed breeding populations from six outbred backgrounds segregating for R2d2 alleles. We find that R2d2(HC) rapidly increases in frequency, and in most cases becomes fixed in significantly fewer generations than can be explained by genetic drift. R2d2(HC) is also associated with significantly reduced litter sizes in heterozygous mothers, making it a true selfish allele. Our data provide direct evidence of populations actively undergoing selfish sweeps, and demonstrate that meiotic drive can rapidly alter the genomic landscape in favor of mutations with neutral or even negative effects on overall Darwinian fitness. Further study will reveal the incidence of selfish sweeps, and will elucidate the relative contributions of selfish genes, adaptation and genetic drift to evolution.

  5. R2d2 Drives Selfish Sweeps in the House Mouse.

    PubMed

    Didion, John P; Morgan, Andrew P; Yadgary, Liran; Bell, Timothy A; McMullan, Rachel C; Ortiz de Solorzano, Lydia; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Bult, Carol J; Campbell, Karl J; Castiglia, Riccardo; Ching, Yung-Hao; Chunco, Amanda J; Crowley, James J; Chesler, Elissa J; Förster, Daniel W; French, John E; Gabriel, Sofia I; Gatti, Daniel M; Garland, Theodore; Giagia-Athanasopoulou, Eva B; Giménez, Mabel D; Grize, Sofia A; Gündüz, İslam; Holmes, Andrew; Hauffe, Heidi C; Herman, Jeremy S; Holt, James M; Hua, Kunjie; Jolley, Wesley J; Lindholm, Anna K; López-Fuster, María J; Mitsainas, George; da Luz Mathias, Maria; McMillan, Leonard; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça Morgado; Rehermann, Barbara; Rosshart, Stephan P; Searle, Jeremy B; Shiao, Meng-Shin; Solano, Emanuela; Svenson, Karen L; Thomas-Laemont, Patricia; Threadgill, David W; Ventura, Jacint; Weinstock, George M; Pomp, Daniel; Churchill, Gary A; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    A selective sweep is the result of strong positive selection driving newly occurring or standing genetic variants to fixation, and can dramatically alter the pattern and distribution of allelic diversity in a population. Population-level sequencing data have enabled discoveries of selective sweeps associated with genes involved in recent adaptations in many species. In contrast, much debate but little evidence addresses whether "selfish" genes are capable of fixation-thereby leaving signatures identical to classical selective sweeps-despite being neutral or deleterious to organismal fitness. We previously described R2d2, a large copy-number variant that causes nonrandom segregation of mouse Chromosome 2 in females due to meiotic drive. Here we show population-genetic data consistent with a selfish sweep driven by alleles of R2d2 with high copy number (R2d2(HC)) in natural populations. We replicate this finding in multiple closed breeding populations from six outbred backgrounds segregating for R2d2 alleles. We find that R2d2(HC) rapidly increases in frequency, and in most cases becomes fixed in significantly fewer generations than can be explained by genetic drift. R2d2(HC) is also associated with significantly reduced litter sizes in heterozygous mothers, making it a true selfish allele. Our data provide direct evidence of populations actively undergoing selfish sweeps, and demonstrate that meiotic drive can rapidly alter the genomic landscape in favor of mutations with neutral or even negative effects on overall Darwinian fitness. Further study will reveal the incidence of selfish sweeps, and will elucidate the relative contributions of selfish genes, adaptation and genetic drift to evolution. PMID:26882987

  6. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Standards and Semantics for Open Access to Research Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, a growing number of funding agencies and professional societies have issued policies calling for open access to research data. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working to ensure open access to the environmental sensor data routinely acquired by the U.S. academic research fleet. Currently 25 vessels deliver 7 terabytes of data to R2R each year, acquired from a suite of geophysical, oceanographic, meteorological, and navigational sensors on over 400 cruises worldwide. R2R is working to ensure these data are preserved in trusted repositories, discoverable via standard protocols, and adequately documented for reuse. R2R maintains a master catalog of cruises for the U.S. academic research fleet, currently holding essential documentation for over 3,800 expeditions including vessel and cruise identifiers, start/end dates and ports, project titles and funding awards, science parties, dataset inventories with instrument types and file formats, data quality assessments, and links to related content at other repositories. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is published for 1) each cruise, 2) each original field sensor dataset, 3) each post-field data product such as quality-controlled shiptrack navigation produced by the R2R program, and 4) each document such as a cruise report submitted by the science party. Scientists are linked to personal identifiers, such as the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID), where known. Using standard global identifiers such as DOIs and ORCIDs facilitates linking with journal publications and generation of citation metrics. Since its inception, the R2R program has worked in close collaboration with other data repositories in the development of shared semantics for oceanographic research. The R2R cruise catalog uses community-standard terms and definitions hosted by the NERC Vocabulary Server, and publishes ISO metadata records for each cruise that use community-standard profiles developed with the NOAA Data

  7. Dual purpose recovered coagulant from drinking water treatment residuals for adjustment of initial pH and coagulation aid in electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the application of recovered coagulant (RC) by acidification from drinking water treatment residuals for both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in electrocoagulation. To do this, real cotton textile wastewater was used as a target pollutant, and decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were monitored. A preliminary test indicated that a stainless steel electrode combined with RC significantly accelerated decolorization and COD removal efficiencies, by about 52% and 56%, respectively, even at an operating time of 5 min. A single electrocoagulation system meanwhile requires at least 40 min to attain the similar removal performances. Subsequently, the interactive effect of three independent variables (applied voltage, initial pH, and reaction time) on the response variables (decolorization and COD removal) was evaluated, and these parameters were statistically optimized using the response surface methodology. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination values (decolorization, R(2) = 0.9925 and COD removal, R(2) = 0.9973) and satisfactory prediction second-order polynomial quadratic regression models. Average decolorization and COD removal of 89.52% and 94.14%, respectively, were achieved, corresponding to 97.8% and 98.1% of the predicted values under statistically optimized conditions. The results suggest that the RC effectively played a dual role of both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in the electrocoagulation process.

  8. Reactivity-worth estimates of the OSMOSE samples in the MINERVE reactor R1-MOX, R2-UO2 and MORGANE/R configurations.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Z.; Klann, R. T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-03

    An initial series of calculations of the reactivity-worth of the OSMOSE samples in the MINERVE reactor with the R2-UO2 and MORGANE/R core configuration were completed. The calculation model was generated using the lattice physics code DRAGON. In addition, an initial comparison of calculated values to experimental measurements was performed based on preliminary results for the R1-MOX configuration.

  9. Genome-wide identification and characterization of R2R3MYB family in Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    González, Máximo; Carrasco, Basilio; Salazar, Erika

    2016-09-01

    Transcription factors R2R3MYB family have been associated with the control of secondary metabolites, development of structures, cold tolerance and response to biotic and abiotic stress, among others. In recent years, genomes of Rosaceae botanical family are available. Although this information has been used to study the karyotype evolution of these species from an ancestral genome, there are no studies that treat the evolution and diversity of gene families present in these species or in the botanical family. Here we present the first comparative study of the R2R3MYB subfamily of transcription factors in three species of Rosaceae family (Malus domestica, Prunus persica and Fragaria vesca). We described 186, 98 and 86 non-redundant gene models for apple, peach and strawberry, respectively. In this research, we analyzed the intron-exon structure and genomic distribution of R2R3MYB families mentioned above. The phylogenetic comparisons revealed putative functions of some R2R3MYB transcription factors. This analysis found 44 functional subgroups, seven of which were unique for Rosaceae. In addition, our results showed a highly collinearity among some genes revealing the existence of conserved gene models between the three species studied. Although some gene models in these species have been validated under several approaches, more research in the Rosaceae family is necessary to determine gene expression patterns in specific tissues and development stages to facilitate understanding of the regulatory and biochemical mechanism in this botanical family. PMID:27408811

  10. Introducing the R2D2 Model: Online Learning for the Diverse Learners of This World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Zhang, Ke

    2006-01-01

    The R2D2 method--read, reflect, display, and do--is a new model for designing and delivering distance education, and in particular, online learning. Such a model is especially important to address the diverse preferences of online learners of varied generations and varied Internet familiarity. Four quadrants can be utilized separately or as part…

  11. 75 FR 48362 - Hearing Procedures Relating to Federal Firearms Licenses (2010R-2T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Hearing Procedures Relating to Federal Firearms Licenses (2010R- 2T) AGENCY: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), Department of Justice. ACTION: General notice. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and...

  12. Subspecialization of R2R3-MYB Repressors for Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Regulation in Forage Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Nick W.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of anthocyanin pigments and proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) is regulated by MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complexes in all angiosperms studied to date. Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 were isolated from Trifolium repens and encode R2R3-MYBs that antagonize the activity of MBW activation complexes. These two genes are conserved in other legume species, and form two sub-clades within the larger anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin clade of MYB repressors. However, unlike petunia and Arabidopsis, these R2R3-MYB repressors do not prevent ectopic accumulation of anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins. Instead, they are expressed when anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins are being synthesized, and provide feedback regulation to MBW complexes. This feedback occurs because Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 are themselves regulated by MBW complexes. Tr-MYB133 is regulated by MBW complexes containing anthocyanin-related R2R3-MYB proteins (Tr-RED LEAF), while Tr-MYB134 is regulated by complexes containing the proanthocyanidin R2R3-MYBs (Tr-MYB14). Other features of the MBW gene regulation networks are also conserved within legumes, including the ability for the anthocyanin MBW complexes to activate the expression of the AN1/TT8 clade bHLH factor. The regulation of Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 by distinct, pathway-specific MBW complexes has resulted in subspecialization for controlling anthocyanin or proanthocyanidin synthesis. PMID:26779194

  13. TRAIL-R2 Superoligomerization Induced by Human Monoclonal Agonistic Antibody KMTR2.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Taro; Shinmi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Masahiro; Yonezawa, Yasushi; Kataoka, Shiro; Kuroki, Ryota; Mori, Eiji; Motoki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The fully human monoclonal antibody KMTR2 acts as a strong direct agonist for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2), which is capable of inducing apoptotic cell death without cross-linking. To investigate the mechanism of direct agonistic activity induced by KMTR2, the crystal structure of the extracellular region of TRAIL-R2 and a Fab fragment derived from KMTR2 (KMTR2-Fab) was determined to 2.1 Å resolution. Two KMTR2-Fabs assembled with the complementarity-determining region 2 of the light chain via two-fold crystallographic symmetry, suggesting that the KMTR2-Fab assembly tended to enhance TRAIL-R2 oligomerization. A single mutation at Asn53 to Arg located at the two-fold interface in the KMTR2 resulted in a loss of its apoptotic activity, although it retained its antigen-binding activity. These results indicate that the strong agonistic activity, such as apoptotic signaling and tumor regression, induced by KMTR2 is attributed to TRAIL-R2 superoligomerization induced by the interdimerization of KMTR2. PMID:26672965

  14. A study of the clumpiness in the Monoceros R2 molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-04-01

    The study of clumpiness in the Monoceros R2 molecular cloud, and attempts to investigate the use of dust emission as well as gas tracers to study this, are addressed. A progress in developing the technique of dust temperature distribution by inversion of the emitted spectrum using the Mobius theorem is reported.

  15. R2R Eventlogger: Community-wide Recording of Oceanographic Cruise Science Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Stolp, L.; Lerner, S.; Avery, J.; Thiel, T.

    2012-12-01

    Methods used by researchers to track science events during a science research cruise - and to note when and where these occur - varies widely. Handwritten notebooks, printed forms, watch-keeper logbooks, data-logging software, and customized software have all been employed. The quality of scientific results is affected by the consistency and care with which such events are recorded and integration of multi-cruise results is hampered because recording methods vary widely from cruise to cruise. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has developed an Eventlogger system that will eventually be deployed on most vessels in the academic research fleet. It is based on the open software package called ELOG (http://midas.psi.ch/elog/) originally authored by Stefan Ritt and enhanced by our team. Lessons have been learned in its development and use on several research cruises. We have worked hard to find approaches that encourage cruise participants to use tools like the eventlogger. We examine these lessons and several eventlogger datasets from past cruises. We further describe how the R2R Science Eventlogger works in concert with the other R2R program elements to help coordinate research vessels into a coordinated mobile observing fleet. Making use of data collected on different research cruises is enabled by adopting common ways of describing science events, the science instruments employed, the data collected, etc. The use of controlled vocabularies and the practice of mapping these local vocabularies to accepted oceanographic community vocabularies helps to bind shipboard research events from different cruises into a more cohesive set of fleet-wide events that can be queried and examined in a cross-cruise manner. Examples of the use of the eventlogger during multi-cruise oceanographic research programs along with examples of resultant eventlogger data will be presented. Additionally we will highlight the importance of vocabulary use strategies to the success of the

  16. R2DBE: A Wideband Digital Backend for the Event Horizon Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertatschitsch, Laura; Primiani, Rurik; Young, André; Weintroub, Jonathan; Crew, Geoffrey B.; McWhirter, Stephen R.; Beaudoin, Christopher; Doeleman, Sheperd; Blackburn, Lindy

    2015-12-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is an earth-size aperture synthesis radio astronomy array capable of making high-resolution measurements of submillimeter emission near the event horizon of supermassive black holes. The EHT uses existing standalone submillimeter radio telescopes which are retrofitted to serve as VLBI stations. Current instrument development goals include increasing the number of stations in the array and increasing their sensitivity. We have developed a 4 GHz bandwidth digital backend (DBE) unit, based on the CASPER (Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research) open source ROACH2 (Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware) platform. The ROACH2 digital backend, which we call the R2DBE, has dual channels each sampling at a rate of 4096 MSps (megasamples-per-second), a factor of 4 improvement over the previous generation system. Recording 2-bits per sample, the bandwidth is equivalently stated as 16 gigabits-per-second (Gbps). This paper includes system design of the R2DBE, discusses laboratory test results of the system using correlated noise input, and presents field test results. The R2DBE was distributed to seven sites in early 2015, enabling the EHT campaign in 2015 March to collect data with 2 GHz bandwidth in each polarization. The 16 gigabit-per-second (Gbps) R2DBE can be scaled to create a 64 Gbps system using four R2DBEs in parallel. Thus, it enables a clear path to the EHT's goal of 4 GHz dual-polarization and dual-sideband across the array.

  17. Simple, Internally Adjustable Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Valve containing simple in-line, adjustable, flow-control orifice made from ordinary plumbing fitting and two allen setscrews. Construction of valve requires only simple drilling, tapping, and grinding. Orifice installed in existing fitting, avoiding changes in rest of plumbing.

  18. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  19. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  20. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  1. Orosensory detection of sucrose, maltose, and glucose is severely impaired in mice lacking T1R2 or T1R3, but Polycose sensitivity remains relatively normal

    PubMed Central

    Treesukosol, Yada

    2012-01-01

    Evidence in the literature supports the hypothesis that the T1R2+3 heterodimer binds to compounds that humans describe as sweet. Here, we assessed the necessity of the T1R2 and T1R3 subunits in the maintenance of normal taste sensitivity to carbohydrate stimuli. We trained and tested water-restricted T1R2 knockout (KO), T1R3 KO and their wild-type (WT) same-sex littermate controls in a two-response operant procedure to sample a fluid and differentially respond on the basis of whether the stimulus was water or a tastant. Correct responses were reinforced with water and incorrect responses were punished with a time-out. Testing was conducted with a modified descending method of limits procedure across daily 25-min sessions. Both KO groups displayed severely impaired performance and markedly decreased sensitivity when required to discriminate water from sucrose, glucose, or maltose. In contrast, when Polycose was tested, KO mice had normal EC50 values for their psychometric functions, with some slight, but significant, impairment in performance. Sensitivity to NaCl did not differ between these mice and their WT controls. Our findings support the view that the T1R2+3 heterodimer is the principal receptor that mediates taste detection of natural sweeteners, but not of all carbohydrate stimuli. The combined presence of T1R2 and T1R3 appears unnecessary for the maintenance of relatively normal sensitivity to Polycose, at least in this task. Some detectability of sugars at high concentrations might be mediated by the putative polysaccharide taste receptor, the remaining T1R subunit forming either a homodimer or heteromer with another protein(s), or nontaste orosensory cues. PMID:22621968

  2. 19 CFR 351.413 - Disregarding insignificant adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... “insignificant adjustment” is any individual adjustment having an ad valorem effect of less than 0.33 percent, or any group of adjustments having an ad valorem effect of less than 1.0 percent, of the export price... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value §...

  3. The Wide Distribution and Change of Target Specificity of R2 Non-LTR Retrotransposons in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Yosuke; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Transposons, or transposable elements, are the major components of genomes in most eukaryotes. Some groups of transposons have developed target specificity that limits the integration sites to a specific nonessential sequence or a genomic region to avoid gene disruption caused by insertion into an essential gene. R2 is one of the most intensively investigated groups of sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons and is inserted at a specific site inside of 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. R2 is known to be distributed among at least six animal phyla even though its occurrence is reported to be patchy. Here, in order to obtain a more detailed picture of the distribution of R2, we surveyed R2 using both in silico screening and degenerate PCR, particularly focusing on actinopterygian fish. We found two families of the R2C lineage from vertebrates, although it has previously only been found in platyhelminthes. We also revealed the apparent movement of insertion sites of a lineage of actinopterygian R2, which was likely concurrent with the acquisition of a 28S rRNA-derived sequence in their 3′ UTR. Outside of actinopterygian fish, we revealed the maintenance of a single R2 lineage in birds; the co-existence of four lineages of R2 in the leafcutter bee Megachile rotundata; the first examples of R2 in Ctenophora, Mollusca, and Hemichordata; and two families of R2 showing no target specificity. These findings indicate that R2 is relatively stable and universal, while differences in the distribution and maintenance of R2 lineages probably reflect characteristics of some combination of both R2 lineages and host organisms. PMID:27662593

  4. Magnetic ordering in Sc2CoSi2-type R2FeSi2 (R=Gd, Tb) and R2CoSi2 (R=Y, Gd-Er) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Knotko, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Pani, M.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Sc2CoSi2-type R2TSi2 (R=Gd-Er, T=Fe, Co) compounds have been studied using magnetization data. These indicate the presence of mixed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions in these compounds. One observes a ferromagnetic transition followed by an antiferromagnetic order and a further possible spin-reorientation transition at low temperatures. Compared to Gd2{Fe, Co}Si2, the Tb2FeSi2 and {Tb-Er}2CoSi2 compounds exhibit remarkable hysteresis (for e.g. Tb2FeSi2 shows residual magnetization Mres/Tb=2.45 μB, coercive field Hcoer=14.9 kOe, and critical field Hcrit 5 kOe at 5 K) possibly due to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the rare earth. The R2{Fe, Co}Si2 show relatively small magnetocaloric effect (i.e. isothermal magnetic entropy change, ΔSm) around the magnetic transition temperature: the maximal value of MCE is demonstrated by Ho2CoSi2 (ΔSm=-8.1 J/kg K at 72 K and ΔSm=-9.4 J/kg K at 23 K in field change of 50 kOe) and Er2CoSi2 (ΔSm=-13.6 J/kg K at 32 K and ΔSm=-8.4 J/kg K at 12 K in field change of 50 kOe).

  5. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending.

  6. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  7. SIM_ADJUST -- A computer code that adjusts simulated equivalents for observations or predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poeter, Eileen P.; Hill, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the SIM_ADJUST computer code. SIM_ADJUST surmounts an obstacle that is sometimes encountered when using universal model analysis computer codes such as UCODE_2005 (Poeter and others, 2005), PEST (Doherty, 2004), and OSTRICH (Matott, 2005; Fredrick and others (2007). These codes often read simulated equivalents from a list in a file produced by a process model such as MODFLOW that represents a system of interest. At times values needed by the universal code are missing or assigned default values because the process model could not produce a useful solution. SIM_ADJUST can be used to (1) read a file that lists expected observation or prediction names and possible alternatives for the simulated values; (2) read a file produced by a process model that contains space or tab delimited columns, including a column of simulated values and a column of related observation or prediction names; (3) identify observations or predictions that have been omitted or assigned a default value by the process model; and (4) produce an adjusted file that contains a column of simulated values and a column of associated observation or prediction names. The user may provide alternatives that are constant values or that are alternative simulated values. The user may also provide a sequence of alternatives. For example, the heads from a series of cells may be specified to ensure that a meaningful value is available to compare with an observation located in a cell that may become dry. SIM_ADJUST is constructed using modules from the JUPITER API, and is intended for use on any computer operating system. SIM_ADJUST consists of algorithms programmed in Fortran90, which efficiently performs numerical calculations.

  8. (R)-2-Phenylpyrrolidine Substituted Imidazopyridazines: A New Class of Potent and Selective Pan-TRK Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated kinase activities of tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) family members have been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis and poor prognosis in a variety of cancer types. In particular, several chromosomal rearrangements involving TRKA have been reported in colorectal, papillary thyroid, glioblastoma, melanoma, and lung tissue that are believed to be the key oncogenic driver in these tumors. By screening the Novartis compound collection, a novel imidazopyridazine TRK inhibitor was identified that served as a launching point for drug optimization. Structure guided drug design led to the identification of (R)-2-phenylpyrrolidine substituted imidazopyridazines as a series of potent, selective, orally bioavailable pan-TRK inhibitors achieving tumor regression in rats bearing KM12 xenografts. From this work the (R)-2-phenylpyrrolidine has emerged as an ideal moiety to incorporate in bicyclic TRK inhibitors by virtue of its shape complementarity to the hydrophobic pocket of TRKs. PMID:26005534

  9. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  10. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-14

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  11. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1980-01-15

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  12. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-07

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  13. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  14. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Collaborative Development of Linked Data for Oceanographic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Stocks, Karen; Smith, Shawn; Clark, Paul; Shepherd, Adam; Moore, Carla; Beaulieu, Stace

    2013-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from U.S. academic oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. The entire R2R Catalog is published online as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage discovery and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by publishing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation; 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to journal articles and global syntheses, by publishing Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for datasets and encoding them directly into our Linked Data resources; and 3.) We facilitate federation with other repositories such as the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO), InterRidge Vents Database, and Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS), by reciprocal linking between RDF resources and supporting the RDF Query Language. R2R participates in the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), a joint European-U.S.-Australian partnership to facilitate the sharing of data and documentation across international borders. We publish our controlled vocabularies as a Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concept collection, and are working toward alignment with SeaDataNet and other community-standard terms using the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). http://rvdata.us/

  15. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

  16. Capabilities, limitations, and use of BC SAT-R2 conference software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. F.

    1983-01-01

    The computer software developed for the BC SAT-R2 Conference has certain capabilities and limitations which are described. Capabilities of each major program element are addressed with respect to providing the required functions for planning and output reporting. Limitations arise from the inability to exactly represent certain systems that may be examined. Expected use of the software package during the Conference is outlined.

  17. Design and Calibration of Rolling Resistance Test Trailer R2Mk.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronowski, G.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes construction and calibration procedures of the rolling resistance test trailer R2 Mk.2. The trailer is design to measure rolling resistance of passenger car tyres in various road conditions on trafficked roads. The trailer utilizes so called angle method also known as vertical arm method. The paper presents also calibration procedures that are necessary to ascertain good precision of the measurements.

  18. Euler-type transformations for the generalized hypergeometric function r+2 F r+1( x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. R.; Paris, R. B.

    2011-02-01

    We provide generalizations of two of Euler's classical transformation formulas for the Gauss hypergeometric function extended to the case of the generalized hypergeometric function r+2 F r+1( x) when there are additional numeratorial and denominatorial parameters differing by unity. The method employed to deduce the latter is also implemented to obtain a Kummer-type transformation formula for r+1 F r+1 ( x) that was recently derived in a different way.

  19. Efficient preparation of (R)-2-chloromandelic acid via a recycle process of resolution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu; Wu, Chang; Wu, Xue-Ying; Li, Shao-Lei; Sun, Xiao-Xia; Tang, Ze-Biao

    2015-03-01

    Efficient preparation of (R)-2-chloromandelic acid based on a recycle process of resolution is described. In the process, the desired was obtained by coordination-mediated resolution with D-O,O'-di-(p-toluoyl)-tartaric acid in the presence of Ca(2+) . Meanwhile, the undesired could be racemized in the presence of sodium hydroxide and the product was suitable for further resolution. A carbanion mechanism for the racemization of is proposed.

  20. Optical phantoms with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters.

    PubMed

    Krauter, Philipp; Nothelfer, Steffen; Bodenschatz, Nico; Simon, Emanuel; Stocker, Sabrina; Foschum, Florian; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-10-01

    A new epoxy-resin-based optical phantom system with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters is presented along with measurements of the intrinsic absorption, scattering, fluorescence, and refractive index of the matrix material. Both an aluminium oxide powder and a titanium dioxide dispersion were used as scattering agents and we present measurements of their scattering and reduced scattering coefficients. A method is theoretically described for a mixture of both scattering agents to obtain continuously adjustable anisotropy values g between 0.65 and 0.9 and values of the phase function parameter γ in the range of 1.4 to 2.2. Furthermore, we show absorption spectra for a set of pigments that can be added to achieve particular absorption characteristics. By additional analysis of the aging, a fully characterized phantom system is obtained with the novelty of g and γ parameter adjustment. PMID:26473589

  1. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue; Jin, Meng; Chen, Ying-Xiao; Wang, Jun; Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway.

  2. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway. PMID:27347718

  3. The primordial magnetic field generated at large field inflation, natural inflation, and R2-inflation by f2FF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlMuhammad, Anwar Saleh

    Large scale magnetic fields seem to be present in almost all astrophysical systems and scales from planets to superclusters of galaxies and in very low density intergalactic media. The upper limit of primordial magnetic fields (PMF) has been set by recent observations by the Planck observatory (2015) to be of the order of a few nG. The simple model {f. 2}FF used to generate the PMF during the inflation era. It is based on the breaking of conformal symmetry of electromagnetism during inflation. It is attractive because it is stable under perturbations and leads to a scale invariant PMF. However, it may suffer from two problems: Backreaction and strong coupling. In the first case, the electromagnetic energy may exceed the energy of inflation, {rho _{{Inf}}}. In the second case, the effective electric charges become excessively large if we want to retrieve the standard electromagnetism at the end of inflation. In this research, we investigate the generation of PMF under three different models of inflation in order to avoid the backreaction problem. We compute magnetic and electric spectra generated by the {f. 2}FF model in the context of large field inflation (LFI), natural inflation (NI) and {R. 2}-inflation, for all possible values of model parameters for de Sitter and power law expansion of inflation. The results of the research show that the scale invariant PMF can be generated in these models and the problem of backreaction may be avoided in some observational ranges. {R. 2}-inflation, which is preferred by the recent results of Planck 2015, we calculate the upper of the scale invariant PMF generated by {f. 2}FF and in turns we find that the upper limit of present magnetic field, {B_0} < 8.058 × {10. { - 9}}{G}. It is in the same order of magnitude of PMF, reported by Planck, 2015.

  4. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles1

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco Javier; Boersma, Maaike; Schuurink, Robert C.; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Caballero, José Luis; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and functionally characterized an R2R3 MYB transcription factor (EMISSION OF BENZENOID II [FaEOBII]) that seems to be the orthologous gene of PhEOBII from Petunia hybrida, which contributes to the regulation of eugenol biosynthesis in petals. The expression of FaEOBII was ripening related and fruit receptacle specific, although high expression values were also found in petals. This expression pattern of FaEOBII correlated with eugenol content in both fruit receptacle and petals. The expression of FaEOBII was repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid, in parallel to the ripening process. In ripe strawberry receptacles, where the expression of FaEOBII was silenced, the expression of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE1 and FaEGS2, two structural genes involved in eugenol production, was down-regulated. A subsequent decrease in eugenol content in ripe receptacles was also observed, confirming the involvement of FaEOBII in eugenol metabolism. Additionally, the expression of FaEOBII was under the control of FaMYB10, another R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates the early and late biosynthetic genes from the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway. In parallel, the amount of eugenol in FaMYB10-silenced receptacles was also diminished. Taken together, these data indicate that FaEOBII plays a regulating role in the volatile phenylpropanoid pathway gene expression that gives rise to eugenol production in ripe strawberry receptacles. PMID:25931522

  5. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Research Cruise Event Logger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Stolp, L.; Dubois, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific event logs, used by the science party to record scientific sampling events that occur during a research cruise, have been used in various ways for decades. An event log is very important for documenting the occurrence of a sampling event and its location, time, relative sequence, and related details. Event logging, done well, can provide important documentation about scientific data collected during a cruise, and enable more efficient use of those data by cruise participants and future researchers. When the resultant event log is a digital data file, with content generated programmatically and controlled by term vocabularies, it becomes an even more valuable addition to the full complement of data sets generated during the cruise. However, such a tool is only effective if it is used. Through field testing, several key factors were identified that encourage the use of such a tool: the ability to customize the tool to represent the science implementation plan, proposed sampling scheme, cruise personnel and instrumentation; the ability to retrieve date, time and location data automatically from the shipboard network and the ability to enter events quickly and from any location on the ship. This presentation provides an overview of both the current version 1 and soon to be released version 2 of the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) research cruise Event Logger system. The R2R Event Logger application is built upon a pre-existing, open-source, weblog product called ELOG (ELOG URL: http://midas.psi.ch/elog/). We provide an oceanographer's view of the full process by which: 1) the R2R Event Logger application is configured and tested to meet the unique needs of a research cruise; 2) the R2R project works with the ship operator to install the Event Logger on the ship designated for the cruise, 3) the Event Logger is configured to automatically retrieve location, time, and other pertinent information from the shipboard network; 4) a copy of the event log file is

  6. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Technical Design - Experiences and Lessons (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Miller, S. P.; Chandler, C. L.; Ferrini, V.; Stocks, K.; Maffei, A. R.; Smith, S. R.; Bourassa, M. A.; McLean, S. J.; Alberts, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project envisions the academic research fleet as an integrated global observing system, with routine “underway” sensor data flowing directly from research vessels to a central shore-side repository. It is a complex endeavor involving many stakeholders - technicians at sea, data managers on shore, ship schedulers, clearance officers, funding agencies, National Data Centers, data synthesis projects, the science community, and the public - working toward a common goal of acquiring, documenting, archiving, evaluating, and disseminating high-quality scientific data. The technical design for R2R is guided by several key principles: 1) The data pipeline is modular, so that initial stages (e.g. inventory and review of data shipments, posting of catalog records and track maps) may proceed routinely for every cruise, while later stages (e.g. quality assessment and production of file-level metadata) may proceed at different rates for different data types; 2) Cruise documentation (e.g. sailing orders, review/release of data inventories, vessel profiles) is gathered primarily via an authenticated Web portal, linked with the UNOLS scheduling database to synchronize vocabularies and eliminate redundancies; and 3) Every data set will be documented and delivered to the appropriate National Data Center for long-term archiving and dissemination after proprietary holds are cleared, while R2R maintains a master cruise catalog that links all the data sets together. This design accommodates the diversity of instrument types, data volumes, and shipment schedules among fleet operators. During its pilot development period, R2R has solicited feedback at community workshops, UNOLS meetings, and conference presentations, including fleet-wide surveys of current practices and instrument inventories. Several vessel operators began submitting cruise data and documentation during the pilot, providing a test bed for database development and Web

  7. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor from Epimedium sagittatum regulates the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenjun; Sun, Wei; Lv, Haiyan; Luo, Ming; Zeng, Shaohua; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling; Wang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Herba epimedii (Epimedium), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used as a kidney tonic and antirheumatic medicine for thousands of years. The bioactive components in herba epimedii are mainly prenylated flavonol glycosides, end-products of the flavonoid pathway. Epimedium species are also used as garden plants due to the colorful flowers and leaves. Many R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) have been identified to regulate the flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways. However, little is known about the R2R3-MYB TFs involved in regulation of the flavonoid pathway in Epimedium. Here, we reported the isolation and functional characterization of the first R2R3-MYB TF (EsMYBA1) from Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. Et Zucc.) Maxim. Conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis showed that EsMYBA1 belonged to the subgroup 6 clade (anthocyanin-related MYB clade) of R2R3-MYB family, which includes Arabidopsis AtPAP1, apple MdMYB10 and legume MtLAP1. EsMYBA1 was preferentially expressed in leaves, especially in red leaves that contain higher content of anthocyanin. Alternative splicing of EsMYBA1 resulted in three transcripts and two of them encoded a MYB-related protein. Yeast two-hybrid and transient luciferase expression assay showed that EsMYBA1 can interact with several bHLH regulators of the flavonoid pathway and activate the promoters of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). In both transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis, overexpression of EsMYBA1 induced strong anthocyanin accumulation in reproductive and/or vegetative tissues via up-regulation of the main flavonoid-related genes. Furthermore, transient expression of EsMYBA1 in E. sagittatum leaves by Agrobacterium infiltration also induced anthocyanin accumulation in the wounded area. This first functional characterization of R2R3-MYB TFs in Epimedium species will promote further studies of the flavonoid biosynthesis and regulation in medicinal plants. PMID:23936468

  8. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  9. E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report and E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report--Questions and Answers; International Council for Harmonisation; Guidances for Industry; Availability. Notice.

    PubMed

    2016-07-19

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is announcing the availability of guidances for industry entitled ``E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation'' (E2C(R2) guidance) and ``E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report--Questions and Answers'' (E2C(R2) Q&A guidance). These guidances were prepared under the auspices of the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH), formerly the International Conference on Harmonisation. The E2C(R2) draft guidance, issued April 11, 2012, updated and combined two ICH guidances, ``E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs'' (E2C guidance) and ``Addendum to E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs'' (addendum to the E2C guidance). The E2C(R2) guidance is intended to describe the format, content, and timing of a Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report (PBRER) for an approved drug or biologic, and it finalizes the draft guidance. The E2C(R2) Q&A guidance is a supplementary guidance that is intended to clarify key issues in the E2C(R2) guidance.

  10. E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report and E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report--Questions and Answers; International Council for Harmonisation; Guidances for Industry; Availability. Notice.

    PubMed

    2016-07-19

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is announcing the availability of guidances for industry entitled ``E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation'' (E2C(R2) guidance) and ``E2C(R2) Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report--Questions and Answers'' (E2C(R2) Q&A guidance). These guidances were prepared under the auspices of the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH), formerly the International Conference on Harmonisation. The E2C(R2) draft guidance, issued April 11, 2012, updated and combined two ICH guidances, ``E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs'' (E2C guidance) and ``Addendum to E2C Clinical Safety Data Management: Periodic Safety Update Reports for Marketed Drugs'' (addendum to the E2C guidance). The E2C(R2) guidance is intended to describe the format, content, and timing of a Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report (PBRER) for an approved drug or biologic, and it finalizes the draft guidance. The E2C(R2) Q&A guidance is a supplementary guidance that is intended to clarify key issues in the E2C(R2) guidance. PMID:27459749

  11. 1r2dinv: A finite-difference model for inverse analysis of two dimensional linear or radial groundwater flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohling, G.C.; Butler, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a program for inverse analysis of two-dimensional linear or radial groundwater flow problems. The program, 1r2dinv, uses standard finite difference techniques to solve the groundwater flow equation for a horizontal or vertical plane with heterogeneous properties. In radial mode, the program simulates flow to a well in a vertical plane, transforming the radial flow equation into an equivalent problem in Cartesian coordinates. The physical parameters in the model are horizontal or x-direction hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy ratio (vertical to horizontal conductivity in a vertical model, y-direction to x-direction in a horizontal model), and specific storage. The program allows the user to specify arbitrary and independent zonations of these three parameters and also to specify which zonal parameter values are known and which are unknown. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to estimate parameters from observed head values. Particularly powerful features of the program are the ability to perform simultaneous analysis of heads from different tests and the inclusion of the wellbore in the radial mode. These capabilities allow the program to be used for analysis of suites of well tests, such as multilevel slug tests or pumping tests in a tomographic format. The combination of information from tests stressing different vertical levels in an aquifer provides the means for accurately estimating vertical variations in conductivity, a factor profoundly influencing contaminant transport in the subsurface. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Translational neurophysiological markers for activity of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) modulator JNJ-40411813: Sleep EEG correlates in rodents and healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ahnaou, A; de Boer, P; Lavreysen, H; Huysmans, H; Sinha, V; Raeymaekers, L; Van De Casteele, T; Cid, J M; Van Nueten, L; Macdonald, G J; Kemp, J A; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2016-04-01

    Alterations in rapid eye movement sleep (REM) have been suggested as valid translational efficacy markers: activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) was shown to increase REM latency and to decrease REM duration. The present paper addresses the effects on vigilance states of the mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) JNJ-40411813 at different circadian times in rats and after afternoon dosing in humans. Due to its dual mGluR2 PAM/serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor antagonism in rodents, mGlu2R specificity of effects was studied in wild-type (WT) and mGluR2 (-/-) mice. 5-HT2A receptor occupancy was determined in humans using positron emission tomography (PET). Tolerance development was examined in rats after chronic dosing. EEG oscillations and network connectivity were assessed using multi-channel EEG. In rats, JNJ-40411813 increased deep sleep time and latency of REM onset but reduced REM time when administered 2 h after 'lights on' (CT2): this was sustained after chronic dosing. At CT5 similar effects were elicited, at CT10 only deep sleep was enhanced. Withdrawal resulted in baseline values, while re-administration reinstated drug effects. Parieto-occipital cortical slow theta and gamma oscillations were correlated with low locomotion. The specificity of functional response was confirmed in WT but not mGluR2 (-/-) mice. A double-blind, placebo-controlled polysomnographic study in healthy, elderly subjects showed that 500 mg of JNJ-40411813 consistently increased deep sleep time, but had no effect on REM parameters. This deep sleep effect was not explained by 5-HT2A receptor binding, as in the PET study even 700 mg only marginally displaced the tracer. JNJ-40411813 elicited comparable functional responses in rodents and men if circadian time of dosing was taken into account. These findings underscore the translational potential of sleep mechanisms in evaluating mGluR2 therapeutics when administered at the appropriate circadian time.

  13. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  14. ON APPROXIMATION BY HARMONIC POLYNOMIALS IN THE C^1-NORM ON COMPACT SETS IN \\mathbf{R}^2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonov, P. V.

    1994-04-01

    It is proved that for an arbitrary compact set X in \\mathbf{R}^2 the following conditions are equivalent: 1) for every function f\\in C^1(\\mathbf{R}^2), harmonic on X^0, and for any \\varepsilon > 0 a harmonic polynomial p can be found such that \\displaystyle \\Vert f-p\\Vert_X < \\varepsilon, \\qquad\\Vert \

  15. Self-Adjusting Liquid Injectors for Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu; Myers, William

    2010-01-01

    A class of self-adjusting injectors for spraying liquid oxidizers and/or fuels into combustion chambers has been proposed. The proposed injectors were originally intended for use in rocket-engine combustion chambers, but could also be used to improve control over flows of liquid propellants in other combustion chambers. The basic idea of the proposed injectors is to use simple mechanisms, inside the injectors themselves, to adjust inlet areas so as to keep injection pressure drops at or near optimum values through out wide throttling ranges. These mechanisms would be actuated by the very pressure drops that they are intended to regulate.

  16. Single crystal growth and heat capacity measurements of triangular lattice R2Pt6Ga15 (R =rare earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Ueda, T.; Ohara, S.

    2016-02-01

    We have succeeded in synthesizing the single crystal of R2Pt6Ga15 (R=La-Nd, Sm- Lu) with hexagonal Sc0.67Fe2Si5-type structure using Ga self flux method. The crystal structure was confirmed by the powder X-ray method. The unit-cell volume V of R2Pt6Ga15 follows the lanthanide concentration except R = Ce, Eu and Yb, indicating that the valences of R = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, and Lu ion are trivalent, whereas those of R = Ce, Eu and Yb ion are deviate from trivalent. We have measured the specific heat C(T) of R2Pt6Ga15. It is found that the magnetic order takes place in R2Pt6Ga15 (R=Pr, Nd, Sm-Tm). Moreover, the multiple phase transitions were observed in R2Pt6Ga15 (R = Nd, Eu, Gd and Ho).

  17. Degradation and stability of R2R manufactured polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrman, Kion; Krebs, Frederik C.

    2009-08-01

    Polymer solar cells have many advantages such as light weight, flexibility, environmental friendliness, low thermal budget, low cost and most notably very fast modes of production by printing techniques. Production experiments have shown that it is highly feasible with existing technology to mass produce polymer solar cells at a very low cost. We have employed state-of-the-art analytical techniques to address the challenging issues of degradation and stability of R2R manufactured devices. We have specifically studied the relative effect of oxygen and water on the operational devices in regard to degradation.

  18. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Linking and Integrating Data for Oceanographic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Shepherd, A.; Moore, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. We have published the entire R2R Catalog as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage linking and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by providing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation. We are leveraging or adopting existing community-standard concepts and vocabularies, particularly concepts from the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) ontology and terms from the pan-European SeaDataNet vocabularies, and continually re-publish resources as new concepts and terms are mapped. 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire data lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to (ultimately) global syntheses and journal articles. We are implementing globally unique and persistent identifiers at the collection, dataset, and granule levels, and encoding these citable identifiers directly into the Linked Data resources. 3.) We facilitate linking and integration with other repositories that publish Linked Data collections for the U.S. academic fleet, such as BCO-DMO and the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS). We are initially mapping datasets at the resource level, and plan to eventually implement rule-based mapping at the concept level. We work collaboratively with partner repositories to develop best practices for URI patterns and consensus on shared vocabularies. The R2R Linked Data collection is implemented as a

  19. Accretion disks around neutron and strange stars in R+aR2 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staykov, Kalin V.; Doneva, Daniela D.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.

    2016-08-01

    We study the electromagnetic spectrum of accretion disks around neutron and strange stars in R+aR2 gravity. Both static and rapidly rotating models are investigated. The results are compared with the General Relativistic results. We found difference between the results in both theories of about 50% for the electromagnetic flux and about 20% in the luminosity for models with equal mass and angular velocity in both theories. The observed differences are much lower for models rotating with Keplerian velocity and with equal masses.

  20. Shells, outflows and star formation in the giant molecular cloud Monoceros R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Taoling

    1992-09-01

    To improve our understanding about giant molecular clouds (GMC) associated with R-associations, a CO-12 J = 1-0 map of 167,000 spectra with 45 inch resolution and 25 inch spacing, a CO-13 J = 1-0 map of approximately 40,000 spectra with 1.5 foot resolution and 1 foot spacing, IRAS BIGMAP images, and maps of high density molecular tracers for the dense cores are obtained for the GMC Monoceros R2 (D = 830 plus or minus 50 pc). These data reveal that the large-scale structure of Mon R2 is dominated by an expanding bubble shell (approximately 30 pc) with front side moving towards us at a radial velocity of approximately 4-5 km/s. Distortions of this shell are obvious, suggesting of the inhomogeneity of the cloud before the formation of the bubble. There is no evidence for red-shifted shell at the far side of the bubble. There are at least two generations of star formation in Mon R2. The older generation of stars with an age of 6-10 x 106 years are represented mostly by reflection nebulae. The younger generation of stars with an age of approximately 105 years are represented mostly by IRAS point sources. It is proposed that the large-scale expanding bubble shell is the result of combined effects of ionizing flux and stellar winds originating from the older generation of young stellar objects, but perhaps dominated by O type stars which either are obscured or left main sequence. It is suggested that the formation of the younger generation of stars has been triggered by the older generation of stars. The main and the GGD12-15 cores are located on the large-scale expanding shell, and their harboring both generations of stars can be explained were the cores preexisting clumps. Our CO data reveal an eggplant-shaped bipolar outflow shell, whose shape can be satisfactorily modeled with radially directed stellar winds sweeping up ambient material with momentum conservation. An inversion method is implemented for analyzing dust emission spectra at FIR wavelengths in terms of a

  1. Expression of prokineticin-receptor2(PK-R2) is a new prognostic factor in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Goi, Takanori; Kurebayashi, Hidetaka; Ueda, Yuki; Naruse, Takayuki; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Koneri, Kenji; Hirono, Yasuo; Katayama, Kanji; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2015-10-13

    The increased invasiveness of colorectal cancer cells is important for progression and metastasis to the surrounding organs. According to recent molecular biological studies, signaling through transmembrane Prokineticin-Receptor2(PK-R2) is likely involved in the ability of tumor cell to invade. However, no studies have evaluated the relationship between PK-R2 expression, ability of cancer to invade/metastasize, and patient prognosis in cases of resected colorectal cancer. Accordingly, we have examined these factors in the present study.Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect PK-R2 in the primary lesion and adjacent normal large intestine mucosa of 324 colorectal cancer patients who underwent resection surgery at our department. Additionally, we conducted clinicopathologic examinations and analyzed patient prognoses with the Kaplan-Meier method. Further, multivariate analysis was conducted using a cox-proportional hazard model.PK-R2 expression was observed on the cellular membrane of the primary lesion in 147 of 324 cases (45.3%) of human colorectal cancer. PK-R2 expression was associated with a higher incidence of vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, hepatic metastasis, and hematogenous metastasis. Further, prevalence of PK-R2 expression increased as tumor stage increased. In stage III curative resection cases, where recurrence is the most serious problem, cases that expressed PK-R2 had a significantly lower 5-year survival rate (82.1% versus 66.8%) and higher recurrence compared to those cases with no PK-R2 expression. In the multivariate analysis for prognosis, PK-R2 expression was found to be an independent factor(ratio2.621).PK-R2 expression could be one of the new prognostic factors in human colorectal cancer.

  2. Distinct Human and Mouse Membrane Trafficking Systems for Sweet Taste Receptors T1r2 and T1r3

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system. PMID:25029362

  3. Distinct human and mouse membrane trafficking systems for sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system.

  4. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  5. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  6. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ aerobic count plates as an equivalent alternative to drop plating on R2A agar plates in a biofilm disinfectant efficacy test.

    PubMed

    Fritz, B G; Walker, D K; Goveia, D E; Parker, A E; Goeres, D M

    2015-03-01

    This paper compares Petrifilm™ aerobic count (AC) plates to drop plating on R2A agar plates as an alternative method for biofilm bacteria enumeration after application of a disinfectant. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm was grown in a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention biofilm reactor (ASTM E2562) and treated with 123 ppm sodium hypochlorite (as free chlorine) according to the Single Tube Method (ASTM E2871). Aliquots from the same dilution tubes were plated on Petrifilm™ AC plates and drop plated on R2A agar plates. The Petrifilm™ AC and R2A plates were incubated for 48 and 24 h, respectively, at 36 ± 1 °C. After nine experimental runs performed by two technicians, the mean difference in biofilm log densities [log biofilm density (LD) = log10(CFU/cm(2))] between the two methods for control coupons, treated coupons, and log reduction (LR) was 0.052 (p = 0.451), -0.102 (p = 0.303), and 0.152 (p = 0.313). Equivalence testing was used to assess equivalence of the two plating methods. The 90 % confidence intervals for the difference in control and treated mean LDs between methods were (-0.065, 0.170) and (-0.270, 0.064), both of which fall within a (-0.5, +0.5) equivalence criterion. The 90 % confidence interval for the mean LR difference (-0.113, 0.420) also falls within this equivalence criterion. Thus, Petrifilm™ AC plates were shown to be statistically equivalent to drop plating on R2A agar for the determination of control LDs, treated LDs, and LR values in an anti-biofilm efficacy test. These are the first published results that establish equivalency to a traditional plate counting technique for biofilms and for a disinfectant assay.

  7. Probing Slow Protein Dynamics by Adiabatic R1ρ and R2ρ NMR Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mangia, Silvia; Traaseth, Nathaniel J.; Veglia, Gianluigi; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom

    2010-01-01

    Slow μsec/msec dynamics involved in protein folding, binding, catalysis and allostery are currently detected using NMR dispersion experiments such as CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) or spin-lock R1ρ. In these methods, protein dynamics are obtained by analyzing relaxation dispersion curves obtained from either changing the time-spacing between 180° pulses or by changing the effective spin-locking field strength. In this Communication, we introduce a new method to induce a dispersion of relaxation rates. Our approach relies on altering the shape of the adiabatic full passage pulse, and is conceptually different from existing approaches. By changing the nature of the adiabatic radiofrequency irradiation, we are able to obtain rotating frame R1 and R2 (R1ρ and R2ρ) dispersion curves that are sensitive to slow μsec/msec protein dynamics (demonstrated with ubiquitin). The strengths of this method are to (a) extend the dynamic range of the relaxation dispersion analysis, (b) avoid the need for multiple magnetic field strengths to extract dynamic parameters, (c) measure accurate relaxation rates that are independent of frequency offset, and (d) reduce the stress to NMR hardware (e.g., cryoprobes). PMID:20590094

  8. Structure and physical properties of R2 Os2 O7 Pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawl, Ryan; Calder, Stuart; Zhao, Zhiying; Zhou, Haidong; Mandrus, David; Yan, Jiaqiang

    2015-03-01

    The spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in 4d/5d transition metal oxides is enhanced to such a degree, relative to 3d oxides, that it can alter the electronic structure and have a dramatic effect on materials properties. A good example of this is the SOC assisted metal-insulator transition in Sr2IrO4, which has been extensively studied in the last few years. In a strong SOC scenario, a nonmagnetic ground state is expected for systems with d4 electronic configuration. R2Os2O7 pyrochlores, in which Os4 + has d4 electron count, provides a material playground to study the magnetism of d4 and effect of R3 +-Os4 + interplay on the ground states. This series has only undergone limited studies, with the only published data investigating the lattice parameters and electrical resistivity at room temperature. In this talk, I will report our study on the magnetic, transport, thermodynamic, and structural properties of R2Os2O7 pyrochlores. Part of the work was supported by the CEM, and NSF MRSEC, under Grant DMR-1420451.

  9. The Reactivation of Main-Belt Comet 324P/La Sagra (P/2010 R2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Sheppard, Scott

    2015-11-01

    We present observations using the Baade Magellan and Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes showing that main-belt comet 324P/La Sagra, formerly known as P/2010 R2, has become active again for the first time since originally observed to be active in 2010-2011. The object appears point-source-like in March and April 2015 as it approached perihelion (true anomaly of ν~300 deg), but was ~1 mag brighter than expected if inactive, suggesting the presence of unresolved dust emission. Activity was confirmed by observations of a cometary dust tail in May and June 2015. We find an apparent net dust production rate of <0.1 kg/s during these observations. 324P is now the fourth main-belt comet confirmed to be recurrently active, a strong indication that its activity is driven by sublimation. It now has the largest confirmed active range of all likely main-belt comets, and also the most distant confirmed inbound activation point at R~2.8 AU. Further observations during the current active period will allow direct comparisons of activity strength with 324P’s 2010 activity.

  10. Magnetoelectric properties of 500-nm C r2O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, P.; Ashida, T.; Nozaki, T.; Sahashi, M.; Lederman, D.

    2016-05-01

    The linear magnetoelectric effect was measured in 500-nm C r2O3 films grown by radio frequency sputtering on A l2O3 substrates between top and bottom thin film Pt electrodes. Magnetoelectric susceptibility was measured directly by applying an alternating current (ac) electric field and measuring the induced ac magnetic moment using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. A linear dependence of the induced ac magnetic moment on the ac electric field amplitude was found. The temperature dependence of the magnetoelectric susceptibility agreed qualitatively and quantitatively with prior measurements of bulk single crystals, but the characteristic temperatures of the film were lower than those of single crystals. It was also possible to reverse the sign of the magnetoelectric susceptibility by reversing the sign of the magnetic field applied during cooling through the Néel temperature. A competition between total magnetoelectric and Zeeman energies is proposed to explain the difference between film and bulk C r2O3 regarding the cooling field dependence of the magnetoelectric effect.

  11. Structural synthesis of a class of 2R2T hybrid mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chunxu; Fang, Yuefa; Guo, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Conventional overconstrained parallel manipulators have been widely studied both in industry and academia, however the structural synthesis of hybrid mechanisms with additional constraints is seldom studied, especially for the four degrees of freedom(DOF) hybrid mechanisms. In order to develop a manipulator with additional constraints, a class of important spatial mechanisms with coupling chains(CCs) whose motion type is two rotations and two translations(2R2T) is presented. Based on screw theory, the combination of different types of limbs which are used to construct parallel mechanisms and coupling chains is proposed. The basic types of the general parallel mechanisms and geometric conditions of the kinematic chains are given using constraint synthesis method. Moreover, the 2R2T motion pattern hybrid mechanisms which are derived by adding coupling chains between different serial kinematic chains(SKCs) of the corresponding parallel mechanisms are presented. According to the constraint analysis of the mechanisms, the movement relationship of the moving platform and the kinematic chains is derived by disassembling the coupling chains. At last, fourteen novel hybrid mechanisms with two or three serial kinematic chains are presented. The proposed novel hybrid mechanisms and construction method enrich the family of the spatial mechanisms and provide an instruction to design more complex hybrid mechanisms.

  12. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  13. Urinary arsenic concentration adjustment factors and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Nermell, Barbro; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Berglund, Marika; Persson, Lars Ake; El Arifeen, Shams; Vahter, Marie

    2008-02-01

    This study aims at evaluating the suitability of adjusting urinary concentrations of arsenic, or any other urinary biomarker, for variations in urine dilution by creatinine and specific gravity in a malnourished population. We measured the concentrations of metabolites of inorganic arsenic, creatinine and specific gravity in spot urine samples collected from 1466 individuals, 5-88 years of age, in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, where arsenic-contaminated drinking water and malnutrition are prevalent (about 30% of the adults had body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 kg/m(2)). The urinary concentrations of creatinine were low; on average 0.55 g/L in the adolescents and adults and about 0.35 g/L in the 5-12 years old children. Therefore, adjustment by creatinine gave much higher numerical values for the urinary arsenic concentrations than did the corresponding data expressed as microg/L, adjusted by specific gravity. As evaluated by multiple regression analyses, urinary creatinine, adjusted by specific gravity, was more affected by body size, age, gender and season than was specific gravity. Furthermore, urinary creatinine was found to be significantly associated with urinary arsenic, which further disqualifies the creatinine adjustment. PMID:17900556

  14. Identification of R2TP complex of Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum using genome wide in-silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Moaz; Afrin, Farhat; Tuteja, Renu

    2013-11-01

    Recently discovered R2TP complex is an important multiprotein complex involved in multiple cellular process like snoRNP biogenesis, PIKK signaling, RNA polymerase II assembly and apoptosis. Within R2TP complex, Pih1 tightly interacts with Rvb1/Rvb2 and with Tah1 to form R2TP macromolecular complex. R2TP complex further interacts with Hsp90 to form R2TP-Hsp90 complex, which has been found critical in many cellular process. The genome wide screening of Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum led to the identification of RuvB like1, RuvB like 2, Pih1, and Tah1. Therefore, we speculate that this complex is also important for these parasites as in the yeast. The detailed analysis of crucial components of R2TP complex, Ld-RuvB like 1, and Ld-RuvB like 2, revealed the presence of characteristic motifs like DNA binding motif and ATPase motifs. Hsp90 is also reported from Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum suggesting that the R2TP complex further interacts with Hsp90 to form R2TP-Hsp90 complex. Recently it has been discovered that RuvB like proteins are overexpressed in many cancers and their ATPase activity is crucial for cancer cell proliferation and the human RuvBs have been proposed as suitable drug target for cancer. Similarly one of the Plasmodium falciparum RuvB like protein (PfRuvB3) has been found to be specific to the stage where nuclear division led multiplication of parasite take place. Considering all these it seems that the R2TP complex may be playing some critical role both in the cancer cell proliferation in human and rapid multiplication of the parasites Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:24505500

  15. Engineered Serratia marcescens for efficient (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fangmin; Dai, Lu; Fan, Jiying; Truong, Ngoctu; Rao, Ben; Zhang, Liaoyuan; Shen, Yaling

    2015-05-01

    (3R)-Acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol are important pharmaceutical intermediates. However, until now, the quantity of natural microorganisms with the ability to produce single configuration of optically pure (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol is rare. In this study, a meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by the slaC gene from Serratia marcescens MG1 was identified for meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. Inactivation of the slaC gene could significantly decrease meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol and result in a large quantity of (3R)-acetoin accumulation. Furthermore, a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by the bdhA gene from Bacillus subtilis 168 was introduced into the slaC mutant strain of Serratia marcescens MG1. Excess (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase could accelerate the reaction from (3R)-acetoin to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and lead to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol accumulation. In fed-batch fermentation, the excess (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase expression strain could produce 89.81 g/l (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol with a productivity of 1.91 g/l/h at 48 h. These results provided potential applications for (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol production.

  16. DNA-directed DNA polymerase and strand displacement activity of the reverse transcriptase encoded by the R2 retrotransposon.

    PubMed

    Kurzynska-Kokorniak, Anna; Jamburuthugoda, Varuni K; Bibillo, Arkadiusz; Eickbush, Thomas H

    2007-11-23

    R2 elements are non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons with a single open reading-frame encoding reverse transcriptase, DNA endonuclease and nucleic acid-binding domains. The elements are specialized for insertion into the 28 S rRNA genes of many animal phyla. The R2-encoded activities initiate retrotransposition by sequence-specific cleavage of the 28 S gene target site and the utilization of the released DNA 3' end to prime reverse transcription (target primed reverse transcription). The activity of the R2 polymerase on RNA templates has been shown to differ from retroviral reverse transcriptases (RTs) in a number of properties. We demonstrate that the R2-RT is capable of efficiently utilizing single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as a template. The processivity of the enzyme on ssDNA templates is higher than its processivity on RNA templates. This finding suggests that R2-RT is also capable of synthesizing the second DNA strand during retrotransposition. However, R2-RT lacks the RNAse H activity that is typically used by retroviral and LTR-retrotransposon RTs to remove the RNA strand before the first DNA strand is used as template. Remarkably, R2-RT can displace RNA strands that are annealed to ssDNA templates with essentially no loss of processivity. Such strand displacement activity is highly unusual for a DNA polymerase. Thus the single R2 protein contains all the activities needed to make a double-stranded DNA product from an RNA transcript. Finally, during these studies we found an unexpected property of the highly sequence-specific R2 endonuclease domain. The endonuclease can non-specifically cleave ssDNA at a junction with double-stranded DNA. This activity suggests that second-strand cleavage of the target site may not be sequence specific, but rather is specified by a single-stranded region generated when the first DNA strand is used to prime reverse transcription.

  17. Flecainide exerts paradoxical effects on sodium currents and atrial arrhythmia in murine RyR2-P2328S hearts

    PubMed Central

    Salvage, S C; King, J H; Chandrasekharan, K H; Jafferji, D I G; Guzadhur, L; Matthews, H R; Huang, C L-H; Fraser, J A

    2015-01-01

    Aims Cardiac ryanodine receptor mutations are associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and some, including RyR2-P2328S, also predispose to atrial fibrillation. Recent work associates reduced atrial Nav1.5 currents in homozygous RyR2-P2328S (RyR2S/S) mice with slowed conduction and increased arrhythmogenicity. Yet clinically, and in murine models, the Nav1.5 blocker flecainide reduces ventricular arrhythmogenicity in CPVT. We aimed to determine whether, and how, flecainide influences atrial arrhythmogenicity in RyR2S/S mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Methods We explored effects of 1 μm flecainide on WT and RyR2S/S atria. Arrhythmic incidence, action potential (AP) conduction velocity (CV), atrial effective refractory period (AERP) and AP wavelength (λ = CV × AERP) were measured using multi-electrode array recordings in Langendorff-perfused hearts; Na+ currents (INa) were recorded using loose patch clamping of superfused atria. Results RyR2S/S showed more frequent atrial arrhythmias, slower CV, reduced INa and unchanged AERP compared to WT. Flecainide was anti-arrhythmic in RyR2S/S but pro-arrhythmic in WT. It increased INa in RyR2S/S atria, whereas it reduced INa as expected in WT. It increased AERP while sparing CV in RyR2S/S, but reduced CV while sparing AERP in WT. Thus, RyR2S/S hearts have low λ relative to WT; flecainide then increases λ in RyR2S/S but decreases λ in WT. Conclusions Flecainide (1 μm) rescues the RyR2-P2328S atrial arrhythmogenic phenotype by restoring compromised INa and λ, changes recently attributed to increased sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ release. This contrasts with the increased arrhythmic incidence and reduced INa and λ with flecainide in WT. PMID:25850710

  18. Facilitating Semantic Interoperability Among Ocean Data Systems: ODIP-R2R Student Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, K. I.; Chen, Y.; Shepherd, A.; Chandler, C. L.; Dockery, N.; Elya, J. L.; Smith, S. R.; Ferreira, R.; Fu, L.; Arko, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    With informatics providing an increasingly important set of tools for geoscientists, it is critical to train the next generation of scientists in information and data techniques. The NSF-supported Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) Program works with the academic fleet community to routinely document, assess, and preserve the underway sensor data from U.S. research vessels. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) is an EU-US-Australian collaboration fostering interoperability among regional e-infrastructures through workshops and joint prototype development. The need to align terminology between systems is a common challenge across all of the ODIP prototypes. Five R2R students were supported to address aspects of semantic interoperability within ODIP. Developing a vocabulary matching service that links terms from different vocabularies with similar concept. The service implements Google Refine reconciliation service interface such that users can leverage Google Refine application as a friendly user interface while linking different vocabulary terms. Developing Resource Description Framework (RDF) resources that map Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies. Each SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described as an RDF resource page. These RDF resources allow for enhanced discoverability and retrieval of SAMOS data by enabling data searches based on parameter. Improving data retrieval and interoperability by exposing data and mapped vocabularies using Semantic Web technologies. We have collaborated with ODIP participating organizations in order to build a generalized data model that will be used to populate a SPARQL endpoint in order to provide expressive querying over our data files. Mapping local and regional vocabularies used by R2R to those used by ODIP partners. This work is described more fully in a companion poster. Making published Linked Data

  19. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  20. 75 FR 42376 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ...-percent decrease in the value of production of wool, compared to the average of the 3 preceding marketing... benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA,...

  1. Problems with change in R2 as applied to theory of reasoned action research.

    PubMed

    Trafimow, David

    2004-12-01

    The paradigm of choice for theory of reasoned action research seems to depend largely on the notion of change in variance accounted for (DeltaR2) as new independent variables are added to a multiple regression equation. If adding a particular independent variable of interest increases the variance in the dependent variable that can be accounted for by the list of independent variables, then the research is deemed to be 'successful', and the researcher is considered to have made a convincing argument about the importance of the new variable. In contrast to this trend, I present arguments that suggest serious problems with the paradigm, and conclude that studies on attitude-behaviour relations would advance the field of psychology to a far greater extent if researchers abandoned it.

  2. Controlled Vocabularies and Ontologies for Oceanographic Data: The R2R Eventlogger Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Raymond, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Research vessels coordinated by the United States University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (US-UNOLS) collect data which is considered an important oceanographic resource. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project aims to improve access to this data and diminish the barriers to use. One aspect of the R2R project has been to develop a shipboard scientific event logging system, Eventlogger, that incorporates best practice guidelines, controlled vocabularies, a cruise metadata schema, and a scientific event log. This will facilitate the eventual ingestion of datasets into oceanographic data repositories for subsequent integration and synthesis by investigators. One important aspect of this system is the careful use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies. Existing ontologies, where available, will be used and others will be developed. The use of internationally-informed, consensus-driven controlled vocabularies will make datasets more interoperable, and discoverable. The R2R Eventlogger project is led by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), and the management of the controlled vocabularies and mapping of these vocabularies to authoritative community vocabularies are led by the Data Librarian in the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library. The first target vocabulary is oceanographic instruments. Management of this vocabulary has thus far consisted of reconciling local community terms with the more widely used SeaDataNet Device Vocabulary terms. Rather than adopt existing terms, often the local terms are mapped by data managers in the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to the existing terms as they are given by investigators and often provide important information and meaning. New terms (often custom, or modified instruments) are submitted for review to the SeaDataNet community listserv for discussion and eventual incorporation into the Device

  3. Laser R2PI spectroscopic and mass spectrometric studies of chiral neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardini, A.; Marotta, V.; Paladini, A.; Piccirillo, S.; Rondino, F.; Satta, M.; Speranza, M.

    2007-07-01

    One color, mass selected resonant two-photon ionization (1cR2PI) spectra of supersonically expanded bare neurotransmitter, (1 S,2 S)-(+)- N-methyl pseudoephedrine (MPE), and its complexes with chiral and achiral molecules have been investigated. The excitation spectrum of bare MPE has been analyzed and discussed on the basis of theoretical predictions at the B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory. The results allowed to get information on the possible conformers of MPE molecule and on the intermolecular forces on its cluster formed with a variety of solvent molecules, including chiral alcohols, lactates and water. Further information on intermolecular interactions have been obtained with ESI-CID-MS 2 technique, applied to chiral biomolecules linked through a metal ion to the neurotransmitter. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions.

  4. The experiment BOSS on EXPOSE R-2, Mission Preparation Tests for Biofilm Organisms Surfing Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Rabbow, E.; Bauermeister, A.; Barczyk, S.; Billi, D.; Cockell, Ch.; Flemming, H. C.; Stan-Lotter, H.; Venkateswaran, K.

    2012-09-01

    In the experiment BOSS the hypothesis will be tested if the biofilm form of life with microorganisms embedded and aggregated in their EPS matrix is suited to support long-term survival of microorganisms under the harsh environmental conditions as they exist in space and on Mars and is superior to the same bacteria in the form of planktonic cultures. An additional protective role may be provided by particles associated in biofilms which may shield the organisms against radiation. The experiment will be flown on EXPOSE R-2 attached outside of the ISS on the Russian module. The experiment has participated at the Experiment verification tests and a Science verification test which have been carried out in the Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities at DLR. The launch is scheduled for end of 2013.

  5. Triton X-114 phase fractionation of membrane proteins of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2.

    PubMed

    Bricker, T M; Sherman, L A

    1984-11-15

    The thylakoid polypeptides of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2 were analyzed by Triton X-114 phase fractionation [C. Bordier (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 1604-1607, as adapted for photosynthetic membranes by T.M. Bricker and L.A. Sherman (1982) FEBS Lett. 149, 197-202]. In this procedure, polypeptides with extensive hydrophobic regions (i.e., intrinsic proteins) form mixed micelles with Triton X-114, and are separated from extrinsic proteins by temperature-mediated precipitation of the mixed Triton X-114-intrinsic protein micelles. The polypeptide pattern after phase fractionation was highly complementary, with 62 of the observed 110 polypeptide components partitioning into the Triton X-114-enriched fraction. Identified polypeptides fractionating into the Triton X-114 phase included the apoproteins for Photosystems I and II, cytochromes f and b6, and the herbicide-binding protein. Identified polypeptides fractioning into the Triton X-114-depleted (aqueous) phase included the large and small subunits of RuBp carboxylase, cytochromes c550 and c554, and ferredoxin. Enzymatic radioiodination of the photosynthetic membranes followed by Triton X-114 phase fractionation allowed direct identification of intrinsic polypeptide components which possess surface-exposed regions susceptible to radioiodination. The most prominent of these polypeptides was a 34-kDa component which was associated with photosystem II. This phase partitioning procedure has been particularly helpful in the clarification of the identity of the membrane-associated cytochromes, and of photosystem II components. When coupled with surface-probing techniques, this procedure is very useful in identifying intrinsic proteins which possess surface-exposed domains. Phase fractionation, in conjunction with the isolation of specific membrane components and complexes, has allowed the identification of many of the important intrinsic thylakoid membrane proteins of A. nidulans R2.

  6. AMPA receptor-mediated miniature synaptic calcium transients in GluR2 null mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sabrina; Jia, Zhengping; Roder, John; Murphy, Timothy H

    2002-07-01

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors are normally Ca(2+) impermeable due to the expression of the GluR2 receptor subunit. By using GluR2 null mice we were able to detect miniature synaptic Ca(2+) transients (MSCTs) associated with AMPA-type receptor-mediated miniature synaptic currents at single synapses in primary cortical cultures. MSCTs and associated Ca(2+) transients were monitored under conditions that isolated responses mediated by AMPA or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. As expected, addition of the antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalene-2,3-dione (CNQX, 3 microM) blocked the AMPA receptor-mediated MSCTs. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels did not contribute to AMPA MSCTs because CdCl(2) (0.1-0.2 mM) did not significantly alter the frequency or the amplitude of the MSCTs. The amplitude of AMPA MSCTs appeared to be regulated independently from event frequency since the two measures were not correlated (R = 0.023). Synapses were identified that only expressed MSCTs attributed to either NMDA or AMPA receptors. At synapses with only NMDA responses, MSCT amplitude was significantly lower (by 40%) than synapses expressing both NMDA and AMPA responses. At synapses that showed MSCTs mediated by both AMPA and NMDA receptors, the amplitude of the transients in each condition was positively correlated (R = 0.94). Our results suggest that when AMPA and NMDA receptors are co-expressed at synapses, mechanisms exist to ensure proportional scaling of each receptor type that are distinct from the presynaptic factors controlling the frequency of miniature release. PMID:12091530

  7. Oxaliplatin Alters Expression of T1R2 Receptor and Sensitivity to Sweet Taste in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Akihiro; Nishida, Kentaro; Yamanaka, Yuri; Miyata, Ai; Ikukawa, Akiko; Yabu, Miharu; Miyamoto, Karin; Bansho, Saho; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    As one of the adverse effects of oxaliplatin, a key agent in colon cancer chemotherapy, a taste disorder is a severe issue in a clinical situation because it decreases the quality of life of patients. However, there is little information on the mechanism underlying the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder. Here, we examined the molecular and behavioral characteristics of the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder in rats. Oxaliplatin (4-16 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats intraperitoneally for 2 d. Expression levels of mRNA and protein of taste receptors in circumvallate papillae (CP) were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Taste sensitivity was assessed by their behavioral change using a brief-access test. Morphological change of the taste buds in CP was evaluated by hematoxyline-eosin (HE) staining, and the number of taste cells in taste buds was counted by immunohistochemical analysis. Among taste receptors, the expression levels of mRNA and protein of T1R2, a sweet taste receptor subunit, were increased transiently in CP of oxaliplatin-administered rats on day 7. In a brief-access test, the lick ratio was decreased in oxaliplatin-administered rats on day 7 and the alteration was recovered to the control level on day 14. There was no detectable alteration in the morphology of taste buds, number of taste cells or plasma zinc level in oxaliplatin-administered rats. These results suggest that decreased sensitivity to sweet taste in oxaliplatin-administered rats is due, at least in part, to increased expression of T1R2, while these alterations are reversible. PMID:27040630

  8. A potential role for adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) in the regulation of alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Berton, Fulvia; Cottone, Pietro; Reifel-Miller, Anne; Roberts, Amanda J; Morales, Marisela; Francesconi, Walter; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2010-06-21

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in alcohol and drug addiction. We recently identified the small G protein K-ras as an alcohol-regulated gene in the ACC by gene expression analysis. We show here that the adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) was differentially regulated by alcohol in the ACC in a K-ras-dependent manner. Additionally, withdrawal-associated increased drinking was attenuated in AdipoR2 null mice. Intracellular recordings revealed that adiponectin increased the excitability of ACC neurons and that this effect was more pronounced during alcohol withdrawal, suggesting that AdipoR2 signaling may contribute to increased ACC activity. Altogether, the data implicate K-ras-regulated pathways involving AdipoR2 in the cellular and behavioral actions of alcohol that may contribute to overactivity of the ACC during withdrawal and excessive alcohol drinking.

  9. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  10. Structural Analysis of the Lipopeptide Produced by the Bacillus subtilis Mutant R2-104 with Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yong; Zhao, Wei; You, Jia; Gang, Hong-Ze; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Ye, Ru-Qiang; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2016-07-01

    The lipopeptide and its homologues are a kind of the five major biosurfactants with prominent interfacial and biological activities. A suite of mutagenesis method was adopted to expose a wild lipopeptide-producing strain Bacillus subtilis HSO121 to improve lipopeptide yield, and a stable mutant named R2-104 with a 2.0-fold production of lipopeptide was obtained. Compared to that of the wild strain HSO121, the lipopeptide produced by R2-104 showed a similar surface activity, but the course profiles of lipopeptide production during cultivation were different, with the peak yield of 500 mg at about 9 h by R2-104, and 400 mg at about 5 h by HSO121. The constituent abundance of the lipopeptide homologues produced by R2-104 was also different from that by HSO121. Combined methods of ESI-MS, GC-MS and MS-MS were applied for structural characterization of lipopeptide homologues, and it showed that the lipopeptides produced by R2-104 and HSO121 were attributed to a surfactin family with different constituents. The dominant constituent of the surfactin family produced by R2-104 was anteiso C15-surfactin with a relative content of 43.8 %, while the dominant one produced by HSO121was iso C14-surfactin with a relative content of 33.1 %. PMID:27020566

  11. Mycobacterium simiae infection in two unrelated patients with different forms of inherited IFN-γR2 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Barricarte, Rubén; Megged, Orli; Stepensky, Polina; Casimir, Pierre; Moncada-Velez, Marcela; Averbuch, Diana; Assous, Marc Victor; Abuzaitoun, Omar; Kong, Xiao-Fei; Pedergnana, Vincent; Deswarte, Caroline; Migaud, Mélanie; Rose-John, Stefan; Itan, Yuval; Boisson, Bertrand; Belkadi, Aziz; Conti, Francesca; Abel, Laurent; Vogt, Guillaume; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Bustamante, Jacinta

    2014-01-01

    Interferon-γ receptor 2 (IFN-γR2) deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by predisposition to infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as environmental mycobacteria and BCG vaccines. We describe here two children with IFN-γR2 deficiency, from unrelated, consanguineous kindreds of Arab and Israeli descent. The first patient was a boy who died at the age of 4.5 years, from recurrent, disseminated disease caused by Mycobacterium simiae. His IFN-γR2 defect was autosomal recessive and complete. The second patient was a girl with multiple disseminated mycobacterial infections, including infection with M. simiae. She died at the age of five years, a short time after the transplantation of umbilical cord blood cells from an unrelated donor. Her IFN-γR2 defect was autosomal recessive and partial. Autosomal recessive IFN-γR2 deficiency is life-threatening, even in its partial form, and genetic diagnosis and familial counseling are therefore particularly important for this condition. These two cases are the first of IFN-γR2 deficiency associated with M simiae infection to be described. PMID:25135595

  12. Mycobacterium simiae infection in two unrelated patients with different forms of inherited IFN-γR2 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Barricarte, Rubén; Megged, Orli; Stepensky, Polina; Casimir, Pierre; Moncada-Velez, Marcela; Averbuch, Diana; Assous, Marc Victor; Abuzaitoun, Omar; Kong, Xiao-Fei; Pedergnana, Vincent; Deswarte, Caroline; Migaud, Mélanie; Rose-John, Stefan; Itan, Yuval; Boisson, Bertrand; Belkadi, Aziz; Conti, Francesca; Abel, Laurent; Vogt, Guillaume; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Bustamante, Jacinta

    2014-11-01

    Interferon-γ receptor 2 (IFN-γR2) deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by predisposition to infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as environmental mycobacteria and BCG vaccines. We describe here two children with IFN-γR2 deficiency, from unrelated, consanguineous kindreds of Arab and Israeli descent. The first patient was a boy who died at the age of 4.5 years, from recurrent, disseminated disease caused by Mycobacterium simiae. His IFN-γR2 defect was autosomal recessive and complete. The second patient was a girl with multiple disseminated mycobacterial infections, including infection with M. simiae. She died at the age of 5 years, a short time after the transplantation of umbilical cord blood cells from an unrelated donor. Her IFN-γR2 defect was autosomal recessive and partial. Autosomal recessive IFN-γR2 deficiency is life-threatening, even in its partial form, and genetic diagnosis and familial counseling are therefore particularly important for this condition. These two cases are the first of IFN-γR2 deficiency associated with M. simiae infection to be described. PMID:25135595

  13. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-09-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  14. Activation of mGluR2/3 following stress hormone exposure restores sensitivity to alcohol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Anel A.; Randall, Patrick A.; Frisbee, Suzanne; Fisher, Kristen R.; Besheer, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol is blunted following a period of exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), an effect that is suggested to be related, in part, to glutamatergic neuroadaptations. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (subtypes 2 and 3; mGluR2/3) modulate several drug- and alcohol-related behaviors, including the interoceptive (discriminative stimulus) effects of alcohol. Therefore, we sought to determine if manipulation of mGluR2/3 would restore sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following CORT exposure. Using a two-lever drug discrimination task, male Long-Evans rats were trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, intragastric [IG]) vs. water. First, the effect of mGluR2/3 antagonism on the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol was determined using LY341495 (0.3–3.0 mg/kg; intraperitoneal [IP]). Next, the effects of mGluR2/3 antagonism and activation were assessed in discrimination-trained animals exposed to CORT (300 μg/mL) in the home cage drinking water or water only, for 7 days. Following CORT exposure, decreased sensitivity to alcohol (1 g/kg) was observed. Pretreatment with the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (1.0–3.0 mg/kg; IP), but not the mGluR2/3 antagonist (0.3–1.0 mg/kg; IP), restored sensitivity to alcohol. Additionally, in Water controls, mGluR2/3 antagonism and mGluR2/3 activation disrupted expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. Together, these findings suggest that blunted sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following an episode of heightened stress hormone levels may be due to adaptations in mGluR2/3-related systems. The ability of mGluR2/3 activation to restore sensitivity to alcohol under these conditions lends further support for the importance of these receptors under stress-related conditions. PMID:26142564

  15. Phenotypic analysis of GalR2 knockout mice in anxiety and depression-related behavioral tests

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoying; Ross, Brendon; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Bartfai, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Neuropetide galanin modulates a variety of central nervous system functions by signaling through three G-protein coupled receptor subtypes, GalR1 through GalR3. Galanin and its receptors are expressed at high levels in the limbic structures of the rodent brain. Intracerebroventricular injection of galanin has been shown to modulate depression and anxiety-like behaviors in the rat. We have previously shown that chronic antidepressant treatments increase the binding of a GalR2 preferring ligand, galanin (2–11), to the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of the rat, which, along with the finding that intra-DRN infusion of galanin (2–11) increases the release of serotonin in the hippocampus, suggests that GalR2 signaling might exert antidepressant-like action by modulating ascending serotonergic outflow. Recently, two research groups reported their phenotypic analysis of a GalR2 knockout (GalR2KO) mouse line, produced by gene trapping method and maintained on a 129S1/SvImJ genetic background. The only positive finding in that GalR2KO mouse line was an anxiogenic-like phenotype specific to the elevated plus maze. Because it is known that genetic background can affect the outcome of behavioral tests, in the present study, we analyzed a separate GalR2KO line, which was produced by targeted deletion and maintained on a C57BL/6 backgroud, using a different set of depression and anxiety related tests. GalR2KO mice exhibited a more persistent depressive-like phenotype in the learned helplessness paradigm as well as increased immobility in the tail suspension test when results from the present studies were combined by fixed effect meta-analysis with that reported by Gottsch and colleagues. GalR2KO mutants showed anxiety-like behavior comparable to wild-type littermates in the elevated-plus maze, open field, and light-dark transfer tests. The present findings are consistent with a predicted antidepressant-like effect of GalR2 signaling, suggesting that GalR2 might be a valid drug

  16. Activation of mGluR2/3 following stress hormone exposure restores sensitivity to alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Anel A; Randall, Patrick A; Frisbee, Suzanne; Fisher, Kristen R; Besheer, Joyce

    2015-09-01

    Sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol is blunted following a period of exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), an effect that is suggested to be related, in part, to glutamatergic neuroadaptations. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (subtypes 2 and 3; mGluR2/3) modulate several drug- and alcohol-related behaviors, including the interoceptive (discriminative stimulus) effects of alcohol. Therefore, we sought to determine if manipulation of mGluR2/3 would restore sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following CORT exposure. Using a two-lever drug discrimination task, male Long-Evans rats were trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, intragastric [IG]) vs. water. First, the effect of mGluR2/3 antagonism on the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol was determined using LY341495 (0.3-3.0 mg/kg; intraperitoneal [IP]). Next, the effects of mGluR2/3 antagonism and activation were assessed in discrimination-trained animals exposed to CORT (300 μg/mL) in the home cage drinking water or water only, for 7 days. Following CORT exposure, decreased sensitivity to alcohol (1 g/kg) was observed. Pretreatment with the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (1.0-3.0 mg/kg; IP), but not the mGluR2/3 antagonist (0.3-1.0 mg/kg; IP), restored sensitivity to alcohol. Additionally, in water controls, mGluR2/3 antagonism and mGluR2/3 activation disrupted expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. Together, these findings suggest that blunted sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following an episode of heightened stress hormone levels may be due to adaptations in mGluR2/3-related systems. The ability of mGluR2/3 activation to restore sensitivity to alcohol under these conditions lends further support for the importance of these receptors under stress-related conditions.

  17. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  18. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  19. The Expose-R2 mission: astrobiology and astrochemistry in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, René

    preparation. A follow-on mission, EXPOSE-R2, is planned for 2014-2016. The upload of the new sample trays to the ISS will have occurred just before COSPAR 2014. In this presentation the new EXPOSE-R2 experiments are introduced, with an overview of the test samples and the scientific goals. The main characteristics of the EXPOSE platform are addressed including the sensors used to monitor the space environment. The envisaged operational flow in flight and on ground are explained. Moreover, a brief overview of the key lessons learnt from the past EXPOSE missions is provided.

  20. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  1. Adjustment versus no adjustment when using adjustable sutures in strabismus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liebermann, Laura; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.; Holmes, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare long-term postoperative outcomes when performing an adjustment to achieve a desired immediate postoperative alignment versus simply tying off at the desired immediate postoperative alignment when using adjustable sutures for strabismus surgery. Methods We retrospectively identified 89 consecutive patients who underwent a reoperation for horizontal strabismus using adjustable sutures and also had a 6-week and 1-year outcome examination. In each case, the intent of the surgeon was to tie off and only to adjust if the patient was not within the intended immediate postoperative range. Postoperative success was predefined based on angle of misalignment and diplopia at distance and near. Results Of the 89 patients, 53 (60%) were adjusted and 36 (40%) were tied off. Success rates were similar between patients who were simply tied off immediately after surgery and those who were adjusted. At 6 weeks, the success rate was 64% for the nonadjusted group versus 81% for the adjusted group (P = 0.09; difference of 17%; 95% CI, −2% to 36%). At 1 year, the success rate was 67% for the nonadjusted group versus 77% for the adjusted group (P = 0.3; difference of 11%; 95% CI, −8% to 30%). Conclusions Performing an adjustment to obtain a desired immediate postoperative alignment did not yield inferior long-term outcomes to those obtained by tying off to obtain that initial alignment. If patients were who were outside the desired immediate postoperative range had not been not adjusted, it is possible that their long-term outcomes would have been worse, therefore, overall, an adjustable approach may be superior to a nonadjustable approach. PMID:23415035

  2. The SAMe-TT2R2 score and decision-making between a vitamin K antagonist or a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Pastor, María Asunción; Roldán, Vanessa; Valdés, Mariano; Lip, Gregory Y H; Marín, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Oral anticoagulation therapy is essential in patients with atrial fibrillation and clinicians need guidance on decision-making between the vitamin K antagonists (VKA), e.g. warfarin, or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. Observational studies have shown that patients who receive VKA therapy spend a significant percentage of their time with international normalized ratio values outside of the therapeutic range (time in therapeutic range, TTR <60%.) Recently, a clinical score has been developed with commonly encountered clinical features, the SAMe-TT2R2 score, to help decision-making with regard to whether a patient is likely to do well, or not, with a VKA. Those with a SAMe-TT2R2 score of 0-1 are likely to do well on a VKA, while those with a SAMe-TT2R2 score ≥ 2 are on probability going to achieve suboptimal TTR. In this article, we provide an overview of the main published retrospective and prospective studies that have validated the SAMe-TT2R2 score and its value for decision-making in daily clinical practice.

  3. Geometric adjustment of pools to changes in slope and discharge: a flume experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Douglas M.

    2002-08-01

    To characterize the factors controlling pool shape, 30 different forced pools were created utilizing a 50% triangular constriction in a 0.5-m wide, 6-m long recirculating flume. Pools were scoured from an initial plane bed of sand with a d50 of 0.25 mm. Pool depth and length were measured and used as dependent variables in least-squares, multiple-regression analyses. Discharge, channel-bed gradient and energy slope were the independent variables. Additional linear-regression analyses were conducted with either pool depth or length and stream power. Results indicate that both pool depth and length are primarily a function of discharge. Channel-bed and energy slopes are also significantly related to pool length but are not significantly related to pool depth. Stream power is significantly related to both pool depth and length, but R2 values for pool depth versus discharge indicate stronger relations than those between pool depth and stream power. Observations on the type of geometric adjustment indicate that pools may minimize their rate of energy expenditure primarily through elongation. In contrast, pool depth appears to be more sensitive to the characteristics of the constrictions that create the forced pools. The results suggest that many field studies may suffer from cross-correlation problems. In particular, channel erodibility may exert a more dominant influence on pool geometry than hydraulic controls in many constriction-influenced channels.

  4. Characterization and Application of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis R2.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sanket J; Geetha, S J; Desai, Anjana J

    2015-09-01

    The biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis R2 was characterized and studied for enhancing the heavy crude oil recovery at 80 °C in coreflood experiments. The strain was found to be nonpathogenic and produced biosurfactant, reducing the surface tension of medium from 70 to 28 mN/m with 1.1 g/l yield. The biosurfactant was quite stable during exposure to elevated temperatures (85 °C for 90 days), high salinity (10 % NaCl), and a wide range of pH (5-12) for 10 days. It was characterized as lipopeptide similar to lichenysin-A, with a critical micelle concentration of about 19.4 mg/l. The efficiency of crude biosurfactant for enhanced oil recovery by core flood studies revealed it to recovering additional 37.1 % oil from Berea sandstone cores at 80 °C. The results are indicative of the potential for the development of lipopeptide biosurfactant-based ex situ microbial enhanced heavy oil recovery from depleting oil fields with extreme temperatures.

  5. VLBA Determination of the Distance to Nearby Star-forming Regions. VII. Monoceros R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Loinard, Laurent; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Torres, Rosa M.; Deller, Adam

    2016-08-01

    We present a series of 16 Very Long Baseline Array high angular resolution observations of a cluster of suspected low-mass young stars in the Monoceros R2 region. Four compact and highly variable radio sources are detected; three of them in only one epoch, the fourth one a total of seven times. This latter source is seen in the direction of the previously known UC H ii region VLA 1, and has radio properties that resemble those of magnetically active stars; we shall call it VLA 1⋆. We model its displacement on the celestial sphere as a combination of proper motion and trigonometric parallax. The fit obtained using a uniform proper motion yields a parallax ϖ = 1.10 ± 0.18 mas, but with a fairly high post-fit dispersion. If acceleration terms (probably due to an undetected companion) are included, the quality of the fit improves dramatically, and the best estimate of the parallax becomes ϖ = 1.12 ± 0.05 mas. The magnitude of the fitted acceleration suggests an orbital period of the order of a decade. The measured parallax corresponds to a distance d = {893}-40+44 {pc} , in very good agreement with previous, indirect determinations.

  6. Spherical vacuum and scalar collapse for the Starobinsky R2 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun-Qi; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2016-08-01

    Spherical vacuum and scalar collapse for the Starobinsky R2 model is simulated. Obtained by considering the quantum-gravitational effects, this model would admit some cases of singularity-free cosmological spacetimes. It is found, however, that in vacuum and scalar collapse, when f' or the physical scalar field is strong enough, a black hole including a central singularity can be formed. In addition, near the central singularity, gravity dominates the repulsion from the potential, so that in some circumstances the Ricci scalar is pushed to infinity by gravity. Therefore, the semiclassical effects as included here do not avoid the singularity problem in general relativity. A strong physical scalar field can prevent the Ricci scalar from growing to infinity. Vacuum collapse for the R ln R model is explored, and it is observed that for this model the Ricci scalar can also go to infinity as the central singularity is approached. Therefore, this feature seems universal in vacuum and scalar collapse in f (R ) gravity.

  7. The reactivation of main-belt Comet 324P/La Sagra (P/2010 R2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, H. H.; Sheppard, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    We present observations using the Baade Magellan and Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes showing that main-belt comet 324P/La Sagra, formerly known as P/2010 R2, has become active again for the first time since originally observed to be active in 2010-2011. The object appears point-source-like in 2015 March and April as it approached perihelion (true anomaly of ν ˜ 300°), but was ˜1 mag brighter than expected if inactive, suggesting the presence of unresolved dust emission. Activity was confirmed by observations of a cometary dust tail in 2015 May and June. We find an apparent net dust production rate of {dot{M}_d}≲ 0.1 kg s-1 during these observations. 324P is now the fourth main-belt comet confirmed to be recurrently active, a strong indication that its activity is driven by sublimation. It now has the largest confirmed active range of all likely main-belt comets, and also the most distant confirmed inbound activation point at R ˜ 2.8 au. Further observations during the current active period will allow direct comparisons of activity strength with 324P's 2010 activity.

  8. The oil palm VIRESCENS gene controls fruit colour and encodes a R2R3-MYB.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Marjuni, Marhalil; Chan, Pek-Lan; Ithnin, Maizura; Manaf, Mohd Arif Abdul; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Rosli, Rozana; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lakey, Nathan; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Hogan, Michael; He, Dong; MacDonald, Jill D; Smith, Steven W; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm, a plantation crop of major economic importance in Southeast Asia, is the predominant source of edible oil worldwide. We report the identification of the virescens (VIR) gene, which controls fruit exocarp colour and is an indicator of ripeness. VIR is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor with homology to Lilium LhMYB12 and similarity to Arabidopsis production of anthocyanin pigment1 (PAP1). We identify five independent mutant alleles of VIR in over 400 accessions from sub-Saharan Africa that account for the dominant-negative virescens phenotype. Each mutation results in premature termination of the carboxy-terminal domain of VIR, resembling McClintock's C1-I allele in maize. The abundance of alleles likely reflects cultural practices, by which fruits were venerated for magical and medicinal properties. The identification of VIR will allow selection of the trait at the seed or early-nursery stage, 3-6 years before fruits are produced, greatly advancing introgression into elite breeding material. PMID:24978855

  9. StrathSat-R2: Deployable Structure Demonstrator on REXUS 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, N. L.; Clarck, R. A.; Sinn, T.; Garcia-Yarnoz, D.; Lowe, C.; Parry, T.; Hammond, P.; Brown, R.

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective for StrathSat-R2 was to deploy two novel inflatable structures in milli-gravity and near vacuum conditions. These structures were to inflate by harnessing the pressure exerted by a small quantity of air, contained inside sealed sections, that expands when exposed to greatly reduced external pressure. To achieve the necessary vacuum conditions for this residual air inflation, two CubeSat-based ejectables carried the inflatable structures onboard the REXUS 15 sounding rocket. The ejectables were then launched from the rocket at around 80 km altitude with structure deployment filmed from on-board the rocket as well as by each Free-Flying Unit (FFU). The structures were selected as demonstrators for novel mission concepts; the first was a pyramidal structure that was intended for use as a passive orbit transfer and dc-orbiting device, and the second contained a morphing inflatable with multiple cells, which used air distribution to alter its state. The experiment design focused on delivering a reliable ejection and structure deployment mechanism as well as a recovery system with sufficient redundancy. The recovery system consisted of a UPS receiver, Globalstar antenna and RF beacon, and through the successful operation of this system an ejectable was recovered in spite of its non-ideal landing. Contact with the other ejectable was lost at lift-off and highlighted weaknesses in the design that were only exposed during this, the second launch, for this experimental setup.

  10. Floating zone crystal growth of selected R2PdSi3 ternary silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yiku; Frontzek, Matthias D; Mazilu, Irina; Loeser, W; Behr, G; Buechner, Bernd; Liu, L

    2011-01-01

    Substitution of various rare earths R within the class of R2PdSi3 single crystals with hexagonal AlB2-type crystallographic structure reveals the systematic dependence of anisotropic magnetic properties governed by the interplay of crystal-electric field effects and magnetic two-ion interactions. Here we compare the floating zone (FZ) crystal growth with radiation heating of compounds with R = Tb, Tm, Pr, and Gd. The congruent melting behavior enabled moderate growth velocities of 3 to 5 mmh-1. The preferred growth directions are close to the basal plane of the hexagonal unit cell. The composition of the crystals, except of Tb2PdSi3, is slightly Pd-depleted with respect to the nominal composition 16.7 at.% Pd. Thin precipitates of RSi secondary phases were detected in the crystal matrix. Their phase fraction can be diminished by growth from Pd-rich melt compositions and annealing treatments. The compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic order below the N el temperatures TN: 23.6 K (Tb2PdSi3), 1.8 K (Tm2PdSi3), 2.17 K (Pr2PdSi3) and 22 K (Gd2PdSi3) with different grades of magnetic anisotropy.

  11. The oil palm VIRESCENS gene controls fruit colour and encodes a R2R3-MYB

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Marjuni, Marhalil; Chan, Pek-Lan; Ithnin, Maizura; Manaf, Mohd Arif Abdul; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Rosli, Rozana; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Budiman, Muhammad A.; Lakey, Nathan; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Hogan, Michael; He, Dong; MacDonald, Jill D.; Smith, Steven W.; Ordway, Jared M.; Martienssen, Robert A.; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm, a plantation crop of major economic importance in Southeast Asia, is the predominant source of edible oil worldwide. We report the identification of the VIRESCENS (VIR) gene, which controls fruit exocarp colour and is an indicator of ripeness. VIR is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor with homology to Lilium LhMYB12 and similarity to Arabidopsis PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP1). We identify five independent mutant alleles of VIR in over 400 accessions from sub-Saharan Africa that account for the dominant-negative virescens phenotype. Each mutation results in premature termination of the carboxy-terminal domain of VIR, resembling McClintock’s C1-I allele in maize. The abundance of alleles likely reflects cultural practices, by which fruits were venerated for magical and medicinal properties. The identification of VIR will allow selection of the trait at the seed or early-nursery stage, 3-6 years before fruits are produced, greatly advancing introgression into elite breeding material. PMID:24978855

  12. R2PI Spectroscopy of Aromatic Molecules Produced in an Ethylene-Rich Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, Yvain; Pino, Thomas; Bréchignac, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Laser spectroscopy, combined with mass spectrometry, was applied to study the spectra of aromatic molecules produced in a premixed ethylene-rich flat flame. These studies produce new gas-phase electronic spectra of polyaromatic compounds, which ultimately will guide the understanding of the chemical processes that lead to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) growth or PAH formation locking. Resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) spectra of all species detectable in a specific fuel-rich flame were recorded simultaneously during a single scan of the laser wavelength, within the 220-330 nm range. Comparison with spectra available in the literature allowed us to identify 16 aromatic species. In the PAH forming region of this flame, we found that the main PAHs are accompanied by a great diversity of other species, including in particular various side-chains on aromatic networks. We also show that this technique allows, at least in some cases, to distinguish between different isomers associated with the same mass peak, although the extracted PAHs are only cooled down to room temperature.

  13. Influence of iron chelation on R1 and R2 calibration curves in gerbil liver and heart.

    PubMed

    Wood, John C; Aguilar, Michelle; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Nick, Hanspeter; Nelson, Marvin D; Moats, Rex

    2008-07-01

    MRI is gaining increasing importance for the noninvasive quantification of organ iron burden. Since transverse relaxation rates depend on iron distribution as well as iron concentration, physiologic and pharmacologic processes that alter iron distribution could change MRI calibration curves. This article compares the effect of three iron chelators, deferoxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox, on R1 and R2 calibration curves according to two iron loading and chelation strategies. Thirty-three Mongolian gerbils underwent iron loading (iron dextran 500 mg/kg/wk) for 3 weeks followed by 4 weeks of chelation. An additional 56 animals received less aggressive loading (200 mg/kg/week) for 10 weeks, followed by 12 weeks of chelation. R1 and R2 calibration curves were compared to results from 23 iron-loaded animals that had not received chelation. Acute iron loading and chelation-biased R1 and R2 from the unchelated reference calibration curves but chelator-specific changes were not observed, suggesting physiologic rather than pharmacologic differences in iron distribution. Long-term chelation deferiprone treatment increased liver R1 50% (P < 0.01), while long-term deferasirox lowered liver R2 30.9% (P < 0.0001). The relationship between R1 and R2 and organ iron concentration may depend on the acuity of iron loading and unloading as well as the iron chelator administered.

  14. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Important Genes Affected by R2 Compound Disrupting FAK and P53 Complex.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Ho, Baotran; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William G

    2014-01-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor kinase that plays an important role in many cellular processes: adhesion, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis and survival. Recently, we have shown that Roslin 2 or R2 (1-benzyl-15,3,5,7-tetraazatricyclo[3.3.1.1~3,7~]decane) compound disrupts FAK and p53 proteins, activates p53 transcriptional activity, and blocks tumor growth. In this report we performed a microarray gene expression analysis of R2-treated HCT116 p53+/+ and p53-/- cells and detected 1484 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated (p < 0.05) in HCT116 p53+/+ cells but not in p53-/- cells. Among up-regulated genes in HCT p53+/+ cells we detected critical p53 targets: Mdm-2, Noxa-1, and RIP1. Among down-regulated genes, Met, PLK2, KIF14, BIRC2 and other genes were identified. In addition, a combination of R2 compound with M13 compound that disrupts FAK and Mmd-2 complex or R2 and Nutlin-1 that disrupts Mdm-2 and p53 decreased clonogenicity of HCT116 p53+/+ colon cancer cells more significantly than each agent alone in a p53-dependent manner. Thus, the report detects gene expression profile in response to R2 treatment and demonstrates that the combination of drugs targeting FAK, Mdm-2, and p53 can be a novel therapy approach.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification of R2R3-MYB Genes and Expression Analyses During Abiotic Stress in Gossypium raimondii

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiuling; Jones, Don C.; Li, Wei; Xie, Fuliang; Ma, Jun; Sun, Runrun; Wang, Qinglian; Zhu, Shuijin; Zhang, Baohong

    2016-01-01

    The R2R3-MYB is one of the largest families of transcription factors, which have been implicated in multiple biological processes. There is great diversity in the number of R2R3-MYB genes in different plants. However, there is no report on genome-wide characterization of this gene family in cotton. In the present study, a total of 205 putative R2R3-MYB genes were identified in cotton D genome (Gossypium raimondii), that are much larger than that found in other cash crops with fully sequenced genomes. These GrMYBs were classified into 13 groups with the R2R3-MYB genes from Arabidopsis and rice. The amino acid motifs and phylogenetic tree were predicted and analyzed. The sequences of GrMYBs were distributed across 13 chromosomes at various densities. The results showed that the expansion of the G. Raimondii R2R3-MYB family was mainly attributable to whole genome duplication and segmental duplication. Moreover, the expression pattern of 52 selected GrMYBs and 46 GaMYBs were tested in roots and leaves under different abiotic stress conditions. The results revealed that the MYB genes in cotton were differentially expressed under salt and drought stress treatment. Our results will be useful for determining the precise role of the MYB genes during stress responses with crop improvement. PMID:27009386

  16. mGluR2/3 in the Lateral Amygdala is Required for Fear Extinction: Cortical Input Synapses onto the Lateral Amygdala as a Target Site of the mGluR2/3 Action.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; An, Bobae; Kim, Jeongyeon; Park, Sewon; Park, Sungmo; Hong, Ingie; Lee, Sukwon; Park, Kyungjoon; Choi, Sukwoo

    2015-12-01

    Various subtypes of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been implicated in fear extinction, but mGluR2/3 subtype has not been tested. Here, we found that microinjection of an mGluR2/3 antagonist, LY341495, into the lateral amygdala (LA), but not into the adjacent central amygdala (CeA), impaired extinction retention without affecting within-session extinction. In contrast, we failed to detect any significant changes in motility and anxiety during a period when extinction training or retention was performed after LY341495 injection, suggesting that the effect of LY341495 is specific to conditioned responses. Subsequently, on the basis of a previous finding that a long-term potentiation of presynaptic efficacy at cortical input synapses onto the lateral amygdala (C-LA synapses) supports conditioned fear, we tested the hypothesis that activation of mGluR2/3 leads to fear extinction via a long-term weakening of presynaptic functions at C-LA synapses. Fear extinction produced a decrease in C-LA synaptic efficacy, whereas LY341495 infusion into the LA blocked this extinction-induced C-LA efficacy decrease without altering synaptic efficacy at other LA synapses. Furthermore, extinction enhanced paired pulse ratio (PPR) of EPSCs, which inversely correlates with presynaptic release probability, whereas LY341495 infusion into the LA attenuated the extinction-induced increase in PPR, suggesting the presence of mGluR2/3-dependent presynaptic changes after extinction. Consistently, extinction occluded a presynaptic form of depression at C-LA synapses, whereas the LY341495 infusion into the LA rescued this occlusion. Together, our findings suggest that mGluR2/3 is required for extinction retention and that the mGluR2/3 action is mediated by the long-term weakening of release probability at C-LA synapses.

  17. Three R2R3-MYB transcription factors regulate distinct floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chen, You-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2015-05-01

    Orchidaceae are well known for their fascinating floral morphologic features, specialized pollination, and distinctive ecological strategies. With their long-lasting flowers of various colors and pigmentation patterning, Phalaenopsis spp. have become important ornamental plants worldwide. In this study, we identified three R2R3-MYB transcription factors PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12. Their expression profiles were concomitant with red color formation in Phalaenopsis spp. flowers. Transient assay of overexpression of three PeMYBs verified that PeMYB2 resulted in anthocyanin accumulation, and these PeMYBs could activate the expression of three downstream structural genes Phalaenopsis spp. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase5, Phalaenopsis spp. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase1, and Phalaenopsis spp. Anthocyanidin synthase3. In addition, these three PeMYBs participated in the distinct pigmentation patterning in a single flower, which was revealed by virus-induced gene silencing. In the sepals/petals, silencing of PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12 resulted in the loss of the full-red pigmentation, red spots, and venation patterns, respectively. Moreover, different pigmentation patterning was regulated by PeMYBs in the sepals/petals and lip. PeMYB11 was responsive to the red spots in the callus of the lip, and PeMYB12 participated in the full pigmentation in the central lobe of the lip. The differential pigmentation patterning was validated by RNA in situ hybridization. Additional assessment was performed in six Phalaenopsis spp. cultivars with different color patterns. The combined expression of these three PeMYBs in different ratios leads to a wealth of complicated floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.

  18. A systems-oriented analysis of the grapevine R2R3-MYB transcription factor family uncovers new insights into the regulation of stilbene accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Darren Chern Jan; Schlechter, Rudolf; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Höll, Janine; Hmmam, Ibrahim; Bogs, Jochen; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Castellarin, Simone Diego; Matus, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) belong to a large and functionally diverse protein superfamily in plants. In this study, we explore the evolution and function of this family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), a high-value fruit crop. We identified and manually curated 134 genes using RNA-Seq data, and named them systematically according to the Super-Nomenclature Committee. We identified novel genes, splicing variants and grapevine/woody-specific duplicated subgroups, suggesting possible neo- and sub-functionalization events. Regulatory network analysis ascribed biological functions to uncharacterized genes and validated those of known genes (e.g. secondary cell wall biogenesis and flavonoid biosynthesis). A comprehensive analysis of different MYB binding motifs in the promoters of co-expressed genes predicted grape R2R3-MYB binding preferences and supported evidence for putative downstream targets. Enrichment of cis-regulatory motifs for diverse TFs reinforced the notion of transcriptional coordination and interaction between MYBs and other regulators. Analysis of the network of Subgroup 2 showed that the resveratrol-related VviMYB14 and VviMYB15 share common co-expressed STILBENE SYNTHASE genes with the uncharacterized VviMYB13. These regulators have distinct expression patterns within organs and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, suggesting a pivotal role of VviMYB13 in regulating stilbene accumulation in vegetative tissues and under biotic stress conditions. PMID:27407139

  19. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  20. Time-adjusted variable resistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.

  1. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances...,'' is ``premised on the recent recession as an exigent event.'' Id. at 1, 2. In Order No. 1059,...

  2. Structural insights into the human RyR2 N-terminal region involved in cardiac arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Borko, Ľubomír; Bauerová-Hlinková, Vladena Hostinová, Eva; Gašperík, Juraj; Beck, Konrad; Lai, F. Anthony; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Ševčík, Jozef

    2014-11-01

    X-ray and solution structures of the human RyR2 N-terminal region were obtained under near-physiological conditions. The structure exhibits a unique network of interactions between its three domains, revealing an important stabilizing role of the central helix. Human ryanodine receptor 2 (hRyR2) mediates calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, enabling cardiomyocyte contraction. The N-terminal region of hRyR2 (amino acids 1–606) is the target of >30 arrhythmogenic mutations and contains a binding site for phosphoprotein phosphatase 1. Here, the solution and crystal structures determined under near-physiological conditions, as well as a homology model of the hRyR2 N-terminal region, are presented. The N-terminus is held together by a unique network of interactions among its three domains, A, B and C, in which the central helix (amino acids 410–437) plays a prominent stabilizing role. Importantly, the anion-binding site reported for the mouse RyR2 N-terminal region is notably absent from the human RyR2. The structure concurs with the differential stability of arrhythmogenic mutations in the central helix (R420W, I419F and I419F/R420W) which are owing to disparities in the propensity of mutated residues to form energetically favourable or unfavourable contacts. In solution, the N-terminus adopts a globular shape with a prominent tail that is likely to involve residues 545–606, which are unresolved in the crystal structure. Docking the N-terminal domains into cryo-electron microscopy maps of the closed and open RyR1 conformations reveals C{sup α} atom movements of up to 8 Å upon channel gating, and predicts the location of the leucine–isoleucine zipper segment and the interaction site for spinophilin and phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 on the RyR surface.

  3. Adverse Effects of Doxorubicin and Its Metabolic Product on Cardiac RyR2 and SERCA2A

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Amy D.; Lam, Alex; Tham, Steffi; Dulhunty, Angela F.

    2014-01-01

    The use of anthracycline chemotherapeutic drugs is restricted owing to potentially fatal cardiotoxic side effects. It has been hypothesized that anthracycline metabolites have a primary role in this cardiac dysfunction; however, information on the molecular interactions of these compounds in the heart is scarce. Here we provide novel evidence that doxorubicin and its metabolite, doxorubicinol, bind to the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and to the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2A) and deleteriously alter their activity. Both drugs (0.01 μM–2.5 μM) activated single RyR2 channels, and this was reversed by drug washout. Both drugs caused a secondary inhibition of RyR2 activity that was not reversed by drug washout. Preincubation with the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT, 1 mM) prevented drug-induced inhibition of channel activity. Doxorubicin and doxorubicinol reduced the abundance of thiol groups on RyR2, further indicating that oxidation reactions may be involved in the actions of the compounds. Ca2+ uptake into sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles by SERCA2A was inhibited by doxorubicinol, but not doxorubicin. Unexpectedly, in the presence of DTT, doxorubicinol enhanced the rate of Ca2+ uptake by SERCA2A. Together the evidence provided here shows that doxorubicin and doxorubicinol interact with RyR2 and SERCA2A in similar ways, but that the metabolite acts with greater efficacy than the parent compound. Both compounds modify RyR2 and SERCA2A activity by binding to the proteins and also act via thiol oxidation to disrupt SR Ca2+ handling. These actions would have severe consequences on cardiomyocyte function and contribute to clinical symptoms of acute anthracycline cardiotoxicity. PMID:25106424

  4. Adjustments to the correction for attenuation.

    PubMed

    Wetcher-Hendricks, Debra

    2006-06-01

    With respect to the often-present covariance between error terms of correlated variables, D. W. Zimmerman and R. H. Williams's (1977) adjusted correction for attenuation estimates the strength of the pairwise correlation between true scores without assuming independence of error scores. This article focuses on the derivation and analysis of formulas that perform the same function for partial and part correlation coefficients. Values produced by these formulas lie closer to the actual true-score coefficient than do the observed-score coefficients or those obtained by using C. Spearman's (1904) correction for attenuation. The new versions of the formulas thus allow analysts to use hypothetical values for error-score correlations to estimate values for the partial and part correlations between true scores while disregarding the independence-of-errors assumption.

  5. 8-THP-DHI analogs as potent Type I dual TIE-2/VEGF-R2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hudkins, Robert L; Zulli, Allison L; Underiner, Ted L; Angeles, Thelma S; Aimone, Lisa D; Meyer, Sheryl L; Pauletti, Daniel; Chang, Hong; Fedorov, Elena V; Almo, Steven C; Fedorov, Alexander A; Ruggeri, Bruce A

    2010-06-01

    A novel series of 8-(2-tetrahydropyranyl)-12,13-dihydroindazolo[5,4-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazoles (THP-DHI) was synthesized and evaluated as dual TIE-2 and VEGF-R2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Development of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) with the support of X-ray crystallography led to identification of 7f and 7g as potent, selective dual TIE-2/VEGF-R2 inhibitors with excellent cellular potency and acceptable pharmacokinetic properties. Compounds 7f and 7g were orally active in tumor models with no observed toxicity.

  6. On the anisotropy energies for YCo5, RCo5, Y2Co17, and R2Co17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Hikosaka, K.; Ohtsuka, S.; Seo, A.; Ukai, T.; Mori, N.

    1988-04-01

    The approximate d bands for YCo5, RCo5, Y2Co17, and R2Co17 (Th2Zn17 and Th2Ni17 type) are formulated by Deegan's prescription and the formulas of Slater and Koster. The experimental results of YCo5 and Y2Co17 are discussed by using these approximate d bands. For RCo5 and R2Co17 the discussions are made by adopting the localized model and the band model for 4f electrons.

  7. Synthesis, conformational preferences and antimicrobial evaluation of N-piperazinoacetyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akila, A.; Jeganathan, P.; Ponnuswamy, S.

    2016-09-01

    Five new N-piperazinoacetyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ones 11-15 have been synthesized and characterized using IR, 1H, 13C, DEPT & 2D NMR and mass spectral studies. The NMR spectral data indicate that the N-piperazinoacetyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ones 11-15 prefer to exist in an equilibrium between B1 and B2 conformations. Furthermore, the antibacterial and antifungal studies were carried out. The results show that the piperazinoacetyl piperidin-4-ones 11-15 exhibit good activity against the selected bacterial and fungal strains.

  8. NMR studies of the R2 repeat and related peptide fragments of the DNA binding domain of c-Myb. New light on the structure and folding of R2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ségalas, I.; Desjardins, S.; Oulyadi, H.; Prigent, Y.; Tribouillard, S.; Bernardi, E.; Schoofs, A. R.; Davoust1, D.; Toma, F.

    1999-10-01

    The solution structure of the R2 repeat of the DNA binding domain of the protooncogene c-Myb contains a N-terminal structural motif comprising two antiparallel helices. The motif is stabilized by interactions involving conserved residues. The recognition region in C-terminal position is flexible. This structure differs from that of R2 of another c-Myb protein. La structure en solution de la répétition R2 du domaine de liaison à l'ADN du protooncogène c-Myb possède un motif à deux hélices antiparallèles dans la moitié N-terminale, stabilisé par des interactions entre résidus conservés. La région de reconnaissance à l'ADN en position C-terminale est flexible. Cette structure diffère de celle montrée pour la répétition R2 d'une autre protéine c-Myb.

  9. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  10. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  11. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  12. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  13. Latest Adjustment of the Argentine Height System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñón, D. A.; Cimbaro, S. R.; Sanchez, R. E.

    2013-05-01

    For over 70 years the National Geographic Institute of Argentina (NGI) has conducted a systematic project to building benchmarks throughout the country, which have been measured with spirit leveling and gravimetry techniques. The measurements were undertaken on a total of approximately 18,000 benchmarks, which define the High Precision Leveling Network of Argentina. The first adjustment of this network took place in 1971. This assignment was given to the Defense Mapping Agency of the United States of America (DMA). Leveling lines that were built and measured after the year 1971 were adjusted to this original network. It was of great importance to perform a new adjustment calculation with modern techniques to update the entire network. Some modern tools worth mentioning are: gravity interpolation using prediction method and topographic correction calculation by the Hammer method using SRTM model. All historical field books were digitalized to retrieve the information corresponding to the spirit leveling, from which it was then possible to calculate geopotential difference between the nodes, using the gravity acceleration values over the benchmarks. Subsequently, by the method of least squares it was possible to calculate the geopotential numbers of the nodes, and then the orthometric height of all the benchmarks. The recommendations of the Working Group III of SIRGAS (Geodetic Reference System for the Americas) were taken into account in relation to this task. The development of this paper shows the results that have been obtained so far in the development of the New Height System for Argentina.

  14. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Honghui; Hu, Lulu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wu, Feizhen; Li, Haitao; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Xu, Yanhui; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Shi, Yang

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHDUHRF1), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHDUHRF1 bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHDUHRF1 binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function. PMID:21777816

  15. Characterization of a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates the flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are important phenylpropanoid metabolites in plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsMYBF1, encoding a protein belonging to the flavonol-specific MYB subgroup. Ectopic expression of CsMYBF1 in tomato led to an ...

  16. New Chiral Reagent for Installation of Pharmacophoric (S)- or (R)-2-(Alkoxyphosphono)-1-amino-2,2-difluoroethyl Groups.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chen; Zhang, Lijun; Mei, Haibo; Pajkert, Romana; Ponomarenko, Maksym; Pan, Yi; Röschenthaler, Gerd-Volker; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Han, Jianlin

    2016-05-17

    A new chiral reagent has been developed for generalized installation of pharmacophoric (S)- or (R)-2-(alkoxyphosphono)-1-amino-2,2-difluoroethyl group into organic compounds. The original synthetic application of this new reagent is exemplified by Friedel-Crafts reactions with indoles, which proceed efficiently with excellent diastereoselectivity to give enantiomerically pure products. PMID:26952046

  17. The Eucalyptus grandis R2R3-MYB transcription factor family: evidence for woody growth-related evolution and function.

    PubMed

    Soler, Marçal; Camargo, Eduardo Leal Oliveira; Carocha, Victor; Cassan-Wang, Hua; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Hefer, Charles A; Paiva, Jorge A Pinto; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    The R2R3-MYB family, one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants, controls a wide variety of plant-specific processes including, notably, phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall formation. We performed a genome-wide analysis of this superfamily in Eucalyptus, one of the most planted hardwood trees world-wide. A total of 141 predicted R2R3-MYB sequences identified in the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence were subjected to comparative phylogenetic analyses with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera. We analysed features such as gene structure, conserved motifs and genome location. Transcript abundance patterns were assessed by RNAseq and validated by high-throughput quantitative PCR. We found some R2R3-MYB subgroups with expanded membership in E. grandis, V. vinifera and P. trichocarpa, and others preferentially found in woody species, suggesting diversification of specific functions in woody plants. By contrast, subgroups containing key genes regulating lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation are more conserved across all of the species analysed. In Eucalyptus, R2R3-MYB tandem gene duplications seem to disproportionately affect woody-preferential and woody-expanded subgroups. Interestingly, some of the genes belonging to woody-preferential subgroups show higher expression in the cambial region, suggesting a putative role in the regulation of secondary growth.

  18. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    E Rajakumara; Z Wang; H Ma; L Hu; H Chen; Y Lin; R Guo; F Wu; H Li; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  19. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rajakumara, Eerappa; Wang, Zhentian; Ma, Honghui; Hu, Lulu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wu, Feizhen; Li, Haitao; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Xu, Yanhui; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Shi, Yang

    2011-08-29

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  20. Analyses of sweet receptor gene (Tas1r2) and preference for sweet stimuli in species of Carnivora.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Beauchamp, Gary K; Brand, Joseph G

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species. The lion showed no preference for any of the 12 sweet compounds tested, and it possesses the pseudogenized Tas1r2. All other species preferred some of the natural sugars, and their Tas1r2 sequences, having complete open reading frames, predict functional sweet receptors. In addition to preferring natural sugars, the lesser panda also preferred 3 (neotame, sucralose, and aspartame) of the 6 artificial sweeteners. Heretofore, it had been reported that among vertebrates, only Old World simians could taste aspartame. The observation that the lesser panda highly preferred aspartame could be an example of evolutionary convergence in the identification of sweet stimuli.

  1. Tomato R2R3-MYB Proteins SlANT1 and SlAN2: Same Protein Activity, Different Roles

    PubMed Central

    Bassolino, Laura; Povero, Giovanni; Spelt, Cornelis; Buti, Sara; Giuliano, Giovanni; Quattrocchio, Francesca; Koes, Ronald; Perata, Pierdomenico; Gonzali, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds with a high nutraceutical value. Despite the fact that cultivated tomato varieties do not accumulate anthocyanins in the fruit, the biosynthetic pathway can be activated in the vegetative organs by several environmental stimuli. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating anthocyanin synthesis in tomato. Here, we carried out a molecular and functional characterization of two genes, SlAN2 and SlANT1, encoding two R2R3-MYB transcription factors. We show that both can induce ectopic anthocyanin synthesis in transgenic tomato lines, including the fruit. However, only SlAN2 acts as a positive regulator of anthocyanin synthesis in vegetative tissues under high light or low temperature conditions. PMID:26308527

  2. Physiological consequences of the P2328S mutation in the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) gene in genetically modified murine hearts

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, C A; Ghais, N S; Zhang, Y; Williams, A J; Colledge, W H; Grace, A A; Huang, C L-H

    2008-01-01

    Aim To explore the physiological consequences of the ryanodine receptor (RyR2)-P2328S mutation associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Methods We generated heterozygotic (RyR2p/s) and homozygotic (RyR2s/s) transgenic mice and studied Ca2+ signals from regularly stimulated, Fluo-3-loaded, cardiac myocytes. Results were compared with monophasic action potentials (MAPs) in Langendorff-perfused hearts under both regular and programmed electrical stimulation (PES). Results Evoked Ca2+ transients from wild-type (WT), heterozygote (RyR2p/s) and homozygote (RyR2s/s) myocytes had indistinguishable peak amplitudes with RyR2s/s showing subsidiary events. Adding 100 nm isoproterenol produced both ectopic peaks and subsidiary events in WT but not RyR2p/s and ectopic peaks and reduced amplitudes of evoked peaks in RyR2s/s. Regularly stimulated WT, RyR2p/s and RyR2s/s hearts showed indistinguishable MAP durations and refractory periods. RyR2p/s hearts showed non-sustained ventricular tachycardias (nsVTs) only with PES. Both nsVTs and sustained VTs (sVTs) occurred with regular stimuli and PES with isoproterenol treatment. RyR2s/s hearts showed higher incidences of nsVTs before but mainly sVTs after introduction of isoproterenol with both regular stimuli and PES, particularly at higher pacing frequencies. Additionally, intrinsically beating RyR2s/s showed extrasystolic events often followed by spontaneous sVT. Conclusion The RyR2-P2328S mutation results in marked alterations in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis and arrhythmogenic properties resembling CPVT with greater effects in the homozygote than the heterozygote demonstrating an important gene dosage effect. PMID:18419777

  3. Switch to GluR2-Lacking AMPA Receptors Increases Neuronal Excitability in Hypothalamus and Sympathetic Drive in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Li, De-Pei; Byan, Hee Sun; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Glutamatergic synaptic input in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a critical role in regulating sympathetic outflow in hypertension. GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are permeable to Ca2+ and their currents show unique inward rectification. However, little is known about changes in the AMPAR composition and its functional significance in hypertension. In this study, we found that AMPAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (AMPAR-EPSCs) of retrogradely labeled spinally projecting PVN neurons exhibited a linear current-voltage relationship in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. However, AMPAR-EPSCs of labeled PVN neurons in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) displayed inward rectification at positive holding potentials, which were not altered by lowering blood pressure with celiac ganglionectomy. Blocking GluR2-lacking AMPARs with 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine (NAS) caused a greater reduction in the AMPAR-EPSC amplitude and firing activity of PVN neurons in SHR than in WKY rats. Furthermore, blocking NMDA receptors and inhibition of calpain or calcineurin abolished inward rectification of AMPAR-EPSCs of PVN neurons in SHR. The GluR2 protein level was significantly less in the plasma membrane but greater in the cytosolic vesicle fraction in SHR than in WKY rats. In addition, microinjection of NAS into the PVN decreased blood pressure and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity in SHR but not in WKY rats. Our study reveals that increased GluR2-lacking AMPAR activity of PVN neurons results from GluR2 internalization through NMDA receptor–calpain–calcineurin signaling in hypertension. This phenotype switch in synaptic AMPARs contributes to increased excitability of PVN presympathetic neurons and sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. PMID:22219297

  4. Casein-Coated Fe5C2 Nanoparticles with Superior r2 Relaxivity for Liver-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cowger, Taku A.; Tang, Wei; Zhen, Zipeng; Hu, Kai; Rink, David E.; Todd, Trever J.; Wang, Geoffrey D.; Zhang, Weizhong; Chen, Hongmin; Xie, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been extensively used as T2 contrast agents for liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The applications, however, have been limited by their mediocre magnetism and r2 relaxivity. Recent studies show that Fe5C2 nanoparticles can be prepared by high temperature thermal decomposition. The resulting nanoparticles possess strong and air stable magnetism, suggesting their potential as a novel type of T2 contrast agent. To this end, we improve the synthetic and surface modification methods of Fe5C2 nanoparticles, and investigated the impact of size and coating on their performances for liver MRI. Specifically, we prepared 5, 14, and 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticles and engineered their surface by: 1) ligand addition with phospholipids, 2) ligand exchange with zwitterion-dopamine-sulfonate (ZDS), and 3) protein adsorption with casein. It was found that the size and surface coating have varied levels of impact on the particles' hydrodynamic size, viability, uptake by macrophages, and r2 relaxivity. Interestingly, while phospholipid- and ZDS-coated Fe5C2 nanoparticles showed comparable r2, the casein coating led to an r2 enhancement by more than 2 fold. In particular, casein coated 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticle show a striking r2 of 973 mM-1s-1, which is one of the highest among all of the T2 contrast agents reported to date. Small animal studies confirmed the advantage of Fe5C2 nanoparticles over iron oxide nanoparticles in inducing hypointensities on T2-weighted MR images, and the particles caused little toxicity to the host. The improvements are important for transforming Fe5C2 nanoparticles into a new class of MRI contrast agents. The observations also shed light on protein-based surface modification as a means to modulate contrast ability of magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:26379788

  5. Structure of Human Cytomegalovirus UL141 Binding to TRAIL-R2 Reveals Novel, Non-canonical Death Receptor Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nemčovičová, Ivana; Benedict, Chris A.; Zajonc, Dirk M.

    2013-01-01

    The TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) death receptors (DRs) of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) can promote apoptosis and regulate antiviral immunity by maintaining immune homeostasis during infection. In turn, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses immunomodulatory proteins that down-regulate cell surface expression of TNFRSF members as well as poliovirus receptor-related proteins in an effort to inhibit host immune effector pathways that would lead to viral clearance. The UL141 glycoprotein of human cytomegalovirus inhibits host defenses by blocking cell surface expression of TRAIL DRs (by retention in ER) and poliovirus receptor CD155, a nectin-like Ig-fold molecule. Here we show that the immunomodulatory function of HCMV UL141 is associated with its ability to bind diverse proteins, while utilizing at least two distinct binding sites to selectively engage TRAIL DRs or CD155. Binding studies revealed high affinity interaction of UL141 with both TRAIL-R2 and CD155 and low affinity binding to TRAIL-R1. We determined the crystal structure of UL141 bound to TRAIL-R2 at 2.1 Å resolution, which revealed that UL141 forms a homodimer that engages two TRAIL-R2 monomers 90° apart to form a heterotetrameric complex. Our structural and biochemical data reveal that UL141 utilizes its Ig-domain to facilitate non-canonical death receptor interactions while UL141 partially mimics the binding site of TRAIL on TRAIL-R2, which we found to be distinct from that of CD155. Moreover, UL141 also binds to an additional surface patch on TRAIL-R2 that is distinct from the TRAIL binding site. Therefore, the breadth of UL141-mediated effects indicates that HCMV has evolved sophisticated strategies to evade the immune system by modulating multiple effector pathways. PMID:23555243

  6. Experiments towards establishing of design rules for R2R-UV-NIL with polymer working shims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nees, Dieter; Ruttloff, Stephan; Palfinger, Ursula; Stadlober, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Roll-to-Roll-UV-nanoimprint lithography (R2R-UV-NIL) enables high resolution large area patterning of flexible substrates and is therefore of increasing industrial interest. We have set up a custom-made R2R-UV-NIL pilot machine which is able to convert 10 inch wide web with velocities of up to 30 m/min. In addition, we have developed self-replicable UV-curable resins with tunable surface energy and Young's modulus for UV-imprint material as well as for polymer working stamp/shim manufacturing. Now we have designed test patterns for the evaluation of the impact of structure shape, critical dimension, pitch, depth, side wall angle and orientation relative to the web movement onto the imprint fidelity and working shim life time. We have used female (recessed structures) silicon masters of that design with critical dimensions between CD = 200 nm and 1600 nm, and structure depths of d = 500 nm and 1000 nm - all with vertical as well as inclined side walls. These entire master patterns have been transferred onto single male (protruding structures) R2R polymer working shims. The polymer working shims have been used for R2R-UV-NIL runs of several hundred meters and the imprint fidelity and process stability of the various test patterns have been compared. This study is intended as a first step towards establishing of design rules and developing of nanoimprint proximity correction strategies for industrial R2R-UV-NIL processes using polymer working shims.

  7. Casein-Coated Fe5C2 Nanoparticles with Superior r2 Relaxivity for Liver-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cowger, Taku A; Tang, Wei; Zhen, Zipeng; Hu, Kai; Rink, David E; Todd, Trever J; Wang, Geoffrey D; Zhang, Weizhong; Chen, Hongmin; Xie, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been extensively used as T2 contrast agents for liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The applications, however, have been limited by their mediocre magnetism and r2 relaxivity. Recent studies show that Fe5C2 nanoparticles can be prepared by high temperature thermal decomposition. The resulting nanoparticles possess strong and air stable magnetism, suggesting their potential as a novel type of T2 contrast agent. To this end, we improve the synthetic and surface modification methods of Fe5C2 nanoparticles, and investigated the impact of size and coating on their performances for liver MRI. Specifically, we prepared 5, 14, and 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticles and engineered their surface by: 1) ligand addition with phospholipids, 2) ligand exchange with zwitterion-dopamine-sulfonate (ZDS), and 3) protein adsorption with casein. It was found that the size and surface coating have varied levels of impact on the particles' hydrodynamic size, viability, uptake by macrophages, and r2 relaxivity. Interestingly, while phospholipid- and ZDS-coated Fe5C2 nanoparticles showed comparable r2, the casein coating led to an r2 enhancement by more than 2 fold. In particular, casein coated 22 nm Fe5C2 nanoparticle show a striking r2 of 973 mM(-1)s(-1), which is one of the highest among all of the T2 contrast agents reported to date. Small animal studies confirmed the advantage of Fe5C2 nanoparticles over iron oxide nanoparticles in inducing hypointensities on T2-weighted MR images, and the particles caused little toxicity to the host. The improvements are important for transforming Fe5C2 nanoparticles into a new class of MRI contrast agents. The observations also shed light on protein-based surface modification as a means to modulate contrast ability of magnetic nanoparticles.

  8. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  9. Comparison of time-tradeoff utilities and rating scale values of cancer patients and their relatives: evidence for a possible plateau relationship.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, J F; Fairclough, D L; Jankowski, M K; Weeks, J C

    1995-01-01

    Because they are easy to administer, rating scales are often used as proxies for utility measures. The authors investigated the relationship between time-tradeoff utilities and rating scale values in two populations: 124 cancer patients asked to evaluate their current states of health and 102 relatives and close friends of cancer patients asked to evaluate health-state scenarios. None of the models tested effectively described the relationship between individual patients' rating scale values and time-tradeoff utilities for their current states of health. In contrast, both a plateau and a power-function model explained the variability in the responses of the relatives reasonably well (R2 = 0.56 and R2 = 0.58, respectively). Given that many respondents who were unwilling to trade off any time assigned rating scale values of well below 100, a plateau model may represent the best approach to adjusting rating scale values for health-state scenarios when it is not feasible to elicit time-tradeoff utilities. PMID:7783573

  10. OBSERVATIONAL AND DYNAMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MAIN-BELT COMET P/2010 R2 (La Sagra)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Yang Bin; Haghighipour, Nader; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Denneau, Larry; Kaluna, Heather M.; Kleyna, Jan; Novakovic, Bojan; Abe, Shinsuke; Chen Wenping; Ip, Wing; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Lacerda, Pedro; Granvik, Mikael; Grav, Tommy; Knight, Matthew M.; Lisse, Carey M.; Maclennan, Eric; and others

    2012-05-15

    We present observations of the recently discovered comet-like main-belt object P/2010 R2 (La Sagra) obtained by Pan-STARRS1 and the Faulkes Telescope-North on Haleakala in Hawaii, the University of Hawaii 2.2 m, Gemini-North, and Keck I telescopes on Mauna Kea, the Danish 1.54 m telescope (operated by the MiNDSTEp consortium) at La Silla, and the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma. An antisolar dust tail is observed to be present from 2010 August through 2011 February, while a dust trail aligned with the object's orbit plane is also observed from 2010 December through 2011 August. Assuming typical phase darkening behavior, P/La Sagra is seen to increase in brightness by >1 mag between 2010 August and December, suggesting that dust production is ongoing over this period. These results strongly suggest that the observed activity is cometary in nature (i.e., driven by the sublimation of volatile material), and that P/La Sagra is therefore the most recent main-belt comet to be discovered. We find an approximate absolute magnitude for the nucleus of H{sub R} = 17.9 {+-} 0.2 mag, corresponding to a nucleus radius of {approx}0.7 km, assuming an albedo of p = 0.05. Comparing the observed scattering surface areas of the dust coma to that of the nucleus when P/La Sagra was active, we find dust-to-nucleus area ratios of A{sub d} /A{sub N} = 30-60, comparable to those computed for fellow main-belt comets 238P/Read and P/2008 R1 (Garradd), and one to two orders of magnitude larger than for two other main-belt comets (133P/Elst-Pizarro and 176P/LINEAR). Using optical spectroscopy to search for CN emission, we do not detect any conclusive evidence of sublimation products (i.e., gas emission), finding an upper limit CN production rate of Q{sub CN} < 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} mol s{sup -1}, from which we infer an H{sub 2}O production rate of Q{sub H{sub 2O}} < 10{sup 26} mol s{sup -1}. Numerical simulations indicate that P/La Sagra is dynamically stable for >100 Myr

  11. Observational and Dynamical Characterization of Main-belt Comet P/2010 R2 (La Sagra)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Yang, Bin; Haghighipour, Nader; Novaković, Bojan; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Denneau, Larry; Abe, Shinsuke; Chen, Wen-Ping; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Granvik, Mikael; Grav, Tommy; Ip, Wing; Kaluna, Heather M.; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Kleyna, Jan; Knight, Matthew M.; Lacerda, Pedro; Lisse, Carey M.; Maclennan, Eric; Meech, Karen J.; Micheli, Marco; Milani, Andrea; Pittichová, Jana; Schunova, Eva; Tholen, David J.; Wasserman, Lawrence H.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, K. C.; Heasley, Jim N.; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Price, Paul A.; Jørgensen, Uffe G.; Dominik, Martin; Hinse, Tobias; Sahu, Kailash; Snodgrass, Colin

    2012-05-01

    We present observations of the recently discovered comet-like main-belt object P/2010 R2 (La Sagra) obtained by Pan-STARRS1 and the Faulkes Telescope-North on Haleakala in Hawaii, the University of Hawaii 2.2 m, Gemini-North, and Keck I telescopes on Mauna Kea, the Danish 1.54 m telescope (operated by the MiNDSTEp consortium) at La Silla, and the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma. An antisolar dust tail is observed to be present from 2010 August through 2011 February, while a dust trail aligned with the object's orbit plane is also observed from 2010 December through 2011 August. Assuming typical phase darkening behavior, P/La Sagra is seen to increase in brightness by >1 mag between 2010 August and December, suggesting that dust production is ongoing over this period. These results strongly suggest that the observed activity is cometary in nature (i.e., driven by the sublimation of volatile material), and that P/La Sagra is therefore the most recent main-belt comet to be discovered. We find an approximate absolute magnitude for the nucleus of HR = 17.9 ± 0.2 mag, corresponding to a nucleus radius of ~0.7 km, assuming an albedo of p = 0.05. Comparing the observed scattering surface areas of the dust coma to that of the nucleus when P/La Sagra was active, we find dust-to-nucleus area ratios of Ad /AN = 30-60, comparable to those computed for fellow main-belt comets 238P/Read and P/2008 R1 (Garradd), and one to two orders of magnitude larger than for two other main-belt comets (133P/Elst-Pizarro and 176P/LINEAR). Using optical spectroscopy to search for CN emission, we do not detect any conclusive evidence of sublimation products (i.e., gas emission), finding an upper limit CN production rate of Q CN < 6 × 1023 mol s-1, from which we infer an H2O production rate of Q_H_2O\\,{<}\\,10^{26} mol s-1. Numerical simulations indicate that P/La Sagra is dynamically stable for >100 Myr, suggesting that it is likely native to its current location and that its composition is

  12. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  13. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Charles H.; Sitton, Roy S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

  14. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  15. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  16. The C-terminus of interferon gamma receptor beta chain (IFNgammaR2) has antiapoptotic activity as a Bax inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Jose A; Sun, Weiyon; Gama, Vivian; Hajkova, Dagmar; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Wu, Zhengrong; Miyagi, Masaru; Pink, John J; Jackson, Mark W; Danielpour, David; Matsuyama, Shigemi

    2009-09-01

    Bax is a pro-apoptotic protein that mediates intrinsic cell-death signaling. Using a yeast-based functional screening approach, we identified interferon gamma receptor beta chain (IFNgammaR2) as a new Bax suppressor. IFNgammaR2 is a component of the IFNgamma receptor complex along with the IFNgammaR alpha chain (IFNgammaR1). Upon IFNgamma binding, a conformational change in the receptor complex occurs that activates the Jak2/STAT1 signaling cascade. We found that the C-terminal region (amino acids 296-337) of IFNgammaR2 (IFNgammaR2(296-337)) contains a novel Bax inhibitory domain. This portion does not contain the Jak2-binding domain; therefore, the antiapoptotic function of IFNgammaR2 is independent of JAK/STAT signaling. IFNgammaR2(296-337) rescued human cells from apoptosis induced by overexpression of Bax but not Bak. Overexpression of IFNgammaR2 (wild type and IFNgammaR2(296-337)) rescued cells from etoposide and staurosporine, which are known to induce Bax-mediated cell death. Interestingly, IFNgammaR2 inhibited apoptosis induced by the BH3-only protein Bim-EL, suggesting that IFNgammaR2 inhibits Bax activation through a BH3-only protein. Bax and IFNgammaR2 were co-immunoprecipitated from cell lysates prepared from HEK293 and DAMI cells. Furthermore, direct binding of purified recombinant proteins of Bax and IFNgammaR2 was also confirmed. Addition of recombinant Bcl-2 protein to cell lysates significantly reduced the interaction of IFNgammaR2 and Bax, suggesting that Bcl-2 and IFNgammaR2 bind a similar domain of Bax. We found that the C-terminal fragment (cytoplasmic domain) of IFNgammaR2 is expressed in human cancer cell lines of megakaryocytic cancer (DAMI), breast cancer (MDA-MD-468), and prostate cancer (PC3 cells). The presence of the C-terminal fragment of IFNgammaR2 may confer on cancer cells resistance to apoptotic stresses. Our discovery of the anti-Bax activity of the cytoplasmic domain of IFNgammaR2 may shed new light on the mechanism of how cell

  17. IL-4 Haplotype -590T, -34T and Intron-3 VNTR R2 Is Associated with Reduced Malaria Risk among Ancestral Indian Tribal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Aditya Nath; Singh, Vipin Kumar; Kumari, Namrata; Singh, Ashish; Antony, Justin; van Tong, Hoang; Singh, Sakshi; Pati, Sudhanshu S.; Patra, Pradeep K.; Singh, Rajender; Toan, Nguyen L.; Song, Le H.; Assaf, Amal; Messias–Reason, Iara J. T.; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P.; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2012-01-01

    Background Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which regulates balance between TH1 and TH2 immune response, immunoglobulin class switching and humoral immunity. Polymorphisms in this gene have been reported to affect the risk of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Methods We have analyzed three regulatory IL-4 polymorphisms; -590C>T, -34C>T and 70 bp intron-3 VNTR, in 4216 individuals; including: (1) 430 ethnically matched case-control groups (173 severe malaria, 101 mild malaria and 156 asymptomatic); (2) 3452 individuals from 76 linguistically and geographically distinct endogamous populations of India, and (3) 334 individuals with different ancestry from outside India (84 Brazilian, 104 Syrian, and 146 Vietnamese). Results The -590T, -34T and intron-3 VNTR R2 alleles were found to be associated with reduced malaria risk (P<0.001 for -590C>T and -34C>T, and P = 0.003 for VNTR). These three alleles were in strong LD (r2>0.75) and the TTR2 (-590T, -34T and intron-3 VNTR R2) haplotype appeared to be a susceptibility factor for malaria (P = 0.009, OR = 0.552, 95% CI = 0.356 –0.854). Allele and genotype frequencies differ significantly between caste, nomadic, tribe and ancestral tribal populations (ATP). The distribution of protective haplotype TTR2 was found to be significant (χ23 = 182.95, p-value <0.001), which is highest in ATP (40.5%); intermediate in tribes (33%); and lowest in caste (17.8%) and nomadic (21.6%). Conclusions Our study suggests that the IL-4 polymorphisms regulate host susceptibility to malaria and disease progression. TTR2 haplotype, which gives protection against malaria, is high among ATPs. Since they inhabited in isolation and mainly practice hunter-gatherer lifestyles and exposed to various parasites, IL-4 TTR2 haplotype might be under positive selection. PMID:23110190

  18. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Organizing Datasets from Heterogeneous Shipboard Data into an Integrated Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. D.; Arko, R. A.; Sweeney, A.; Fischman, D.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; rvdata.us) program is to develop and implement a fleet-wide information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S. academic research vessels. One of the program’s primary challenges is to develop a workflow for routinely gathering data from a fleet with heterogeneous instrumentation and file systems, breaking out the data into discrete data sets, and transferring the data to the appropriate National Data Center. Because R2R expects to receive 300-400 cruises per year from a wide range of vessel classes and at least two dozen major device types, this workflow must be highly automated. R2R has developed and implemented a workflow for processing underway data: - Collection: data are provided at the end of a cruise as a cruise distribution using the mechanism preferred by the vessel operator. - Inventory: a complete inventory of each cruise distribution is created, listing the filename, date, size, and checksum. This inventory is published online by R2R. - Raw Archive: the entire original cruise distribution is transmitted securely to the National Geophysical Data Center for deep archive. - Data Breakout: data from each device are extracted from the cruise distribution according to a vessel profile yielding a discrete data set. Once a data set is broken out and any proprietary holds are cleared, it is delivered to the appropriate National Data Center for archiving and dissemination. It may also be processed further for quality assessment/quality control and/or publication of standard products. Data sets sent to a National Data Center will have unique and persistent R2R identifiers, which link to parent cruise information on the R2R site. The site will include the URL link to each data set at the National Data Center, allowing a user browsing the R2R cruise catalog to download it. Because each vessel operator typically has a customized system for naming and organizing

  19. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION STUDIES FOR TANK 241-AN-107 CORE 309 SEGMENTS 21R1 & 21R2

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB

    2007-11-13

    Liquid waste in tank 241-AN-107 is below Technical Safety Requirements Administrative Control 5.16 (AC 5.16) limits. Electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on Core 309, Segments 21R1 and 21R2, to provide information on the conductivity and corrosive tendencies of the tank saltcake and interstitial liquid. This report describes data obtained under the execution of RPP-PLAN-29001, 'Electrochemical Corrosion Studies for Tank 241-AN-107 Core 309, Segments 21R1 and 21R2'. Analytical results are presented that show supernatant was within the limits while the interstitial liquid remained below the limits for the analytical cores. Applicable AC 5.16 chemistry control limits for AN-107 are presented.

  20. Quantitative visualization of biological data in Google Earth using R2G2, an R CRAN package.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Nils; Albert, Loren P; Mickelson, Pascal G; Barker, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    We briefly introduce R2G2, an R CRAN package to visualize spatially explicit biological data within the Google Earth interface. Our package combines a collection of basic graph-editing features, including automated placement of dots, segments, polygons, images (including graphs produced with R), along with several complex three-dimensional (3D) representations such as phylogenies, histograms and pie charts. We briefly present some example data sets and show the immediate benefits in communication gained from using the Google Earth interface to visually explore biological results. The package is distributed with detailed help pages providing examples and annotated source scripts with the hope that users will have an easy time using and further developing this package. R2G2 is distributed on http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages. PMID:22994899

  1. Ab initio study of metastable layered perovskites R2Ti2O7 (R = Sm and Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayede, Adlane; Bruyer, Emilie; Springborg, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The structural, electronic, and ferroelectric properties of metastable R2Ti2O7(R= Sm and Gd) layered perovskites materials are investigated by first-principles density functional theory calculations. The computed structural parameters are found to be in good agreement with experimental findings. The calculated spontaneous polarizations of the studied titanates are found to be larger than the spontaneous polarization of the usual R2Ti2O7 layered perovskites materials. GGA+U electronic structures predict a good photocatalytic activity for the studied compounds, in particular for Gd2Ti2O7, which lacks electron-carriers trapping in the conduction band. From the results of the total energy and the polarization as functions of structure we estimate the responses of the materials to external electrostatic fields.

  2. Modulation of sweet taste by umami compounds via sweet taste receptor subunit hT1R2.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaewon; Son, Hee Jin; Kim, Yiseul; Kim, Ki Hwa; Kim, Jung Tae; Moon, Hana; Kim, Min Jung; Misaka, Takumi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2015-01-01

    Although the five basic taste qualities-sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami-can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG), 5'-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu) and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp), in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD) of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD). Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors. PMID:25853419

  3. Comparing consistency of R2* and T2*-weighted BOLD analysis of resting state fetal fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Anna I.; Gatenby, Christopher; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Dighe, Manjiri; Studholme, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Understanding when and how resting state brain functional activity begins in the human brain is an increasing area of interest in both basic neuroscience and in the clinical evaluation of the brain during pregnancy and after premature birth. Although fMRI studies have been carried out on pregnant women since the 1990's, reliable mapping of brain function in utero is an extremely challenging problem due to the unconstrained fetal head motion. Recent studies have employed scrubbing to exclude parts of the time series and whole subjects from studies in order to control the confounds of motion. Fundamentally, even after correction of the location of signals due to motion, signal intensity variations are a fundamental limitation, due to coil sensitivity and spin history effects. An alternative technique is to use a more parametric MRI signal derived from multiple echoes that provides a level of independence from basic MRI signal variation. Here we examine the use of R2* mapping combined with slice based multi echo geometric distortion correction for in-utero studies. The challenges for R2* mapping arise from the relatively low signal strength of in-utero data. In this paper we focus on comparing activation detection in-utero using T2W and R2* approaches. We make use a subset of studies with relatively limited motion to compare the activation patterns without the additional confound of significant motion. Results at different gestational ages indicate comparable agreement in many activation patterns when limited motion is present, and the detection of some additional networks in the R2* data, not seen in the T2W results.

  4. Modulation of Sweet Taste by Umami Compounds via Sweet Taste Receptor Subunit hT1R2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yiseul; Kim, Ki Hwa; Kim, Jung Tae; Moon, Hana; Kim, Min Jung; Misaka, Takumi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2015-01-01

    Although the five basic taste qualities—sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami—can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG), 5’-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu) and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp), in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD) of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD). Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors. PMID:25853419

  5. A complex interplay of three R2R3 MYB transcription factors determines the profile of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sønderby, Ida Elken; Burow, Meike; Rowe, Heather C; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2010-05-01

    While R2R3 MYB transcription factors are a large gene family of transcription factors within plants, comprehensive functional data in planta are still scarce. A model for studying R2R3 MYB control of metabolic networks is the glucosinolates (GLSs), secondary metabolites that control plant resistance against insects and pathogens and carry cancer-preventive properties. Three related members of the R2R3 MYB transcription factor family within Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), MYB28, MYB29, and MYB76, are the commonly defined regulators of aliphatic GLS biosynthesis. We utilized new genotypes and systems analysis techniques to test the existing regulatory model in which MYB28 is the dominant regulator, MYB29 plays a minor rheostat role, and MYB76 is largely uninvolved. We unequivocally show that MYB76 is not dependent on MYB28 and MYB29 for induction of aliphatic GLSs and that MYB76 plays a role in determining the spatial distribution of aliphatic GLSs within the leaf, pointing at a potential role of MYB76 in transport regulation. Transcriptional profiling of knockout mutants revealed that GLS metabolite levels are uncoupled from the level of transcript accumulation for aliphatic GLS biosynthetic genes. This uncoupling of chemotypes from biosynthetic transcripts suggests revising our view of the regulation of GLS metabolism from a simple linear transcription factor-promoter model to a more modular system in which transcription factors cause similar chemotypes via nonoverlapping regulatory patterns. Similar regulatory networks might exist in other secondary pathways.

  6. Paleomagnetic results from a reconnaissance study of Santiago (Cape Verde Islands): Identification of cryptochron C2r.2r-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Holm, Paul Martin; Abrahamsen, Niels

    2009-04-01

    New paleomagnetic data from three lava sequences on Santiago, Cape Verde Islands, are presented. The paleomagnetic data are coupled with Ar 40/Ar39-age determinations, allowing detailed correlations between the three profiles and the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS). The younger of the profiles, the Ribeira da Barca profile, recorded flows of normal polarity that correlate with the Brunhes Chron, whereas the Porto Formosa profile of reverse polarity correlates with the lower Matuyama Chron. The São Gonçalo profile consists of both reverse- and normal-polarity flows that belong to the Matuyama and Gauss Chron, respectively. Virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) from a sequence of flow units in the São Gonçalo profile classify as transitional, and we interpret it as a geomagnetic event (SG-I). Well-defined Ar40/Ar39 ages bound the occurrence of event SG-I to the interval 2.37-2.43 Ma ( ±2σ), which is synchronous with the timing of cryptochron C2r.2r-1 in the marine magnetic anomaly record. This study therefore confirms the existence of cryptochron C2r.2r-1 and indicates that it was a global-scale phenomenon. The VGPs indicate that the field was in a meta-stable transitional state during cryptochron C2r.2r-1, and that it spent some time in or around the paleomagnetic transitional VGP-cluster patch close to Australia.

  7. Structural basis for receptor sharing and activation by interleukin-20 receptor-2 (IL-20R2) binding cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Naomi J.; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Harris, Bethany D.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin 20 (IL-20) is a pleotropic IL-10 family cytokine that protects epithelial surfaces from pathogens. However, dysregulated IL-20 signaling is implicated in several human pathologies including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and osteoporosis. IL-20, and related cytokines IL-19 and IL-24, designated IL-20 subfamily cytokines (IL-20SFCs), induce cellular responses through an IL-20R1/IL-20R2 (type I) receptor heterodimer, whereas IL-20 and IL-24 also signal through the IL-22R1/IL-20R2 (type II) receptor complex. The crystal structure of the IL-20/IL-20R1/IL-20R2 complex reveals how type I and II complexes discriminate cognate from noncognate ligands. The structure also defines how the receptor–cytokine interfaces are affinity tuned to allow distinct signaling through a receptor complex shared by three different ligands. Our results provide unique insights into the complexity of IL-20SFC signaling that may be critical in the design of mechanistic-based inhibitors of IL-20SFC–mediated inflammatory disease. PMID:22802649

  8. 20 CFR 345.118 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... calendar year because of an error that does not constitute a compensation adjustment as defined in... compensation adjustment as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, the employer shall adjust the error by... compensation, proper adjustments with respect to the contributions shall be made, without interest,...

  9. 20 CFR 345.118 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... calendar year because of an error that does not constitute a compensation adjustment as defined in... compensation adjustment as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, the employer shall adjust the error by... compensation, proper adjustments with respect to the contributions shall be made, without interest,...

  10. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  11. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  12. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  13. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  14. Relative glycaemic impact of customarily consumed portions of eighty-three foods measured by digesting in vitro and adjusting for food mass and apparent glucose disposal.

    PubMed

    Monro, John A; Wallace, Alison; Mishra, Suman; Eady, Sarah; Willis, Jinny A; Scott, Russell S; Hedderley, Duncan

    2010-08-01

    Practical values to guide food choices for control of postprandial glycaemia need to refer to entire foods in amounts customarily consumed. We tested an in vitro method for determining the relative glycaemic impact (RGI) of customarily consumed portions of foods. Sugars released during in vitro pancreatic digestion of eighty-three foods were measured as glucose equivalents (GE) per gram of food, adjusted by the glycaemic indexes of the sugars to obtain glycaemic GE (GGE) per gram and multiplied by food portion weight to obtain the GGE contribution of the food portion, its RGI. The results were compared with clinical GGE values from subjects who consumed the same food amounts. In vitro and in vivo GGE values were significantly correlated, but the slope of the regression equation was significantly less than one, meaning in vitro GGE values overestimated in vivo GGE values. Bland-Altman method comparison showed the in vitro-in vivo disparity to increase as mean GGE increased, suggesting the need to allow for different rates of homeostatic blood glucose disposal (GD) due to different GGE doses in the customarily consumed food portions. After GD correction, Bland-Altman method comparison showed that the bias in predicting in vivo GGE values from in vitro GGE values was almost completely removed (y = 0.071x - 0.89; R2 0.01). We conclude that in vitro food values for use in managing the glycaemic impact of customarily consumed food quantities require correction for blood GD that is dependent on the GGE content of the food portions involved.

  15. Rational reprogramming of the R2 subunit of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase into a self-hydroxylating monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, J; Voegtli, W C; Khidekel, N; Moënne-Loccoz, P; Krebs, C; Pereira, A S; Ley, B A; Huynh, B H; Loehr, T M; Riggs-Gelasco, P J; Rosenzweig, A C; Bollinger, J M

    2001-07-25

    The outcome of O2 activation at the diiron(II) cluster in the R2 subunit of Escherichia coli (class I) ribonucleotide reductase has been rationally altered from the normal tyrosyl radical (Y122*) production to self-hydroxylation of a phenylalanine side-chain by two amino acid substitutions that leave intact the (histidine)2-(carboxylate)4 ligand set characteristic of the diiron-carboxylate family. Iron ligand Asp (D) 84 was replaced with Glu (E), the amino acid found in the cognate position of the structurally similar diiron-carboxylate protein, methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH). We previously showed that this substitution allows accumulation of a mu-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) intermediate, which does not accumulate in the wild-type (wt) protein and is probably a structural homologue of intermediate P (H(peroxo)) in O2 activation by MMOH. In addition, the near-surface residue Trp (W) 48 was replaced with Phe (F), blocking transfer of the "extra" electron that occurs in wt R2 during formation of the formally Fe(III)Fe(IV) cluster X. Decay of the mu-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) complex in R2-W48F/D84E gives an initial brown product, which contains very little Y122* and which converts very slowly (t1/2 approximately 7 h) upon incubation at 0 degrees C to an intensely purple final product. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the purple product indicates that F208 has undergone epsilon-hydroxylation and the resulting phenol has shifted significantly to become a ligand to Fe2 of the diiron cluster. Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the purple product generated with 16O2 or 18O2 show appropriate isotopic sensitivity in bands assigned to O-phenyl and Fe-O-phenyl vibrational modes, confirming that the oxygen of the Fe(III)-phenolate species is derived from O2. Chemical analysis, experiments involving interception of the hydroxylating intermediate with exogenous reductant, and Mössbauer and EXAFS characterization of the brown and purple species establish that F208 hydroxylation

  16. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  17. Perspectives on the mGluR2/3 agonists as a therapeutic target for schizophrenia: Still promising or a dead end?

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Lin; Hu, Xi-Quan; Li, Feng; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3) agonists once showed promise as non-dopaminergic antipsychotic drugs because of their efficacy in alleviating symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ) in both animal models and human patients. However, the recent failure of Phase III clinical trials dealt a huge blow to the scientific community and the aftershock of the setback in mGluR2/3 research can be felt everywhere from grant support and laboratory studies to paper publication. An immediate question raised is whether mGluR2/3 is still a promising therapeutic target for schizophrenia. Answering this question is not easy, but apparently a new strategy is needed. This article provides a focused review of literature on the study of mGluR2/3 agonists, especially on mGluR2/3 agonists' mechanism of action and efficacy in both normal conditions and animal models of SZ, as well as clinical studies in human patients with the disease. We argue that the cellular and molecular actions of mGluR2/3 agonists, the distinct roles between mGluR2 and mGluR3, as well as their effects on different stages of the disease and different subpopulations of patients, remain incompletely studied. Until the mechanisms associated with mGluR2/3 are clearly elucidated and all treatment options are tested, it would be a great mistake to terminate the study of mGluR2/3 as a therapeutic target for schizophrenia. This review will thus shed light on the comprehensive features of the translational potential mGluR2/3 agonists as well as the need for further research into the more selective activation of mGluR2.

  18. Perspectives on the mGluR2/3 agonists as a therapeutic target for schizophrenia: still promising or a dead end?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng-Lin; Hu, Xi-Quan; Li, Feng; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3) agonists once showed promise as non-dopaminergic antipsychotic drugs because of their efficacy in alleviating symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ) in both animal models and human patients. However, the recent failure of Phase III clinical trials dealt a huge blow to the scientific community and the aftershock of the setback in mGluR2/3 research can be felt everywhere from grant support and laboratory studies to paper publication. An immediate question raised is whether mGluR2/3 is still a promising therapeutic target for schizophrenia. Answering this question is not easy, but apparently a new strategy is needed. This article provides a focused review of literature on the study of mGluR2/3 agonists, especially on mGluR2/3 agonists’ mechanism of action and efficacy in both normal conditions and animal models of SZ, as well as clinical studies in human patients with the disease. We argue that the cellular and molecular actions of mGluR2/3 agonists, the distinct roles between mGluR2 and mGluR3, as well as their effects on different stages of the disease and different subpopulations of patients, remain incompletely studied. Until the mechanisms associated with mGluR2/3 are clearly elucidated and all treatment options are tested, it would be a great mistake to terminate the study of mGluR2/3 as a therapeutic target for schizophrenia. This review will thus shed light on the comprehensive features of the translational potential mGluR2/3 agonists as well as the need for further research into the more selective activation of mGluR2. PMID:25724760

  19. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  20. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  1. r-2,c-6-Bis(4-fluoro­phen­yl)-t-3,t-5-dimethyl­piperidin-4-one

    PubMed Central

    Gayathri, D.; Velmurugan, D.; Aridoss, G.; Kabilan, S.; Ravikumar, K.

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H19F2NO, the piperidinone ring adopts a chair conformation. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H⋯O and C—H⋯F inter­molecular inter­actions, generating centrosymmetric dimers of R 2 2(14) and R 2 2(24) rings. PMID:21201456

  2. Genome-wide identification of cassava R2R3 MYB family genes related to abscission zone separation after environmental-stress-induced abscission.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenbin; Yang, Yiling; Li, Yayun; Wang, Gan; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) resist environmental stresses by shedding leaves in leaf pulvinus abscission zones (AZs), thus leading to adaptation to new environmental conditions. Little is known about the roles of cassava R2R3 MYB factors in regulating AZ separation. Herein, 166 cassava R2R3 MYB genes were identified. Evolutionary analysis indicated that the 166 R2R3 MYB genes could be divided into 11 subfamilies. Transcriptome analysis indicated that 26 R2R3 MYB genes were expressed in AZs across six time points during both ethylene- and water-deficit stress-induced leaf abscission. Comparative expression profile analysis of similar SOTA (Self Organizing Tree Algorithm) clusters demonstrated that 10 R2R3 MYB genes had similar expression patterns at six time points in response to both treatments. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation confirmed that all 10 R2R3 MYB genes participated in the responses to stress and ethylene and auxin stimuli. Analysis of the putative 10 R2R3 MYB promoter regions showed that those genes primarily contained ethylene- and stress-related cis-elements. The expression profiles of the genes acting downstream of the selected MYBs were confirmed to be involved in cassava abscission zone separation. All these results indicated that R2R3 MYB plays an important regulatory role in AZ separation. PMID:27573926

  3. Genome-wide identification of cassava R2R3 MYB family genes related to abscission zone separation after environmental-stress-induced abscission.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenbin; Yang, Yiling; Li, Yayun; Wang, Gan; Peng, Ming

    2016-08-30

    Cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) resist environmental stresses by shedding leaves in leaf pulvinus abscission zones (AZs), thus leading to adaptation to new environmental conditions. Little is known about the roles of cassava R2R3 MYB factors in regulating AZ separation. Herein, 166 cassava R2R3 MYB genes were identified. Evolutionary analysis indicated that the 166 R2R3 MYB genes could be divided into 11 subfamilies. Transcriptome analysis indicated that 26 R2R3 MYB genes were expressed in AZs across six time points during both ethylene- and water-deficit stress-induced leaf abscission. Comparative expression profile analysis of similar SOTA (Self Organizing Tree Algorithm) clusters demonstrated that 10 R2R3 MYB genes had similar expression patterns at six time points in response to both treatments. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation confirmed that all 10 R2R3 MYB genes participated in the responses to stress and ethylene and auxin stimuli. Analysis of the putative 10 R2R3 MYB promoter regions showed that those genes primarily contained ethylene- and stress-related cis-elements. The expression profiles of the genes acting downstream of the selected MYBs were confirmed to be involved in cassava abscission zone separation. All these results indicated that R2R3 MYB plays an important regulatory role in AZ separation.

  4. Loss of Nogo receptor homolog NgR2 alters spine morphology of CA1 neurons and emotionality in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, Sarah C.; Sartori, Simone B.; Lehmann, Julian; Sah, Anupam; Singewald, Nicolas; Bandtlow, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms which stabilize dendrites and dendritic spines are essential for regulation of neuronal plasticity in development and adulthood. The class of Nogo receptor proteins, which are critical for restricting neurite outgrowth inhibition signaling, have been shown to have roles in developmental, experience and activity induced plasticity. Here we investigated the role of the Nogo receptor homolog NgR2 in structural plasticity in a transgenic null mutant for NgR2. Using Golgi-Cox staining to analyze morphology, we show that loss of NgR2 alters spine morphology in adult CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, significantly increasing mushroom-type spines, without altering dendritic tree complexity. Furthermore, this shift is specific to apical dendrites in distal CA1 stratum radiatum (SR). Behavioral alterations in NgR2−/− mice were investigated using a battery of standardized tests and showed that whilst there were no alterations in learning and memory in NgR2−/− mice compared to littermate controls, NgR2−/− displayed reduced fear expression in the contextual conditioned fear test, and exhibited reduced anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. This suggests that the loss of NgR2 results in a specific phenotype of reduced emotionality. We conclude that NgR2 has role in maintenance of mature spines and may also regulate fear and anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:24860456

  5. Genome-wide identification of cassava R2R3 MYB family genes related to abscission zone separation after environmental-stress-induced abscission

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wenbin; Yang, Yiling; Li, Yayun; Wang, Gan; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) resist environmental stresses by shedding leaves in leaf pulvinus abscission zones (AZs), thus leading to adaptation to new environmental conditions. Little is known about the roles of cassava R2R3 MYB factors in regulating AZ separation. Herein, 166 cassava R2R3 MYB genes were identified. Evolutionary analysis indicated that the 166 R2R3 MYB genes could be divided into 11 subfamilies. Transcriptome analysis indicated that 26 R2R3 MYB genes were expressed in AZs across six time points during both ethylene- and water-deficit stress-induced leaf abscission. Comparative expression profile analysis of similar SOTA (Self Organizing Tree Algorithm) clusters demonstrated that 10 R2R3 MYB genes had similar expression patterns at six time points in response to both treatments. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation confirmed that all 10 R2R3 MYB genes participated in the responses to stress and ethylene and auxin stimuli. Analysis of the putative 10 R2R3 MYB promoter regions showed that those genes primarily contained ethylene- and stress-related cis-elements. The expression profiles of the genes acting downstream of the selected MYBs were confirmed to be involved in cassava abscission zone separation. All these results indicated that R2R3 MYB plays an important regulatory role in AZ separation. PMID:27573926

  6. Evidence of Construct Validity for Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of work values in the process of career adjustment (Dawis, 2002), little empirical research has focused on articulating the domains represented within the construct of work values and the examination of evidence of validity for the construct has been limited. Furthermore, the larger number of work values measures has made it…

  7. The C-terminus of interferon gamma receptor beta chain (IFNγR2) has antiapoptotic activity as a Bax inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Jose A.; Sun, Weiyon; Gama, Vivian; Hajkova, Dagmar; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Wu, Zhengrong; Miyagi, Masaru; Pink, John J.; Jackson, Mark W.; Danielpour, David; Matsuyama, Shigemi

    2010-01-01

    Bax is a pro-apoptotic protein that mediates intrinsic cell-death signaling. Using a yeast-based functional screening approach, we identified interferon gamma receptor beta chain (IFNγR2) as a new Bax suppressor. IFNγR2 is a component of the IFNγ receptor complex along with the IFNγR alpha chain (IFNγR1). Upon IFNγ binding, a conformational change in the receptor complex occurs that activates the Jak2/STAT1 signaling cascade. We found that the C-terminal region (amino acids 296–337) of IFNγR2 (IFNγR2296-337) contains a novel Bax inhibitory domain. This portion does not contain the Jak2-binding domain; therefore, the antiapoptotic function of IFNγR2 is independent of JAK/STAT signaling. IFNγR2296-337 rescued human cells from apoptosis induced by overexpression of Bax but not Bak. Overexpression of IFNγR2 (wild type and IFNγR2296-337) rescued cells from etopo-side and staurosporine, which are known to induce Bax-mediated cell death. Interestingly, IFNγR2 inhibited apoptosis induced by the BH3-only protein Bim-EL, suggesting that IFNγR2 inhibits Bax activation through a BH3-only protein. Bax and IFNγR2 were co-immunoprecipitated from cell lysates prepared from HEK293 and DAMI cells. Furthermore, direct binding of purified recombinant proteins of Bax and IFNγR2 was also confirmed. Addition of recombinant Bcl-2 protein to cell lysates significantly reduced the interaction of IFNγR2 and Bax, suggesting that Bcl-2 and IFNγR2 bind a similar domain of Bax. We found that the C-terminal fragment (cytoplasmic domain) of IFNγR2 is expressed in human cancer cell lines of megakaryocytic cancer (DAMI), breast cancer (MDA-MD-468), and prostate cancer (PC3 cells). The presence of the C-terminal fragment of IFNγR2 may confer on cancer cells resistance to apoptotic stresses. Our discovery of the anti-Bax activity of the cytoplasmic domain of IFNγR2 may shed new light on the mechanism of how cell death is controlled by IFNγ and Bax. PMID:19657228

  8. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  9. Differential expression of TLP, ERF1, and R2R3MYB in annual Medicago species under salinity conditions.

    PubMed

    Gharaghani, F; Rafiei, F; Mirakhorli, N; Ebrahimie, E

    2015-08-21

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the responses of three annual Medicago species (M. truncatula, M. laciniata, and M. polymorpha) to salinity. We analyzed publicly available microarray data in NCBI pertaining to salinity-response genes in M. truncatula. Our data search identified Tubby C2 (TLP) and ethylene responsive transcription factor 1 (ERF1) as genes that potentially respond to salinity. We evaluated morpho-physiological traits and the expression of the genes in three Medicago species that had been maintained under control and saline conditions. The analysis of morpho-physiological traits showed that M. polymorpha and M. laciniata were more tolerant to salinity than M. truncatula, as they had lower reductions in biomass and dry root weight and lower increases in anthocyanin concentration. The saline conditions caused a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the expression of TLP in all Medicago species, but caused a significant decrease in the expression of ERF1. Considerable variation in anthocyanin concentrations was found among the three Medicago species. To investigate the cause of this variation, we examined the expression of R2R3MYB, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Our analysis showed that saline conditions induced high over-expression of R2R3MYB in all three Medicago spp. The high efficiency of the primer pairs used in qRT-PCR enabled us to compare the expression levels of each gene in the three species. We concluded that the more salt tolerant species showed higher expression of TLP and R2R3MYB under both control and salinity conditions.

  10. Multiple R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors Involved in the Regulation of Anthocyanin Accumulation in Peach Flower

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Peng, Qian; Zhao, Jianbo; Owiti, Albert; Ren, Fei; Liao, Liao; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Jiang, Quan; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin accumulation is responsible for flower coloration in peach. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of eight flavonoid-related R2R3-MYB transcription factors, designated PpMYB10.2, PpMYB9, PpMYBPA1, Peace, PpMYB17, PpMYB18, PpMYB19, and PpMYB20, respectively, in peach flower transcriptome. PpMYB10.2 and PpMYB9 are able to activate transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, whilst PpMYBPA1 and Peace have a strong activation on the promoters of proanthocyanin (PA) biosynthetic genes. PpMYB17-20 show a strong repressive effect on transcription of flavonoid pathway genes such as dihydroflavonol 4-reductase. These results indicate that anthocyanin accumulation in peach flower is coordinately regulated by a set of R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, PpMYB9 and PpMYB10.2 are closely related but separated into two groups, designated MYB9 and MYB10, respectively. PpMYB9 shows a strong activation on the PpUGT78A2 promoter, but with no effect on the promoter of PpUGT78B (commonly called PpUFGT in previous studies). In contrast, PpMYB10.2 is able to activate the PpUFGT promoter, but not for the PpUGT78A2 promoter. Unlike the MYB10 gene that is universally present in plants, the MYB9 gene is lost in most dicot species. Therefore, the PpMYB9 gene represents a novel group of anthocyanin-related MYB activators, which may have diverged in function from the MYB10 genes. Our study will aid in understanding the complex mechanism regulating floral pigmentation in peach and functional divergence of the R2R3-MYB gene family in plants.

  11. Genetic variations of human herpesvirus 7 by analysis of glycoproteins B and H, and R2-repeat regions.

    PubMed

    Thawaranantha, Duanthanorm; Chimabutra, Kanittha; Balachandra, Kruavon; Warachit, Paijit; Pantuwatana, Somsak; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Inagi, Reiko; Kurata, Takeshi; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2002-03-01

    Clinical isolates of human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) from the saliva of healthy individual were investigated for genetic variations in the regions of two immediate-early (IE) genes, the glycoprotein B (gB) and glycoprotein H (gH) genes, and in R2-repeat. The genomic DNA of 24 isolates from citizens of Thailand, Japan, and the United States was amplified to detect size variations in the IE-1 and IE-2 loci, but none was observed, suggesting that there was no deletion or insertion in these genes, in contrast with an IE gene of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). The sequences of the gB gene from isolates acquired from 5 Japanese and 8 Thai subject were then compared with those of American strains JI and RK with respect to codons that are known to differentiate gB alleles. All the isolates were found to have gB allele C except for the JI strain, which has allele F. Variability was also observed in five specific gH codons, resulting in 6 different groups. The HHV-7 isolates might be classified into two major genetic variants by combining their gB and gH allelic groupings. In the present study, only JI belonged to variant 1, while the rest of the isolates appeared to belong to variant 2. In the R2-repeat region, size heterogeneities were observed among the 24 isolates, due to different repeat numbers (17, 15, 14, 13, or 12 repeats). Therefore, we used the R2-repeat to identify the origins of isolates in a study of HHV-7 transmission, and found HHV-7 to be transmitted within a family from both mothers and fathers to their children.

  12. Enhanced phagocytic activity of HIV-specific antibodies correlates with natural production of immunoglobulins with skewed affinity for FcγR2a and FcγR2b.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Margaret E; Dugast, Anne-Sophie; McAndrew, Elizabeth G; Tsoukas, Stephen; Licht, Anna F; Irvine, Darrell J; Alter, Galit

    2013-05-01

    While development of an HIV vaccine that can induce neutralizing antibodies remains a priority, decades of research have proven that this is a daunting task. However, accumulating evidence suggests that antibodies with the capacity to harness innate immunity may provide some protection. While significant research has focused on the cytolytic properties of antibodies in acquisition and control, less is known about the role of additional effector functions. In this study, we investigated antibody-dependent phagocytosis of HIV immune complexes, and we observed significant differences in the ability of antibodies from infected subjects to mediate this critical effector function. We observed both quantitative differences in the capacity of antibodies to drive phagocytosis and qualitative differences in their FcγR usage profile. We demonstrate that antibodies from controllers and untreated progressors exhibit increased phagocytic activity, altered Fc domain glycosylation, and skewed interactions with FcγR2a and FcγR2b in both bulk plasma and HIV-specific IgG. While increased phagocytic activity may directly influence immune activation via clearance of inflammatory immune complexes, it is also plausible that Fc receptor usage patterns may regulate the immune response by modulating downstream signals following phagocytosis--driving passive degradation of internalized virus, release of immune modulating cytokines and chemokines, or priming of a more effective adaptive immune response.

  13. Proton-decoupled CPMG: a better experiment for measuring (15)N R2 relaxation in disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Yuwen, Tairan; Skrynnikov, Nikolai R

    2014-04-01

    (15)N R2 relaxation is one of the most informative experiments for characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Small changes in nitrogen R2 rates are often used to determine how IDPs respond to various biologically relevant perturbations such as point mutations, posttranslational modifications and weak ligand interactions. However collecting high-quality (15)N relaxation data can be difficult. Of necessity, the samples of IDPs are often prepared with low protein concentration and the measurement time can be limited because of rapid sample degradation. Furthermore, due to hardware limitations standard experiments such as (15)N spin-lock and CPMG can sample the relaxation decay only to ca. 150ms. This is much shorter than (15)N T2 times in disordered proteins at or near physiological temperature. As a result, the sampling of relaxation decay profiles in these experiments is suboptimal, which further lowers the precision of the measurements. Here we report a new implementation of the proton-decoupled (PD) CPMG experiment which allows one to sample (15)N R2 relaxation decay up to ca. 0.5-1s. The new experiment has been validated through comparison with the well-established spin-lock measurement. Using dilute samples of denatured ubiquitin, we have demonstrated that PD-CPMG produces up to 3-fold improvement in the precision of the data. It is expected that for intrinsically disordered proteins the gains may be even more substantial. We have also shown that this sequence has a number of favorable properties: (i) the spectra are recorded with narrow linewidth in nitrogen dimension; (ii) (15)N offset correction is small and easy to calculate; (iii) the experiment is immune to various spurious effects arising from solvent exchange; (iv) the results are stable with respect to pulse miscalibration and rf field inhomogeneity; (v) with minimal change, the pulse sequence can also be used to measure R2 relaxation of (15)N(ε) spins in arginine side chains. We

  14. First-flight escape from spheres with R(-2) density distribution. [particle flux from comets, stars and unconfined plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, W. F.; Keady, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Energy-independent first-flight transport kernels are evaluated for a spherical region with an R(-2) density distribution. The uncollided angular-flux distribution is obtained and integrated for a source distribution that is proportional to the density to give the uncollided emitted particle flux and current density. These are useful for the calculation of mass, energy, and momentum carried away by fast particles born in the medium. The data are relevant to estimate escape from weakly bound atmospheres such as comet comae, dilute circumstellar envelopes, and some unconfined laboratory plasmas.

  15. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meghan A; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2012-02-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers' and fathers' parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with lower parenting self-efficacy, but self-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with higher parenting satisfaction. For fathers, societal-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with higher parenting stress, whereas higher levels of self-oriented parenting perfectionism were associated with higher parenting self-efficacy, lower parenting stress, and greater parenting satisfaction. These findings support the distinction between societal- and self-oriented perfectionism, extend research on perfectionism to interpersonal adjustment in the parenting domain, and provide the first evidence for the potential consequences of holding excessively high standards for parenting. PMID:22328797

  16. Adjusting the Contour of Reflector Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Giebler, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Postfabrication adjustment of contour of panels for reflector, such as parabolic reflector for radio antennas, possible with simple mechanism consisting of threaded stud, two nuts, and flexure. Contours adjusted manually.

  17. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.

    1978-01-01

    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  18. Toxic mechanisms of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol on progesterone production in R2C rat leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianxia; Bai, Shun; Bai, Weibin; Zou, Feiyan; Zhang, Lei; Su, Zhijian; Zhang, Qihao; Ou, Shiyi; Huang, Yadong

    2013-10-16

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a well-known food processing contaminant that has been shown to impede the male reproductive function. However, its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. In this study, the effects of 3-MCPD on progesterone production were investigated using R2C Leydig cells. 3-MCPD caused concentration-dependent inhibition of cell viability at the IC25, IC50, and IC75 levels of 1.027, 1.802, and 3.160 mM, respectively. Single cell gel/comet assay and atomic force microscopy assay showed that 3-MCPD significantly induced early apoptosis. In addition, 3-MCPD significantly reduced progesterone production by reducing the expression of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in R2C cells. The change in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression was highly consistent with progesterone production. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential and cAMP significantly decreased. PMID:24040863

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoyang; Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    MYB transcription factor represents one of the largest gene families in plant genomes. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, and recently the genome has been sequenced. This provides an opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary characteristics of sweet orange MYB genes from whole genome view. In the present study, we identified 100 R2R3-MYB genes in the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive analysis of this gene family was performed, including the phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization and expression pattern analyses. The 100 genes were divided into 29 subfamilies based on the sequence similarity and phylogeny, and the classification was also well supported by the highly conserved exon/intron structures and motif composition. The phylogenomic comparison of MYB gene family among sweet orange and related plant species, Arabidopsis, cacao and papaya suggested the existence of functional divergence during evolution. Expression profiling indicated that sweet orange R2R3-MYB genes exhibited distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns. Our analysis suggested that the sweet orange MYB genes may play important roles in different plant biological processes, some of which may be potentially involved in citrus fruit quality. These results will be useful for future functional analysis of the MYB gene family in sweet orange.

  20. Measurement of liver iron overload: noninvasive calibration of MRI-R2* by magnetic iron detector susceptometer.

    PubMed

    Gianesin, B; Zefiro, D; Musso, M; Rosa, A; Bruzzone, C; Balocco, M; Carrara, P; Bacigalupo, L; Banderali, S; Rollandi, G A; Gambaro, M; Marinelli, M; Forni, G L

    2012-06-01

    An accurate assessment of body iron accumulation is essential for the diagnosis and therapy of iron overload in diseases such as thalassemia or hemochromatosis. Magnetic iron detector susceptometry and MRI are noninvasive techniques capable of detecting iron overload in the liver. Although the transverse relaxation rate measured by MRI can be correlated with the presence of iron, a calibration step is needed to obtain the liver iron concentration. Magnetic iron detector provides an evaluation of the iron overload in the whole liver. In this article, we describe a retrospective observational study comparing magnetic iron detector and MRI examinations performed on the same group of 97 patients with transfusional or congenital iron overload. A biopsy-free linear calibration to convert the average transverse relaxation rate in iron overload (R(2) = 0.72), or in liver iron concentration evaluated in wet tissue (R(2) = 0.68), is presented. This article also compares liver iron concentrations calculated in dry tissue using MRI and the existing biopsy calibration with liver iron concentrations evaluated in wet tissue by magnetic iron detector to obtain an estimate of the wet-to-dry conversion factor of 6.7 ± 0.8 (95% confidence level).

  1. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of small R2R‧2N+X--type quaternary ammonium halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busi, Sara; Lahtinen, Manu; Mansikkamäki, Heidi; Valkonen, Jussi; Rissanen, Kari

    2005-06-01

    Twenty-one R2R'2N +X- -type ( R=methyl or ethyl, R'=alkyl, X=Br or I) quaternary ammonium (QA) halides have been prepared by using a novel one-pot synthetic route in which a formamide (dimethyl-, diethylformamide, etc.) is treated with alkyl halide in the presence of sodium or potassium carbonate. The formation of QA halides was verified with 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The crystal structures of four QA halides (two bromide and two iodide) were determined using X-ray single crystal diffraction, and the powder diffraction method was used to study the structural similarities between the single crystal and microcrystalline bulk material. The thermal properties of all compounds were studied using TG/DTA and DSC methods. The smallest compounds decomposed during or before melting. The decreasing trend of melting points was observed when the alkyl chain length was increased. The liquid ranges of 120-180 °C were observed for compounds with 5-6 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain. The low melting points and wide liquid ranges suggest potential applicability of these compounds for example as ionic liquids precursors.

  2. High-resolution structural analysis shows how Tah1 tethers Hsp90 to the R2TP complex.

    PubMed

    Back, Régis; Dominguez, Cyril; Rothé, Benjamin; Bobo, Claude; Beaufils, Chrystel; Moréra, Solange; Meyer, Philippe; Charpentier, Bruno; Branlant, Christiane; Allain, Frédéric H-T; Manival, Xavier

    2013-10-01

    The ubiquitous Hsp90 chaperone participates in snoRNP and RNA polymerase assembly through interaction with the R2TP complex. This complex includes the proteins Tah1, Pih1, Rvb1, and Rvb2. Tah1 bridges Hsp90 to R2TP. Its minimal TPR domain includes two TPR motifs and a capping helix. We established the high-resolution solution structures of Tah1 free and in complex with the Hsp90 C-terminal peptide. The TPR fold is similar in the free and bound forms and we show experimentally that in addition to its solvating/stabilizing role, the capping helix is essential for the recognition of the Hsp90 (704)EMEEVD(709) motif. In addition to Lys79 and Arg83 from the carboxylate clamp, this helix bears Tyr82 forming a π/S-CH3 interaction with Hsp90 M(705) from the peptide 310 helix. The Tah1 C-terminal region is unfolded, and we demonstrate that it is essential for the recruitment of the Pih1 C-terminal domain and folds upon binding. PMID:24012479

  3. The microRNA-124-iGluR2/3 pathway regulates glucagon release from alpha cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyang; Liu, Rui; Deng, Ting; Wang, Xia; Lang, Hongmei; Qu, Yanjun; Duan, Jingjing; Huang, Dingzhi; Ying, Guoguang; Ba, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon, secreted from islet alpha cells, plays an important role in regulating glucose homeostasis; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is not fully understood. Previous studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are involved in the function of alpha cells. Glutamate promotes glucagon secretion by mediating the opening of Ca2+ channels. In this present, iGluR2 and iGluR3 levels were significantly increased in fasting-treated mouse islets. Additional studies showed that miR-124-3p simultaneously regulates the expression of iGluR2 and iGluR3 through the direct targeting of mRNA 3’UTR of these two genes. The miR-124-iGluRs pathway also contributed to the high level of glucagon secretion through long-term high glucose levels. Thus, a novel pathway comprising miRNA, glutamate and iGluRs has been demonstrated to regulate the biological process of glucagon release. PMID:27013590

  4. Molecular and Merrifield supported chiral diamines for enantioselective addition of ZnR2 (R = Me, Et) to ketones.

    PubMed

    Calvillo-Barahona, Mercedes; Cordovilla, Carlos; Genov, Miroslav N; Martínez-Ilarduya, Jesús M; Espinet, Pablo

    2013-10-28

    Chiral 1,2-ethylenediamines have been previously reported as active catalysts in the enantioselective addition reactions of ZnR2 to either methyl- or trifluoromethyl-ketones. Subtle changes in the molecular structure of different catalysts are described herein and lead to a dramatic effect in their catalytic activity. From these findings, we demonstrate the selective reactivity of the ligands used in the addition of ZnR2 (R = Me, Et) to methyl- and trifluoromethyl-ketones offering an enantioselective access either to chiral non-fluorinated alcohols or to chiral fluorinated tertiary alcohols. Considering the importance of the chiral trifluoromethyl carbinol fragment in several biologically active compounds, we have extended the scope of the addition reaction of ZnEt2 to several trifluoromethylketones catalyzed by (R,R)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine derivatives. This work explores a homogeneous approach that provides excellent yields and very high ee and the use of a heterogenized tail-tied ligand affording moderate ee, high yields and allowing an easier handling and recycling.

  5. Targeting Death Receptor TRAIL-R2 by Chalcones for TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szliszka, Ewelina; Jaworska, Dagmara; Kłósek, Małgorzata; Czuba, Zenon P.; Król, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL binds to death receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5) expressed on cancer cell surface and activates apoptotic pathways. Endogenous TRAIL plays an important role in immune surveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL mediated death, it is important to search for and develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. Chalcones can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL in combination with four chalcones: chalcone, isobavachalcone, licochalcone A and xanthohumol on HeLa cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC staining by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Death receptor expression was analyzed using flow cytometry. The decreased expression of death receptors in cancer cells may be the cause of TRAIL-resistance. Chalcones enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through increased expression of TRAIL-R2. Our study has indicated that chalcones augment the antitumor activity of TRAIL and confirm their cancer chemopreventive properties. PMID:23203129

  6. ScbR- and ScbR2-mediated signal transduction networks coordinate complex physiological responses in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Juan; Li, Shanshan; Ji, Junjie; Wang, Weishan; Yang, Keqian

    2015-01-01

    In model organism Streptomyces coelicolor, γ-butyrolactones (GBLs) and antibiotics were recognized as signalling molecules playing fundamental roles in intra- and interspecies communications. To dissect the GBL and antibiotic signalling networks systematically, the in vivo targets of their respective receptors ScbR and ScbR2 were identified on a genome scale by ChIP-seq. These identified targets encompass many that are known to play important roles in diverse cellular processes (e.g. gap1, pyk2, afsK, nagE2, cdaR, cprA, cprB, absA1, actII-orf4, redZ, atrA, rpsL and sigR), and they formed regulatory cascades, sub-networks and feedforward loops to elaborately control key metabolite processes, including primary and secondary metabolism, morphological differentiation and stress response. Moreover, interplay among ScbR, ScbR2 and other regulators revealed intricate cross talks between signalling pathways triggered by GBLs, antibiotics, nutrient availability and stress. Our work provides a global view on the specific responses that could be triggered by GBL and antibiotic signals in S. coelicolor, among which the main echo was the change of production profile of endogenous antibiotics and antibiotic signals manifested a role to enhance bacterial stress tolerance as well, shedding new light on GBL and antibiotic signalling networks widespread among streptomycetes. PMID:26442964

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of the ligand-binding domain of the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR2.

    PubMed Central

    Arinaminpathy, Yalini; Sansom, Mark S P; Biggin, Philip C

    2002-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors are essential for fast synaptic nerve transmission. Recent x-ray structures for the ligand-binding (S1S2) region of the GluR2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-sensitive receptor have suggested how differences in protein/ligand interactions may determine whether a ligand will behave as a full agonist. We have used multiple molecular dynamics simulations of 2-5 ns duration to explore the structural dynamics of GluR2 S1S2 in the presence and absence of glutamate and in a complex with kainate. Our studies indicate that not only is the degree of domain closure dependent upon interactions with the ligand, but also that protein/ligand interactions influence the motion of the S2 domain with respect to S1. Differences in domain mobility between the three states (apo-S1S2, glutamate-bound, and kainate-bound) are surprisingly clear-cut. We discuss how these changes in dynamics may provide an explanation relating the mechanism of transmission of the agonist-binding event to channel opening. We also show here how the glutamate may adopt an alternative mode of binding not seen in the x-ray structure, which involves a key threonine (T480) side chain flipping into a new conformation. This new conformation results in an altered pattern of hydrogen bonding at the agonist-binding site. PMID:11806910

  8. Characterization of two tartary buckwheat R2R3-MYB transcription factors and their regulation of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yue-Chen; Li, Cheng-Lei; Zhang, Jin-Wen; Li, Shuang-Jiang; Luo, Xiao-Peng; Yao, Hui-Peng; Chen, Hui; Zhao, Hai-Xia; Park, Sang-Un; Wu, Qi

    2014-11-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) contains high concentrations of flavonoids. The flavonoids are mainly represented by rutin, anthocyanins and proanthocyanins in tartary buckwheat. R2R3-type MYB transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in the transcriptional regulation of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, two TF genes, FtMYB1 and FtMYB2, were isolated from F. tataricum and characterized. The results of bioinformatic analysis indicated that the putative FtMYB1 and FtMYB2 proteins belonged to the R2R3-MYB family and displayed a high degree of similarity with TaMYB14 and AtMYB123/TT2. In vitro and in vivo evidence both showed the two proteins were located in the nucleus and exhibited transcriptional activation activities. During florescence, both FtMYB1 and FtMYB2 were more highly expressed in the flowers than any other organ. The overexpression of FtMYB1 and FtMYB2 significantly enhanced the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and showed a strong effect on the target genes' expression in Nicotiana tabacum. The expression of dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) was upregulated to 5.6-fold higher than that of control, and the expression level was lower for flavonol synthase (FLS). To our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of two MYB TFs from F. tataricum that control the PA pathway. PMID:24730512

  9. Generalized adjustment by least squares ( GALS).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elassal, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The least-squares principle is universally accepted as the basis for adjustment procedures in the allied fields of geodesy, photogrammetry and surveying. A prototype software package for Generalized Adjustment by Least Squares (GALS) is described. The package is designed to perform all least-squares-related functions in a typical adjustment program. GALS is capable of supporting development of adjustment programs of any size or degree of complexity. -Author

  10. Self-reported adjustment of teenagers at soccer training centers: the Soccer Trainee Adjustment Scale.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Raphaël; Nicolas, Michel; Labruère-Chazal, Catherine; Lacassagne, Marie-Françoise

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire to measure adjustment of teenagers at soccer training centers, particularly newcomers. The Soccer Trainee Adjustment Scale was adapted from the Institutional Integration Scale and assesses the trainee's adjustment to operating and social activities. The scale was tested on a sample of 136 trainees from four soccer centers. Exploratory analysis indicated that the 13 items formed five factors: peer adjustment, boarding supervisor adjustment, soccer adjustment, scholastic adjustment, and boarding adjustment. These factors had internal consistency reliability ranging from .76 to .94.

  11. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, NMR, NBO, NLO) investigation and molecular docking study of (R)-2-Methylamino-1-Phenylethanol (Halostachine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashini, K.; Govindarajan, R.; Surendran, R.; Mukund, K.; Periandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm-1) spectra of (R)-2-Methylamino-1-Phenylethanol have been recorded in solid phase, 1H and 13C NMR in deuterated chloroform (CDCl3) phase and UV spectrum (200-400 nm) in solid phase and in ethanol solution. The different conformers of the compound and their minimum energies were studied by potential energy surface scan, using semi-empirical method PM6. The computed wavenumbers obtained from B3LYP and B3PW91 functionals along with 6-311++G (d, p) basis sets were scaled so as to agree with the experimental values and the scaling factors have been reported. All the fundamental modes have been assigned based on the potential energy distribution (PED) values and the structure of the molecule was analyzed in parameters like bond length, bond angle and dihedral angles through B3LYP and B3PW91 functionals along with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The values of dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α) and hyper polarizability (β) of the molecule were calculated using which, the non-linear optical property of the molecule has been discussed. The observed HOMO-LUMO mappings reveals the different charge transfer possibilities within the molecule. Natural Bond Orbital analysis was computed and possible transitions were correlated with the electronic transitions. Mulliken charges, electrostatic potential charges and natural charges are also predicted. The theoretical 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were computed using B3LYP functionals using 6-311++G (2d, p) basis sets. The temperature dependence of the thermodynamic properties; heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy for the title compound were also determined by B3LYP functionals with 6-311++G (d, p) basis set. Molecular docking study shows that the title compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against Bacillus anthracis (3V5O).

  12. From forced collapse to H ii region expansion in Mon R2: Envelope density structure and age determination with Herschel⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didelon, P.; Motte, F.; Tremblin, P.; Hill, T.; Hony, S.; Hennemann, M.; Hennebelle, P.; Anderson, L. D.; Galliano, F.; Schneider, N.; Rayner, T.; Rygl, K.; Louvet, F.; Zavagno, A.; Könyves, V.; Sauvage, M.; André, Ph.; Bontemps, S.; Peretto, N.; Griffin, M.; González, M.; Lebouteiller, V.; Arzoumanian, D.; Bernard, J.-P.; Benedettini, M.; Di Francesco, J.; Men'shchikov, A.; Minier, V.; Nguyên Luong, Q.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Russeil, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The surroundings of H ii regions can have a profound influence on their development, morphology, and evolution. This paper explores the effect of the environment on H ii regions in the MonR2 molecular cloud. Aims: We aim to investigate the density structure of envelopes surrounding H ii regions and to determine their collapse and ionisation expansion ages. The Mon R2 molecular cloud is an ideal target since it hosts an H ii region association, which has been imaged by the Herschel PACS and SPIRE cameras as part of the HOBYS key programme. Methods: Column density and temperature images derived from Herschel data were used together to model the structure of H ii bubbles and their surrounding envelopes. The resulting observational constraints were used to follow the development of the Mon R2 ionised regions with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. Results: The four hot bubbles associated with H ii regions are surrounded by dense, cold, and neutral gas envelopes, which are partly embedded in filaments. The envelope's radial density profiles are reminiscent of those of low-mass protostellar envelopes. The inner parts of envelopes of all four H ii regions could be free-falling because they display shallow density profiles: ρ(r) ∝ r- q with q ≤slant 1.5. As for their outer parts, the two compact H ii regions show a ρ(r) ∝ r-2 profile, which is typical of the equilibrium structure of a singular isothermal sphere. In contrast, the central UCH ii region shows a steeper outer profile, ρ(r) ∝ r-2.5, that could be interpreted as material being forced to collapse, where an external agent overwhelms the internal pressure support. Conclusions: The size of the heated bubbles, the spectral type of the irradiating stars, and the mean initial neutral gas density are used to estimate the ionisation expansion time, texp ~ 0.1 Myr, for the dense UCH ii and compact H ii regions and ~ 0.35 Myr for the extended H ii region. Numerical simulations with and

  13. Rational Reprogramming of the R2 Subunit of Escherichia coli Ribonucleotide Reductase into a Self-Hydroxylating Monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.; Voegtli, W.C.; Khidekel, N.; Moënne-Loccoz, P.; Krebs, C.; Ley, B.A.; Huynh, B.H.; Loehr, T.M.; Rosenzweig, A.C.; Bollinger, Jr., J.M.

    2010-03-05

    The outcome of O{sub 2} activation at the diiron(II) cluster in the R2 subunit of Escherichia coli (class I) ribonucleotide reductase has been rationally altered from the normal tyrosyl radical (Y122) production to self-hydroxylation of a phenylalanine side-chain by two amino acid substitutions that leave intact the (histidine){sub 2}-(carboxylate){sub 4} ligand set characteristic of the diiron-carboxylate family. Iron ligand Asp (D) 84 was replaced with Glu (E), the amino acid found in the cognate position of the structurally similar diiron-carboxylate protein, methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH). We previously showed that this substitution allows accumulation of a {mu}-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) intermediate, which does not accumulate in the wild-type (wt) protein and is probably a structural homologue of intermediate P (H{sub peroxo}) in O{sub 2} activation by MMOH. In addition, the near-surface residue Trp (W) 48 was replaced with Phe (F), blocking transfer of the 'extra' electron that occurs in wt R2 during formation of the formally Fe(III)Fe(IV) cluster X. Decay of the {mu}-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) complex in R2-W48F/D84E gives an initial brown product, which contains very little Y122 and which converts very slowly (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 7 h) upon incubation at 0 C to an intensely purple final product. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the purple product indicates that F208 has undergone {epsilon}-hydroxylation and the resulting phenol has shifted significantly to become a ligand to Fe2 of the diiron cluster. Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the purple product generated with {sup 16}O{sub 2} or {sub 18}O{sub 2} show appropriate isotopic sensitivity in bands assigned to O-phenyl and Fe-O-phenyl vibrational modes, confirming that the oxygen of the Fe(III)-phenolate species is derived from O{sub 2}. Chemical analysis, experiments involving interception of the hydroxylating intermediate with exogenous reductant, and Moessbauer and EXAFS characterization of the brown

  14. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  15. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  16. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  17. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  18. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  19. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  20. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  1. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  2. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  3. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  4. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  5. The mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator, SAR218645, improves memory and attention deficits in translational models of cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Griebel, Guy; Pichat, Philippe; Boulay, Denis; Naimoli, Vanessa; Potestio, Lisa; Featherstone, Robert; Sahni, Sukhveen; Defex, Henry; Desvignes, Christophe; Slowinski, Franck; Vigé, Xavier; Bergis, Olivier E.; Sher, Rosy; Kosley, Raymond; Kongsamut, Sathapana; Black, Mark D.; Varty, Geoffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Normalization of altered glutamate neurotransmission through activation of the mGluR2 has emerged as a new approach to treat schizophrenia. These studies describe a potent brain penetrant mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SAR218645. The compound behaves as a selective PAM of mGluR2 in recombinant and native receptor expression systems, increasing the affinity of glutamate at mGluR2 as inferred by competition and GTPγ35S binding assays. SAR218645 augmented the mGluR2-mediated response to glutamate in a rat recombinant mGluR2 forced-coupled Ca2+ mobilization assay. SAR218645 potentiated mGluR2 agonist-induced contralateral turning. When SAR218645 was tested in models of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, it reduced head twitch behavior induced by DOI, but it failed to inhibit conditioned avoidance and hyperactivity using pharmacological and transgenic models. Results from experiments in models of the cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia showed that SAR218645 improved MK-801-induced episodic memory deficits in rats and attenuated working memory impairment in NMDA Nr1neo−/− mice. The drug reversed disrupted latent inhibition and auditory-evoked potential in mice and rats, respectively, two endophenotypes of schizophrenia. This profile positions SAR218645 as a promising candidate for the treatment of cognitive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia, in particular those with abnormal attention and sensory gating abilities. PMID:27734956

  6. Analysis of the 5{prime} junctions of R2 insertions with the 28S gene: Implications for non-LTR retrotransposition

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.A.; Burke, W.D.; Eickbush, T.H.

    1996-03-01

    R2 elements are non-long terminal repeat retrotransposable elements that insert into 28S rRNA genes of most insect species. The single open reading frame of R2 encodes a protein with both endonuclease activity, which cleaves the target site, and reverse transcriptase activity, which uses this cleavage to prime reverse transcription. This target-primed reverse transcription mechanism is also used by group II introns. Little is known of the mechanism by which the 5{prime} end of R2 is integrated after reverse transcription. We have determined the 5{prime} junction sequence of 94 R2 elements from 14 different species of Drosophila. Only 37% of the full-length elements contained precise 5{prime} junctions; the remainder contained deletions of the 28S gene and/or insertions of additional sequences. Because the 5{prime} junctions of truncated copies were similar to full-length elements, no sequences at the 5{prime} end of R2 appear to be required for element integration. A model in which the R2 reverse transcriptase is capable of switching templates from the R2 RNA transcript to the upstream 28S gene can best explain the observed 5{prime} junction sequences. This template jumping is analogous to the template switching of retroviral reverse transcriptases during formation of the double-stranded integration products. 44 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Exploring Mexican American adolescent romantic relationship profiles and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Danyel A V; Roosa, Mark W

    2015-08-01

    Although Mexican Americans are the largest ethnic minority group in the nation, knowledge is limited regarding this population's adolescent romantic relationships. This study explored whether 12th grade Mexican Americans' (N = 218; 54% female) romantic relationship characteristics, cultural values, and gender created unique latent classes and if so, whether they were linked to adjustment. Latent class analyses suggested three profiles including, relatively speaking, higher, satisfactory, and lower quality romantic relationships. Regression analyses indicated these profiles had distinct associations with adjustment. Specifically, adolescents with higher and satisfactory quality romantic relationships reported greater future family expectations, higher self-esteem, and fewer externalizing symptoms than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Similarly, adolescents with higher quality romantic relationships reported greater academic self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Overall, results suggested higher quality romantic relationships were most optimal for adjustment. Future research directions and implications are discussed. PMID:26141198

  8. ADJUSTING DEVELOPMENT TO SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability in any ecosystem is conditioned by properties established by nature. Intervention into ecosystems for the purposes of developing the built/socio-physical environment involves value judgments regarding human well-being. Therefore, if development is sustainable, it m...

  9. Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    The World Health Organization, through the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), has established guidance on the use of mechanistic data to replace default uncertainty factors for interspecies extrapolation and intraspecies variability in deriving risk values such as...

  10. The oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate activates NF-κB-dependent tumor-promoting stromal niche for acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Yi; Lai, You-Syuan; Tsai, Hui-Jen; Kuo, Cheng-Chin; Yen, B Linju; Yeh, Su-Peng; Sun, H Sunny; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells produce the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) to induce epigenetic alteration and block hematopoietic differentiation. However, the effect of R-2HG released by IDH-mutated AML cells on the bone marrow microenvironment is unclear. Here, we report that R-2HG induces IκB kinase-independent activation of NF-κB in bone marrow stromal cells. R-2HG acts via a reactive oxygen species/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathway to phosphorylate NF-κB on the Thr254 residue. This phosphorylation enhances the interaction of NF-κB and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase PIN1 and increases the protein stability and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. As a consequence, R-2HG enhances NF-κB-dependent expression of cytokines including IL-6, IL-8 and complement 5a to stimulate proliferation of AML cells. In addition, R-2HG also upregulates vascular endothelial adhesion molecule 1 and CXCR4 in stromal cells to enhance the contact between AML and stromal cells and attenuates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. More importantly, we validated the R-2HG-activated gene signature in the primary bone marrow stromal cells isolated from IDH-mutated AML patients. Collectively, our results suggest that AML cell-derived R-2HG may be helpful for the establishment of a supportive bone marrow stromal niche to promote AML progression via paracrine stimulation. PMID:27577048

  11. A Novel Muscarinic Antagonist R2HBJJ Inhibits Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Growth and Arrests the Cell Cycle in G0/G1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Ma, Xiaoyun; He, Xinhua; Zhuo, Rengong; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Liyun; Yan, Haitao; Zhong, Bohua; Zheng, Jianquan

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancers express the cholinergic autocrine loop, which facilitates the progression of cancer cells. The antagonists of mAChRs have been demonstrated to depress the growth of small cell lung cancers (SCLCs). In this study we intended to investigate the growth inhibitory effect of R2HBJJ, a novel muscarinic antagonist, on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and the possible mechanisms. The competitive binding assay revealed that R2HBJJ had a high affinity to M3 and M1 AChRs. R2HBJJ presented a strong anticholinergic activity on carbachol-induced contraction of guinea-pig trachea. R2HBJJ markedly suppressed the growth of NSCLC cells, such as H1299, H460 and H157. In H1299 cells, both R2HBJJ and its leading compound R2-PHC displayed significant anti-proliferative activity as M3 receptor antagonist darifenacin. Exogenous replenish of ACh could attenuate R2HBJJ-induced growth inhibition. Silencing M3 receptor or ChAT by specific-siRNAs resulted in a growth inhibition of 55.5% and 37.9% on H1299 cells 96 h post transfection, respectively. Further studies revealed that treatment with R2HBJJ arrested the cell cycle in G0/G1 by down-regulation of cyclin D1-CDK4/6-Rb. Therefore, the current study reveals that NSCLC cells express an autocrine and paracrine cholinergic system which stimulates the growth of NSCLC cells. R2HBJJ, as a novel mAChRs antagonist, can block the local cholinergic loop by antagonizing predominantly M3 receptors and inhibit NSCLC cell growth, which suggest that M3 receptor antagonist might be a potential chemotherapeutic regimen for NSCLC. PMID:23285263

  12. HF-EPR, Raman, UV/VIS Light Spectroscopic, and DFT Studies of the Ribonucleotide Reductase R2 Tyrosyl Radical from Epstein-Barr Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tomter, Ane B.; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Schmitzberger, Florian; Andersen, Niels H.; Barra, Anne-Laure; Engman, Henrik; Nordlund, Pär; Andersson, K. Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) belongs to the gamma subfamily of herpes viruses, among the most common pathogenic viruses in humans worldwide. The viral ribonucleotide reductase small subunit (RNR R2) is involved in the biosynthesis of nucleotides, the DNA precursors necessary for viral replication, and is an important drug target for EBV. RNR R2 generates a stable tyrosyl radical required for enzymatic turnover. Here, the electronic and magnetic properties of the tyrosyl radical in EBV R2 have been determined by X-band and high-field/high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy recorded at cryogenic temperatures. The radical exhibits an unusually low g1-tensor component at 2.0080, indicative of a positive charge in the vicinity of the radical. Consistent with these EPR results a relatively high C-O stretching frequency associated with the phenoxyl radical (at 1508 cm−1) is observed with resonance Raman spectroscopy. In contrast to mouse R2, EBV R2 does not show a deuterium shift in the resonance Raman spectra. Thus, the presence of a water molecule as a hydrogen bond donor moiety could not be identified unequivocally. Theoretical simulations showed that a water molecule placed at a distance of 2.6 Å from the tyrosyl-oxygen does not result in a detectable deuterium shift in the calculated Raman spectra. UV/VIS light spectroscopic studies with metal chelators and tyrosyl radical scavengers are consistent with a more accessible dimetal binding/radical site and a lower affinity for Fe2+ in EBV R2 than in Escherichia coli R2. Comparison with previous studies of RNR R2s from mouse, bacteria, and herpes viruses, demonstrates that finely tuned electronic properties of the radical exist within the same RNR R2 Ia class. PMID:21980375

  13. The oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate activates NF-κB-dependent tumor-promoting stromal niche for acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing-Yi; Lai, You-Syuan; Tsai, Hui-Jen; Kuo, Cheng-Chin; Yen, B. Linju; Yeh, Su-Peng; Sun, H. Sunny; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells produce the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) to induce epigenetic alteration and block hematopoietic differentiation. However, the effect of R-2HG released by IDH-mutated AML cells on the bone marrow microenvironment is unclear. Here, we report that R-2HG induces IκB kinase-independent activation of NF-κB in bone marrow stromal cells. R-2HG acts via a reactive oxygen species/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathway to phosphorylate NF-κB on the Thr254 residue. This phosphorylation enhances the interaction of NF-κB and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase PIN1 and increases the protein stability and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. As a consequence, R-2HG enhances NF-κB-dependent expression of cytokines including IL-6, IL-8 and complement 5a to stimulate proliferation of AML cells. In addition, R-2HG also upregulates vascular endothelial adhesion molecule 1 and CXCR4 in stromal cells to enhance the contact between AML and stromal cells and attenuates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. More importantly, we validated the R-2HG-activated gene signature in the primary bone marrow stromal cells isolated from IDH-mutated AML patients. Collectively, our results suggest that AML cell-derived R-2HG may be helpful for the establishment of a supportive bone marrow stromal niche to promote AML progression via paracrine stimulation. PMID:27577048

  14. OsMYB103L, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, influences leaf rolling and mechanical strength in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The shape of grass leaves possesses great value in both agronomy and developmental biology research. Leaf rolling is one of the important traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding. MYB transcription factors are one of the largest gene families and have important roles in plant development, metabolism and stress responses. However, little is known about their functions in rice. Results In this study, we report the functional characterization of a rice gene, OsMYB103L, which encodes an R2R3-MYB transcription factor. OsMYB103L was localized in the nucleus with transactivation activity. Overexpression of OsMYB103L in rice resulted in a rolled leaf phenotype. Further analyses showed that expression levels of several cellulose synthase genes (CESAs) were significantly increased, as was the cellulose content in OsMYB103L overexpressing lines. Knockdown of OsMYB103L by RNA interference led to a decreased level of cellulose content and reduced mechanical strength in leaves. Meanwhile, the expression levels of several CESA genes were decreased in these knockdown lines. Conclusions These findings suggest that OsMYB103L may target CESA genes for regulation of cellulose synthesis and could potentially be engineered for desirable leaf shape and mechanical strength in rice. PMID:24906444

  15. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine. PMID:25019265

  16. 3-Benzyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones as mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators: Hit-to lead and lead optimization.

    PubMed

    Duplantier, Allen J; Efremov, Ivan; Candler, John; Doran, Angela C; Ganong, Alan H; Haas, Jessica A; Hanks, Ashley N; Kraus, Kenneth G; Lazzaro, John T; Lu, Jiemin; Maklad, Noha; McCarthy, Sheryl A; O'Sullivan, Theresa J; Rogers, Bruce N; Siuciak, Judith A; Spracklin, Douglas K; Zhang, Lei

    2009-05-01

    The discovery, synthesis and SAR of a novel series of 3-benzyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of mGluR2 is described. Expedient hit-to-lead work on a single HTS hit led to the identification of a ligand-efficient and structurally attractive series of mGluR2 PAMs. Human microsomal clearance and suboptimal physicochemical properties of the initial lead were improved to give potent, metabolically stable and orally available mGluR2 PAMs.

  17. Performance of an adjustable, threaded inertance tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W. J.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.; Nellis, G. F.; Liu, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of the Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler depends strongly on the design of the inertance tube. The phase angle produced by the inertance tube is very sensitive to its diameter and length. Recent developments are reported here regarding an adjustable inertance device that can be adjusted in real time. The inertance passage is formed by the root of a concentric cylindrical threaded device. The depth of the threads installed on the outer screw varies. In this device, the outer screw can be rotated four and half turns. At the zero turn position the length of the passage is 1.74 m and the hydraulic diameter is 7 mm. By rotating the outer screw, the inner threaded rod engages with additional, larger depth threads. Therefore, at its upper limit of rotation, the inertance passage includes both the original 1.74 m length with 7mm hydraulic diameter plus an additional 1.86 m length with a 10 mm hydraulic diameter. A phase shift change of 24° has been experimentally measured by changing the position of outer screw while operating the device at a frequency of 60 Hz. This phase angle shift is less than the theoretically predicted value due to the presence of a relatively large leak through the thread clearance. Therefore, the distributed component model of the inertance tube was modified to account for the leak path causing the data to agree with the model. Further, the application of vacuum grease to the threads causes the performance of the device to improve substantially.

  18. Affordable Care Act risk adjustment: overview, context, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C; Keenan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 2014, individuals and small businesses will be able to purchase private health insurance through competitive marketplaces. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides for a program of risk adjustment in the individual and small group markets in 2014 as Marketplaces are implemented and new market reforms take effect. The purpose of risk adjustment is to lessen or eliminate the influence of risk selection on the premiums that plans charge and the incentive for plans to avoid sicker enrollees. This article--the first of three in the Medicare & Medicaid Research Review--describes the key program goal and issues in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) developed risk adjustment methodology, and identifies key choices in how the methodology responds to these issues. The goal of the HHS risk adjustment methodology is to compensate health insurance plans for differences in enrollee health mix so that plan premiums reflect differences in scope of coverage and other plan factors, but not differences in health status. The methodology includes a risk adjustment model and a risk transfer formula that together address this program goal as well as three issues specific to ACA risk adjustment: 1) new population; 2) cost and rating factors; and 3) balanced transfers within state/market. The risk adjustment model, described in the second article, estimates differences in health risks taking into account the new population and scope of coverage (actuarial value level). The transfer formula, described in the third article, calculates balanced transfers that are intended to account for health risk differences while preserving permissible premium differences. PMID:25364625

  19. ß-Adrenergic stimulation increases RyR2 activity via intracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Imtiaz, Mohammad S; Beard, Nicole A; Dulhunty, Angela F; Thorne, Rick; vanHelden, Dirk F; Laver, Derek R

    2013-01-01

    Here we investigate how ß-adrenergic stimulation of the heart alters regulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) by intracellular Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and the role of these changes in SR Ca(2+) release. RyRs were isolated from rat hearts, perfused in a Langendorff apparatus for 5 min and subject to 1 min perfusion with 1 µM isoproterenol or without (control) and snap frozen in liquid N2 to capture their phosphorylation state. Western Blots show that RyR2 phosphorylation was increased by isoproterenol, confirming that RyR2 were subject to normal ß-adrenergic signaling. Under basal conditions, S2808 and S2814 had phosphorylation levels of 69% and 15%, respectively. These levels were increased to 83% and 60%, respectively, after 60 s of ß-adrenergic stimulation consistent with other reports that ß-adrenergic stimulation of the heart can phosphorylate RyRs at specific residues including S2808 and S2814 causing an increase in RyR activity. At cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] <1 µM, ß-adrenergic stimulation increased luminal Ca(2+) activation of single RyR channels, decreased luminal Mg(2+) inhibition and decreased inhibition of RyRs by mM cytoplasmic Mg(2+). At cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] >1 µM, ß-adrenergic stimulation only decreased cytoplasmic Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) inhibition of RyRs. The Ka and maximum levels of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) activation site were not affected by ß-adrenergic stimulation. Our RyR2 gating model was fitted to the single channel data. It predicted that in diastole, ß-adrenergic stimulation is mediated by 1) increasing the activating potency of Ca(2+) binding to the luminal Ca(2+) site and decreasing its affinity for luminal Mg(2+) and 2) decreasing affinity of the low-affinity Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) cytoplasmic inhibition site. However in systole, ß-adrenergic stimulation is mediated mainly by the latter.

  20. Trend Damping: Under-Adjustment, Experimental Artifact, or Adaptation to Features of the Natural Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Nigel; Reimers, Stian

    2013-01-01

    People's forecasts from time series underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones. This trend damping may occur because (a) people anchor on the last data point and make insufficient adjustment to take the trend into account, (b) they adjust toward the average of the trends they have encountered within the…

  1. 46 CFR 309.6 - Adjustments for condition, equipment, and other considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjustments for condition, equipment, and other... OPERATIONS VALUES FOR WAR RISK INSURANCE § 309.6 Adjustments for condition, equipment, and other... stated valuation. (b) Special equipment. If the depreciated reproduction cost less construction...

  2. Development of a charge adjustment model for cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Andrew; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Connor, Jean; O'Connell, Cheryl; David, Sthuthi; Almodovar, Melvin; DiNardo, James; Banka, Puja; Mayer, John E; Marshall, Audrey C; Bergersen, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    A methodology that would allow for comparison of charges across institutions has not been developed for catheterization in congenital heart disease. A single institution catheterization database with prospectively collected case characteristics was linked to hospital charges related and limited to an episode of care in the catheterization laboratory for fiscal years 2008-2010. Catheterization charge categories (CCC) were developed to group types of catheterization procedures using a combination of empiric data and expert consensus. A multivariable model with outcome charges was created using CCC and additional patient and procedural characteristics. In 3 fiscal years, 3,839 cases were available for analysis. Forty catheterization procedure types were categorized into 7 CCC yielding a grouper variable with an R (2) explanatory value of 72.6%. In the final CCC, the largest proportion of cases was in CCC 2 (34%), which included diagnostic cases without intervention. Biopsy cases were isolated in CCC 1 (12%), and percutaneous pulmonary valve placement alone made up CCC 7 (2%). The final model included CCC, number of interventions, and cardiac diagnosis (R (2) = 74.2%). Additionally, current financial metrics such as APR-DRG severity of illness and case mix index demonstrated a lack of correlation with CCC. We have developed a catheterization procedure type financial grouper that accounts for the diverse case population encountered in catheterization for congenital heart disease. CCC and our multivariable model could be used to understand financial characteristics of a population at a single point in time, longitudinally, and to compare populations.

  3. Development of a charge adjustment model for cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Andrew; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Connor, Jean; O'Connell, Cheryl; David, Sthuthi; Almodovar, Melvin; DiNardo, James; Banka, Puja; Mayer, John E; Marshall, Audrey C; Bergersen, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    A methodology that would allow for comparison of charges across institutions has not been developed for catheterization in congenital heart disease. A single institution catheterization database with prospectively collected case characteristics was linked to hospital charges related and limited to an episode of care in the catheterization laboratory for fiscal years 2008-2010. Catheterization charge categories (CCC) were developed to group types of catheterization procedures using a combination of empiric data and expert consensus. A multivariable model with outcome charges was created using CCC and additional patient and procedural characteristics. In 3 fiscal years, 3,839 cases were available for analysis. Forty catheterization procedure types were categorized into 7 CCC yielding a grouper variable with an R (2) explanatory value of 72.6%. In the final CCC, the largest proportion of cases was in CCC 2 (34%), which included diagnostic cases without intervention. Biopsy cases were isolated in CCC 1 (12%), and percutaneous pulmonary valve placement alone made up CCC 7 (2%). The final model included CCC, number of interventions, and cardiac diagnosis (R (2) = 74.2%). Additionally, current financial metrics such as APR-DRG severity of illness and case mix index demonstrated a lack of correlation with CCC. We have developed a catheterization procedure type financial grouper that accounts for the diverse case population encountered in catheterization for congenital heart disease. CCC and our multivariable model could be used to understand financial characteristics of a population at a single point in time, longitudinally, and to compare populations. PMID:25113520

  4. Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells; January 28, 2010 -- January 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Slafer, D.; Dalal, V.

    2012-03-01

    Final subcontract report for PV Incubator project 'Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells.' The goal of this program was to produce tandem Si cells using photonic bandgap enhancement technology developed at ISU and Lightwave Power that would have an NREL-verified efficiency of 7.5% on 0.25 cm{sup 2} area tandem junction cell on plastic substrates. This goal was met and exceeded within the timeframe and budget of the program. On smaller area cells, the efficiency was even higher, {approx}9.5% (not verified by NREL). Appropriate polymers were developed to fabricate photonic and plasmonic devices on stainless steel, Kapton and PEN substrates. A novel photonic-plasmon structure was developed which shows a promise of improving light absorption in thin film cells, a better light absorption than by any other scheme.

  5. Spin polarization of f bands in RCo5, R2Co17, and R6Mn23 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukyo, M.; Koizumi, K.; Takahashi, H.; Ohtsuka, S.; Ukai, T.; Mori, N.

    1987-04-01

    The d bands for RCo5, R2Co17, and R6Mn23 compounds are formulated by Deegan's prescription and the formulas of Slater and Koster. The d-f elements for these energy bands derived by Lendi are taken into account. The spin polarization of the f bands are investigated. The obtained result explains the experimental result by taking into account the feeble exchange splitting in 4f bands. Additionally, the magnetic moment of rare earths is calculated on the basis of the band model and the calculated result is compared with gJ. It is found that in these compounds the spin polarization is saturated and the moments are much the same as gJ.

  6. Low-temperature heat transport in the geometrically frustrated antiferromagnets R2Ti2O7 (R = Gd and Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F. B.; Li, Q. J.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Fan, C.; Li, S. J.; Liu, X. G.; Zhao, X.; Sun, X. F.

    2014-03-01

    We report a systematic study on the low-temperature thermal conductivity (κ) of R2Ti2O7 (R = Gd and Er) single crystals with different directions of magnetic field and heat current. It is found that the magnetic excitations mainly act as phonon scatterers rather than heat carriers, although these two materials have long-range magnetic orders at low temperatures. The low-T κ (H) isotherms of both compounds show rather complicated behaviors and have good correspondences with the magnetic transitions, where the κ (H) curves show drastic dip- or steplike changes. In comparison, the field dependencies of κ are more complicated in Gd2Ti2O7, due to the complexity of its low-T phase diagram and field-induced magnetic transitions. These results demonstrate the significant coupling between spins and phonons in these materials and the ability of heat-transport properties probing the magnetic transitions.

  7. BOSS on EXPOSE-R2-Comparative Investigations on Biofilm and Planktonic cells of Deinococcus geothermalis as Mission Preparation Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Frösler, J.; Flemming, H.-C.; Rabbow, E.; Reitz, G.

    2013-09-01

    Biofilms are of interest for Astrobiological investigations since they are one of the oldest clear signs of life on Earth. In the experiment BOSS the hypothesis will be tested if the biofilm form of life with microorganisms embedded and aggregated in their EPS matrix is suited to support long-term survival of microorganisms under the harsh environmental conditions as they exist in space and on Mars and is superior to the same bacteria in the form of planktonic cultures. An additional protective role may be provided by particles associated in biofilms which may shield the organisms against radiation. The experiment will be flown on EXPOSE-R2 attached outside of the ISS on the Russian module. BOSS has participated the Experiment verification tests and will attend the upcoming Science verification test carried out in the Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities at DLR. The launch is scheduled for April 2014.

  8. Origin of inflation in CFT driven cosmology: R^2-gravity and non-minimally coupled inflaton models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.; Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Nesterov, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    We present a detailed derivation of the recently suggested new type of hill-top inflation [arXiv:1509.07270] originating from the microcanonical density matrix initial conditions in cosmology driven by conformal field theory (CFT). The cosmological instantons of topology S^1× S^3, which set up these initial conditions, have the shape of a garland with multiple periodic oscillations of the scale factor of the spatial S^3-section. They describe underbarrier oscillations of the inflaton and scale factor in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum, which gives a sufficient amount of inflation required by the known CMB data. We build the approximation of two coupled harmonic oscillators for these garland instantons and show that they can generate inflation consistent with the parameters of the CMB primordial power spectrum in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and in R^2 gravity. In particular, the instanton solutions provide smallness of inflationary slow-roll parameters ɛ and η <0 and their relation ɛ ˜ η ^2 characteristic of these two models. We present the mechanism of formation of hill-like inflaton potentials, which is based on logarithmic loop corrections to the asymptotically shift-invariant tree-level potentials of these models in the Einstein frame. We also discuss the role of R^2-gravity as an indispensable finite renormalization tool in the CFT driven cosmology, which guarantees the non-dynamical (ghost free) nature of its scale factor and special properties of its cosmological garland-type instantons. Finally, as a solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale we discuss the concept of a hidden sector of conformal higher spin fields.

  9. An R2R3 MYB transcription factor associated with regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Rosaceae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The control of plant anthocyanin accumulation is via transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes. A key activator appears to be an R2R3 MYB transcription factor. In apple fruit, skin anthocyanin levels are controlled by a gene called MYBA or MYB1, while the gene determining fruit flesh and foliage anthocyanin has been termed MYB10. In order to further understand tissue-specific anthocyanin regulation we have isolated orthologous MYB genes from all the commercially important rosaceous species. Results We use gene specific primers to show that the three MYB activators of apple anthocyanin (MYB10/MYB1/MYBA) are likely alleles of each other. MYB transcription factors, with high sequence identity to the apple gene were isolated from across the rosaceous family (e.g. apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, raspberries, rose, strawberry). Key identifying amino acid residues were found in both the DNA-binding and C-terminal domains of these MYBs. The expression of these MYB10 genes correlates with fruit and flower anthocyanin levels. Their function was tested in tobacco and strawberry. In tobacco, these MYBs were shown to induce the anthocyanin pathway when co-expressed with bHLHs, while over-expression of strawberry and apple genes in the crop of origin elevates anthocyanins. Conclusions This family-wide study of rosaceous R2R3 MYBs provides insight into the evolution of this plant trait. It has implications for the development of new coloured fruit and flowers, as well as aiding the understanding of temporal-spatial colour change. PMID:20302676

  10. Interactions between the R2R3-MYB transcription factor, AtMYB61, and target DNA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Prouse, Michael B; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prominent roles played by R2R3-MYB transcription factors in the regulation of plant gene expression, little is known about the details of how these proteins interact with their DNA targets. For example, while Arabidopsis thaliana R2R3-MYB protein AtMYB61 is known to alter transcript abundance of a specific set of target genes, little is known about the specific DNA sequences to which AtMYB61 binds. To address this gap in knowledge, DNA sequences bound by AtMYB61 were identified using cyclic amplification and selection of targets (CASTing). The DNA targets identified using this approach corresponded to AC elements, sequences enriched in adenosine and cytosine nucleotides. The preferred target sequence that bound with the greatest affinity to AtMYB61 recombinant protein was ACCTAC, the AC-I element. Mutational analyses based on the AC-I element showed that ACC nucleotides in the AC-I element served as the core recognition motif, critical for AtMYB61 binding. Molecular modelling predicted interactions between AtMYB61 amino acid residues and corresponding nucleotides in the DNA targets. The affinity between AtMYB61 and specific target DNA sequences did not correlate with AtMYB61-driven transcriptional activation with each of the target sequences. CASTing-selected motifs were found in the regulatory regions of genes previously shown to be regulated by AtMYB61. Taken together, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that AtMYB61 regulates transcription from specific cis-acting AC elements in vivo. The results shed light on the specifics of DNA binding by an important family of plant-specific transcriptional regulators. PMID:23741471

  11. Early increase in DcR2 expression and late activation of caspases in the platelet storage lesion.

    PubMed

    Plenchette, S; Moutet, M; Benguella, M; N'Gondara, J P; Guigner, F; Coffe, C; Corcos, L; Bettaieb, A; Solary, E

    2001-10-01

    Platelet transfusion is widely used to prevent bleeding in patients with severe thrombocytopenia. The maximal storage duration of platelet concentrates is usually 5 days, due to the platelet storage lesion that impairs their functions when stored for longer times. Some of the morphological and biochemical changes that characterize this storage lesion are reminiscent of cell death by apoptosis. The present study analyzed whether proteins involved in nucleated cell apoptosis could play a role in the platelet storage lesion. Storage of leukocyte-depleted platelets obtained by apheresis is associated with a late and limited activation of caspases, mainly caspase-3. This event correlates with an increased expression of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim in the particulate fraction and a slight and late release of the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein Diablo/Smac in the cytosol. Platelets do not express the death receptors Fas, DR4 and DR5 on their plasma membrane, while the expression of the decoy receptor DcR2 increases progressively during platelet storage. Addition of low concentrations of the cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide accelerates platelet caspase activation during storage, an effect that is partially prevented by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Altogether, DcR2 expression on the plasma membrane is an early event while caspase activation is a late event during platelet storage. These observations suggest that caspases are unlikely to account for the platelet storage lesion. As a consequence, addition of caspase inhibitors may not improve the quality of platelet concentrates stored in standard conditions. PMID:11587215

  12. A Herschel-SPIRE survey of the Mon R2 giant molecular cloud: analysis of the gas column density probability density function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, R.; Gutermuth, R.; Ali, B.; Megeath, T.; Pipher, J.; Myers, P.; Fischer, W. J.; Henning, T.; Wolk, S. J.; Allen, L.; Tobin, J. J.

    2016-09-01

    We present a far-IR survey of the entire Mon R2 giant molecular cloud (GMC) with Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver cross-calibrated with Planck-High Frequency Instrument data. We fit the spectral energy distributions of each pixel with a greybody function and an optimal beta value of 1.8. We find that mid-range column densities obtained from far-IR dust emission and near-IR extinction are consistent. For the entire GMC, we find that the column density histogram, or column density probability distribution function (N-PDF), is lognormal below ˜1021 cm-2. Above this value, the distribution takes a power law form with an index of -2.15. We analyse the gas geometry, N-PDF shape, and young stellar object (YSO) content of a selection of subregions in the cloud. We find no regions with pure lognormal N-PDFs. The regions with a combination of lognormal and one power-law N-PDF have a YSO cluster and a corresponding centrally concentrated gas clump. The regions with a combination of lognormal and two power-law N-PDF have significant numbers of typically younger YSOs but no prominent YSO cluster. These regions are composed of an aggregate of closely spaced gas filaments with no concentrated dense gas clump. We find that for our fixed scale regions, the YSO count roughly correlates with the N-PDF power-law index. The correlation appears steeper for single power-law regions relative to two power-law regions with a high column density cut-off, as a greater dense gas mass fraction is achieved in the former. A stronger correlation is found between embedded YSO count and the dense gas mass among our regions.

  13. Secondary structures for 5' regions of R2 retrotransposon RNAs reveal a novel conserved pseudoknot and regions that evolve under different constraints.

    PubMed

    Kierzek, Elzbieta; Christensen, Shawn M; Eickbush, Thomas H; Kierzek, Ryszard; Turner, Douglas H; Moss, Walter N

    2009-07-17

    Sequences from the 5' region of R2 retrotransposons of four species of silk moth are reported. In Bombyx mori, this region of the R2 messenger RNA contains a binding site for R2 protein and mediates interactions critical to R2 element insertion into the host genome. A model of secondary structure for a segment of this RNA is proposed on the basis of binding to oligonucleotide microarrays, chemical mapping, and comparative sequence analysis. Five conserved secondary structures are identified, including a novel pseudoknot. There is an apparent transition from an entirely RNA structure coding function in most of the 5' segment to a protein coding function near the 3' end. This suggests that local regions evolved under separate functional constraints (structural, coding, or both).

  14. Secondary structures for 5′ regions of R2 retrotransposon RNAs reveal a novel conserved pseudoknot and regions that evolve under different constraints

    PubMed Central

    Kierzek, Elzbieta; Christensen, Shawn M.; Eickbush, Thomas H.; Moss, Walter N.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Sequences from the 5′ region of R2 retrotransposons of four species of silk moth are reported. In Bombyx mori, this region of the R2 messenger RNA contains a binding site for R2 protein and mediates interactions critical to R2 element insertion into the host genome. A model of secondary structure for this RNA fragment is proposed on the basis of binding to oligonucleotide microarrays, chemical mapping, and comparative sequence analysis. Five regions of conserved secondary structure are identified, including a novel pseudoknot. There is an apparent transition from an entirely RNA structure coding function in most of the 5′ segment of the fragment to a protein coding function in the 3′ segment. This suggests that regions evolved under separate functional constraints (structural, coding, or both). PMID:19397915

  15. (1R,2S,6R)-Papayanal: a new male-specific volatile compound released by the guava weevil Conotrachelus psidii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Romero-Frías, Alicia; Murata, Yasuhiro; Simões Bento, José Maurício; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-05-01

    The guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii is an aggressive pest of guava (Psidium guajava L.) that causes irreparable damages inside the fruit. The volatile compounds of male and female insects were separately collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction or with dynamic headspace collection on a polymer sorbent, and comparatively analyzed by GC-MS. (1R,2S,6R)-2-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane (papayanol), and (1R,2S,6R)-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane-2-carbaldehyde (papayanal) were identified (ratio of 9:1, respectively) as male-specific guava weevil volatiles. Papayanal structure was confirmed by comparison of spectroscopic (EIMS) and chromatographic (retention time) data with those of the synthetic pure compound. The behavioral response of the above-mentioned compounds was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, and their role as aggregation pheromone candidate components was suggested in this species.

  16. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  17. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    PubMed

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I

    1990-01-01

    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  18. Regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis in R2C and MA-10 Leydig tumor cells: role of the cholesterol transfer proteins StAR and PBR.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rekha M; Jo, Youngah; Babb-Tarbox, Michelle; Syapin, Peter J; Stocco, Douglas M

    2002-11-01

    The MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cell line produces large amounts of steroids only in response to hormonal stimulation while the R2C rat Leydig tumor cell line is constitutively steroidogenic in nature. In an effort to uncover the potential reasons for constitutive steroidogenesis in R2C cells, we have recently shown that compared to MA-10 cells, R2C cells express much higher levels of the Scavenger Receptor Class B type 1 which results in a higher capacity for cholesteryl ester uptake through the selective uptake pathway. We also found an enhanced expression of Hormone Sensitive Lipase and the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein in these cells and reasoned that they may further facilitate the conversion of cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol and its mobilization to the inner mitochondrial membrane, thus rendering them constitutively steroidogenic. Given the proposed role of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) in conferring a constitutively steroidogenic phenotype to the R2C cells, the current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between its expression in MA-10 and R2C cells and correlate it with the constitutive nature of R2C cell steroidogenesis. Our studies show that PBR expression as measured by PK 11195 ligand binding and Western analysis is much higher in MA-10 cells than R2C cells. We also determined that the affinity of ligand binding to the PBR is comparable in the two cell lines, suggesting that PBR is unlikely to be solely responsible for the constitutive nature of R2C cell steroidogenesis.

  19. 1-[(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-4-phenylpiperidines as mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators for the treatment of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Brodney, Michael A; Candler, John; Doran, Angela C; Duplantier, Allen J; Efremov, Ivan V; Evrard, Edel; Kraus, Kenneth; Ganong, Alan H; Haas, Jessica A; Hanks, Ashley N; Jenza, Keith; Lazzaro, John T; Maklad, Noha; McCarthy, Sheryl A; Qian, Weimin; Rogers, Bruce N; Rottas, Melinda D; Schmidt, Christopher J; Siuciak, Judith A; Tingley, F David; Zhang, Andy Q

    2011-03-24

    A novel series of mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), 1-[(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-4-phenylpiperidines, is herein disclosed. Structure-activity relationship studies led to potent, selective mGluR2 PAMs with excellent pharmacokinetic profiles. A representative lead compound (+)-17e demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and mescaline-induced scratching in mice, providing support for potential efficacy in treating psychosis.

  20. Human Figure Drawing as a Measure of Social Adjustment in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner; Shechori, Hannah

    1970-01-01

    The present research, demonstrating the lack of validity of the Human Figure Drawing Test as a measure of social adjustment, casts doubt upon its value when used in a normal setting such as the classroom. (Author)

  1. 42 CFR 412.172 - Payment adjustments under the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Readmissions Reduction Program under § 412.154 and the adjustment made under the Hospital Value-Based... information available to the public regarding hospital-acquired condition rates of all hospitals under...

  2. Galanin Receptor Subtype 2 (GalR2) Null Mutant Mice Display an Anxiogenic-like Phenotype Specific to the Elevated Plus-maze

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kathleen R.; Pavlova, Maria N.; Rohde, Alex D.; Hohmann, John G.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2007-01-01

    The neuropeptide galanin has been implicated in anxiety-related behaviors, cognition, analgesia, and feeding in rodents. Neuromodulatory actions of galanin are mediated by three G-protein coupled receptors, GalR1, GalR2, and GalR3. The present study investigates the role of the GalR2 receptor by evaluating behavioral phenotypes of mice with a targeted mutation in the GalR2 gene. A three-tiered behavioral phenotyping approach first examined control measures of general health, body weight, neurological reflexes, sensory abilities and motor function. Mice were then assessed on several tests for cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors. GalR2 null mutants and heterozygotes were not significantly different from wildtype littermates on two cognitive tests previously shown to be sensitive to galanin manipulation: acquisition of the Morris water maze spatial task, and trace cued and contextual fear conditioning, an emotional learning and memory task. Two independent cohorts of GalR2 null mutant mice demonstrated an anxiogenic-like phenotype in the elevated plus-maze. No genotype differences were detected on several other measures of anxiety-like behavior. The discovery of an anxiogenic phenotype specific to the elevated plus-maze, similar to findings in GalR1 null mutants, highlights the potential therapeutic efficacy of targeting GalR1 and GalR2 receptors in treating anxiety disorders. PMID:17257664

  3. miR2Gene: pattern discovery of single gene, multiple genes, and pathways by enrichment analysis of their microRNA regulators

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, a number of tools have been developed to explore microRNAs (miRNAs) by analyzing their target genes. However, a reverse problem, that is, inferring patterns of protein-coding genes through their miRNA regulators, has not been explored. As various miRNA annotation data become available, exploring gene patterns by analyzing the prior knowledge of their miRNA regulators is becoming more feasible. Results In this study, we developed a tool, miR2Gene, for this purpose. Various sets of miRNAs, according to prior rules such as function, associated disease, tissue specificity, family, and cluster, were integrated with miR2Gene. For given genes, miR2Gene evaluates the enrichment of the predicted miRNAs that regulate them in each miRNA set. This tool can be used for single genes, multiple genes, and KEGG pathways. For the KEGG pathway, genes with enriched miRNA sets are highlighted according to various rules. We confirmed the usefulness of miR2Gene through case studies. Conclusions miR2Gene represents a novel and useful tool that integrates miRNA knowledge for protein-coding gene analysis. miR2Gene is freely available at http://cmbi.hsc.pku.edu.cn/mir2gene. PMID:22784580

  4. A Mycobacterium tuberculosis ligand-binding Mn/Fe protein reveals a new cofactor in a remodeled R2-protein scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Charlotta S.; Högbom, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis R2c is the prototype for a recently discovered group of ribonucleotide reductase R2 proteins that use a heterodinuclear Mn/Fe redox cofactor for radical generation and storage. Here, we show that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv0233, an R2 homologue and a potential virulence factor, contains the heterodinuclear manganese/iron-carboxylate cofactor but displays a drastic remodeling of the R2 protein scaffold into a ligand-binding oxidase. The first structural characterization of the heterodinuclear cofactor shows that the site is highly specific for manganese and iron in their respective positions despite a symmetric arrangement of coordinating residues. In this protein scaffold, the Mn/Fe cofactor supports potent 2-electron oxidations as revealed by an unprecedented tyrosine-valine crosslink in the active site. This wolf in sheep's clothing defines a distinct functional group among R2 homologues and may represent a structural and functional counterpart of the evolutionary ancestor of R2s and bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases. PMID:19321420

  5. Baccalaureate Recipients: Developmental Patterns in Personal Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Gerald W.; Smart, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Demonstrated differences by sex in personal and career developmental values for graduates from five types of colleges. Made statistical adjustments for socio-economic and high school academic achievement. Indicated that although the changes were not greatly influenced by college type, there were major differences in the entering values of…

  6. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  7. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  8. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  9. Seat adjustment--capacity and repeatability among occupants in a modern car.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Svensson, Mats Y; Björnstig, Ulf

    2008-02-01

    Families in the Western world have a car and several family members share the same car. In this study, 154 participants have adjusted a driver's seat three times. The primary objective was to study intrapersonal repeatability and intraclass correlation (ICC) on seat; length adjustment, backrest angle, seat front edge and seat rear edge adjustment, related to participant age, sex, stature and weight. Length adjustment has the best intrapersonal repeatability within two repetitions, 49 mm and ICC-value 0.87. Females and younger participants (age < 40 years) adjust seats generally more accurately. Females adjust the seat 41 mm more forward, 120 mm compared to men 79 mm counted from 0-starting position. Females sit with more upright seat backrests, 46 degree compared to 43 degrees for males counted from 0-starting position. Females sit higher than males in both the frontal and rear part of the seat cushion.

  10. Techniques and applications of adjustable sutures.

    PubMed

    Fells, P

    1987-02-01

    The 'rediscovery' of adjustable sutures some 10 years ago has given the ophthalmic surgeon much more confidence in his ability to correct strabismus. Three methods of use are described: during surgery under general anaesthesia with adjustment during the operation using the 'springback' test to centralise the eye; during surgery under general anaesthesia and subsequent adjustment under local anaesthesia using the patient's subjective responses to obtain optimal positioning; and performance of the operation and adjustment under topical local anaesthesia in one procedure. Full details are given of each technique and the indications for their application to particular problems are discussed. PMID:3297111

  11. Marital conflict, divorce, and children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J B

    1998-04-01

    This article summarizes current research on children's adjustment after separation and divorce, and then focuses on the contributions of marital conflict, marital violence, and hostile family environments to children's adjustment during marriage and after divorce. Children living in marriages with frequent and intense conflict are significantly more likely to have substantial adjustment problems before parental divorce and compromised parent-child relationships. These findings suggest that the deleterious effects of divorce per se have been overstated, with insufficient attention paid in the clinical and research literature to the damaging effects of highly troubled marriages on children's adjustment.

  12. Optimal color temperature adjustment for mobile devices under varying illuminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungah; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    With the wide use of mobile devices, display color reproduction has become extremely important. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optimal color temperature for mobile displays under varying illuminants. The effect of the color temperature and the illuminance of ambient lighting on user preferences were observed. For a visual examination, a total of 19 nuanced whites were examined under 20 illuminants. A total of 19 display stimuli with different color temperatures (2,500 K ~ 19,600 K) were presented on an iPad3 (New iPad). The ambient illuminants ranged in color temperature from 2,500 K to 19,800 K and from 0 lx to 3,000 lx in illuminance. Supporting previous studies of color reproduction, there was found to be a positive correlation between the color temperature of illuminants and that of optimal whites. However, the relationship was not linear. Based on assessments by 56 subjects, a regression equation was derived to predict the optimal color temperature adjustment under varying illuminants, as follows: [Display Tcp = 5138.93 log(Illuminant Tcp) - 11956.59, p<.001, R2=0.94]. Moreover, the influence of an illuminant was positively correlated with the illuminance level, confirming the findings of previous studies. It is expected that the findings of this study can be used as the theoretical basis when designing a color strategy for mobile display devices.

  13. Be aware of the Adjusted Treatment Index.

    PubMed

    Langford, Melvyn

    2015-10-01

    The authors of the interim report relating to the Review of Operational Productivity in NHS providers, published in June of this year, are, as many will know, developing a set of Adjusted Treatment Index (ATI) metrics, and are also to publish a model of their interpretation of what an estates department should look like in terms of its operational productivity and cost. This article argues that the underlying reason for the past failures was the creation of static 'point-value' metrics similar to the ATIs proposed, and that this can only be overcome by designing and populating a series of non-linear dynamic simulation models with feedback control of an organisation's estate in relation to its asset base and condition with respect to time, together with the resultant financial capital and revenue consequences. It concludes by calling on IHEEM's Council to urgently make representation to the authors of the June 2015 report, and suggests that the Institute's members be fully involved in the design, testing, and interpretation, of the estates model and ATIs. IHEEM's Technology Platforms are ideally placed to play a central role in this. PMID:26750025

  14. Adjustable fetal phantom for pulse oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubán, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2009-05-01

    As the measuring head of a fetal pulse oximeter must be attached to the head of the fetus inside the mother's uterus during labor, testing, and developing of fetal pulse oximeters in real environment have several difficulties. A fetal phantom could enable evaluation of pulse oximeters in a simulated environment without the restrictions and difficultness of medical experiments in the labor room. Based on anatomic data we developed an adjustable fetal head phantom with three different tissue layers and artificial arteries. The phantom consisted of two arteries with an inner diameter of 0.2 and 0.4 mm. An electronically controlled pump produced pulse waves in the arteries. With the phantom we investigated the sensitivity of a custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter at different pulsation intensity and artery diameters. The results showed that the oximeter was capable of identifying 4% and 2% changes in diameter between the diastolic and systolic point in arteries of over 0.2 and 0.4 mm inner diameter, respectively. As the structure of the phantom is based on reported anatomic values, the results predict that the investigated custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter has sufficient sensitivity to detect the pulse waves and to calculate the R rate on the fetal head.

  15. The Novel Receptor C5aR2 Is Required for C5a-Mediated Human Mast Cell Adhesion, Migration, and Proinflammatory Mediator Production.

    PubMed

    Pundir, Priyanka; MacDonald, Clayton A; Kulka, Marianna

    2015-09-15

    C5a generated during complement activation possesses proinflammatory and immunoregulatory properties critical for the development and modulation of allergic immune responses. In immune cells, C5a mediates its effects through binding to two G protein-coupled receptors, C5aR1 and C5aR2. Mast cells are key effectors in allergic reactions, and decades of research have suggested that the majority of C5a effects on mast cells are mediated through C5aR1, whereas the expression and function of C5aR2 have not been explored. We demonstrated that the human mast cell line Laboratory of Allergic Diseases 2 (LAD2) expresses surface C5aR2 but not C5aR1, whereas CD34(+) cell-derived primary mast cells do not express surface C5aR1 or C5aR2. Stem cell factor and IL-4 upregulated C5aR2 expression on LAD2 cells. Furthermore, C5a caused internalization of LAD2 cell-surface C5aR2. We therefore used LAD2 cells as a model to study C5a/C5aR2-induced biological responses and signaling in human mast cells. We found that whereas C5a was unable to induce degranulation, it stimulated GM-CSF, TNF, CXCL10, and CCL2 production. C5a caused ERK phosphorylation, a signaling molecule important in cytokine and chemokine generation. In addition, C5a stimulated adhesion and chemotaxis of mast cells. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K, and small interfering RNA against β-arrestin-2 blocked C5a-induced adhesion. Silencing of C5aR2 using lentiviral short hairpin RNA rendered the cells unresponsive to C5a-induced adhesion, chemotaxis, and mediator release, as well as ERK phosphorylation. Overall, this study reveals a novel role for C5aR2 in C5a-mediated activation of mast cells and demonstrates that C5aR2 ligation initiates a β-arrestin-2-, PI3K-, and ERK-dependent signaling pathway in these cells.

  16. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  17. An R2R3 MYB transcription factor determines red petal colour in an Actinidia (kiwifruit) hybrid population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Red colour in kiwifruit results from the presence of anthocyanin pigments. Their expression, however, is complex, and varies among genotypes, species, tissues and environments. An understanding of the biosynthesis, physiology and genetics of the anthocyanins involved, and the control of their expression in different tissues, is required. A complex, the MBW complex, consisting of R2R3-MYB and bHLH transcription factors together with a WD-repeat protein, activates anthocyanin 3-O-galactosyltransferase (F3GT1) to produce anthocyanins. We examined the expression and genetic control of anthocyanins in flowers of Actinidia hybrid families segregating for red and white petal colour. Results Four inter-related backcross families between Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis and Actinidia eriantha Benth. were identified that segregated 1:1 for red or white petal colour. Flower pigments consisted of five known anthocyanins (two delphinidin-based and three cyanidin-based) and three unknowns. Intensity and hue differed in red petals from pale pink to deep magenta, and while intensity of colour increased with total concentration of anthocyanin, no association was found between any particular anthocyanin data and hue. Real time qPCR demonstrated that an R2R3 MYB, MYB110a, was expressed at significant levels in red-petalled progeny, but not in individuals with white petals. A microsatellite marker was developed that identified alleles that segregated with red petal colour, but not with ovary, stamen filament, or fruit flesh colour in these families. The marker mapped to chromosome 10 in Actinidia. The white petal phenotype was complemented by syringing Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying Actinidia 35S::MYB110a into the petal tissue. Red pigments developed in white petals both with, and without, co-transformation with Actinidia bHLH partners. MYB110a was shown to directly activate Actinidia F3GT1 in transient assays. Conclusions The transcription factor, MYB110a

  18. Adjusting annual maximum peak discharges at selected stations in northeastern Illinois for changes in land-use conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Over, Thomas M.; Saito, Riki J.; Soong, David T.

    2016-06-30

    The observed and adjusted values for each streamgage are tabulated. To illustrate the overall effect of the adjustments, differences in the mean, standard deviation, and skewness of the log-transformed observed and urbanization-adjusted peak discharge series by streamgage are computed. For almost every streamgage where an adjustment was applied (no increase in urbanization was reported for a few streamgages), the mean increased and the standard deviation decreased; the effect on skewness values was more variable but usually they increased. Significant positive peak discharge trends were common in the observed values, occurring at 27.3 percent of streamgages at a p-value of 0.05 according to a Kendall’s tau correlation test; in the adjusted values, the incidence of such trends was reduced to 7.0 percent.

  19. Adjusting annual maximum peak discharges at selected stations in northeastern Illinois for changes in land-use conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Over, Thomas M.; Saito, Riki J.; Soong, David T.

    2016-01-01

    The observed and adjusted values for each streamgage are tabulated. To illustrate the overall effect of the adjustments, differences in the mean, standard deviation, and skewness of the log-transformed observed and urbanization-adjusted peak discharge series by streamgage are computed. For almost every streamgage where an adjustment was applied (no increase in urbanization was reported for a few streamgages), the mean increased and the standard deviation decreased; the effect on skewness values was more variable but usually they increased. Significant positive peak discharge trends were common in the observed values, occurring at 27.3 percent of streamgages at a p-value of 0.05 according to a Kendall’s tau correlation test; in the adjusted values, the incidence of such trends was reduced to 7.0 percent.

  20. Automatic dynamic range adjustment for ultrasound B-mode imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonhwa; Kang, Jinbum; Yoo, Yangmo

    2015-02-01

    In medical ultrasound imaging, dynamic range (DR) is defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the displayed signal to display and it is one of the most essential parameters that determine its image quality. Typically, DR is given with a fixed value and adjusted manually by operators, which leads to low clinical productivity and high user dependency. Furthermore, in 3D ultrasound imaging, DR values are unable to be adjusted during 3D data acquisition. A histogram matching method, which equalizes the histogram of an input image based on that from a reference image, can be applied to determine the DR value. However, it could be lead to an over contrasted image. In this paper, a new Automatic Dynamic Range Adjustment (ADRA) method is presented that adaptively adjusts the DR value by manipulating input images similar to a reference image. The proposed ADRA method uses the distance ratio between the log average and each extreme value of a reference image. To evaluate the performance of the ADRA method, the similarity between the reference and input images was measured by computing a correlation coefficient (CC). In in vivo experiments, the CC values were increased by applying the ADRA method from 0.6872 to 0.9870 and from 0.9274 to 0.9939 for kidney and liver data, respectively, compared to the fixed DR case. In addition, the proposed ADRA method showed to outperform the histogram matching method with in vivo liver and kidney data. When using 3D abdominal data with 70 frames, while the CC value from the ADRA method is slightly increased (i.e., 0.6%), the proposed method showed improved image quality in the c-plane compared to its fixed counterpart, which suffered from a shadow artifact. These results indicate that the proposed method can enhance image quality in 2D and 3D ultrasound B-mode imaging by improving the similarity between the reference and input images while eliminating unnecessary manual interaction by the user.

  1. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  2. Adjustment of regional regression equations for urban storm-runoff quality using at-site data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barks, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Regional regression equations have been developed to estimate urban storm-runoff loads and mean concentrations using a national data base. Four statistical methods using at-site data to adjust the regional equation predictions were developed to provide better local estimates. The four adjustment procedures are a single-factor adjustment, a regression of the observed data against the predicted values, a regression of the observed values against the predicted values and additional local independent variables, and a weighted combination of a local regression with the regional prediction. Data collected at five representative storm-runoff sites during 22 storms in Little Rock, Arkansas, were used to verify, and, when appropriate, adjust the regional regression equation predictions. Comparison of observed values of stormrunoff loads and mean concentrations to the predicted values from the regional regression equations for nine constituents (chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, total nitrogen as N, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as N, total phosphorus as P, dissolved phosphorus as P, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, and total recoverable zinc) showed large prediction errors ranging from 63 percent to more than several thousand percent. Prediction errors for 6 of the 18 regional regression equations were less than 100 percent and could be considered reasonable for water-quality prediction equations. The regression adjustment procedure was used to adjust five of the regional equation predictions to improve the predictive accuracy. For seven of the regional equations the observed and the predicted values are not significantly correlated. Thus neither the unadjusted regional equations nor any of the adjustments were appropriate. The mean of the observed values was used as a simple estimator when the regional equation predictions and adjusted predictions were not appropriate.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of citrus R2R3MYB genes and their spatiotemporal expression under stresses and hormone treatments.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Li, Yongjie; He, Shaolan; Zheng, Yongqiang; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Deng, Lie

    2014-01-01

    The R2R3MYB proteins represent one of the largest families of transcription factors, which play important roles in plant growth and development. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been conducted in many species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in citrus, In this study, 101 R2R3MYB genes has been identified in the citrus (Citrus sinesis and Citrus clementina) genomes, which are almost equal to the number of rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be subdivided into 21 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intro-exon organizations were also analyzed, revealing strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the plant evolution. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 95 citrus R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one tissue and the other 6 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, suggesting that citrus R2R3MYB genes play important roles in the development of all citrus organs. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, drought and low temperature) identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or multiple treatments, which showed a promising for improving citrus adaptation to stresses. Our results provided an essential foundation for the future selection of the citrus R2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection with an aim of uncovering their roles in citrus growth and development.

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of Citrus R2R3MYB Genes and Their Spatiotemporal Expression under Stresses and Hormone Treatments

    PubMed Central

    He, Shaolan; Zheng, Yongqiang; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Deng, Lie

    2014-01-01

    The R2R3MYB proteins represent one of the largest families of transcription factors, which play important roles in plant growth and development. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been conducted in many species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in citrus, In this study, 101 R2R3MYB genes has been identified in the citrus (Citrus sinesis and Citrus clementina) genomes, which are almost equal to the number of rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be subdivided into 21 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intro-exon organizations were also analyzed, revealing strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the plant evolution. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 95 citrus R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one tissue and the other 6 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, suggesting that citrus R2R3MYB genes play important roles in the development of all citrus organs. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, drought and low temperature) identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or multiple treatments, which showed a promising for improving citrus adaptation to stresses. Our results provided an essential foundation for the future selection of the citrus R2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection with an aim of uncovering their roles in citrus growth and development. PMID:25473954

  5. Calcineurin-NFATc regulates type 2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2) expression during cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Natesan; deTombe, Pieter P; Mignery, Gregory A

    2014-02-28

    In heart, the type 2 inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (InsP3R2) is the predominant isoform expressed and is localized in the nuclear membrane of ventricular myocytes. InsP3R2-mediated Ca(2+) release regulates hypertrophy specific gene expression by modulating CaMKIIδ, histone deacetylase, and calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathways. InsP3R2 protein is a hypertrophy specific marker and is overexpressed in heart failure animal models and in humans. However, the regulation of InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression during cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure is not known. Here we show the transcriptional regulation of the Itpr2 gene in adult cardiomyocytes. Our data demonstrates that, InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression is activated by hypertrophic agonists and attenuated by InsP3R inhibitors 2-aminoethoxyldiphenyl borate and xestospongin-C. The Itpr2 promoter is regulated by the calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathway. NFATc1 regulates Itpr2 gene expression by directly binding to the Itpr2 promoter. The calcineurin-NFATc mediated up-regulation of the Itpr2 promoter was attenuated by cyclosporine-A. InsP3R2 mRNA and protein expression was up-regulated in calcineurin-A transgenic mice and in human heart failure. Collectively, our data suggests that ITPR2 and hypertrophy specific gene expression is regulated, in part, by a positive feedback regulation between InsP3R2 and calcineurin-NFATc signaling pathways.

  6. A constitutively expressed pair of rpoE2-chrR2 in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 is required for survival under antibiotic and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Namrata; Kumar, Santosh; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors (σ(E)) are known to bring about changes in gene expression to enable bacteria to adapt to different stresses. The Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 genome harbours nine genes encoding σ(E), of which two are adjacent to the genes encoding ChrR-type zinc-binding anti-sigma (ZAS) factors. We describe here the role and regulation of a new pair of rpoE-chrR, which was found in the genome of A. brasilense Sp7 in addition to the previously described rpoE-chrR pair (designated rpoE1-chrR1). The rpoE2-chrR2 pair is also cotranscribed, and their products show protein-protein interaction. The -10 and -35 promoter elements of rpoE2-chrR2 and rpoE1-chrR1 were similar but not identical. Unlike the promoter of rpoE1-chrR1, the rpoE2-chrR2 promoter was neither autoregulated nor induced by oxidative stress. Inactivation of chrR2 or overexpression of rpoE2 in A. brasilense Sp7 resulted in an overproduction of carotenoids. It also conferred resistance to oxidative stresses and antibiotics. By controlling the synthesis of carotenoids, initiation and elongation of translation, protein folding and purine biosynthesis, RpoE2 seems to play a crucial role in preventing and repairing the cellular damage caused by oxidative stress. Lack of autoregulation and constitutive expression of rpoE2-chrR2 suggest that RpoE2-ChrR2 may provide a rapid mechanism to cope with oxidative stress, wherein singlet oxygen ((1)O(2))-mediated dissociation of the RpoE2-ChrR2 complex might release RpoE2 to drive the expression of its target genes.

  7. One-pot microbial production, mechanical properties, and enzymatic degradation of isotactic P[(R)-2-hydroxybutyrate] and its copolymer with (R)-lactate.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Terai, Satsuki; Ishiyama, Ayako; Sun, Jian; Kabe, Taizo; Song, Yuyang; Nduko, John Masani; Iwata, Tadahisa; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2013-06-10

    P[(R)-2-hydroxybutyrate] [P((R)-2HB)] is an aliphatic polyester analogous to poly(lactic acid) (PLA). However, little has been known for its properties because of a high cost of commercially available chiral 2HB as a starting substance for chemical polymer synthesis. In this study, P[(R)-2HB] and P[(R)-2HB-co-(R)-lactate] [P((R)-2HB-co-(R)-LA)] with a new monomer combination were successfully synthesized in recombinant Escherichia coli LS5218 from less-expensive racemic 2HB using an R-specific polyester synthase. The cells expressing an engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from Pseudomonas sp. 61-3 and propionyl-CoA transferase from Megasphaera elsdenii were grown on LB medium containing 2HB and glucose in a shake flask and accumulated up to 17 wt % of P[(R)-2HB] with optical purity of >99.1%. In addition, the same cells cultured in a jar-fermentor produced P(86 mol % 2HB-co-LA) copolymer. Notably, the molecular weights (Mw) of P(2HB) (27000) and P(2HB-co-LA) (39000) were 2- and 3-fold higher than that of P(2HB) previously synthesized by chemical polycondensation. P(2HB) was processed into a transparent film by solvent-casting and it had flexible properties with elongation at break of 173%, which was contrast to the rigid PLA. Regarding mechanical properties, P(2HB-co-LA) was tougher but less stretchy than P(2HB). These results demonstrated that P(2HB) has useful properties and LA units in 2HB-based polymers can act as a controllable modulator of the material properties. In addition, P[(R)-2HB] was efficiently degraded by treatment of Novozym 42044 (lipase) but not Savinase 16L (protease), indicating that the degrading behavior of the polymer was similar to that of P[(R)-LA]. PMID:23688291

  8. Iron-regulatory proteins DmdR1 and DmdR2 of Streptomyces coelicolor form two different DNA-protein complexes with iron boxes.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Francisco J; Martín, Juan F

    2004-01-01

    In high G+C Gram-positive bacteria, the control of expression of genes involved in iron metabolism is exerted by a DmdR [divalent (bivalent) metal-dependent regulatory protein] in the presence of Fe2+ or other bivalent ions. The dmdR1 and dmdR2 genes of Streptomyces coelicolor were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the DmdR1 and DmdR2 proteins were purified to homogeneity. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays showed that both DmdR1 and DmdR2 bind to the 19-nt tox and desA iron boxes forming two different complexes in each case. Increasing the concentrations of DmdR1 or DmdR2 protein shifted these complexes from their low-molecular-mass form to the high-molecular-mass complexes. Formation of the DNA-protein complexes was prevented by the bivalent metal chelating agent 2,2'-dipyridyl and by antibodies specific against the DmdR proteins. Cross-linking with glutaraldehyde of pure DmdR1 or DmdR2 proteins showed that DmdR1 forms dimers, whereas DmdR2 is capable of forming dimers and probably tetramers. Ten different iron boxes were found in a search for iron boxes in the genome of S. coelicolor. Most of them correspond to putative genes involved in siderophore biosynthesis. Since the nucleotide sequence of these ten boxes is identical (or slightly different) with the synthetic DNA fragment containing the desA box used in the present study, it is proposed that DmdR1 and DmdR2 bind to the iron boxes upstream of at least ten different genes in S. coelicolor. PMID:14960152

  9. Genome-wide analysis of citrus R2R3MYB genes and their spatiotemporal expression under stresses and hormone treatments.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Li, Yongjie; He, Shaolan; Zheng, Yongqiang; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Deng, Lie

    2014-01-01

    The R2R3MYB proteins represent one of the largest families of transcription factors, which play important roles in plant growth and development. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been conducted in many species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in citrus, In this study, 101 R2R3MYB genes has been identified in the citrus (Citrus sinesis and Citrus clementina) genomes, which are almost equal to the number of rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be subdivided into 21 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intro-exon organizations were also analyzed, revealing strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the plant evolution. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 95 citrus R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one tissue and the other 6 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, suggesting that citrus R2R3MYB genes play important roles in the development of all citrus organs. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, drought and low temperature) identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or multiple treatments, which showed a promising for improving citrus adaptation to stresses. Our results provided an essential foundation for the future selection of the citrus R2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection with an aim of uncovering their roles in citrus growth and development. PMID:25473954

  10. Cultural Orientations, Daily Activities, and Adjustment in Mexican American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Cansler, Emily

    2009-01-01

    The links between youth’s daily activities and adjustment and the role of cultural practices and values in these links were studied in 469 youth from 237 Mexican American families. In home interviews, data on mothers’, fathers’, and two adolescent-age siblings’ cultural practices (language use, social contacts) and values (for familism, for education achievement) were collected, along with data on youth risky behavior and depressive symptoms. In 7 nightly phone calls, youth reported on their day’s free time activities (i.e., sports, academics, religious activities, television viewing, and hanging out). Analyses revealed that youth who spent more time in unsupervised hanging out reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior, and those who spent more time in academic activities reported less risky behavior. Results also indicated that more Anglo-oriented youth spent more time in sports, that more Mexican-oriented youth spent more time watching television, that fathers’ familism values were related to youth’s time in religious activities, and that parents’ educational values were linked to youth’s time in academic activities. Some evidence indicated that parents’ cultural practices and values, particularly fathers’, moderated the links between daily activities and youth adjustment. PMID:19636760

  11. Complex-valued autoencoders.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-09-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L(2) norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory.

  12. Fragile singlet ground-state magnetism in the pyrochlore osmates R2Os2O7 (R =Y and Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Calder, S.; Aczel, A. A.; McGuire, M. A.; Sales, B. C.; Mandrus, D. G.; Chen, G.; Trivedi, N.; Zhou, H. D.; Yan, J.-Q.

    2016-04-01

    The singlet ground-state magnetism in pyrochlore osmates Y2Os2O7 and Ho2Os2O7 is studied by dc and ac susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron powder diffraction measurements. Despite the expected nonmagnetic singlet in the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) limit for Os4 + (5 d4 ), Y2Os2O7 exhibits a spin-glass ground state below 4 K with weak magnetism, suggesting possible proximity to a quantum phase transition between the nonmagnetic state in the strong SOC limit and a magnetic state in the strong superexchange limit. Ho2Os2O7 has the same structural distortion as in Y2Os2O7 ; however, the Os sublattice in Ho2Os2O7 shows long-range magnetic ordering below 36 K. The sharp difference of the magnetic ground state between Y2Os2O7 and Ho2Os2O7 signals that the singlet ground-state magnetism in R2Os2O7 is fragile and can be disturbed by the weak 4 f -5 d interactions.

  13. The first CO+ image. I. Probing the HI/H2 layer around the ultracompact HII region Mon R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviño-Morales, S. P.; Fuente, A.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Pilleri, P.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Roueff, E.; Rizzo, J. R.; Gerin, M.; Berné, O.; Cernicharo, J.; Gónzalez-García, M.; Kramer, C.; García-Burillo, S.; Pety, J.

    2016-09-01

    The CO+ reactive ion is thought to be a tracer of the boundary between a Hii region and the hot molecular gas. In this study, we present the spatial distribution of the CO+ rotational emission toward the Mon R2 star-forming region. The CO+ emission presents a clumpy ring-like morphology, arising from a narrow dense layer around the Hii region. We compared the CO+ distribution with other species present in photon-dominated regions (PDR), such as [Cii] 158 μm, H2 S(3) rotational line at 9.3 μm, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and HCO+. We find that the CO+ emission is spatially coincident with the PAHs and [Cii] emission. This confirms that the CO+ emission arises from a narrow dense layer of the Hi/H2 interface. We determined the CO+ fractional abundance relative to C+ toward three positions. The abundances range from 0.1 to 1.9 × 10-10 and are in good agreement with the previous chemical model, which predicts that the production of CO+ in PDRs only occurs in dense regions with high UV fields. The CO+ linewidth is larger than those found in molecular gas tracers, and their central velocity are blueshifted with respect to the molecular gas velocity. We interpret this as a hint that the CO+ is probing photoevaporating clump surfaces.

  14. Characterization of a Citrus R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor that Regulates the Flavonol and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoyang; Long, Jianmei; Zhu, Kaijie; Liu, Linlin; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Li; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are important phenylpropanoid metabolites in plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsMYBF1, encoding a protein belonging to the flavonol-specific MYB subgroup. Ectopic expression of CsMYBF1 in tomato led to an up-regulation of a series of genes involved in primary metabolism and the phenylpropanoid pathway, and induced a strong accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid compounds but not the flavonols. The RNAi suppression of CsMYBF1 in citrus callus caused a down-regulation of many phenylpropanoid pathway genes and reduced the contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols. Transactivation assays indicated that CsMYBF1 activated several promoters of phenylpropanoid pathway genes in tomato and citrus. Interestingly, CsMYBF1 could activate the CHS gene promoter in citrus, but not in tomato. Further examinations revealed that the MYBPLANT cis-elements were essential for CsMYBF1 in activating phenylpropanoid pathway genes. In summary, our data indicated that CsMYBF1 possessed the function in controlling the flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid biosynthesis, and the regulatory differences in the target metabolite accumulation between two species may be due to the differential activation of CHS promoters by CsMYBF1. Therefore, CsMYBF1 constitutes an important gene source for the engineering of specific phenylpropanoid components. PMID:27162196

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of novel intermetallic compounds R2Co2SiC (R = Pr, Nd).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sixuan; Mishra, Trinath; Wang, Man; Shatruk, Michael; Cao, Huibo; Latturner, Susan E

    2014-06-16

    The intermetallic compounds R2Co2SiC (R = Pr, Nd) were prepared from the reaction of silicon and carbon in either Pr/Co or Nd/Co eutectic flux. These phases crystallize with a new stuffed variant of the W2CoB2 structure type in orthorhombic space group Immm with unit cell parameters a = 3.978(4) Å, b = 6.094(5) Å, c = 8.903(8) Å (Z = 2; R1 = 0.0302) for Nd2Co2SiC. Silicon, cobalt, and carbon atoms form two-dimensional flat sheets, which are separated by puckered layers of rare-earth cations. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that the rare earth cations in both analogues order ferromagnetically at low temperature (TC ≈ 12 K for Nd2Co2SiC and TC ≈ 20 K for Pr2Co2SiC). Single-crystal neutron diffraction data for Nd2Co2SiC indicate that Nd moments initially align ferromagnetically along the c axis around ∼12 K, but below 11 K, they tilt slightly away from the c axis, in the ac plane. Electronic structure calculations confirm the lack of spin polarization for Co 3d moments. PMID:24898034

  16. A chimeric repressor of petunia PH4 R2R3-MYB family transcription factor generates margined flowers in torenia.

    PubMed

    Kasajima, Ichiro; Sasaki, Katsutomo

    2016-05-01

    The development of new phenotypes is key to the commercial development of the main floricultural species and cultivars. Important new phenotypes include features such as multiple-flowers, color variations, increased flower size, new petal shapes, variegation and distinctive petal margin colourations. Although their commercial use is not yet common, the transgenic technologies provide a potentially rapid means of generating interesting new phenotypes. In this report, we construct 5 vectors which we expected to change the color of the flower anthocyanins, from purple to blue, regulating vacuolar pH. When these constructs were transformed into purple torenia, we unexpectedly recovered some genotypes having slightly margined petals. These transgenic lines expressed a chimeric repressor of the petunia PhPH4 gene under the control of Cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S RNA promoter. PhPH4 is an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor. The transgenic lines lacked pigmentation in the petal margin cells both on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Expressions of Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and Flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) genes were reduced in the margins of these transgenic lines, suggesting an inhibitory effect of PhPH4 repressor on anthocyanin synthesis. PMID:27089475

  17. Parasporin-2 from a New Bacillus thuringiensis 4R2 Strain Induces Caspases Activation and Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Asselin, Eric; Parent, Sophie; Côté, Jean-Charles; Sirois, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, parasporin-2Aa1, originally isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis strain A1547, was shown to be cytotoxic against specific human cancer cells but the mechanisms of action were not studied. In the present study, we found that proteinase K activated parasporin-2Aa1 protein isolated from a novel B. thuringiensis strain, 4R2, was specifically cytotoxic to endometrial, colon, liver, cervix, breast and prostate cancer. It showed no toxicity against normal cells. Upon treatment with proteinase K-activated parasporin-2Aa1, morphological changes were observed and western blot analysis revealed the cleavage of poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase, caspase-3 and caspase-9 in cancer cell lines exclusively, indicative of programmed cell death, apoptosis. Flow cytometry analyses,using propidium iodide and annexin V, as well as a caspases 3/7 assay confirmed apoptosis induction. Further analyses were performed to study survival pathways, including AKT, XIAP, ERK1/2 and PAR-4, a known inducer of apoptosis. These results indicate that parasporin-2Aa1 is a selective cytotoxic protein that induces apoptosis in various human cancer cell lines from diverse tissues. PMID:26263002

  18. Transforming an EPA QA/R-2 quality management plan into an ISO 9002 quality management system.

    PubMed

    Kell, R A; Hedin, C M; Kassakhian, G H; Reynolds, E S

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) requires environmental data of known quality to support Superfund hazardous waste site projects. The Quality Assurance Technical Support (QATS) Program is operated by Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Inc. to provide EPA's Analytical Operations Center (AOC) with performance evaluation samples, reference materials, on-site laboratory auditing capabilities, data audits (including electronic media data audits), methods development, and other support services. The new QATS contract awarded in November 2000 required that the QATS Program become ISO 9000 certified. In a first for an EPA contractor, the QATS staff and management successfully transformed EPA's QA/R-2 type Quality Management Plan into a Quality Management System (QMS) that complies with the requirements of the internationally recognized ISO 9002 standard and achieved certification in the United States, Canada, and throughout Europe. The presentation describes how quality system elements of ISO 9002 were implemented on an already existing quality system. The psychological and organizational challenges of the culture change in QATS' day-to-day operations will be discussed for the benefit of other ISO 9000 aspirants. PMID:12553083

  19. The soybean R2R3 MYB transcription factor GmMYB100 negatively regulates plant flavonoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junhui; Wang, Biao; Zhong, Yunpeng; Yao, Luming; Cheng, Linjing; Wu, Tianlong

    2015-09-01

    Soybean flavonoids, a group of important signaling molecules in plant-environment interaction, ubiquitously exist in soybean and are tightly regulated by many genes. Here we reported that GmMYB100, a gene encoding a R2R3 MYB transcription factor, is involved in soybean flavonoid biosynthesis. GmMYB100 is mainly expressed in flowers, leaves and immature embryo, and its level is decreased after pod ripening. Subcellular localization assay indicates that GmMYB100 is a nuclear protein. GmMYB100 has transactivation ability revealed by a yeast functional assay; whereas bioinformatic analysis suggests that GmMYB100 has a negative function in flavonoid biosynthesis. GmMYB100-overexpression represses the transcript levels of flavonoid-related genes in transgenic soybean hairy roots and Arabidopsis, and inhibits isoflavonoid (soybean) and flavonol (Arabidopsis) production in transgenic plants. Furthermore, the transcript levels of six flavonoid-related genes and flavonoid (isoflavonoid and flavone aglycones) accumulation are elevated in the GmMYB100-RNAi transgenic hairy roots. We also demonstrate that GmMYB100 protein depresses the promoter activities of soybean chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase. These findings indicate that GmMYB100 is a negative regulator in soybean flavonoid biosynthesis pathway.

  20. Characterization of a Citrus R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor that Regulates the Flavonol and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chaoyang; Long, Jianmei; Zhu, Kaijie; Liu, Linlin; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Li; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are important phenylpropanoid metabolites in plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsMYBF1, encoding a protein belonging to the flavonol-specific MYB subgroup. Ectopic expression of CsMYBF1 in tomato led to an up-regulation of a series of genes involved in primary metabolism and the phenylpropanoid pathway, and induced a strong accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid compounds but not the flavonols. The RNAi suppression of CsMYBF1 in citrus callus caused a down-regulation of many phenylpropanoid pathway genes and reduced the contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols. Transactivation assays indicated that CsMYBF1 activated several promoters of phenylpropanoid pathway genes in tomato and citrus. Interestingly, CsMYBF1 could activate the CHS gene promoter in citrus, but not in tomato. Further examinations revealed that the MYBPLANT cis-elements were essential for CsMYBF1 in activating phenylpropanoid pathway genes. In summary, our data indicated that CsMYBF1 possessed the function in controlling the flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid biosynthesis, and the regulatory differences in the target metabolite accumulation between two species may be due to the differential activation of CHS promoters by CsMYBF1. Therefore, CsMYBF1 constitutes an important gene source for the engineering of specific phenylpropanoid components. PMID:27162196

  1. The first CO+ image: I. Probing the HI/H2 layer around the ultracompact HII region Mon R2

    PubMed Central

    Treviño-Morales, S. P.; Fuente, A.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Pilleri, P.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Roueff, E.; Rizzo, J. R.; Gerin, M.; Berné, O.; Cernicharo, J.; Gónzalez-García, M.; Kramer, C.; García-Burillo, S.; Pety, J.

    2016-01-01

    The CO+ reactive ion is thought to be a tracer of the boundary between a HII region and the hot molecular gas. In this study, we present the spatial distribution of the CO+ rotational emission toward the Mon R2 star-forming region. The CO+ emission presents a clumpy ring-like morphology, arising from a narrow dense layer around the HII region. We compare the CO+ distribution with other species present in photon-dominated regions (PDR), such as [CII] 158 µm, H2 S(3) rotational line at 9.3 µm, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and HCO+. We find that the CO+ emission is spatially coincident with the PAHs and [CII] emission. This confirms that the CO+ emission arises from a narrow dense layer of the HI/H2 interface. We have determined the CO+ fractional abundance, relative to C+ toward three positions. The abundances range from 0.1 to 1.9 ×10−10 and are in good agreement with previous chemical model, which predicts that the production of CO+ in PDRs only occurs in dense regions with high UV fields. The CO+ linewidth is larger than those found in molecular gas tracers, and their central velocity are blue-shifted with respect to the molecular gas velocity. We interpret this as a hint that the CO+ is probing photo-evaporating clump surfaces. PMID:27721515

  2. The Evolutionary History of R2R3-MYB Proteins Across 50 Eukaryotes: New Insights Into Subfamily Classification and Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hai; Liang, Zhe; Zhao, Sen; Nan, Ming-Ge; Phan Tran, Lam-Son; Lu, Kun; Huang, Yu-Bi; Li, Jia-Na

    2015-01-01

    R2R3-MYB proteins (2R-MYBs) are one of the main transcription factor families in higher plants. Since the evolutionary history of this gene family across the eukaryotic kingdom remains unknown, we performed a comparative analysis of 2R-MYBs from 50 major eukaryotic lineages, with particular emphasis on land plants. A total of 1548 candidates were identified among diverse taxonomic groups, which allowed for an updated classification of 73 highly conserved subfamilies, including many newly identified subfamilies. Our results revealed that the protein architectures, intron patterns, and sequence characteristics were remarkably conserved in each subfamily. At least four subfamilies were derived from early land plants, 10 evolved from spermatophytes, and 19 from angiosperms, demonstrating the diversity and preferential expansion of this gene family in land plants. Moreover, we determined that their remarkable expansion was mainly attributed to whole genome and segmental duplication, where duplicates were preferentially retained within certain subfamilies that shared three homologous intron patterns (a, b, and c) even though up to 12 types of patterns existed. Through our integrated distributions, sequence characteristics, and phylogenetic tree analyses, we confirm that 2R-MYBs are old and postulate that 3R-MYBs may be evolutionarily derived from 2R-MYBs via intragenic domain duplication. PMID:26047035

  3. The Evolutionary History of R2R3-MYB Proteins Across 50 Eukaryotes: New Insights Into Subfamily Classification and Expansion.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Liang, Zhe; Zhao, Sen; Nan, Ming-Ge; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Lu, Kun; Huang, Yu-Bi; Li, Jia-Na

    2015-06-05

    R2R3-MYB proteins (2R-MYBs) are one of the main transcription factor families in higher plants. Since the evolutionary history of this gene family across the eukaryotic kingdom remains unknown, we performed a comparative analysis of 2R-MYBs from 50 major eukaryotic lineages, with particular emphasis on land plants. A total of 1548 candidates were identified among diverse taxonomic groups, which allowed for an updated classification of 73 highly conserved subfamilies, including many newly identified subfamilies. Our results revealed that the protein architectures, intron patterns, and sequence characteristics were remarkably conserved in each subfamily. At least four subfamilies were derived from early land plants, 10 evolved from spermatophytes, and 19 from angiosperms, demonstrating the diversity and preferential expansion of this gene family in land plants. Moreover, we determined that their remarkable expansion was mainly attributed to whole genome and segmental duplication, where duplicates were preferentially retained within certain subfamilies that shared three homologous intron patterns (a, b, and c) even though up to 12 types of patterns existed. Through our integrated distributions, sequence characteristics, and phylogenetic tree analyses, we confirm that 2R-MYBs are old and postulate that 3R-MYBs may be evolutionarily derived from 2R-MYBs via intragenic domain duplication.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GOODS Source Catalogs release r2.0z (Giavalisco+ 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giavalisco, M.

    2012-09-01

    These catalogs, prepared using the SExtractor package (Bertin & Arnouts 1996A&AS..117..393B), are based on the version v2.0 of the reduced, calibrated, stacked and mosaiced images acquired with HST and ACS as part of the GOODS ACS Treasury program and of the PANS program of search for Type Ia supernovae at high redshift. It supersedes the "Initial Results" version (Giavalisco et al. 2004ApJ...600L..93G, Cat. II/261) The catalogs are z-band based, that is, source detection has been made using the z-band images. A variety of photometric apertures defined during the detection process have then been used as "fixed apertures" in the i, v and b-band images to derive the multi-band photometry. The r2.0z catalog release is based on the v2.0 images, which have significantly longer total exposure times in the z850 bandpass, and somewhat longer exposure times in the i775 and V606 bands as well. The only significant difference in the catalogs, other than that of being based on deeper data, is that a small astrometric offset was applied to the declination of GOODS-North images (only), from a comparison with SDSS, 2MASS and VLA (Morrison et al. 2010, Cat. J/ApJS/188/178): Dec(v2.0)=Dec(v1.0)-0.320arcsec (8 data files).

  5. Characterization of a Citrus R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor that Regulates the Flavonol and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoyang; Long, Jianmei; Zhu, Kaijie; Liu, Linlin; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Li; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-05-10

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are important phenylpropanoid metabolites in plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsMYBF1, encoding a protein belonging to the flavonol-specific MYB subgroup. Ectopic expression of CsMYBF1 in tomato led to an up-regulation of a series of genes involved in primary metabolism and the phenylpropanoid pathway, and induced a strong accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid compounds but not the flavonols. The RNAi suppression of CsMYBF1 in citrus callus caused a down-regulation of many phenylpropanoid pathway genes and reduced the contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols. Transactivation assays indicated that CsMYBF1 activated several promoters of phenylpropanoid pathway genes in tomato and citrus. Interestingly, CsMYBF1 could activate the CHS gene promoter in citrus, but not in tomato. Further examinations revealed that the MYBPLANT cis-elements were essential for CsMYBF1 in activating phenylpropanoid pathway genes. In summary, our data indicated that CsMYBF1 possessed the function in controlling the flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid biosynthesis, and the regulatory differences in the target metabolite accumulation between two species may be due to the differential activation of CHS promoters by CsMYBF1. Therefore, CsMYBF1 constitutes an important gene source for the engineering of specific phenylpropanoid components.

  6. Mapping Anatomy to Behavior in Thy1:18 ChR2-YFP Transgenic Mice Using Optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Fenno, Lief E; Gunaydin, Lisa A; Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-06-01

    Linking the activity of defined neural populations with behavior is a key goal of neuroscience. In the context of controlling behavior, electrical stimulation affords researchers precision in the temporal domain with gross regional specificity, whereas pharmacology allows for more specific manipulation of cell types, but in the absence of temporal precision. The use of microbial opsins--light activated, genetically encoded ion channels and pumps--to control mammalian neurons now allows researchers to "sensitize" genetically and/or topologically defined populations of neurons to light to induce either depolarization or hyperpolarization in both a cell-type-specific and temporally precise manner not achievable with previous techniques. Here, we describe the use of transgenic mice expressing the blue-light gated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) under control of the Thy1 promoter for the purpose of linking neuronal activity to behavior through restricted delivery of light to an anatomic region of interest. The surgical procedure for implanting a fiber-optic light delivery guide into the mouse brain, the process of optically stimulating the brain in a behaving animal, and post hoc evaluation are given, along with necessary reagents and discussion of common technical problems and their solutions.

  7. Research-to-operations (R2O) for the Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS) system-impact products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Stephen

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RVBX) and the Space Environment Branch of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC SLG/WMLE) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for Air Force Space Command's (AFSPC) Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes the Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D) products. This presentation will provide overviews of the current system impact products, along with plans and potentials for future products expected for the SEEFS program. The overviews will include information on applicable research-to-operations (R2O) issues, to include input data coverage and quality control, output confidence levels, modeling standards, and validation efforts.

  8. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of novel intermetallic compounds R2Co2SiC (R = Pr, Nd).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sixuan; Mishra, Trinath; Wang, Man; Shatruk, Michael; Cao, Huibo; Latturner, Susan E

    2014-06-16

    The intermetallic compounds R2Co2SiC (R = Pr, Nd) were prepared from the reaction of silicon and carbon in either Pr/Co or Nd/Co eutectic flux. These phases crystallize with a new stuffed variant of the W2CoB2 structure type in orthorhombic space group Immm with unit cell parameters a = 3.978(4) Å, b = 6.094(5) Å, c = 8.903(8) Å (Z = 2; R1 = 0.0302) for Nd2Co2SiC. Silicon, cobalt, and carbon atoms form two-dimensional flat sheets, which are separated by puckered layers of rare-earth cations. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that the rare earth cations in both analogues order ferromagnetically at low temperature (TC ≈ 12 K for Nd2Co2SiC and TC ≈ 20 K for Pr2Co2SiC). Single-crystal neutron diffraction data for Nd2Co2SiC indicate that Nd moments initially align ferromagnetically along the c axis around ∼12 K, but below 11 K, they tilt slightly away from the c axis, in the ac plane. Electronic structure calculations confirm the lack of spin polarization for Co 3d moments.

  9. MULTIPASS, a rice R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, regulates adaptive growth by integrating multiple hormonal pathways.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Romy; Schippers, Jos H M; Mieulet, Delphine; Obata, Toshihiro; Fernie, Alisdair R; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2013-10-01

    Growth regulation is an important aspect of plant adaptation during environmental perturbations. Here, the role of MULTIPASS (OsMPS), an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor of rice, was explored. OsMPS is induced by salt stress and expressed in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Over-expression of OsMPS reduces growth under non-stress conditions, while knockdown plants display increased biomass. OsMPS expression is induced by abscisic acid and cytokinin, but is repressed by auxin, gibberellin and brassinolide. Growth retardation caused by OsMPS over-expression is partially restored by auxin application. Expression profiling revealed that OsMPS negatively regulates the expression of EXPANSIN (EXP) and cell-wall biosynthesis as well as phytohormone signaling genes. Furthermore, the expression of OsMPS-dependent genes is regulated by auxin, cytokinin and abscisic acid. Moreover, we show that OsMPS is a direct upstream regulator of OsEXPA4, OsEXPA8, OsEXPB2, OsEXPB3, OsEXPB6 and the endoglucanase genes OsGLU5 and OsGLU14. The multiple responses of OsMPS and its target genes to various hormones suggest an integrative function of OsMPS in the cross-talk between phytohormones and the environment to regulate adaptive growth.

  10. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  11. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  12. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  13. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  14. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  15. 42 CFR 416.200 - Payment adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Adjustment in Payment Amounts for New Technology... the amount of the payment adjustment for classes of new technology IOLs through proposed and final... approved as belonging to a class of new technology IOLs for the 5-year period of time established for...

  16. 42 CFR 416.200 - Payment adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Adjustment in Payment Amounts for New Technology Intraocular... amount of the payment adjustment for classes of new technology IOLs through proposed and final rulemaking... approved as belonging to a class of new technology IOLs for the 5-year period of time established for...

  17. 42 CFR 416.200 - Payment adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Adjustment in Payment Amounts for New Technology... the amount of the payment adjustment for classes of new technology IOLs through proposed and final... approved as belonging to a class of new technology IOLs for the 5-year period of time established for...

  18. 42 CFR 416.200 - Payment adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Adjustment in Payment Amounts for New Technology Intraocular... amount of the payment adjustment for classes of new technology IOLs through proposed and final rulemaking... approved as belonging to a class of new technology IOLs for the 5-year period of time established for...

  19. 42 CFR 416.200 - Payment adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Adjustment in Payment Amounts for New Technology... the amount of the payment adjustment for classes of new technology IOLs through proposed and final... approved as belonging to a class of new technology IOLs for the 5-year period of time established for...

  20. Adjusting to Retirement: Considerations for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBauve, Bill J.; Robinson, Chester R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines retirement, while focusing on issues older adults face in adjusting to retirement, and suggests implications for counseling people who are making this transition. Discusses adjustment to retirement in terms of role, disengagement, activity, continuity, crisis, and compromise/negotiation theories. (Author/MKA)

  1. Family Adjustment Measure: Scale Construction and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daire, Andrew P.; Dominguez, Vanessa N.; Carlson, Ryan G.; Case-Pease, Jenene

    2014-01-01

    We administered the Family Adjustment Measure to 368 parents of children with special needs to identify positive adjustment. We randomly split the sample to conduct exploratory factor analysis ("n" = 194) and confirmatory factor analysis ("n" = 174). Results indicated four possible subscales and that explain 51% of the variance.

  2. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  3. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  4. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  5. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  6. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  7. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  8. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  9. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  10. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  11. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum, if... institution of higher education (IHE) to provide information on the cost of higher education to...

  12. Building Skills in Divorce Adjustment Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Sheila

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three different treatment modalities for divorce adjustment groups, that is, structured, unstructured, and control groups. Implications suggest that skill-building exercises might add an important therapeutic dimension for those experiencing adjustment to divorce. (Author)

  13. 12 CFR 611.1124 - Territorial adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Consolidations, and Charter Amendments of Associations § 611.1124 Territorial adjustments. This section shall apply to any request submitted to the Farm Credit Administration to modify association charters for the purpose of transferring territory from one association to another. (a) Territorial adjustments, except...

  14. 12 CFR 611.1124 - Territorial adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Consolidations, and Charter Amendments of Associations § 611.1124 Territorial adjustments. This section shall apply to any request submitted to the Farm Credit Administration to modify association charters for the purpose of transferring territory from one association to another. (a) Territorial adjustments, except...

  15. College Student Adjustment and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lisa Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between student adjustment theory and college student health behaviors. Specifically, this research examined first-year freshmen college student physical activity and nutrition behaviors and impact on adjustment to college (N = 37,564). The design for this study was a non-experimental "ex post facto"…

  16. 20 CFR 345.118 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments. 345.118 Section 345.118... additional contribution on the next report filed after discovery of the error; and (ii) Paying the amount... filed after discovery of the error. However, if the overpayment cannot be adjusted because the...

  17. 20 CFR 345.118 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustments. 345.118 Section 345.118... additional contribution on the next report filed after discovery of the error; and (ii) Paying the amount... filed after discovery of the error. However, if the overpayment cannot be adjusted because the...

  18. Individualized Client Planning for Work Adjustment Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Thomas J.

    To assist work adjustors, evaluators, and counselors in learning how to write individualized work adjustment plans, this publication describes one method of developing individual client plans--the Materials Development Center Individualized Work Adjustment Plan. The detailed description of this plan explains the two basic parts of its format: (1)…

  19. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  20. 45 CFR 84.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 84.44 Section 84.44 Public... Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure that such requirements do not...

  1. 22 CFR 142.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Academic adjustments. 142.44 Section 142.44... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 142.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make...

  2. 15 CFR 8b.22 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 8b.22 Section 8b... Secondary Education § 8b.22 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  3. 45 CFR 605.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 605.44 Section 605.44 Public... Postsecondary Education § 605.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  4. 34 CFR 104.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Academic adjustments. 104.44 Section 104.44 Education... Postsecondary Education § 104.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  5. 22 CFR 217.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Academic adjustments. 217.44 Section 217.44... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 217.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make...

  6. 7 CFR 15b.32 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 15b.32 Section 15b.32... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 15b.32 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to...

  7. 45 CFR 1170.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 1170.44 Section 1170.44... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Postsecondary Education § 1170.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its...

  8. 38 CFR 18.444 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Academic adjustments. 18....444 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient shall make necessary modifications to its academic requirements to ensure that these requirements do not discriminate or have the effect...

  9. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati

    2014-01-01

    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  10. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  11. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  12. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  13. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  14. 7 CFR 2201.30 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustments. 2201.30 Section 2201.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.30 Adjustments. (a) The...

  15. 7 CFR 2201.30 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustments. 2201.30 Section 2201.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.30 Adjustments. (a) The...

  16. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  17. Consanguineous Marriage and Marital Adjustment in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiloglu, Hurol

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between consanguineous marriage and marital adjustment in Turkey. The results of the study show that the consanguineous marriage group had significantly lower marital adjustment and had more conflict with extended family than the nonconsanguineous marriage group. The finding is discussed in the context of research and…

  18. Fuel injection pump with adjustable timing

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Abe, N.

    1987-04-28

    A fuel injection pump is described comprising: a pump body; a plunger disposed in the pump body for reciprocating within the pump body; and a pre-stroke adjusting mechanism disposed in the pump body and operatively connected with the plunger for adjusting an effective pre-stroke of the plunger.

  19. Does Fall History Influence Residential Adjustments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Natalie; Porell, Frank; Murphy, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To determine whether reported falls at baseline are associated with an older adult's decision to make a residential adjustment (RA) and the type of adjustment made in the subsequent 2 years. Design and Methods: Observations (n = 25,036) were from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of…

  20. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...